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Sample records for solar p-mode frequencies

  1. Temporal changes in the frequencies of the solar p-mode oscillations during solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. J.; Reiter, J.; Schou, J.; Larson, T.; Scherrer, P.; Brooks, J.; McFaddin, P.; Miller, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Yoo, J.

    2011-08-01

    We present a study of the temporal changes in the sensitivities of the frequencies of the solar p-mode oscillations to corresponding changes in the levels of solar activity during Solar Cycle 23. From MDI and GONG++ full-disk Dopplergram three-day time series obtained between 1996 and 2008 we have computed a total of 221 sets of m-averaged power spectra for spherical harmonic degrees ranging up to 1000. We have then fit these 284 sets of m-averaged power spectra using our WMLTP fitting code and both symmetric Lorentzian profiles for the peaks as well as the asymmetric profile of Nigam and Kosovichev to obtain 568 tables of p-mode parameters. We then inter-compared these 568 tables, and we performed linear regression analyses of the differences in p-mode frequencies, widths, amplitudes, and asymmetries as functions of the differences in as many as ten different solar activity indices. From the linear regression analyses that we performed on the frequency difference data sets, we have discovered a new signature of the frequency shifts of the p-modes. Specifically, we have discovered that the temporal shifts of the solar oscillation frequencies are positively correlated with the changes in solar activity below a limiting frequency. They then become anti-correlated with the changes in activity for a range of frequencies before once again becoming positively-correlated with the activity changes at very high frequencies. We have also discovered that the two frequencies where the sensitivities of the temporal frequency shifts change sign also change in phase with the average level of solar activity.

  2. High sensitivity of p-modes near the acoustic cutoff frequency to solar model parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    The p-mode frequencies of low l have been calculated for solar models with initial helium mass fraction varying from Y = 0.2753-0.2875. The differences in frequency of the p-modes in the frequency range, 2500-4500 microHz, do not exceed 1-5 microHz among the models. But in the vicinity of the acoustic cutoff frequency, near 5000 microHz the p-mode frequency differences are enhanced by a factor of 4. The enhanced sensitivity of p-modes near the acoustic cutoff frequency was further tested by calculating and comparing p-mode frequencies of low l for two solar models one incorporating the Eddington T-tau relation and the other the Krishna Swamy T-tau relation. Again, it is found that p-modes with frequencies near the acoustic cutoff frequency show a significant increase in sensitivity to the different T-tau relations, compared to lower frequency p-modes. It is noted that frequencies above the acoustic cutoff frequency are complex, hence, cannot be modeled by the adiabatic pulsation code (assumes real eigenfrequencies) used in these calculations.

  3. Temporal changes in the frequencies and widths of the solar p-mode oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Reiter, J.; Schou, J.; Larson, T.; Scherrer, P.; Brooks, J.; McFaddin, P.; Miller, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Yoo, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the temporal changes in the sensitivities of the frequencies and widths of the solar p-mode oscillations to corresponding changes in the levels of solar activity during Solar Cycle 23. From MDI and GONG++ full-disk Dopplergram three-day time series obtained between 1996 and 2008 we have computed a total of 221 sets of m-averaged power spectra for spherical harmonic degrees ranging up to 1000. We have then fit these 221 sets of m-averaged power spectra using our WMLTP fitting code and both symmetric Lorentzian profiles for the peaks as well as the asymmetric profile of Nigam and Kosovichev to obtain 442 tables of p-mode parameters. We then inter-compared these 442 tables which comprise in excess of 5.3 million p-mode parameters, and we performed linear regression analyses of the differences in p-mode frequencies and widths as functions of the differences in as many as ten different solar activity indices. From these linear regression analyses we have discovered new signatures of the frequency shifts of the p-modes and a similar, but slightly different, signature of the temporal shifts in the widths of the oscillations.

  4. Solar p-mode frequencies and their dependence on solar activity recent results from the BISON network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsworth, Y.; Howe, R.; Isaak, G. R.; McLeod, C. P.; Miller, B. A.; New, R.; Speake, C. C.; Wheeler, S. J.

    1994-10-01

    We present here high-accuracy determinations of the frequencies of low-l solar p-modes and their solar-cycle dependence. The data were obtained using the Birmingham network of solar spectrometers (BISON). The precision of the measurements is discussed. Our previously published results of a significant frequency shift between solar minimum and solar maximum, apparently independent of l and similar to that found by other workers for intermediate-l modes, is confirmed and extended. This suggests that at most only a small fraction of the variation is due to the solar core. Sets of frequencies at high and low solar activity, and an average corrected for solar-activity effects, are presented. There is now evidence that the solar-activity dependence of the frequencies varies across the 5 minute spectrum.

  5. UNUSUAL TRENDS IN SOLAR P-MODE FREQUENCIES DURING THE CURRENT EXTENDED MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathy, S. C.; Jain, K.; Hill, F.; Leibacher, J. W.

    2010-03-10

    We investigate the behavior of the intermediate-degree mode frequencies of the Sun during the current extended minimum phase to explore the time-varying conditions in the solar interior. Using contemporaneous helioseismic data from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), we find that the changes in resonant mode frequencies during the activity minimum period are significantly greater than the changes in solar activity as measured by different proxies. We detect a seismic minimum in MDI p-mode frequency shifts during 2008 July-August but no such signature is seen in mean shifts computed from GONG frequencies. We also analyze the frequencies of individual oscillation modes from GONG data as a function of latitude and observe a signature of the onset of the solar cycle 24 in early 2009. Thus, the intermediate-degree modes do not confirm the onset of the cycle 24 during late 2007 as reported from the analysis of the low-degree Global Oscillations at Low Frequency frequencies. Further, both the GONG and MDI frequencies show a surprising anti-correlation between frequencies and activity proxies during the current minimum, in contrast to the behavior during the minimum between cycles 22 and 23.

  6. p-mode frequency variation in relation to global solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.; Brown, Timothy M.

    1993-01-01

    We show that p-mode frequency variations correlate remarkably well with the variations of six solar activity indices over a 6 yr period from 1984 October to 1990 November, including both the large variation from solar minimum to solar maximum and smaller variations observed over approximately 1 month intervals during solar maximum. The quality of correlation as seen visually and as measured by two statistical tests differs significantly among the six activity indices, and we briefly speculate on possible reasons for this. Observations used in this study come from the HAO/NSO Fourier tachometer (FTACH) and include the spherical harmonic degree range l greater than 20 and equal to 60 or less and frequency range between 2600 and 3200 micro-Hz. The data are divided into 18 separate epochs with time string duration ranging from a minimum of 18 days to a maximum of 45 days. We have particularly good coverage during the early part of solar maximum of cycle 22.

  7. Nonadiabatic nonradial p-mode frequencies of the standard solar model, with and without helium diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    The nonadiabatic frequencies of a standard solar model and a solar model that includes helium diffusion are discussed. The nonadiabatic pulsation calculation includes physics that describes the losses and gains due to radiation. Radiative gains and losses are modeled in both the diffusion approximation, which is only valid in optically thick regions, and the Eddington approximation, which is valid in both optically thin and thick regions. The calculated pulsation frequencies for modes with l less than or equal to 1320 are compared to the observed spectrum of the Sun. Compared to a strictly adiabatic calculation, the nonadiabatic calculation of p-mode frequencies improves the agreement between model and observation. When helium diffusion is included in the model the frequencies of the modes that are sensitive to regions near the base of the convection zone are improved (i.e., brought into closer agreement with observation), but the agreement is made worse for other modes. Cyclic variations in the frequency spacings of the Sun as a function of frequency of n are presented as evidence for a discontinuity in the structure of the Sun, possibly located near the base of the convection zone.

  8. Constancy of intermediate-degree p-mode frequencies during the declining phase of solar cycle 21

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.J. Jr.; Woodard, M.F.; Cacciani, A.; Tomczyk, S.; Korzennik, S.G.

    1988-03-01

    A comparison was made between two sets of frequencies of intermediate-degree solar p-mode oscillations obtained in late 1981 and mid-1984. Good agreement was found at the 0.02 microHz level despite the 2.6 yr interval separating the two sets of observations. In particular, a comparison was made between the frequencies of 573 modes obtained at the South Pole during December 24-25, 1981 and those of the same modes as observed at the Mount Wilson Observatory 60-ft Solar Tower during July 29-August 13, 1984. The present results are consistent with no change in intermediate-degree p-mode frequencies between late 1981 and mid-1985. 17 references.

  9. On the constancy of intermediate-degree p-mode frequencies during the declining phase of solar cycle 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Woodard, Martin F.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Tomczyk, Steven; Korzennik, Sylvain G.

    1988-01-01

    A comparison was made between two sets of frequencies of intermediate-degree solar p-mode oscillations obtained in late 1981 and mid-1984. Good agreement was found at the 0.02 microHz level despite the 2.6 yr interval separating the two sets of observations. In particular, a comparison was made between the frequencies of 573 modes obtained at the South Pole during December 24-25, 1981 and those of the same modes as observed at the Mount Wilson Observatory 60-ft Solar Tower during July 29-August 13, 1984. The present results are consistent with no change in intermediate-degree p-mode frequencies between late 1981 and mid-1985.

  10. solarFLAG hare and hounds: estimation of p-mode frequencies from Sun-as-star helioseismology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; Chaplin, W. J.; García, R. A.; Appourchaux, T.; Baudin, F.; Boumier, P.; Elsworth, Y.; Fletcher, S. T.; Lazrek, M.; Leibacher, J. W.; Lochard, J.; New, R.; Régulo, C.; Salabert, D.; Toutain, T.; Verner, G. A.; Wachter, R.

    2008-10-01

    We report on the results of the latest solarFLAG hare-and-hounds exercise, which was concerned with testing methods for extraction of frequencies of low-degree solar p modes from data collected by Sun-as-a-star observations. We have used the new solarFLAG simulator, which includes the effects of correlated mode excitation and correlations with background noise, to make artificial time-series data that mimic Doppler velocity observations of the Sun-as-a-star. The correlations give rise to asymmetry of mode peaks in the frequency power spectrum. 10 members of the group (the hounds) applied their `peak-bagging' codes to a 3456-d data set, and the estimated mode frequencies were returned to the hare (who was WJC) for comparison. Analysis of the results reveals a systematic bias in the estimated frequencies of modes above ~1.8mHz. The bias is negative, meaning the estimated frequencies systematically underestimate the input frequencies. We identify two sources that are the dominant contributions to the frequency bias. Both sources involve failure to model accurately subtle aspects of the observed power spectral density in the part (window) of the frequency power spectrum that is being fitted. One source of bias arises from a failure to account for the power spectral density coming from all those modes whose frequencies lie outside the fitting windows. The other source arises from a failure to account for the power spectral density of the weak l = 4 and 5 modes, which are often ignored in Sun-as-a-star analysis. The Sun-as-a-star peak-bagging codes need to allow for both sources, otherwise the frequencies are likely to be biased.

  11. Initial high-degree p-mode frequency splittings from the 1988 Mt. Wilson 60-foot Tower Solar Oscillation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.

    1988-01-01

    The initial frequency splitting results of solar p-mode oscillations obtained from the 1988 helioseismology program at the Mt. Wilson Observatory are presented. The frequency splittings correspond to the rotational splittings of sectoral harmonics which range in degree between 10 and 598. They were obtained from a cross-correlation analysis of the prograde and retrograde portions of a two-dimensional (t - v) power spectrum. This power spectrum was computed from an eight-hour sequence of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained on July 2, 1988, at the 60-foot tower telescope with a Na magneto-optical filter and a 1024x1024 pixel CCD camera. These frequency splittings have an inherently larger scatter than did the splittings obtained from earlier 16-day power spectra. These splittings are consistent with an internal solar rotational velocity which is independent of radius along the equatorial plane. The normalized frequency splittings averaged 449 + or - 3 nHz, a value which is very close to the observed equatorial rotation rate of the photospheric gas of 451.7 nHz.

  12. Initial high-degree p-mode frequency splittings from the 1988 Mt. Wilson 60-foot Tower Solar Oscillation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.

    1988-01-01

    The initial frequency splitting results of solar p-mode oscillations obtained from the 1988 helioseismology program at the Mt. Wilson Observatory are presented. The frequency splittings correspond to the rotational splittings of sectoral harmonics which range in degree between 10 and 598. They were obtained from a cross-correlation analysis of the prograde and retrograde portions of a two-dimensional (t - v) power spectrum. This power spectrum was computed from an eight-hour sequence of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained on July 2, 1988, at the 60-foot tower telescope with a Na magneto-optical filter and a 1024x1024 pixel CCD camera. These frequency splittings have an inherently larger scatter than did the splittings obtained from earlier 16-day power spectra. These splittings are consistent with an internal solar rotational velocity which is independent of radius along the equatorial plane. The normalized frequency splittings averaged 449 + or - 3 nHz, a value which is very close to the observed equatorial rotation rate of the photospheric gas of 451.7 nHz.

  13. Solar p-Modes Modulated by Interior g-Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yu-Qing

    2001-08-01

    The process by which frequency modulations of solar p-modes with shorter periods (~5 minutes) occur because of the presence of solar interior g-modes with longer periods (greater than a few hours approximately) is studied. The key results of a model analysis are given. In addition to the effects of stochastic excitation, this modulation by g-modes would give rise to fine spectral structures in the form of frequency sideband peaks closely packed around individual p-modes (with narrow frequency intervals on the order of g-mode frequencies) rather than of separate g-mode spectral power peaks in the low-frequency bands. For those p-modes of low degree that penetrate deep into the solar interior, this effect of frequency modulation by interior g-modes (if they exist) should be more pronounced. Observationally, individual p-modes usually contain numerous fine peaks that have to be somehow modeled (or smoothed) in order to estimate p-mode frequencies, amplitudes, and line widths, etc. By carefully weeding out noises of various origins in high-resolution p-mode frequency spectra, one might be able to extract the desired signals of g-modes trapped in the solar interior that have so far evaded the scrutiny of advanced helioseismological experiments.

  14. A Comparison of Solar p-Mode Parameters from MDI and Gong: Mode Frequencies and Structure Inversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Howe, R.; Schou, J.; Thompson, M. J.; Hill, F.; Komm, R.

    2003-01-01

    Helioseismic analysis of solar global oscillations allows investigation of the internal structure of the Sun. One important test of the reliability of the inferences from helioseismology is that the results from independent sets of contemporaneous data are consistent with one another. Here we compare mode frequencies from the Global Oscillation Network Group and Michelson Doppler Imager on board SOHO and resulting inversion results on the Sun's internal structure. The average relative differences between the data sets are typically less than 1 x 10(exp -5) substantially smaller than the formal errors in the differences; however, in some cases the frequency differences show a systematic behavior that might nonetheless influence the inversion results. We find that the differences in frequencies are not a result of instrumental effects but are almost entirely related to the data pipeline software. Inversion of the frequencies shows that their differences do not result in any significant effects on the resulting inferences on solar structure. We have also experimented with fitting asymmetric profiles to the oscillation power spectra and find that, compared with the symmetric fits, this causes no significant change in the inversion results.

  15. A Comparison of Solar p-Mode Parameters from MDI and Gong: Mode Frequencies and Structure Inversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Howe, R.; Schou, J.; Thompson, M. J.; Hill, F.; Komm, R.

    2003-01-01

    Helioseismic analysis of solar global oscillations allows investigation of the internal structure of the Sun. One important test of the reliability of the inferences from helioseismology is that the results from independent sets of contemporaneous data are consistent with one another. Here we compare mode frequencies from the Global Oscillation Network Group and Michelson Doppler Imager on board SOHO and resulting inversion results on the Sun's internal structure. The average relative differences between the data sets are typically less than 1 x 10(exp -5) substantially smaller than the formal errors in the differences; however, in some cases the frequency differences show a systematic behavior that might nonetheless influence the inversion results. We find that the differences in frequencies are not a result of instrumental effects but are almost entirely related to the data pipeline software. Inversion of the frequencies shows that their differences do not result in any significant effects on the resulting inferences on solar structure. We have also experimented with fitting asymmetric profiles to the oscillation power spectra and find that, compared with the symmetric fits, this causes no significant change in the inversion results.

  16. Solar p modes in 10 years of the IRIS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; Fossat, E.; Gelly, B.; Kholikov, S.; Grec, G.; Lazrek, M.; Schmider, F. X.

    2004-01-01

    IRIS data (the low degree ℓ≤ 3 helioseismology network) have been analysed for the study of p-mode parameters variability over the falling phase of the solar activity cycle 22 and the rising phase of the solar activity cycle 23. The IRIS duty cycle has been improved by the so-called ``repetitive music method'', a method of partial gap filling. We present in this paper an analysis of the dependence of p-mode frequencies and linewidths with frequency and with solar magnetic activity. We confirm also the periodicity of about 70 μHz of the high-frequency pseudo modes, with a much reduced visibility during the phase of higher activity.

  17. A new efficient method for determining weighted power spectra: detection of low-frequency solar p-modes by analysis of BiSON data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, S. T.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; New, R.

    2011-08-01

    We present a new and highly efficient algorithm for computing a power spectrum made from evenly spaced data which combines the noise-reducing advantages of the weighted fit with the computational advantages of the fast Fourier transform. We apply this method to a 10-yr data set of the solar p-mode oscillations obtained by the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) and thereby uncover three new low-frequency modes. These are the ℓ= 2, n= 5 and n= 7 modes and the ℓ= 3, n=7 mode. In the case of the ℓ= 2, n= 5 mode, this is believed to be the first such identification of this mode in the literature. The statistical weights needed for the method are derived from a combination of the real data and a sophisticated simulation of the instrument performance. Variations in the weights are due mainly to the differences in the noise characteristics of the various BiSON instruments, the change in those characteristics over time and the changing line-of-sight velocity between the stations and the Sun. It should be noted that a weighted data set will have a more time-dependent signal than an unweighted set and that, consequently, its frequency spectrum will be more susceptible to aliasing.

  18. Excitation of solar p-modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldreich, Peter; Murray, Norman; Kumar, Pawan

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the rates at which energy is supplied to individual p-modes as a function of their frequencies nu and angular degrees l. The observationally determined rates are compared with those calculated on the hypothesis that the modes are stochastically excited by turbulent convection. The observationally determined excitation rate is assumed to be equal to the product of the mode's energy E and its (radian) line width Gamma. We obtain E from the mode's mean square surface velocity with the aid of its velocity eigenfuction. We assume that Gamma measures the mode's energy decay rate, even though quasi-elastic scattering may dominate true absorption. At fixed l, E(Gamma) arises as nu(exp 7) at low nu, reaches a peak at nu approximately equal 3.5 mHz, and then declines as nu(exp 4.4) at higher nu . At fixed nu, E(Gamma) exhibits a slow decline with increasing l. To calculate energy input rates, P(sub alpha), we rely on the mixing-length model of turbulent convection. We find entropy fluctuations to be about an order of magnitude more effective than the Reynolds stress in exciting p-modes . The calculated P(sub alpha) mimic the nu(exp 7) dependence of E(Gamma) at low nu and the nu(exp -4.4) dependence at high nu. The break of 11.4 powers in the nu-dependence of E(Gamma) across its peak is attributed to a combination of (1) the reflection of high-frequency acoustic waves just below the photosphere where the scale height drops precipitously and (2) the absence of energy-bearing eddies with short enough correlation times to excite high-frequency modes. Two parameters associated with the eddy correlation time are required to match the location and shape of the break. The appropriate values of these parameters, while not unnatural, are poorly constrained by theory. The calculated P(sub alpha) can also be made to fit the magnitude of E(Gamma) with a reasonable value for the eddy aspect ratio. Our resutls suggest a possible explanation for the decline of mode energy

  19. Solar p-mode oscillations as a tracer of radial differential rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deubner, F.-L.; Ulrich, R. K.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Photoelectric observations of solar p-modes obtained with improved wavenumber and frequency resolution are presented. The observations are compared with model calculations of the p-modes, and the degree of spatial and temporal coherence of the observed wave pattern is investigated. It is found that the p-mode oscillations pervade the visible surface of the sun with a high degree of coherence in space and time, so that the whole complex pattern of standing waves with its nodes and antinodes can be regarded as a fixed pattern corotating with the solar surface layers. The p-modes are introduced as a tracer of solar rotational flow velocities. The equatorial differential rotation is estimated as a function of effective depth on the basis of the theoretical contribution functions for the p-modes recently derived by Ulrich et al. (1978). The results strongly indicate that the angular speed of rotation is not uniform even in the relatively shallow layer extending about 20,000 km below the photosphere.

  20. Solar p-mode oscillations as a tracer of radial differential rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deubner, F.-L.; Ulrich, R. K.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Photoelectric observations of solar p-modes obtained with improved wavenumber and frequency resolution are presented. The observations are compared with model calculations of the p-modes, and the degree of spatial and temporal coherence of the observed wave pattern is investigated. It is found that the p-mode oscillations pervade the visible surface of the sun with a high degree of coherence in space and time, so that the whole complex pattern of standing waves with its nodes and antinodes can be regarded as a fixed pattern corotating with the solar surface layers. The p-modes are introduced as a tracer of solar rotational flow velocities. The equatorial differential rotation is estimated as a function of effective depth on the basis of the theoretical contribution functions for the p-modes recently derived by Ulrich et al. (1978). The results strongly indicate that the angular speed of rotation is not uniform even in the relatively shallow layer extending about 20,000 km below the photosphere.

  1. Low-degree p-mode parameters evolution with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochard, J.; Boumier, P.

    We present updated results on the low-degree p-mode parameters changes with solar activity: frequency, spectral width, rotational splittings and spectral asymmetry. A particular attention is devoted to the l=2 splitting asymmetry. Comparaisons of our frequency shifts (derived from the GOLF observations) with predictions of Pr.Dziembowski (based on an extrapolation from intermediate degree modes observations from MDI), are discussed.

  2. Comparative Studies of Low-Order and Low-Degree Solar p Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appourchaux, T.; Andersen, B.; Chaplin, W.; Elsworth, Y.; Finsterle, W.; Frohlich, C.; Gough, D.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Isaak, G.; Kosovichev, A.; Provost, J.; Scherrer, P.; Sekii, T.; Toutain, T.

    The amplitudes of solar p-modes decrease steeply with decreasing radial order below about 17. The background solar signal (solar noise) in general increases steadily with decreasing frequency. For the irradiance and radiance measurements with VIRGO or SOI/MDI on SOHO this combination makes it difficult to detect low degree modes below about 1.8 mHz. The solar noise as observed in velocity with SOI/MDI or the ground based BISON network is significantly lower in this region than in intensity measurements. This allows low degree modes to be observed close to 1 mHz. We present results of detection and charaterization of the lowest order observable p-modes both in velocity and intensity measurements. Where applicable the properties of the modes observed with the two methods are compared.

  3. A comparison of low-degree solar p-mode frquencies from BISON and LOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appourchaux, T.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Isaak, G. R.; McLeod, C. P.; Miller, B. A.; New, R.

    Here, we compare the low-degree solar p-mode frequencies returned from the analysis of two, contemporaneous, independent helioseismological data sets collected during 1996. The first comprises Doppler velocity observations of the 770-nm line of potassium, made in integrated sunlight by the six-station, terrestrial Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON). The second consists of irradiance distribution measurements of the solar disc, made at 500rm nm, by the Luminosity Oscillations Imager (LOI), which is part of the VIRGO experiment on the ESA/NASA SOHO satellite.

  4. Importance of Solar Atmospheric Coupling on P-Mode Power within Magnetic Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R.

    2014-12-01

    It has long been known that the power of p-mode oscillations is reducedwithin magnetic plages and sunspots at photospheric level. Recent observations now suggest that this suppression of power extends into the low chromosphere and isalso present in small magnetic elements far from active regions. Weconstruct a model to investigate a possible mechanism of this powerloss whereby p modes buffet small magnetic elements and excite MHDsausage tube waves. These magnetic tube waves propagate along the manymagnetic fibrils which are embedded in the convection zone and expandinto the chromosphere due to the fall in density with height of thesurrounding plasma. We treat the magnetic fibrils as verticallyaligned, thin flux tubes embedded in a two region polytropic-isothermalatmosphere to study the coupling of p-mode driven sausage waves,which are excited in the convection zone and propagate into theoverlying chromosphere. The excited tube waves carry energy away fromthe p-mode cavity resulting in a deficit of p-mode energy which wequantify by computing the associated damping rate and absorptioncoefficient of the driving p modes. We also compare the verticalmotion within the fibril with the vertical motion of the incident p modeby constructing the ratio of their powers using HMI data and theory.In agreement with observational measurements we find that the totalpower is suppressed within strong magnetic elements for frequenciesbelow the acoustic cut-off frequency. We also find that the magnitudeof the power deficit increases with the height above the photosphereat which the measurement is made. Further, we argue that the area ofthe solar disk over which the power suppression extends increases as afunction of height.

  5. Low Degree p-mode solar cycle trends from BISON data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Isaak, G. R.; McLeod, C. P.; Miller, B. A.; New, R.

    The resonant p-mode oscillations of the Sun are manifestations of trapped, standing sound waves in the solar interior. The frequencies of the discrete spectrum of sustained modes are consequently modified by the mechanical properties of the layers through which the waves traverse. Quasi-periodic changes to the solar structure -- on an 11 (22)-year timescale -- result in certain measurable mode properties being affected. Here, we have used high-quality Doppler velocity data, collected in integrated sunlight by the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON), in order to assess the resulting impact on the low-degree modes of oscillation over the falling phase of solar cycle 22, and the beginning of cycle 23.

  6. Solar seismology. II - The stochastic excitation of the solar p-modes by turbulent convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldreich, P.; Keeley, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that the solar p-modes are stabilized by damping due to turbulent viscosity in the convective zone. Starting from the assumption that the modes are stable, we calculate expectation values for the modal energies. We find that the interaction between a p-mode and the turbulent convection is such that the modal energy tends toward equipartition with the kinetic energy of turbulent eddies whose lifetimes are comparable to the modal period. From the calculated values of the modal energies, we compute rms surface velocity amplitudes. Our predicted rms surface velocities range from 0.01 cm/sec for the fundamental radial mode to 0.6 cm/sec for the radial mode whose period is approximately 5 minutes. The predicted surface velocities for the low order p-modes are much smaller than the velocities inferred from recent observations.

  7. Solar seismology. II - The stochastic excitation of the solar p-modes by turbulent convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldreich, P.; Keeley, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that the solar p-modes are stabilized by damping due to turbulent viscosity in the convective zone. Starting from the assumption that the modes are stable, we calculate expectation values for the modal energies. We find that the interaction between a p-mode and the turbulent convection is such that the modal energy tends toward equipartition with the kinetic energy of turbulent eddies whose lifetimes are comparable to the modal period. From the calculated values of the modal energies, we compute rms surface velocity amplitudes. Our predicted rms surface velocities range from 0.01 cm/sec for the fundamental radial mode to 0.6 cm/sec for the radial mode whose period is approximately 5 minutes. The predicted surface velocities for the low order p-modes are much smaller than the velocities inferred from recent observations.

  8. Solar seismology. I - The stability of the solar p-modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldreich, P.; Keeley, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The stability of the radial p-modes of the sun is investigated by computing nonadiabatic eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for a solar envelope model which extends from an inner radius of about 0.3 solar radius out to an optical depth of about 0.0003. The calculations take into account in a crude fashion the response of the convective flux to the oscillation. The dynamical effect of turbulence in the convection zone is parametrized in terms of a turbulent shear viscosity. The results show that if damping by turbulent viscosity is neglected, all modes with periods longer than 6 minutes are unstable. The familiar kappa-mechanism, which operates in the H ionization-H(-) opacity region, is the dominant source of driving of the oscillations. Modes with periods shorter than 6 minutes are stabilized by radiative damping in the solar atmosphere. When turbulent dissipation of pulsational energy is included, all modes are predicted to be stable. However, the margin of stability is very small. In view of the large uncertainty that must be assigned to the estimate of turbulent damping, it is concluded that theoretical calculations cannot unequivocally resolve the question of the stability of the solar p-modes.

  9. Wavelength variation of p-mode intensity fluctuations. [in solar photosphere and low chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronan, R. S.; Harvey, J. W.; Duvall, T. L, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The oscillatory signal in the solar p-mode band has been measured as a function of optical wavelength using a grating spectrometer and Fourier transform spectrometer. The relative intensity fluctuations are found to increase with height in the solar photosphere, while the absolute level of intensity fluctuations in the p-mode band is reduced by about 50 percent in the cores and wings of Ca II H and K, H-delta, and H-gamma compared to the neighboring spectral regions. Thus, these spectral regions of diminished absolute p-mode signal could be exploited as signal references by spectrophotometers while attempting to observe nonradial p-mode oscillations in stars from the ground. High spectral and temporal resolution observations of several unblended lines in the red portion of the visible spectrum show an asymmetry in the relative and absolute p-mode intensity oscillations across the line profiles. The peak in intensity oscillations lies in the blue wing of the lines.

  10. Energy loss of solar p modes due to the excitation of magnetic sausage tube waves: Importance of coupling the upper atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R.; Hindman, B. W. E-mail: r.jain@sheffield.ac.uk

    2014-07-10

    We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = –z{sub 0}).

  11. Energy Loss of Solar p Modes due to the Excitation of Magnetic Sausage Tube Waves: Importance of Coupling the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R.; Hindman, B. W.

    2014-07-01

    We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = -z 0).

  12. Mode Conversion of Solar p-Modes in Non-Vertical Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, A. D.; Cally, P. S.

    2005-03-01

    Sunspots absorb and scatter incident f- and p-modes. Until recently, the responsible absorption mechanism was uncertain. The most promising explanation appears to be mode conversion to slow magnetoacoustic-gravity waves, which carry energy down the magnetic field lines into the interior. In vertical magnetic field, mode conversion can adequately explain the observed f-mode absorption, but is too inefficient to account for the absorption of p-modes. In the first paper of the present series we calculated the efficiency of fast-to-slow magnetoacoustic-gravity wave conversion in uniform non-vertical magnetic fields. We assumed two-dimensional propagation, where the Alfvén waves decouple. In comparison to vertical field, it was found that mode conversion is significantly enhanced in moderately inclined fields, especially at higher frequencies. Using those results, Cally, Crouch, and Braun showed that the resultant p-mode absorption produced by simple sunspot models with non-vertical magnetic fields is ample to explain the observations. In this paper, we further examine mode conversion in non-vertical magnetic fields. In particular, we consider three-dimensional propagation, where the fast and slow magnetoacoustic-gravity waves and the Alfvén waves are coupled. Broadly speaking, the p-mode damping rates are not substantially different to the two-dimensional case. However, we do find that the Alfvén waves can remove similar quantities of energy to the slow MAG waves.

  13. ON THE PROPAGATION OF p-MODES INTO THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    De Wijn, A. G.; McIntosh, S. W.; De Pontieu, B.

    2009-09-10

    We employ tomographic observations of a small region of plage to study the propagation of waves from the solar photosphere to the chromosphere using a Fourier phase-difference analysis. Our results show the expected vertical propagation for waves with periods of 3 minutes. Waves with 5 minute periods, i.e., above the acoustic cutoff period, are found to propagate only at the periphery of the plage, and only in the direction in which the field can be reasonably expected to expand. We conclude that field inclination is critically important in the leakage of p-mode oscillations from the photosphere into the chromosphere.

  14. Measurement of Low Signal-To-Noise Ratio Solar p-Modes in Spatially Resolved Helioseismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; Leibacher, J.; Appourchaux, T.; Hill, F.

    2009-05-01

    We present an adaptation of the rotation-corrected, m-averaged spectrum technique designed to observe low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), low-frequency solar p-modes. The frequency shift of each of the 2l + 1 m spectra of a given (n, l) multiplet is chosen that maximizes the likelihood of the m-averaged spectrum. A high S/N can result from combining individual low S/N, individual-m spectra, none of which would yield a strong enough peak to measure. We apply the technique to Global Oscillation Network Group and Michelson Doppler Imager data and show that it allows us to measure modes with lower frequencies than those obtained with classic peak-fitting analysis of the individual-m spectra. We measure their central frequencies, splittings, asymmetries, lifetimes, and amplitudes. The low frequency, low- and intermediate-angular degrees rendered accessible by this new method correspond to modes that are sensitive to the deep solar interior down to the core (l <= 3) and to the radiative interior (4 <= l <= 35). Moreover, the low-frequency modes have deeper upper turning points, and are thus less sensitive to the turbulence and magnetic fields of the outer layers, as well as uncertainties in the nature of the external boundary condition. As a result of their longer lifetimes (narrower linewidths) at the same S/N the determination of the frequencies of lower frequency modes is more accurate, and the resulting inversions should be more precise.

  15. Observations of low-degree p-mode oscillations in 1984. [solar oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, Harald M.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of Stanford differential velocity observations has been extended through the 1984 observing season. Excellent quality observations were obtained in 1984 on 38 days in a 49 day interval from June 20th through August 7th. The power spectrum of this data has been examined and improved frequency determinations have been made for p-modes of degree 2 through 5 and order 5 through 34. Of special interest are the modes of the lower orders, n ranging from 5 to 10, which have not been identified previously.

  16. A Method for the Estimation of p-Mode Parameters from Averaged Solar Oscillation Power Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, J.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Larson, T. P.

    2015-04-01

    A new fitting methodology is presented that is equally well suited for the estimation of low-, medium-, and high-degree mode parameters from m-averaged solar oscillation power spectra of widely differing spectral resolution. This method, which we call the “Windowed, MuLTiple-Peak, averaged-spectrum” or WMLTP Method, constructs a theoretical profile by convolving the weighted sum of the profiles of the modes appearing in the fitting box with the power spectrum of the window function of the observing run, using weights from a leakage matrix that takes into account observational and physical effects, such as the distortion of modes by solar latitudinal differential rotation. We demonstrate that the WMLTP Method makes substantial improvements in the inferences of the properties of the solar oscillations in comparison with a previous method, which employed a single profile to represent each spectral peak. We also present an inversion for the internal solar structure, which is based upon 6366 modes that we computed using the WMLTP method on the 66 day 2010 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/MDI Dynamics Run. To improve both the numerical stability and reliability of the inversion, we developed a new procedure for the identification and correction of outliers in a frequency dataset. We present evidence for a pronounced departure of the sound speed in the outer half of the solar convection zone and in the subsurface shear layer from the radial sound speed profile contained in Model S of Christensen-Dalsgaard and his collaborators that existed in the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 during mid-2010.

  17. Solar-Cycle Changes in GONG P-Mode Widths and Amplitudes 1995-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm R. W.; Howe, R.; Hill, F.

    1999-01-01

    We search for a solar cycle variation in mode widths and amplitudes derived from 3-month GONG time series. The variation of mode width and amplitude observed in GONG data are the combined effects of fill factor, temporal variation, and measurement uncertainties. The largest variation is caused by the fill factor resulting in modes with increased width and reduced amplitude when fill is lower. We assume that the solar cycle variation is the only other systematic variation beside the temporal window function effect. We correct all currently available data sets for the fill factor and simultaneously derive the solar cycle variation. We find an increase of about 3% on average in mode width from the previous minimum to Oct. 1998 and a decrease of about 7% and 6% in mode amplitude and mode area (width x amplitude). We find no l dependence of the solar-cycle changes. As a function of frequency, these changes show a maximum between 2.7 and 3.3 mHz with about 47% higher than average values for mode width and about 29% and 36% higher ones for mode amplitude and area. We estimate the significance of these rather small changes by a pre-whitening method and find that the results are significant at or above the 99.9% level with mode area showing the highest level of significance and mode width the lowest. The variation in background amplitude is most likely not significant and is consistent with a zero change.

  18. Oscillation frequencies of solar models

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.; Guzik, J.A.; Kidman, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Two solar models have been constructed, one with no diffusion of the atomic nuclei, and another including diffusive element separation. The opacity at the bottom of the convection zone was increased 15--20 percent (within its theoretical uncertainty) to obtain a few microhertz agreement with observed p-mode frequencies. Original helium mass fractions were 0.291 and 0.289 for the no-diffusion and diffusion models, respectively. The diffusion model evolved to a surface Y = 0.256 at the solar age, and the original Z value of 0.0200 decreased to 0.0179. Agreement of l = 0 and 2 p-mode frequency separations with those observed is good. The g-mode nonadiabatic solutions do not have equal period spacing until high radial order. The lowest order modes are more visible if they all have the same kinetic energy. High central temperatures, produce over 9 SNUs from the B and 1.5 SNUs from the Be reactions. Models with iron condensed-out below the convection zone, and with WIMPs cooling the central regions to reduce the SNUs, agree less well with p-mode frequency separations. 53 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Parametrizing the time variation of the `surface term' of stellar p-mode frequencies: application to helioseismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, R.; Basu, S.; Davies, G. R.; Ball, W. H.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Komm, R.

    2017-02-01

    The solar-cycle variation of acoustic mode frequencies has a frequency dependence related to the inverse mode inertia. The discrepancy between model predictions and measured oscillation frequencies for solar and solar-type stellar acoustic modes includes a significant frequency-dependent term known as the surface term, which is also related to the inverse mode inertia. We parametrize both the surface term and the frequency variations for low-degree solar data from Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) and medium-degree data from the Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) using the mode inertia together with cubic and inverse frequency terms. We find that for the central frequency of rotationally split multiplets, the cubic term dominates both the average surface term and the temporal variation, but for the medium-degree case, the inverse term improves the fit to the temporal variation. We also examine the variation of the even-order splitting coefficients for the medium-degree data and find that, as for the central frequency, the latitude-dependent frequency variation, which reflects the changing latitudinal distribution of magnetic activity over the solar cycle, can be described by the combination of a cubic and an inverse function of frequency scaled by inverse mode inertia. The results suggest that this simple parametrization could be used to assess the activity-related frequency variation in solar-like asteroseismic targets.

  20. Dependence of sunspot photospheric waves on the depth of the source of solar p-modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felipe, T.; Khomenko, E.

    2017-02-01

    Photospheric waves in sunspots moving radially outward at speeds faster than the characteristic wave velocities have been recently detected. It has been suggested that they are the visual pattern of p-modes excited around 5 Mm beneath the sunspot's surface. Using numerical simulations, we performed a parametric study of the waves observed at the photosphere and higher layers that were produced by sources located at different depths beneath the sunspot's surface. The observational measurements are consistent with waves driven between approximately 1 Mm and 5 Mm below the sunspot's surface.

  1. The Solar Core: New Low-l p-Mode Fine-Spacing Results from BiSON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Isaak, G. R.; McLeod, C. P.; Miller, B. A.; New, R.

    1997-05-01

    The fine-structure spacing dl(n) = νl,n - νl+2,n-1 for low-degree solar p modes of angular degree l and radial order n is sensitive to conditions in the deep radiative interior of the Sun. Here we present fine-structure spacings derived from the analysis of nearly 5 years of helioseismological data collected between 1991 July and 1996 February by the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON). These data cover 9 <= n <= 28 for d0(n), and 11 <= n <= 27 for d1(n). The measured spacings are much more precise and cover a greater range than earlier measurements from BiSON data (Elsworth et al. 1990a). The predicted fine-structure spacings for a ``standard'' solar model are clearly excluded by the BiSON data (at ~10 σ) models that include helium and heavy-element settling provide a much better match to the observed spacings (see also Elsworth et al. 1995). Since the inclusion of core settling in solar models will tend to increase slightly the predicted neutrino flux, the BiSON fine-structure data appear to reinforce previous conclusions, i.e., an astrophysical solution to the solar neutrino problem seems unlikely. Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network; http://bison.ph.bham.ac.uk.

  2. Solar activity and oscillation frequency splittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Solar p-mode frequency splittings, parameterized by the coefficients through order N = 12 of a Legendre polynomial expansion of the mode frequencies as a function of m/L, were obtained from an analysis of helioseismology data taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the 4 years 1986 and 1988-1990 (approximately solar minimum to maximum). Inversion of the even-index splitting coefficients confirms that there is a significant contribution to the frequency splittings originating near the solar poles. The strength of the polar contribution is anti correlated with the overall level or solar activity in the active latitudes, suggesting a relation to polar faculae. From an analysis of the odd-index splitting coefficients we infer an uppor limit to changes in the solar equatorial near-surface rotatinal velocity of less than 1.9 m/s (3 sigma limit) between solar minimum and maximum.

  3. Solar activity and oscillation frequency splittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Solar p-mode frequency splittings, parameterized by the coefficients through order N = 12 of a Legendre polynomial expansion of the mode frequencies as a function of m/L, were obtained from an analysis of helioseismology data taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the 4 years 1986 and 1988-1990 (approximately solar minimum to maximum). Inversion of the even-index splitting coefficients confirms that there is a significant contribution to the frequency splittings originating near the solar poles. The strength of the polar contribution is anti correlated with the overall level or solar activity in the active latitudes, suggesting a relation to polar faculae. From an analysis of the odd-index splitting coefficients we infer an uppor limit to changes in the solar equatorial near-surface rotatinal velocity of less than 1.9 m/s (3 sigma limit) between solar minimum and maximum.

  4. The Effect of Inhomogeneities on High-Frequency, Low-1 p-Modes: DIFOS Experiment on CORONAS-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    The investigation of the effects of inhomogeneities of the acoustic modes of the global solar oscillation spectrum has two parts, the first dealing with the prediction of wave fluxes in magnetic flux tubes due to the excitation of longitudinal (i.e. pressure) modes, and the second part, concerning the effects of radiation damping on the p-modes themselves. Part 1 of this work, in collaboration with S.S. Hasan (Indian Institute of Astro- physics, Bangalore), is complete and has resulted in a publication titled Excitation of Longitudinal Modes in Solar Magnetic Flux Tubes, By S.S. Hasan & WK. It is in press in the ASP conference series, containing the proceedings of the Cool Stars conference of 1997, R.A. Donahue and J.A. Bookbinder, editors; publication is expected in 1998. Part 2, in collaboration with Y. Zhugzhda (Izmiran, Moscow) and J. Staude (Sonnenobservatorium Einsteinturm, Potsdam) is in progress and is expected to result in a paper in the forthcoming Boston conference on Helio- and Asteroseismology in June, 1998. A fuller accounting of the work done under the grant will be given when the work started with funding from the grant is complete.

  5. Excitation and Damping of Low-Degree Solar p-Modes during Activity Cycle 23: Analysis of GOLF and VIRGO Sun Photometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; García, R. A.; Jiménez, A.; Chaplin, W. J.

    2003-09-01

    We have used observations made by the Global Oscillations at Low Frequency (GOLF) and the Variability of Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations Sun Photometer (VIRGO/SPM) instruments on board the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite to study variations in the excitation and damping of low angular degree (low-l) solar p-modes on the rising phase of activity cycle 23. Our analysis includes a correction procedure that for the first time allows GOLF data to be ``treated'' as a single homogeneous set, thereby compensating for the change of operational configuration partway through the mission. Over the range 2.5<=ν<=3.5mHz, we uncover an increase in damping and decrease in mode power that is consistent with previous findings. Furthermore, an excellent level of agreement is found between the variations extracted from the GOLF and VIRGO/SPM data. We find no net long-term changes to the modal energy supply rate. However, an analysis of the residuals uncovers the presence of a quasi-periodic signature of period ~1.5 yr (most pronounced for SPM). While it is true that several workers claim to have uncovered similar periodicities in other phenomena related to the near-surface layers of the Sun here, we are at present more inclined to attribute our finding to an artifact of the mode-fitting procedure. We also uncover a significant change in the asymmetry of mode peaks in the GOLF data, as found in previous studies of much longer data sets. These assumed that the dominant contribution to this arose from the switch in operating configuration partway through the mission (which altered the depth in the solar atmosphere sampled by the instrument). However, our preliminary analysis of data collected over the 100 day period beginning 2002 November 19-when the instrument switched back to its original configuration-suggests that this change may have a solar cycle component.

  6. THE ACOUSTIC CUTOFF FREQUENCY OF THE SUN AND THE SOLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A.; Palle, P. L.; Garcia, R. A.

    2011-12-20

    The acoustic cutoff frequency-the highest frequency for acoustic solar eigenmodes-is an important parameter of the solar atmosphere as it determines the upper boundary of the p-mode resonant cavities. At frequencies beyond this value, acoustic disturbances are no longer trapped but are traveling waves. Interference among them gives rise to higher-frequency peaks-the pseudomodes-in the solar acoustic spectrum. The pseudomodes are shifted slightly in frequency with respect to p-modes, making possible the use of pseudomodes to determine the acoustic cutoff frequency. Using data from the GOLF and VIRGO instruments on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft, we calculate the acoustic cutoff frequency using the coherence function between both the velocity and intensity sets of data. By using data gathered by these instruments during the entire lifetime of the mission (1996 until the present), a variation in the acoustic cutoff frequency with the solar magnetic activity cycle is found.

  7. Early solar mass loss, element diffusion, and solar oscillation frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.; Cox, A.N.

    1994-07-01

    Swenson and Faulkner, and Boothroyd et al. investigated the possibility that early main-sequence mass loss via a stronger early solar wind could be responsible for the observed solar lithium and beryllium depiction. This depletion requires a total mass loss of {approximately}0.1 M{circle_dot}, nearly independent of the mass loss timescale. We have calculated the evolution and oscillation frequencies of solar models including helium and element diffusion, and such early solar mass loss. We show that extreme mass loss of 1 M{circle_dot} is easily ruled out by the low-degree p-modes that probe the solar center and sense the steeper molecular weight gradient produced by the early phase of more rapid hydrogen burning. The effects on central structure are much smaller for models with an initial mass of 1.1 M{circle_dot} and exponentially-decreasing mass loss irate with e-folding timescale 0.45 Gyr. While such mass loss slightly worsens the agreement between observed and calculated low-degree modes, the observational uncertainties of several tenths of a microhertz weaken this conclusion. Surprisingly, the intermediate-degree modes with much smaller observational uncertainties that probe the convection zone bottom prove to be the key to discriminating between models: The early mass loss phase decreases the total amount of helium and heavier elements diffused from the convection zone, and the extent of the diffusion produced composition gradient just below the convection zone, deteriorating the agreement with observed frequencies for these modes. Thus it appears that oscillations can also rule out this smaller amount of gradual early main-sequence mass loss in the young Sun. The mass loss phase must be confined to substantially under a billion years, probably 0.5 Gyr or less, to simultaneously solve the solar Li/Be problem and avoid discrepancies with solar oscillation frequencies.

  8. Early Solar Mass Loss, Element Diffusion, and Solar Oscillation Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce A.; Cox, Arthur N.

    1995-08-01

    Swenson & Faulkner and Boothroyd, Sackmann, & Fowler investigated the possibility that early mainsequence mass loss via a stronger early solar wind could be responsible for the observed solar lithium and beryllium depletion. This depletion requires a total mass loss of ˜0.1 Msun, nearly independent of the mass loss timescale. We calculate the evolution and oscillation frequencies of solar models including diffusion of helium and other elements, with such early solar mass loss. We show that extreme mass loss of 1 Msun is easily ruled out by the low-degree p-modes that probe the solar center and sense the steeper molecular weight gradient produced by the early phase of more rapid hydrogen burning. The effects on central structure are much smaller for models with an initial mass of 1.1 Msun, and exponentially decreasing mass-loss rate with e-folding timescale 0.45 Gyr. While such mass loss slightly worsens the agreement between observed and calculated low-degree modes, the observational uncertainties of several tenths of a microhertz weaken this conclusion. Surprisingly, the intermediate-degree modes with much smaller observational uncertainties that probe the convection zone bottom prove to be the key to discriminating between models: The early mass-loss phase decreases the total amount of helium and heavier elements diffused from the convection zone, and the extent of the diffusion-produced composition gradient just below the convection zone. These changes in the solar composition result in a marked deterioration in the agreement with observed frequencies for the intermediate degree modes. Mass loss on a timescale substantially longer than 0.2 Gyr appears to be incompatible with observed solar oscillation frequencies. It is significant that this discrimination between models with and without mass loss is possible only when element diffusion is incorporated in the modeling.

  9. Early solar mass loss, element diffusion, and solar oscillation frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, J. A.; Cox, A. N.

    Swenson and Faulkner, and Boothroyd et al. investigated the possibility that early main-sequence mass loss via a stronger early solar wind could be responsible for the observed solar lithium and beryllium depiction. This depletion requires a total mass loss of approximately 0.1 M(circle dot), nearly independent of the mass loss timescale. We have calculated the evolution and oscillation frequencies of solar models including helium and element diffusion, and such early solar mass loss. We show that extreme mass loss of 1 M(circle dot) is easily ruled out by the low-degree p-modes that probe the solar center and sense the steeper molecular weight gradient produced by the early phase of more rapid hydrogen burning. The effects on central structure are much smaller for models with an initial mass of 1.1 M(circle dot) and exponentially-decreasing mass loss rate with e-folding timescale 0.45 Gyr. While such mass loss slightly worsens the agreement between observed and calculated low-degree modes, the observational uncertainties of several tenths of a microhertz weaken this conclusion. Surprisingly, the intermediate-degree modes with much smaller observational uncertainties that probe the convection zone bottom prove to be the key to discriminating between models: (1) the early mass loss phase decreases the total amount of helium and heavier elements diffused from the convection zone, and (2) the extent of the diffusion produced composition gradient just below the convection zone, deteriorating the agreement with observed frequencies for these modes. Thus it appears that oscillations can also rule out this smaller amount of gradual early main-sequence mass loss in the young Sun. The mass loss phase must be confined to substantially under a billion years, probably 0.5 Gyr or less, to simultaneously solve the solar Li/Be problem and avoid discrepancies with solar oscillation frequencies.

  10. Solar oscillation frequency and solar neutrino predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.

    1990-07-05

    The light and velocity variations of the Sun and solar-like stars are unique among intrinsic variable stars. Unlike all other standard classes, such as Cepheids, B stars, and white dwarfs, the pulsation driving is caused by coupling with the acoustic noise in the upper convection zone. Each global pulsation mode is just another degree of freedom for the turbulent convection, and energy is shared equally between these g{sup {minus}}-modes and the solar oscillation modes. This driving and damping, together with the normal stellar pulsation mechanisms produce extremely low amplitude solar oscillations. Actually, the surface layer radiative damping is strong, and the varying oscillation mode amplitudes manifest the stochastic convection driving and the steady damping. Thus stability calculations for solar-like pulsations are difficult and mostly inconclusive, but calculations of pulsation periods are as straightforward as for all the other classes of intrinsic variable stars. The issue that is important for the Sun is its internal structure, because the mass, radius, and luminosity are extremely well known. Conventionally, we need the pulsation constants for each of millions of modes. Unknown parameters for constructing solar models are the composition and its material pressure, energy, and opacity, as well as the convection mixing length. We treat the nuclear energy and neutrino production formulas as sufficiently well known. The presence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) orbiting the solar center affects the predicted oscillation frequencies so that they do not agree with observations as well as those for models without WIMPs. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Parametric interaction of coronal loops with p modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A. V.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Kisliakov, A. G.; Urpo, S.

    2009-03-01

    Parametric resonance between p modes and eigenoscillations of coronal loops is studied. Observations of solar radio bursts revealed this effect in simultaneous excitation of loop oscillations with periods corresponding to the pumping-up frequency (5 min), subharmonic (10 min), and to the first upper frequency of parametric resonance (3.3 min). An interpretation in terms of a coronal magnetic loop as an equivalent electric circuit is given. Parametric resonance can work as a channel for transfer of energy from photospheric motions to stellar coronae.

  12. Variation of solar oscillation frequencies in solar cycle 23 and their relation to sunspot area and number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, R.; Tripathy, S. C.; Watson, F. T.; Fletcher, L.; Jain, K.; Hill, F.

    2012-09-01

    Aims: Studying the long term evolution of the solar acoustic oscillations is necessary for understanding how the large-scale solar dynamo operates. In particular, an understanding of the solar cycle variation in the frequencies of solar oscillations can provide a powerful diagnostic tool for constraining various dynamo models. In this work, we report the temporal evolution of solar oscillations for the solar cycle 23, and correlate with solar magnetic activity indices. Methods: We use solar oscillation frequencies obtained from the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, correlate them with the sunspot number provided by the international sunspot number, RI, and compare them with the sunspot number calculated with the Sunspot Tracking And Recognition Algorithm (STARA). Results: We find that the mean frequency shifts correlate very well with the sunspot numbers obtained from two different datasets. We also find a hysteresis-type behaviour for the STARA sunspot area and mean magnetic field strength for the different phases of the solar cycle. The increase in solar oscillation frequencies precedes slightly the increase in total sunspot area and the mean magnetic field strength for the solar cycle 23. We briefly discuss the cyclic behaviour in the context of p-mode frequencies.

  13. Measurement of high-degree solar oscillation frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, K. T.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Harvey, J. W.; Hill, F.

    1995-01-01

    We present m-averaged solar p- and f-mode oscillation frequencies over the frequency range nu greater than 1.8 and less than 5.0 mHz and the spherical harmonic degree range l greater than or equal to 100 and less than or equal to 1200 from full-disk, 1000 x 1024 pixel, Ca II intensity images collected 1993 June 22-25 with a temporal cadence of 60 s. We itemize the sources and magnitudes of statistical and systematic uncertainties and of small frequency corrections, and we show that our frequencies represent an improvement in accuracy and coverage over previous measurements. Our frequencies agree at the 2 micro Hz level with Mount Wilson frequencies determined for l less than or equal to 600 from full-disk images, and we find systematic offsets of 10-20 micro Hz with respect to frequencies measured from Big Bear and La Palma observations. We give evidence that these latter offsets are indicative of spatial scaling uncertainties associated with the analysis of partial-disk images. In comparison with theory, our p-mode frequencies agree within 10 micro Hz of frequencies predicted by the Los Alamos model but are as much as 100 micro Hz smaller than frequencies predicted by the Denmark and Yale models at degrees near 1000. We also find systematic differences between our n = 0 frequencies and the frequencies closely agreed upon by all three models.

  14. Solar-cycle variations of large frequency separations of acoustic modes: implications for asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; New, R.

    2011-06-01

    We have studied solar-cycle changes in the large frequency separations that can be observed in Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) data. The large frequency separation is often one of the first outputs from asteroseismic studies because it can help constrain stellar properties like mass and radius. We have used three methods for estimating the large separations: use of individual p-mode frequencies, computation of the autocorrelation of frequency-power spectra, and computation of the power spectrum of the power spectrum. The values of the large separations obtained by the different methods are offset from each other and have differing sensitivities to the realization noise. A simple model was used to predict solar-cycle variations in the large separations, indicating that the variations are due to the well-known solar-cycle changes to mode frequency. However, this model is only valid over a restricted frequency range. We discuss the implications of these results for asteroseismology.

  15. Solar emission levels at low radio frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Solar radio emission could seriously interfere with observations made by a low frequency (1 to 10 MHz) array in space. International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) radio data were used to determine solar emission level. The results indicate that solar emission should seriously disturb less than ten percent of the data, even during the years of solar maximum. Thus it appears that solar emission should not cause a disastrous loss of data. The information needed to design procedures to excise solar interference from the data produced by any low-frequency array is provided.

  16. The CoRoT B-type binary HD 50230: a prototypical hybrid pulsator with g-mode period and p-mode frequency spacings⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroote, P.; Aerts, C.; Michel, E.; Briquet, M.; Pápics, P. I.; Amado, P.; Mathias, P.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Lombaert, R.; Hillen, M.; Morel, T.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Baudin, F.; Catala, C.; Samadi, R.

    2012-06-01

    Context. B-type stars are promising targets for asteroseismic modelling, since their frequency spectrum is relatively simple. Aims: We deduce and summarise observational constraints for the hybrid pulsator, HD 50230, earlier reported to have deviations from a uniform period spacing of its gravity modes. The combination of spectra and a high-quality light curve measured by the CoRoT satellite allow a combined approach to fix the position of HD 50230 in the HR diagram. Methods: To describe the observed pulsations, classical Fourier analysis was combined with short-time Fourier transformations and frequency spacing analysis techniques. Visual spectra were used to constrain the projected rotation rate of the star and the fundamental parameters of the target. In a first approximation, the combined information was used to interpret multiplets and spacings to infer the true surface rotation rate and a rough estimate of the inclination angle. Results: We identify HD 50230 as a spectroscopic binary and characterise the two components. We detect the simultaneous presence of high-order g modes and low-order p and g-modes in the CoRoT light curve, but were unable to link them to line profile variations in the spectroscopic time series. We extract the relevant information from the frequency spectrum, which can be used for seismic modelling, and explore possible interpretations of the pressure mode spectrum. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. Based on observations made with the ESO telescopes at La Silla Observatory under the ESO Large Programme LP182.D-0356, and on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and on observations obtained with the HERMES

  17. Solar Radius at Sub-Terahertz Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Fabian; Valio, Adriana

    2017-10-01

    The visible surface of the Sun, or photosphere, is defined as the solar radius in the optical spectrum range located at 696,000 km (Cox et al. (Ed. 2015)). However, as the altitude increases, the dominant electromagnetic radiation is emitted at other frequencies. Our aim is to measure the solar radius at frequencies of 212 GHz and 405 GHz through out a solar cycle and, therefore, the altitude where these emissions are generated and that variation along the years. Also we tried to verify the the radius dependence on the solar activity cycle, which can be a good indicator of the changes that occur in the atmosphere structure. For this, we used data obtained by the Submillimetric Solar Telescope (SST) created from daily scans made by SST from 1990 to 2015. From these scans a 2D map of the solar disk was constructed. The solar radius is then determined by adjusting a circumference to the points where the brightness is half of the quiet Sun level, which is set as the most common temperature value in the solar map, i.e., the mode of the temperature distribution. Thus, we determined the solar radius at 212 and 405 GHz and the altitude of the emissions respectively. For 212 GHz, we obtained a radius of 976.5''+/-8'' (707+/-4 Mm), whereas for 405 GHz, we obtained 975.0''+/-8'' (707+/-5 Mm). optical spectrum range

  18. Comparison between simultaneous GOLF and MDI observations in search of low frequency solar oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henney, Carl John

    One of the mission objectives of both the Global Oscillations at Low Frequency (GOLF) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instruments aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is the detection of new low frequency globally coherent solar oscillation modes. After more than two years of nearly continuous observing by both instruments, the clear detection of modes below 1200 μHz has still proven to be elusive. The search for new modes is aided here by combining the high duty cycle of GOLF with the spatial resolution and various data products of MDI. By combining the two data sets, a signal enhancement is anticipated since both instruments provide a low noise data stream and their sources of solar and instrumental noise are expected to be different from each other. Presented here is a comparison between the observed GOLF signal and a selection of spatially masked MDI full-disk signals for a 759 day period from May 25, 1996 through June 22, 1998. The signal-to-background ratio is compared between the various signals for low degree (l <= 3) and low frequency (<2000 μHz) p-modes. It was found that signals from both MDI and GOLF are beneficial for detecting these p-modes. Cross-analysis between GOLF and MDI signals is done to enhance the ability to detect low frequency solar oscillations. Using cross-amplitude and averaged power spectra, an unique list of low degree modes is presented here, along with three new low frequency acoustic mode candidates. Finally, the effects of early main sequence cometary mass accretion with heavy-element diffusion on the solar interior are investigated. For solar models with element diffusion, the addition of mass accretion with a rate suggested by observations of other stars has a negligible effect on the predicted p-mode frequencies for the cases investigated here. The predicted g-mode frequencies exhibit a slight shift of approximately 0.1 μHz with the addition of mass accretion. Compared to previous work, the squared

  19. CMEs and frequency cutoff of solar bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, Al.; Konovalenko, Al.; Koval, Ar.; Volvach, Y.; Zarka, P.

    2016-05-01

    Radio observations of solar bursts with high-frequency cutoff by the radio telescope UTR-2 (near Kharkiv, Ukraine) at 8-33 MHz on 17-19 August 2012 are presented. Such cutoff may be attributed to the emergence of the burst sources behind limb of the Sun with respect to an observer on the Earth. The events are strongly associated with solar eruptions occurred in a new active region. Ray tracing simulations show that the CMEs play a constructive role for the behind-limb bursts to be detected in ground-based observations. Likely, due to tunnel-like cavities with low density in CMEs, the radio emission of behind-limb solar bursts can be directed towards the Earth.

  20. On the surface physics affecting solar oscillation frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdek, G.; Trampedach, R.; Aarslev, M. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2017-01-01

    Adiabatic oscillation frequencies of stellar models, computed with the standard mixing-length formulation for convection, increasingly deviate with radial order from observations in solar-like stars. Standard solar models overestimate adiabatic frequencies by as much as ˜ 20 μHz. In this Letter, we address the physical processes of turbulent convection that are predominantly responsible for the frequency differences between standard models and observations, also called `surface effects'. We compare measured solar frequencies from the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft with frequency calculations that include 3D hydrodynamical simulation results in the equilibrium model, non-adiabatic effects, and a consistent treatment of the turbulent pressure in both the equilibrium and stability computations. With the consistent inclusion of the above physics in our model computation, we are able to reproduce the observed solar frequencies to ≲3 μHz without the need of any additional ad hoc functional corrections.

  1. Amplitude modulation of low degree p-modes - comparison of BISON and VIRGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Bo; Leifsen, Torben; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne

    2003-02-01

    Using both VIRGO and MDI data we have previously studied the amplitude variation of the l=0 p-modes for radial orders 12 to 32. In this study we extend the investigation backward in time to 1992 by including data from the BISON network. For the large amplitude modes there is a strong correlation between the space based radiance measurements from VIRGO and the ground based Doppler shift measurements from BISON. The extreme rotational modulation of l=0, n=22 is confirmed to be a phenomenon confined to the period of minimum solar activity. Also with neighbouring l=1, n=21 a clear modulation is seen at slightly lower frequency. Some persistent frequencies occur in other l=0,1 modes, but not to the same level in time and amplitude.

  2. Asymptotic Representation of p-modes Modified for Effects of Gravity and Density Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoolst, T.; Willems, B.; Smeyers, P.

    The second-order asymptotic theory for low-degree p-modes in a star developed by Smeyers et al. (1996) is reconsidered, especially for lower-frequency modes. The investigation is undertaken in analogy with an earlier investigation of Roxburgh and Vorontsov (1994), in which a generalization of the first Born approximation for the scattering, by the stellar core, of acoustic waves modified by gravity and buoyancy is applied. A frequency-dependent velocity of propagation of acoustic waves is introduced that is affected by gravity and density gradient, mostly in the stellar core. In the first asymptotic approximation, the time needed for an acoustic wave to propagate from the centre of the star to a given radial distance is increased, and the oscillation frequency of a p- mode is decreased. The increase of the propagation time of an acoustic wave and the associated decrease of the oscillation frequency are larger for lower-frequency p-modes. For a polytropic model with index equal to three, the relative errors on the first asymptotic approximations of the eigenfrequencies are sensibly reduced by the use of the frequency-dependent velocity of propagation of the acoustic waves. Also, the phase shifts between the asymptotically derived eigenfunctions and the exact eigenfunctions are much smaller. In the second asymptotic approximation, the improvement is less pronounced as gravity and density stratification is also incorporated in the usual asymptotic theory from that approximation on. We also applied the modified asymptotic theory to a normal solar model. As for the polytropic model, the relative errors of the first asymptotic approximations of eigenfrequencies are reduced, but to a lesser extent. The second asymptotic approximations of the eigenfrequencies do not lead to satisfactory results. The main cause seems to be that the reflection of waves at the outer boundary of the acoustic cavity in the sun is not adequately described by the asymptotic theory. The second

  3. Low Frequency Solar Imaging Using the Murchison Widefield Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, M.; Oberoi, D.; Lonsdale, C.; Benkevitch, L. V.; Kozarev, K. A.; Morgan, J.; McCauley, P.; Cairns, I.

    2016-12-01

    Low radio frequency solar emissions show well defined and diverse structures in their dynamic spectra (frequency-time plane) during periods of solar activity. In fact, the different dynamic spectrum morphologies of these emissions led to the original classifications for solar radio emission. Though they have served as a work horse through the decades and have provided the basis for much of our current understanding, conventional dynamic spectra show the sum of all solar emissions, and do not contain information on the spatial location of the emission. Simultaneously tracking the often rapid evolution of solar emissions along the four dimensions of frequency, time and the two spatial dimensions has been a difficult challenge for radio interferometers. However, the imaging characteristics and system architecture of modern instruments, like the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), are well suited for solar radio imaging. The MWA provides a spectroscopic imaging capability - the ability to make an independent image for every time and frequency pixel in the dynamic spectrum - with high angular, time and frequency resolutions of a few arcmin, 0.5 s and 40 kHz, respectively. The resulting 4D data cube allows us to extract the dynamic spectra corresponding to any specific resolution element on the solar disc and hence to disentangle the emissions coming from different parts of the Sun. Here we present the first examples of these spatially resolved dynamic spectra from the MWA and an exploration of this novel analysis tool.

  4. Simultaneous multi-frequency imaging observations of solar microwave bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; White, S. M.; Schmahl, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of simultaneous two-frequency imaging observations of solar microwave bursts with the Very Large Array are reviewed. Simultaneous 2 and 6 cm observations have been made of bursts which are optically thin at both frequencies, or optically thick at the lower frequency. In the latter case, the source structure may differ at the two frequencies, but the two sources usually seem to be related. However, this is not always true of simultaneous 6 and 20 cm observations. The results have implications for the analysis of nonimaging radio data of solar and stellar flares.

  5. The detection and characterization of high frequency and high wavenumber solar oscillations. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, David Neil

    1992-01-01

    Doppler shift measurements of the Na D(sub 1) absorption line have revealed solar oscillations in a new regime of frequency and wavenumber. Oscillations of vertical velocities in the temperature minimum and low chromosphere of the Sun are observed with frequencies ranging up to 9.5 mHz. There is no evidence for chromospheric modes of 3 minute period. This indicates that the chromosphere does not form a good cavity for acoustic waves. The fundamental-modes appear with wavenumbers up to 5.57 M per m (equivalent spherical harmonic degree, 3877). The frequencies lie below the predicted values at wavenumbers above 1 M per m. The values are in agreement with previous measurements that exist for wavenumbers up to 2.67 M per m. Spatial maps of velocity power show that high wavenumber oscillations are suppressed in active regions. The shape of the power depression indicates that wave motion is affected in the layer of atmosphere where the measurement is made. The f-modes are suppressed in the same way as p-modes, indicating that the mechanism for wave suppression affects velocity fluctuations. Mode frequencies are not affected by the magnetic fields by more than 50 micro Hz, the precision of the measurement.

  6. Solar radio astronomy at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, George A.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of solar radio emissions at decametric to kilometric wavelengths are reviewed. Special attention is given to the radiation of the quiet sun at several metric and decametric wavelengths and to nonthermal radiation from the active sun, including radio bursts of type III (electron beams), type-III bursts from behind the sun, storms of type III bursts, the flare-associated radio bursts, type II bursts (shock waves), and shock-associated bursts. It is pointed out that almost no observations have been made so far of solar radiation between about 20 MHz and about 2 MHz. Below about 2 MHz, dynamic spectra of flux densities of solar burst have been recorded in space and observations were made of the directions of centroids and characteristic sizes of the emitting sources.

  7. Radio frequency interference affecting type III solar burst observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anim, N. M.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Monstein, C.; Rohizat, N. S.

    2013-05-01

    The solar burst extinguish from the Sun's corona atmosphere and it dynamical structure of the magnetic field in radio wavelength are studied. Observation of solar radio burst with Compact Astronomical Low cost Low frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory (CALLISTO) from ETH, Zurich in frequency range of 45 until 870 MHz. Observation done at Pusat Angkasa Negara, Banting, Selangor and successfully detected the solar burst type III on 9th March 2012 from 4:22:00 UT until 4:28:00 UT. The solar burst emission is associated with M6.3 solar flare which occurred at sunspot AR1429 at 03:58UT were observed by NOAA. Frequency ranges chosen as the best ranges for solar monitoring in Malaysia is 150 MHz until 400 MHz. The highest signal amplitude within this frequency ranges is 1.7619 dB at 153.188 MHz (Government Use) have potential to influence the detection of solar radio burst type III within 20 until 400 MHz.

  8. A Technique for Incorporating Large-scale Magnetic Fields Within Stellar Models: Implications for the Variability of the Solar Radius, Luminosity, and Pulsation Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lydon, T. J.; Sofia, S.

    1994-12-01

    A set of physically consistent approximations are employed to include the effects of magnetic fields within the equations of stellar structure. A series of solar models are then constructed with large-scale (~0.1R_sun), intense (~10(6) gauss) magnetic fields. The results of such models are then compared to measurements of changes in the solar radius (from the Solar Disk Sextant Experiment) and changes in the solar p-mode frequencies in order to determine if such fields are associated with the solar cycle. This work was supported in part by an appointment to the Global Change Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowships sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health and Enviromental Research, and administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education.

  9. Comparative Study of Solar Bursts at Sub-THz Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, L. O. T.; Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Marun, A.; Pereyra, P.; Raulin, J.-P.; Valio, A. B. M.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze a large set of 17 solar radio bursts observed at sub-THz (0.2 and 0.4 THz) in 2012-2014 together with the new solar patrol radio telescopes (45 and 90 GHz), operated at El Leoncito, in the Argentinean Andes, allowing the derivation of complete burst spectra in this unexplored range of frequencies. We discuss the uncertainties in sub-THz flux estimates caused by calibration techniques and the corrections for atmospheric transmission. The burst spectra were completed with microwave bursts data obtained by the Radio Solar Telescope Network - RSTN. The events selection was based on GOES soft X-rays burst reported for classes stronger then C. Nearly 50 percent of the bursts exhibited a frequency increasing sub-THz spectral component. The results suggest that the THz component might be always present, with the minimum turn-over frequencies shifting to higher frequencies for larger energies of the electrons producing the emissions.

  10. Solar system radio astronomy at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1987-01-01

    The planetary radio-astronomy observations obtained with the two Voyager spacecraft since their launch in 1977 are briefly characterized and illustrated with graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra. Topics addressed include the spacecraft designs and trajectories, the wavelength coverage of the radio instruments, the Io-controlled LF emission of Jupiter, the solar-wind effect on the Saturn kilometric radiation, the Saturn electrostatic discharges, and the use of the clocklike feature of the Uranus emission to measure the planet's rotation period.

  11. Study of p-mode excitation and damping rate variations from IRIS++ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; Tomczyk, S.

    2003-09-01

    11 years of low degree helioseismic data collected by the IRIS++ network (International Research of the Interior of the Sun) have been analyzed. The epoch covered (mid-1989 to end-1999) spans the maximum and the falling phase of solar cycle 22 and the rising phase of the current solar cycle 23. Annual timeseries with an overlap of 6 months are used to study the variations with solar activity of the p-mode frequencies nu n,l, heights Hn,l, and linewidths Gamma n,l, taking into account the effects of the window function. These are used to infer variations in the velocity power and the energy supply rate dot En,l which relate to changes in the excitation and the damping of the modes. We find global changes over the range 2600 <= nu <= 3600 mu Hz of about -26%, 11%, -11% for the heights, the linewidths, and the velocity power respectively, and a constant energy supply to the modes.

  12. Observations and interpretation of solar flares at microwave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Dulk, G. A.; Kosugi, T.; Magun, A.

    1988-01-01

    The physical processes responsible for microwave emission in solar flares are outlined, and examples of how microwave observations have been interpreted in terms of physical parameters are described. Selected results obtained during Solar Cycle 21 with the microwave observatories dedicated to synoptic observations of the sun are summarized. The status and future plans for these facilities at Bern and in Japan are presented. Also discussed are the instrument capabilities required at microwave frequencies to achieve the objectives of a future facility for high-energy solar physics.

  13. Frequencies and amplitudes of high-degree solar oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, James Morris

    Measurements of some of the properties of high-degree solar p- and f-mode oscillations are presented. Using high-resolution velocity images from Big Bear Solar Observatory, we have measured mode frequencies, which provide information about the composition and internal structure of the Sun, and mode velocity amplitudes (corrected for the effects of atmospheric seeing), which tell us about the oscillation excitation and damping mechanisms. We present a new and more accurate table of the Sun's acoustic vibration frequencies, nunl, as a function of radial order n and spherical harmonic degree l. These frequencies are averages over azimuthal order m and approximate the normal mode frequencies of a nonrotating spherically symmetric Sun near solar minimum. The frequencies presented here are for solar p- and f-modes with 180 less than or = l less than or = 1920, 0 less than or = n less than or = 8, and 1.7 mHz less than or = nunl less than or = 5.3 mHz. The uncertainties, sigmanl, in the frequencies areas are as low as 3.1 micro-Hz. The theoretically expected f-mode frequencies are given by omega squared = gkh approx. = gl/R, where g is the gravitational acceleration at the surface, kh is the horizontal component of the wave vector, and R is the radius of the Sun. We find that the observed frequencies are significantly less than expected for l greater than 1000, for which we have no explanation. Observations of high-degree oscillations, which have very small spatial features, suffer from the effects of atmospheric image blurring and image motion (or 'seeing'), thereby reducing the amplitudes of their spatial-frequency components. In an attempt to correct the velocity amplitudes for these effects, we simultaneously measured the atmospheric modulation transfer function (MTF) by looking at the effects of seeing on the solar limb. We are able to correct the velocity amplitudes using the MTF out to l approx. = 1200. We find that the frequency of the peak velocity power (as a

  14. A search for p-mode oscillations of Jupiter - Serendipitous observations of nonacoustic thermal wave structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, D.; Mumma, M. J.; Espenak, F.; Jennings, D. E.; Kostiuk, T.; Wiedemann, G.; Loewenstein, R.; Piscitelli, J.

    1989-08-01

    Frequencies for the p-mode oscillations of Jupiter have been determined, and infrared brightness temperature fluctuations are used to search for the modes. Measurements of the infrared intensity of the Jovian disk were obtained in a broad bandwidth using a 20-element linear array. No p-mode oscillations were observed at the 0.07-K level in the 8-13-micron brightness temperature. The results suggest that Jovian p modes are not likely to have observable amplitudes. A prominent nonacoustic wave-like structure in the 8-13-micron brightness temperature is found both at 20 deg N and at the equator.

  15. A search for p-mode oscillations of Jupiter - Serendipitous observations of nonacoustic thermal wave structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake; Mumma, Michael J.; Espenak, Fred; Jennings, Donald E.; Kostiuk, Theodor; Wiedemann, Gunter

    1989-01-01

    Frequencies for the p-mode oscillations of Jupiter have been determined, and infrared brightness temperature fluctuations are used to search for the modes. Measurements of the infrared intensity of the Jovian disk were obtained in a broad bandwidth using a 20-element linear array. No p-mode oscillations were observed at the 0.07-K level in the 8-13-micron brightness temperature. The results suggest that Jovian p modes are not likely to have observable amplitudes. A prominent nonacoustic wave-like structure in the 8-13-micron brightness temperature is found both at 20 deg N and at the equator.

  16. Solar cycle dependence of ion cyclotron wave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, Marc R.; Lindgren, Erik A.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Weaver, Carol

    2015-06-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been studied for decades, though remain a fundamentally important topic in heliospheric physics. The connection of EMIC waves to the scattering of energetic particles from Earth's radiation belts is one of many topics that motivate the need for a deeper understanding of characteristics and occurrence distributions of the waves. In this study, we show that EMIC wave frequencies, as observed at Halley Station in Antarctica from 2008 through 2012, increase by approximately 60% from a minimum in 2009 to the end of 2012. Assuming that these waves are excited in the vicinity of the plasmapause, the change in Kp in going from solar minimum to near solar maximum would drive increased plasmapause erosion, potentially shifting the generation region of the EMIC to lower L and resulting in the higher frequencies. A numerical estimate of the change in plasmapause location, however, implies that it is not enough to account for the shift in EMIC frequencies that are observed at Halley Station. Another possible explanation for the frequency shift, however, is that the relative density of heavier ions in the magnetosphere (that would be associated with increased solar activity) could account for the change in frequencies. In terms of effects on radiation belt dynamics, the shift to higher frequencies tends to mean that these waves will interact with less energetic electrons, although the details involved in this process are complex and depend on the specific plasma and gyrofrequencies of all populations, including electrons. In addition, the change in location of the generation region to lower L shells means that the waves will have access to higher number fluxes of resonant electrons. Finally, we show that a sunlit ionosphere can inhibit ground observations of EMIC waves with frequencies higher than ˜0.5 Hz and note that the effect likely has resulted in an underestimate of the solar-cycle-driven frequency changes described here.

  17. Excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Fomichev, V. V.; Fainshtein, S. M.; Chernov, G. P.

    2013-05-15

    An alternative mechanism for the excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics as a result of the development of explosive instability in a weakly relativistic beam-plasma system in the solar atmosphere is proposed. The efficiency of the new mechanism as compared to the previously discussed ones is analyzed.

  18. Solar observations with a low frequency radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myserlis, I.; Seiradakis, J.; Dogramatzidis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have set up a low frequency radio monitoring station for solar bursts at the Observatory of the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. The station consists of a dual dipole phased array, a radio receiver and a dedicated computer with the necessary software installed. The constructed radio receiver is based on NASA's Radio Jove project. It operates continuously, since July 2010, at 20.1 MHz (close to the long-wavelength ionospheric cut-off of the radio window) with a narrow bandwidth (~5 kHz). The system is properly calibrated, so that the recorded data are expressed in antenna temperature. Despite the high interference level of an urban region like Thessaloniki (strong broadcasting shortwave radio stations, periodic experimental signals, CBs, etc), we have detected several low frequency solar radio bursts and correlated them with solar flares, X-ray events and other low frequency solar observations. The received signal is monitored in ordinary ASCII format and as audio signal, in order to investigate and exclude man-made radio interference. In order to exclude narrow band interference and calculate the spectral indices of the observed events, a second monitoring station, working at 36 MHz, is under construction at the village of Nikiforos near the town of Drama, about 130 km away of Thessaloniki. Finally, we plan to construct a third monitoring station at 58 MHz, in Thessaloniki. This frequency was revealed to be relatively free of interference, after a thorough investigation of the region.

  19. Wavelet Based Characterization of Low Radio Frequency Solar Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, A.; Sharma, R.; Das, S. B.; Oberoi, D.; Pankratius, V.; Lonsdale, C.

    2016-12-01

    Low-frequency solar radio observations with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) have revealed the presence of numerous short-lived, narrow-band weak radio features, even during quiet solar conditions. In their appearance in in the frequency-time plane, they come closest to the solar type III bursts, but with much shorter spectral spans and flux densities, so much so that they are not detectable with the usual swept frequency radio spectrographs. These features occur at rates of many thousand features per hour in the 30.72 MHz MWA bandwidth, and hence necessarily require an automated approach to determine robust statistical estimates of their properties, e.g., distributions of spectral widths, temporal spans, flux densities, slopes in the time-frequency plane and distribution over frequency. To achieve this, a wavelet decomposition approach has been developed for feature recognition and subsequent parameter extraction from the MWA dynamic spectrum. This work builds on earlier work by the members of this team to achieve a reliable flux calibration in a computationally efficient manner. Preliminary results show that the distribution of spectral span of these features peaks around 3 MHz, most of them last for less than two seconds and are characterized by flux densities of about 60% of the background solar emission. In analogy with the solar type III bursts, this non-thermal emission is envisaged to arise via coherent emission processes. There is also an exciting possibility that these features might correspond to radio signatures of nanoflares, hypothesized (Gold, 1964; Parker, 1972) to explain coronal heating.

  20. Short-term changes in solar oscillation frequencies and solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.; Kuhn, J. R.; Murray, N.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the frequencies of solar rho-mode oscillations change significantly over periods as short as one month. These changes correlate significantly with variations in the strength of surface solar activity as measured by the average, over the sun's visible surface, of the magnitude of the line-of-sight magnetic field component from magnetograms. The frequency and mean magnetic variations are found to obey a linear relationship. It is seen that the mean frequency shift at any time depends on the history of solar activity over an interval of, at most, several months prior to the measurement and conclude that the dominant mechanism of the frequency shift is correlated with surface magnetic activity.

  1. Short-term changes in solar oscillation frequencies and solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.; Kuhn, J. R.; Murray, N.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the frequencies of solar rho-mode oscillations change significantly over periods as short as one month. These changes correlate significantly with variations in the strength of surface solar activity as measured by the average, over the sun's visible surface, of the magnitude of the line-of-sight magnetic field component from magnetograms. The frequency and mean magnetic variations are found to obey a linear relationship. It is seen that the mean frequency shift at any time depends on the history of solar activity over an interval of, at most, several months prior to the measurement and conclude that the dominant mechanism of the frequency shift is correlated with surface magnetic activity.

  2. Solar S-bursts at Frequencies of 10 - 30 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Abranin, E. P.; Lecacheux, A.; Lonskaya, A. S.

    2010-06-01

    Solar S-bursts observed by the radio telescope UTR-2 in the period 2001 - 2002 are studied. The bursts chosen for a detailed analysis occurred in the periods 23 - 26 May 2001, 13 - 16 and 27 - 39 July 2002 during three solar radio storms. More than 800 S-bursts were registered in these days. Properties of S-bursts are studied in the frequency band 10 - 30 MHz. All bursts were always observed against a background of other solar radio activity such as type III and IIIb bursts, type III-like bursts, drift pairs and spikes. Moreover, S-bursts were observed during days when the active region was situated near the central meridian. Characteristic durations of S-bursts were about 0.35 and 0.4 - 0.6 s for the May and July storms, respectively. For the first time, we found that the instantaneous frequency width of S-bursts increased with frequency linearly. The dependence of drift rates on frequency followed the McConnell dependence derived for higher frequencies. We propose a model of S-bursts based on the assumption that these bursts are generated due to the confluence of Langmuir waves with fast magnetosonic waves, whose phase and group velocities are equal.

  3. Imaging Interplanetary CMEs at Radio Frequency From Solar Polar Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ji; Sun, Weiying; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chi; Wang, C. B.; Wang, S.

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are violent discharges of plasma and magnetic fields from the Sun's corona. They have come to be recognized as the major driver of physical conditions in the Sun-Earth system. Consequently, the detection of CMEs is important for un-derstanding and ultimately predicting space weather conditions. The Solar Polar Orbit Radio Telescope (SPORT) is a proposed mission to observe the propagation of interplanetary CMEs from solar polar orbit. The main payload (radio telescope) on board SPORT will be an in-terferometric imaging radiometer working at the meter wavelength band, which will follow the propagation of interplanetary CMEs from a distance of a few solar radii to near 1 AU from solar polar orbit. The SPORT spacecraft will also be equipped with a set of optical and in situ measurement instruments such as a EUV solar telescope, a solar wind plasma experiment, a solar wind ion composition instrument, an energetic particle detector, a wave detector, a mag-netometer and an interplanetary radio burst tracker. In this paper, we first describe the current shortage of interplanetary CME observations. Next, the scientific motivation and objectives of SPORT are introduced. We discuss the basic specifications of the main radio telescope of SPORT with reference to the radio emission mechanisms and the radio frequency band to be observed. Finally, we discuss the key technologies of the SPORT mission, including the con-ceptual design of the main telescope, the image retrieval algorithm and the solar polar orbit injection. Other payloads and their respective observation objectives are also briefly discussed. Key words: Interplanetary CMEs; Interferometric imaging; Solar polar orbit; Radiometer.

  4. No stellar p-mode oscillations in space-based photometry of Procyon.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jaymie M; Kuschnig, Rainer; Guenther, David B; Walker, Gordon A H; Moffat, Anthony F J; Rucinski, Slavek M; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W; Kusching, Rainer

    2004-07-01

    Pressure-driven (p-mode) oscillations at the surface of the Sun, resulting from sound waves travelling through the solar interior, are a powerful probe of solar structure, just as seismology can reveal details about the interior of the Earth. Astronomers have hoped to exploit p-mode asteroseismology in Sun-like stars to test detailed models of stellar structure and evolution, but the observations are extremely difficult. The bright star Procyon has been considered one of the best candidates for asteroseismology, on the basis of models and previous reports of p-modes detected in ground-based spectroscopy. Here we present a search for p-modes in 32 days of nearly continuous photometric satellite-based observations of Procyon. If there are p-modes in Procyon, they must have lifetimes less than 2-3 days and/or peak amplitudes <15 parts per million, which defy expectations from the Sun's oscillations and previous theoretical predictions. Target selection for future planned asteroseismology space missions may need to be reconsidered, as will the theory of stellar oscillations.

  5. High-frequency wave normals in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, F.; Smith, L.D.; Sonett, C.P.

    1984-05-01

    High-frequency (0.01--0.04 Hz) magnetic fluctuations in 506 ten-minute intervals of contemporaneous Explorer 35 and Apollo 12 measurements made in the solar wind near the morning side of the Earth's bow shock show the presence of a large population of disturbances resembling Alfven waves. Each wavefront normal n is systematically aligned (median deviation = 35/sup 0/) with , the associated ten-minute average of the magnetic field. Because of variability in the direction of from one interval to another, the coupled distribution of n is nearly isotropic in solar ecliptic coordinates, in contrast with the results of other studies of waves at much lower frequency indicating outward propagation from the sun. Presumably the high frequency waves discussed here are stirred into isotropy (in solar ecliptic coordinates) by following the low frequency fluctuations. As these waves maintain their alignement of n with despite the great variation of , a strong physical alignment constraint is inferred.

  6. Precision spectroscopy with a frequency-comb-calibrated solar spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, H.-P.

    2015-06-01

    The measurement of the velocity field of the plasma at the solar surface is a standard diagnostic tool in observational solar physics. Detailed information about the energy transport as well as on the stratification of temperature, pressure and magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere are encoded in Doppler shifts and in the precise shape of the spectral lines. The available instruments deliver data of excellent quality and precision. However, absolute wavelength calibration in solar spectroscopy was so far mostly limited to indirect methods and in general suffers from large systematic uncertainties of the order of 100 m/s. During the course of this thesis, a novel wavelength calibration system based on a laser frequency comb was deployed to the solar Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Tenerife, with the goal of enabling highly accurate solar wavelength measurements at the level of 1 m/s on an absolute scale. The frequency comb was developed in a collaboration between the Kiepenheuer-Institute for Solar Physics, Freiburg, Germany and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching, Germany. The efforts cumulated in the new prototype instrument LARS (Lars is an Absolute Reference Spectrograph) for solar precision spectroscopy which is in preliminary scientific operation since~2013. The instrument is based on the high-resolution echelle spectrograph of the VTT for which feed optics based on single-mode optical fibres were developed for this project. The setup routinely achieves an absolute calibration accuracy of 60 cm/s and a repeatability of 2.5 cm/s. An unprecedented repeatability of only 0.32 cm/s could be demonstrated with a differential calibration scheme. In combination with the high spectral resolving power of the spectrograph of 7x10^5 and virtually absent internal scattered light, LARS provides a spectral purity and fidelity that previously was the domain of Fourier-transform spectrometers only. The instrument therefore provides unique capabilities for

  7. Spectral Trends of Solar Bursts at Sub-THz Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, L. O. T.; Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Kudaka, A. S.; Marun, A.; Pereyra, P.; Raulin, J.-P.; Valio, A. B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous sub-THz studies were derived from single-event observations. We here analyze for the first time spectral trends for a larger collection of sub-THz bursts. The collection consists of a set of 16 moderate to small impulsive solar radio bursts observed at 0.2 and 0.4 THz by the Solar Submillimeter-wave Telescope (SST) in 2012 - 2014 at El Leoncito, in the Argentinean Andes. The peak burst spectra included data from new solar patrol radio telescopes (45 and 90 GHz), and were completed with microwave data obtained by the Radio Solar Telescope Network, when available. We critically evaluate errors and uncertainties in sub-THz flux estimates caused by calibration techniques and the corrections for atmospheric transmission, and introduce a new method to obtain a uniform flux scale criterion for all events. The sub-THz bursts were searched during reported GOES soft X-ray events of class C or larger, for periods common to SST observations. Seven out of 16 events exhibit spectral maxima in the range 5 - 40 GHz with fluxes decaying at sub-THz frequencies (three of them associated to GOES class X, and four to class M). Nine out of 16 events exhibited the sub-THz spectral component. In five of these events, the sub-THz emission fluxes increased with a separate frequency from that of the microwave spectral component (two classified as X and three as M), and four events have only been detected at sub-THz frequencies (three classified as M and one as C). The results suggest that the THz component might be present throughout, with the minimum turnover frequency increasing as a function of the energy of the emitting electrons. The peculiar nature of many sub-THz burst events requires further investigations of bursts that are examined from SST observations alone to better understand these phenomena.

  8. Comparison of GONG and MDI solar p-mode background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barban, C.; Hill, F.

    2004-04-01

    Using Severino's model, we estimate the amount of coherent correlated and uncorrelated background and incoherent noise components needed to reproduce the following four helioseismic spectra: V power, I power, V I phase difference and V I coherence, using GONG and MDI data. We confirm that a coherent correlated component of 10-15% of the total background and noise is needed in both V and I and that a larger amount of coherent uncorrelated background is needed for MDI data compared to GONG data to compensate for a smaller incoherent noise.

  9. Estimates of the solar internal angular velocity obtained with the Mt. Wilson 60-foot solar tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Woodard, Martin; Tomczyk, Steven; Korzennik, Sylvain

    1987-01-01

    Estimates are obtained of the solar internal angular velocity from measurements of the frequency splittings of p-mode oscillations. A 16-day time series of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained during July and August 1984 at the 60-foot tower telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory is analyzed. Power spectra were computed for all of the zonal, tesseral, and sectoral p-modes from l = 0 to 89 and for all of the sectoral p-modes from l = 90 to 200. A mean power spectrum was calculated for each degree up to 89. The frequency differences of all of the different nonzonal modes were calculated for these mean power spectra.

  10. Estimates of the solar internal angular velocity obtained with the Mt. Wilson 60-foot solar tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Woodard, Martin; Tomczyk, Steven; Korzennik, Sylvain

    1987-01-01

    Estimates are obtained of the solar internal angular velocity from measurements of the frequency splittings of p-mode oscillations. A 16-day time series of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained during July and August 1984 at the 60-foot tower telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory is analyzed. Power spectra were computed for all of the zonal, tesseral, and sectoral p-modes from l = 0 to 89 and for all of the sectoral p-modes from l = 90 to 200. A mean power spectrum was calculated for each degree up to 89. The frequency differences of all of the different nonzonal modes were calculated for these mean power spectra.

  11. Seismic Study of The Solar Interior: Inferences from SOI/MDI Observations during Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzennik, Sylvain G.

    2003-01-01

    The principal investigator describes several types of solar research conducted during the reporting period and gives a statement of work to be performed in the following year. Research conducted during the reporting period includes: exhaustive analysis of observational and instrumental effects that might cause systematic errors in the characterization of high-degree p-modes; study of the structure, asphericity and dynamics of the solar interior from p-mode frequencies and frequency splittings; characterizing the solar rotation; Time-Distance inversion; and developing and using a new peak-fitting method for very long MDI time series at low degrees.

  12. The spatial distribution of p-mode absorption in active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of solar p-mode waves and active regions has been the subject of recent observational and theoretical investigations. Observations show that up to one-half of the power of incident high-degree acoustic may be absorbed in and around sunspots. In this paper the horizontal spatial distribution of high-degree p-mode absorption in solar active regions is explored. An appropriate Fourier-Hankel transform can be used to detect the mean absorption of waves passing through any given point on the solar surface. By repeating the analysis at multiple positions a map of the absorption can be constructed. A technique for optimal computation of absorption maps is developed and applied to observations of several active regions and an area of quiet sun near disk center. By comparing the distribution of p-mode absorption with magnetograms and line-wing intensity images, it is directly observed that the absorption is not limited to the location of the visible sunspots but is also associated with magnetic fields in the surrounding plage. It is estimated that the absorption efficiency scales roughly with the magnetic flux density, although the absorption appears to saturate inside the strongest fields.

  13. Depth and latitude dependence of the solar internal angular velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.J. Jr.; Cacciani, A.; Korzennik, S.; Tomczyk, S.; Ulrich, R.K.; Woodard, M.F. JPL, Pasadena, CA Roma I Universita California Univ., Los Angeles )

    1990-03-01

    One of the design goals for the dedicated helioseismology observing state located at Mount Wilson Observatory was the measurement of the internal solar rotation using solar p-mode oscillations. In this paper, the first p-mode splittings obtained from Mount Wilson are reported and compared with those from several previously published studies. It is demonstrated that the present splittings agree quite well with composite frequency splittings obtained from the comparisons. The splittings suggest that the angular velocity in the solar equatorial plane is a function of depth below the photosphere. The latitudinal differential rotation pattern visible at the surface appears to persist at least throughout the solar convection zone. 43 refs.

  14. Depth and latitude dependence of the solar internal angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.

    1990-01-01

    One of the design goals for the dedicated helioseismology observing state located at Mount Wilson Observatory was the measurement of the internal solar rotation using solar p-mode oscillations. In this paper, the first p-mode splittings obtained from Mount Wilson are reported and compared with those from several previously published studies. It is demonstrated that the present splittings agree quite well with composite frequency splittings obtained from the comparisons. The splittings suggest that the angular velocity in the solar equatorial plane is a function of depth below the photosphere. The latitudinal differential rotation pattern visible at the surface appears to persist at least throughout the solar convection zone.

  15. Solar analysis of solar-constant monitoring package (SMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activity cavity radiometer irradiance monitor is supplying the first high precision data on solar total irradiance at the Earth. Thee classes of variability were discovered: large variations of amplitudes up to 0.2%; small high frequency variations in the form of a continuum in the periodogram, extending up to the Nyquist frequency; and sharp spikes at frequencies corresponding to the individual p modes already known from radial velocity measurements. The observed variations (up to 0.3%, on time scales of several days) were identified with sunspot darkness. The data analysis is expected to give information about the solar interior, as well as about the solar input to the terrestrial climate.

  16. The source of solar high-frequency acoustic modes - Theoretical expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Timothy M.

    1991-01-01

    The source exciting the solar p-modes is likely to be acoustic noise generated in the top part of the sun's convection zone. If so, then simple arguments suggest that most of the emitted energy may come from rare localized events that are well separated from one another in space and time. This note describes the acoustic emission that would be expected from such events, based on a ray-theory analysis. Most of the acoustic energy is found to emerge very close to the source, so that observations to identify emission events will require high spatial resolution.

  17. The source of solar high-frequency acoustic modes - Theoretical expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Timothy M.

    1991-01-01

    The source exciting the solar p-modes is likely to be acoustic noise generated in the top part of the sun's convection zone. If so, then simple arguments suggest that most of the emitted energy may come from rare localized events that are well separated from one another in space and time. This note describes the acoustic emission that would be expected from such events, based on a ray-theory analysis. Most of the acoustic energy is found to emerge very close to the source, so that observations to identify emission events will require high spatial resolution.

  18. Solar-stellar connection: the frequency of maximum oscillation power from solar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barban, C.; Beuret, M.; Baudin, F.; Belkacem, K.; Goupil, M. J.; Samadi, R.

    2013-06-01

    Stellar oscillations provide powerful tools to derive stellar fundamental parameters such as the mass and radius. These global quantities are derived from scaling relations linking seismic quantities [νmax and Δν to global stellar parameters. These relations use the Sun as a reference. In this work, we used VIRGO and GOLF data to study how the solar frequency at the maximum oscillation power (νmax) varies with time along the solar cycle. We show that these variations imply differences of about 4% in radius and 12% in mass. We showed also that the observational method based on intensity or velocity data has also an impact, implying differences in mass of about 22% and 7% in radius.

  19. Mathematical modeling of "2P" mode vortex wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Saikat; Stremler, Mark; Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders

    2010-11-01

    The "2P" mode vortex wake, in which two vortex pairs are generated per shedding cycle, is a commonly occurring wake structure behind oscillating bluff bodies. We will present an idealized model of these wakes that consists of a singly-periodic Hamiltonian system of four point vortices. The system is made integrable with an imposed spatial symmetry that is motivated by the experimentally observed wake structure. This model generalizes our previous work by allowing for unequal vortex strengths in the shed pairs. Comparisons with experimental wakes generated by a flapping foil in a flowing soap film show that this model can be used to characterize the vortex trajectories in "2P" mode wakes and to estimate the experimental vortex strengths.

  20. Chromospheric Heating and the Excitation of Magnetic Tube Waves Through p-Mode Buffeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindman, Bradley W.

    1997-05-01

    The dissipation of magnetic tube waves may be the primary source of energy in the thermal balance of the solar chromosphere and corona. In this paper, I compute an upper limit on the energy flux of tube waves that can be driven into the chromosphere if the waves are excited by buffeting of magnetic flux tubes by p--modes. In addition, I estimate the p--mode line widths which result from this transfer of energy from the modes to the flux tube waves. To obtain the upper limit, I assume that the solar magnetic field has a fibril structure consisting of a large set of well--separated, identical tubes. Each tube is axisymmetric, vertical and slender. I approximate the solar atmosphere with a truncated isentropic polytrope, chosen such that it's upper surface matches the tau_ {5000}=1 layer of the photospheric model of Maltby (1986). The response of the fibrils is described using the thin flux tube approximation, ignoring multiple scattering between the tubes, and assuming that the p--modes force the tubes incoherently. The effects of the region above the surface of the polytrope, where a flaring flux tube is poorly represented by the thin flux equations, are simulated through a boundary condition applied at the polytrope's surface. By varying this boundary condition the influence of any upper atmosphere can be reproduced. To compute an upper limit, I chose the boundary condition which optimizes the upward flux of waves. I find that the largest flux of tube waves that can be sent into chromosphere is 29 ergs cm(-2) s(-1) for a fibril field with a 1% filling factor. This flux is miniscule when compared to the energy flux necessary to heat the chromosphere or corona. Therefore, tube waves generated by the buffeting of magnetic fibrils by acoustic waves are inconsequential in the energy balance of the upper atmosphere. Furthermore, using the same boundary conditions, I find that the line width of a p--mode due to the absorption of that mode by the fibrils can be a

  1. High-frequency acoustic waves are not sufficient to heat the solar chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Fossum, Astrid; Carlsson, Mats

    2005-06-16

    One of the main unanswered questions in solar physics is why the Sun's outer atmosphere is hotter than its surface. Theory predicts abundant production of high-frequency (10-50 mHz) acoustic waves in subsurface layers of the Sun, and such waves are believed by many to constitute the dominant heating mechanism of the chromosphere (the lower part of the outer solar atmosphere) in non-magnetic regions. Such high-frequency waves are difficult to detect because of high-frequency disturbances in Earth's atmosphere (seeing) and other factors. Here we report the detection of high-frequency waves, and we use numerical simulations to show that the acoustic energy flux of these waves is too low, by a factor of at least ten, to balance the radiative losses in the solar chromosphere. Acoustic waves therefore cannot constitute the dominant heating mechanism of the solar chromosphere.

  2. Solar S-bursts in frequency band 10-30 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Rucker, H. O.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Abranin, E. P.; Lonskaya, A. S.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract In this paper the first observations of solar S-bursts in the frequency band 10-30MHz obtained with radio telescope UTR-2 are discussed. More than 700 bursts, which were registered during two solar storms on July, 11-19 and July, 25 - August, 3 in 2002, were analyzed.

  3. Solar system radio emissions studies with the largest low-frequency radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenko, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Litvinenko, G.; Kolyadin, V.; Zarka, P.; Mylostna, K.; Vasylieva, I.; Griessmeier, J.-M.; Sidorchuk, M.; Rucker, H.; Fischer, G.; Cecconi, B.; Coffre, A.; Denis, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Nikolaenko, V.

    2014-04-01

    We describe the trends and tasks in the field of lowfrequency studies of radio emission from the Solar system's objects. The world's largest decameter radio telescopes UTR-2 and URAN have a unique combination of sensitivity and time/frequency resolution parameters, providing the capability of the most detailed studies of various types of solar and planetary emissions.

  4. P-mode induced convective collapse in vertical expanding magnetic flux tubes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utz, D.; van Doorsselaere, T.; Magyar, N.; Bárta, M.; Campos Rozo, J. I.

    2017-10-01

    Small-scale kG strong magnetic field elements in the solar photosphere are often identified as so-called magnetic bright points (MBPs). In principle these MBPs represent the cross-section of a vertical, strong, magnetic flux tube which is expanding with height in the solar atmosphere. As these magnetic elements represent possible MHD wave guides, a significant interest has been already paid to them from the viewpoint of observations and simulations. In this work we would like to shed more light on a possible scenario for the creation of such strong magnetic field concentrations. The accepted standard scenario involves the convective collapse process. In this ongoing work we will show indications that this convective collapse process may become triggered by sufficiently strong pressure disturbances. However, it is highly unlikely that p-mode waves can be of such a strength.

  5. Ionization frequencies for major thermospheric constituents as a function of solar cycle 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, M. R.; Torr, D. G.; Ong, R. A.; Hinteregger, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Increases in the solar ultraviolet flux (wavelengths shorter than 1250A) over the past five years of rising solar activity have been larger than anticipated. This increase in UV flux dramatically affects the production of ionization of the various constituents in the thermosphere. Measurements of the solar UV flux by the Atmosphere Explorer satellites are used to determine ionization frequencies for the major thermospheric species for various dates exhibiting notably different levels of solar activity. For the convenience of users of such data, a reduced set of cross-section and flux data is presented for the wavelength range below 1027A, consisting of 37 wavelength intervals

  6. Observations of low-degree P-mode oscillations in 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, H. M.; Scherrer, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of Stanford differential velocity observations has been extended through the 1984 observing season. Excellent quality observations were obtained in 1984 on 38 days in a 49 day interval from June 20th through August 7th. The power spectrum of this data has been examined and improved frequency determinations have been made for p-modes of degree 2 through 5 and order 5 through 34. Of special interest are the modes of the lower orders, n ranging from 5 to 10, which have not been identified previously.

  7. Solar wind electron densities from Viking dual-frequency radio measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Anderson, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous phase coherent, two-frequency measurements of the time delay between the earth station and the Viking spacecraft have been analyzed in terms of the electron density profiles from 4 solar radii to 200 solar radii. The measurements were made during a period of solar activity minimum (1976-1977) and show a strong solar latitude effect. The data were analyzed with both a model independent, direct numerical inversion technique and with model fitting, yielding essentially the same results. It is shown that the solar wind density can be represented by two power laws near the solar equator proportional to r exp -2.7 and r exp -2.04. However, the more rapidly falling term quickly disappears at moderate latitudes (approximately 20 deg) leaving only the inverse-square behavior.

  8. IS THE CURRENT LACK OF SOLAR ACTIVITY ONLY SKIN DEEP?

    SciTech Connect

    Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Fletcher, S. T.; New, R. E-mail: wjc@bison.ph.bham.ac.uk E-mail: S.Fletcher@shu.ac.uk

    2009-08-01

    The Sun is a variable star whose magnetic activity and total irradiance vary on a timescale of approximately 11 years. The current activity minimum has attracted considerable interest because of its unusual duration and depth. This raises the question: what might be happening beneath the surface where the magnetic activity ultimately originates? The surface activity can be linked to the conditions in the solar interior by the observation and analysis of the frequencies of the Sun's natural seismic modes of oscillation-the p modes. These seismic frequencies respond to changes in activity and are probes of conditions within the Sun. The Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) has made measurements of p-mode frequencies over the last three solar activity cycles, and so is in a unique position to explore the current unusual and extended solar minimum. We show that the BiSON data reveal significant variations of the p-mode frequencies during the current minimum. This is in marked contrast to the surface activity observations, which show little variation over the same period. The level of the minimum is significantly deeper in the p-mode frequencies than in the surface observations. We observe a quasi-biennial signal in the p-mode frequencies, which has not previously been observed at mid- and low-activity levels. The stark differences in the behavior of the frequencies and the surface activity measures point to activity-related processes occurring in the solar interior, which are yet to reach the surface, where they may be attenuated.

  9. Frequency drift rate of solar decameter “drift pair” bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Konovalenko, Aleksander; Volvach, Yaroslav

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the detailed analysis of frequency drift rates of solar “drift pair” (DP) bursts observed from 2015 July 10 to 12 during a type III burst storm. The observations were conducted by the UTR-2 radio telescope at 9–33 MHz with high frequency and time resolution. DPs were recorded drifting from higher to lower frequencies (forward DPs) as well as from lower to higher ones (reverse DPs). Patterns on their dynamic spectrum had various inclines and occupied different bandwidths. The frequency drift rate versus frequency dependence of these bursts has been studied. The fitting model to describe the peak evolution of these bursts in the frequency-time plane is presented. The relationship between DPs and type III solar bursts is discussed.

  10. Active power control of solar PV generation for large interconnection frequency regulation and oscillation damping

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Lin; Zhan, Lingwei; Gracia, Jose R.; King, Thomas Jr.; Liu, Yilu

    2015-06-23

    Because of zero greenhouse gas emission and decreased manufacture cost, solar photovoltaic (PV) generation is expected to account for a significant portion of future power grid generation portfolio. Because it is indirectly connected to the power grid via power electronic devices, solar PV generation system is fully decoupled from the power grid, which will influence the interconnected power grid dynamic characteristics as a result. In this study, the impact of solar PV penetration on large interconnected power system frequency response and inter-area oscillation is evaluated, taking the United States Eastern Interconnection (EI) as an example. Furthermore, based on the constructed solar PV electrical control model with additional active power control loops, the potential contributions of solar PV generation to power system frequency regulation and oscillation damping are examined. The advantages of solar PV frequency support over that of wind generator are also discussed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that solar PV generations can effectively work as ‘actuators’ in alleviating the negative impacts they bring about.

  11. Active power control of solar PV generation for large interconnection frequency regulation and oscillation damping

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Lin; Zhan, Lingwei; ...

    2015-06-23

    Because of zero greenhouse gas emission and decreased manufacture cost, solar photovoltaic (PV) generation is expected to account for a significant portion of future power grid generation portfolio. Because it is indirectly connected to the power grid via power electronic devices, solar PV generation system is fully decoupled from the power grid, which will influence the interconnected power grid dynamic characteristics as a result. In this study, the impact of solar PV penetration on large interconnected power system frequency response and inter-area oscillation is evaluated, taking the United States Eastern Interconnection (EI) as an example. Furthermore, based on the constructedmore » solar PV electrical control model with additional active power control loops, the potential contributions of solar PV generation to power system frequency regulation and oscillation damping are examined. The advantages of solar PV frequency support over that of wind generator are also discussed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that solar PV generations can effectively work as ‘actuators’ in alleviating the negative impacts they bring about.« less

  12. Solar forcing of drought frequency in the Maya lowlands.

    PubMed

    Hodell, D A; Brenner, M; Curtis, J H; Guilderson, T

    2001-05-18

    We analyzed lake-sediment cores from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, to reconstruct the climate history of the region over the past 2600 years. Time series analysis of sediment proxies, which are sensitive to the changing ratio of evaporation to precipitation (oxygen isotopes and gypsum precipitation), reveal a recurrent pattern of drought with a dominant periodicity of 208 years. This cycle is similar to the documented 206-year period in records of cosmogenic nuclide production (carbon-14 and beryllium-10) that is thought to reflect variations in solar activity. We conclude that a significant component of century-scale variability in Yucatan droughts is explained by solar forcing. Furthermore, some of the maxima in the 208-year drought cycle correspond with discontinuities in Maya cultural evolution, suggesting that the Maya were affected by these bicentennial oscillations in precipitation.

  13. Solar Emissions From GHz to Sub-THz Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    installed at São Paulo. New discoveries arose from these observations, compared to data at other energy ranges, radio, visible, UV, soft and hard X...long before a very large flare. Similarities between solar flare particle accelerators to laboratory high energy accelerators have been proposed. A...observations, compared to data obtained at other energy ranges, radio, visible, UV, soft and hard X-rays. Detailed spectral properties were found in the GHz

  14. Significant reduction in arc frequency biased solar cells: Observations, diagnostics, and mitigation technique(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upschulte, B. L.; Weyl, G. M.; Marinelli, W. J.; Aifer, E.; Hastings, D.; Snyder, D.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of experiments were performed which identify key factors contributing to the arcing of negatively biased high voltage solar cells. These efforts have led to reduction of greater than a factor of 100 in the arc frequency of a single cell following proper remediation procedures. Experiments naturally lead to and focussed on the adhesive/encapsulant that is used to bond the protective cover slip to the solar cell. An image-intensified charge coupled device (CCD) camera system recorded UV emission from arc events which occurred exclusively along the interfacial edge between the cover slip and the solar cell. Microscopic inspection of this interfacial region showed a bead of encapsulant along this entire edge. Elimination of this encapsulant bead reduced the arc frequency by two orders of magnitude. Water contamination was also identified as a key contributor which enhances arcing of the encapsulant bead along the solar cell edge. Spectrally resolved measurements of the observable UV light shows a feature assignable to OH(A-X) electronic emission, which is common for water contaminated discharges. Experiments in which the solar cell temperature was raised to 85 C showed a reduced arcing frequency, suggesting desorption of H2O. Exposing the solar cell to water vapor was shown to increase the arcing frequency. Clean dry gases such as O2, N2, and Ar show no enhancement of the arcing rate. Elimination of the exposed encapsulant eliminates any measurable sensitivity to H2O vapor.

  15. Helioseismic measurement of solar torsional oscillations.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, S V; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Schou, J; Strakhov, V N; Thompson, M J

    2002-04-05

    Bands of slower and faster rotation, the so-called torsional oscillations, are observed at the Sun's surface to migrate in latitude over the 11-year solar cycle. Here, we report on the temporal variations of the Sun's internal rotation from solar p-mode frequencies obtained over nearly 6 years by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite. The entire solar convective envelope appears to be involved in the torsional oscillations, with phase propagating poleward and equatorward from midlatitudes at all depths throughout the convective envelope.

  16. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 – Frequency Response and Transient Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N. W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2014-12-01

    Power system operators and utilities worldwide have concerns about the impact of high-penetration wind and solar generation on electric grid reliability (EirGrid 2011b, Hydro-Quebec 2006, ERCOT 2010). The stability of North American grids under these conditions is a particular concern and possible impediment to reaching future renewable energy goals. Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) considers a 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration level that results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system, including different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior of wind and solar generation. WWSIS-3 evaluates two specific aspects of fundamental frequency system stability: frequency response and transient stability.

  17. ESTIMATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE SOLAR CORONAL STREAMERS THROUGH LOW FREQUENCY RADIO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Sastry, Ch. V. E-mail: kathir@iiap.res.i

    2010-03-10

    The observations of circularly polarized thermal radio emission from solar coronal streamers at two low frequencies, viz., 77 and 109 MHz, are used to estimate the magnetic field strength (B) at their corresponding radial distances r{approx} 1.7 and 1.5 solar radii given by the electron density model of Newkirk. The estimated values of B at the above two distances are {approx}5 +- 1 G and 6 +- 2 G, respectively.

  18. Frequency variations of solar radio zebras and their power-law spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlický, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context. During solar flares several types of radio bursts are observed. The fine striped structures of the type IV solar radio bursts are called zebras. Analyzing them provides important information about the plasma parameters of their radio sources. We present a new analysis of zebras. Aims: Power spectra of the frequency variations of zebras are computed to estimate the spectra of the plasma density variations in radio zebra sources. Methods: Frequency variations of zebra lines and the high-frequency boundary of the whole radio burst were determined with and without the frequency fitting. The computed time dependencies of these variations were analyzed with the Fourier method. Results: First, we computed the variation spectrum of the high-frequency boundary of the whole radio burst, which is composed of several zebra patterns. This power spectrum has a power-law form with a power-law index -1.65. Then, we selected three well-defined zebra-lines in three different zebra patterns and computed the spectra of their frequency variations. The power-law indices in these cases are found to be in the interval between -1.61 and -1.75. Finally, assuming that the zebra-line frequency is generated on the upper-hybrid frequency and that the plasma frequency ωpe is much higher than the electron-cyclotron frequency ωce, the Fourier power spectra are interpreted to be those of the electron plasma density in zebra radio sources.

  19. A new technique for measuring solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Ulrich, R. K.; Deubner, F.-L.

    1979-01-01

    A new technique for measuring solar photospheric and subphotospheric rotation rates is described. The technique utilizes the standing-wave nature of the nonradial p-mode oscillations of the whole sun. Specifically, the technique is based upon the observed concentration of p-mode oscillatory power into well defined ridges in two-dimensional wavenumber-frequency power spectra. The frequencies of the ridges in the eastward- and westward-traveling portions of an individual spectrum are systematically shifted in opposite directions by a drift of the standing-wave pattern across the observing field of view. The magnitudes of these frequency shifts are related to the drift velocity and to the horizontal wavenumber in such a way that measurement of the observed frequency shifts in a spectrum yields the drift velocity for that observing run. By guiding on the solar limbs and observing the velocity field at disk center, the observed drift velocity obtained in this way is exactly the rotational velocity of the solar p-mode pattern, and of the solar gas itself.

  20. Possible signature of solar oblateness in the Sun's oscillation frequency splittings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, M. F.

    2016-10-01

    Departures from spherical symmetry split the frequencies of the Sun's normal oscillation modes. In addition to the well-studied, dominant splitting of the mode frequencies, due to the first-order advection of internal wave motion, a number of second-order effects of rotation on the frequency splittings, predominantly the solar oblateness, are expected. Whereas the largest rotational frequency splittings have an odd dependence on the azimuthal order, m, of the modes, the second-order effects should have an even dependence. The biggest, and thus far the only well-studied, even-m effect on splittings, is due to the solar-cycle variations in magnetic activity near the Sun's surface, which need to be modeled with some care to bring out the signature of solar oblateness. A crude analysis of the even mode-frequency splittings, obtained from approximately 15 years of SOHO/MDI spherical-harmonic time series, was undertaken. To extract the small even-m splittings of interest from the dominant, solar-cycle effects, which have a strong mode-frequency dependence, the former were assumed to depend only weakly on mode frequency and to have no time dependence. Perhaps the most important finding of the study is that the MDI data are capable of yielding statistically significant estimates of solar oblateness. Indeed the oblateness estimates obtained from the analysis presented here appear to be roughly consistent with both theoretical expectations and with direct measurements of the oblateness. There is also a hint of a pole-equator temperature difference in the seismic measurements, at the level recently suggested by Miesch and Hindman.

  1. Proper orthogonal decomposition of solar photospheric motions.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, A; Carbone, V; Lepreti, F; Primavera, L; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Veltri, P; Alfonsi, G; Straus, Th

    2005-08-05

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of the solar photosphere is studied by performing a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of line of sight velocity fields computed from high resolution data coming from the MDI/SOHO instrument. Using this technique, we are able to identify and characterize the different dynamical regimes acting in the system. Low-frequency oscillations, with frequencies in the range 20-130 microHz, dominate the most energetic POD modes (excluding solar rotation), and are characterized by spatial patterns with typical scales of about 3 Mm. Patterns with larger typical scales of approximately 10 Mm, are associated to p-modes oscillations at frequencies of about 3000 microHz.

  2. Frequency distributions and correlations of solar X-ray flare parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosby, Norma B.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Dennis, Brian R.

    1993-01-01

    Frequency distributions of flare parameters are determined from over 12,000 solar flares. The flare duration, the peak counting rate, the peak hard X-ray flux, the total energy in electrons, and the peak energy flux in electrons are among the parameters studied. Linear regression fits, as well as the slopes of the frequency distributions, are used to determine the correlations between these parameters. The relationship between the variations of the frequency distributions and the solar activity cycle is also investigated. Theoretical models for the frequency distribution of flare parameters are dependent on the probability of flaring and the temporal evolution of the flare energy build-up. The results of this study are consistent with stochastic flaring and exponential energy build-up. The average build-up time constant is found to be 0.5 times the mean time between flares.

  3. Frequency distributions and correlations of solar X-ray flare parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosby, Norma B.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Dennis, Brian R.

    1993-01-01

    Frequency distributions of flare parameters are determined from over 12,000 solar flares. The flare duration, the peak counting rate, the peak hard X-ray flux, the total energy in electrons, and the peak energy flux in electrons are among the parameters studied. Linear regression fits, as well as the slopes of the frequency distributions, are used to determine the correlations between these parameters. The relationship between the variations of the frequency distributions and the solar activity cycle is also investigated. Theoretical models for the frequency distribution of flare parameters are dependent on the probability of flaring and the temporal evolution of the flare energy build-up. The results of this study are consistent with stochastic flaring and exponential energy build-up. The average build-up time constant is found to be 0.5 times the mean time between flares.

  4. Variation of acoustic mode centroid frequencies over the solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, W. J.; Appourchaux, T.; Elsworth, Y.; Isaak, G. R.; New, R.

    Together with a brief historical overview, we use high-quality helioseismic data collected by three different observational programmes during the declining phase of activity cycle 22, and a substantial portion of the rising phase of the current cycle (23), to study the phenomenological nature of the cycle-induced (centroid) eigenfrequencies. Our analyses (for 1600 ≤ ν ≤ 4000 μHz) make use of observations made by the ground-based GONG over the angular degree range 4 ≤ l ≤ 150; the ground-based BiSON over 0 ≤ l ≤ 2; and the VIRGO/LOI instrument on board the ESA/NASA SOHO satellite over 0 ≤ l ≤ 8. We show that GONG shifts averaged over different ranges in l, together with the BiSON and LOI data averaged over their full quoted ranges, all scale at a given frequency with the normalized mode inertia ratio Qnl (Christensen-Dalsgaard & Berthomieu 1991). This is to be expected if the time-dependent perturbation affecting the modes is confined in the surface layers; the excellent agreement also reflects favourably on the external consistency of the different observations. We have also analyzed the frequency dependence of the shifts by fitting a power-law of the form δν nl ∝ (ν nl/ Enl to the data (where the Enl are the mode inertias, and α is the power-law index to be extracted). Previous studies have suggested that a relation with α = 0 provides an adequate description of the shifts up to ν ≈ 3500 μHz. However, here we show that while nevertheless describing the shifts well up to ˜ 2500 μHz, the linear scaling breaks down conspicuously at higher frequencies. Above this threshold, the shifts follow a power-law dependence with α ˜ 2.

  5. Seismic Study of the Solar Interior: Inferences from SOI/MDI Observations During Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Work on the structure, asphericity and dynamics of the solar interior from p-mode frequencies and frequency splittings was carried out primarily in collaboration with Dr. Eff-Darwich (University of La Laguna, Tenerife). This ongoing collaboration produced new results for the inversion of the internal solar rotation rate and further development in inversion methodologies. It also resulted in inferences on the solar stratification. Substantial progress towards the characterization of high-degree p-modes has been achieved. In collaboration with Drs. Rabello-Soares and Schou (Stanford University), we have gained a clear conceptual understanding of the various elements that affect the leakage matrix of the SOI/MDI instrument. This work has precise implications on the properties and the characterization of the HMI instrument being developed for the SDO mission.

  6. Low frequency solar radio astronomy at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, R.

    IIA is presently involved in the expansion of its existing radioheliograph operating in the frequency 120-40 MHz at the Gauribidanur radio observatory located about 80 km north of Bangalore. Once completed, the expanded array will have an angular resolution of ≈ 1' at a typical frequency of 100 MHz. This paper describes the development of solar radio astronomy activities at IIA since 1952 when the first observations were carried out.

  7. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Lan; Alexander, Robert; Wicks, Robert; Stevens, Michael; Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Russell, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Strong narrow-band electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency have been found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They are nearly-circularly polarized and propagate close to the magnetic field. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency can be ion cyclotron waves or magnetosonic waves. They can play an important role in modulating the solar wind ion distribution, and contribute to the heating and acceleration of solar wind. Since the waves are left-hand or right-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, they are probably due to Doppler shift of a same type of waves, or there could be a mixture of waves with intrinsically different polarizations. Through the assistance of audification, we have studied the long-lasting low frequency wave events in 2005 using high-cadence magnetic field data from the Wind mission. The Solar Wind Experiment team of the Wind mission has provided the temperature anisotropies for core protons, beam protons, and alpha particles, as well as the beam drift for selected cases. We conduct wave dispersion analysis using these ion moments to examine if these waves can be explained by ion cyclotron anisotropy instability or ion beam instability related to the solar wind inhomogeneities.

  8. Sound speed and oscillation frequencies for solar models evolved with Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce A.; Fontes, C. J.; Walczak, P.; Wood, S. R.; Mussack, K.; Farag, E.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has calculated a new generation of radiative opacities (OPLIB data using the ATOMIC code) for elements with atomic number Z = 1-30 with improved physics input, updated atomic data, and finer temperature grid to replace the Los Alamos LEDCOP opacities released in the year 2000. We calculate the evolution of standard solar models including these new opacities, and compare with models evolved using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory OPAL opacities (Iglesias & Rogers 1996). We use the solar abundance mixture of Asplund et al. 2009. The Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities (Colgan et al. 2013a, 2013b, 2015) have steeper opacity derivatives than those of OPAL for temperatures and densities of the solar interior radiative zone. We compare the calculated nonadiabatic solar oscillation frequencies and solar interior sound speed to observed frequencies and helioseismic inferences. The calculated sound-speed profiles are similar for models evolved using either the updated Iben evolution code (see Guzik & Mussack 2010), or the MESA evolution code (Paxton et al. 2015). The LANL ATOMIC opacities partially mitigate the `solar abundance problem'.

  9. Distributions of solar drift-pair bursts in frequency from decameter radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Volvach, Yaroslav

    2017-04-01

    Statement of the Problem: Solar drift-pair (DP) bursts are one of interesting manifestations of solar activity. Observed during the solar storms of type III bursts, they demonstrate a very simple form on dynamic radio spectra as two short components separated in time, often the second component being the full repetition of the first. As is well known, type III bursts are produced by the accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines in solar corona. However, no each storm of type III bursts leads to any DP. The role of electron beams in the generation of DPs remains unclear. Solar DPs are detected by ground-based instruments at decameter and meter wavelengths, but each individual DP occupies only a limited bandwidth in the frequency range. The bursts drift in frequency, and their frequency drift rate can be both negative and positive (so-called the forward and reverse DPs), from -2 MHz/s to 6 MHz/s [1]. Besides, there are cases of vertical DPs, which occur simultaneously in all the frequencies within their bandwidth. It is difficult to interpret them by means of a moving source, as any exciting agent responsible for such bursts would travel with velocities faster than velocity of light [2]. Methodology & Experimental Orientation: New features of modern low-frequency radio astronomy allow us to study the empirical properties of DPs more deeply than ever before. Our results are based on the recent radio data (during 10-12 July of 2015) obtained with help of the UTR-2 radio telescope at frequencies 9-33 MHz with the time resolution of 50 ms and the frequency resolution of 4 kHz. We have identified 301 DP bursts in which 209 events were forward (FDP), and the rest were reverse (RDP). Results & Significance: According to the data, the occurrence of FDPs decreased at high frequencies, whereas the number of RDPs had an opposite tendency, they rarely occured at lower frequencies. During the observational session, at 20-25 MHz almost the same amount of

  10. Effect of Solar Radiation on Viscoelastic Properties of Bovine Leather: Temperature and Frequency Scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalyanya, Kallen Mulilo; Rop, Ronald K.; Onyuka, Arthur S.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents both analytical and experimental results of the effect of unfiltered natural solar radiation on the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of Boran bovine leather at both pickling and tanning stages of preparation. Samples cut from both pickled and tanned pieces of leather of appropriate dimensions were exposed to unfiltered natural solar radiation for time intervals ranging from 0 h (non-irradiated) to 24 h. The temperature of the dynamic mechanical analyzer was equilibrated at 30°C and increased to 240°C at a heating rate of 5°C \\cdot Min^{-1}, while its oscillation frequency varied from 0.1 Hz to 100 Hz. With the help of thermal analysis (TA) control software which analyzes and generates parameter means/averages at temperature/frequency range, the graphs were created by Microsoft Excel 2013 from the means. The viscoelastic properties showed linear frequency dependence within 0.1 Hz to 30 Hz followed by negligible frequency dependence above 30 Hz. Storage modulus (E') and shear stress (σ ) increased with frequency, while loss modulus (E''), complex viscosity (η ^{*}) and dynamic shear viscosity (η) decreased linearly with frequency. The effect of solar radiation was evident as the properties increased initially from 0 h to 6 h of irradiation followed by a steady decline to a minimum at 18 h before a drastic increase to a maximum at 24 h. Hence, tanning industry can consider the time duration of 24 h for sun-drying of leather to enhance the mechanical properties and hence the quality of the leather. At frequencies higher than 30 Hz, the dynamic mechanical properties are independent of the frequency. The frequency of 30 Hz was observed to be a critical value in the behavior in the mechanical properties of bovine hide.

  11. Frequency dispersion in the admittance of the polycrystalline Cu2S/CdS solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmurcik, L. V.; Serway, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    The admittance versus frequency for the Cu2S/CdS solar cell was measured. In the dark, the dispersion fits a model of a simple Debye capacitor, with deviation due to grain-boundary scattering at low frequencies. Under illumination, the dispersion becomes a function of surface roughness. Modeled in fractal geometry, the admittance varies as (i x omega) exp m. A second term of this type occurs at high frequencies and at illuminations greater than 0.1 percent AM 1. In this case, the depletion layer extends deep into the CdS due to insufficient charge states at the interface.

  12. The high-overtone p-mode spectrum of the rapidly oscillating Ap star HR 1217 (HD 24712) - Results of a frequency analysis of 324 hr of multi-site photometric observations obtained during a 46-d time-span in 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Martinez, P.; Seeman, J.; Matthews, J. M.; Cropper, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The present high-speed photometry for the rapidly oscillating Ap star HR 1217 indicates that the 6-min light variations are amplitude-modulated, in phase with the magnetic variations. Amplitude and magnetic maxima coincide, while the mean light minimum occurs at a perhaps significantly different time. It is established that HR 1217 is an oblique rotator with a centered dipole magnetic field, as well as an oblique pulsator whose pulsation and magnetic axes are aligned. There are six principal frequencies of pulsation; the secondary frequencies indicate that the principal ones are amplitude-modulated on a time-scale of months.

  13. Realistic Solar Surface Convection Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Ake

    2000-01-01

    We perform essentially parameter free simulations with realistic physics of convection near the solar surface. We summarize the physics that is included and compare the simulation results with observations. Excellent agreement is obtained for the depth of the convection zone, the p-mode frequencies, the p-mode excitation rate, the distribution of the emergent continuum intensity, and the profiles of weak photospheric lines. We describe how solar convection is nonlocal. It is driven from a thin surface thermal boundary layer where radiative cooling produces low entropy gas which forms the cores of the downdrafts in which most of the buoyancy work occurs. We show that turbulence and vorticity are mostly confined to the intergranular lanes and underlying downdrafts. Finally, we illustrate our current work on magneto-convection.

  14. On the contribution of sunspots to the observed frequency shifts of solar acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. R. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P.; Chaplin, W. J.; Campante, T. L.

    2016-09-01

    Activity-related variations in the solar oscillation properties have been known for 30 years. However, the relative importance of the different contributions to the observed variations is not yet fully understood. Our goal is to estimate the relative contribution from sunspots to the observed activity-related variations in the frequencies of the acoustic modes. We use a variational principle to relate the phase differences induced by sunspots on the acoustic waves to the corresponding changes in the frequencies of the global acoustic oscillations. From the sunspot properties (area and latitude as a function of time), we are able to estimate the spot-induced frequency shifts. These are then combined with a smooth frequency shift component, associated with long-term solar-cycle variations, and the results compared with the frequency shifts derived from the Global Oscillation Network Group data. The result of this comparison is consistent with a sunspot contribution to the observed frequency shifts of roughly 30 per cent, with the remaining 70 per cent resulting mostly from a global, non-stochastic variation, possibly related to the changes in the overall magnetic field. Moreover, analysis of the residuals obtained after the subtraction of the model frequency shifts from the observations indicates the presence of a 1.5-yr periodicity in the data in phase with the quasi-biennial variations reported in the literature.

  15. Solar and Magnetospheric Influence on High-Frequency Radar Signal Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, A. G.; Yeoman, T. K.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.; Lawal, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The polar ionosphere is a dynamic region that readily responds to changes in solar irradiance, solar wind, the magnetosphere, and the neutral atmosphere. The most recent solar minimum brought to light gaps in the current understanding of the relationship between ionospheric structure and solar irradiance. The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) observes the high-latitude ionosphere using coherent scatter High Frequency (HF) radars. SuperDARN has been operational over one and a half solar cycles, and so provides an invaluable dataset for studying long-term ionospheric variability at the northern and southern poles. This study explores the influence of solar and magnetospheric forcing on HF ground-backscatter. Ground-backscatter, the backscatter that returns from a reflection point on the ground rather than from an ionospheric irregularity, provides a measure of the ionospheric density along the propagation path of the radar signal. By exploring the conditions that inhibit or enhance the propagation of ground-backscatter, we improve our understanding of the state of the bottomside ionosphere.

  16. A Time-Frequency Analysis of the Effects of Solar Activities on Tropospheric Thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Kyle, H. Lee; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Whether the Sun has significantly influenced the climate during the last century has been under extensive debates for almost two decades. Since the solar irradiance varies very little in a solar cycle, it is puzzling that some geophysical parameters show proportionally large variations which appear to be responding to the solar cycles. For example, variation in low altitude clouds is shown correlated with solar cycle, and the onset of Forbush decrease is shown correlated with the reduction of the vorticity area index. A possible sun-climate connection is that galactic cosmic rays modulated by solar activities influence cloud formation. In this paper, we apply wavelet transform to satellite and surface data to examine this hypothesis. Data analyzed include the time series for solar irradiance, sunspots, UV index, temperature, cloud coverage, and neutron counter measurements. The interactions among the elements in the Earth System under the external and internal forcings give out very complex signals.The periodicity of the forcings or signals could range widely. Since wavelet transforms can analyze multi-scale phenomena that are both localized in frequency and time, it is a very useful technique for detecting, understanding and monitoring climate changes.

  17. Variations in tropical cyclone frequency response to solar and CO2 forcing in aquaplanet simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viale, Flora; Merlis, Timothy M.

    2017-03-01

    The response of global tropical cyclone (TC) frequency to solar and carbon dioxide radiative forcing is examined in TC-permitting aquaplanet general circulation model simulations. With an energetically consistent slab ocean lower boundary condition, the simulations show a larger response to positive radiative forcing from increased carbon dioxide than a solar constant increase with a comparable global-mean radiative forcing. Prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) simulations reveal that both the direct response to radiative forcing (radiative forcing with unchanged SST) and the patterned-SST response vary between forcing agents. The forcing-agent dependence of the patterned-SST response of TC frequency can be accounted for by the variation in simulated intertropical convergence zone shifts. The forcing-agent dependence of the direct response of TC frequency to radiative forcing can be accounted for by the variation in direct circulation changes and in normalized moist static energy deficit changes. That the direct TC response differs across forcing agents suggests that solar radiation manipulation geoengineering schemes will not return TC frequency to that of an unperturbed climate.

  18. Dayside magnetospheric ULF wave frequency modulated by a solar wind dynamic pressure negative impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X. C.; Shi, Q. Q.; Zong, Q.-G.; Tian, A. M.; Nowada, M.; Sun, W. J.; Zhao, H. Y.; Hudson, M. K.; Wang, H. Z.; Fu, S. Y.; Pu, Z. Y.

    2017-02-01

    Ultralow frequency (ULF) waves play an important role in the transport of the solar wind energy to the magnetosphere. In this paper, we present a ULF wave event in the dayside magnetosphere which shows a sudden decrease in frequency from 3.1 to 2.3 mHz around 0756 UT on 11 January 2010, when a solar wind dynamic pressure drop (from ˜5 to ˜2 nPa) was observed simultaneously. The wave exits globally. The phase differences between electric and magnetic fields indicate that the compressional mode wave is standing before and after the wave frequency decrease. This result suggests that the ULF wave should be associated with a cavity mode and the frequency decrease might be induced by the change of the cavity size. A theoretical calculation was made to estimate the cavity mode frequency. The calculated wave frequency before/after the negative impulse is 3.8/2.6 mHz, which is consistent with the observations.

  19. Statistical Analysis of Solar PV Power Frequency Spectrum for Optimal Employment of Building Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Sharma, Isha; Kuruganti, Teja; Fugate, David L

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical analysis of the frequency spectrum of solar photovoltaic (PV) power output is conducted. This analysis quantifies the frequency content that can be used for purposes such as developing optimal employment of building loads and distributed energy resources. One year of solar PV power output data was collected and analyzed using one-second resolution to find ideal bounds and levels for the different frequency components. The annual, seasonal, and monthly statistics of the PV frequency content are computed and illustrated in boxplot format. To examine the compatibility of building loads for PV consumption, a spectral analysis of building loads such as Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) units and water heaters was performed. This defined the bandwidth over which these devices can operate. Results show that nearly all of the PV output (about 98%) is contained within frequencies lower than 1 mHz (equivalent to ~15 min), which is compatible for consumption with local building loads such as HVAC units and water heaters. Medium frequencies in the range of ~15 min to ~1 min are likely to be suitable for consumption by fan equipment of variable air volume HVAC systems that have time constants in the range of few seconds to few minutes. This study indicates that most of the PV generation can be consumed by building loads with the help of proper control strategies, thereby reducing impact on the grid and the size of storage systems.

  20. Solar Observations at THz Frequencies on Board of a Trans-Antartic Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Abrantes, André; Bortolucci, Emilio; Caspi, Amir; Fernandes, Luis Olavo T.; Kropotov, Grigory; Kudaka, Amauri; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Machado, Nelson; Marcon, Rogério; Marun, Adolfo; Nicolaev, Valery; Hidalgo Ramirez, Ray Fernando; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Shih, Albert; Silva, Claudemir; Timofeevsky, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Sub-THz and 30 THz solar burst observations revealed a new spectral component, with fluxes increasing towards THz frequencies, simultaneously with the well known component peaking at microwaves, bringing challenging constraints for interpretation. The THz flare spectra can be completed with measurements made from space. A new system of two photometers was built to observe the Sun at 3 and 7 THz named SOLAR-T. An innovative optical setup allows observations of the full solar disk and detect small burst with sub-second time resolution. The photometers use two Golay cell detectors at the foci of 7.6 cm Cassegrain telescopes. The incoming radiation undergoes low-pass filters made of rough surface primary mirrors and membranes, 3 and 7 THz band-pass filters, and choppers. The system has been integrated to redundant data acquisition system and Iridium short-burst data services telemetry for monitoring during the flight. SOLAR-T has been flown coupled to U.C. Berkeley solar hard X-ray and gamma-ray imaging spectro-polarimeter GRIPS experiment launched on a NASA CSBF stratospheric balloon from U.S. McMurdo base on January 19, 2016, on a trans-Antarctic flight. The mission ended on January 30. The SOLAR-T on-board computers were recovered from the payload that landed in the Argentina Mountain Range, nearly 2100 km from McMurdo. The SOLAR-T performance was successfully attained, with full space qualification instrumentation. Preliminary results provide the solar disk THz brightness temperatures and indicate a 7 THz burst enhancement time coincident to a sub-THz burst observed by SST during the 28 January GOES C9.6 class soft X-ray burst, the largest occurred during the flight.

  1. LOW-FREQUENCY RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF PICOFLARE CATEGORY ENERGY RELEASES IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, R.; Sasikumar Raja, K.; Kathiravan, C.; Satya Narayanan, A.

    2013-01-10

    We report low-frequency (80 MHz) radio observations of circularly polarized non-thermal type I radio bursts ({sup n}oise storms{sup )} in the solar corona whose estimated energy is {approx}10{sup 21} erg. These are the weakest energy release events reported to date in the solar atmosphere. The plot of the distribution of the number of bursts (dN) versus their corresponding peak flux density in the range S to S+dS shows a power-law behavior, i.e., dN {proportional_to} S {sup {gamma}} dS. The power-law index {gamma} is in the range -2.2 to -2.7 for the events reported in the present work. The present results provide independent observational evidence for the existence of picoflare category energy releases in the solar atmosphere which are yet to be explored.

  2. Sound speed and oscillation frequencies for a solar model evolved with Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Fontes, Christopher; Walczak, Przemyslaw; Wood, Suzannah R.; Mussack, Katie

    2015-08-01

    Los Alamos has calculated a new generation of radiative opacities for elements with atomic number Z=1-30 with improved physics input, updated atomic data, and finer temperature grid to replace the Los Alamos LEDCOP opacities released in the year 2000. We calculate the evolution of a standard solar model including these new opacities, and compare with a model evolved using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory OPAL opacities released about 1996. We use the solar abundance mixture of Asplund, Grevesse, Sauval, and Scott (2009), including 2015 updates. The Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities (Colgan et al. 2013a,b) are somewhat higher than those of OPAL for temperatures and densities near the base of the solar convection zone. We compare the calculated nonadiabatic solar oscillation frequencies and solar interior sound speed to observed frequencies and helioseismic inferences. We discuss the potential for increased opacities to partially mitigate the ‘solar abundance problem’.References:J. Colgan, D.P. Kilcrease, N.H. Magee, Jr., G.S.J. Armstrong, J. Abdallah, Jr., M.E. Sherrill, C.J. Fontes, H.L. Zhang and P. Hakel, Eighth International Conference on Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications: ICAMDATA, Gaithersburg, MD 2012, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1545, (AIP, New York, 2013a), pp. 17-26.J. Colgan, D.P. Kilcrease, N.H. Magee, Jr, G.S.J. Armstrong, J. Abdallah, Jr., M.E. Sherrill, C.J. Fontes, H.L. Zhang and P. Hakel, High Energy Density Physics 9, 369 (2013b).

  3. High-frequency Plasma Waves Associated with Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Activities of high-frequency plasma waves associated with magnetic reconnection in the solar wind observed by Time Domain Sampler (TDS) experiments on STEREO/WAVES are preliminarily analyzed. The TDS instrument can provide burst mode electric fields data with as long as 16384 sample points at 250 kHz sampling rate. In all 1120 suspected reconnection events, it is found that the most commonly occurred waves are neither ion acoustic waves, electrostatic solitary waves, nor Langmuir/upper hybrid waves, but Bernstein-like waves with harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency. In addition, to each type of waves, Langmuir/upper hybrid waves reveal the largest occurrence rate in the reconnection region than in the ambient solar wind. These results indicate that Bernstein-like waves and Langmuir/upper hybrid waves might play important roles in the reconnection associated particle heating processes and they might also influence the dissipation of magnetic reconnection.

  4. Comparison of High-Frequency Solar Irradiance: Ground Measured vs. Satellite-Derived

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, Matthew; Weekley, Andrew

    2016-11-21

    High-frequency solar variability is an important to grid integration studies, but ground measurements are scarce. The high resolution irradiance algorithm (HRIA) has the ability to produce 4-sceond resolution global horizontal irradiance (GHI) samples, at locations across North America. However, the HRIA has not been extensively validated. In this work, we evaluate the HRIA against a database of 10 high-frequency ground-based measurements of irradiance. The evaluation focuses on variability-based metrics. This results in a greater understanding of the errors in the HRIA as well as suggestions for improvement to the HRIA.

  5. Two-dimensional multilevel radiative transfer with standard partial frequency redistribution in isolated solar atmospheric structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletou, F.

    1995-10-01

    We have implemented standard partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in a two-dimensional multilevel non-LTE radiative transfer code. The Multilevel Accelerated Lambda Iteration (MALI) method is used. First, a numerical approach for treating standard PRD effects is described, as well as a simple method for treating an optically thick bound-free transition with MALI. Then, the method is validated in mono-dimensional geometry. Finally, preliminary results from two-dimensional radiative modelling of solar prominences are presented.

  6. Oscillation of solar radio emission at coronal acoustic cut-off frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylaev, O. S.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Melnik, V. N.; Hanslmeier, A.; Panchenko, M.

    2017-05-01

    Recent SECCHI COR2 observations on board STEREO-A spacecraft have detected density structures at a distance of 2.5-15 R0 propagating with periodicity of about 90 min. The observations show that the density structures probably formed in the lower corona. We used the large Ukrainian radio telescope URAN-2 to observe type IV radio bursts in the frequency range of 8-32 MHz during the time interval of 08:15-11:00 UT on August 1, 2011. Radio emission in this frequency range originated at the distance of 1.5-2.5 R0 according to the Baumbach-Allen density model of the solar corona. Morlet wavelet analysis showed the periodicity of 80 min in radio emission intensity at all frequencies, which demonstrates that there are quasi-periodic variations of coronal density at all heights. The observed periodicity corresponds to the acoustic cut-off frequency of stratified corona at a temperature of 1 MK. We suggest that continuous perturbations of the coronal base in the form of jets/explosive events generate acoustic pulses, which propagate upwards and leave the wake behind oscillating at the coronal cut-off frequency. This wake may transform into recurrent shocks due to the density decrease with height, which leads to the observed periodicity in the radio emission. The recurrent shocks may trigger quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection in helmet streamers, where the opposite field lines merge and consequently may generate periodic density structures observed in the solar wind.

  7. Flare stars and solar bursts - High resolution in time and frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    Coronal loops on the sun and nearby stars are studied using observations at 20-cm wavelength with high resolution in time and frequency. Observations of the dwarf M star AD Leonis with high time resolution led to the discovery of a quasi-periodic train of circularly polarized spikes with a mean periodicity of 32 + or - 5 ms and a total duration of 150 ms. Observations at closely spaced wavelengths using the VLA revealed a narrow-band structure in solar bursts and in the slowly varying radiation of the dwarf M star YZ Canis Minoris. This narrow-band emission may be attributed to electron-cyclotron maser radiation. Maser action at the second or first harmonic of the gyrofrequency implies magnetic field strengths of 250 and 500 G, respectively. Hence, observations with high resolution in time and frequency suggest coherent processs in the coronas of the sun and dwarf M stars. It is noted that the scientific potential suggested by the present data can be realized by the development of a solar-stellar synthesis radiotelescope. This instrument would be dedicated to solar and stellar observations with high angular, temporal, and frequency resolution.

  8. Large lead/acid batteries for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.

    Lead/acid batteries are suitable for a multitude of utility applications. This paper presents some examples where large lead/acid batteries have been used for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications. The operational experiences are given together with a discussion about the design and technical specialities of these batteries. In 1986, a 17 MW/14 MWh battery was installed at BEWAG in Berlin which, at that time, was the largest lead/acid battery in the world. Designed to strengthen Berlin's 'island' system, it was used since the beginning of 1987 for frequency regulation and spinning reserve. In December 1993, when Berlin was connected to the electricity grid, frequency regulation was no longer required but the battery was still used for spinning reserve. For many years, the industrial battery plant of Hagen in Soest has used a large lead/acid battery for load levelling. The experience gained during more than ten years shows that load levelling and peak shaving can be a marked benefit for customers and utilities with regard to reducing their peak demand. In the summer of 1992, a 216 V and 2200 Ah lead/acid battery with positive tubular plates and gelled electrolyte was installed at a solar power plant in Flanitzhutte, a small village in the south of Germany which is not connected to the electricity grid. A report is given of the first years of use and includes a discussion about the best charge strategy for such gel batteries when used for solar power applications.

  9. Statistical Prediction of Solar Particle Event Frequency Based on the Measurements of Recent Solar Cycles for Acute Radiation Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myung-Hee, Y. Kim; Shaowen, Hu; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPEs) present significant acute radiation risks to the crew members during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded space vehicles for space missions beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field. Acute radiation sickness (ARS) can impair performance and result in failure of the mission. Improved forecasting capability and/or early-warning systems and proper shielding solutions are required to stay within NASA's short-term dose limits. Exactly how to make use of observations of SPEs for predicting occurrence and size is a great challenge, because SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature even though the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the time position within the solar activity cycle. Therefore, we developed a probabilistic model approach, where a cumulative expected occurrence curve of SPEs for a typical solar cycle was formed from a non-homogeneous Poisson process model fitted to a database of proton fluence measurements of SPEs that occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19 - 23) and those of large SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice. From the fitted model, the expected frequency of SPEs was estimated at any given proton fluence threshold (Phi(sub E)) with energy (E) >30 MeV during a defined space mission period. Corresponding Phi(sub E) (E=30, 60, and 100 MeV) fluence distributions were simulated with a random draw from a gamma distribution, and applied for SPE ARS risk analysis for a specific mission period. It has been found that the accurate prediction of deep-seated organ doses was more precisely predicted at high energies, Phi(sub 100), than at lower energies such as Phi(sub 30) or Phi(sub 60), because of the high penetration depth of high energy protons. Estimates of ARS are then described for 90th and 95th percentile events for several mission lengths and for several likely organ dose-rates. The ability to accurately measure high energy protons

  10. Generation of Weak Double Layers and Low-Frequency Electrostatic Waves in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhina, G. S.; Singh, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    We propose that the mechanism for the generation of weak double layers (WDLs) and low-frequency coherent electrostatic waves, observed by Wind in the solar wind at 1 AU, might be slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons and double layers. The solar wind plasma is modelled as a fluid of hot protons and hot α particles streaming with respect to protons, and suprathermal electrons having a κ-distribution. The fast ion-acoustic mode is similar to the ion-acoustic mode of a proton-electron plasma and can support only positive-potential solitons. The slow ion-acoustic mode is a new mode that occurs due to the presence of α particles. This mode can support both positive and negative solitons and double layers. The slow ion-acoustic mode can exist even when the relative streaming, U0, between α particles and protons is zero, provided that the α temperature, Ti, is not exactly equal to four times the proton temperature, Tp. An increase of the κ-index leads to an increase in the critical Mach number, maximum Mach number, and the maximum amplitude of both slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons. The slow ion-acoustic double layer can explain the amplitudes and widths, but not the shapes, of the observed WDLs in the solar wind at 1 AU by Wind spacecraft. The Fourier transform of the slow ion-acoustic solitons/double layers would produce broadband low-frequency electrostatic waves having main peaks between 0.35 kHz to 1.6 kHz, with an electric field in the range of E = (0.01 - 0.7) mV m^{-1}, in excellent agreement with the observed low-frequency electrostatic wave activity in the solar wind at 1 AU.

  11. Measurement of acoustic glitches in solar-type stars from oscillation frequencies observed by Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumdar, A.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Ballot, J.; Antia, H. M.; Basu, S.; Houdek, G.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S.; García, R. A.; Verner, G. A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Sanderfer, D. T.; Seader, S. E.; Smith, J. C.

    2014-02-10

    For the very best and brightest asteroseismic solar-type targets observed by Kepler, the frequency precision is sufficient to determine the acoustic depths of the surface convective layer and the helium ionization zone. Such sharp features inside the acoustic cavity of the star, which we call acoustic glitches, create small oscillatory deviations from the uniform spacing of frequencies in a sequence of oscillation modes with the same spherical harmonic degree. We use these oscillatory signals to determine the acoustic locations of such features in 19 solar-type stars observed by the Kepler mission. Four independent groups of researchers utilized the oscillation frequencies themselves, the second differences of the frequencies and the ratio of the small and large separation to locate the base of the convection zone and the second helium ionization zone. Despite the significantly different methods of analysis, good agreement was found between the results of these four groups, barring a few cases. These results also agree reasonably well with the locations of these layers in representative models of the stars. These results firmly establish the presence of the oscillatory signals in the asteroseismic data and the viability of several techniques to determine the location of acoustic glitches inside stars.

  12. Wavelet-based Characterization of Small-scale Solar Emission Features at Low Radio Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, A.; Sharma, R.; Oberoi, D.; Das, S. B.; Pankratius, V.; Timar, B.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Emrich, D.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lynch, M. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2017-07-01

    Low radio frequency solar observations using the Murchison Widefield Array have recently revealed the presence of numerous weak short-lived narrowband emission features, even during moderately quiet solar conditions. These nonthermal features occur at rates of many thousands per hour in the 30.72 MHz observing bandwidth, and hence necessarily require an automated approach for their detection and characterization. Here, we employ continuous wavelet transform using a mother Ricker wavelet for feature detection from the dynamic spectrum. We establish the efficacy of this approach and present the first statistically robust characterization of the properties of these features. In particular, we examine distributions of their peak flux densities, spectral spans, temporal spans, and peak frequencies. We can reliably detect features weaker than 1 SFU, making them, to the best of our knowledge, the weakest bursts reported in literature. The distribution of their peak flux densities follows a power law with an index of -2.23 in the 12-155 SFU range, implying that they can provide an energetically significant contribution to coronal and chromospheric heating. These features typically last for 1-2 s and possess bandwidths of about 4-5 MHz. Their occurrence rate remains fairly flat in the 140-210 MHz frequency range. At the time resolution of the data, they appear as stationary bursts, exhibiting no perceptible frequency drift. These features also appear to ride on a broadband background continuum, hinting at the likelihood of them being weak type-I bursts.

  13. Possible reasons for the frequency splitting of the harmonics of type II solar radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eselevich, V. G.; Eselevich, M. V.; Zimovets, I. V.

    2016-01-01

    AIA/SDO data in the 193 Å channel preceding a coronal mass ejection observed at the solar limb on June 13, 2010 are used to simultaneously identify and examine two different shock fronts. The angular size of each front relative to the CME center was about 20°, and their propagation directions differed by ≈25° (≈4° in position angle). The faster front, called the blast shock, advanced the other front, called the piston shock, by R ≈ (0.02-0.03) R⊙ ( R⊙ is the solar radius) and had a maximum initial speed of V B ≈ 850 km/s (with V P ≈ 700 km/s for the piston shock). The appearance and motion of these shocks were accompanied by a Type II radio burst observed at the fundamental frequency F and second harmonic H. Each frequency was split into two close frequencies f 1 and f 2 separated by Δ f = f 2 - f 1 ≪ F, H. It is concluded that the observed frequency splitting Δ f of the F and H components of the Type II burst could result from the simultaneous propagation of piston and blast shocks moving with different speeds in somewhat different directions displaying different coronal-plasma densities.

  14. Origin of Solar Irradiance Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, C.; Appourchaux, T.; Gough, D.

    2003-04-01

    The changes of total solar irradiance during the course of the solar cycle correlate extremely well with changes of low-degree p-mode frequencies as observed in intensity and velocity by VIRGO/SOHO and BISON. Moreover, the slope of the linear regression between the two quantities depend on the degree of the mode, indicating an asphericity of the responsible perturbation, and the observed increase of the correlation coefficient with the degree of the modes points to the importance of higher orders in the expansion of the perturbation in latitude on the Sun. Using only degrees 0dots2, two peaks are determined, one at the equator and the other at the poles, and interestingly enough the polar peak is about 20% higher than the equatorial one and about three times the minimum value. On the other hand, the analysis of the latitudinal distribution of the excitation of low degree p modes shows a shift towards the poles with increasing activity. When first detected this was a rather unexpected result. In the light of the former results, however, it may indicate that still another component, other than from the direct effects of magnetic fields, is contributing to the change of both, the luminosity and p-mode oscillation frequencies.

  15. Analysis of variability of p-mode parameters in 11 years of IRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; Fossat, E.; Cacciani, A.; Ehgamberdiev, S.; Gelly, B.; Grec, G.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Khalikov, S.; Lazrek, M.; Pallé, P.; Schmider, F. X.; Tomczyk, S.

    2002-03-01

    11 years of IRIS (the low degree helioseismology network) have been analysed for the study of p-modes parameters variability. The duty cycle of the network data has been improved by the partial gap filling method named "repetitive music". This paper discusses the variations of all p-modes parameters along these 11 years.

  16. Solar system and related topics study by the methods of the low-frequency radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.; Melnik, V. N.; Falkovich, I. S.; Litvinenko, G. V.; Kolyadin, V. L.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, Ph.; Reznik, A. P.

    2010-05-01

    In the present report the possibilities and some results of the high sensitive investigations of the Solar system objects at lowest frequencies have been reviewed. The Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, interplanetary medium, and other objects have been considered. Special attention has been paid to the space weather problem. The stellar-planetary relations have been also investigated, particularly a search of active stars and exo-planets radio emission. During the last years many observations have been performed with the largest decameter arrays UTR-2 (Kharkov, Ukraine) and URAN system (Ukraine) and new receiving equipment. These investigations provided the possibility to get the important information about the fine time-frequency structures of the weak sporadic radio emission. Very good perspectives come into existence in connection to the creation and implementation of the new generation of low-frequency radio telescopes, i.e. LOFAR (the Netherlands), E-LOFAR (European countries), LWA (USA), LSS (France), GURT (Ukraine), etc.

  17. Power spectral density and scaling exponent of high frequency global solar radiation sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calif, Rudy; Schmitt, François G.; Huang, Yongxiang

    2013-04-01

    The part of the solar power production from photovlotaïcs systems is constantly increasing in the electric grids. Solar energy converter devices such as photovoltaic cells are very sensitive to instantaneous solar radiation fluctuations. Thus rapid variation of solar radiation due to changes in the local meteorological condition can induce large amplitude fluctuations of the produced electrical power and reduce the overall efficiency of the system. When large amount of photovoltaic electricity is send into a weak or small electricity network such as island network, the electric grid security can be in jeopardy due to these power fluctuations. The integration of this energy in the electrical network remains a major challenge, due to the high variability of solar radiation in time and space. To palliate these difficulties, it is essential to identify the characteristic of these fluctuations in order to anticipate the eventuality of power shortage or power surge. The objective of this study is to present an approach based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to highlight the scaling properties of global solar irradiance data G(t). The scale of invariance is detected on this dataset using the Empirical Mode Decomposition in association with arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis, a generalization of (HHT) or Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA). The first step is the EMD, consists in decomposing the normalized global solar radiation data G'(t) into several Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) Ci(t) without giving an a priori basis. Consequently, the normalized original solar radiation sequence G'(t) can be written as a sum of Ci(t) with a residual rn. From all IMF modes, a joint PDF P(f,A) of locally and instantaneous frequency f and amplitude A, is estimated. To characterize the scaling behavior in amplitude-frequency space, an arbitrary-order Hilbert marginal spectrum is defined to: Iq(f) = 0 P (f,A)A dA (1) with q × 0 In case of scale

  18. The Solar Probe Plus Radio Frequency Spectrometer: Measurement requirements, analog design, and digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulupa, M.; Bale, S. D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Bowen, T. A.; Carruth, N.; Goetz, K.; Gordon, D.; Harvey, P. R.; Maksimovic, M.; Martínez-Oliveros, J. C.; Moncuquet, M.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Seitz, D.; Sundkvist, D.

    2017-03-01

    The Radio Frequency Spectrometer (RFS) is a two-channel digital receiver and spectrometer, which will make remote sensing observations of radio waves and in situ measurements of electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations in the solar wind. A part of the FIELDS suite for Solar Probe Plus (SPP), the RFS is optimized for measurements in the inner heliosphere, where solar radio bursts are more intense and the plasma frequency is higher compared to previous measurements at distances of 1 AU or greater. The inputs to the RFS receiver are the four electric antennas mounted near the front of the SPP spacecraft and a single axis of the SPP search coil magnetometer (SCM). Each RFS channel selects a monopole or dipole antenna input, or the SCM input, via multiplexers. The primary data products from the RFS are autospectra and cross spectra from the selected inputs. The spectra are calculated using a polyphase filter bank, which enables the measurement of low amplitude signals of interest in the presence of high-amplitude narrowband noise generated by spacecraft systems. We discuss the science signals of interest driving the RFS measurement objectives, describe the RFS analog design and digital signal processing, and show examples of current performance.

  19. Solar U- and J- Bursts at the Frequencies 10-30MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorovskyy, V. V.; Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Abranin, E. P.; Rucker, H. O.; Lecacheux, A.

    2006-08-01

    In the present report we discuss the results of observations of solar U- and J- bursts over the frequency range 10-30MHz, which have been obtained within the framework of an international observational campaign in June - August, 2004 at the radio telescope UTR-2 (Kharkov, Ukraine). We succeed to observe these types of bursts for the first time at such a low frequencies due to combination of large effective area of the radio telescope and high sensitivity of the new back-end. During June - August, 2004 about 30 U- and J- bursts were registered, and only 5 of them were confidently identified as U-bursts that may speak about the relative sparsity of the latter at mentioned frequencies. Both the isolated bursts and their sequences were observed. On average the turning frequencies lay in the range 10-22 MHz that corresponds to the arches heliocentric heights of 1.6-2.2 solar radii. In some sequences the bursts turning frequency was stable that may indicate the arch stability, while in others the turning frequency had tendency to vary from burst to burst. Durations of U- and J- bursts did not differ from those of usual Type III bursts (3-7s), while the drift rates of an ascending arm (on the average -1MHz/ s) was a little bit lower, than those of ordinary Type III bursts in this range. The harmonic structure of U- and J- bursts, and also Jb-J pairs (analogous to IIIb-III pairs) were registered. Also L-shaped bursts (Leblanc and Hoyos, 1985) were recorded. A specific feature of L-shaped bursts is prolonged zero-drift region on their dynamic spectra. The sizes and configurations of the arches were estimated on the base of obtained data. Possible explanations of the observed properties of U- and J- bursts are discussed.

  20. Effect of solar activity on the frequency of occurrence of major anomalies in the Arctic. [weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotinskaya, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Major air pressure and temperature anomalies in certain arctic regions were studied with a view toward predicting their occurrence. Correlations are sought between the frequency of arctic anomalies and solar activity, or specifically the Wolf number and the index of geomagnetic disturbance. Graphic techniques are used to show that solar activity has a definite influence on the frequency of occurrence of major anomalies of pressure and temperature in the Arctic.

  1. On Mode Correlation of Solar Acoustic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2009-09-01

    In helioseismology it is normally assumed that p-mode oscillations are excited in a statistically independent fashion. Unfortunately, however, this issue is not clearly settled down in that two experiments exist, which apparently look in discrepancy. That is, Appourchaux et al.~(2000) looked at bin-to-bin correlation and found no evidence that the assumption is invalid. On the other hand, Roth (2001) reported that p-mode pairs with nearby frequencies tend to be anti-correlated, possibly by a mode-coupling effect. This work is motivated by an idea that one may test if there exists an excess of anticorrelated power variations of pairs of solar p-modes. We have analyzed a 72-day MDI spherical-harmonic time series to examine temporal variations of p-mode power and their correlation. The power variation is computed by a running-window method after the previous study by Roth (2001), and then distribution function of power correlation between mode pairs is produced. We have confirmed Roth's result that there is an excess of anti-correlated p-mode pairs with nearby frequencies. On the other hand, the amount of excess was somewhat smaller than the previous study. Moreover, the distribution function does not exhibit significant change when we paired modes with non-nearby frequencies, implying that the excess is not due to mode coupling. We conclude that the origin of this excess of anticorrelations may not be a solar physical process, by pointing out the possibility of statistical bias playing the central role in producing the excess.

  2. Electrodynamic Processes in Solar Magnetic Loops and their Relation to the Low-Frequency Modulations of Solar Microwave Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodachenko, M. L.; Rucker, H. O.; Kislyakov, A. G.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Urpo, S.

    The spectral and temporal evolutions of the low-frequency (LF) pulsations modulating the solar microwave radiation (37 GHz) recorded at the Metsähovi Radio Observatory were studied by means of the data analysis algorithm based on a fast Fourier transformation with a sliding window. Attention is paid to the fact that the intensity of microwave radiation of solar flares, produced by the electron gyrosynchrotron mechanism, is dependent on a value of the background magnetic field (Dulk, 1985). Thus, slow variations of the magnetic field associated with disturbances of the electric current in a radiating source, should modulate the intensity of the microwave radiation. The dynamic spectra of the LF pulsations, quite often contain several spectral tracks, which can be interpreted as an indication that the radiation is produced in a system consisting of several closely located magnetic loops involved in a common global dynamical process. Application of the equivalent electric circuit models of the loops with inclusion of the effects of electromagnetic inductive interaction in groups of slowly growing current-carrying magnetic loops allows to explain and reproduce the main dynamical features of the observed LF modulation dynamic spectra. Detailed derivation of the equivalent electric circuit equation for a coronal magnetic loop is provided.

  3. The variations of ionosphere critical frequency of E layer over Chumphon during solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenpankho, Prasert; Tsugawa, Takuya; Supnithi, Pornchai; Wongcharoen, Poramintra

    The values of the critical frequency of the ionospheric E layer, foE, obtained at Chumphon ionospheric observatory station (geographic 99.37 E, 10.72 N, 3 dip), Thailand, during the year 2007-2012, have been used to investigate the variations of foE over the geomagnetic equatorial region during the solar cycle 24. The investigation, including variations with local time, day, seasons and solar cycle, is in agreement with the observations. A comparison between the observation data and International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model has also been made. The IRI 2012 model underestimates foE especially during the period of 7-11 am and after 6 pm for each day and all seasons. Combining with previous investigations, we suggest that underestimation of ionospheric foE by IRI 2012 model is very helpful for the correction of IRI model in an equatorial Asia region.

  4. High Fidelity Solar and Heliospheric Imaging at Low Radio Frequencies: Progress and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, C.; Oberoi, D.; Kozarev, K. A.; Morgan, J.; Benkevitch, L. V.; Erickson, P. J.; Crowley, M.; McCauley, P.; Cairns, I.

    2016-12-01

    The latest generation of low frequency interferometric arrays is revolutionizing solar and heliospheric imaging capabilities. Via a combination of large numbers of independent antennas and greatly increased computing capacity, sufficient information can now be gathered and processed to generate high fidelity images at high time and frequency resolution. For the first time, it is possible to reconstruct spatially, temporally and spectrally complex solar emissions in detail, to measure interplanetary scintillation for many sources simultaneously over wide fields of view, and to track heliospheric disturbances via rapidly evolving propagation effects. These new and rapidly improving capabilities will help to address a range of long-standing scientific questions in the field. We review the current state of the art of low frequency imaging instruments, with particular emphasis on, and examples from, the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). The limitations and challenges of such arrays are explored, and the prospects for next-generation ground and space based arrays yielding additional major advances in capability are reviewed.

  5. Computational helioseismology in the frequency domain: acoustic waves in axisymmetric solar models with flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizon, Laurent; Barucq, Hélène; Duruflé, Marc; Hanson, Chris S.; Leguèbe, Michael; Birch, Aaron C.; Chabassier, Juliette; Fournier, Damien; Hohage, Thorsten; Papini, Emanuele

    2017-04-01

    Context. Local helioseismology has so far relied on semi-analytical methods to compute the spatial sensitivity of wave travel times to perturbations in the solar interior. These methods are cumbersome and lack flexibility. Aims: Here we propose a convenient framework for numerically solving the forward problem of time-distance helioseismology in the frequency domain. The fundamental quantity to be computed is the cross-covariance of the seismic wavefield. Methods: We choose sources of wave excitation that enable us to relate the cross-covariance of the oscillations to the Green's function in a straightforward manner. We illustrate the method by considering the 3D acoustic wave equation in an axisymmetric reference solar model, ignoring the effects of gravity on the waves. The symmetry of the background model around the rotation axis implies that the Green's function can be written as a sum of longitudinal Fourier modes, leading to a set of independent 2D problems. We use a high-order finite-element method to solve the 2D wave equation in frequency space. The computation is embarrassingly parallel, with each frequency and each azimuthal order solved independently on a computer cluster. Results: We compute travel-time sensitivity kernels in spherical geometry for flows, sound speed, and density perturbations under the first Born approximation. Convergence tests show that travel times can be computed with a numerical precision better than one millisecond, as required by the most precise travel-time measurements. Conclusions: The method presented here is computationally efficient and will be used to interpret travel-time measurements in order to infer, e.g., the large-scale meridional flow in the solar convection zone. It allows the implementation of (full-waveform) iterative inversions, whereby the axisymmetric background model is updated at each iteration.

  6. Transient Stability and Frequency Response of the US Western Interconnection under conditions of High Wind and Solar Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Kara; Miller, Nicholas W.; Shao, Miaolei; Pajic, Slobodan; D'Aquila, Robert

    2015-04-15

    Adding large amounts of wind and solar generation to bulk power systems that are traditionally subject to operating constraints set by transient stability and frequency response limitations is the subject of considerable concern in the industry. The US Western Interconnection (WI) is expected to experience substantial additional growth in both wind and solar generation. These plants will, to some extent, displace large central station thermal generation, both coal and gas-fired, which have traditionally helped maintain stability. Our paper reports the results of a study that investigated the transient stability and frequency response of the WI with high penetrations of wind and solar generation. Moreover, the main goals of this work were to (1) create a realistic, baseline model of the WI, (2) test selected transient stability and frequency events, (3) investigate the impact of large amounts of wind and solar generation, and (4) examine means to improve performance.

  7. Tracing p-mode Waves from the Photosphere to the Corona in Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junwei; Felipe, Tobías; Chen, Ruizhu; Khomenko, Elena

    2016-10-01

    Atmosphere above sunspots is abundant with different types of waves. Among these waves are running penumbral waves in the chromosphere, quasi-periodic oscillations in the lower coronal loops, and recently reported running waves in sunspots’ photosphere, all of which were interpreted as magnetoacoustic waves by some authors. Are these waves in different atmospheric layers related to each other, what is the nature of these waves, and where are the ultimate sources of these waves? Applying a time-distance helioseismic analysis over a suite of multi-wavelength observations above a sunspot, we demonstrate that the helioseismic p-mode waves are able to channel up from the photosphere through the chromosphere and transition region into the corona, and that the magnetoacoustic waves observed in different atmospheric layers are a same wave originating from the photosphere but exhibiting differently under different physical conditions. We also show waves of different frequencies travel along different paths, which can be used to derive the physical properties of the atmosphere above sunspots. Our numerical simulation of traveling of waves from a subphotospheric source qualitatively resembles the observed properties of the waves and offers an interpretation of the shapes of the wavefronts above the photosphere.

  8. Solar Radio Burst Data Processing of CALLISTO and Frequency Drift Rate Determination of Solar Radio Burst Detected by CALLISTO Network in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batubara, M.; Manik, T.; Suryana, R.; Lathif, M.; Sitompul, P.; Zamzam, M.; Mumtahana, F.

    2017-03-01

    Space Science Center of Indonesian Institute of Aeronautics and Space called LAPAN has installed several solar radio receivers named CALLISTO in various parts of Indonesia. The equipment has made some solar radio observational data which is indicate solar radio burst since its operation. All of the observational data stored in the file format of Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) which is the raw data. Therefore, it is required a such kind of related data processing to produce a data that can be used for further research. In this paper will discuss how the observational data of CALLISTO could be generated included the information of data format, CALLISTO data processing techniques used in these activities as well as some of the data processing based on data indicating solar radio bursts. As the results, a map of solar radio spectrum as spectrograph profiles and some determinations of frequency drift base on the data will also be discussed in this paper.

  9. Method of frequency dependent correlations: investigating the variability of total solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelt, J.; Käpylä, M. J.; Olspert, N.

    2017-04-01

    Context. This paper contributes to the field of modeling and hindcasting of the total solar irradiance (TSI) based on different proxy data that extend further back in time than the TSI that is measured from satellites. Aims: We introduce a simple method to analyze persistent frequency-dependent correlations (FDCs) between the time series and use these correlations to hindcast missing historical TSI values. We try to avoid arbitrary choices of the free parameters of the model by computing them using an optimization procedure. The method can be regarded as a general tool for pairs of data sets, where correlating and anticorrelating components can be separated into non-overlapping regions in frequency domain. Methods: Our method is based on low-pass and band-pass filtering with a Gaussian transfer function combined with de-trending and computation of envelope curves. Results: We find a major controversy between the historical proxies and satellite-measured targets: a large variance is detected between the low-frequency parts of targets, while the low-frequency proxy behavior of different measurement series is consistent with high precision. We also show that even though the rotational signal is not strongly manifested in the targets and proxies, it becomes clearly visible in FDC spectrum. A significant part of the variability can be explained by a very simple model consisting of two components: the original proxy describing blanketing by sunspots, and the low-pass-filtered curve describing the overall activity level. The models with the full library of the different building blocks can be applied to hindcasting with a high level of confidence, Rc ≈ 0.90. The usefulness of these models is limited by the major target controversy. Conclusions: The application of the new method to solar data allows us to obtain important insights into the different TSI modeling procedures and their capabilities for hindcasting based on the directly observed time intervals.

  10. High Frequency Plasma Waves Associated With Solar Wind Reconnection Exhausts: WIND/WAVES Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttunen, K. E.; Bale, S. D.; Phan, T. D.; Davis, M.; Gosling, J. T.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of strong plasma wave activity near reconnection X-line regions in THE laboratory and in the Earth's magnetosphere have suggested that plasma waves may play AN important role in the reconnection process by providing anomalous resistivity through wave-particle interactions and by accelerating electrons. Recent observations of quasi-steady magnetic reconnection in the solar wind introduces an important new environment to study the role of plasma waves in a collisionless plasma associated with the reconnection process. We have used observations by the WIND spacecraft to study high frequency plasma waves associated with 28 solar wind reconnection exhausts. The TNR (Thermal Noise Receiver) experiment included in the WAVES instrument on WIND measures electric spectral density from 4 to 256 kHz and the TDS (Time Domain Sampler) experiment also included in WAVES samples electric field waveforms at rates up to 120,000 samples/s. A large fraction (79%) of the investigated events showed significant enhancements in the wave power around ~ 4 kHz, while only about one third (39%) of the exhausts were associated with intensifications around THE local electron plasma frequency (few tens of kHz). TDS waveform samples revealed three different wave modes: electron solitary waves, ion acoustic waves and Langmuir waves. The intense plasma waves were most frequently observed close to the X-line and near the exhaust boundaries, although wave emissions were commonly observed elsewhere within the exhausts as well

  11. Multi-frequency EDMR applied to microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Christoph; Behrends, Jan; Teutloff, Christian; Astakhov, Oleksandr; Schnegg, Alexander; Lips, Klaus; Bittl, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Pulsed multi-frequency electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) at X-, Q- and W-Band (9.7, 34, and 94 GHz) was applied to investigate paramagnetic centers in microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells under illumination. The EDMR spectra are decomposed into resonances of conduction band tail states (e states) and phosphorus donor states (P states) from the amorphous layer and localized states near the conduction band (CE states) in the microcrystalline layer. The e resonance has a symmetric profile at all three frequencies, whereas the CE resonance reveals an asymmetry especially at W-band. This is suggested to be due to a size distribution of Si crystallites in the microcrystalline material. A gain in spectral resolution for the e and CE resonances at high fields and frequencies demonstrates the advantages of high-field EDMR for investigating devices of disordered Si. The microwave frequency independence of the EDMR spectra indicates that a spin-dependent process independent of thermal spin-polarization is responsible for the EDMR signals observed at X-, Q- and W-band.

  12. Multi-frequency EDMR applied to microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Meier, Christoph; Behrends, Jan; Teutloff, Christian; Astakhov, Oleksandr; Schnegg, Alexander; Lips, Klaus; Bittl, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Pulsed multi-frequency electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) at X-, Q- and W-Band (9.7, 34, and 94GHz) was applied to investigate paramagnetic centers in microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells under illumination. The EDMR spectra are decomposed into resonances of conduction band tail states (e states) and phosphorus donor states (P states) from the amorphous layer and localized states near the conduction band (CE states) in the microcrystalline layer. The e resonance has a symmetric profile at all three frequencies, whereas the CE resonance reveals an asymmetry especially at W-band. This is suggested to be due to a size distribution of Si crystallites in the microcrystalline material. A gain in spectral resolution for the e and CE resonances at high fields and frequencies demonstrates the advantages of high-field EDMR for investigating devices of disordered Si. The microwave frequency independence of the EDMR spectra indicates that a spin-dependent process independent of thermal spin-polarization is responsible for the EDMR signals observed at X-, Q- and W-band. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF POLARIZATION OF ZEBRA PATTERN IN TYPE-IV SOLAR RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneda, Kazutaka; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T.; Iwai, K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the polarization characteristics of a zebra pattern (ZP) in a type-IV solar radio burst observed with AMATERAS on 2011 June 21 for the purpose of evaluating the generation processes of ZPs. Analyzing highly resolved spectral and polarization data revealed the frequency dependence of the degree of circular polarization and the delay between two polarized components for the first time. The degree of circular polarization was 50%–70% right-handed and it varied little as a function of frequency. Cross-correlation analysis determined that the left-handed circularly polarized component was delayed by 50–70 ms relative to the right-handed component over the entire frequency range of the ZP and this delay increased with the frequency. We examined the obtained polarization characteristics by using pre-existing ZP models and concluded that the ZP was generated by the double-plasma-resonance process. Our results suggest that the ZP emission was originally generated in a completely polarized state in the O-mode and was partly converted into the X-mode near the source. Subsequently, the difference between the group velocities of the O-mode and X-mode caused the temporal delay.

  14. Metal-dielectric frequency-selective surface for high performance solar window coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, Fatima; Guneratne, Ananda C.; Temchenko, Marina

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a solar control window film consisting of metallic nanoantennas designed to reflect infrared (IR) light while allowing visible light to pass through. The film consists of a capacitive frequency-selective surface (CFSS) which acts as a band-stop filter, reflecting only light at target wavelengths. The designed CFSS when installed on windows will lower air conditioning costs by reflecting undesired wavelengths of light and thus reduce the amount of heat that enters a building. State-of-the-art commercial solar control films consist of a multilayer stack which is costly ( 13/m2 to 40/m2) to manufacture and absorbs IR radiation, causing delamination or glass breakage when attached to windows. Our solar control film consists of a nanostructured metallic layer on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate that reflects IR radiation instead of absorbing it, solving the delamination problem. The CFSS is also easy to manufacture with roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography at a cost of <$12/m2. We design the CFSS using the COMSOL Wave Optics module to solve for electromagnetic wave propagation in optical media via the finite element method. The simulation domain is reduced to a single unit cell with periodic boundary conditions to account for the symmetries of the planar, periodic CFSS. The design is optimized using parametric sweeps around the various geometric components of the metallic nanoantenna. Our design achieves peak reflection of 80% at 1000 nm and has a broadband IR response that will allow for optimum solar control without significantly affecting the transmission of visible light.

  15. Using p-mode excitation rates for probing convection in solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupka, F.; Belkacem, K.; Goupil, J.-M.; Samadi, R.

    2009-03-01

    We discuss how the possibility to measure mode excitation rates through means of helio- and asteroseismology has improved our capabilities to test convection models and numerical simulations of surface convection and avoids ambiguities that have limited previous approaches.

  16. The Search for Solar Gravity Mode (g-mode) Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, R. K.

    2001-05-01

    The Search for Solar g Modes Most deductions about the solar interior structure and dynamics come from the analysis of the frequencies of solar p modes. For these modes, the restoring force is the change in pressure and the derived information relates directly to the sound speed and the density. For the gravity or g modes, the restoring force is the bouyancy of the displaced gas which opposes the perturbing motion in a stable gas. The quantity which determines the frequencies of oscillation is proportional to the difference between the actual temperature lapse rate and the adiabatic lapse rate. This quantity is sensitive to the derivative of the temperature instead of the temperature itself as is the case with the p modes. Consequently, essentially new information will be provided if g modes can be identified. The hindering factor in making this identification is the low amplitude of these modes compared to the random signals coming from convective and other incoherent solar processes. The following steps are being taken to isolate the coherent modes from the incoherent signals: 1) Cross-Correlation Analysis between GOLF and MDI to reduce the incoherent components. 2) Identification of low frequency p modes to improve the structure of the reference solar model and its prediction of solar g-mode frequencies. 3) Singular Spectral Analysis in the form of a Random Lag Singular Cross Spectral Analysis to reduce the amplitude of interfering incoherent components. 4) Analysis of the joint significance of peaks in a multiplet as required from the spherical harmonic degree l. 5) Search for groups of power spectrum peaks at low frequency which are consistent with asymptotic formulae. The significance (or lack thereof) for potential identifications will be discussed.

  17. Beam-plasma instability in the presence of low-frequency turbulence. [during type 3 solar emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Dubois, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    General equations are derived for a linear beam-plasma instability in the presence of low-frequency turbulence. Within a 'quasi-linear' statistical approximation, these equations contain Langmuir wave scattering, diffusion, resonant and nonresonant anomalous absorption, and a 'plasma laser' effect. It is proposed that naturally occurring density irregularities in the solar wind may stabilize the beam-unstable Langmuir waves which occur during type III solar emissions.

  18. Oscillation frequencies for 35 Kepler solar-type planet-hosting stars using Bayesian techniques and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. R.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Bedding, T. R.; Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.; Chaplin, W. J.; Huber, D.; White, T. R.; Benomar, O.; Hekker, S.; Basu, S.; Campante, T. L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Elsworth, Y.; Karoff, C.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lundkvist, M. S.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Stello, D.

    2016-02-01

    Kepler has revolutionized our understanding of both exoplanets and their host stars. Asteroseismology is a valuable tool in the characterization of stars and Kepler is an excellent observing facility to perform asteroseismology. Here we select a sample of 35 Kepler solar-type stars which host transiting exoplanets (or planet candidates) with detected solar-like oscillations. Using available Kepler short cadence data up to Quarter 16 we create power spectra optimized for asteroseismology of solar-type stars. We identify modes of oscillation and estimate mode frequencies by `peak bagging' using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo framework. In addition, we expand the methodology of quality assurance using a Bayesian unsupervised machine learning approach. We report the measured frequencies of the modes of oscillation for all 35 stars and frequency ratios commonly used in detailed asteroseismic modelling. Due to the high correlations associated with frequency ratios we report the covariance matrix of all frequencies measured and frequency ratios calculated. These frequencies, frequency ratios, and covariance matrices can be used to obtain tight constraint on the fundamental parameters of these planet-hosting stars.

  19. ON THE LOW-FREQUENCY BOUNDARY OF SUN-GENERATED MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE IN THE SLOW SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Shergelashvili, Bidzina M.; Fichtner, Horst

    2012-06-20

    New aspects of the slow solar wind turbulent heating and acceleration are investigated. A physical meaning of the lower boundary of the Alfven wave turbulent spectra in the solar atmosphere and the solar wind is studied and the significance of this natural parameter is demonstrated. Via an analytical and quantitative treatment of the problem we show that a truncation of the wave spectra from the lower frequency side, which is a consequence of the solar magnetic field structure and its cyclic changes, results in a significant reduction of the heat production and acceleration rates. An appropriate analysis is presented regarding the link of the considered problem with existing observational data and slow solar wind initiation scenarios.

  20. A search for p-mode pulsations in white dwarf stars using the Berkeley Visible Imaging Tube detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Welsh, B. Y.; Koen, C.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kotze, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-speed photometry (resolution 0.1 s) obtained during the commissioning of the Berkely Visible Imaging Tube system on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The observations were an attempt to search for very rapid p-mode oscillations in white dwarf stars and included three DA stars known to be g-mode pulsators (ZZ Cet, HK Cet and AF Pic), one other DA star (WD 1056-384) not known to be variable and one AM Cvn star (HP Lib). No evidence was found for any variations greater than about 1 mmag in amplitude (˜0.1 per cent) at frequencies in excess of 60 mHz (periods <17 s) in any of the target stars, though several previously known g-mode frequencies were recovered.

  1. A statistical study on the occurrence of discrete frequencies in the high velocity solar wind and in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, Simone; Villante, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    The possible occurrence of oscillations at discrete frequencies in the solar wind and their possible correspondence with magnetospheric field oscillations represent an interesting aspect of the solar wind/magnetopheric research. We analyze a large set of high velocity streams following interplanetary shocks in order to ascertain the possible occurrence of preferential sets of discrete frequencies in the oscillations of the solar wind pressure in such structures. We evaluate, for each event, the power spectrum of the dynamic pressure by means of two methods (Welch and multitaper windowing) and accept the common spectral peaks that also pass a harmonic F-test at the 95% confidence level. We compare these frequencies with those detected at geosynchronous orbit in the magnetospheric field components soon after the manifestation of the corresponding Sudden Impulses.

  2. Multi-scale harmonic model for solar and climate cyclical variation throughout the Holocene based on Jupiter-Saturn tidal frequencies plus the 11-year solar dynamo cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2012-05-01

    The Schwabe frequency band of the Zurich sunspot record since 1749 is found to be made of three major cycles with periods of about 9.98, 10.9 and 11.86 years. The side frequencies appear to be closely related to the spring tidal period of Jupiter and Saturn (range between 9.5 and 10.5 years, and median 9.93 years) and to the tidal sidereal period of Jupiter (about 11.86 years). The central cycle may be associated to a quasi-11-year solar dynamo cycle that appears to be approximately synchronized to the average of the two planetary frequencies. A simplified harmonic constituent model based on the above two planetary tidal frequencies and on the exact dates of Jupiter and Saturn planetary tidal phases, plus a theoretically deduced 10.87-year central cycle reveals complex quasi-periodic interference/beat patterns. The major beat periods occur at about 115, 61 and 130 years, plus a quasi-millennial large beat cycle around 983 years. We show that equivalent synchronized cycles are found in cosmogenic records used to reconstruct solar activity and in proxy climate records throughout the Holocene (last 12,000 years) up to now. The quasi-secular beat oscillations hindcast reasonably well the known prolonged periods of low solar activity during the last millennium such as the Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder and Dalton minima, as well as the 17 115-year long oscillations found in a detailed temperature reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere covering the last 2000 years. The millennial three-frequency beat cycle hindcasts equivalent solar and climate cycles for 12,000 years. Finally, the harmonic model herein proposed reconstructs the prolonged solar minima that occurred during 1900-1920 and 1960-1980 and the secular solar maxima around 1870-1890, 1940-1950 and 1995-2005 and a secular upward trending during the 20th century: this modulated trending agrees well with some solar proxy model, with the ACRIM TSI satellite composite and with the global surface temperature

  3. Two-frequency imaging of microwave impulsive flares near the solar limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.; Bastian, T. S.; Kane, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    VLA observations of two impulsive microwave and hard X-ray flares close to the solar limb on November 21 and 22, 1981 are presently interpreted in terms of an inhomogeneous flare volume, with the magnetic field strength and orientation varying with position both transverse to, and along, the line-of-sight. The 15 GHz radiation of the flares on both days may be due to electrons of E = 300 keV in weak nonthermal tail; the absence of 4.9 GHz radiation from these sources is attributed to absorption along the ray path from the flare to the earth, on the basis of the fact that thermal bremsstrahlung and gyrosynchrotron radiation mechanisms generate more low than high frequency radiation.

  4. Transverse low frequency wave in a two fluid solar wind. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solodyna, G. V.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation is made of the properties of low frequency transverse waves in a two-fluid solar wind having a radial magnetic field and radial streaming velocity. In order to examine what effects this streaming medium has on the waves, linearly polarized waves are decomposed into left and right circularly polarized waves. Computation is made of analytic expressions valid to first order for the radial amplitude and phase dependence of these constituent waves. It is shown that after travelling a given distance r, these waves have different amplitudes and phases. The former result causes their superposition to become elliptical rather than linear. The latter causes the axis of the ellipse of polarization to rotate through a well-defined angle. Analytic expressions are obtained for the eccentricity of the ellipse and for the angle of rotation. In analogy with regular Faraday rotation, in which the plane of polarization of a linear polarized wave rotates, the effect is denoted as generalized Faraday rotation.

  5. Solar burst with millimetre-wave emission at high frequency only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Vaz, A. M. Z.; Dennis, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    The first high sensitivity and high time-resolution observations of a solar burst taken simultaneously at 90 GHz and at 30 GHz are presented. These identify a unique impulsive burst on May 21, 1984 with fast pulsed emission that was considerably more intense at 90 GHz than at lower frequencies. Hard X-ray time structures at energies above 25 keV were almost identical to the 90 GHz structures to better than 1 s. The structure of the onset of the major 90 GHz burst coincided with the hard X-ray structure to within 128 ms. All 90 GHz major time structures consisted of trains of multiple subsecond pulses with rise times as short as 0.03 s and amplitudes that were large compared with the mean flux. When detectable, the 30 GHz subsecond pulses had smaller relative amplitude and were in phase with the corresponding 90 GHz pulses.

  6. Influence of multiple ion species on low-frequency electromagnetic wave instabilities. [in solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinca, Armando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of multiple (singly ionized) coexisting newborn ion species on the stability of low-frequency electromagnetic waves was investigated using a plasma model in which solar wind magnetoplasma is made up of isotropic Maxwellian electron and proton populations with a common number density of 4.95/cu cm and temperatures equal to 17.2 eV and 6.9 eV, respectively. It is shown that the effect of multiple ions on wave growth, for given background magnetoplasma conditions and relative densities, depends not only on their mass but also on the physical nature of the wave modes. If the ion masses are disparate, each one of the coexisting ion beams tends to stimulate instabilities without undue influence from the other species. If the masses of newborn ions are similar, they can strongly catalyze wave growth of fluidlike nonresonant modes, but bring about weak growth enhancements in cyclotron resonant instabilities.

  7. LOW-FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSIENT QUASI-PERIODIC RADIO EMISSION FROM THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Sasikumar Raja, K.; Ramesh, R.

    2013-09-20

    We report low-frequency observations of quasi-periodic, circularly polarized, harmonic type III radio bursts whose associated sunspot active regions were located close to the solar limb. The measured periodicity of the bursts at 80 MHz was ≈5.2 s, and their average degree of circular polarization (dcp) was ≈0.12. We calculated the associated magnetic field B (1) using the empirical relationship between the dcp and B for the harmonic type III emission, and (2) from the observed quasi-periodicity of the bursts. Both the methods result in B ≈ 4.2 G at the location of the 80 MHz plasma level (radial distance r ≈ 1.3 R{sub ☉}) in the active region corona.

  8. Oblique Bernstein Mode Generation Near the Upper-hybrid Frequency in Solar Pre-flare Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryshtal, A.; Fedun, V.; Gerasimenko, S.; Voitsekhovska, A.

    2015-11-01

    We study analytically the generation process of the first harmonics of the pure electron weakly oblique Bernstein modes. This mode can appear as a result of the rise and development of a corresponding instability in a solar active region. We assume that this wave mode is modified by the influence of pair Coulomb collisions and a weak large-scale sub-Dreicer electric field in the pre-flare chromosphere near the footpoints of a flare loop. To describe the pre-flare plasma we used the model of the solar atmosphere developed by Fontenla, Avrett, and Loeser ( Astrophys. J. 406, 319, 1993). We show that the generated first harmonic is close to the upper-hybrid frequency. This generation process begins at the very low threshold values of the sub-Dreicer electric field and well before the beginning of the preheating phase of a flare. We investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of non-damped first harmonics of oblique Bernstein waves with small amplitudes in the flare area.

  9. Harmonic model for solar and climate cyclical variation throughout the Holocene based on Jupiter-Saturn tidal frequencies plus the 11-year solar dynamo cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, N.

    2012-12-01

    We show that the Schwabe frequency band of the Zurich sunspot record since 1749 is made of three major cycles that are closely related to the spring tidal period of Jupiter and Saturn (~9.93 year), to the tidal sidereal period of Jupiter (about 11.86 years) and to a central cycle that may be associated to a quasi-11-year solar dynamo cycle. The central harmonic is approximately synchronized to the average of the two planetary frequencies. A harmonic model based on the above two planetary tidal frequencies and on the exact dates of Jupiter and Saturn planetary tidal phases, plus a theoretically deduced 10.87-year central cycle reveals major beat periods occurring at about 115, 61 and 130 years, plus a quasi-millennial large beat cycle around 983 years. Equivalent synchronized cycles are found in cosmogenic solar proxy records used to reconstruct solar activity and in proxy climate records throughout the Holocene (last 12,000 years) up to now. The quasi-secular beat oscillations hindcast reasonably well the known prolonged periods of low solar activity during the last millennium such as the Oort, Wolf, Sporer, Maunder and Dalton minima, as well as the 17 115-year long oscillations found in a detailed temperature reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere covering the last 2000 years. The millennial three-frequency beat cycle hindcasts equivalent solar and climate cycles for 12,000 years. Finally, the harmonic model herein proposed reconstructs the prolonged solar minima around 1900-1920 and 1960-1980, the secular solar maxima around 1870-1890, 1940-1950 and 1995-2005, and a secular upward trending during the 20th century. The latter modulated trending agrees well with some solar proxy model, with the ACRIM TSI satellite composite and with the global surface temperature modulation since 1850. The model forecasts a new prolonged solar minimum during 2020-2045, which is produced by the minima of both the 61 and 115-year reconstructed cycles. Finally, the model predicts

  10. Registration of ionospheric effect of 20 March 2015 solar eclipse from GPS data in single-frequency mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmogorov, Andrey; Ivanov, Vsevolod; Gorbachev, Oleg

    2015-12-01

    This article is devoted to the influence of solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 on the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere with using data from satellite navigation system GPS. In addition to considering TEC variations, one of the main aims was to show the possibility of using the data of the single-frequency receivers for the diagnostics of the ionosphere. Data from the single-frequency receivers were compared with dual-frequency receivers GPS. As a result, the possibility of using of the low-cost and mobile single-frequency devices for diagnostics of the ionosphere has been demonstrated. It should be noted that the data from the single-frequency receivers, as expected, showed a more noisy result, compared with the phase measurement on two-frequencies. However, after filtering high frequency harmonics result was very similar.

  11. Surface-effect corrections for the solar model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magic, Z.; Weiss, A.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Solar p-mode oscillations exhibit a systematic offset towards higher frequencies due to shortcomings in the 1D stellar structure models, in particular, the lack of turbulent pressure in the superadiabatic layers just below the optical surface, arising from the convective velocity field. Aims: We study the influence of the turbulent expansion, chemical composition, and magnetic fields on the stratification in the upper layers of the solar models in comparison with solar observations. Furthermore, we test alternative ⟨3D⟩ averages for improved results on the oscillation frequencies. Methods: We appended temporally and spatially averaged ⟨3D⟩ stratifications to 1D models to compute adiabatic oscillation frequencies that we then tested against solar observations. We also developed depth-dependent corrections for the solar 1D model, for which we expanded the geometrical depth to match the pressure stratification of the solar ⟨3D⟩ model, and we reduced the density that is caused by the turbulent pressure. Results: We obtain the same results with our ⟨3D⟩ models as have been reported previously. Our depth-dependent corrected 1D models match the observations to almost a similar extent as the ⟨3D⟩ model. We find that correcting for the expansion of the geometrical depth and the reducing of the density are both equally necessary. Interestingly, the influence of the adiabatic exponent Γ1 is less pronounced than anticipated. The turbulent elevation directly from the ⟨3D⟩ model does not match the observations properly. Considering different reference depth scales for the ⟨3D⟩ averaging leads to very similar frequencies. Solar models with high metal abundances in their initial chemical composition match the low-frequency part much better. We find a linear relation between the p-mode frequency shift and the vertical magnetic field strength with δvnl = 26.21Bz [μHz/kG], which is able to render the solar activity cycles correctly.

  12. Correcting for the solar wind in pulsar timing observations: the role of simultaneous and low-frequency observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ze-Xi; Hobbs, George; Wang, Jing-Bo; Dai, Shi

    2017-09-01

    The primary goal of pulsar timing array projects is to detect ultra-low-frequency gravitational waves. Pulsar data sets are affected by numerous noise processes including varying dispersive delays in the interstellar medium and from the solar wind. The solar wind can lead to rapidly changing variations that, with existing telescopes, can be hard to measure and then remove. In this paper we study the possibility of using a low frequency telescope to aid in such correction for the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) and also discuss whether the ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver for the FAST telescope is sufficient to model solar wind variations. Our key result is that a single wide-bandwidth receiver can be used to model and remove the effect of the solar wind. However, for pulsars that pass close to the Sun such as PSR J1022 + 1022, the solar wind is so variable that observations at two telescopes separated by a day are insufficient to correct the solar wind effect.

  13. Narrow band wave emissions and noise around the plasma frequency in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugunov, Yu. V.; Hayosh, M.; Fiala, V.; Soucek, J.; Santolik, O.; Pickett, J.

    2007-08-01

    The wave data obtained with a wide band instrument were recently used for interpretation of both quasi-thermal noise spectra and narrow band signals observed in the near vicinity of the local plasma frequency on CLUSTER II spacecraft in the solar wind, well upstream of the Earth's bow shock [1, 2] This approach is planned to continue with the large Cluster database and will be of use for other space missions such as Stereo and Solar Orbiter. If available, multi-component and/or multi-point measurements are expected to provide even greater insight in the generation of radio waves in the heliosphere in this frequency range. Our approach is based on a novel study of performance of receiving antennas in resonance regions in a streaming plasma. As far as noise spectra is concerned two distinctive features appear: a cutoff shifted down below the plasma frequency by a factor proportional to the ratio of stream velocity to the electron thermal velocity squared. The spectral maximum depends on the orientation of the antenna axis with respect to the stream velocity; it is shifted above the plasma frequency according to the antenna orientation, which is changing with the spacecraft spin. When the time resolution of the instrument is sufficient, it is possible to follow these changes. The overall form of the spectrum depends on the plasma distribution function, but even with a simplified model of two electron populations with largely different temperatures the estimates of the drift velocity and/or the temperature of the hot component can be obtained. In the case of a quasi-harmonic wave (narrow band signal) incident on the antenna, it is the antenna's effective length that allows for conversion of the open circuit voltage induced on its terminals to the electric field of the incoming wave. We show that this effective length grows by more than an order of magnitude under resonance conditions. This was already confirmed for waves propagating close to the lower oblique resonance

  14. Ion Acoustic Wave Frequencies and Onset Times During Type 3 Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Conflicting interpretations exist for the low-frequency ion acoustic (S) waves often observed by ISEE 3 in association with intense Langmuir (L) waves in the source regions of type III solar radio bursts near 1 AU. Two indirect lines of observational evidence, as well as plasma theory, suggest they are produced by the electrostatic (ES) decay L yields L(PRIME) + S. However, contrary to theoretical predictions, an existing analysis of the wave frequencies instead favors the electromagnetic (EM) decays L yields T + S, where T denotes an EM wave near the plasma frequency. This conflict is addressed here by comparing the observed wave frequencies and onset times with theoretical predictions for the ES and EM decays, calculated using the time-variable electron beam and magnetic field orientation data, rather than the nominal values used previously. Field orientation effects and beam speed variations are shown analytically to produce factor-of-three effects, greater than the difference in wave frequencies predicted for the ES and EM decays; effects of similar magnitude occur in the events analyzed here. The S-wave signals are extracted by hand from a sawtooth noise background, greatly improving the association between S waves and intense L waves. Very good agreement exists between the time-varying predictions for the ES decay and the frequencies of most (but not all) wave bursts. The waves occur only after the ES decay becomes kinematically allowed, which is consistent with the ES decay proceeding and producing most of the observed signals. Good agreement exists between the EM decay's predictions and a significant fraction of the S-wave observations while the EM decay is kinematically allowed. The wave data are not consistent, however, with the EM decay being the dominant nonlinear process. Often the observed waves are sufficiently broadband to overlap simultaneously the frequency ranges predicted for the ES and EM decays. Coupling the dominance of the ES decay with this

  15. Ion Acoustic Wave Frequencies and Onset Times During Type 3 Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Conflicting interpretations exist for the low-frequency ion acoustic (S) waves often observed by ISEE 3 in association with intense Langmuir (L) waves in the source regions of type III solar radio bursts near 1 AU. Two indirect lines of observational evidence, as well as plasma theory, suggest they are produced by the electrostatic (ES) decay L yields L(PRIME) + S. However, contrary to theoretical predictions, an existing analysis of the wave frequencies instead favors the electromagnetic (EM) decays L yields T + S, where T denotes an EM wave near the plasma frequency. This conflict is addressed here by comparing the observed wave frequencies and onset times with theoretical predictions for the ES and EM decays, calculated using the time-variable electron beam and magnetic field orientation data, rather than the nominal values used previously. Field orientation effects and beam speed variations are shown analytically to produce factor-of-three effects, greater than the difference in wave frequencies predicted for the ES and EM decays; effects of similar magnitude occur in the events analyzed here. The S-wave signals are extracted by hand from a sawtooth noise background, greatly improving the association between S waves and intense L waves. Very good agreement exists between the time-varying predictions for the ES decay and the frequencies of most (but not all) wave bursts. The waves occur only after the ES decay becomes kinematically allowed, which is consistent with the ES decay proceeding and producing most of the observed signals. Good agreement exists between the EM decay's predictions and a significant fraction of the S-wave observations while the EM decay is kinematically allowed. The wave data are not consistent, however, with the EM decay being the dominant nonlinear process. Often the observed waves are sufficiently broadband to overlap simultaneously the frequency ranges predicted for the ES and EM decays. Coupling the dominance of the ES decay with this

  16. Modelling The Effects of Density Gradients and Fluctuations on the Apparent Sizes and Positions of Low Frequency Solar Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, Benjamin Thomas; Kontar, Eduard; Jeffrey, Natasha

    2017-08-01

    Recent high spatial and temporal resolution imaging of <250 MHz solar radio emission has enabled us to observe rapid variations in Type-III solar radio burst characteristics, revealing fast growth of the Type-III source and movement of the source centroid. In this work, we use a Monte-Carlo ray tracing simulation to model the passage of low frequency (5-240 MHz) radio waves through the solar corona from a point source, considering both isotropic and dipole emission. We model the effects of random density fluctuations and an isotropic density gradient on the transport of the rays, varying the strength of the scattering to observe the effects on images of the source from an observer at 1 AU. Absorption of photons is included, and the effects on the reproduced images and flux curves are observed. The apparent source size and centroid position are tracked through the simulation, and we find a general increase in source size with time, and a variation of centroid position in both directions throughout the simulation. We find that the size of the variation is strongly dependant upon frequency, with lower frequency sources appearing to move further on the disk than higher frequency sources. We also observe the strength of the effects at different viewing angles, finding that the greatest variation occurs closer to the solar limb. Further observational work is required to limit the scattering parameters, in order to allow for comparison with current radio images.

  17. Observations of intermediate degree solar oscillations - 1989 April-June

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.; Schou, Jesper; Brown, Timothy M.

    1993-01-01

    Frequencies, splittings, and line widths from 85 d of full disk Doppler observations of solar p-modes taken between April 4 and June 30, 1989 are presented. Comparison of the present mode parameters with published Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) results yields good agreement in general and is thus a confirmation of their work using an independent instrument and set of analysis routines. Average differences in p-mode frequencies measured by the two experiments in spring-summer 1989 are explained as a result of differences in the exact periods of data collection during a time of rapidly changing solar activity. It is shown that the present a(1) splitting coefficients for p-modes with nu/L less than 45 micro-Hz suffer from a significant systematic error. Evidence is presented to the effect that a detector distortion or alignment problem, not a problem with the power spectra analysis, is the most likely explanation of this a(1) anomaly.

  18. Observations of intermediate degree solar oscillations - 1989 April-June

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.; Schou, Jesper; Brown, Timothy M.

    1993-01-01

    Frequencies, splittings, and line widths from 85 d of full disk Doppler observations of solar p-modes taken between April 4 and June 30, 1989 are presented. Comparison of the present mode parameters with published Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) results yields good agreement in general and is thus a confirmation of their work using an independent instrument and set of analysis routines. Average differences in p-mode frequencies measured by the two experiments in spring-summer 1989 are explained as a result of differences in the exact periods of data collection during a time of rapidly changing solar activity. It is shown that the present a(1) splitting coefficients for p-modes with nu/L less than 45 micro-Hz suffer from a significant systematic error. Evidence is presented to the effect that a detector distortion or alignment problem, not a problem with the power spectra analysis, is the most likely explanation of this a(1) anomaly.

  19. Research of propagation the high frequency signals during total solar eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabova, Mariya; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Dmitrii; Riabova, Natalia; Elsukov, Aleksei

    Vertical-oblique sounding methods are special importance for the study; they provide data on the electron concentration. In panoramic sounders, the mean frequencies of sounding signals vary consequently in the range of apriori uncertainty of the conditions of their reflection from the ionosphere. The aim of this work is the experimental study of the variations in the MUFs along one-hop HF lines during the total solar eclipses, and their application for the estimation of the effective recombination coefficient. To solve the above problem, experiments were carried out with the use of a chirp sounder manufactured at the Volga State University of Technology. The main advantages of chirp sounder are connected with the use of continuous chirps, which allow for the use of methods of optimal reception when deciphering in a frequency region, which provides for a signal-to-noise ratio acceptable for obtaining reliable results. We carried out experiments on oblique chirp sounding of the ionosphere during the total solar eclipse of March 29, 2006, and on the reference days of March 28 and 30, 2006, as well as during the total solar eclipse of August 1, 2008, and the reference days of July 31 and August 2, 2008. The ionosonde transmitters were located in Great Britain (the town of Inskip), Cyprus, and Irkutsk, and the receiver was located in Yoshkar-Ola. The maximal phases of the eclipse of March 29 at the target sounding point (TSP) were 0.89 for Cyprus-Yoshkar-Ola (observed at 11:15 UT) and 0.49 for Inskip-Yoshkar-Ola (observed at 11:03 UT); for the eclipse of August 1, 1 for Irkutsk-Yoshkar-Ola (observed at 11:36 UT). Based on the primary data (ionograms), the secondary data were determined in automatic mode. In particular, diurnal variations in the MUF of the 1F2 and 2F2 modes were calculated for the eclipse periods and the reference days along different radio paths. Variation in the MUF on the reference days required the use of a smoothing procedure, which was carried out

  20. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Spectral and spectral-frequency methods of investigating atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busarev, Vladimir V.; Prokof'eva-Mikhailovskaya, Valentina V.; Bochkov, Valerii V.

    2007-06-01

    A method of reflectance spectrophotometry of atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system, its specificity, and the means of eliminating basic spectral noise are considered. As a development, joining the method of reflectance spectrophotometry with the frequency analysis of observational data series is proposed. The combined spectral-frequency method allows identification of formations with distinctive spectral features, and estimations of their sizes and distribution on the surface of atmospherelss celestial bodies. As applied to investigations of asteroids 21 Lutetia and 4 Vesta, the spectral frequency method has given us the possibility of obtaining fundamentally new information about minor planets.

  1. HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR CORONAL TRANSIENTS AT LOW RADIO FREQUENCIES WITH A SPECTRO-CORRELATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, K.; Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Rajalingam, M.; Abhilash, H. N.

    2016-02-15

    A new antenna system with a digital spectro-correlator that provides high temporal, spectral, and amplitude resolutions has been commissioned at the Gauribidanur Observatory near Bangalore in India. Presently, it is used for observations of the solar coronal transients in the scarcely explored frequency range ≈30–15 MHz. The details of the antenna system, the associated receiver setup, and the initial observational results are reported. Some of the observed transients exhibited quasi-periodicity in their time profiles at discrete frequencies. Estimates of the associated magnetic field strength (B) indicate that B ≈ 0.06–1 G at a typical frequency such as 19.5 MHz.

  2. A thorough analysis of the short- and mid-term activity-related variations in the solar acoustic frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. R. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P.; Chaplin, W. J.; Campante, T. L.

    2017-02-01

    The frequencies of the solar acoustic oscillations vary over the activity cycle. The variations in other activity proxies are found to be well correlated with the variations in the acoustic frequencies. However, each proxy has a slightly different time behaviour. Our goal is to characterize the differences between the time behaviour of the frequency shifts and of two other activity proxies, namely the area covered by sunspots and the 10.7-cm flux. We define a new observable that is particularly sensitive to the short-term frequency variations. We then compare the observable when computed from model frequency shifts and from observed frequency shifts obtained with the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) for cycle 23. Our analysis shows that on the shortest time-scales, the variations in the frequency shifts seen in the GONG observations are strongly correlated with the variations in the area covered by sunspots. However, a significant loss of correlation is still found. We verify that the times when the frequency shifts and the sunspot area do not vary in a similar way tend to coincide with the times of the maxima of the quasi-biennial variations seen in the solar seismic data. A similar analysis of the relation between the 10.7-cm flux and the frequency shifts reveals that the short-time variations in the frequency shifts follow even more closely those of the 10.7-cm flux than those of the sunspot area. However, a loss of correlation between frequency shifts and 10.7-cm flux variations is still found around the same times.

  3. Helioseismic Constraints on the Gradient of Angular Velocity at the Base of the Solar Convection Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosovichev, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    The layer of transition from the nearly rigid rotation of the radiative interior to the latitudinal differential rotation of the convection zone plays a significant role in the internal dynamics of the Sun. Using rotational splitting coefficients of the p-mode frequencies, obtained during 1986-1990 at the Big Bear Solar Observatory, we have found that the thickness of the transitional layer is 0.09 +/- 0.04 solar radii (63 +/- 28 Mm), and that most of the transition occurs beneath the adiabatically stratified part of the convection zone, as suggested by the dynamo theories of the 22 yr solar activity cycle.

  4. Using frequency response functions to manage image degradation from equipment vibration in the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, William R.; McBride, Daniel R.

    2016-08-01

    The Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, providing a significant increase in the resolution of solar data available to the scientific community. Vibration mitigation is critical in long focal-length telescopes such as the Inouye Solar Telescope, especially when adaptive optics are employed to correct for atmospheric seeing. For this reason, a vibration error budget has been implemented. Initially, the FRFs for the various mounting points of ancillary equipment were estimated using the finite element analysis (FEA) of the telescope structures. FEA analysis is well documented and understood; the focus of this paper is on the methods involved in estimating a set of experimental (measured) transfer functions of the as-built telescope structure for the purpose of vibration management. Techniques to measure low-frequency single-input-single-output (SISO) frequency response functions (FRF) between vibration source locations and image motion on the focal plane are described. The measurement equipment includes an instrumented inertial-mass shaker capable of operation down to 4 Hz along with seismic accelerometers. The measurement of vibration at frequencies below 10 Hz with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requires several noise reduction techniques including high-performance windows, noise-averaging, tracking filters, and spectral estimation. These signal-processing techniques are described in detail.

  5. Solar winds driven by nonlinear low-frequency Alfvén waves from the photosphere: Parametric study for fast/slow winds and disappearance of solar winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-Ichiro

    2006-06-01

    We investigate how properties of the corona and solar wind in open coronal holes depend on properties of magnetic fields and their footpoint motions at the surface. We perform one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations for the heating and the acceleration in coronal holes by low-frequency Alfvén waves from the photosphere to 0.3 or 0.1 AU. We impose low-frequency (≲0.05 Hz) transverse fluctuations of the field lines at the photosphere with various amplitude, spectrum, and polarization in the open flux tubes with different photospheric field strength, Br,0, and superradial expansion of the cross section, fmax. We find that transonic solar winds are universal consequences. The atmosphere is also stably heated up to ≳106 K by the dissipation of the Alfvén waves through compressive-wave generation and wave reflection in the cases of the sufficient wave input with photospheric amplitude, ≳ 0.7 km s-1. The density, and accordingly the mass flux, of solar winds show a quite sensitive dependence on because of an unstable aspect of the heating by the nonlinear Alfvén waves. A case with = 0.4 km s-1 gives ≃50 times smaller mass flux than the fiducial case for the fast wind with = 0.7 km s-1; solar wind virtually disappears only if becomes ≃1/2. We also find that the solar wind speed has a positive correlation with Br,0/fmax, which is consistent with recent observations by Kojima et al. On the basis of these findings, we show that both fast and slow solar winds can be explained by the single process, the dissipation of the low-frequency Alfvén waves, with different sets of and Br,0/fmax. Our simulations naturally explain the observed (1) anticorrelation of the solar wind speed and the coronal temperature and (2) larger amplitude of Alfvénic fluctuations in the fast wind. In Appendix A, we also explain our implementation of the outgoing boundary condition of the MHD waves with some

  6. Low-Frequency Type III Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Makela, Pertti

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type 11 radio bursts associated with a set of six low frequency (<14 MHz) extended type III bursts from active region 10588. The durations were measured at 1 and 14 MHz using high resolution data from Wind/WAVES and were within the range (>15 min) normally used to define these bursts. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type 11 burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type 11 burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 min) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event.

  7. Seismic Study of the Solar Interior: Inferences from SOI/MDI Observations During Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have continued in collaboration with Dr. Eff-Darwich (University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain) the study of the structure, asphericity and dynamics of the solar interior from p-mode frequencies and frequency splittings. In March 2001, Dr. Eff-Darwich came for 3 weeks visit to CfA. During this visit we completed our work on the inversion of the internal solar rotation rate, and submitted a paper describing this work to the Astrophysical Journal. This paper has been recently revised in response to the referee comments and I expect that it will be accepted for publication very soon. We also have analyzed helioseismic data looking for temporal variations of the solar stratification near the base of the convection zone. We have expanded on the initial work that was presented at the SOHO-10/GONG-2000 meeting (October 2000, Tenerife), and are in the process of writing this up. Substantial progress towards the characterization of high-degree p-modes has been achieved. Indeed, in collaboration Dr. Rabello-Soares (Stanford University), we have gained a clear conceptual understanding of the various elements that affect the leakage matrix of the SOI/MDI instrument. This was presented in an invited talk at the SOHO-10/GONG-2000 meeting (October 2000, Tenerife). Once we will have successfully migrated from a qualitative to a quantitative assessment of these effects, we should be able to generate high-degree p-modes frequencies so crucial in the diagnostic of the layers just below solar surface.

  8. Seismic Study of the Solar Interior: Inferences from SOI/MDI Observations During Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have continued in collaboration with Dr. Eff-Darwich (University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain) the study of the structure, asphericity and dynamics of the solar interior from p-mode frequencies and frequency splittings. In March 2001, Dr. Eff-Darwich came for 3 weeks visit to CfA. During this visit we completed our work on the inversion of the internal solar rotation rate, and submitted a paper describing this work to the Astrophysical Journal. This paper has been recently revised in response to the referee comments and I expect that it will be accepted for publication very soon. We also have analyzed helioseismic data looking for temporal variations of the solar stratification near the base of the convection zone. We have expanded on the initial work that was presented at the SOHO-10/GONG-2000 meeting (October 2000, Tenerife), and are in the process of writing this up. Substantial progress towards the characterization of high-degree p-modes has been achieved. Indeed, in collaboration Dr. Rabello-Soares (Stanford University), we have gained a clear conceptual understanding of the various elements that affect the leakage matrix of the SOI/MDI instrument. This was presented in an invited talk at the SOHO-10/GONG-2000 meeting (October 2000, Tenerife). Once we will have successfully migrated from a qualitative to a quantitative assessment of these effects, we should be able to generate high-degree p-modes frequencies so crucial in the diagnostic of the layers just below solar surface.

  9. "Wind" spacecraft and ground observation of solar and near earth high-frequency radio burts during strong solar activity at november 4, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Kaiser, M. L.; Yurovsky, Y. F.

    2003-04-01

    The strong solar flare of X1/3B magnitude on November 4, 2001 is investigated in the radio frequency range along with its affect on near Earth space HF radio noise. The dynamic spectra of solar type II and III radio emission in the range of 20 kHz - 14 MHz from WAVES instrument of the WIND spacecraft reveals that many unresolved solar type III bursts were detected during the solar flare that were probably generated by energetic electrons at the shock front driven by a coronal mass ejection. Simultaneously, the level of radio noise was recorded at frequencies 280, 300, 150 and 500 MHz by ground radio antennae placed 700 km from each other. In spite of differences in the construction of radio receiving channels, the series of bursts were observed at both places during and after the beginning of the flare. Taking into consideration that the flare occurred during night time for both ground observing points, these bursts cannot be interpreted as solar type. The comparative analysis of the fine structure of bursts shows that there were at least two groups of bursts around the flare. The first group was weak and coincided with Ha and X-ray flare as well as with solar II type radio burst according to the WIND RAD2 receiver. The second group, brightly distinguishing above the background noise, occurred 3-4 hours after the flare. The wavelet and cross correlation analyses of radio noise at different frequencies after excluding strong spikes are provided. The obtained experimental data were compared with dynamics of electron and proton fluxes in different energetic ranges for different regions of the space: 1) in interplanetary space using data from the ACE satellite, 2) in the polar cap using "Coronas-F" satellite data, and 3) from geostationary orbit using data from the GOES satellites. Fine structure of the bursts mostly does not coincide at different frequencies suggesting either narrow band emission features or the imposing of local conditions on the radio wave

  10. Annual ionospheric variations of the critical frequency foF2 at the equatorial stations during the solar minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biktash, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    We have analyzed annual ionospheric variations of the critical frequency foF2 at the equatorial stations during the solar minima. There are essential distinctions between the global TEC (total electron content) and foF2 annual variations during the last two solar minima. Many authors concluded that the annual means of foF2 and the global TEC were reduced, while others investigations no found essential variations as compared with the previous solar minimum. Most if not all of authors suppose that the possible source of this phenomenon is the low level of the EUV (extreme ultraviolet) during the solar minima. The aim of our paper is to amplify these conclusions or to propose new factor which can change ionosphere parameters during the solar minima. We calculated annual variations of foF2 at the equatorial stations and compared these data with Dst annual variations. We found that in addition to low level of the EUV during the solar minima, geomagnetic storms effects have to be included as the influencing factor on annual ionospheric variations.

  11. OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE-MINUTE SOLAR OSCILLATIONS IN THE CORONA USING THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER (ESP) ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT (SDO/EVE)

    SciTech Connect

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Woods, T.

    2011-09-01

    We report on the detection of oscillations in the corona in the frequency range corresponding to five-minute acoustic modes of the Sun. The oscillations have been observed using soft X-ray measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP) of the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The ESP zeroth-order channel observes the Sun as a star without spatial resolution in the wavelength range of 0.1-7.0 nm (the energy range is 0.18-12.4 keV). The amplitude spectrum of the oscillations calculated from six-day time series shows a significant increase in the frequency range of 2-4 mHz. We interpret this increase as a response of the corona to solar acoustic (p) modes and attempt to identify p-mode frequencies among the strongest peaks. Due to strong variability of the amplitudes and frequencies of the five-minute oscillations in the corona, we study how the spectrum from two adjacent six-day time series combined together affects the number of peaks associated with the p-mode frequencies and their amplitudes. This study shows that five-minute oscillations of the Sun can be observed in the corona in variations of the soft X-ray emission. Further investigations of these oscillations may improve our understanding of the interaction of the oscillation modes with the solar atmosphere, and the interior-corona coupling, in general.

  12. Searching for narrow-band oscillations in solar flares in the presence of frequency-dependent noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, Andrew; Ireland, Jack

    2014-06-01

    A common feature of solar flare emission is the appearance of short timescale fluctuations, often interpreted in terms of oscillatory signatures, and often referred to as quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) or quasi-periodic oscilations (QPOs). These fluctuations are an important diagnostic of solar plasma, as they are linked to the flare reconnection and particle acceleration sites. However, it has recently become clear that solar flare time series, like many astrophysical objects, are often dominated by frequency-dependent 'red' noise, rather than white noise. This frequency-dependent red-noise is commonly not taken into account when analyzing flare time-series for narrow-band oscillations. We demonstrate the application of a Bayesian method of searching for narrow-band oscillations in flares (based on Vaughan 2010) that fully accounts for frequency-dependent noise. We apply this method to the recent flares of 2011 February 15 and 2011 June 7, utilizing high-cadence EUV and X-ray data from the Proba-2/LYRA and Fermi/GBM instruments. While emphasizing that the observed fluctuations are a very real effect, we show that the emission from the selected events can be well described by a frequency-dependent noise model, without the need to invoke an explicit oscillatory mechanism. This presents a challenge to our current understanding of flare fluctuations, and suggests that narrow-band oscillations in flare emission may be much less prevalent than previously believed.

  13. Is the Alfvén wave propagation in the solar atmosphere affected by cutoff frequencies or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.; Perera, Harsha K.; Murawski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The question posed in the title does not have a unique answer. Some researchers argue that the Alfvén wave propagation in the solar atmosphere is cutoff-free, while others claim that it is exactly the opposite! To resolve this longstanding puzzle, we solved numerically the initial-value problem for the Alfvén wave propagation and identified a range of wave frequencies for which the wave's behavior changes from propagating to non-propagating at certain heights in the solar atmosphere. We determined the locations of these heights in the atmosphere and identified them with the so-called transition and turning points, which we use to introduce cutoff frequencies for Alfvén waves. We find that there is not one unique cutoff frequency for Alfvén waves but instead the cutoffs depend on the method used to define them as well as on the choice of the wave variable selected to describe the waves. Our results provide strong theoretical evidence for the existence of the cutoff frequencies for the Alfvén wave propagation in the solar atmosphere. We discuss the relevance of our results to the current observational data.

  14. EVIDENCE FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY QPOs WITH A 3:2 FREQUENCY RATIO FROM A 5000 SOLAR MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco; Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Miller, Jon E-mail: brad.cenko@nasa.gov E-mail: richard@astro.umd.edu E-mail: jonmm@umich.edu

    2015-09-20

    Following the discovery of 3:2 resonance quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in M82X-1, we have constructed power density spectra (PDS) of all 15 (sufficiently long) XMM-Newton observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 1313 X-1 (L{sub X} ≈ 2 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup −1}). We detect a strong QPO at a frequency of 0.29 ± 0.01 Hz in data obtained on 2012 December 16. Subsequent searching of all the remaining observations for a 3:2/2:3 frequency pair revealed a feature at 0.46 ± 0.02 Hz on 2003 December 13 (frequency ratio of 1.59 ± 0.09). The global significance of the 0.29 Hz feature considering all frequencies between 0.1 and 4 Hz is >3.5σ. The significance of the 0.46 ± 0.02 Hz QPO is >3.5σ for a search at 2/3 and 3/2 of 0.29 Hz. We also detect lower-frequency QPOs (32.9 ± 2.6 and 79.7 ± 1.2 mHz). All the QPOs are superimposed on a continuum consisting of flat-topped, band-limited noise, breaking into a power law at a frequency of 16 ± 3 mHz and white noise at ≳0.1 Hz. NGC 1313 X-1's PDS is analogous to stellar-mass black holes’ (StMBHs) PDS in the so-called steep power-law state, but with the respective frequencies (both QPOs and break frequencies) scaled down by a factor of ∼1000. Using the inverse mass-to-high-frequency QPO scaling of StMBHs, we estimate NGC 1313 X-1's black hole mass to be 5000 ± 1300 M{sub ⊙}, consistent with an inference from the scaling of the break frequency. However, the implied Eddington ratio, L{sub Edd} > 0.03 ± 0.01, is significantly lower compared to that of StMBHs in the steep power-law state (L{sub Edd} ≳ 0.2)

  15. Static and Dynamic Characteristic Models of Global Solar Radiation Fluctuation in the Scope of Load Frequency Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akatsuka, Motoki; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Saito, Masami

    Penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) system into the power system may give some negative impacts to stable operations of power system; for example, to the frequency control. Therefore, investigation on the short-term fluctuation of PV generation is important as a precaution against further PV penetration. Since the PV generation is almost proportional to the incident solar radiation, this paper develops static and dynamic characteristic models for short-term fluctuation in the global solar radiation. The static characteristic model is a set of standard deviations which have been statistically estimated based on the past observed data. The dynamic characteristic model is autoregressive models which are designed for the actually observed time sequential short-term fluctuation data. In both models, the clearness index is used to eliminate seasonal variation of solar radiation.

  16. Variability of the occurrence frequency of solar flares as a function of peak hard X-ray rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.

    1993-01-01

    We study the occurrence frequency of solar flares as a function of the hard X-ray peak count rate, using observations of the Solar Maximum Mission. The size distributions are well represented by power-law distributions with negative indices. As a better alternative to the conventional method, we devise a maximum likelihood method of determining the power-law index of the size distribution. We find that the power-law index of the size distribution changes with time and with the phase of the 154-day periodicity. The size distribution is steeper during the maximum years of solar cycle 21 (1980 and 1981) than during the declining phase (1982-1984). The size distribution, however, is flatter during the maximum phase of the 154-day periodicity than during the minimum phase. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Evidence for the existence of nonradial solar oscillations: Solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudell, T. P.; Hill, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    The coherent properties of six oscillations over a two week period in which seven days of equatorial diameter measurements were analyzed, are confirmed by the addition of an extra day of data. The two large 1 (the principal order number in the spherical harmonic expansion of the eigenfunction) g-mode oscillations may be candidates for the slowly rotating mode locked structures. For the four low frequency p-modes, periodic nature is observed in the daily power levels, varying with periods of several days. This is attributed to beating between rotationally split m states for a given 1 value. Nonradial modes are a major contribution to the observed solar oscillations. The nonradial character of the observed modes allows the depth dependence of the internal solar rotation to be investigated.

  18. Solar pumped Nd:YAG laser efficiency enhancement using Cr:LiCAF frequency down-shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payziyev, Sh.; Makhmudov, Kh.

    2016-12-01

    The possibility of increase of Nd:YAG solar pumped lasers pumping efficiency with the use of Cr:LiCAF as a solar spectrum frequency-down-shifting element is studied by the simulation calculation method. Comparative analyses of side- and end-pumping schemes are conducted. The numerical experiments have been conducted for combinations of Nd:YAG active medium and Cr:LiCAF for both side- and end-pumping configurations. It is shown that the use of Cr:LiCAF frequency down-shifter significantly increases the pumping efficiency of Nd:YAG active medium in both cases. In addition the replacement of Nd:YAG with cerium co-doped Nd:YAG have shown possibility of further increase the efficiency.

  19. Time and frequency transfer by the Master-Slave Returnable Timing System technique - Application to solar power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of the Master Slave Returnable Timing System (MSRTS) is presented which combines the advantages of the master slave (MS) and the Returnable Timing System (RTS) for time and frequency transfer. The basic idea of MSRTS is to send the time-frequency signal received at a particular node back to the sending node. The delay accumulated by this return signal is used to advance the phase of the master (sending) node thereby canceling the effect of the delay introduced by the path. The method can be used in highly accurate clock distribution systems required in avionics, computer communications, and large retrodirective phased arrays such as the Solar Power Satellite.

  20. Low frequency electromagnetic signals in the atmosphere caused by geodynamics and solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Oleg; Ruzhin, Yuri; Ershov, Sergey; Volgin, Max; Smirnov, Fedor

    Due to the composed structure of the medium and large portions of energy transferred, a seismic excitation in the oceanic or continental lithosphere disturbs all types of geophysical fields. To investigate the problem of electromagnetic (EM) forcing on the atmosphere from the seismically activated lithosphere, we have formulated two mathematical models of interaction of fields of different physical nature resulting in arising of the low-frequency (from 0.1 to 10 Hz by amplitude of a few hundreds of pT) EM signals in the atmosphere. First we have considered the EM field generation in the moving oceanic lithosphere and then in the moving continental one. For both cases, the main physical principles and geological data were applied for formulation of the model and characteristics of the computed signals of different nature agree with measurements of other authors. On the basis of the 2D model of the seismo-hydro-EM-temperature interaction in a lithosphere-Ocean-atmosphere domain, a block-scheme of a multisensory vertically distributed (from a seafloor up to the ionosphere) tsunami precursors’ detection system is described. On the basis of the 3D model of the seismo-EM interaction in a lithosphere-atmosphere domain, we explain effect of location of the future seismic epicenter area (obtained by Prof. Kopytenko, Yu. A. from Inst. IZMIRAN of Russian Acad. Sci. and co-authors) as the result of the magnetic field measurements in the atmosphere near the earth’s surface. We believe that the biosphere effects of forcing on the atmosphere may not be ignored. We formulate the result of our measurements with the system of micro-voltmeters: low-frequency EM disturbances of the atmosphere caused by solar activity (namely, geomagnetic storms with the geomagnetic index values K = 5 and K = 6), are decreasing temporarily the coherence of oscillations of the electric potentials of different points on the surface of a head, i.e. the coherence of the human brain EM processes. We are

  1. Effects of solar wind ultralow-frequency fluctuations on plasma sheet electron temperature: Regression analysis with support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Ping; Kim, Hee-Jeong; Yue, Chao; Weygand, James M.; Hsu, Tung-Shin; Chu, Xiangning

    2017-04-01

    To investigate whether ultralow-frequency (ULF) fluctuations from 0.5 to 8.3 mHz in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) can affect the plasma sheet electron temperature (Te) near geosynchronous distances, we use a support vector regression machine technique to decouple the effects from different solar wind parameters and their ULF fluctuation power. Te in this region varies from 0.1 to 10 keV with a median of 1.3 keV. We find that when the solar wind ULF power is weak, Te increases with increasing southward IMF Bz and solar wind speed, while it varies weakly with solar wind density. As the ULF power becomes stronger during weak IMF Bz ( 0) or northward IMF, Te becomes significantly enhanced, by a factor of up to 10. We also find that mesoscale disturbances in a time scale of a few to tens of minutes as indicated by AE during substorm expansion and recovery phases are more enhanced when the ULF power is stronger. The effect of ULF powers may be explained by stronger inward radial diffusion resulting from stronger mesoscale disturbances under higher ULF powers, which can bring high-energy plasma sheet electrons further toward geosynchronous distance. This effect of ULF powers is particularly important during weak southward IMF or northward IMF when convection electric drift is weak.

  2. Solar and geomagnetic effects on the frequency of atmospheric circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The collection contains both objective and subjective classifications. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases of any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal vanish once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the F10.7 flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

  3. A new system for observing solar oscillations at the Mount Wilson Observatory. I - System design and installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Howard, R. F.; Ulrich, R. K.; Smith, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    An observation system designed to obtain daily measurements of solar photospheric and subphotospheric rotational velocities, from the frequency splitting of nonradial solar p-mode oscillations of degree greater than 150, is nearing completion of the Mount Wilson Observatory. The system will combine a 244 x 248 pixel CID camera with a high speed floating point array processor, a 32-bit minicomputer, and a large capacity disk storage system. These components will be integrated into the spectrograph of the 60-foot solar tower telescope at Mount Wilson.

  4. Co-analysis of Solar Microwave and Hard X-Ray Spectral Evolutions. I. In Two Frequency or Energy Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiwu; Huang, Guangli; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Solar microwave and hard X-ray spectral evolutions are co-analyzed in the 2000 June 10 and 2002 April 10 flares, and are simultaneously observed by the Owens-Valley Solar Array in the microwave band and by Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope or RHESSI in the hard X-ray band, with multiple subpeaks in their light curves. The microwave and hard X-ray spectra are fitted by a power law in two frequency ranges of the optical thin part and two photon energy ranges, respectively. Similar to an earlier event in Shao & Huang, the well-known soft-hard-soft pattern of the lower energy range changed to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern of the higher energy range during the spectral evolution of each subpeak in both hard X-ray flares. This energy dependence is actually supported by a positive correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower energy range, while it becomes an anti-correlation in the higher energy range. Regarding microwave data, the HSH pattern appears in the spectral evolution of each subpeak in the lower frequency range, which is somewhat similar to Huang & Nakajima. However, it returns back to the well-known pattern of soft-hard-harder for the overall spectral evolution in the higher frequency range of both events. This frequency dependence is confirmed by an anti-correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower frequency range, but it becomes a positive correlation in the higher frequency range. The possible mechanisms are discussed, respectively, for reasons why hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions have different patterns in different energy and frequency intervals.

  5. Multiscaling statistics of high frequency global solar radiation data in the Guadeloupean Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calif, R.; Schmitt, F. G.; Huang, Y.; Soubdhan, T.

    2013-12-01

    The part of the solar power production from photovoltaiccs systems is constantly increasing in the electric grids. Solar energy converter devices such as photovoltaic cells are very sensitive to instantaneous solar radiation fluctuations. Thus rapid variation of solar radiation due to changes in the local meteorological condition can induce large amplitude fluctuations of the produced electrical power and reduce the overall efficiency of the system. When large amount of photovoltaic electricity is send into a weak or small electricity network such as island network, the electric grid security can be in jeopardy due to these power fluctuations. The integration of this energy into the electrical network remains a major challenge, due to the high variability of solar radiation in time and space. To palliate these difficulties, it is essential to identify the characteristic of these fluctuations in order to anticipate the eventuality of power shortage or power surge. A good knowledge of the intermittency of global solar radiation is crucial for selecting the location of a solar power plant and predicting the generation of electricity. This work presents a multifractal analysis study of 367 daily global solar radiation sequences measured with a sampling rate of 1 Hz over one year at Guadeloupean Archipelago (French West Indies) located at 16o15'N latitude and 60o30'W longitude. The mean power spectrum computed follows a power law behaviour close to the Kolmogorov spectrum. The intermittent and multifractal properties of global solar radiation data are investigated using several methods. Under this basis, a characterization for each day using three multifractal parameters is proposed.

  6. A mechanism for weak double layers and coherent low-frequency electrostatic wave activity in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Lakhina, Gurbax; Singh, Satyavir

    2016-07-01

    A mechanism for the weak double layers and coherent low-frequency electrostatic wave activity observed by Wind spacecraft in the solar wind at 1 AU is proposed in terms of ion-acoustic solitons and double layers. The solar wind plasma is modelled by a three component plasma consisting of fluid hot protons, hot alpha particles streaming with respect to protons, and suprathermal electrons having κ- distribution. This system supports two types of, slow and fast, ion-acoustic solitary waves. The fast ion-acoustic mode is similar to the ion-acoustic mode of proton-electron plasma, and can support only positive potential solitons. The slow ion-acoustic mode is a new mode that occurs due to the presence of alpha particles. This mode can support both positive and negative solitons and double layers. An increase of the κ- index leads to an increase in the critical Mach number, maximum Mach number and the maximum amplitude of both slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons. The slow ion-acoustic double layer can explain the amplitudes and widths, but not shapes, of the weak double layers (WDLs) observed in the solar wind at 1 AU by Wind spacecraft. The Fourier transform of the slow ion-acoustic solitons/double layers would produce broadband low-frequency electrostatic waves having main peaks between 0.35 kHz to 1.6 kHz, with electric field in the range of E = (0.01 - 0.7 ) mV/m, in excellent agreement with the observed low-frequency electrostatic wave activity in the solar wind at 1 AU.

  7. Solar plasma: Viking 1975 interplanetary spacecraft dual-frequency Doppler data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.; Winn, F. B.

    1977-01-01

    Viking 1975 interplanetary S- and X-band Doppler data are surveyed. These data show consistency with differenced range versus integrated Doppler (DRVID) data when there is solar plasma and with Faraday rotation data otherwise. An increase of solar plasma effects with decreasing sun-earth-probe (SEP) angle (approaching Mars orbit insertion) is demonstrated. The 2-way/3-way data indicate a homogeneous solar plasma structure over a 8,000-km spread. Occasional cycle slips in the data are pinpointed and tabulated.

  8. Using high frequency consumption data to identify demand response potential for solar energy integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Borgeson, S.; Fredman, D.; Hans, L.; Spurlock, A.; Todd, A.

    2015-12-01

    California's renewable portfolio standard (2012) requires the state to get 33% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020. Increased share of variable renewable sources such as solar and wind in the California electricity system may require more grid flexibility to insure reliable power services. Such grid flexibility can be potentially provided by changes in end use electricity consumptions in response to grid conditions (demand-response). In the solar case, residential consumption in the late afternoon can be used as reserve capacity to balance the drop in solar generation. This study presents our initial attempt to identify, from a behavior perspective, residential demand response potentials in relation to solar ramp events using a data-driven approach. Based on hourly residential energy consumption data, we derive representative daily load shapes focusing on discretionary consumption with an innovative clustering analysis technique. We aggregate the representative load shapes into behavior groups in terms of the timing and rhythm of energy use in the context of solar ramp events. Households of different behavior groups that are active during hours with high solar ramp rates are identified for capturing demand response potential. Insights into the nature and predictability of response to demand-response programs are provided.

  9. Studies of the variations of the first Schumann resonance frequency during the solar flare on 7 March 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongjuan; Qiao, Xiaolin

    2015-05-01

    The ELF measurements at the YS station in China during the X5.4 solar flare on 7 March 2012 are examined. The first modal Schumann resonance (SR) frequencies of the horizontal magnetic field components were found to increase by 0.1-0.2 Hz during the X-ray burst. During the enhancement of the proton flux, the first modal frequency of the east-west magnetic field component decreases by approximately 0.6 Hz at most, while the variation in the north-south magnetic field component is less well defined. The mechanisms of the variations are simulated with a finite difference time domain technique by modeling the perturbed conductivity profile in the day-night asymmetric Earth-ionosphere cavity and modeling the global lightning source with the raw flash data measured by satellites. The simulated varying trends of the SR frequencies observed near the ground with the altitudes of the conductivity perturbations are nearly the same as those previously reported and are interpreted by the two characteristic height model first proposed by Greifinger and Greifinger. It is concluded that the SR frequencies increase for enhanced conductivity above the altitude of 60-70 km because of the lowered magnetic height and decrease for enhanced conductivity below this altitude due to the lowered electric height. This finding can explain the opposite behaviors of the SR frequencies during X-ray bursts and strong solar proton events (SPEs). The simulation model in this work proved to be effective, with the simulated shifts in the values of SR frequencies during X-ray bursts and SPEs being close to the practical measurements.

  10. Effect of junction recombination velocity of electrical parameters of a vertical parallel silicon solar cell under frequency modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Gokhan

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates a theoretical study based on the determination of electrical parameters in solar cell junction vertical parallel silicon under polychromatic illumination and frequency modulation. From the excess minority carrier's density in the solar cell, the photocurrent density and the photovoltage are derived. The route of the current voltage density ( I = f(V)) that materializes the behavior of the generator; we have a model on the shunt resistance and the series resistance. The I- V method is used to determine electrical parameters such as resistance and shunt resistance or various junction recombination velocity. From their expressions, we study their pace according to Bode and Nyquist and then extend the study to other electrical parameter. The Bode diagrams of the diffusion capacitance are shown for different junction recombination velocity.

  11. Properties of the F2-layer critical frequency median in the nocturnal subauroral ionosphere during low and moderate solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deminov, M. G.; Deminov, R. G.; Shubin, V. N.

    2016-11-01

    Based on an analysis of data from the European ionospheric stations at subauroral latitudes, it has been found that the main ionospheric trough (MIT) is not characteristic for the monthly median of the F2-layer critical frequency ( foF2), at least for low and moderate solar activity. In order to explain this effect, the properties of foF2 in the nocturnal subauroral ionosphere have been additionally studied for low geomagnetic activity, when the MIT localization is known quite reliably. It has been found that at low and moderate solar activity during night hours in winter, the foF2 data from ionospheric stations are often absent in the MIT area. For this reason, a model of the foF2 monthly median, which was constructed from the remaining data of these stations, contains no MIT or a very weakly pronounced MIT.

  12. Deka-keV X-ray observations of solar bursts with WATCH/GRANAT: frequency distributions of burst parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, N.; Vilmer, N.; Lund, N.; Sunyaev, R.

    1998-06-01

    Solar flare observations in the deka-keV range are performed by the WATCH experiment on board the GRANAT satellite. The WATCH experiment is presented, including the energy calibration as applied in the present work. The creation of the solar burst catalogue covering two years of observation is described and some examples of solar observations are given. The estimated energy releases in the flares presented here are found to extend below the range of hard X-ray flares which were previously studied by ISEE-3 and HXRBS/SMM detectors. The X-ray emitting component cannot be exclusively explained by contributions from a thermal plasma around a few keV. Either a hotter component or a non-thermal population of particles must also be present to produce the observed deka-keV emission. The WATCH data furthermore shows that the relative contributions of these components may change during an event or from event to event and that the injection of energy contained in suprathermal electrons may occur throughout an event and not only during the rise phase. For the most energetic WATCH flares simultaneous observations performed by other experiments at higher energies further indicate that non-thermal emission can be observed as low as 10 keV. A statistical study is performed on the total WATCH solar database and frequency distributions are built on measured X-ray flare parameters. It is also investigated how the properties of these frequency distributions behave when subgroups of events defined by different ranges of parameters are considered. No correlation is found between the elapsed time interval between successive flares arising from the same active region and the peak intensity of the flare.

  13. On nonlinear evolution of low-frequency Alfvén waves in weakly-expanding solar wind plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nariyuki, Y.

    2015-02-15

    A multi-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation for Alfvén waves in weakly-expanding solar wind plasmas is derived by using the reductive perturbation method. The expansion of solar wind plasma parcels is modeled by an expanding box model, which includes the accelerating expansion. It is shown that the resultant equation agrees with the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin prediction of the low-frequency Alfvén waves in the linear limit. In the cold and one-dimensional limit, a modified derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation is obtained. Direct numerical simulations are carried out to discuss the effect of the expansion on the modulational instability of monochromatic Alfvén waves and the propagation of Alfvén solitons. By using the instantaneous frequency, it is quantitatively shown that as far as the expansion rate is much smaller than wave frequencies, effects of the expansion are almost adiabatic. It is also confirmed that while shapes of Alfvén solitons temporally change due to the expansion, some of them can stably propagate after their collision in weakly-expanding plasmas.

  14. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION SOURCE REGION AT LOW FREQUENCIES DURING A SOLAR ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Rajalingam, M. E-mail: kathir@iiap.res.in E-mail: rajalingam@iiap.res.in

    2012-01-10

    We carried out radio observations of the solar corona in the frequency range 109-50 MHz during the annular eclipse of 2010 January 15 from the Gauribidanur Observatory, located about 100 km north of Bangalore in India. The radio emission in the above frequency range originates typically in the radial distance range Almost-Equal-To 1.2-1.5 R{sub Sun} in the 'undisturbed' solar atmosphere. Our analysis indicates that (1) the angular size of the smallest observable radio source (associated with a coronal mass ejection in the present case) is Almost-Equal-To 1' {+-} 0.'3, (2) the source size does not vary with radial distance, (3) the peak brightness temperature of the source corresponding to the above size at a typical frequency like 77 MHz is Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} K, and (4) the coronal magnetic field near the source region is Almost-Equal-To 70 mG.

  15. Why DA and DB white dwarfs do not show coronal activity and p-mode oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Musielak, Z.E.; Fontenla, J.M. )

    1989-11-01

    The problems of nonradiative heating of outer atmospheric layers and p-mode oscillations in white dwarfs caused by acoustic waves generated in convective zones are discussed. These effects have been studied by calculating the cutoff periods for adiabatic and isothermal waves propagating in atmospheres of DA and DB stars with Teff greater than or equal 20,000 K and log g = 6-9. The obtained cutoff periods are approximately bounded by 0.01 and 40 sec for high- and low-gravity white dwarfs, respectively. Expected amplitudes of p-mode oscillations corresponding to trapped acoustic waves with small angular wave numbers are estimated, indicating that the amplitudes could be observed as Doppler shifts of spectral lines which might be detectable if adequate spectral resolution were available. The luminosity variations corresponding to these amplitudes are unlikely to be observable when all damping processes are accounted for. Results also indicate that the present theory of convection predicts some irregularities in the behavior of physical parameters. 34 refs.

  16. Why DA and DB white dwarfs do not show coronal activity and p-mode oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Fontenla, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The problems of nonradiative heating of outer atmospheric layers and p-mode oscillations in white dwarfs caused by acoustic waves generated in convective zones are discussed. These effects have been studied by calculating the cutoff periods for adiabatic and isothermal waves propagating in atmospheres of DA and DB stars with Teff greater than or equal 20,000 K and log g = 6-9. The obtained cutoff periods are approximately bounded by 0.01 and 40 sec for high- and low-gravity white dwarfs, respectively. Expected amplitudes of p-mode oscillations corresponding to trapped acoustic waves with small angular wave numbers are estimated, indicating that the amplitudes could be observed as Doppler shifts of spectral lines which might be detectable if adequate spectral resolution were available. The luminosity variations corresponding to these amplitudes are unlikely to be observable when all damping processes are accounted for. Results also indicate that the present theory of convection predicts some irregularities in the behavior of physical parameters.

  17. FRESH INSIGHTS ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Sarbani; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne; New, Roger; Serenelli, Aldo M. E-mail: w.j.chaplin@bham.ac.uk E-mail: r.new@shu.ac.uk

    2009-07-10

    We present new results on the structure of the solar core, obtained with new sets of frequencies of solar low-degree p modes obtained from the BiSON network. We find that different methods used in extracting the different sets of frequencies cause shifts in frequencies, but the shifts are not large enough to affect solar structure results. We find that the BiSON frequencies show that the solar sound speed in the core is slightly larger than that inferred from data from Michelson Doppler Imager low-degree modes, and the uncertainties on the inversion results are smaller. Density results also change by a larger amount, and we find that solar models now tend to show smaller differences in density compared to the Sun. The result is seen at all radii, a result of the fact that conservation of mass implies that density differences in one region have to cancel out density differences in others, since our models are constructed to have the same mass as the Sun. The uncertainties on the density results are much smaller too. We attribute the change in results to having more, and lower frequency, low-degree mode frequencies available. These modes provide greater sensitivity to conditions in the core.

  18. Occurrence frequencies of polar mesosphere summer echoes observed at 69° N during a full solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latteck, R.; Bremer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) are strong enhancements of received signal power at very high radar frequencies occurring at altitudes between about 80 and 95 km at polar latitudes during summer. PMSE are caused by inhomogeneities in the electron density of the radar Bragg scale within the plasma of the cold summer mesopause region in the presence of negatively charged ice particles. Thus the occurrence of PMSE contains information about mesospheric temperature and water vapour content but also depends on the ionisation due to solar wave radiation and precipitating high energetic particles. Continuous and homogeneous observations of PMSE have been done on the North-Norwegian island Andøya (69.3° N, 16.0° E) from 1999 until 2008 using the ALWIN VHF radar at 53.5 MHz. In 2009 the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics in Kühlungsborn, Germany (IAP) started the installation of the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) at the same location. The observation of mesospheric echoes could be continued in spring 2010 starting with an initial stage of expansion of MAARSY and is carried out with the completed installation of the radar since May 2011. Since both the ALWIN radar and MAARSY are calibrated, the received echo strength of PMSE from 14 yr of mesospheric observations could be converted to absolute signal power. Occurrence frequencies based on different common thresholds of PMSE echo strength were used for investigations of the solar and geomagnetic control of the PMSE as well as of possible long-term changes. The PMSE are positively correlated with the solar Lyman α radiation and the geomagnetic activity. The occurrence frequencies of the PMSE show slightly positive trends but with marginal significance levels.

  19. Energetic electrons from solar flares and associated type 3 radio bursts from metric to hectometric wave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1972-01-01

    Distinct Kev electron events as observed by satellites near the earth are, in general, associated with solar flares which are accompained by the emission of both metric and hectometric type 3 radio bursts. The positions of these flares are mainly on the western hemisphere of the sun. These results show that Kev electrons propagate under the control of the magnetic field in the interplanetary space and that, while propagating through this space, these electrons excite type 3 radio bursts from metric to hectometric wave frequencies. Emission characteristics of hectometric type 3 bursts are briefly considered in relation to the positions of associated flares.

  20. An investigation of ground-based observations of solar oscillations at Stanford

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, Harald M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Data obtained in the last 8 years of solar differential Doppler observations at Stanford were considered. The four best time series of data were examined in detail. The sources of error in the data were investigated and removed where possible. In particular, the contribution resulting from transparency variations in the sky was examined. Detection method applicable to data with low signal to noise ratio and low filling factor were developed and utilized for the investigation of global solar modes of oscillations in the data. The frequencies of p-modes were measured and identified. The presence of g-modes were also determined in the Stanford data.

  1. Catalogue of x-ray solar flare induced variations in sub-ionospheric very low frequency (VLF) waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, Hans; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Besser, Bruno P.; Wolbang, Daniel; Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Biagi, Pier F.; Stachel, Manfred; Prattes, Gustav; Aydogar, Özer; Muck, Cosima; Grill, Claudia; Jernej, Irmgard; Stachel, Thomas; Moro, Florian

    2017-04-01

    In this study we present a catalogue of solar flare induced very low frequency (VLF) variations along sub-ionospheric paths between several transmitters and the Graz seismo-electromagnetic UltraMSK receiving station. These measurements of non-seismic disturbances are important in order to carefully characterise the Earth-ionosphere VLF waveguide and disentangle possible earthquake related phenomena from natural and man-made ambient VLF amplitude and phase modifications. The period of investigation is from Jan. 2010 to April 2016, i.e. largely covers the sunspot cycle 24. In total we've 373 VLF amplitude and phase fluctuations related with C/M/X-class solar flare events (the data are from NOAA GOES x-ray flux measurements). We obtain the statistics (dependence on VLF signal vs. x-ray flux variations) for high signal-to-noise ratio VLF links under consideration of the zenith angle. We conclude, that with the mid-latitude Graz VLF knot, a part of the European receiver network, a reliable service for solar flare induced variations of the VLF waveguide can be established. In addition to complementary region-wide network multi-parameter observations this could be a crucial step towards a full characterisation of the behaviour of sub-ionospheric VLF paths including modifications related to seismic activity.

  2. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-12-03

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation &immersion (E &I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm(2)) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance.

  3. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation & immersion (E & I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm2) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance.

  4. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation & immersion (E & I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm2) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance. PMID:26631493

  5. The quasi-biennial periodicity (QBP) in velocity and intensity helioseismic observations. The seismic QBP over solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, R.; Finsterle, W.; Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Jiménez, A.; Roth, M.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We looked for signatures of quasi-biennial periodicity (QBP) over different phases of solar cycle by means of acoustic modes of oscillation. Low-degree p-mode frequencies are shown to be sensitive to changes in magnetic activity due to the global dynamo. Recently there has been reported evidence of two-year variations in p-mode frequencies. Methods: Long high-quality helioseismic data are provided by BiSON (Birmingham Solar Oscillation Network), GONG (Global Oscillation Network Group), GOLF (Global Oscillation at Low Frequency) and VIRGO (Variability of Solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillation) instruments. We determined the solar cycle changes in p-mode frequencies for spherical degree ℓ = 0, 1, 2 with their azimuthal components in the frequency range 2.5 mHz ≤ ν ≤ 3.5 mHz. Results: We found signatures of QBP at all levels of solar activity in the modes more sensitive to higher latitudes. The signal strength increases with latitude and the equatorial component also seems to be modulated by the 11-year envelope. Conclusions: The persistent nature of the seismic QBP is not observed in the surface activity indices, where mid-term variations are found only from time to time and mainly in periods of high activity. This feature, together with the latitudinal dependence, provides more evidence of a mechanism that is almost independent and different from the one that brings the active regions up to the surface. Therefore, these findings can be used to provide more constraints on dynamo models that consider a further cyclic component on top of the 11-year cycle.

  6. Holocene flood frequency across the Central Alps - solar forcing and evidence for variations in North Atlantic atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Stefanie B.; Glur, Lukas; Gilli, Adrian; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2013-11-01

    The frequency of large-scale heavy precipitation events in the European Alps is expected to undergo substantial changes with current climate change. Hence, knowledge about the past natural variability of floods caused by heavy precipitation constitutes important input for climate projections. We present a comprehensive Holocene (10,000 years) reconstruction of the flood frequency in the Central European Alps combining 15 lacustrine sediment records. These records provide an extensive catalog of flood deposits, which were generated by flood-induced underflows delivering terrestrial material to the lake floors. The multi-archive approach allows suppressing local weather patterns, such as thunderstorms, from the obtained climate signal. We reconstructed mainly late spring to fall events since ice cover and precipitation in form of snow in winter at high-altitude study sites do inhibit the generation of flood layers. We found that flood frequency was higher during cool periods, coinciding with lows in solar activity. In addition, flood occurrence shows periodicities that are also observed in reconstructions of solar activity from 14C and 10Be records (2500-3000, 900-1200, as well as of about 710, 500, 350, 208 (Suess cycle), 150, 104 and 87 (Gleissberg cycle) years). As atmospheric mechanism, we propose an expansion/shrinking of the Hadley cell with increasing/decreasing air temperature, causing dry/wet conditions in Central Europe during phases of high/low solar activity. Furthermore, differences between the flood patterns from the Northern Alps and the Southern Alps indicate changes in North Atlantic circulation. Enhanced flood occurrence in the South compared to the North suggests a pronounced southward position of the Westerlies and/or blocking over the northern North Atlantic, hence resembling a negative NAO state (most distinct from 4.2 to 2.4 kyr BP and during the Little Ice Age). South-Alpine flood activity therefore provides a qualitative record of variations

  7. Direct conversion of light to radio frequency energy. [using photoklystrons for solar power satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.; Simons, S.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the test results obtained with the latest models of the phototron. The phototron was conceived as a replacement for the high voltage solar cell-high power klystron combination for the solar power satellite concept. Physically, the phototron is a cylindrical evacuated glass tube with a photocathode, two grids, and a reflector electrode in a planar configuration. The phototron can be operated either in a biased mode where a low voltage is used to accelerate the electron beam produced by the photocathode or in an unbiased mode referred to as self-oscillation. The device is easily modulated by light input or voltage to broadcast in AM or FM. The range of operation of the present test model phototrons is from 2 to 200 MHz.

  8. Identification of Some Low Frequency Wave Modes in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Electric fields provide the major coupling between the turbulence of the solar wind and particles. It has been shown, using statistical methods, that a large part of the turbulent spectrum of fluctuations in the solar wind is due to kinetic Alfven waves (KAW). In this note, an attempt is made to determine the mode identification of individual waveforms using the three dimensional system of SWaves on the STEREO spacecraft. Samples are chosen, using waveforms with an apparent periodic structure, selected visually. The short antennas of STEREO respond to density fluctuations as well as to electric fields. Measurement of four quantities using only three antennas presents a problem. Methods to overcome, or to ignore, this difficulty will be presented. On the other hand, density measurement can sometimes be useful in mode identification. All of these methods will be used, and results presented

  9. Direct conversion of light to radio frequency energy. [using photoklystrons for solar power satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.; Simons, S.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the test results obtained with the latest models of the phototron. The phototron was conceived as a replacement for the high voltage solar cell-high power klystron combination for the solar power satellite concept. Physically, the phototron is a cylindrical evacuated glass tube with a photocathode, two grids, and a reflector electrode in a planar configuration. The phototron can be operated either in a biased mode where a low voltage is used to accelerate the electron beam produced by the photocathode or in an unbiased mode referred to as self-oscillation. The device is easily modulated by light input or voltage to broadcast in AM or FM. The range of operation of the present test model phototrons is from 2 to 200 MHz.

  10. Low Frequency (30-110 MHz) Radio Imaging Observations Of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, R.

    Ground based radio imaging observations play an useful role in the study of mass ejections from the solar corona since they do not have the limitation of an occulter and both the disk/limb events can be detected early in their development, particularly via the thermal bremmstrahlung emission from the frontal loop of the CME. I present here some of the recent results on the above topic using data obtained with the Gauribidanur radioheliograph, near Bangalore in India.

  11. Are the 1986-1988 changes in solar free-oscillation frequency splitting significant?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, Douglas; Stark, Philip B.

    1993-01-01

    The solar normal-mode splitting coefficients deduced from Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) data differ between 1986 and 1988; inversions for equatorial rotation are slower at depth and faster near the surface in 1988 than in 1986. The significance of the change has been disputed. The data sets overlap for five splitting coefficients (a(j))super 5 sub j = 1 associated with 710 multiplets. On the assumption that rotation rate varies smoothly with radius, both data sets are satisfied by the same rotation model at all colatitudes except near 30-40 deg and near 70 deg (and at their southern hemisphere reflections 140-150 deg and 110 deg). The evidence for equatorial change is weak. Nonparametric tests show a significant offset in the magnitudes of a(1), a(2), and a(4), and of linear combinations sensitive to rotation at colatitudes of 60-80 deg (and 120 deg). Nonparametric tests show significant radial trends in the changes to a(2), a(4), and (less significantly) a(5). There is strong anticorrelation between a(2) and a(4), a(1) and a(3), and a(3) and a(5), suggesting that the estimates are not independent. Individual coefficients a(j) show more evidence for change than do 'physical' linear combinations, adding weight to this hypothesis. Some of the changes in splitting might be related to solar activity, which changed most near colatitude 70 deg from 1986 to 1988.

  12. Differences of the Solar Magnetic Activity Signature in Velocity and Intensity Helioseismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Jiménez, A.

    2013-12-01

    The high-quality, full-disk helioseismic observations continuously collected by the spectrophotometer GOLF and the three photometers VIRGO/SPMs onboard the SoHO spacecraft for 17 years now (since April 11, 1996, apart from the SoHO “vacations”) are absolutely unique for the study of the interior of the Sun and its variability with magnetic activity. Here, we look at the differences in the low-degree oscillation p-mode frequencies between radial velocity and intensity measurements taking into account all the known features of the p-mode profiles (e.g., the opposite peak asymmetry), and of the power spectrum (e.g., the presence of the higher degrees ℓ = 4 and 5 in the signal). We show that the intensity frequencies are higher than the velocity frequencies during the solar cycle with a clear temporal dependence. The response between the individual angular degrees is also different. Time delays are observed between the temporal variations in GOLF and VIRGO frequencies. Such analysis is important in order to put new constraints and to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the temporal variations of the oscillation frequencies with the solar magnetic activity as well as their height dependences in the solar atmosphere. It is also important for the study of the stellar magnetic activity using asteroseismic data.

  13. The identification of solar wind waves at discrete frequencies and the role of the spectral analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, S.; Villante, U.

    2017-05-01

    The occurrence of waves at discrete frequencies in the solar wind (SW) parameters has been reported in the scientific literature with some controversial results, mostly concerning the existence (and stability) of favored sets of frequencies. On the other hand, the experimental results might be influenced by the analytical methods adopted for the spectral analysis. We focused attention on the fluctuations of the SW dynamic pressure (PSW) occurring in the leading edges of streams following interplanetary shocks and compared the results of the Welch method (WM) with those of the multitaper method (MTM). The results of a simulation analysis demonstrate that the identification of the wave occurrence and the frequency estimate might be strongly influenced by the signal characteristics and analytical methods, especially in the presence of multicomponent signals. In SW streams, PSW oscillations are routinely detected in the entire range f ≈ 1.2-5.0 mHz; nevertheless, the WM/MTM agreement in the identification and frequency estimate occurs in ≈50% of events and different sets of favored frequencies would be proposed for the same set of events by the WM and MTM analysis. The histogram of the frequency distribution of the events identified by both methods suggests more relevant percentages between f ≈ 1.7-1.9, f ≈ 2.7-3.4, and f ≈ 3.9-4.4 (with a most relevant peak at f ≈ 4.2 mHz). Extremely severe thresholds select a small number (14) of remarkable events, with a one-to-one correspondence between WM and MTM: interestingly, these events reveal a tendency for a favored occurrence in bins centered at f ≈ 2.9 and at f ≈ 4.2 mHz.

  14. Performance of a laser frequency comb calibration system with a high-resolution solar echelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, H.-P.; Kentischer, T. J.; Steinmetz, T.; Probst, R. A.; Franz, M.; Holzwarth, R.; Udem, Th.; Hänsch, T. W.; Schmidt, W.

    2012-09-01

    Laser frequency combs (LFC) provide a direct link between the radio frequency (RF) and the optical frequency regime. The comb-like spectrum of an LFC is formed by exact equidistant laser modes, whose absolute optical frequencies are controlled by RF-references such as atomic clocks or GPS receivers. While nowadays LFCs are routinely used in metrological and spectroscopic fields, their application in astronomy was delayed until recently when systems became available with a mode spacing and wavelength coverage suitable for calibration of astronomical spectrographs. We developed a LFC based calibration system for the high-resolution echelle spectrograph at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), located at the Teide observatory, Tenerife, Canary Islands. To characterize the calibration performance of the instrument, we use an all-fiber setup where sunlight and calibration light are fed to the spectrograph by the same single-mode fiber, eliminating systematic effects related to variable grating illumination.

  15. Turnover Frequency in Solar Microwave Bursts with an Extremely Flat Optically Thin Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Q. W.; Nakajima, H.; Huang, G. L.; Tan, B. L.; Huang, Y.; Wu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Four microwave bursts have been selected from the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeter (NoRP) observations with an extremely flat spectrum in the optically thin part and a very hard spectral index between 0 and -1 in the maximum phase of all bursts. It is found that the time evolution of the turnover frequency is inversely proportional to the time profiles of the radio flux in all bursts. Based on the nonthermal gyrosynchrotron theory of Ramaty ( Astrophys. J. 158, 753, 1969), the local magnetic field strength and the electron spectral index are calculated uniquely from the observed radio spectral index and the turnover frequency. We found that the electron energy spectrum is very hard (spectral index 1 - 2), and the time variation of the magnetic field strength is also inversely proportional to the radio flux as a function of time in all bursts. Hence, the time evolution of the turnover frequency can be explained directly by its dependence on the local magnetic field strength. The high turnover frequency (several tens of GHz) is mainly caused by a strong magnetic field of up to several hundred gauss, and probably by the Razin effect under a high plasma density over 10^{10} cm^{-3} in the maximum phase of these bursts. Therefore, the extremely flat microwave spectrum can be well understood by the observed high turnover frequency and the calculated hard electron spectral index.

  16. Ultra Low-Frequency Oscillations of a Solar Filament Observed by the GONG Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, V. I.; Parfinenko, L. D.; Solov'ev, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The data of ground-based telescopes of the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) obtained in the Hα line provide an opportunity to study the long-period oscillations of chromospheric filaments (quiescent prominences). For the first time, on the basis of time series of 5 days duration that we combined from the observations of three observatories of the GONG network, a new ultra-low mode with a period of between 20 and 30 hours was reliably detected in oscillations of a long-lived dark filament on the solar disk.

  17. Ionospheric error contribution to GNSS single-frequency navigation at the 2014 solar maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orus Perez, Raul

    2017-04-01

    For single-frequency users of the global satellite navigation system (GNSS), one of the main error contributors is the ionospheric delay, which impacts the received signals. As is well-known, GPS and Galileo transmit global models to correct the ionospheric delay, while the international GNSS service (IGS) computes precise post-process global ionospheric maps (GIM) that are considered reference ionospheres. Moreover, accurate ionospheric maps have been recently introduced, which allow for the fast convergence of the real-time precise point position (PPP) globally. Therefore, testing of the ionospheric models is a key issue for code-based single-frequency users, which constitute the main user segment. Therefore, the testing proposed in this paper is straightforward and uses the PPP modeling applied to single- and dual-frequency code observations worldwide for 2014. The usage of PPP modeling allows us to quantify—for dual-frequency users—the degradation of the navigation solutions caused by noise and multipath with respect to the different ionospheric modeling solutions, and allows us, in turn, to obtain an independent assessment of the ionospheric models. Compared to the dual-frequency solutions, the GPS and Galileo ionospheric models present worse global performance, with horizontal root mean square (RMS) differences of 1.04 and 0.49 m and vertical RMS differences of 0.83 and 0.40 m, respectively. While very precise global ionospheric models can improve the dual-frequency solution globally, resulting in a horizontal RMS difference of 0.60 m and a vertical RMS difference of 0.74 m, they exhibit a strong dependence on the geographical location and ionospheric activity.

  18. Ionospheric error contribution to GNSS single-frequency navigation at the 2014 solar maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orus Perez, Raul

    2016-11-01

    For single-frequency users of the global satellite navigation system (GNSS), one of the main error contributors is the ionospheric delay, which impacts the received signals. As is well-known, GPS and Galileo transmit global models to correct the ionospheric delay, while the international GNSS service (IGS) computes precise post-process global ionospheric maps (GIM) that are considered reference ionospheres. Moreover, accurate ionospheric maps have been recently introduced, which allow for the fast convergence of the real-time precise point position (PPP) globally. Therefore, testing of the ionospheric models is a key issue for code-based single-frequency users, which constitute the main user segment. Therefore, the testing proposed in this paper is straightforward and uses the PPP modeling applied to single- and dual-frequency code observations worldwide for 2014. The usage of PPP modeling allows us to quantify—for dual-frequency users—the degradation of the navigation solutions caused by noise and multipath with respect to the different ionospheric modeling solutions, and allows us, in turn, to obtain an independent assessment of the ionospheric models. Compared to the dual-frequency solutions, the GPS and Galileo ionospheric models present worse global performance, with horizontal root mean square (RMS) differences of 1.04 and 0.49 m and vertical RMS differences of 0.83 and 0.40 m, respectively. While very precise global ionospheric models can improve the dual-frequency solution globally, resulting in a horizontal RMS difference of 0.60 m and a vertical RMS difference of 0.74 m, they exhibit a strong dependence on the geographical location and ionospheric activity.

  19. High frequency solar influence revealed in sclerosponge-derived Caribbean SST record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrella, J.; Winter, A.; Sherman, C.; Mangini, A.

    2012-12-01

    We present a high-resolution (annual) record of the Caribbean mixed layer temperature at different depths derived from oxygen isotopic ratios obtained from the sclerosponge Ceratoporella nicholsoni. Sclerosponges precipitate their calcium carbonate skeleton in equilibrium with their surrounding environment and are capable of living at depths down to 200 m. The sponges for this project were collected off the coasts of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in northeastern Caribbean Sea. The records obtained extend from the early 1500's to the present and suggest that the Northeastern Caribbean was 1 - 2 °C cooler during the Little Ice Age than present conditions and that sea surface temperature (SST) has been rising at an average linear rate of 0.009 °C yr-1 since the mid 1800's, three times faster than the World Ocean. Wavelet time series analysis of our records suggests that Caribbean SST variability is regulated by the sunspot cycle, especially when the total solar irradiance is high, at what time the SSTs and the sunspot cycle are highly coupled. Our findings suggest a SST response to solar influence of 0.40 °C (W/m2)-1, almost twice that of the World Ocean. Deceleration of the Caribbean Current is proposed as a possible reason for this disparity. Further work is currently being done on other sponges and other calcium carbonate proxies to examine the extension of this forcing in other climate phenomena.

  20. Frequency Drift Rate Investigation of Solar Radio Burst Type II Due to Coronal Mass Ejections Occurrence on 4th November 2015 Captured by CALLISTO at Sumedang-Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batubara, M.; Manik, T.; Suryana, R.; Lathif, M.; Sitompul, P.; Zamzam, M.; Mumtahana, F.

    2017-03-01

    The formations type of solar radio bursts can be known base on the frequency range that is detected. The CALLISTO system works with a wide band of the frequency making it possible to detect several types of solar burst. Indonesia exactly at Sumedang, CALLISTO system detected the formation of solar radio bursts forms of type II for the first time on 5 November 2014. On the other side, CALLISTO spectrometer detects and traces the phenomenon of CME (Coronal Mass Ejections) which causes the solar radio burst type II occurrence. In this paper will be calculated frequency drift rate during the occurrence of solar radio bursts of type II phenomenon on 4th November 2015 at 03:30 UT. The results of these calculations will be discussed as a related study of drift rate during the phenomenon of burst type II radio bursts associated with CME. The obtained drift rate during the solar radio bursts events above 2.8 MHz / s with low drift rate so that the speed of the CME that occurred only about 790 km / s as shown from LASCO.

  1. Statistical aspects of the 1980 solar flars. 1: Data base, frequency distributions, and overview remarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    AII1349 H alpha flares occurring in 1980 which have known start, maximum brightness, and end times, latitudes, and associated importance and X-ray classes were used to perform a statistical study of flare rise time, decay time, duration, latitude, importance (areal and relative intensity), and X-ray class. Frequency distributions of these parameters are tabulated and plotted.

  2. Propagation of solar oscillations to secondary cosmic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, C.; Thomson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutron monitor data show periodic modulation of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere from the 11-year solar cycle. However, neutron data is peculiar for a counting process because on shorter time scales their variance is less than the average. We investigate neutron monitor spectra for evidence that solar modes, systematic solar oscillations of the sun's interior, contribute to periodic variability in cosmic ray intensity on Earth. Accurate modal frequencies are given in Broomhall, MNRAS. 396 (2009). Though the interplanetary medium is widely accepted as turbulent, Thomson et al. [1] have shown that signatures of the solar normal modes of oscillation coexist with turbulence in interplanetary charged particle flux data from the Ulysses and Voyager spacecraft. Subsequent studies have strengthened these claims [2]. We show peaks in Bartol Research Institute neutron monitor spectra which agree with candidate mode frequencies in the p-mode band (250-5100μHz) and exhibit characteristic mode splittings due to solar rotation. The figure shows part of the spectrum of 10-s neutron count data from July-September 2005. This spectrum has 48 peaks above the 99.9% significance level in the band, whereas for random data one expects ~2.2 peaks. Additionally, we find significant peaks with modal splittings above the 5100μHz acoustic cutoff. [1] Thomson et al., Propagation of solar oscillations through the interplanetary medium, Nature. 376 (1995). [2] Thomson et al., Solar modal structure of the engineering environment, IEEE. 95 (2007).

  3. A solar plasma stream measured by DRVID and dual-frequency range and Doppler radio metric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, F. B.; Wu, S. C.; Komarek, T. A.; Lam, V. W.; Royden, H. N.; Yip, K. B. W.

    1977-01-01

    S- and X-band DRVID, S- and X-band dual-frequency range (SX(p)), and Doppler (SX(p)) measured a 15-fold increase in the line-of-sight electron content of the solar plasma above the normal plasma background. A general increase in the plasma electron content continued for nearly 50 hours: it started about 12:00 (GMT) on 12 March 1976 and continued to grow until 17:00 (GMT) on 14 March. For the next 55 hours, between 17:00 (GMT) on 14 March to 00:54 (GMT) on 17 March, the plasma level diminished as the background level was approached. Not only were the temporal changes and absolute level of the plasma content measured but the measurements were also used to ascertain the mean-plasma-concentration location: it was estimated to be 4.1 light minutes from earth.

  4. A Novel Hybrid Statistical Particle Swarm Optimization for Multimodal Functions and Frequency Control of Hybrid Wind-Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Harish Kumar; Jain, Cheshta

    2016-09-01

    In this article, a hybrid algorithm of particle swarm optimization (PSO) with statistical parameter (HSPSO) is proposed. Basic PSO for shifted multimodal problems have low searching precision due to falling into a number of local minima. The proposed approach uses statistical characteristics to update the velocity of the particle to avoid local minima and help particles to search global optimum with improved convergence. The performance of the newly developed algorithm is verified using various standard multimodal, multivariable, shifted hybrid composition benchmark problems. Further, the comparative analysis of HSPSO with variants of PSO is tested to control frequency of hybrid renewable energy system which comprises solar system, wind system, diesel generator, aqua electrolyzer and ultra capacitor. A significant improvement in convergence characteristic of HSPSO algorithm over other variants of PSO is observed in solving benchmark optimization and renewable hybrid system problems.

  5. Geometry of low-frequency solar wind magnetic turbulence: Evidence for radially aligned Alfénic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Joachim; Bieber, John W.

    1999-05-01

    We employ ``omnitape'' magnetic field data to determine the geometry of low-frequency (5- to 12-hour timescales) magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind. We consider three axisymmetric geometries, slab, two-dimensional (2-D), and isotropic, as well as binary combinations of them. Both the radial direction and the mean magnetic field direction are considered as candidate symmetry axes. We apply simultaneously three different tests for distinguishing these geometries. Our analysis decisively favors a binary geometry composed of 2-D turbulence symmetric with respect to the mean field direction and slab turbulence symmetric with respect to the radial direction. The presence of a slab component with radial symmetry provides observational support for a long-standing theoretical prediction of radially aligned Alfvénic fluctuations at 1 AU. We also find a variation of turbulence properties with solar wind speed, such that magnetic fluctuations in slow wind are more energetic and possess a greater proportion of slab modes than those in fast wind, and the ratio of longitudinal to transverse power in the 2-D component increases with wind speed.

  6. An estimate of the coronal magnetic field near a solar coronal mass ejection from low-frequency radio observations

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, K.; Ramesh, R.; Kishore, P.; Kathiravan, C.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2014-11-01

    We report ground-based, low-frequency (<100 MHz) radio imaging, spectral, and polarimeter observations of the type II radio burst associated with the solar coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2013 May 2. The spectral observations indicate that the burst has fundamental (F) and harmonic (H) emission components with split-band and herringbone structures. The imaging observations at 80 MHz indicate that the H component of the burst was located close to leading edge of the CME at a radial distance of r ≈ 2 R {sub ☉} in the solar atmosphere. The polarimeter observations of the type II burst, also at 80 MHz, indicate that the peak degree of circular polarization (dcp) corresponding to the emission generated in the corona ahead of and behind the associated MHD shock front are ≈0.05 ± 0.02 and ≈0.1 ± 0.01, respectively. We calculated the magnetic field B in the above two coronal regions by adopting the empirical relationship between the dcp and B for the harmonic plasma emission and the values are ≈(0.7-1.4) ± 0.2 G and ≈(1.4-2.8) ± 0.1 G, respectively.

  7. A HIGH-FREQUENCY TYPE II SOLAR RADIO BURST ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2011 FEBRUARY 13 CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, K.-S.; Kim, R.-S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Yashiro, S.

    2013-03-10

    We examine the relationship between the high-frequency (425 MHz) type II radio burst and the associated white-light coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2011 February 13. The radio burst had a drift rate of 2.5 MHz s{sup -1}, indicating a relatively high shock speed. From SDO/AIA observations we find that a loop-like erupting front sweeps across high-density coronal loops near the start time of the burst (17:34:17 UT). The deduced distance of shock formation (0.06 Rs) from the flare center and speed of the shock (1100 km s{sup -1}) using the measured density from SDO/AIA observations are comparable to the height (0.05 Rs, from the solar surface) and speed (700 km s{sup -1}) of the CME leading edge observed by STEREO/EUVI. We conclude that the type II burst originates even in the low corona (<59 Mm or 0.08 Rs, above the solar surface) due to the fast CME shock passing through high-density loops.

  8. THE FREQUENCY OF HOT JUPITERS ORBITING NEARBY SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J. T.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A. W.; Johnson, John Asher; Morton, T. D.; Fischer, D. A.

    2012-07-10

    We determine the fraction of F, G, and K dwarfs in the solar neighborhood hosting hot Jupiters as measured by the California Planet Survey from the Lick and Keck planet searches. We find the rate to be 1.2% {+-} 0.38%, which is consistent with the rate reported by Mayor et al. from the HARPS and CORALIE radial velocity (RV) surveys. These numbers are more than double the rate reported by Howard et al. for Kepler stars and the rate of Gould et al. from the OGLE-III transit search; however, due to small number statistics these differences are of only marginal statistical significance. We explore some of the difficulties in estimating this rate from the existing RV data sets and comparing RV rates to rates from other techniques.

  9. FREQUENCY OF MAUNDER MINIMUM EVENTS IN SOLAR-TYPE STARS INFERRED FROM ACTIVITY AND METALLICITY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, Dan; Tytler, David; Kirkman, David

    2012-03-10

    We consider the common proposition that the fraction of chromospherically very inactive stars in a solar-type sample is analogous to the fraction of the Sun's main-sequence lifetime spent in a grand minimum state. In a new approach to this proposition, we examine chromospheric activity log R'{sub HK} in a stellar sample having Hipparcos parallax measurements, and having spectroscopically determined metallicity close to solar (-0.1 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=} 0.1). We evaluate height above the Hipparcos main sequence, and estimate age using isochrones, to identify the most Sun-like stars in this sample. As a threshold below which a star is labeled very inactive, we use the peak of the HK activity distribution mapped over the quiet Sun during the 1968 epoch. We estimate the fraction of Maunder Minimum (MM) analog candidates in our sample at 11.1%. Given the 70 yr duration of the historical MM, this suggests that in any given year there is a 1/630 chance of entering a similar grand minimum. There are three important cautions with this type of estimate. First, recent investigation using actual activity and photometric time series has suggested that very low activity may not be a necessary criterion for identifying a non-cycling MM analog candidate. Second, this type of estimate depends very strongly on the choice of very low activity threshold. Third, in instantaneous measurements of log R'{sub HK}, it is not always clear whether a star is a viable MM analog candidate or merely an older star nearing the end of its main-sequence lifetime.

  10. The contribution of microbunching instability to solar flare emission in the GHz to THz range of frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Klopf, J.; Kaufmann, Pierre; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Szpigel, Sérgio

    2014-08-10

    Recent solar flare observations in the sub-terahertz range have provided evidence of a new spectral component with fluxes increasing for larger frequencies, separated from the well-known microwave emission that maximizes in the gigahertz range. Suggested interpretations explain the terahertz spectral component but do not account for the simultaneous microwave component. We present a mechanism for producing the observed 'double spectra'. Based on coherent enhancement of synchrotron emission at long wavelengths in laboratory accelerators, we consider how similar processes may occur within a solar flare. The instability known as microbunching arises from perturbations that produce electron beam density modulations, giving rise to broadband coherent synchrotron emission at wavelengths comparable to the characteristic size of the microbunch structure. The spectral intensity of this coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) can far exceed that of the incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), which peaks at a higher frequency, thus producing a double-peaked spectrum. Successful CSR simulations are shown to fit actual burst spectral observations, using typical flaring physical parameters and power-law energy distributions for the accelerated electrons. The simulations consider an energy threshold below which microbunching is not possible because of Coulomb repulsion. Only a small fraction of the radiating charges accelerated to energies above the threshold is required to produce the microwave component observed for several events. The ISR/CSR mechanism can occur together with other emission processes producing the microwave component. It may bring an important contribution to microwaves, at least for certain events where physical conditions for the occurrence of the ISR/CSR microbunching mechanism are possible.

  11. The contribution of microbunching instability to solar flare emission in the GHz to THz range of frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Klopf, J. Michael; Kaufmann, Pierre; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Szpigel, Sergio

    2014-07-01

    Recent solar flare observations in the sub-terahertz range have provided evidence of a new spectral component with fluxes increasing for larger frequencies, separated from the well-known microwave emission that maximizes in the gigahertz range. Suggested interpretations explain the terahertz spectral component but do not account for the simultaneous microwave component. We present a mechanism for producing the observed "double spectra." Based on coherent enhancement of synchrotron emission at long wavelengths in laboratory accelerators, we consider how similar processes may occur within a solar flare. The instability known as microbunching arises from perturbations that produce electron beam density modulations, giving rise to broadband coherent synchrotron emission at wavelengths comparable to the characteristic size of the microbunch structure. The spectral intensity of this coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) can far exceed that of the incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), which peaks at a higher frequency, thus producing a double-peaked spectrum. Successful CSR simulations are shown to fit actual burst spectral observations, using typical flaring physical parameters and power-law energy distributions for the accelerated electrons. The simulations consider an energy threshold below which microbunching is not possible because of Coulomb repulsion. Only a small fraction of the radiating charges accelerated to energies above the threshold is required to produce the microwave component observed for several events. The ISR/CSR mechanism can occur together with other emission processes producing the microwave component. It may bring an important contribution to microwaves, at least for certain events where physical conditions for the occurrence of the ISR/CSR microbunching mechanism are possible.

  12. Variable low-frequency radio emission of the solar system and galactic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, Alexander; Kolyadin, Vladimir; Rucker, Helmut; Zakharenko, Vyacheslav; Zarka, Philippe; Griessmeier, Jean-M.; Denis, Loran; Melnik, Valentin; Litvinenko, Galina; Zaitsev, Valerij; Falkovich, Igor; Ulyanov, Oleg; Sidorchuk, Mikhail; Stepkin, Sergej; Stanislavskij, Alexander; Kalinichenko, Nikolaj; Boiko, Nastja; Vasiljiva, Iaroslavna; Mukha, Dmytro; Koval, Artem

    2013-04-01

    There are many physical processes and propagation effects for the producing the time variable radio emission just at the low frequencies (at the decameter wavelength). The study of this radio emission is the important part of the modern radio astronomy. Strong progress in the development of the radio telescopes, methods and instrumentation allowed to start the corresponding investigations at new quality and quantity levels. It related to the implementation of the world largest UTR-2 radio telescope (effective area is more than 100 000 sq.m) more high sensitive at frequencies less than 30 MHz. During last years many new observations were carried out with this radio telescope and many new effects have been detected for the Sun, planets, interplanetary medium, exoplanets as well as various kinds of the stars.

  13. Hindcast and forecast of grand solar minina and maxima using a three-frequency dynamo model based on Jupiter-Saturn tidal frequencies modulating the 11-year sunspot cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The Schwabe frequency band of the Zurich sunspot record since 1749 is found to be made of three major cycles with periods of about 9.98, 10.9 and 11.86 years. The two side frequencies appear to be closely related to the spring tidal period of Jupiter and Saturn (range between 9.5 and 10.5 years, and median 9.93 years) and to the tidal sidereal period of Jupiter (about 11.86 years). The central cycle can be associated to a quasi-11-year sunspot solar dynamo cycle that appears to be approximately synchronized to the average of the two planetary frequencies. A simplified harmonic constituent model based on the above two planetary tidal frequencies and on the exact dates of Jupiter and Saturn planetary tidal phases, plus a theoretically deduced 10.87-year central cycle reveals complex quasi-periodic interference/beat patterns. The major beat periods occur at about 115, 61 and 130 years, plus a quasi-millennial large beat cycle around 983 years. These frequencies and other oscillations appear once the model is non-linearly processed. We show that equivalent synchronized cycles are found in cosmogenic records used to reconstruct solar activity and in proxy climate records throughout the Holocene (last 12,000 years) up to now. The quasi-secular beat oscillations hindcast reasonably well the known prolonged periods of low solar activity during the last millennium such as the Oort, Wolf, Sporer, Maunder and Dalton minima, as well as the 17 115-year long oscillations found in a detailed temperature reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere covering the last 2000 years. The millennial cycle hindcasts equivalent solar and climate cycles for 12,000 years. Finally, the harmonic model herein proposed reconstructs the prolonged solar minima that occurred during 1900- 1920 and 1960-1980 and the secular solar maxima around 1870-1890, 1940-1950 and 1995-2005 and a secular upward trending during the 20th century: this modulated trending agrees well with some solar proxy model, with

  14. Radio-frequency magnetron triode sputtering of cadmium telluride and zinc telluride films and solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Adam Lee

    The n-CdS/p-CdTe solar cell has been researched for many years now. Research groups use a variety of processes to fabricate thin-film CdS/CdTe cells, including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and RF diode sputtering. One of the central areas of investigation concerning CdS/CdTe cells is the problem of a Schottky barrier at the back contact. Even cells fabricated with ohmic back contacts degrade into Schottky barriers as the devices are used. This severely degrades power generation. One possible solution is to use p+-ZnTe as an interlayer between CdTe and the back contact. ZnTe is easily doped with Cu to be p-type. However, even contacts with this ZnTe interlayer degrade over time, because Cu is highly mobile and diffuses away from the contact towards the CdS/CdTe junction. Another possibility is to dope ZnTe with N. It has been demonstrated using molecular beam epitaxy and RF diode sputtering. In this study, CdTe films are fabricated using a variation of RF diode sputtering called triode sputtering. This technique allows for control of ion bombardment to the substrate during deposition. Also, a higher plasma density near the target is achieved allowing depositions at lower pressures. These films are characterized structurally to show the effects of the various deposition parameters. N-doped ZnTe films are also fabricated using this technique. These films are characterized electrically to show the effects of the various deposition parameters. Also, the effects of post-deposition annealing are observed. It is found that annealing at the right temperature can increase the conductivity of the films by a factor of 3 or more. However, annealing at higher temperatures decreases the conductivity to as low as 12% of the initial conductivity. Finally, RF triode sputtered N-doped ZnTe films are used as an interlayer at the back contact of a CdS/CdTe solar cell. The effects of annealing the device before and after contact deposition are observed

  15. 1-eV GaInNAs solar cells for ultrahigh-frequency multijunction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D.J.; Geisz, J.F.; Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M.

    1998-09-01

    The authors demonstrate working prototypes of a GaInNAs-based solar cell lattice-matched to GaAs with photoresponse down to 1 eV. This device is intended for use as the third junction of future-generation ultrahigh-efficiency three- and four-junction devices. Under the AM1.5 direct spectrum with all the light higher in energy than the GaAs band gap filtered out, the prototypes have open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.35 to 0.44 V, short-circuit currents of 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factors from 61--66%. The short-circuit currents are of principal concern: the internal quantum efficiencies rise only to about 0.2. The authors discuss the short diffusion lengths which are the reason for this low photocurrent. As a partial workaround for the poor diffusion lengths, they demonstrate a depletion-width-enhanced variation of one of the prototype devices that grades off decreased voltage for increased photocurrent, with a short-circuit current of 6.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and an open-circuit voltage of 0.29 V.

  16. 6-kyr record of flood frequency and intensity in the western Mediterranean Alps - Interplay of solar and temperature forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Sabatier; Bruno, Wilhelm; Francesco, Ficetola Gentile; Fanny, Moiroux; Jérôme, Poulenard; Anne-Lise, Develle; Adeline, Bichet; Wentao, Chen; Cécile, Pignol; Jean-Louis, Reyss; Ludovic, Gielly; Manon, Bajard; Yves, Perrette; Emmanuel, Malet; Pierre, Taberlet; Fabien, Arnaud

    2017-08-01

    The high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analysis of a sediment sequence from Lake Savine (Western Mediterranean Alps, France) led to the identification of 220 event layers for the last 6000 years. 200 were triggered by flood events and 20 by underwater mass movements possibly related to earthquakes that occurred in 5 clusters of increase seismicity. Because human activity could influence the flood chronicle, the presence of pastures was reconstructed through ancient DNA, which suggested that the flood chronicle was mainly driven by hydroclimate variability. Weather reanalysis of historical floods allow to identify that mesoscale precipitation events called ;East Return; events were the main triggers of floods recorded in Lake Savine. The first part of this palaeoflood record (6-4 kyr BP) was characterized by increases in flood frequency and intensity in phase with Northern Alpine palaeoflood records. By contrast, the second part of the record (i.e., since 4 kyr BP) was phased with Southern Alpine palaeoflood records. These results suggest a palaeohydrological transition at approximately 4 kyr BP, as has been previously described for the Mediterranean region. This may have resulted in a change of flood-prone hydro-meteorological processes, i.e., in the balance between occurrence and intensity of local convective climatic phenomena and their influence on Mediterranean mesoscale precipitation events in this part of the Alps. At a centennial timescale, increases in flood frequency and intensity corresponded to periods of solar minima, affecting climate through atmospheric changes in the Euro-Atlantic sector.

  17. A new class of solar burst with MM-wave emission but only at the highest frequency (90 GHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Vaz, A. M. Z.; Dennis, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    High sensitivity and high time resolution solar observations at 90 GHz (lambda = 3.3 mm) have identified a unique impulsive burst on May 21, 1984 with emission that was more intense at this frequency than at lower frequencies. The first major time structure of the burst was over 10 times more intense at 90 GHz than at 30 GHz, 7 GHz, or 2.8 GHz.Only 6 seconds later, the 30 GHz impulsive structures started to be observed but still with lower intensity than at 90 GHz. Hard X-ray time structures at energies above 25 keV were almost identical to the 90 GHZ structures (to better than one second). All 90 GHz major time structures consisted of trains of multiple subsecond pulses with rise times as short as 0.03 sec and amplitudes large compared to the mean flux. When detectable, the 30 GHz subsecond pulses had smaller relative amplitude and were in phase with the corresponding 90 GHz pulses.

  18. An instability due to the nonlinear coupling of p-modes to g-modes: Implications for coalescing neutron star binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Burkart, Joshua

    2013-06-01

    A weakly nonlinear fluid wave propagating within a star can be unstable to three-wave interactions. The resonant parametric instability is a well-known form of three-wave interaction in which a primary wave of frequency ω {sub a} excites a pair of secondary waves of frequency ω {sub b} + ω {sub c} ≅ ω {sub a}. Here we consider a nonresonant form of three-wave interaction in which a low-frequency primary wave excites a high-frequency p-mode and a low-frequency g-mode such that ω {sub b} + ω {sub c} >> ω {sub a}. We show that a p-mode can couple so strongly to a g-mode of similar radial wavelength that this type of nonresonant interaction is unstable even if the primary wave amplitude is small. As an application, we analyze the stability of the tide in coalescing neutron star binaries to p-g mode coupling. We find that the equilibrium tide and dynamical tide are both p-g unstable at gravitational wave frequencies f {sub gw} ≳ 20 Hz and drive short wavelength p-g mode pairs to significant energies on very short timescales (much less than the orbital decay time due to gravitational radiation). Resonant parametric coupling to the tide is, by contrast, either stable or drives modes at a much smaller rate. We do not solve for the saturation of the p-g instability and therefore we cannot say precisely how it influences the evolution of neutron star binaries. However, we show that if even a single daughter mode saturates near its wave breaking amplitude, the p-g instability of the equilibrium tide will (1) induce significant orbital phase errors (Δφ ≳ 1 radian) that accumulate primarily at low frequencies (f {sub gw} ≲ 50 Hz) and (2) heat the neutron star core to a temperature of T ∼ 10{sup 10} K. Since there are at least ∼100 unstable p-g daughter pairs, Δφ and T are potentially much larger than these values. Tides might therefore significantly influence the gravitational wave signal and electromagnetic emission from coalescing neutron star binaries

  19. Frequencies of solar activity in laminated anhydrite of Upper Permian age (Zechstein-cycle 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiete, M.; Berner, U.

    2003-04-01

    Upper Permian Zechstein contains seven evaporitic cycles that were deposited in an epicontinental sea expanding from E-England to Poland. Zechstein-cycles 1 to 3 show a sequence of marine pelite, overlain by marine carbonate and evaporites (in the order sulfate, halite containing possibly anhydrite and potassium salts, and regressive sulphate at the top). Whereas the marginal facies of the lower sulphate horizon of Zechstein-cycle 2 (Stassfurt cycle) consists of massive anhydrite, its basin facies shows in the lower part a fine lamination of white anhydrite alternating with thin black organic carbon rich layers. These laminations are supposed to be annually deposited layers. The black laminae originate from the annual bloom of algae. Layer thickness is about 0.4 to 1.0 mm and increases from basin centre to more marginal positions. The individual layers can be traced over 300 km within the NW-German Basin. The previously described variability of layer thickness requires a forcing mechanism that is effective over long distances and must be also highly periodic. Also, varying layer thicknesses indicate varying anhydrite precipitation, i. e. probably changes in water temperatures which in turn point to climatic influences on the deposition of the layers. Here we re-examined records of cycle thickness (up to 700 laminae) determined by G. Richter-Bernburg in the 1950ties using modern techniques of time series analysis, e. g. wavelet analysis. We could detect cycles with periods of 10-14 years and 90 years which are close to known cycles of solar activity.

  20. RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF THE FREQUENCY BREAK BETWEEN FLUID AND KINETIC SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND FLUCTUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, R.; Trenchi, L.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the radial dependence of the spectral break separating the inertial from the dissipation range in power density spectra of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations, between 0.42 and 5.3 AU, during radial alignments between MESSENGER and WIND for the inner heliosphere and between WIND and ULYSSES for the outer heliosphere. We found that the spectral break moves to higher and higher frequencies as the heliocentric distance decreases. The radial dependence of the corresponding wavenumber is of the kind κ {sub b} ∼ R {sup –1.08}, in good agreement with that of the wavenumber derived from the linear resonance condition for proton cyclotron damping. These results support conclusions from previous studies which suggest that a cyclotron-resonant dissipation mechanism must participate in the spectral cascade together with other possible kinetic noncyclotron-resonant mechanisms.

  1. Five-minute P Modes Detected in Doppler Shift Measurement on Alpha Centauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossat, E.; Grec, G.; Gelly, B.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrophotometer using the principle of optical resonance spectroscopy, designed for the goal of identifying radial and weakly non radial eigenmodes in the five minute range in the case of stars, is discussed. The conclusion of the first test of this new instrument was that if the observation can be photon noise limited (i.e., in total absence of any instrumental source of noise), the five-minute solar oscillation could still be detected by removing the Sun far enough for its magnitude to become zero or one. Such a situation is very closely represented by the observation of Alpha Centauri A, because it is a G2 V star, very similar to the Sun, with a mass of 1.1 in solar unit. Six nights were granted to this program on a 3.6m telescope, from 22 to 28 May 1983. Two and half nights provided over 20 hours of data of photometric quality good enough for analysis.

  2. The Transport of Low-Frequency Turbulence in Astrophysical Flows. II. Solutions for the Super-Alfvenic Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.; Hunana, P.; Marino, R.; Hu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Zank et al. 2012 developed a low-frequency turbulence transport model for any magnetized inhomogeneous flow. The model describes the energy corresponding to forward and backward propagating modes, the residual energy, and the correlation lengths corresponding to forward and backward propagating modes and the residual energy. We apply the Zank et al. model to the super-Alfvénic solar wind, considering i) the heliosphere from 0.29 to 5 AU with and without the Alfvén velocity, and ii) the entire heliosphere from 0.29 to 100 AU in the absence of the Alfvén velocity. The model shows that (1) shear driving is responsible for the in situ generation of backward propagating modes, (2) the inclusion of the background magnetic field modifies the transport of turbulence in the inner heliosphere, (3) the correlation lengths of forward and backward propagating modes are almost equal beyond ˜30 AU, and (4) the fluctuating magnetic and kinetic energies in MHD turbulence are in approximate equipartition beyond ˜30 AU. Model results for each case are compared to observations, using Helios 2 and Ulysses observations for the first case, and Voyager 2 data for the second case. For the Voyager 2 observations, we calculate the turbulent quantities corresponding to a positive and negative sign of B_r and B_t, and the azimuthal angle φ=tan-1(B_t /B_r ). The model reproduces the observations quite well from 0.29 to 5 AU. The outer heliosphere (>1 AU) observations are well described by the model. The temporal and latitudinal dependence of the observations makes a detailed comparison difficult but the overall trends are well captured by the models. We conclude that the results reasonably validate the Zank et al. model for the super-Alfvénic solar wind.

  3. Magnetic Clouds at/near the 2007 - 2009 Solar Minimum: Frequency of Occurrence and Some Unusual Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping. R. P.; Wu, C.-C.; Berdichevsky, D. B.; Szabo, A.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic clouds (MCs) have been identified for the period 2007 2009 (at/near the recent solar minimum) from Wind data, then confirmed through MC parameter fitting using a force-free model. A dramatic increase in the frequency of occurrence of these events took place from the two early years of 2007 (with five MCs) and 2008 (one MC) compared to 2009 (12 MCs). This pattern approximately mirrors the occurrence-frequency profile that was observed over a three-year interval 12 years earlier, with eight events in 1995, four in 1996, and 17 in 1997, but decreased overall by a factor of 0.62 in number. However, the average estimated axial field strength taken over all of the 18 events of 2007 - 2009 (called the "recent period" here) was only 11.0 nT, whereas |BO| for the 29 events of 1995 - 1997 (called the "earlier period" ) was 16.5 nT. This 33% average drop in |BO| is more or less consistent with the decreased three-year average interplanetary magnetic field intensity between these two periods, which shows a 23% drop. In the earlier period, the MCs were clearly of mixed types but predominantly of the South-to-North type, whereas those in the recent period are almost exclusively the North-to-South type; this change is consistent with global solar field changes predicted by Bothmer and Rust (Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 99, 139, 1997). As we have argued in earlier work (Lepping and Wu, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A10103, 2007), this change should make it possible to carry out (accurate short-term) magnetic storm forecasting by predicting the latter part of an MC from the earlier part, using a good MC parameter-fitting model with real-time data from a spacecraft at L1, for example. The recent set s average duration is 15.2 hours, which is a 27% decrease compared to that of the earlier set, which had an average duration of 20.9 hours. In fact, all physical aspects of the recent MC set are shown to drop with respect to the earlier set; e.g., as well as the average internal magnetic field

  4. Magnetic Clouds at/near the 2007 - 2009 Solar Minimum: Frequency of Occurrence and Some Unusual Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.; Berdichevsky, D. B.; Szabo, A.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic clouds (MCs) have been identified for the period 2007 - 2009 (at/near the recent solar minimum) from Wind data, then confirmed through MC parameter fitting using a force-free model. A dramatic increase in the frequency of occurrence of these events took place from the two early years of 2007 (with five MCs) and 2008 (one MC) compared to 2009 (12 MCs). This pattern approximately mirrors the occurrence-frequency profile that was observed over a three-year interval 12 years earlier, with eight events in 1995, four in 1996, and 17 in 1997, but decreased overall by a factor of 0.62 in number. However, the average estimated axial field strength [<| B O|>] taken over all of the 18 events of 2007 - 2009 (called the “recent period” here) was only 11.0 nT, whereas <| B O|> for the 29 events of 1995 - 1997 (called the “earlier period”) was 16.5 nT. This 33% average drop in <| B O|> is more or less consistent with the decreased three-year average interplanetary magnetic field intensity between these two periods, which shows a 23% drop. In the earlier period, the MCs were clearly of mixed types but predominantly of the South-to-North type, whereas those in the recent period are almost exclusively the North-to-South type; this change is consistent with global solar field changes predicted by Bothmer and Rust ( Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 99, 139, 1997). As we have argued in earlier work (Lepping and Wu, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A10103, 2007), this change should make it possible to carry out (accurate short-term) magnetic storm forecasting by predicting the latter part of an MC from the earlier part, using a good MC parameter-fitting model with real-time data from a spacecraft at L1, for example. The recent set’s average duration is 15.2 hours, which is a 27% decrease compared to that of the earlier set, which had an average duration of 20.9 hours. In fact, all physical aspects of the recent MC set are shown to drop with respect to the earlier set; e.g., as well as the

  5. Optimal Masks for Low-Degree Solar Acoustic Modes.

    PubMed

    Toutain; Kosovichev

    2000-05-10

    We suggest a solution to an important problem in observational helioseismology of the separation of lines of solar acoustic (p) modes of low angular degree in oscillation power spectra by constructing optimal masks for Doppler images of the Sun. Accurate measurements of oscillation frequencies of low-degree modes are essential for the determination of the structure and rotation of the solar core. However, these measurements for a particular mode are often affected by leakage of other p-modes arising when the Doppler images are projected on to spherical harmonic masks. The leakage results in overlapping peaks corresponding to different oscillation modes in the power spectra. In this Letter, we present a method for calculating optimal masks for a given (target) mode by minimizing the signals of other modes appearing in its vicinity. We apply this method to time series of 2 yr obtained from the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory space mission and demonstrate its ability to reduce efficiently the mode leakage.

  6. Effects of density fluctuations on nonlinear evolution of low-frequency Alfven waves in solar wind plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nariyuki, Y.; Seough, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that low-frequency Alfven waves are unstable to parametric instabilities, in which these waves are nonlinearly coupled with density fluctuations [e.g, Nariyuki+Hada, JGR, 2007 and references therein]. In solar wind plasmas, low-frequency fluctuations with non-zero cross-helicity are frequently observed [e.g., Bruno+Carbone, Living Rev. Solar Phys. (2013) and references therein]. When the absolute values of normalized cross helicities are close to the unity, the fluctuations may be composed of uni-directionally (anti-sunward) propagating Alfven waves. The derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation (DNLS) has been known as the mode of modulational instabilities of unidirectional Alfven waves [Mio et al, JPSJ, 1976; Mjolhus, JPP, 1976]. In the DNLS, the density fluctuations are assumed to be the quasi-static state, which is determined according to the ponderomotive force of envelope-modulated Alfven waves. The DNLS was extended to include the obliquely propagating, compressional component of magnetic field by Mjolhus and Wyller (JPP, 1988). The kinetically modified DNLS (KDNLS) has also been discussed by many authors [Rogister, POF, 1971; Mjolhus and Wyller, Phys. Scr, 1986; JPP, 1988; Spangler, POF B, 1989; 1990; Medvedev+Diamond, POP, 1996; Nariyuki et al, POP, 2013]. On the other hand, ion acoustic modes [Hada, 1993], large scale inhomogeneity of plasmas [Buti et al, APJ, 1999; Nariyuki, POP, 2015] and random density fluctuations [Ruderman, POP, 2002] can also affect nonlinear evolution of Alfven waves. At the present time, combined effects of these effects are not fully understood. In this presentation, we discuss two models: one of them is the model including both ion kinetic effects and ion acoustic mode and another is the model including finite thermal effects and random density fluctuations. In the former case, ion kinetic effects on both longitudinal [Nariyuki+Hada, JPSJ, 2007] and transverse modulational instabilities are discussed, while the

  7. Low-frequency modulations in the solar microwave radiation as a possible indicator of inductive interaction of coronal magnetic loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodachenko, M. L.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Kislyakov, A. G.; Rucker, H. O.; Urpo, S.

    2005-04-01

    Low-frequency (LF) modulations of 37GHz microwave radiation during solar flares, recorded at the Metsähovi Radio Observatory, are considered. A fast Fourier transformation with a sliding window is used to obtain the dynamic spectra of the LF pulsations. We pay attention to the LFdynamic spectra having a specific multi-track structure, which is supposed to be an indication of a complex multi-loop composition of a flaring region. Application of the equivalent electric circuit models of the loops including the effects of electromagnetic inductive interaction in groups of slowly growing current-carrying magnetic loops allows us to explain and reproduce the main dynamical features of the observed LF modulation dynamic spectra. Each loop is considered as an equivalent electric circuit with variable parameters (resistance, capacitance and inductive coefficients) which depend on shape, scale, position of the loop with respect to other loops, as well as on the plasma parameters and value of the total longitudinal current in the magnetic tube.

  8. SEARCH FOR GLOBAL f-MODES AND p-MODES IN THE {sup 8}B NEUTRINO FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2013-11-01

    The impact of global acoustic modes on the {sup 8}B neutrino flux time series is computed for the first time. It is shown that the time fluctuations of the {sup 8}B neutrino flux depend on the amplitude of acoustic eigenfunctions in the region where the {sup 8}B neutrino flux is produced: modes with low n (or order) that have eigenfunctions with a relatively large amplitude in the Sun's core strongly affect the neutrino flux; conversely, modes with high n that have eigenfunctions with a minimal amplitude in the Sun's core have a very small impact on the neutrino flux. It was found that the global modes with a larger impact on the {sup 8}B neutrino flux have a frequency of oscillation in the interval 250 μHz to 500 μHz (or a period in the interval 30 minutes to 70 minutes), such as the f-modes (n = 0) for the low degrees, radial modes of order n ≤ 3, and the dipole mode of order n = 1. Their corresponding neutrino eigenfunctions are very sensitive to the solar inner core and are unaffected by the variability of the external layers of the solar surface. If time variability of neutrinos is observed for these modes, it will lead to new ways of improving the sound speed profile inversion in the central region of the Sun.

  9. The effect of the Mihalas, Hummer, and Daeppen equation of state and the molecular opacity on the standard solar model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y.-C.; Demarque, P.; Guenther, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    Improvements to the Yale Rotating Stellar Evolution Code (YREC) by incorporating the Mihalas-Hummer-Daeppen equation of state, an improved opacity interpolation routine, and the effects of molecular opacities, calculated at Los Alamos, have been made. the effect of each of the improvements on the standard solar model has been tested independently by computing the corresponding solar nonradial oscillation frequencies. According to these tests, the Mihalas-Hummer-Daeppen equation of state has very little effect on the model's low l p-mode oscillation spectrum compared to the model using the existing analytical equation of state implemented in YREC. On the other hand, the molecular opacity does improve the model's oscillation spectrum. The effect of molecular opacity on the computed solar oscillation frequencies is much larger than that of the Mihalas-Hummer-Daeppen equation of state. together, the two improvements to the physics reduce the discrepancy with observations by 10 microHz for the low l modes.

  10. Evolutionary models and the p-mode oscillation spectrum of Alpha Centauri A and B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Peter; Cram, Lawrence; Demarque, Pierre; Guenther, D. B.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    1992-01-01

    Spectroscopically observed abundances of Furenlid and Meylan (1990) and Los Alamos Opacity Library opacities specifically constructed for this mixture are used to construct the most detailed models to date for Alpha Cen A and B. Models including the effects of the diffusion of helium in Alpha Cen A's interior were constructed. Although the effect of helium diffusion is small in Alpha Cen A, it is slightly larger than in the sun because of the larger mass and therefore shallower convection zone of Alpha Cen A. Keeping the heavy-element mixture unchanged but varying Z within the uncertainties yields limits to the helium abundance of Y = 0.295 and 0.305, respectively. The derived age of Alpha Cen is 4.6 +/-0.4 Gyr, very similar to the solar age of 4.5 Gyr.

  11. Solar Forbidden Oxygen, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2008-10-01

    Recent large reductions in the solar oxygen abundance, based on synthesis of photospheric O I, OH, and CO absorptions with 3D convection models, have provoked consternation in the helioseismology community: the previous excellent agreement between measured p-mode oscillation frequencies and predictions based on the recommended epsilonO of a decade ago (680 parts per million [ppm] relative to hydrogen) unravels at the new low value (460 ppm). In an attempt to reconcile these conflicting results, the formation of pivotal [O I] λ6300, which is blended with a weak Ni I line, has been reconsidered, exploiting an alternative 3D model (albeit only a single temporal snapshot). And while there are several areas of agreement with the earlier [O I] studies of Allende Prieto, Asplund, and others, there is one crucial point of disagreement: the epsilonO derived here is significantly larger, 650 +/- 65 ppm (although at the expense of a ~30% weaker Ni I line than expected from the recommended nickel abundance). One innovation is a more robust treatment of the solar wavelengths: the balance between the components of the [O I] + Ni I blend is sensitive to velocity errors of only a few hundred m s-1. A second improvement is enforcement of a "continuum calibration" to ensure a self-consistent 3D temperature scale. Because of the renewed agreement between the linchpin tracer [O I] and seismic oxygen, the proposed downward slump of the solar metallicity and the perceived "oxygen crisis" now can be said to rest on less secure footings.

  12. Numerical study of MHD wave propagation in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieyra, M. V.; Schneiter, E. M.; Costa, A.; Esquivel, A.

    2017-07-01

    We present a 2D MHD simulation of wave propagation across the solar atmosphere considering the photosphere-chromosphere temperature and density stratification. The system is forced by typical p-mode perturbations. We reproduce observational results from SDO AIA.

  13. Evidence That Solar Flares Drive Global Oscillations in the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoff, C.; Kjeldsen, H.

    2008-05-01

    Solar flares are large explosions on the Sun's surface caused by a sudden release of magnetic energy. They are known to cause local short-lived oscillations traveling away from the explosion like water rings. Here we show that the energy in the solar acoustic spectrum is correlated with flares. This means that the flares drive global oscillations in the Sun in the same way that the entire Earth is set ringing for several weeks after a major earthquake such as the 2004 December Sumatra-Andaman one. The correlation between flares and energy in the acoustic spectrum of disk-integrated sunlight is stronger for high-frequency waves than for ordinary p-modes which are excited by the turbulence in the near-surface convection zone immediately beneath the photosphere.

  14. Helioseismology with the ACRIM instrument on the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    The Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) instrument on board SMM pioneered high-precision solar photometry from space, and provided the first detection of solar p-mode oscillations at low degree by this technique. The observations extended from February, 1980, until December, 1989, with a hiatus of low sampling rate in 1981-1984. During summer 1989, the instrument operated in a 'no-shutter' mode with continuous viewing between the orbital gaps. This resulted in a fourfold increase of the duty cycle, and an effective increase in the Nyquist frequency from 3.815 mHz to some tens of mHz. This review discusses the initial results from this campaign along with a general review of the analyses to date of the entire ACRIM data set.

  15. Global fitting of power spectra of solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Appourchaux, T.

    2004-01-01

    Helioseismology has been able to provide the internal structure of the Sun and its dynamics. These inferences have been made possible by inverting the frequencies and rotational splitting of the p-mode oscillations. Thanks to asteroseismology, similar results can now be obtained for stars other than the Sun. For this purpose, we are developing a numerical code for global fitting of power spectra. The code is currently developed and tested on full-disk integrated solar data obtained with the SOHO/LOI instrument. It will then be applied to synthetic data from the hare-and-hound exercises of COROT. The final goal is to apply the technique to data of solar-like stars obtained with the COROT and Eddington satellites to infer the internal structure and dynamics of those stars.

  16. Invoking the frequency dependence in square modulated light intensity techniques for the measurement of electron time constants in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaithan, Hamid M.; Qaid, Saif M.; Hezam, Mahmoud; Siddique, Muhemmad B.; Bedja, Idriss M.; Aldwayyana, Abdullah S.

    2015-08-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been considered as one of the most promising new generation solar cells. Enormous research efforts have been invested to improve the efficiency of solar energy conversion which is determined by the light harvesting efficiency, electron injection efficiency and undesirable electron lifetime. A simple, cheap and trustable laser-induced photovoltage and photocurrent decay (LIPVCD) technique is adopted in this work in order to determine the electron lifetime (τe) and electron transport (τtr) in DSSCs. In LIPVCD technique, DSSC is illuminated by a small squared intensity-modulated laser beam. Time-based response of the DSSC is recorded using a transient digitized oscilloscope for further analysis. Frequency-based response was also investigated in this work. The frequency-dependent measurements turned out to be a powerful method to determine electron time constants in a fast, real-time fashion. Measurements were carried out using a standard dye-sensitized solar cell, and results were in excellent agreement with results obtained from traditional IMVS-MPS measurements. Measurements were also performed for a variety of DSSCs, having various electrodes including TiO2 nanoparticles, TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets and ZnO vertically aligned nanowires. Results will also be presented and discussed in this work.

  17. Resolving the source of the solar acoustic oscillations: What will be possible with DKIST?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Mark; Martinez Pillet, Valentin

    2016-05-01

    The solar p-modes are likely excited by small-scale convective dynamics in the solar photosphere, but the detailed source properties are not known. Theoretical models differ and observations are yet unable to differentiate between them. Resolving the underlying source events is more than a curiosity. It is important to the veracity of global helioseismic measurements (including local spectral methods such as ring diagram analysis) because global p-mode line shapes and thus accurate frequency determinations depend critically on the relationship between intensity and velocity during the excitation events. It is also fundamental to improving the accuracy of the local time-distance measurements because in these kernel calculations depend on knowledge of the source profile and the properties of the excitation noise. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will have the spatial resolution and spectral range needed to resolve the solar acoustic excitation events in both time and space (horizontally and with height) using multi-wavelength observations. Inversions to determine the dynamic and thermodynamic evolution of the discrete small-scale convective events that serve as acoustic sources may also be possible, though determination of the pressure fluctuations associated with the sources is a challenge. We describe the DKIST capabilities anticipated and the preliminary work needed to prepare for them.

  18. Study of the lacustrine phytoplankton productivity dependence on solar radiation, on the basis of direct high-frequency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provenzale, Maria; Ojala, Anne; Heiskanen, Jouni; Erkkilä, Kukka-Maaria; Mammarella, Ivan; Hari, Pertti; Vesala, Timo

    2016-04-01

    One of the main components of the carbon cycle in lakes is phytoplankton. Its in situ photosynthesis and respiration are usually studied with traditional methods (dark and light bottle method, 14C labelling technique). These methods, relying on sampling and incubation, may lead to unrealistic results. They also have a poor temporal resolution, which does not allow the non-linear relationship between photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) and photosynthesis to be properly investigated. As a consequence, the phytoplankton net primary productivity (NPP) cannot be parameterised as a function of ambient variables. In 2008 an innovative free-water approach was proposed. It is based on non-dispersive infrared air CO2 probes that, by building an appropriate system, can be used to measure the CO2 concentration in the water at a high-frequency. At that time, the method was tested only on 3 days of data. Here, we deployed it on a boreal lake in Finland for four summers, in order to calculate the NPP and verify its dependence on PAR. The set-up was completed by an eddy-covariance system and water PAR and temperature sensors. In analogy with the procedure typically used in terrestrial ecology, we obtained the phytoplankton NPP computing the mass balance of CO2 in the mixed layer of the lake, i.e. the superficial layer where the conditions are homogeneous and most of the photosynthetic activity takes place. After calculating the NPP , we verified its dependence on PAR. The theoretical model we used was a saturating Michaelis-Menten curve, in which the variables are water temperature and PAR. The equation also contains parameters typical of the phytoplankton communities, which represent their maximum potential photosynthetic rate, their half-saturation constant and their basal respiration. These parameters allow the NPP to be parameterised as a function of T and PAR. For all the analysed year, we found a very good agreement between theory and data (R2 ranged from 0.80 to

  19. The Solar-Type Hard-Binary Frequency and Distributions of Orbital Parameters in the Open Cluster M37

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Meibom, Soren; Barnes, Sydney A.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2014-02-01

    Binary stars, and particularly the short-period ``hard'' binaries, govern the dynamical evolution of star clusters and determine the formation rates and mechanisms for exotic stars like blue stragglers and X-ray sources. Understanding the near-primordial hard-binary population of star clusters is of primary importance for dynamical models of star clusters, which have the potential to greatly advance our understanding of star cluster evolution. Yet the binary frequencies and distributions of binary orbital parameters (period, eccentricity, etc.) for young coeval stellar populations are poorly known, due to a lack of necessary observations. The young (~540 Myr) open cluster M37 hosts a rich binary population that can be used to empirically define these initial conditions. Importantly, this cluster has been the target of a comprehensive WIYN/Hydra radial-velocity (RV) survey, from which we have already identified a nearly complete sample of 329 solar-type (1.5 <=M [M_⊙] <=1.0) members in M37. Of these stars, 82 show significant RV variability, indicative of a binary companion. We propose to build upon these data with a multi-epoch RV survey using WIYN/Hydra to derive kinematic orbital solutions for these 82 binaries in M37. This project was granted time in 2013B and scheduled for later this year. We anticipate that about half of the detected binaries in M37 will acquire enough RV measurements (>=10) in 2013B to begin searching for orbital solutions. With this proposal and perhaps one additional semester we should achieve >=10 RV measurements for the remaining binaries.

  20. Anomalous parts on the lunar crater size - frequency curve, their prediction and comparison of the lunar and solar discs granulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    Knowing that orbits make structures through warping action of inertia-gravity waves arising in celestial bodies due to their movements in non-round elliptical orbits one can use as a scale this sequence of planets with corresponding to their orbital frequencies sizes of tectonic granulation higher frequency -- finer granulation Sun s photosphere pi R 60 Mercury pi R 16 Venus pi R 6 Earth pi R 4 Mars pi R 2 asteroids pi R 1 R-a body radius But the planets have only one orbit in the Solar system Not like them satellites have 2 orbits This increases a number of tectonic granule sizes to at least 4 as one have to consider 2 main frequencies around planet and Sun and 2 modulated side frequencies division and multiplication of the higher frequency by the lower one The best studied satellite in the Solar system is the Moon with its perfectly elaborated the crater size-frequency curve it was presumed that all considered craters on its surface are of an impact origin But numerous images of the Moon acquired by cosmic missions show that this curve is not a simple one as it comprises many craters of non-impact for example of wave interference induced origin This is proved by calculating sizes of craters corresponding to main and side modulated orbital frequencies and plotting them on the classic crater size-frequency curve It appears that this curve has anomalously high number of craters exactly at ranges calculated by the wave approach namely at 80-140 and more than 600 km in diameter corresponding to the main

  1. The quest for the solar g modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appourchaux, T.; Belkacem, K.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Gough, D. O.; Houdek, G.; Provost, J.; Baudin, F.; Boumier, P.; Elsworth, Y.; García, R. A.; Andersen, B. N.; Finsterle, W.; Fröhlich, C.; Gabriel, A.; Grec, G.; Jiménez, A.; Kosovichev, A.; Sekii, T.; Toutain, T.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2010-02-01

    Solar gravity modes (or g modes)—oscillations of the solar interior on which buoyancy acts as the restoring force—have the potential to provide unprecedented inference on the structure and dynamics of the solar core, inference that is not possible with the well-observed acoustic modes (or p modes). The relative high amplitude of the g-mode eigenfunctions in the core and the evanesence of the modes in the convection zone make the modes particularly sensitive to the physical and dynamical conditions in the core. Owing to the existence of the convection zone, the g modes have very low amplitudes at photospheric levels, which makes the modes extremely hard to detect. In this article, we review the current state of play regarding attempts to detect g modes. We review the theory of g modes, including theoretical estimation of the g-mode frequencies, amplitudes and damping rates. Then we go on to discuss the techniques that have been used to try to detect g modes. We review results in the literature, and finish by looking to the future, and the potential advances that can be made—from both data and data-analysis perspectives—to give unambiguous detections of individual g modes. The review ends by concluding that, at the time of writing, there is indeed a consensus amongst the authors that there is currently no undisputed detection of solar g modes.

  2. Discrete time--frequency coupling between the interplanetary magnetic field and the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, D. J.; Lessard, M. R.

    2003-12-01

    Recent work has shown the existence at geosynchronous orbit of wave power at frequencies substantially below that of fundamental field-line resonances. The existence of spectral power below that of fundamental frequencies indicates that the driver must be external to the magnetosphere, i.e, that the source is contained in the solar wind. Other work has shown that frequencies matching field-line resonances can sometimes also be observed in the solar wind. The combined spectrum that includes power at fundamental frequencies and lower overlaps with p-mode helioseismic oscillations and the question has been raised whether these helioseismic modes may stimulate the magnetospheric fluctuations. In this study, we compute coherences between the magnetometers on {ACE} and {GOES-10}, that is in interplanetary space and inside the magnetosphere. These show several frequencies where all nine coherences are significant. Moreover, many of these frequencies are the same as those reported from Ulysses data in Thomson, Maclennan, and Lanzerotti (1995). Using hourly average data from all 1999, a frequency tolerance of 30 nHz, and retaining only peaks in the coherence above the 95% significance level, about 21 agreements would be expected by chance but 34 are observed. The coherences exhibit seasonal dependence, so the coupling has a complicated time--frequency structure exhibiting both frequency and event dependence.

  3. Stellar magnetic activity and variability of oscillation parameters: An investigation of 24 solar-like stars observed by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, René; Schad, Ariane; Davies, Guy; Roth, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Context. The Sun and solar-like stars undergo activity cycles for which the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The oscillations of the Sun are known to vary with its activity cycle and these changes provide diagnostics on the conditions below the photosphere. Kepler has detected solar-like oscillations in hundreds of stars but as of yet, no widespread detection of signatures of magnetic activity cycles in the oscillation parameters of these stars have been reported. Aims: We analysed the photometric short cadence Kepler time series of a set of 24 solar-like stars, which were observed for at least 960 d each, with the aim to find signatures of stellar magnetic activity in the oscillation parameters. Methods: We analyse the temporal evolution of oscillation parameters by measuring mode frequency shifts, changes in the height of the p-mode envelope, as well as granulation timescales. Results: For 23 of the 24 investigated stars, we find significant frequency shifts in time. We present evidence for magnetic activity in six of these stars. We find that the amplitude of the frequency shifts decreases with stellar age and rotation period. For KIC 8006161 (the most prominent example), we find that frequency shifts are smallest for the lowest and largest for the highest p-mode frequencies, as they are for the Sun. Conclusions: These findings show that magnetic activity can be routinely observed in the oscillation parameters for solar-like stars, which opens up the possibility of placing the solar activity cycle in the context of other stars by asteroseismology.

  4. Radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency splittings of intermediate-degree (3 to 170 deg) p-mode oscillations obtained from a 16-day subset of observations were analyzed. Results show evidence for both radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity. From 0.6 to 0.95 solar radii, the solar internal angular velocity increases systematically from 440 to 463 nHz, corresponding to a positive radial gradient of 66 nHz/solar radius for that portion of the solar interior. Analysis also indicates that the latitudinal differential rotation gradient which is seen at the solar surface persists throughout the convection zone, although there are indications that the differential rotation might disappear entirely below the base of the convection zone. The analysis was extended to include comparisons with additional observational studies and between earlier results and the results of additional inversions of several of the observational datasets. All the comparisons reinforce conclusions regarding the existence of radial and latitudinal gradients in the internal angular velocity.

  5. Radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency splittings of intermediate-degree (3 to 170 deg) p-mode oscillations obtained from a 16-day subset of observations were analyzed. Results show evidence for both radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity. From 0.6 to 0.95 solar radii, the solar internal angular velocity increases systematically from 440 to 463 nHz, corresponding to a positive radial gradient of 66 nHz/solar radius for that portion of the solar interior. Analysis also indicates that the latitudinal differential rotation gradient which is seen at the solar surface persists throughout the convection zone, although there are indications that the differential rotation might disappear entirely below the base of the convection zone. The analysis was extended to include comparisons with additional observational studies and between earlier results and the results of additional inversions of several of the observational datasets. All the comparisons reinforce conclusions regarding the existence of radial and latitudinal gradients in the internal angular velocity.

  6. Solar flare soft-X-ray spectra from Very Low Frequency observations of ionospheric modulations: Possibility of uninterrupted observation of non-thermal electron-plasma interaction in solar atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palit, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Suman

    2016-07-01

    The hard and soft X-ray regions of a solar flare spectrum are the manifestation of interaction, namely of bremsstrahlung radiation of the non-thermal electrons moving inward in the denser part of the solar atmosphere with the plasma heated by those energetic electrons. The continuous and uninterrupted knowledge of X-ray photon spectra of flares are of great importance to derive information on the electron acceleration and hence time-evolution of energy transport and physics during solar flares. Satellite observations of solar X-ray spectrum are often limited by the restricted windows in each duty cycle to avoid the interaction of detectors and instruments with harmful energetic charge particles. In this work we have tried to tackle the problem by examining the possibility of using Earth's ionosphere and atmosphere as the detector of such transient events. Earth's lower ionosphere and upper atmosphere are the places where the X-rays and gamma-rays from such astronomical sources are absorbed. The electron-ion production rates due to the ionization of such energetic photons at different heights depend on the intensity and wavelength of the injected spectra and hence vary from one source to another. Obviously the electron and ion density vs. altitude profile has the imprint of the incident photon spectrum. As a preliminary exercise we developed a novel deconvolution method to extract the soft X-ray part of spectra of some solar flares of different classes from the electron density profiles obtained from Very Low Frequency (VLF) observation of lower ionosphere during those events. The method presented here is useful to carry out a similar exercise to infer the higher energy part of solar flare spectra and spectra of more energetic events such as the GRBs, SGRs etc. with the possibilities of probing even lower parts of the atmosphere.

  7. North west area of Tuscany, Italy : Are the solar maximum and solar minima a particular period for increased frequency of floods and local geological destabilization ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Michele; Straser, Valentino; Feron, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify a possible relationship between solar activity transitions (minimum and maximum), seismic activity and atmospheric circulation in a particular area. The hypothesis has already been advanced by other authors and is found in studies, for example: [Sytinsky A.D.,1980,1987,1997][Mazzarella,Palumbo, 1989][Odintsov, et al, 2006][Khachikyan, Inchin, Lozbin, 2012][Czymzik,Markus, 2013][Nedeljko,Vujović,2014]. The geographical area studied is approximately 8x13 km sq. and includes villages such as Fivizzano and Equi Terme, in north-west Tuscany, Italy, on the Lunigiana/Garfagnana border. The North Apuan Fault Zone" (NAFZ) is found in the area of study and major historical earthquakes have occurred in this area [Di Naccio Deborah, et al., 2013]. In this research, we compared the local seismicity with heavy rainfall (in quantity) that occurred in a short time frame in this area (measured by the daily rain gauge accumulations). These events occurred during the numerous floods from 2009 to 2013 (the transition between the solar cycle SC23 and SC24 solar and the rise of solar cycle SC24). The data was provided by the hydrological sector of the Tuscan Region Hydrological Service (SIR) and the LaMMA consortium. In this study we hypothesize, a slow and continuous destabilizing action on local geological structures, due to the multiple and violent atmospheric disturbances (V-shaped, flash floods, squall-line, etc..). Destabilization that led to an earthquake of magnitude Mw 5.36, which occurred on 21 June 2013. Comparing the SIDC count of sunspots with: a) the historical local seismic events catalogue with magnitude M4.5 + (CPTI15, the 2015 version of the Parametric Catalogue of Italian Earthquakes), b) the recent earthquakes of magnitude M 2.5+, which occurred from 1984 (ISIDe working group (2016) version 1.0), and c) the historical reconstructed maximum annual flows of the Serchio river from 1750, the daily maximum annual flows of the Magra

  8. Frequency fluctuations in the solar corona investigated with radio sounding experiments on the spacecraft ROSETTA and MARS EXPRESS in 2010/2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, A. I.; Lukanina, L. A.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Chashei, I. V.; Bird, M. K.; Pätzold, M.

    2017-03-01

    Coronal radio-sounding experiments were carried out using two-way coherent dual-frequency carrier signals of the ESA spacecraft ROSETTA in 2010 and MARS EXPRESS in 2010/2011. Differential frequency measurements recorded at both NASA and ESA tracking stations (sample rate: 1 Hz) are analyzed in this paper. Spectral analysis of the S-band, X-band, and differential frequency records has shown that the r.m.s. frequency fluctuation of each signal can be described by a radial power-law function of the form σi = Ai(R/R⊙)-βi, where i = s, x, sx. The ratio of the coefficients As and Ax differs from the expected theoretical value As/Ax = fs/fx. This occurs because the X-band fluctuations underlie two-way propagation conditions while the S-band fluctuations are essentially the product of a one-way propagation experiment. The intensity of the frequency fluctuations decreases sharply at high heliolatitudes. The asymmetry of the frequency fluctuation intensity between ingress and egress is exploited to determine the solar wind speed at small heliocentric distances.

  9. Crowdsourcing a Spatial Temporal Study of Low Frequency (LF) Propagation Effects Due to a Total Solar Eclipse: Engaging Students and Citizens in STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumsden, N. A.; Lukes, L.; Nelson, J.; Liles, W. C.; Kerby, K. C.; Crowov, F.; Rockway, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first experiments to study the effects of a solar eclipse on radio wave propagation were done in 1912 utilizing Low Frequency (LF; 30 - 300 kHz) radio waves at a handful of sites across Europe before any theory of the ionosphere had been confirmed and even before the word "ionosphere" existed. In the 1920s, a large cooperative experiment was promoted in the U.S. by Scientific American magazine. They collected over 2000 reports of AM broadcast stations from throughout the U.S. Unfortunately, many of the submissions were unusable because they lacked critical information such as date, time or location. We propose to use the 2017 solar eclipse over the continental U.S. to conduct the first wide-area LF propagation study. To perform this study, we plan to crowdsource the collection of the data by engaging student groups, citizens, and the scientific community. The tools for the different collection stations will consist of a simple homemade antenna, a simple receiver to convert the radio frequency (RF) signals to audio frequencies and a smart phone app. By using the time, date and location features of the smart phone, the problems experienced in the Scientific American experiment will be minimized. By crowdsourcing the observation sites, a number of different short, medium and long-paths studies can be obtained as the total eclipse crosses the continental U.S. The transmitter for this experiment will be WWVB located near Fort Collins, Colorado on 60.000 kHz. This is a U.S. frequency standard that is operated by NIST and transmits time codes. A second frequency, 55.500 kHz transmitted by a LF station in Dixon, CA is also being considered for this experiment. We will present an overall strategy for recruiting participants/crowdsourcing the RF collections during the 2017 total solar eclipse. Preliminary coverage calculations will be presented for WWVB and Dixon, as well as path loss calculations that can be expected during the solar eclipse condition. We will also

  10. THE QUASI-BIENNIAL PERIODICITY AS A WINDOW ON THE SOLAR MAGNETIC DYNAMO CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Simoniello, R.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Baldner, C.; Finsterle, W.

    2013-03-10

    Manifestations of the solar magnetic activity through periodicities of about 11 and 2 years are now clearly seen in all solar activity indices. In this paper, we add information about the mechanism driving the 2-year period by studying the time and latitudinal properties of acoustic modes that are sensitive probes of the subsurface layers. We use almost 17 years of high-quality resolved data provided by the Global Oscillation Network Group to investigate the solar cycle changes in p-mode frequencies for spherical degrees l from 0 to 120 and 1600 {mu}Hz {<=}{nu} {<=} 3500 {mu}Hz. For both periodic components of solar activity, we locate the origin of the frequency shift in the subsurface layers and find evidence that a sudden enhancement in amplitude occurs in just the last few hundred kilometers. We also show that, in both cases, the size of the shift increases toward equatorial latitudes and from minimum to maximum solar activity, but, in agreement with previous findings, the quasi-biennial periodicity (QBP) causes a weaker shift in mode frequencies and a slower enhancement than that caused by the 11-year cycle. We compare our observational findings with the features predicted by different models, that try to explain the origin of this QBP and conclude that the observed properties could result from the beating between a dipole and quadrupole magnetic configuration of the dynamo.

  11. What Can We Learn on the Structure and the Dynamics of the Solar Core with g Modes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, S.; Ballot, J.; Eff-Darwich, A.; García, R. A.; Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; Korzennik, S. G.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2009-12-01

    The detection of the signature of dipole gravity modes has opened the path to study the solar inner radiative zone. Indeed, g modes should be the best probes to infer the properties of the solar nuclear core that represents more than half of the total mass of the Sun. Concerning the dynamics of the solar core, we can study how future observations of individual g modes could enhance our knowledge of the rotation profile of the deep radiative zone. Applying inversions on a set of real p-mode splittings coupled with either one or several g modes, we have checked the improvement of the inferred rotation profile when different error bars are considered for the g modes. Moreover, using a new methodology based on the analysis of the almost constant separation of the dipole gravity modes, we can introduce new constraints on solar models. For that purpose, we can compare g-mode predictions computed from several models including different physical inputs with the g-mode asymptotic signature detected in Global Oscillations at Low Frequencies (GOLF) data and calculate the correlation. This work shows the great consistency between the signature of dipole gravity modes and our knowledge of p-modes: incompatibility of data with a present standard model including the Asplund composition.

  12. X-rays and solar proton event induced changes in the first mode Schumann resonance frequency observed at a low latitude station Agra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Birbal; Tyagi, Rajesh; Hobara, Yasuhide; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2014-06-01

    Effects of two events of X-ray bursts followed by solar proton events (SPEs) occurred on 22 September, 2011 and 06 July, 2012 on the variation of first mode Schumann resonance (SR) frequency monitored at a low latitude station, Agra (Geograph. lat. 27.2°N, long. 78°E) India are examined. The variation of average first mode SR frequency shows a sudden increase in coincidence with the X-ray bursts and a decrease associated with the peak flux of SPE. The increases in the frequency in the two cases are 8.4% and 10.9% and corresponding decreases are 4.3% and 3.3% respectively. The increases in the frequency are interpreted in terms of growth of ionization in the upper part of D-region ionosphere due to X-ray bursts and decreases during SPE are caused by the high ionization in the lower D-region (altitude about 50-60 km) in the polar region. The variation of SR frequency is observed to be consistent with other observatories at middle and high latitudes. The effects of X-ray flares on the D-region of the ionosphere at low and equatorial latitudes are also examined by analyzing the amplitude data of VLF transmitter signal (NWC, f=19.8 kHz) monitored at Agra. The flare effect observed prior to sun-set hours shows increase of electron density above 60 km in the ionosphere.

  13. The Scattering of f- and p-modes from Ensembles of Thin Magnetic Flux Tubes: An Analytical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S.

    2014-08-01

    Motivated by the observational results of Braun, we extend the model of Hanson & Cally to address the effect of multiple scattering of f and p modes by an ensemble of thin vertical magnetic flux tubes in the surface layers of the Sun. As in the observational Hankel analysis, we measure the scatter and phase shift from an incident cylindrical wave in a coordinate system roughly centered in the core of the ensemble. It is demonstrated that although thin flux tubes are unable to interact with high-order fluting modes individually, they can indirectly absorb energy from these waves through the scatters of kink and sausage components. It is also shown how the distribution of absorption and phase shift across the azimuthal order m depends strongly on the tube position as well as on the individual tube characteristics. This is the first analytical study into an ensembles multiple-scattering regime that is embedded within a stratified atmosphere.

  14. The scattering of f- and p-modes from ensembles of thin magnetic flux tubes: an analytical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S.

    2014-08-20

    Motivated by the observational results of Braun, we extend the model of Hanson and Cally to address the effect of multiple scattering of f and p modes by an ensemble of thin vertical magnetic flux tubes in the surface layers of the Sun. As in the observational Hankel analysis, we measure the scatter and phase shift from an incident cylindrical wave in a coordinate system roughly centered in the core of the ensemble. It is demonstrated that although thin flux tubes are unable to interact with high-order fluting modes individually, they can indirectly absorb energy from these waves through the scatters of kink and sausage components. It is also shown how the distribution of absorption and phase shift across the azimuthal order m depends strongly on the tube position as well as on the individual tube characteristics. This is the first analytical study into an ensembles multiple-scattering regime that is embedded within a stratified atmosphere.

  15. Validation of solar-cycle changes in low-degree helioseismic parameters from the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, R.; Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Hale, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new and up-to-date analysis of the solar low-degree p-mode parameter shifts from the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network over the past 22 years, up to the end of 2014. We aim to demonstrate that they are not dominated by changes in the asymmetry of the resonant peak profiles of the modes and that the previously published results on the solar-cycle variations of mode parameters are reliable. We compare the results obtained using a conventional maximum-likelihood estimation algorithm and a new one based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, both taking into account mode asymmetry. We assess the reliability of the solar-cycle trends seen in the data by applying the same analysis to artificially generated spectra. We find that the two methods are in good agreement. Both methods accurately reproduce the input frequency shifts in the artificial data and underestimate the amplitude and width changes by a small amount, around 10 per cent. We confirm earlier findings that the frequency and line width are positively correlated, and the mode amplitude anticorrelated, with the level of solar activity, with the energy supplied to the modes remaining essentially unchanged. For the mode asymmetry the correlation with activity is marginal, but the MCMC algorithm gives more robust results than the MLE (Maximum-Likelihood Estimate). The magnitude of the parameter shifts is consistent with earlier work. There is no evidence that the frequency changes we see arise from changes in the asymmetry, which would need to be much larger than those observed in order to give the observed frequency shift.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SHELL-AVERAGED ENERGY SPECTRUM AND THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM MEASURED BY A SINGLE SPACECRAFT IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, J. J.

    2009-05-10

    The relationship between the shell-averaged energy spectrum E(k) and the frequency spectrum P(f) measured by a single spacecraft is needed in studies of solar wind turbulence to allow comparisons between theory and experiment. This relationship is derived for a three-dimensional (scalar) wavevector spectrum of the power-law form that is either isotropic or cylindrically symmetric about the mean magnetic field. In the latter case, it is assumed that the power-law exponents in directions parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field are the same, an assumption that allows the analysis to be performed analytically. The results show that the effects of anisotropy are small when the angle {theta} {sub BV} between the solar wind velocity and the mean magnetic field is between approximately 35 deg. and 90 deg. The largest effects occur near 0 deg. where a significant correction factor is needed compared to the isotropic case due to the lower energy in the k {sub ||} direction compared to the k {sub perpendicular} direction. For solar wind spectra with an unknown degree of anisotropy, measurements of E(k) obtained when 35 deg. {<=} {theta} {sub BV} {<=} 90 deg. should be reasonably accurate for most purposes since even if the spectrum is assumed to be isotropic and no corrections are made for spectral anisotropy, the resulting errors are typically less than 10% or 20%.

  17. Inverse problem in ionospheric science: prediction of solar soft-X-ray spectrum from very low frequency radiosonde results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palit, S.; Ray, S.; Chakrabarti, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    X-rays and gamma-rays from astronomical sources such as solar flares are mostly absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. Resulting electron-ion production rate as a function of height depends on the intensity and wavelength of the injected spectrum and therefore the effects vary from one source to another. In other words, the ion density vs. altitude profile has the imprint of the incident photon spectrum. In this paper, we investigate whether we can invert the problem uniquely by deconvolution of the VLF amplitude signal to obtain the details of the injected spectrum. We find that it is possible to do this up to a certain accuracy. This leads us to the possibility of uninterrupted observation of X-ray photon spectra of solar flares that are often hindered by the restricted observation window of space satellites to avoid charge particle damages. Such continuous means of observation are essential in deriving information on time evolution of physical processes related to electron acceleration and interaction with plasma in solar atmosphere. Our method is useful to carry out a similar exercise to infer the spectra of more energetic events such as the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) etc., by probing even the lower part of the Earth's atmosphere. We thus show that to certain extent, the Earth's atmosphere could be used as a gigantic detector of relatively strong astronomical events.

  18. Prediction soft-X-ray spectrum of solar flares from Very Low Frequency observations: an inverse problem in ionospheric science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palit, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Suman

    2016-07-01

    Earth's lower ionosphere and upper atmosphere absorb X-rays and gamma-rays from astronomical sources such as solar flares, Short Gamma ray Repeaters (SGRs) or Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The electron-ion production rates due to the ionization of such energetic photons at different heights depend on the intensity and wavelength of the injected spectrum and hence vary from one source to another. Obviously the ion density vs. altitude profile has the imprint of the incident photon spectrum. In this paper, we examine the possibility of inverting the electron density-height profiles uniquely by deconvolution of the VLF amplitude signal to obtain information on the injected spectrum. We have been able to reproduce the soft-X-ray part of the injected spectra from two different classes of solar flares with satisfactory accuracy. With the possibilities of probing even lower parts of the atmosphere, the method presented here is useful to carry out a similar exercise to infer the higher energy part of solar flare spectra and spectra of more energetic events such as the GRBs, SGRs etc. We show that to a certain accuracy, the Earth's atmosphere may be used as a gigantic detector of relatively strong ionizing extra-terrestrial events.

  19. Frequency dependent capacitance studies of the CdS/Cu2S thin-film solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmurcik, L. V.; Serway, R. A.

    1982-05-01

    The dark capacitance of CdS cells has been measured as a function of both bias voltage and operating signal frequency. Results indicate a frequency dependence of the dark current capacitance which can be attributed to deep trapping states in the bulk CdS and at the interface; these states can be characterized by a time constant in the simple relaxation model. Photocapacitance measurements indicate that hole trapping takes place in a narrow region of the i layer near the Cu2S/CdS junction. The results are interpreted in terms of a frequency-dependent model proposed by Schibli and Milnes (1968). It is shown that the simple planar junction model commonly used to describe the CdS cell is accurate at high frequencies.

  20. A simple method for correcting spatially resolved solar intensity oscillation observations for variations in scattered light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, S. M.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A measurement of the intensity distribution in an image of the solar disk will be corrupted by a spatial redistribution of the light that is caused by the earth's atmosphere and the observing instrument. A simple correction method is introduced here that is applicable for solar p-mode intensity observations obtained over a period of time in which there is a significant change in the scattering component of the point spread function. The method circumvents the problems incurred with an accurate determination of the spatial point spread function and its subsequent deconvolution from the observations. The method only corrects the spherical harmonic coefficients that represent the spatial frequencies present in the image and does not correct the image itself.

  1. Helioseismology with the ACRIM instrument on the Solar Maximum Mission. [Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    1991-01-01

    The Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) instrument on board SMM pioneered high-precision solar photometry from space, and provided the first detection of solar p-mode oscillations at low degree by this technique. The observations extended from February, 1980, until December, 1989, with a hiatus of low sampling rate in 1981-1984. During summer 1989, the instrument operated in a 'no-shutter' mode with continuous viewing between the orbital gaps. This resulted in a fourfold increase of the duty cycle, and an effective increase in the Nyquist frequency from 3.815 mHz to some tens of mHz. This review discusses the initial results from this campaign along with a general review of the analyses to date of the entire ACRIM data set.

  2. Helioseismic Ring-diagram Diagnostics of Solar Fares.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibacher, John W.; Baudin, Frédéric

    2014-06-01

    Flares are known to excite waves in the solar atmosphere. Maurya et al. (2009), using a local analysis (ring diagrams) of the 2003 Halloween flare, also showed they excite p-modes. We confirm and extend here these results by:-applying the same analysis to other locations on the Sun at the time of the Halloween flare-analyzing another event also showing a signature of p-mode excitation-looking in details at the results of the ring diagrams analysis in terms of noise fitting.The Halloween flare present an apparent localized excitation of p-modes, similar to what is observed for the other event analyzed.

  3. Self-assembly method for controlling spatial frequency response of plasmonic back reflectors in organic thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Takayuki; Shinotsuka, Kei; Kawamukai, Etsuko; Ishibashi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel colloidal lithography technique that uses a mixture of colloidal particles with a few different diameters. This technique can be used for fabricating quasi-random nanostructures whose k-space spectra can be easily controlled by using an appropriate combination of particles. We introduced such nanostructures into the back reflectors of organic thin-film solar cells, where they serve as plasmonic back reflectors for recycling the nonabsorbed transmitted light into surface plasmons. The obtained photon-to-current efficiency was enhanced by 14-20% compared with that of a flat cell.

  4. Towards solar activity maximum 24 as seen by GOLF and VIRGO/SPM instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, R. A.; Salabert, D.; Mathur, S.; Régulo, C.; Ballot, J.; Davies, G. R.; Jiménez, A.; Simoniello, R.

    2013-06-01

    All p-mode parameters vary with time as a response to the changes induced by the cyclic behavior of solar magnetic activity. After the unusual long solar-activity minimum between cycles 23 and 24 -where the p-mode parameters have shown a different behavior than the surface magnetic proxies- we analyze the temporal variation of low-degree p-mode parameters measured by GOLF (in velocity) and VIRGO (in intensity) Sun-as-a-star instruments on board SoHO. We compare our results with other activity proxies.

  5. Aspects of the Solar Tachocline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The splitting of the frequencies of p-mode multiplets enables information to be gained about the internal rotation of the sun. Such data have revealed a transition at the base of the convection zone from differential rotation similar to that observed at the surface to almost solid-body rotation in the radiative interior. This transition region, known as the tachocline, has been found to be relatively narrow and centered below the base of the convection zone. In this paper, the evolution of the transition region is investigated numerically. Without a large anisotropic viscosity, the depth to which it would spread in one solar age, under the assumption of a constant prescribed differential rotation at the base of the convection zone, is found to be greater than its extent as inferred from helioseismology. In the second part of the paper a highly anisotropic turbulent viscosity with a large horizontal component, as suggested by Spiegel & Zahn (1992), is assumed. In this case, a steady tachocline is formed in which the advection of angular momentum balances the Reynolds stresses. The horizontal component of turbulent viscosity required to match the thickness of the tachocline to that obtained by helioseismology, is estimated to be 5 x 1O sq cm/s The transport of helium is studied in this case and is found to yield a sound-speed increase similar to that required by helioseismology.

  6. Intensity/frequency indicator for detection in space: the high values of the incident solar or laser optical radiation in comparison with the appropriate maximum permissible exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsitomeneas, S; Petropoulos, B

    2001-01-01

    The solar or laser optical radiation impact to humans in space depends on the intensity, on the exposure type (direct or indirect) & duration and on the matching of radiation wavelength to tissue characteristics. The main protection factor in space is the application of exposure limits. This paper describes the main biological optical interaction parameters, the optical exposure hazards and the development of a small active lightweight indicator, with output beeper rate depended to the ratio of optical irradiance/exposure limit. The indicator may be used as warning element on the side of helmets, goggles, spectacles, etc, with low power consumption. Electronically the indicator is an intensity/frequency converter, based on the value of the ratio of exposure/exposure limits, with audio & light beepers like the indication output of the ionizing (radioactive) radiation monitors. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Explicit analytical modeling of the low frequency a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction capacitance: Analysis and application to silicon heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maslova, O.; Brézard-Oudot, A.; Gueunier-Farret, M.-E.; Alvarez, J.; Kleider, J.-P.

    2015-09-21

    We develop a fully analytical model in order to describe the temperature dependence of the low frequency capacitance of heterojunctions between hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si). We demonstrate that the slope of the capacitance-temperature (C-T) curve is strongly enhanced if the c-Si surface is under strong inversion conditions compared to the usually assumed depletion layer capacitance. We have extended our analytical model to integrate a very thin undoped (i) a-Si:H layer at the interface and the finite thickness of the doped a-Si:H layer that are used in high efficiency solar cells for the passivation of interface defects and to limit short circuit current losses. Finally, using our calculations, we analyze experimental data on high efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. The transition from the strong inversion limited behavior to the depletion layer behavior is discussed in terms of band offsets, density of states in a-Si:H, and work function of the indium tin oxide (ITO) front electrode. In particular, it is evidenced that strong inversion conditions prevail at the c-Si surface at high temperatures down to 250 K, which can only be reproduced if the ITO work function is larger than 4.7 eV.

  8. Effects of solar and geomagnetic activities on the sub-ionospheric very low frequency transmitter signals received by the DEMETER micro-satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Yahia; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Al-Haddad, Emad; Parrot, Michel; Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; Besser, Bruno; Stangl, Guenter; Voller, Wolfgang

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of seismic precursor electromagnetic investigations, we analyzed the very low frequency (VLF) amplitude signals recorded by the Instrument Champ Electrique (ICE) experiment on board the DEMETER micro-satellite. The sun-synchronous orbits of the micro-satellite allowed us to cover an invariant latitude of between -65° and +65° in a time interval of about 40 min. We considered four transmitter signals emitted by stations in Europe (France, FTU, 18.3 kHz; Germany, DFY, 16.58 kHz),Asia (Japan, JP, 17.8 kHz) and Australia (Australia, NWC, 19.8 kHz). We studied the variations of these VLF signals, taking into consideration: the signal-to-noise ratio, sunspots, and the geomagnetic activity. We show that the degree of correlation in periods of high geomagnetic and solar activities is, on average, about 40%. Such effects can be fully neglected in the period of weak activity. We also find that the solar activity can have a more important effect on the VLF transmitter signal than the geomagnetic activity. Our data are combined with models where the coupling between the lithosphere, atmosphere and ionosphere is essential to explain how ionospheric disturbances scatter the VLF transmitter signal.

  9. Solar cycle variations of oscillation mode parameters from LOWL and MARK-I instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimeńez Reyes, S. J.; Corbard, T.; Tomczyk, S.; Pallé, P. L.

    2000-10-01

    The signature of the Solar-Cycle appears clearly in the p-mode parameters (Jiménez-Reyes et al. 1998, Libbrecht & Woodard 1990, and Anguera et al. 1992). At present, the study of the p-mode parameter variation is a very active topic in helioseismology where, thanks to projects like BISON, IRIS, GONG, LOWL and MDI, we are able for the first time to analyse, using heliosismology, how the Sun internal structure and dynamic change over the magnetic cycle. High-quality observations for low degree p-modes have been accumulated for more than twenty years using the solar spectro photometer MARK-I, located and operating at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Spain). The data-base available have been re-analyzed over a much wider time interval than before. Moreover, the LOWL instrument, a Potassium Magneto-Optical Filter, located at the Manua Loa Observatory, has been measuring for more than six years solar oscillations of intermadiate p-mode degree. The data-base represents one of the best available to analyze the influence of the Solar-Cycle on the mode parameters, mainly because these data, concerning both low and intermadiate degree modes, give us information over an extensive range of the solar depths which may allow us to locate characteristics of the solar dynamo process. Using different data sets and different techniques, we analyse the behaviour of the solar p-modes in an attempt to better understand the origin of the Solar-Cycle.

  10. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of MIM Diodes and Frequency Selective Thermal Emitters for Solar Energy Harvesting and Detection Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Saumya

    Energy harvesting using rectennas for infrared radiation continues to be a challenge due to the lack of fast switching diodes capable of rectification at THz frequencies. Metal insulator metal diodes which may be used at 30 THz must show adequate nonlinearity for small signal rectification such as 30 mV. In a rectenna assembly, the voltage signal received as an output from a single nanoantenna can be as small as ~30microV. Thus, only a hybrid array of nanoantennas can be sufficient to provide a signal in the ~30mV range for the diode to be able to rectify around 30THz. A metal-insulator-metal diode with highly nonlinear I-V characteristics is required in order for such small signal rectification to be possible. Such diode fabrication was found to be faced with two major fabrication challenges. The first one being the lack of a precisely controlled deposition process to allow a pinhole free insulator deposition less than 3nm in thickness. Another major challenge is the deposition of a top metal contact on the underlying insulating thin film. As a part of this research study, most of the MIM diodes were fabricated using Langmuir Blodgett monolayers deposited on a thin Ni film that was sputter coated on a silicon wafer. UV induced polymerization of the Langmuir Blodgett thin film was used to allow intermolecular crosslinking. A metal top contact was sputtered onto the underlying Langmuir Blodgett film assembly. In addition to material characterization of all the individual films using IR, UV-VIS spectroscopy, electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, the I-V characteristics, resistance, current density, rectification ratio and responsivity with respect to the bias voltage were also measured for the electrical characterization of these MIM diodes. Further improvement in the diode rectification ratio and responsivity was obtained with Langmuir Blodgett films grown by the use of horizontally oriented organic molecules, due to a smaller tunneling distance that

  11. Actinometric measurement of j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)], the solar photolysis frequency of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfamariam, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical actinometer for measuring the solar photolysis frequency of ozone to [sup 1]D oxygen atoms, j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)], has been built. Ozone, generated by oxygen flowing through an electric discharge ozonizer, is mixed with helium and nitrous oxide. The mixture of gases passes through traps into an ozone meter and into a photolysis tube that can be exposed to sunlight. Sunlight in the wavelength region less than 320 nm, photolyzes ozone into oxygen molecules and excited oxygen atoms that are in [sup 1]D state. The [sup 1]D oxygen atoms formed react with N[sub 2]O and ozone to produce oxides of nitrogen. Computer model predictions show that NO[sub 2] is the major product. The gases after photolysis pass through an ozone removing trap into the detector. NO[sub 2] in the gas mixture is detected by its chemiluminescence reaction with luminol. The instrument is able to measure j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] with a noise level less that 5 x 10[sup [minus]1] sec[sup [minus]1]. The instrument measures j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] with a precision of [+-]10%. Sixty days of data are taken between February 19, 1991 and May 18, 1991 in Denver, Colorado. Over 400 clear day j[O[sub 3]-O(1D)] values are correlated with effective ozone column density. Seasonal variation of j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] is calculated from the peak hourly average values near solar noon for the months February, March, April and May. j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] increased by 34% from February to May. j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] measured in this study is compared with previous measurements and model calculations. Three photometers with approximate cosine response have been built and compared to the j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] actinometer. j[[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] values are also compared to an output of a radiometer that measures global solar radiation. A new method to estimate j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] on cloudy days using the global solar radiation is successfully tested.

  12. Improved Modeling of Midlatitude D-Region Ionospheric Absorption of High Frequency Radio Signals During Solar X-Ray Flares

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    is the scale height and describes the vertical distance over which the number density decreases by 37% of the initial value. Integrating equation...respect to a constant scale height H, 3. The atmosphere is planar and horizontally stratified. Substituting the Chapman production function and...ν ω ω ε //2 2 1 yzz p zo iPiP iPE +−      −−=        ⊥ (2.4.9c) where m eN o e p ε ω 2 2 = is the plasma frequency

  13. Low-frequency observations of drifting, non-thermal continuum radio emission associated with the solar coronal mass ejections

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, R.; Kishore, P.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Kathiravan, C.; Mulay, Sargam M.; Wang, T. J.

    2013-11-20

    Low-frequency (80 MHz) imaging and spectral (≈85-20 MHz) observations of moving type IV radio bursts associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun on three different days are reported. The estimated drift speed of the bursts is in the range ≈150-500 km s{sup –1}. We find that all three bursts are most likely due to second harmonic plasma emission from the enhanced electron density in the associated white-light CMEs. The derived maximum magnetic field strength of the latter is B ≈ 4 G at a radial distance of r ≈ 1.6 R {sub ☉}.

  14. High Efficiency Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Based Double-Junction Solar Cells made with Very-High-Frequency Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Arindam

    2004-10-20

    We have achieved a total-area initial efficiency of 11.47% (active-area efficiency of 12.33%) on a-Si:H/μc-Si:H double-junction structure, where the intrinsic layer bottom cell was made in 50 minutes. On another device in which the bottom cell was made in 30 min, we achieved initial total-area efficiency of 10.58% (active-efficiency of 11.35%). We have shown that the phenomenon of ambient degradation of both μc-Si:H single-junction and a-Si:H/μc-Si:H double-junction cells can be attributed to impurity diffusion after deposition. Optimization of the plasma parameters led to alleviation of the ambient degradation. Appropriate current matching between the top and bottom component cells has resulted in a stable total-area efficiency of 9.7% (active-area efficiency of 10.42%) on an a-Si:H/μc-Si:H double-junction solar cell in which the deposition time for the μc-Si:H intrinsic layer deposition was of 30 min.

  15. Structure and function of quinones in biological solar energy transduction: a high-frequency D-band EPR spectroscopy study of model benzoquinones.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ruchira; Coates, Christopher S; Milikisiyants, Sergey; Poluektov, Oleg G; Lakshmi, K V

    2012-01-12

    Quinones are utilized as charge-transfer cofactors in a wide variety of reactions that are crucial for photosynthesis and respiration. In photosynthetic protein complexes, both Type I and Type II, including oxygenic and anoxygenic reaction centers contain quinone cofactors that are known to participate in electron- and proton-transfer processes. Type II reaction centers, purple bacterial reaction centers, and photosystem II utilize benzoquinone molecules, ubiquinone, and plastoquinone, respectively, to facilitate proton-coupled electron transfer reactions. Here, we report a systematic study of the principal components of the g-tensor of an extensive library of model benzosemiquinone anion radicals in both protic (2-isopropanol) and aprotic (dimethyl sulfoxide) solvents using high-frequency EPR spectroscopy. A detailed comparison of the experimental g-values of the benzosemiquinone models at D-band EPR frequency allows for the discrimination of substituent effects and solvent hydrogen bonds on the principal components of the g-tensor. Further, we compare the primary plastosemiquinone, Q(A)(-), of photosystem II with the substituent and solvent hydrogen bond effects of benzosemiquinone models in vitro. This study significantly extends the experimental basis for elucidating the role of both molecular structure and interactions with environment on the functional tuning of quinone cofactors in biological solar energy transduction.

  16. Solar and geomagnetic activity, extremely low frequency magnetic and electric fields and human health at the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, S. J.; Rycroft, M. J.; Cermack, M.

    2006-09-01

    The possibility that conditions on the Sun and in the Earth’s magnetosphere can affect human health at the Earth’s surface has been debated for many decades. This work reviews the research undertaken in the field of heliobiology, focusing on the effect of variations of geomagnetic activity on human cardiovascular health. Data from previous research are analysed for their statistical significance, resulting in support for some studies and the undermining of others. Three conclusions are that geomagnetic effects are more pronounced at higher magnetic latitudes, that extremely high as well as extremely low values of geomagnetic activity seem to have adverse health effects and that a subset of the population (10-15%) is predisposed to adverse health due to geomagnetic variations. The reported health effects of anthropogenic sources of electric and magnetic fields are also briefly discussed, as research performed in this area could help to explain the results from studies into natural electric and magnetic field interactions with the human body. Possible mechanisms by which variations in solar and geophysical parameters could affect human health are discussed and the most likely candidates investigated further. Direct effects of natural ELF electric and magnetic fields appear implausible; a mechanism involving some form of resonant absorption is more likely. The idea that the Schumann resonance signals could be the global environmental signal absorbed by the human body, thereby linking geomagnetic activity and human health is investigated. Suppression of melatonin secreted by the pineal gland, possibly via desynchronised biological rhythms, appears to be a promising contender linking geomagnetic activity and human health. There are indications that calcium ions in cells could play a role in one or more mechanisms. It is found to be unlikely that a single mechanism can explain all of the reported phenomena.

  17. Differential rotation in main-sequence solar-like stars: Qualitative inference from asteroseismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Mikkel N.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Miesch, Mark S.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding differential rotation of Sun-like stars is of great importance for insight into the angular momentum transport in these stars. One means of gaining such information is that of asteroseismology. By a forward modeling approach we analyze in a qualitative manner the impact of different differential rotation profiles on the splittings of p-mode oscillation frequencies. The optimum modes for inference on differential rotation are identified along with the best value of the stellar inclination angle. We find that in general it is not likely that asteroseismology can be used to make an unambiguous distinction between a rotation profile such as a conical Sun-like profile and a cylindrical profile. In addition, it seems unlikely that asteroseismology of Sun-like stars will result in inferences on the radial profile of the differential rotation, such as can be done for red giants. At best, one could possibly obtain the sign of the radial differential rotation gradient. Measurements of the extent of the latitudinal differential from frequency splitting are, however, more promising. One very interesting aspect that could likely be tested from frequency splittings is whether the differential rotation is solar-like or anti-solar-like in nature, in the sense that a solar-like profile has an equator rotating faster than the poles.

  18. Observations of Low-degree Modes from the Solar Maximum Mission (extended Abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M.

    1984-01-01

    Mean frequencies, amplitudes, and linewidths for the solar 5 min p mode oscillations of degree 0, 1, and 2 have been obtained from approx. 280 days of SMM-ACRIM total irradiance data. The frequencies are in good agreement with measurements obtained from velocity data. The amplitudes of the modes lie along a well defined envelope of power vs. frequency, which peaks at 3.1 mHz and has a width of 0.7 mHz (FWHM). The r.m.s. amplitude of the highest peak in the spectrum (n=21, l=1) is approx. 3 ppm of the total flux. The linewidths of the narrowest l=O modes are approx. 1 micro Hz (FWHM). A broad continuum of power caused both by solar surface granulation and by instrumental noise interferes with the analysis of 5 min modes. The continuum spectral power in a 1 micro Hz band near 3 mHz corresponds to an apparent r.m.s. variation of approx. 0.5 parts per million of the mean solar flux.

  19. The Transport of Low-frequency Turbulence in Astrophysical Flows. II. Solutions for the Super-Alfvénic Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.; Hunana, P.; Dosch, A.; Marino, R.; Hu, Q.

    2015-05-01

    Zank et al. developed a turbulence transport model for low-frequency incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in inhomogeneous flows in terms of the energy corresponding to forward and backward propagating modes, the residual energy, the correlation lengths corresponding to forward and backward propagating modes, and the correlation length of the residual energy. We apply the Zank et al. model to the super-Alfvénic solar wind i.e., |{\\boldsymbol{U}} |\\gg |{{{\\boldsymbol{V}} }A}| and solve the coupled equations for two cases, the first being the heliosphere from 0.29 to 5 AU with and without the Alfvén velocity, and the second being the “entire” heliosphere from 0.29 to 100 AU in the absence of the Alfvén velocity. The model shows that (1) shear driving is responsible for the in situ generation of backward propagating modes, (2) the inclusion of the background magnetic field modifies the transport of turbulence in the inner heliosphere, (3) the correlation lengths of forward and backward propagating modes are almost equal beyond ∼30 AU, and (4) the fluctuating magnetic and kinetic energies in MHD turbulence are in approximate equipartition beyond ∼30 AU. A comparison of the model results with observations for the two cases shows that the model reproduces the observations quite well from 0.29 to 5 AU. The outer heliosphere (\\gt 1 AU) observations are well described by the model. The temporal and latitudinal dependence of the observations makes a detailed comparison difficult but the overall trends are well captured by the models. We conclude that the results are a reasonable validation of the Zank et al. model for the super-Alfvénic solar wind.

  20. Solar mass loss, solar lithium, and solar oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. N.; Guzik, J. A.

    Swenson and Faulkner, and Boothroyd et al. investigated the possibility that early main-sequence mass loss via a stronger early solar wind could be responsible for the observed solar lithium and beryllium depletion. This depletion requires a total mass loss of approx. 0.1, nearly independent of the mass loss timescale. The authors have calculated the evolution and oscillation frequencies of solar models including helium and heavier element diffusion, and such early solar mass loss. For models with gradual early mass loss (during approx. 1 Gyr), the early mass loss phase decreases the total amount of helium and heavier elements diffused from the convection zone, and the extent of the diffusion-produced composition gradient just below the convection zone, deteriorating the agreement with observed frequencies for intermediate (ell) modes. The mass loss phase must be confined to approx. 0.2 Gyr or less to solve simultaneously the solar Li/Be problem and avoid discrepancies with solar oscillation frequencies.

  1. FREQUENCY OF SOLAR-LIKE SYSTEMS AND OF ICE AND GAS GIANTS BEYOND THE SNOW LINE FROM HIGH-MAGNIFICATION MICROLENSING EVENTS IN 2005-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, A.; Dong, Subo; Gaudi, B. S.; Han, C. E-mail: gaudi@astronomy.ohio-state.ed

    2010-09-10

    suggests a universal separation distribution across 2 dex in planet-star separation, 2 dex in mass ratio, and 0.3 dex in host mass. Finally, if all planetary systems were 'analogs' of the solar system, our sample would have yielded 18.2 planets (11.4 'Jupiters', 6.4 'Saturns', 0.3 'Uranuses', 0.2 'Neptunes') including 6.1 systems with two or more planet detections. This compares to six planets including one two-planet system in the actual sample, implying a first estimate of 1/6 for the frequency of solar-like systems.

  2. Stochastic excitation of the solar oscillations by turbulent convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willette, Gregory Thomas

    1994-01-01

    The thesis topic is the stochastic excitation of the solar p-modes by turbulent convection, and the work consists of four parts: three theoretical sections and one observational. In the first section of the thesis, an explicit calculation of the acoustic radiation of a buoyant oscillating bubble is presented as a model for the excitation of the solar p-modes. The central scientific issue addressed in this work is the cancellation of monopole and dipole radiation fields in an anisotropic medium, first pointed out by Goldreich and Kumar (1990). When the bubble oscillation frequency is small compared to the acoustic cutoff, the monopole and dipole disturbances cancel to the quadrupole order in the far field. The second section deals with the role of convective structures in a wide number of problems, including the creation of acoustic disturbances, the transport of heat and magnetic fields, and the penetration of flows into stable layers of the atmosphere (overshoot). A model of plume convection is developed to discuss these issues. It is argued that the scaleheight-sized flows (the only energetically significant ones) are properly characterized as coherent, entropy-preserving plumes, in contradistinction to the picture of amorphous parcels of fluid suggested by the Mixing Length Theory, and in spite of the large Reynolds numbers typical in astrophysical convection. The third section of the thesis is an analysis of high-resolution surface velocity data taken with a magneto-optical filter on the 10 inch telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. Estimates are obtained for the frequencies and amplitudes of the solar oscillations of high spherical harmonic degree (l approximately less than 2000). The observed mode energies follow a Boltzmann distribution (P(E) varies as exp(-E/(bar-E)), as is predicted in the stochastic excitation model. In the final section of the thesis, a derivation of the variational principle for an incompressible fluid is presented. The Lagrange and

  3. Five-minute oscillation power within magnetic elements in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Rekha; Gascoyne, Andrew; Hindman, Bradley W.; Greer, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    It has long been known that magnetic plage and sunspots are regions in which the power of acoustic waves is reduced within the photospheric layers. Recent observations now suggest that this suppression of power extends into the low chromosphere and is also present in small magnetic elements far from active regions. In this paper we investigate the observed power suppression in plage and magnetic elements, by modeling each as a collection of vertically aligned magnetic fibrils and presuming that the velocity within each fibril is the response to buffeting by incident p modes in the surrounding field-free atmosphere. We restrict our attention to modeling observations made near the solar disk center, where the line-of-sight velocity is nearly vertical and hence, only the longitudinal component of the motion within the fibril contributes. Therefore, we only consider the excitation of axisymmetric sausage waves and ignore kink oscillations as their motions are primarily horizontal. We compare the vertical motion within the fibril with the vertical motion of the incident p mode by constructing the ratio of their powers. In agreement with observational measurements we find that the total power is suppressed within strong magnetic elements for frequencies below the acoustic cut-off frequency. However, further physical effects need to be examined for understanding the observed power ratios for stronger magnetic field strengths and higher frequencies. We also find that the magnitude of the power deficit increases with the height above the photosphere at which the measurement is made. Furthermore, we argue that the area of the solar disk over which the power suppression extends increases as a function of height.

  4. Five-minute Oscillation Power within Magnetic Elements in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rekha; Gascoyne, Andrew; Hindman, Bradley W.; Greer, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    It has long been known that magnetic plage and sunspots are regions in which the power of acoustic waves is reduced within the photospheric layers. Recent observations now suggest that this suppression of power extends into the low chromosphere and is also present in small magnetic elements far from active regions. In this paper we investigate the observed power suppression in plage and magnetic elements, by modeling each as a collection of vertically aligned magnetic fibrils and presuming that the velocity within each fibril is the response to buffeting by incident p modes in the surrounding field-free atmosphere. We restrict our attention to modeling observations made near the solar disk center, where the line-of-sight velocity is nearly vertical and hence, only the longitudinal component of the motion within the fibril contributes. Therefore, we only consider the excitation of axisymmetric sausage waves and ignore kink oscillations as their motions are primarily horizontal. We compare the vertical motion within the fibril with the vertical motion of the incident p mode by constructing the ratio of their powers. In agreement with observational measurements we find that the total power is suppressed within strong magnetic elements for frequencies below the acoustic cut-off frequency. However, further physical effects need to be examined for understanding the observed power ratios for stronger magnetic field strengths and higher frequencies. We also find that the magnitude of the power deficit increases with the height above the photosphere at which the measurement is made. Furthermore, we argue that the area of the solar disk over which the power suppression extends increases as a function of height.

  5. Helioseismic Constraints on New Solar Models from the MoSEC Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Evolutionary solar models are computed using a new stellar evolution code, MOSEC (Modular Stellar Evolution Code). This code has been designed with carefully controlled truncation errors in order to achieve a precision which reflects the increasingly accurate determination of solar interior structure by helioseismology. A series of models is constructed to investigate the effects of the choice of equation of state (OPAL or MHD-E, the latter being a version of the MHD equation of state recalculated by the author), the inclusion of helium and heavy-element settling and diffusion, and the inclusion of a simple model of mixing associated with the solar tachocline. The neutrino flux predictions are discussed, while the sound speed of the computed models is compared to that of the sun via the latest inversion of SOI-NMI p-mode frequency data. The comparison between models calculated with the OPAL and MHD-E equations of state is particularly interesting because the MHD-E equation of state includes relativistic effects for the electrons, whereas neither MHD nor OPAL do. This has a significant effect on the sound speed of the computed model, worsening the agreement with the solar sound speed. Using the OPAL equation of state and including the settling and diffusion of helium and heavy elements produces agreement in sound speed with the helioseismic results to within about +.-0.2%; the inclusion of mixing slightly improves the agreement.

  6. Upper limit on solar interior rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M.

    1984-01-01

    Individual 5-min p-mode oscillations of spherical harmonic degree 0-2 and radial order 16-26 are revealed by the Solar Maximum Mission Spacecraft's Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor power spectra for total solar irradiance flux variation. Rotationally split p-, g- and f-modes have been identified in the temporal power spectrum of Bos and Hill's (1983) limb-darkening data, and from these splittings, two rotational curves have been deduced which imply a solar gravitational quadrupole moment sufficiently large to preclude agreement between general relativity and planetary motion observations.

  7. Kepler Mission: a Discovery-Class Mission Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-Like Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Caldwell, Douglas; Kondo, Yoji; hide

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 in aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. Extending the mission to six years doubles the expected number of Earth-size planets in the HZ. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current Doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  8. Kepler Mission: a Discovery-Class Mission Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-Like Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Caldwell, Douglas; Kondo, Yoji; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 in aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. Extending the mission to six years doubles the expected number of Earth-size planets in the HZ. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current Doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  9. Kepler Mission: A Wide-FOV Photometer Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-like stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 m aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  10. Kepler Mission: A Wide-FOV Photometer Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-like stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas; hide

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 m aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  11. Constrained estimates of low-degree mode frequencies and the determination of the interior structure of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, D. O.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Toutain, T.

    1995-03-01

    Low-degree p-modes penetrate to the solar center and provide direct information about the core. However, the high obser- vational accuracy that is required to resolve the details of the structure of the core is difficult to achieve because the oscillation power spectra is significantly distorted by stochastic forcing of the oscillations, which appears as multiplicative noise. Here, an attempt is reported to reduce uncertainties of spectral parameter estimation by incorporating constraints imposed by smooth behavior of some of the parameters (e.g., linewidths, background noise, rotational splitting) over as group of lines. Instead of estimating these parameters independently for each line, we determine them as smooth functions of frequency. It is expected that this procedure gives more accurate estimates of the average frequencies of any multiplet in the power spectrum, to which we have applied no constraints. We give some examples of the procedure for whole- disk measurements by the InterPlanetary Helioseismology by IRradiance measurements (IPHIR) space experiment. It is shown that the additional constraints do not result in significant changes in the frequency estimates, except for one mode whose peak in the power spectrum has the lowest signal-to-noise ratio. However, the uncertainty in the frequency of that mode does not influence substantially the results of the structure inversion in the core. Inversions of the IPHIR datasets are compared with corresponding inversion of data from the Birmingham Solar Oscillation Network (BISON). The IPHIR data indicate a sharp increase towards the centre of the deviation of the squared sound speed of the sun from that of a standard solar model, whereas the BISON data show a decrease. The difference between the IPHIR and BISON inversions is significant, preventing any definite conclusion about the deviation of the structure of the solar core from that of the model.

  12. Cyclic thermal signature in a global MHD simulation of solar convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossette, J.; Charbonneau, P.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Space-based observations have clearly established that total solar irradiance (TSI) varies on time scales from minutes to days and months as well as on the longer time scale of the 11-year solar cycle. The most conspicuous of these variations is arguably the slight increase of TSI (0.1%) at solar maxima relative to solar minima. Models that include contributions from surface solar magnetism alone (i.e. sunspots, faculae and magnetic network) have been very successful at reproducing the observed TSI fluctuations on time scales shorter than a year, but leave some doubts as to the origin of the longer decadal fluctuations. In particular, one school of thought argues that surface magnetism alone can explain the entire TSI variance; see (Lean & al. 1998, ApJ, 492, 390), whereas; the other emphasizes on taking into account the effect of a global modulation of solar thermal structure by magnetic activity; see (Li & al. 2003, ApJ, 591, 1267). Observationally, the potential for the occurrence of magnetically-modulated global structural changes is supported by a positive correlation between p-mode oscillation frequencies and the TSI cycle as well as by recent evidence for a long-term trend in the TSI record that is not seen in indicators of surface magnetism; see (Bhatnagar & al. 1999, ApJ, 521, 885; Fröhlich 2013, Space Sci Rev,176, 237). Additionally, 1D structural solar models have demonstrated that the inclusion of a magnetically-modulated turbulent mechanism could explain the observed p-mode oscillation frequency changes with great accuracy. However, these models relied upon an ad-hoc parametrization of the alleged process and therefore obtaining a complete physical picture of the modulating mechanism requires solving the equations governing the self-consistent evolution of the solar plasma. Here we present a global magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation of solar convection extending over more than a millennium that produces large-scale solar-like axisymmetric magnetic

  13. Solar collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. I.

    1984-08-01

    Solar dishes, photovoltaics, passive solar building and solar hot water systems, Trombe walls, hot air panels, hybrid solar heating systems, solar grain dryers, solar greenhouses, solar hot water worhshops, and solar workshops are discussed. These solar technologies are applied to residential situations.

  14. Excitation of Resonant Helioseimic Modes by Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibacher, John William; Baudin, Frédéric; Rabello Soares, Maria Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Flares are known to excite propagating sound waves in the solar atmosphere, and Maurya et al. (2009), using a local analysis (ring diagrams) of the 2003 Halloween flare, showed that they excite resonant p-modes as well. We confirm and extend here these results by: applying the same analysis to other locations on the Sun at the time of the Halloween flare, analyzing other events also showing a signature of p-mode excitation, looking in detail at the results of the ring diagrams analysis in terms of noise fitting and the center-to-limb variation of ring-diagram power.

  15. Excitation of Resonant Helioseimic Modes by Solar Flares.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibacher, John W.; Baudin, Frédéric; Rabello Soares,, Maria Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Flares are known to excite propagating sound waves in the solar atmosphere, and Maurya et al. (2009), using a local analysis (ring diagrams) of the 2003 Halloween flare, showed that they excite resonant p-modes as well. We confirm and extend here these results by:-applying the same analysis to other locations on the Sun at the time of the Halloween flare-analyzing other events also showing a signature of p-mode excitation-looking in detail at the results of the ring diagrams analysis in terms of noise fitting and the center-to-limb variation of ring-diagram power.

  16. Note on one-fluid modeling of low-frequency Alfvénic fluctuations in a solar wind plasma with multi-ion components

    SciTech Connect

    Nariyuki, Y.; Umeda, T.; Suzuki, T. K.; Hada, T.

    2015-12-15

    A simple point of view that non-zero Alfvén ratio (residual energy) appears as a consequence of one-fluid modeling of uni-directional Alfvén waves in a solar wind plasma is presented. Since relative speeds among ions are incorporated into the one-fluid model as a pressure anisotropy, the Alfvén ratio can be finite due to the decrease in the phase velocity. It is shown that a proton beam component typically found in the solar wind plasma can contribute to generating non-zero Alfvén ratio observed in the solar wind plasma. Local equilibrium velocity distribution functions of each ion component are also discussed by using maximum entropy principle.

  17. Effect of wavelength on the electrical parameters of a vertical parallel junction silicon solar cell illuminated by its rear side in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Gökhan

    The influence of the illumination wavelength on the electrical parameters of a vertical parallel junction silicon solar cell by its rear side is theoretically analyzed. Based on the excess minority carrier's density, the photocurrent density and photovoltage across the junction were determined. From both photocurrent and the photovoltage, the series and shunt resistance expressions are deduced and the solar cell associated capacitance and conversion efficiency are calculated. The aim of this study is to show the influence of the illumination wavelength on the electrical parameters of the cell and the behavior of both parasitic resistances and capacitance versus operating point.

  18. Review of observations relevant to solar oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Recent solar oscillation observations and methods used are described. Integrated or almost integrated sunlight (Sun as a star observation) was observed. The most certain observations are in the 5 minute range. The p-mode and g-mode oscillations are expected from 3 to more than 300 minutes. The possible period ranges are described into the three intervals: (1) the 5 minute range for which the most dramatic and certain results are reported; (2) the 10 to 20 minute range for which solar diameter oscillations are reported; and (3) the 160 minute oscillation found in velocity and several other quantities.

  19. Simultaneous observations of solar sporadic radio emission by the radio telescopes UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA within the frequency range 8-42 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Brazhenko, A.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V.; Zarka, P.; Denis, L.; Bulatzen, V.; Frantzusenko, A.; Rucker, H.; Stanislavskyy, A.

    2012-09-01

    From 25 June till 12 August 2011 sporadic solar radio emission was observed simultaneously by three separate radio telescopes: UTR-2 (Kharkov, Ukraine), URAN-2 (Poltava, Ukraine) and NDA (Nancay, France). During these observations some interesting phenomena were observed. Some of them are discussed in this paper.

  20. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  1. Asymptotic g modes: Evidence for a rapid rotation of the solar core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossat, E.; Boumier, P.; Corbard, T.; Provost, J.; Salabert, D.; Schmider, F. X.; Gabriel, A. H.; Grec, G.; Renaud, C.; Robillot, J. M.; Roca-Cortés, T.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Ulrich, R. K.; Lazrek, M.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Over the past 40 years, helioseismology has been enormously successful in the study of the solar interior. A shortcoming has been the lack of a convincing detection of the solar g modes, which are oscillations driven by gravity and are hidden in the deepest part of the solar body - its hydrogen-burning core. The detection of g modes is expected to dramatically improve our ability to model this core, the rotational characteristics of which have, until now, remained unknown. Aims: We present the identification of very low frequency g modes in the asymptotic regime and two important parameters that have long been waited for: the core rotation rate, and the asymptotic equidistant period spacing of these g modes. Methods: The GOLF instrument on board the SOHO space observatory has provided two decades of full-disk helioseismic data. The search for g modes in GOLF measurements has been extremely difficult because of solar and instrumental noise. In the present study, the p modes of the GOLF signal are analyzed differently: we search for possible collective frequency modulations that are produced by periodic changes in the deep solar structure. Such modulations provide access to only very low frequency g modes, thus allowing statistical methods to take advantage of their asymptotic properties. Results: For oscillatory periods in the range between 9 and nearly 48 h, almost 100 g modes of spherical harmonic degree 1 and more than 100 g modes of degree 2 are predicted. They are not observed individually, but when combined, they unambiguously provide their asymptotic period equidistance and rotational splittings, in excellent agreement with the requirements of the asymptotic approximations. When the period equidistance has been measured, all of the individual frequencies of each mode can be determined. Previously, p-mode helioseismology allowed the g-mode period equidistance parameter P0 to be bracketed inside a narrow range, between approximately 34 and 35 min. Here

  2. The analysis of solar models: Neutrinos and oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Tomczyk, S.; Dumont, P. J.; Brunish, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    Tests of solar neutrino flux and solar oscillation frequencies were used to assess standard stellar structure theory. Standard and non-standard solar models are enumerated and discussed. The field of solar seismology, wherein the solar interior is studied from the measurement of solar oscillations, is introduced.

  3. Surface-effect corrections for oscillation frequencies of evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, W. H.; Gizon, L.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Accurate modelling of solar-like oscillators requires that modelled mode frequencies are corrected for the systematic shift caused by improper modelling of the near-surface layers, known as the surface effect. Several parametrizations of the surface effect are now available but they have not yet been systematically compared with observations of stars showing modes with mixed g- and p-mode character. Aims: We investigate how much additional uncertainty is introduced to stellar model parameters by our uncertainty about the functional form of the surface effect. At the same time, we test whether any of the parametrizations is significantly better or worse at modelling observed subgiants and low-luminosity red giants. Methods: We model six stars observed by Kepler that show clear mixed modes. We fix the input physics of the stellar models and vary the choice of surface correction between five parametrizations. Results: Models using a solar-calibrated power law correction consistently fit the observations more poorly than the other four corrections. Models with the remaining four corrections generally fit the observations about equally well, with the combined surface correction by Ball & Gizon perhaps being marginally superior. The fits broadly agree on the model parameters within about the 2σ uncertainties, with discrepancies between the modified Lorentzian and free power law corrections occasionally exceeding the 3σ level. Relative to the best-fitting values, the total uncertainties on the masses, radii and ages of the stars are all less than 2, 1 and 6 per cent, respectively. Conclusions: A solar-calibrated power law, as formulated by Kjeldsen et al., appears unsuitable for use with more evolved solar-like oscillators. Among the remaining surface corrections, the uncertainty in the model parameters introduced by the surface effects is about twice as large as the uncertainty in the individual fits for these six stars. Though the fits are thus somewhat less

  4. Standard solar models, with and without helium diffusion, and the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Pinsonneault, M. H.

    1992-10-01

    effects of helium diffusion and the other improvements in the description of the solar interior that are implemented in this paper, the inferred primordial solar helium abundance is Y=0.273. The calculated depth of the convective zone is R=0.707Rsolar, in agreement with the value of 0.713Rsolar inferred by Christensen-Dalsgaard, Gough, and Thompson from a recent analysis of the observed p-mode oscillation frequencies. Including helium diffusion increases the calculated present-day hydrogen surface abundance by about 4%, decreases the helium abundance by approximately 11%, and increases the calculated heavy-element abundance by about 4%. In the Appendix, we present detailed numerical tables of our best standard solar models computed both with and without including helium diffusion. In the context of the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) or other weak-interaction solutions of the solar neutrino problem, the numerical models can be used to compute the influence of the matter in the sun on the observed neutrino fluxes.

  5. Asteroseismic Tools and Analysis of Solar-like Oscillations in Archival Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Travis

    While the Kepler mission's main goal consists of searching for exoplanets through the detection of transits, asteroseismic analysis of the light curves is also possible thanks to the excellent quality of the data. The 150,000 stars, for which at least 7 months of data have been made public, contain ~10% red giants and ~1% solar-type stars. The long- cadence data on red giants and short cadence data on solar-type stars allow us to detect their solar-like oscillations. With the acoustic p-mode parameters, we can estimate the mass and radius of the star either with scaling relations or by using a stellar evolution code [e.g. the Asteroseismic Modeling Portal (AMP, http://amp.ucar.edu/) developed at HAO]. Our study will include stars that host an exoplanet candidate. The determination of the stellar properties will allow us to better constrain the stellar and planetary evolution and we will investigate the distribution of the properties of these particular stars. The goal of this proposal is to provide community tools for asteroseismology and produce a catalog of data products by applying these tools to Kepler public data. The data produced by the Kepler science team is optimized to search for exoplanets, but some of the stellar information at low frequency can be filtered out. Scientists from the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC) developed their own software (Garcia et al. 2011) to correct the data for instrumental effects while keeping as much information as possible at low frequency. We will improve and automate this software and apply it to the Kepler public data in collaboration with the Kepler Guest Observer office. The corrected data will be archived in an online database, as a section of the AMP website. To analyze the large quantity of data provided by Kepler, we have also developed a pipeline (A2Z, Mathur et al. 2010) that retrieves asteroseismic parameters and that has been extensively tested, validated, and used within the KASC. We will apply A

  6. Solar Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Oscillations were first detected in the solar photosphere in 1962 by Leighton and students. In 1970 it was calculated that these oscillations, with a period near five minutes, were the manifestations of acoustic waves trapped in the interior. The subsequent measurements of the frequencies of global oscillation modes from the spatio-temporal power spectrum of the waves made possible the refinement of solar interior models. Over the years, increased understanding of the nuclear reaction rates, the opacity, the equation of state, convection, and gravitational settling have resulted. Mass flows shift the frequencies of modes leading to very accurate measurements of the interior rotation as a function of radius and latitude. In recent years, analogues of terrestrial seismology have led to a tomography of the interior, including measurements of global north-south flows and flow and wave speed measurements below features such as sunspots. The future of helioseismology seems bright with the approval of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, to be launched in 2008.

  7. Nearly-uniform internal rotation of solar-like main sequence stars revealed by asteroseismology and spectroscopic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benomar, Othman Michel; Takata, Masao; Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Ceillier, Tugdual; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Stellar pulsations, which can be trapped acoustic waves (p modes), internal gravity waves (g modes) or a mixture of two, have frequencies that depend on the properties of the stellar interior, such as the internal rotation.Helioseismology extensively exploited these pulsations and, by the means of seismic inversion, has revealed a nearly uniform rotation profile, with variations that do not exceed 30% in the radial direction (e.g. Thompson et al. 2003). To conciliate models with observations, an efficient mechanism of transport of angular momentum from the core to the envelope is required.The necessity of an efficient angular momentum transport was also revealed on two main-sequence stars showing p modes and g modes (Kurtz et al. 2014, Saio et al. 2015) and on several evolved stars solar-like showing mixed modes (Deheuvels et al. 2012, 2014).However, the number of stars with a measured internal rotation structure is still limited. For low-mass main-sequence stars showing solar-like oscillations, the measure of the internal rotation profile is limited because only the low degree p modes can be observed by unresolved photometry.Yet, by comparing the average surface rotation with the average of the internal rotation, it is possible to evaluate the degree of differential rotation between deep layers and the surface. The surface rotation can be derived by spectroscopic vsin(i) or by the periodic luminosity variation due to surface spots, while the average internal rotation is determined by asteroseismology, using the so-called rotational splitting.We performed this comparison on 22 solar-like stars of the main sequence. We show that the rotation at the surface and in the interior are generally close to each other. For 10 stars, the difference is clearly too small to be explained by simple evolutionary models that assume local conservation of angular momentum. Furthermore, by adopting a simple two-zone model, we show that 20 out of the 22 stars have a rotation rate in

  8. Fabrication of P-Type ZnO:N Film by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering for Extremely Thin Absorber Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang-Hu; Li, Rong-Bin; Fan, Dong-Hua

    2013-03-01

    We successfully fabricate p-type ZnO:N films by using rf magnetron sputtering and in situ annealing in O2 atmosphere. These p-type ZnO:N films can be used as p-type window materials for extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells composed of quartz glass/p-ZnO:N/i-ZnO/CdSe/i-ZnO/n-ZnO:Al. The short-circuit photocurrent density, open circuit voltage, fill factor and conversion efficiency of the ETA solar cells can be determined to be 8.549 mA/cm2, 0.702V, 0.437 and 2.623%, respectively, through measurements of photovoltaic properties under illumination with a 100mW/cm2 at air-mass (AM) 1.5.

  9. Uncertainties for two-dimensional models of solar rotation from helioseismic eigenfrequency splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genovese, Christopher R.; Stark, Philip B.; Thompson, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Observed solar p-mode frequency splittings can be used to estimate angular velocity as a function of position in the solar interior. Formal uncertainties of such estimates depend on the method of estimation (e.g., least-squares), the distribution of errors in the observations, and the parameterization imposed on the angular velocity. We obtain lower bounds on the uncertainties that do not depend on the method of estimation; the bounds depend on an assumed parameterization, but the fact that they are lower bounds for the 'true' uncertainty does not. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals for estimates of the angular velocity from 1986 Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) data, based on a 3659 element tensor-product cubic-spline parameterization, are everywhere wider than 120 nHz, and exceed 60,000 nHz near the core. When compared with estimates of the solar rotation, these bounds reveal that useful inferences based on pointwise estimates of the angular velocity using 1986 BBSO splitting data are not feasible over most of the Sun's volume. The discouraging size of the uncertainties is due principally to the fact that helioseismic measurements are insensitive to changes in the angular velocity at individual points, so estimates of point values based on splittings are extremely uncertain. Functionals that measure distributed 'smooth' properties are, in general, better constrained than estimates of the rotation at a point. For example, the uncertainties in estimated differences of average rotation between adjacent blocks of about 0.001 solar volumes across the base of the convective zone are much smaller, and one of several estimated differences we compute appears significant at the 95% level.

  10. Uncertainties for two-dimensional models of solar rotation from helioseismic eigenfrequency splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genovese, Christopher R.; Stark, Philip B.; Thompson, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Observed solar p-mode frequency splittings can be used to estimate angular velocity as a function of position in the solar interior. Formal uncertainties of such estimates depend on the method of estimation (e.g., least-squares), the distribution of errors in the observations, and the parameterization imposed on the angular velocity. We obtain lower bounds on the uncertainties that do not depend on the method of estimation; the bounds depend on an assumed parameterization, but the fact that they are lower bounds for the 'true' uncertainty does not. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals for estimates of the angular velocity from 1986 Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) data, based on a 3659 element tensor-product cubic-spline parameterization, are everywhere wider than 120 nHz, and exceed 60,000 nHz near the core. When compared with estimates of the solar rotation, these bounds reveal that useful inferences based on pointwise estimates of the angular velocity using 1986 BBSO splitting data are not feasible over most of the Sun's volume. The discouraging size of the uncertainties is due principally to the fact that helioseismic measurements are insensitive to changes in the angular velocity at individual points, so estimates of point values based on splittings are extremely uncertain. Functionals that measure distributed 'smooth' properties are, in general, better constrained than estimates of the rotation at a point. For example, the uncertainties in estimated differences of average rotation between adjacent blocks of about 0.001 solar volumes across the base of the convective zone are much smaller, and one of several estimated differences we compute appears significant at the 95% level.

  11. Simultaneous observations of solar sporadic radio emission by the radio telescopes UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA within the frequency range 8-41MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Zarka, P.; Denis, L.; Bulatzen, V. G.; Frantzusenko, A. V.; Stanislavskyy, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    From 25 June till 12 August 2011 sporadic solar radio emission was observed simultaneously by three separate radio telescopes: UTR-2 (Kharkov, Ukraine), URAN-2 (Poltava, Ukraine) and NDA (Nancay, France). During these observations several type II bursts with double and triple harmonics were registered, as well as type II bursts with complex herringbone structure. The events of particular interest were type II bursts registered on 9 and 11 August 2011. These bursts had opposite sign of circular polarization at different parts of their dynamic spectra. In our opinion we registered the emissions, which came from the different parts of the shock propagating through the solar corona. We have observed also groups of type III bursts merged into one burst, type III bursts with triple harmonics and type III bursts with "split" polarization. In addition some unusual solar bursts were registered: storms of strange narrow-band (up to 500kHz) bursts with high polarization degree (about 80%), decameter spikes of extremely short durations (200-300ms), "tadpole-like" bursts with durations of 1-2s and polarization degree up to 60%.

  12. The normal modes of a resonant cavity containing discrete inhomogeneities - The influence of fibril magnetic fields on the solar acoustic oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Thomas J.; Cattaneo, Fausto

    1989-01-01

    Motivated by considerations of the interaction between fibril magnetic fields and solar p-modes, the acoustic spectrum of a cylindrical cavity filled with ideal gas in which a number of magnetic flux tubes are embedded is studied. A formalism, based on the T-matrix approach to acoustic scattering, is developed which can be used to determine the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions for any arbitrary distribution of flux tubes. For weak scatterers, the frequency shifts and velocity eigenfunctions are calculated using perturbation theory for the cases of a single flux tube and a random distribution of up to 100 flux tubes. The results of this 'exact' approach are used to give a critical appraisal of the predictions of theories based on some form of averaging, such as the one discussed recently by Bogdan and Zweibel (1987).

  13. Corruption of radio metric Doppler due to solar plasma dynamics: S/X dual-frequency Doppler calibration for these effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, F. B.; Reinbold, S. R.; Yip, K. W.; Koch, R. E.; Lubeley, A.

    1975-01-01

    Doppler data from Mariner 6, 7, 9, and 10 and Pioneer 10 and 11 were discussed and the rms noise level for various sun-earth-probe angles were shown. The noise levels of both S- and X-band Doppler data for sun-earth-probe angles smaller than 20 deg were observed to be orders of magnitude greater than nominal. Such solar plasma-related Doppler degradation reduced the Mariner 10-Mercury 11 encounter navigation accuracy by nearly a factor of 10. Furthermore, this degradation was shown to be indirectly related to plasma dynamics and not a direct measure of the dynamics.

  14. Scintillation effects on radio wave propagation through solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Sue, M. K.; Bedrossian, A.; Sniffin, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    When RF waves pass through the solar corona and solar wind regions close to the Sun, strong scintillation effects appear at their amplitude, frequency and phase, especially in the regions very close to the Sun (less than 4 solar radius).

  15. Scintillation effects on radio wave propagation through solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Sue, M. K.; Bedrossian, A.; Sniffin, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    When RF waves pass through the solar corona and solar wind regions close to the Sun, strong scintillation effects appear at their amplitude, frequency and phase, especially in the regions very close to the Sun (less than 4 solar radius).

  16. Optoelectronic transport properties in amorphous/crystalline silicon solar cell heterojunctions measured by frequency-domain photocarrier radiometry: multi-parameter measurement reliability and precision studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Melnikov, A; Mandelis, A; Halliop, B; Kherani, N P; Zhu, R

    2015-03-01

    A theoretical one-dimensional two-layer linear photocarrier radiometry (PCR) model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was used to evaluate the transport parameters of p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-layer) nanolayer. Several crystalline Si heterojunction structures were examined to investigate the influence of the i-layer thickness and the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer. The experimental data of a series of heterojunction structures with intrinsic thin layers were fitted to PCR theory to gain insight into the transport properties of these devices. The quantitative multi-parameter results were studied with regard to measurement reliability (uniqueness) and precision using two independent computational best-fit programs. The considerable influence on the transport properties of the entire structure of two key parameters that can limit the performance of amorphous thin film solar cells, namely, the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer and the i-layer thickness was demonstrated. It was shown that PCR can be applied to the non-destructive characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells yielding reliable measurements of the key parameters.

  17. Optoelectronic transport properties in amorphous/crystalline silicon solar cell heterojunctions measured by frequency-domain photocarrier radiometry: Multi-parameter measurement reliability and precision studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.; Zhu, R.

    2015-03-15

    A theoretical one-dimensional two-layer linear photocarrier radiometry (PCR) model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was used to evaluate the transport parameters of p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-layer) nanolayer. Several crystalline Si heterojunction structures were examined to investigate the influence of the i-layer thickness and the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer. The experimental data of a series of heterojunction structures with intrinsic thin layers were fitted to PCR theory to gain insight into the transport properties of these devices. The quantitative multi-parameter results were studied with regard to measurement reliability (uniqueness) and precision using two independent computational best-fit programs. The considerable influence on the transport properties of the entire structure of two key parameters that can limit the performance of amorphous thin film solar cells, namely, the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer and the i-layer thickness was demonstrated. It was shown that PCR can be applied to the non-destructive characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells yielding reliable measurements of the key parameters.

  18. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) pilot beam and communication link subsystem investigation study, phase 1. [ionospheric propagation, radio frequency interference, and microwave transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary engineering model of ionospheric interactions with the pilot beam was established and used to demonstrate that the dual frequency baseline pilot beam system might not be viable in the presence of an unstable transmission path. Alternate approaches to remove this difficulty are described. Although ionospheric fluctuations will not significantly degrade beam pointing or raise the sidelobe levels, they will reduce transmission efficiency by upwards of 25%. Mitigating strategies to substantially reduce this effect are proposed. Based on the Klystron noise spectrum, the pilot beam transmitter power was determined as a function of frequency offset from the power beam carrier frequency. The RFI from the pilot beam, on the ground and at geosynchronous orbit is shown. Noise levels on the earth's surface due to the SPS are presented as a function of frequency and the number of SPS systems. Analysis of the communication subsystem indicates that a standard telemetry line of 1.544 MB/s would satisfy both voice and data link requirements. Additional links would be required for TV and radio transmissions.

  19. Photocharge transport and recombination measurements in amorphous silicon films and solar cells by photoconductive frequency mixing: Annual subcontract report, 20 April 1998--19 April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Braunstein, R.; Kattwinkel, A.; Liebe, J.; Sun, G.

    2000-02-28

    In the present phase of the program, the transport parameters of a number of amorphous semiconductors prepared by a number of techniques were determined by the photoconductive frequency mixing technique. This technique enabled the authors to determine the drift mobility, md, and the photomixing lifetime, t. The technique is based on the idea of heterodyne detection for photoconductors. When two similarly polarized monochromatic optical beams of slightly different frequencies are incident upon a photoconductor, the generation rate of electron-hole pairs will produce a photocurrent, when a dc-bias is applied, which will contain components resulting from the square of the sum of the individual incident fields. Consequently, a photocurrent will be produced, which will consist of a direct current and a microwave current corresponding to the beat frequency. These two currents allow a separate determination of the drift mobility and the photomixing lifetime of the photogenerated carriers. In the present work, the longitudinal modes of a He-Ne laser were employed to generate a beat frequency of 252 MHz; all the measurements were performed at this frequency for the data indicated in the accompanying figures. The following topics were explored: Measurements of the charge transport parameters of homogeneous a-SiGe:H alloys produced by NREL employing the hot-wire technique; The change in the charge transport parameters in the transition from hydrogenated amorphous silicon to microcrystalline silicon for material produced by NREL and MVSystems; The improvement in instrumentation of the photomixing measurements; Measurements of the hydrostatic dependency of the transport parameters of amorphous silicon; and Preliminary photomixing measurements on p-i-n devices.

  20. Effects of pulsed sputtering frequency on the uniformity of Al:ZnO's transparent conductive oxide properties for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wonkyun; Joo, Junghoon

    2009-11-15

    Bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering is used to deposit Al doped ZnO (AZO) on a glass substrate for a transparent conducting oxide in a solar cell structure. A 5x25 in.{sup 2} AZO target was sputtered by 50-250 kHz bipolar pulsed dc power supply to deposit a 400x400 mm{sup 2} area by swinging back and forth. Sheet resistance, surface morphology, and optical transmittance were measured at different positions on 16 witness samples (small glass slides) to evaluate uniformity. In the thickness of 800 nm, the average value of sheet resistance was 30 {Omega}/{open_square} and the average resistivity was 2.1x10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. Transmittance was 50%-80% over the visible range. The nonuniformities of thickness, transmittance, and resistivity in the 400x400 mm{sup 2} area were 5.8%, 0.8%, and within 9.5%, respectively.

  1. Frequency up-conversion in nonpolar a-plane GaN/AlGaN based multiple quantum wells optimized for applications with silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Radosavljević, S.; Radovanović, J. Milanović, V.; Tomić, S.

    2014-07-21

    We have described a method for structural parameters optimization of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well based up-converter for silicon solar cells. It involves a systematic tuning of individual step quantum wells by use of the genetic algorithm for global optimization. In quantum well structures, the up-conversion process can be achieved by utilizing nonlinear optical effects based on intersubband transitions. Both single and double step quantum wells have been tested in order to maximize the second order susceptibility derived from the density matrix formalism. The results obtained for single step wells proved slightly better and have been further pursued to obtain a more complex design, optimized for conversion of an entire range of incident photon energies.

  2. g-modes and the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Kumar, Pawan

    1993-01-01

    We show that low-order g-modes with large enough amplitudes to affect significantly the solar neutrino fluxes would produce surface velocities that are 10 exp 4 times larger than the observed upper limits and hence are ruled out by existing data. We also demonstrate that any large-amplitude, short-period oscillations that grow on a Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale will require, to affect solar neutrino fluxes, a large amount of energy (for g-modes, 10 exp 9 times the energy in the observed p-mode oscillations) and a tiny amount of dissipation (for g modes, 10 exp -8 the fractional dissipation rate of the p-modes).

  3. The Solar-Stellar Connection: Magneto-Acoustic Pulsations in 1.5 M ⊙ 2 M ⊙ Peculiar A Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    2008-09-01

    Stellar astronomers look on in envy at the wealth of data, the incredible spatial resolution, and the maturity of the theoretical understanding of the Sun. Yet the Sun is but one star, so stellar astronomy is of great interest to solar astronomers for its range of different conditions under which to test theoretical understanding gained from the study of the Sun. The rapidly oscillating peculiar A stars are of particular interest to solar astronomers. They have strong, global, dipolar magnetic fields with strengths in the range 1 25 kG, and they pulsate in high-overtone p modes similar to those in the Sun; thus they offer a unique opportunity to study the interaction of pulsation, convection, and strong magnetic fields, as is now done in the local helioseismology of sunspots. Some of them even pulsate in modes with frequencies above the acoustic cutoff frequency, in analogy with the highest frequency solar modes, but with mode lifetimes up to decades in the roAp stars, very unlike the short mode lifetimes of the Sun. They offer the most extreme cases of atomic diffusion, a small, but important ingredient of the standard solar model with wide application in stellar astrophysics. They are compositionally stratified and are observed and modelled as a function of atmospheric depth and thus can inform plans to expand helioseismic observations to have atmospheric depth resolution. Study of this unique class of pulsating stars follows the advanced state of studies of the Sun and offers more extreme conditions for the understanding of physics shared with the Sun.

  4. The Galileo solar redshift experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisher, Timothy P.; Morabito, David D.; Anderson, John D.

    1993-04-01

    From the October 1989 launch to the first December 1990 earth gravity assist, we regularly obtained frequency measurements of the spacecraft clock - an ultrastable crystal oscillator (USO) supplied by Frequency Electronics, Inc. The solar gravitational redshift in frequency was readily detectable, and because of the unique variations in heliocentric distance we could separate the general relativistic effects from the USO's intrinsic frequency variations. We have verified the total frequency shift predicted by general relativity to 0.5 percent accuracy, and the solar gravitational redshift to 1 percent accuracy.

  5. Helioseismic Constraints on the Depth Dependence of Large-Scale Solar Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Martin F.

    2017-08-01

    A recent helioseismic statistical waveform analysis of subsurface flow based on a 720-day time series of SOHO/MDI Medium-l spherical-harmonic coefficients has been extended to cover a greater range of subphotospheric depths. The latest analysis provides estimates of flow-dependent oscillation-mode coupling-strength coefficients b(s,t;n,l) over the range l = 30 to 150 of mode degree (angular wavenumber) for solar p-modes in the approximate frequency range 2 to 4 mHz. The range of penetration depths of this mode set covers most of the solar convection zone. The most recent analysis measures spherical harmonic (s,t) components of the flow velocity for odd s in the angular wavenumber range 1 to 19 for t not much smaller than s at a given s. The odd-s b(s,t;n,l) coefficients are interpreted as averages over depth of the depth-dependent amplitude of one spherical-harmonic (s,t) component of the toroidal part of the flow velocity field. The depth-dependent weighting function defining the average velocity is the fractional kinetic energy density in radius of modes of the (n,l) multiplet. The b coefficients have been converted to estimates of root velocity power as a function of l0 = nu0*l/nu(n,l), which is a measure of mode penetration depth. (nu(n,l) is mode frequency and nu0 is a reference frequency equal to 3 mHz.) A comparison of the observational results with simple convection models will be presented.

  6. Solar Cookers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of solar cookers in the science classroom. Includes instructions for construction of a solar cooker, an explanation of how solar cookers work, and a number of suggested activities. (DS)

  7. Detection of g modes in the asymptotic frequency range: evidence for a rapidly rotating core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Roger K.; Fossat, Eric; Boumier, Patrick; Corbard, Thierry; Provost, Janine; Salabert, David; Schmider, François-Xavier; Gabriel, Alan; Grec, Gerard; Renaud, Catherine; Robillot, Jean-Maurice; Roca Cortés, Teodoro; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine

    2017-08-01

    We present the identification of very low frequency g modes, in the asymptotic regime, and two important parameters: the core rotation rate and the asymptotic equidistant period spacing of these g modes. The GOLF instrument on the SOHO space observatory has provided two decades of full disk helioseismic data. The search for g modes in GOLF measurements has been extremely difficult, due to solar and instrumental noise. In the present study, the p modes of the GOLF signal are analyzed differently, searching for possible collective frequency modulations produced by periodic changes in the deep solar structure. Such modulations provide access to only very low frequency g modes, thus allowing statistical methods to take advantage of their asymptotic properties. For oscillatory periods in the range between 9 and nearly 48 hours, almost 100 g modes of spherical harmonic degree 1 and more than 100 g modes of degree 2 are predicted. They are not observed individually, but when combined, they unambiguously provide their asymptotic period equidistance and rotational splittings, in excellent agreement with the requirements of the asymptotic approximations. P0, the g-mode period equidistance parameter, is measured to be 34 min 01 s, with a 1 s uncertainty. The previously unknown g-mode splittings have now been measured from a non synodic reference with a very high accuracy, and they imply a mean weighted rotation of 1277 ± 10 nHz (9-day period) of their kernels, resulting in a rapid rotation frequency of 1644 ± 23 nHz (period of one week) of the solar core itself, which is a factor 3:8 ± 0:1 faster than the rotation of the radiative envelope.Acknowledgements. Ulrich is first author on this abstract due to AAS rules, Fossat is the actual first author. SOHO is a project of international collaboration between ESA and NASA. We would like to acknowledge the support received continuously during more than 3 decades from CNES. DS acknowledges the financial support from the CNES GOLF

  8. Coupling between high-frequency ultrasound and solar photo-Fenton at pilot scale for the treatment of organic contaminants: an initial approach.

    PubMed

    Papoutsakis, Stefanos; Miralles-Cuevas, Sara; Gondrexon, Nicolas; Baup, Stéphane; Malato, Sixto; Pulgarin, César

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of a novel pilot-scale coupled system consisting of a high frequency ultrasonic reactor (400kHz) and a compound parabolic collector (CPC). The benefits of the concurrent application of ultrasound and the photo-Fenton process were studied in regard to the degradation behavior of a series of organic pollutants. Three compounds (phenol, bisphenol A and diuron) with different physicochemical properties have been chosen in order to identify possible synergistic effects and to obtain a better estimate of the general feasibility of such a system at field scale (10L). Bisphenol A and diuron were specifically chosen due to their high hydrophobicity, and thus their assumed higher affinity towards the cavitation bubble. Experiments were conducted under ultrasonic, photo-Fenton and combined treatments. Enhanced degradation kinetics were observed during the coupled treatment and synergy factors clearly in excess of 1 have been calculated for phenol as well as for saturated solutions of bisphenol A and diuron. Although the relatively high cost of ultrasound compared to photo-Fenton still presents a significant challenge towards mainstream industrial application, the observed behavior suggests that its prudent use has the potential to significantly benefit the photo-Fenton process, via the decrease of both treatment time and H2O2 consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Beat frequency interference pattern characteristics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, J. H.; Rice, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency spectra and corresponding beat frequencies created by the relative motions between multiple Solar Power Satellites due to solar wind, lunar gravity, etc. were analyzed. The results were derived mathematically and verified through computer simulation. Frequency spectra plots were computer generated. Detailed computations were made for the seven following locations in the continental US: Houston, Tx.; Seattle, Wa.; Miami, Fl.; Chicago, Il.; New York, NY; Los Angeles, Ca.; and Barberton, Oh.

  10. Mars solar conjunction prediction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vineet K.; Kumar, Jai; Kulshrestha, Shivali; Kushvah, Badam Singh

    2016-01-01

    During the Mars solar conjunction, telecommunication and tracking between the spacecraft and the Earth degrades significantly. The radio signal degradation depends on the angular separation between the Sun, Earth and probe (SEP), the signal frequency band and the solar activity. All radiometric tracking data types display increased noise and signatures for smaller SEP angles. Due to scintillation, telemetry frame errors increase significantly when solar elongation becomes small enough. This degradation in telemetry data return starts at solar elongation angles of around 5° at S-band, around 2° at X-band and about 1° at Ka-band. This paper presents a mathematical model for predicting Mars superior solar conjunction for any Mars orbiting spacecraft. The described model is simulated for the Mars Orbiter Mission which experienced Mars solar conjunction during May-July 2015. Such a model may be useful to flight projects and design engineers in the planning of Mars solar conjunction operational scenarios.

  11. Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  12. Solar Geometry

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Solar Noon (GMT time) The time when the sun is due south in the ... and sunset.   Daylight average of hourly cosine solar zenith angles (dimensionless) The average cosine of the angle ... overhead during daylight hours.   Cosine solar zenith angle at mid-time between sunrise and solar noon ...

  13. Relationship between global seismicity and solar activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gui-Qing

    1998-07-01

    The relations between sunspot numbers and earthquakes (M≧6), solar 10.7 cm radio flux and earthquakes, solar proton events and earthquakes have been analyzed in this paper. It has been found that: (1) Earthquakes occur frequently around the minimum years of solar activity. Generally, the earthquake activities are relatively less during the peak value years of solar activity, some say, around the period when magnetic polarity in the solar polar regions is reversed. (2) the earthquake frequency in the minimum period of solar activity is closely related to the maximum annual means of sunspot numbers, the maximum annual means of solar 10.7 cm radio flux and solar proton events of a whole solar cycle, and the relation between earthquake and solar proton events is closer than others. (3) As judged by above interrelationship, the period from 1995 to 1997 will be the years while earthquake activities are frequent. In the paper, the simple physical discussion has been carried out.

  14. Effects of heavy-element settling on solar neutrino fluxes and interior structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the effects of gravitational settling of both He and heavier elements on the predicted solar neutrino fluxes and interior sound speed and density profiles. We find that while the structural changes that result from the inclusion of both He and heavy-element settling are only slightly larger than the changes resulting from the inclusion of He settling alone, the additional increases in expected neutrino fluxes are of comparable size. Our preferred model with both He and heavy-element settling has neutrino count rates of 9.0 SNU for Cl-37 detectors and 137 SNU for Ga-71 detectors, as compared to 7.1 and 127 SNU for a comparable model without any diffusive separation, or 8.0 and 132 SNU for a model that includes He settling alone. We suggest that the correction factors by which the predicted neutrino fluxes of solar models calculated without including the effects of diffusion should be multiplied are 1.25 +/- 0.08 for Cl detectors, 1.07 +/- 0.02 for Ga detectors, and 1.28 +/- 0.09 for the B-8 flux (1 sigma errors). Comparison of internal sound speed and density profiles strongly suggests that the additional changes in calculated p-mode oscillation frequencies due to the inclusion of heavy-element settling will be small compared to the changes that result from He settling alone, especially for the higher degree modes. All models with diffusive separation give much better agreement with the observed depth of the convection zone than do nondiffusive models. The model that includes both He and heavy-element settling requires an initial He mass fraction Y = 0.280 and has a surface He abundance of Y = 0.251 at the solar age.

  15. Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  16. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  17. Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, P. K.; Naidu, Arun; Joshi, B. C.; Roy, Jayashree; Kate, G.; Pethe, Kaiwalya; Galande, Shridhar; Jamadar, Sachin; Mahajan, S. P.; Patil, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a case study of Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE) payload to probe the corona and the solar disturbances at solar offsets greater than 2 solar radii, i.e., at frequencies below 30 MHz. The LORE can be complimentary to the planned Indian solar mission, “Aditya-L1” and its other payloads as well as synergistic to ground-based interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations, which are routinely carried out by the Ooty Radio Telescope. We discuss the baseline design and technical details of the proposed LORE and its particular suitability for providing measurements on the detailed time and frequency structure of fast drifting type-III and slow drifting type-II radio bursts with unprecedented time and frequency resolutions. We also brief the gonio-polarimetry, which is possible with better-designed antennas and state-of-the-art electronics, employing FPGAs and an intelligent data management system. These would enable us to make a wide range of studies, such as nonlinear plasma processes in the Sun-Earth distance, in-situ radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interplanetary CME driven shocks, nature of ICMEs driving decelerating IP shocks and space weather effects of solar wind interaction regions.

  18. Solar Radar Astronomy with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    2003-04-01

    A new approach to the study of the Sun's corona and its dynamical processes is possible with radar investigations in the frequency range of about 10-50 MHz. The range of electron densities of the solar corona is such that radio waves at these frequencies can provide diagnostic radar echoes of large scale phenomena such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We expect that the frequency shift imposed on the echo signal by an earthward-moving CME will provide a direct measurement of the velocity, thereby providing a good estimate of the arrival time at Earth. It is known that CMEs are responsible for the largest geomagnetic storms at Earth, which are capable of causing power grid blackouts, satellite electronic upsets, and degradation of radio communications circuits. Thus, having accurate forecasts of potential CME-initiated geomagnetic storms is of practical space weather interest. New high power transmitting arrays are becoming available, along with proposed modifications to existing research facilities, that will allow the use of radio waves to study the solar corona by the radar echo technique. Of particular interest for such solar radar investigations is the bistatic configuration with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). The LOFAR facility will have an effective receiving area of about 1 square km at solar radar frequencies. Such large effective area will provide the receiving antenna gain needed for detailed investigations of solar coronal dynamics. Conservative estimates of the signal-to-noise ratio for solar radar echoes as a function of the integration time required to achieve a specified detection level (e.g., ~ 5 dB) indicate that time resolutions of 10s of seconds can be achieved. Thus, we are able to resolve variations in the solar radar cross section on time scales which will provide new information on the plasma dynamical processes associated with the solar corona, such as CMEs. It is the combination of high transmitted power and large effective receiving

  19. Solar Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  20. Solar chromospheric spicules from the leakage of photospheric oscillations and flows.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, Bart; Erdélyi, Robert; James, Stewart P

    2004-07-29

    Spicules are dynamic jets propelled upwards (at speeds of approximately 20 km s(-1)) from the solar 'surface' (photosphere) into the magnetized low atmosphere of the Sun. They carry a mass flux of 100 times that of the solar wind into the low solar corona. With diameters close to observational limits (< 500 km), spicules have been largely unexplained since their discovery in 1877: none of the existing models can account simultaneously for their ubiquity, evolution, energetics and recently discovered periodicity. Here we report a synthesis of modelling and high-spatial-resolution observations in which numerical simulations driven by observed photospheric velocities directly reproduce the observed occurrence and properties of individual spicules. Photospheric velocities are dominated by convective granulation (which has been considered before for spicule formation) and by p-modes (which are solar global resonant acoustic oscillations visible in the photosphere as quasi-sinusoidal velocity and intensity pulsations). We show that the previously ignored p-modes are crucial: on inclined magnetic flux tubes, the p-modes leak sufficient energy from the global resonant cavity into the chromosphere to power shocks that drive upward flows and form spicules.

  1. Solar coronal jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzyck, D.

    The solar jets were first observed by SOHO instruments (EIT, LASCO, UVCS) during the previous solar minimum. They were small, fast ejections originating from flaring UV bright points within large polar coronal holes. The obtained data provided us with estimates of the jet plasma conditions, dynamics, evolution of the electron temperature and heating rate required to reproduce the observed ionization state. To follow the polar jets through the solar cycle a special SOHO Joint Observing Program (JOP 155) was designed. It involves a number of SOHO instruments (EIT, CDS, UVCS, LASCO) as well as TRACE. The coordinated observations have been carried out since April 2002. The data enabled to identify counterparts of the 1996-1998 solar minimum jets. Their frequency of several events per day appear comparable to the frequency from the previous solar minimum. The jets are believed to be triggered by field line reconnection between emerging magnetic dipole and pre-existing unipolar field. Existing models predict that the hot jet is formed together with another jet of a cool material. The particular goal of the coordinated SOHO and TRACE observations was to look for possible association of the hot and cool plasma ejections. Currently there is observational evidence that supports these models.

  2. Variation of solar acoustic emission and its relation to phase of the solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruizhu; Zhao, Junwei

    2016-05-01

    Solar acoustic emission is closely related to solar convection and photospheric magnetic field. Variation of acoustic emission and its relation to the phase of solar cycles are important to understand dynamics of solar cycles and excitation of acoustic waves. In this work we use 6 years of SDO/HMI Dopplergram data to study acoustic emissions of the whole sun and of the quiet-sun regions, respectively, in multiple acoustic frequency bands. We show the variation of acoustic emission from May 2010 to April 2016, covering half of the solar cycle 24, and analyze its correlation with the solar activity level indexed by daily sunspot number and total magnetic flux. Results show that the correlation between the whole-Sun acoustic emission and the solar activity level is strongly negative for low frequencies between 2.5 and 4.5 mHz, but strongly positive for high frequencies between 4.5 and 6.0 mHz. For high frequencies, the acoustic emission excess in sunspot halos overwhelms the emission deficiency in sunspot umbrae and penumbrae. The correlation between the acoustic emission in quiet regions and the solar activity level is negative for 2.5-4.0 mHz and positive for 4.0-5.5 mHz. This shows that the solar background acoustic power, with active regions excluded, also varies during a solar cycle, implying the excitation frequencies or depths are highly related to the solar magnetic field.

  3. On the generation of sound by turbulent convection. I - A numerical experiment. [in solar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Thomas J.; Cattaneo, Fausto; Malagoli, Andrea

    1993-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of the origin of the solar p-modes, we study the generation of acoustic waves by turbulent convection. Our approach uses the results of high-resolution 3D simulations as the experimental basis for our investigation. The numerical experiment describes the evolution of a horizontally periodic layer of vigorously convecting fluid. The sound is measured by a procedure, based on a suitable linearization of the equations of compressible convection that allows the amplitude of the acoustic field to be determined. Through this procedure we identify unambiguously some 400 acoustic modes. The total energy of the acoustic field is found to be a fraction of a percent of the kinetic energy of the convection. The amplitudes of the observed modes depend weakly on (horizontal) wavenumber but strongly on frequency. The line widths of the observed modes typically exceed the natural linewidths of the modes as inferred from linear theory. This broadening appears to be related to the (stochastic) interaction between the modes and the underlying turbulence which causes abrupt, episodic events during which the phase coherence of the modes is lost.

  4. On the generation of sound by turbulent convection. I - A numerical experiment. [in solar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Thomas J.; Cattaneo, Fausto; Malagoli, Andrea

    1993-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of the origin of the solar p-modes, we study the generation of acoustic waves by turbulent convection. Our approach uses the results of high-resolution 3D simulations as the experimental basis for our investigation. The numerical experiment describes the evolution of a horizontally periodic layer of vigorously convecting fluid. The sound is measured by a procedure, based on a suitable linearization of the equations of compressible convection that allows the amplitude of the acoustic field to be determined. Through this procedure we identify unambiguously some 400 acoustic modes. The total energy of the acoustic field is found to be a fraction of a percent of the kinetic energy of the convection. The amplitudes of the observed modes depend weakly on (horizontal) wavenumber but strongly on frequency. The line widths of the observed modes typically exceed the natural linewidths of the modes as inferred from linear theory. This broadening appears to be related to the (stochastic) interaction between the modes and the underlying turbulence which causes abrupt, episodic events during which the phase coherence of the modes is lost.

  5. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  6. Solar holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludman, Jacques E.; Riccobono, Juanita R.; Caulfield, H. John; Upton, Timothy D.

    2002-07-01

    A solar photovoltaic energy collection system using a reflection hologram is described herein. The system uses a single-axis tracking system in conjunction with a spectral- splitting holographic element. The hologram accurately focuses the desired regions of the solar spectrum to match the bandgaps of two ro more different solar cells, while diverting unused IR wavelengths away. Other applications for solar holography include daylighting and greenhouses.

  7. Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    Much of modern research in the field of atomic, molecular, and optical science relies on lasers, which were invented some 50 years ago and perfected in five decades of intense research and development. Today, lasers and photonic technologies impact most fields of science and they have become indispensible in our daily lives. Laser frequency combs were conceived a decade ago as tools for the precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. Through the development of optical frequency comb techniques, technique a setup of the size 1 ×1 m2, good for precision measurements of any frequency, and even commercially available, has replaced the elaborate previous frequency-chain schemes for optical frequency measurements, which only worked for selected frequencies. A true revolution in optical frequency measurements has occurred, paving the way for the creation of all-optical clocks clock with a precision that might approach 10-18. A decade later, frequency combs are now common equipment in all frequency metrology-oriented laboratories. They are also becoming enabling tools for an increasing number of applications, from the calibration of astronomical spectrographs to molecular spectroscopy. This chapter first describes the principle of an optical frequency comb synthesizer. Some of the key technologies to generate such a frequency comb are then presented. Finally, a non-exhaustive overview of the growing applications is given.

  8. Origin of solar spicules

    SciTech Connect

    Hollweg, J.V.

    1982-06-01

    We consider the nonlinear evolution of vertical motions on intense solar magnetic flux tubes. It is shown that a quasi-impulsive source in the photosphere can excite a train of upward-propagating rebound shocks in the chromosphere. The rebound shock train is the nonlinear development of oscillations of the atmosphere at its natural frequency. The rebound shocks impinge on the transition region and thrust the underlying chromosphere upward. It is found that the rebound shock train leads naturally to structures which can be identified with the solar spicules.

  9. Solar reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, D. C.

    1981-02-17

    A solar reflector having a flexible triangular reflective sheet or membrane for receiving and reflecting solar energy therefrom. The reflector is characterized by the triangular reflective sheet which is placed under tension thereby defining a smooth planar surface eliminating surface deflection which heretofore has reduced the efficiency of reflectors or heliostats used in combination for receiving and transmitting solar energy to an absorber tower.

  10. Solar Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  11. Buying Solar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joe

    Presented are guidelines for buying solar systems for the individual consumer. This is intended to help the consumer reduce many of the risks associated with the purchase of solar systems, particularly the risks of fraud and deception. Engineering terms associated with solar technology are presented and described to enable the consumer to discuss…

  12. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  13. Solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

  14. Solar-geophysical data number 577, September 1992. Part 2 (comprehensive reports), data for March 1992 and miscellaneous

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.E.

    1992-09-01

    Contents: Detailed index for 1992; Data for March 1992 -- Solar flares, Solar radio bursts at fixed frequencies, Solar x-ray radiation from GOES satellite, Mass ejections from the sun, Active prominences and filaments, Solar irradiance; Miscellaneous data -- NIMBUS solar irradiance data Nov 78-Jun 92, NOAA SESC solar proton events Jan 76-Aug 92.

  15. Solar Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The instrument pictured is an inexpensive solar meter which is finding wide acceptance among architects, engineers and others engaged in construction of solar energy facilities. It detects the amount of solar energy available at a building site, information necessary to design the most efficient type of solar system for a particular location. Incorporating technology developed by NASA's Lewis Research Center, the device is based upon the solar cell, which provides power for spacecraft by converting the sun's energy to electricity. The meter is produced by Dodge Products, Inc., Houston, Texas, a company formed to bring the technology to the commercial marketplace.

  16. Solar flair.

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, John S

    2003-01-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams. PMID:12573926

  17. Solar flair.

    PubMed

    Manuel, John S

    2003-02-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams.

  18. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  19. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  20. Solar Sailing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  1. Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, Periasamy K.; Joshi, Bhal Chandra; Naidu, Arun Kumar

    High temporal and frequency resolution observations of solar generated disturbances below 15 MHz in the near-Sun region and at Sun-Earth distances in conjunction with optical and high energy observations of Sun are essential to understand the structure and evolution of eruptions, such as, flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and their associated solar wind disturbances at heights above the photosphere and their consequences in the interplanetary medium. This talk presents a case study of Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE) payload to probe the corona and the solar disturbances at solar offsets greater than 2 solar radii below 30 MHz. The LORE, although not part of Aditya-L1 mission, can be complimentary to planned Aditya-L1 coronagraph and its other on-board payloads as well as synergistic to ground based observations, which are routinely carried out by Ooty Radio Telescope. We discuss the baseline design and technical details of the proposed LORE and it is particularly suitable for providing data on the detailed time and frequency structure of fast drifting Type-III and slow drifting Type-II radio bursts with unprecedented time and frequency resolution as well as goniopolarimetry, made possible with better designed antennas and state-of-art electronics, employing FPGAs and an intelligent data management system. This would enable wide ranging studies such as studies of nonlinear plasma processes, CME in-situ radio emission, CME driven phenomena, interplanetary CME driven shocks, ICMEs driven by decelerating IP shocks and space weather effects of Solar Wind interaction regions. The talk will highlight the science objectives as well as the proposed technical design features.

  2. Detection of Solar Oscillations (g-modes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homayouni, Y.; Ajabshirizadeh, A.

    2011-07-01

    Solar gravity modes are the best probes to study solar interior and specifically the dynamics of solar core. Here we present an analytical solution to solar gravity modes using relativistic space curvature inside 0.4 fractional radius with the assumption of mass accumulation inside the solar core. Considering the radial effect of gravitation, in order to calculate the spherical harmonics we have set the value of l to zero. Furthermore, a modified geometry for the interior regions of the Sun is presented. Consequently, a relation of g-mode frequency with fractional radius is calculated.

  3. Tracking solar gravity modes: the dynamics of the solar core.

    PubMed

    García, Rafael A; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Jiménez-Reyes, Sebastian J; Ballot, Jérôme; Pallé, Pere L; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Mathur, Savita; Provost, Janine

    2007-06-15

    Solar gravity modes have been actively sought because they directly probe the solar core (below 0.2 solar radius), but they have not been conclusively detected in the Sun because of their small surface amplitudes. Using data from the Global Oscillation at Low Frequency instrument, we detected a periodic structure in agreement with the period separation predicted by the theory for gravity dipole modes. When studied in relation to simulations including the best physics of the Sun determined through the acoustic modes, such a structure favors a faster rotation rate in the core than in the rest of the radiative zone.

  4. PEP solar array definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The conceptual design of a large, flexible, lightweight solar array is presented focusing on a solar array overview assessment, solar array blanket definition, structural-mechanical systems definition, and launch/reentry blanket protection features. The overview assessment includes a requirements and constraints review, the thermal environment assessment on the design selection, an evaluation of blanket integration sequence, a conceptual blanket/harness design, and a hot spot analysis considering the effects of shadowing and cell failures on overall array reliability. The solar array blanket definition includes the substrate design, hinge designs and blanket/harness flexibility assessment. The structural/mechanical systems definition includes an overall loads and deflection assessment, a frequency analysis of the deployed assembly, a components weights estimate, design of the blanket housing and tensioning mechanism. The launch/reentry blanket protection task includes assessment of solar cell/cover glass cushioning concepts during ascent and reentry flight condition.

  5. Properties of the Solar Acoustic Source Inferred from Nonadiabatic Oscillation Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, R.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2005-07-01

    Severino et al. suggested in 2001 that observed power and cross spectra of medium-degree p-modes in velocity and intensity can be described by splitting the solar background noise into correlated, coherent, and uncoherent components. We account for the nonadiabatic nature of solar oscillations by including the perturbations of the radiative energy flux in our model for the oscillations. Our calculations show the potential to explain the observations without the ad hoc phase differences between velocity and intensity oscillations introduced in the model of Severino et al. The phases and amplitudes of the correlated noise components are obtained by fitting our nonadiabatic model to the SOHO MDI power and cross spectra. These parameters provide information about the p-mode excitation process. We show that the type and location of the source can not be uniquely determined by the properties of the resonant p-modes in power and cross spectra of velocity and intensity oscillations. However, we obtain estimates for the phases and amplitudes of the correlated noise, which we interpret in terms of isolated rapid downdrafts in intergranular lanes. This idea is supported by three-dimensional simulations of the upper solar convection zone.

  6. Observations of Solar Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paige, Giorla

    2011-05-01

    A low frequency radio telescope has been recently been constructed on the campus of the The College of New Jersey (TCNJ) and has begun conducting observations at 20MHz as part of NASA'a Radio Jove program. This instrument is capable of observations of solar radio emission including strong prompt radio emission associated with solar burst events. We will discuss solar observations conducted with this instrument as well as an effort to conduct coincident observations with the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA) and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA).

  7. Solar Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  8. Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The areas of emphasis are: (1) develop theoretical models of the transient release of magnetic energy in the solar atmosphere, e.g., in solar flares, eruptive prominences, coronal mass ejections, etc.; (2) investigate the role of the Sun's magnetic field in the structuring of solar corona by the development of three-dimensional numerical models that describe the field configuration at various heights in the solar atmosphere by extrapolating the field at the photospheric level; (3) develop numerical models to investigate the physical parameters obtained by the ULYSSES mission; (4) develop numerical and theoretical models to investigate solar activity effects on the solar wind characteristics for the establishment of the solar-interplanetary transmission line; and (5) develop new instruments to measure solar magnetic fields and other features in the photosphere, chromosphere transition region and corona. We focused our investigation on the fundamental physical processes in solar atmosphere which directly effect our Planet Earth. The overall goal is to establish the physical process for the Sun-Earth connections.

  9. Stability of the low degree five minute solar oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Kidman, R.B.; Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the decay rate for many of the low degree p modes observed as 5 minute oscillations of the sun. This report is an expanded version of the presentation at Snowmass. These theoretical results use the completely nonadiabatic linear theory of Saio and Cox (1980). Our solar model is based on the evolution results of Christensen-Dalsbgaard (1982). Equation of state and opacity data come from the Los Alamos Opacity Library of Huebner, Merts, Magee, and Argo (1977). We compute rates for modes ranging from radial (l = 0) to the nonradial ones with l = 5 for overtones 10 through 28.

  10. Solar Eclipse

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ...   View Larger Image On June 10, 2002 the Moon obscured the central portion of the solar disk in a phenomenon known as an ... in which 99.6 percent of the solar disk was shadowed by the Moon, was situated in the central Pacific Ocean. Since there are no populated ...

  11. Solar Eclipse

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... a solar eclipse where an observer on Earth can watch the Moon's shadow obscure more than 90% the Sun's disk, the Multiangle Imaging ... total solar eclipse of November 23, 2003. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow began in the Indian Ocean in the far Southern Hemisphere, ...

  12. Solar Sprint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  13. Solar Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hippel, Frank; Williams, Robert H.

    1975-01-01

    As fossil fuels decrease in availability and environmental concerns increase, soalr energy is becoming a potential major energy source. Already solar energy is used for space heating in homes. Proposals for solar-electric generating systems include land-based or ocean-based collectors and harnessing wind and wave power. Photosynthesis can also…

  14. Solar Sprint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  15. Solar cooking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  16. Solar Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hippel, Frank; Williams, Robert H.

    1975-01-01

    As fossil fuels decrease in availability and environmental concerns increase, soalr energy is becoming a potential major energy source. Already solar energy is used for space heating in homes. Proposals for solar-electric generating systems include land-based or ocean-based collectors and harnessing wind and wave power. Photosynthesis can also…

  17. Solar luminosity oscillations from two stations and correlation with velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, A.; Palle, Pere L.; Roca Cortés, Teodoro; Andersen, N. B.; Domingo, V.; Jones, A. R.; Alvarez, M.; Ledezma, E.

    1988-12-01

    Since 1984 the measurements of a quadruple photometer sited at the Observatorio del Teide (Izana, Tenerife) made it possible to identify the p-mode luminosity spectrum with simultaneous velocity observations. Comparing this data, the adiabatic behavior of solar atmosphere and theoretical expectations from solar models were tested. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and reduce the sidebands due to the night-time data gaps, a second identical photometer was set-up in December 1987, at the Observatorio de San Pedro Martir (Baja California Norte, Mexico). Results of the observations of these two stations are analyzed and compared with simultaneous velocity measurements.

  18. Average thermal characteristics of solar wind electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Average solar wind electron properties based on a 1 year Vela 4 data sample-from May 1967 to May 1968 are presented. Frequency distributions of electron-to-ion temperature ratio, electron thermal anisotropy, and thermal energy flux are presented. The resulting evidence concerning heat transport in the solar wind is discussed.

  19. Frequency spirals

    SciTech Connect

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2016-09-15

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  20. Probing the Fundamental Physics of the Solar Corona with Lunar Solar Occultation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habbal, S. Rifai; Morgan, H.; Druckmüller, M.; Ding, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Daw, A.; Sittler, E. C.

    2013-07-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy of the solar corona, coupled with polarimetry, are the only tools available at present to capture signatures of physical processes responsible for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration within the first few solar radii above the solar limb. With the recent advent of improved detector technology and image processing techniques, broad-band white light and narrow-band multi-wavelength observations of coronal forbidden lines, made during total solar eclipses, have started to yield new views about the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of coronal structures. This paper outlines these unique capabilities, which until present, have been feasible primarily with observations during natural total solar eclipses. This work also draws attention to the exciting possibility of greatly increasing the frequency and duration of solar eclipse observations with Moon orbiting observatories utilizing lunar limb occultation of the solar disk for coronal measurements.

  1. Solar sail

    SciTech Connect

    Drexler, K.E.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a solar sail propulsion system comprising: solar sail means for intercepting light pressure to produce thrust, the solar sail means being a thin metal film; tension truss means having two ends attached at one end to the solar sail means for transferring the thrust from the solar sail and for preventing gross deformation of the solar sail under light pressure, the solar sail means being a plurality of separate generally two-dimensional pieces joined by springs to the tension truss means; a payload attached to the other end of the tension truss means, the tension truss means comprising a plurality of attachment means for attaching shroud lines to the top of the tension truss means and a plurality of the shroud lines attached to the attachment means at one of their ends and the payload at the other; a plurality of reel means attached to the shroud lines for controllably varying the length of the lines; and a plurality of reflective panel means attached to the sail means for controlling the orientation of the system.

  2. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  3. A UNIFIED APPROACH TO THE HELIOSEISMIC INVERSION PROBLEM OF THE SOLAR MERIDIONAL FLOW FROM GLOBAL OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schad, A.; Timmer, J.; Roth, M.

    2011-06-20

    Measurements from tracers and local helioseismology indicate the existence of a meridional flow in the Sun with strength in the order of 15 m s{sup -1} near the solar surface. Different attempts were made to obtain information on the flow profile at depths up to 20 Mm below the solar surface. We propose a method using global helioseismic Doppler measurements with the prospect of inferring the meridional flow profile at greater depths. Our approach is based on the perturbation of the p-mode eigenfunctions of a solar model due to the presence of a flow. The distortion of the oscillation eigenfunctions is manifested in the mixing of p-modes, which may be measured from global solar oscillation time series. As a new helioseismic measurement quantity, we propose amplitude ratios between oscillations in the Fourier domain. We relate this quantity to the meridional flow and unify the concepts presented here for an inversion procedure to infer the meridional flow from global solar oscillations.

  4. Solar pruritus.

    PubMed

    Bech-Thomsen, N; Thomsen, K

    1995-11-01

    A case of solar pruritus is reported. Severe pruritus of the back, shoulders and upper lateral aspects of the arms, without any eruption, developed in a 28-year-old outdoor worker during 4 to 6 weeks of intensive solar exposure. The pruritus was intense and described as a burning sensation deep in the skin. Only a few excoriations and slight xerosis were found. Solar pruritus or brachioradial pruritus is a condition primarily seen in Caucasian people living in the tropics or subtropics. Previously the disease has only been reported once outside these areas.

  5. Solar Two

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power on demand to the local utility, Southern California Edison Company. It can do so because it operates not only during sunny parts of the day, but it can store enough thermal energy from the sun to operate during cloudy periods and after dark, for up to three hours, at its rated output of 10 megawatts (MW). For the first time ever, a utility scale solar power plant can supply electricity when the utility needs it most, to satisfy the energy requirements of its customers.

  6. Solar extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “extreme events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for extreme solar events.

  7. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 542, October 1989. Part 2 (comprehensive reports). Data for April 1989 and miscellaneous

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.E.

    1989-10-01

    Contents: detailed index for 1989; data for April 1989 -- solar flares, solar radio bursts at fixed frequencies, interplanetary solar particles and plasma, solar x-ray radiation from GOES satellite, mass ejections from the sun, active prominences and filaments; miscellaneous data -- Meudon Carte synoptique carrington rotations 1811-1812, solar ultraviolet radiation Nimbus 7 November 1978-October 1984.

  8. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 564, August 1991. Part 2 (Comprehensive reports). Data for February 1991 and miscellaneous

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.E.

    1991-08-01

    The contents include: Detailed index for 1990-1991; Data for February 1991--Solar flares, Solar radio bursts at fixed frequencies, Interplanetary solar particles and plasma, Solar X-ray radiation from GOES satellite, Mass ejections from the sun, Active prominences and filaments; Miscellaneous data--Interplanetary solar particles and plasma--IMP 8 solar wind October 1990-January 1991, Total solar irradiance--NIMBUS November 1978-April 1991.

  9. Solar chulha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhao, P. H.; Patrikar, S. R.

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  10. Solar chulha

    SciTech Connect

    Jadhao, P. H.; Patrikar, S. R.

    2016-05-06

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  11. Solar Nexus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jim

    1980-01-01

    The design team for the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has pushed the state of the energy art to its current limits for the initial phase, with provisions for foreseeable and even speculative future applications. (Author/MLF)

  12. Solar fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viitanen, M.

    1990-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a review concerning the storage of solar energy by converting it to chemical energy. This is based on several articles published during the last fifteen years. The methods to convert solar energy to chemical energy, e.g., to produce hydrogen, can be divided into three different methods. The most common one is probably the usage of solar cells; thus the solar energy is first converted into electrical energy and further the water is split electrochemically to produce hydrogen. It could be also done in a photoelectrochemical cell, or simply photochemically. A photobiological system can also be considered as a photochemical system, although it is discussed separately from the photochemical systems. These three last mentioned methods will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Solar Triumvirate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-09

    The magnetic field lines of three active regions in close proximity to one another interacted with each other over two and a half days Feb. 8-10, 2016. This image is from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  14. Retinopathy after solar eclipse, 1995.

    PubMed

    Verma, L; Sharma, N; Tewari, H K; Gupta, S

    1996-01-01

    Visual damage following direct sighting of the solar eclipse is a well established clinical entity. In spite of warnings in the media, a number of people attempted to observe the solar eclipse. Consequently, some developed visual damage. Twenty-one patients were referred to the Solar Eclipse Cell at our centre. Their demographic and clinical features were evaluated. Foveal findings correlated with the duration of exposure and frequency of watching the eclipse. Six patients had used protective devices for viewing the eclipse. More than 47% eyes had discernible fundus lesions. Lasting visual damage can follow a solar retinal burn with little or no protection from the viewing devices. Prevention remains the best treatment and there is a need to educate the public in this regard.

  15. Variation of Solar, Interplanetary and Geomagnetic Parameters during Solar Cycles 21-24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Suyeon; Kim, Bogyeong

    2013-06-01

    The length of solar cycle 23 has been prolonged up to about 13 years. Many studies have speculated that the solar cycle 23/24 minimum will indicate the onset of a grand minimum of solar activity, such as the Maunder Minimum. We check the trends of solar (sunspot number, solar magnetic fields, total solar irradiance, solar radio flux, and frequency of solar X-ray flare), interplanetary (interplanetary magnetic field, solar wind and galactic cosmic ray intensity), and geomagnetic (Ap index) parameters (SIG parameters) during solar cycles 21-24. Most SIG parameters during the period of the solar cycle 23/24 minimum have remarkably low values. Since the 1970s, the space environment has been monitored by ground observatories and satellites. Such prevalently low values of SIG parameters have never been seen. We suggest that these unprecedented conditions of SIG parameters originate from the weakened solar magnetic fields. Meanwhile, the deep 23/24 solar cycle minimum might be the portent of a grand minimum in which the global mean temperature of the lower atmosphere is as low as in the period of Dalton or Maunder minimum.

  16. Solar Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  17. Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) produces high efficiency crystal ingots in an automated well-insulated furnace offering low equipment, labor and energy costs. The "grown" silicon crystals are used to make solar cells, or photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity. The HEM method is used by Crystal Systems, Inc. and was developed under a NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory contract. The square wafers which are the result of the process are sold to companies manufacturing solar panels.

  18. Solar-geophysical data number 496, December 1985. Part 2: (Comprehensive reports). Data for June 1985, January-May 1985 and miscellanea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, H. E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Contents include the detailed index for 1985; data for June 1985 (solar flares, solar radio bursts at fixed frequencies, solar X-ray radiation from GOES satellite graphs, mass ejections from the sun, and active prominences and filaments); data for January to May 1985 (solar flares January 1985, solar flares February 1985, solar flares March 1985, solar flares April 1985, solar flares May 1985, and number of flares August 1966 to June 1985); and the international geophysical calendar 1986.

  19. Speed of sound in the solar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Gough, D. O.; Harvey, J. W.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The sound speed of the solar interior is directly determinable on the basis of the frequencies of solar 5-min oscillations, irrespective of solar model, and relying only on a simple asymptotic description of the oscillations in terms of trapped acoustic waves. It is plausible that, by using this asymptotic determination as an initial trial in a more accurate inversion, and imposing constraints of smoothness on the solution resulting from the iteration, a good model representing the large scale structure of the sun which satisfies the observed frequencies may be determined.

  20. Solar Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

  1. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  2. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  3. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGES

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; ...

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  4. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  5. Solar wind ion precipitation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenberg, Gabriella; Dieval, Catherine; Nilsson, Hans; Barabash, Stas; Futaana, Yoshifumi

    2013-04-01

    Solar wind ions (protons and alpha-particles) frequently precipitate onto the atmosphere of Mars. The precipitating particles contribute to the energy and matter flux into the ionosphere. The main reason for the solar-wind precipitation is likely the large gyroradii of hot particles in the magnetosheath compared to the size of the induced magnetosphere/magnetic barrier. Precipitating particles may modify the composition of the neutral atmosphere. As an example solar wind alpha-particles have been suggested to be an important source of neutral helium in the Martian atmosphere. We use ion data from the ASPERA-3 instrument onboard Mars Express to estimate the net transfer of energy and matter from the solar wind to the atmosphere. Our results indicate that the Martian ionosphere is better protected from penetrating solar wind ions than previously thought, at least during solar minimum conditions. In addition, our findings suggest that the contribution of solar wind alpha-particles to the helium balance of the atmosphere is smaller than expected. We also compare the ion precipitation during periods of quiet solar wind conditions and periods of solar wind pressure pulses. We show that the occurrence frequency of precipitation events is reduced by a factor 2-3 during periods when a solar wind pressure pulse reaches Mars, suggesting that the during this time the magnetic barrier becomes thicker in terms of solar wind ion gyroradii, making it more difficult for ions to precipitate.

  6. Wave Modeling of the Solar Wind.

    PubMed

    Ofman, Leon

    The acceleration and heating of the solar wind have been studied for decades using satellite observations and models. However, the exact mechanism that leads to solar wind heating and acceleration is poorly understood. In order to improve the understanding of the physical mechanisms that are involved in these processes a combination of modeling and observational analysis is required. Recent models constrained by satellite observations show that wave heating in the low-frequency (MHD), and high-frequency (ion-cyclotron) range may provide the necessary momentum and heat input to coronal plasma and produce the solar wind. This review is focused on the results of several recent solar modeling studies that include waves explicitly in the MHD and the kinetic regime. The current status of the understanding of the solar wind acceleration and heating by waves is reviewed.

  7. Correlation between solar acoustic emission and phase of the solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    The solar acoustic emission is closely related to solar convection and magnetic field. Understanding the relation between the acoustic emission and the phase of a solar cycle is important to understand the dynamics of solar cycles and excitation of acoustic waves. In this work we use 4 years of SDO/HMI data from 05/2010 to 04/2014, covering the growing phase of the solar cycle 24, to study the acoustic emissions of the whole sun and of only the quiet sun regions respectively, at multiple frequency bands. We also analyze the correlations between the acoustic emissions and solar activity level indexed by daily sunspot number and magnetic flux. The results show that the correlation between the whole-sun acoustic emission and solar activity level is negative for low frequencies at 2.5-4.5 mHz, with a peak value around -0.9, and is positive for high frequencies at 4.5-6.0 mHz, with a peak value around 0.9. For high frequencies, the acoustic emission excess in sunspot halos overwhelms the emission deficiency in sunspot umbrae and penumbrae. The correlation between the quiet-sun acoustic emission and solar activity level is negative for 2.5-4.0 mHz and positive for 4.0-5.5 mHz, with peak values over ±0.8. This shows that the solar background acoustic power, with active regions excluded, is indeed varying during a solar cycle, implying the excitation frequencies or depths are highly related to the solar magnetic field.

  8. Theoretical studies of the physics of the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1992-01-01

    Significant advances in our theoretical basis for understanding several physical processes related to dynamical phenomena on the sun were achieved. We have advanced a new model for spicules and fibrils. We have provided a simple physical view of resonance absorption of MHD surface waves; this allowed an approximate mathematical procedure for obtaining a wealth of new analytical results which we applied to coronal heating and p-mode absorption at magnetic regions. We provided the first comprehensive models for the heating and acceleration of the transition region, corona, and solar wind. We provided a new view of viscosity under coronal conditions. We provided new insights into Alfven wave propagation in the solar atmosphere. And recently we have begun work in a new direction: parametric instabilities of Alfven waves.

  9. Periodic solar wind density structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, Nicholeen Mary

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a specific aspect of the Sun-Earth connection: we show that coronal activity creates periodic density structures in the solar wind which convect radially outward and interact with Earth's magnetosphere. First, we analyze 11 years (1995-2005) of in situ solar wind density observations from the Wind spacecraft and find that periodic density structures occur at particular sets of radial length-scales more often than others. This indicates that these density fluctuations, which have radial length-scales of hundreds of megameters, cannot be attributed entirely to turbulence. Next, we analyze their effect on Earth's magnetosphere. Though these structures are not waves in the solar wind rest frame, they appear at discrete frequencies in Earth's reference frame. They compress the magnetosphere as they convect past, driving global magnetospheric oscillations at the same discrete frequencies as the periodic density structures. Last, we investigate source regions and mechanisms of the periodic solar wind density structures. We analyze the alpha particle to proton abundance ratio during events of periodic density structures. In many events, the proton and alpha density fluctuations are anti- correlated, which strongly argues for either temporally or spatially varying coronal source plasma. We examine white light images of the solar wind taken with SECCHI HI1 on the STEREO spacecraft and find periodic density structures as near to the Sun as 15 solar radii. The smallest resolvable periodic structures that we identify are of comparable length to those found at 1 AU, providing further evidence that at least some periodic density structures are generated in the solar corona as the solar wind is formed. Guided by the properties observed during previous studies and the characteristics established through the work presented here, we examine possible candidate mechanisms in the solar corona that can form periodic density structures. We conclude that

  10. Solar ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, H.

    1981-01-01

    The history and current status of salt-gradient non-convecting solar ponds are presented. These ponds are large-area collectors, capable of providing low-cost thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy using low-temperature turbo-generators. The basic theory of salt-gradient solar ponds is sketched; the effects of wind, leakage, and fouling and their constraints on location selection for solar ponds are discussed. The methods of building and filling the ponds, as well as extracting heat from them are explained in detail. Practical operating temperatures of 90 C can be obtained with collection efficiencies between 15% and 25%, demonstrating the practical use of the ponds for heating and cooling purposes, power production, and desalination. A condensed account of solar pond experience in several countries is given. This includes the 150 kW solar pond power station (SPPS) operating in Israel since December, 1979 and a 5000 kW unit currently under development. A study of the economics involved in using the ponds is presented: despite a low conversion efficiency, the SPPS is shown to have applications in many countries.

  11. Solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Smith, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    Active areas of both observational and theoretical research in which rapid progress is being made are discussed. These include: (1) the dynamic spectrum or frequency versus time plot; (2) physical mechanisms in the development of various types of bursts; (3) microwave type 1, 2, 3, and moving type 4 bursts; (4) bursts caused by trapped electrons; (5) physics of type 3bursts; (6) the physics of type 2 bursts and their related shocks; (7) the physics of both stationary and moving traps and associated type 1 and moving type 4 bursts; and (8) the status of the field of solar radio emission.

  12. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  13. Solar Neutrinos

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  14. Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.; Mathews, John; Manross, Kevin

    1995-12-01

    Calcium K plage, H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored daily on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The plage and sunspot area have been measured by image processing. The purpose of the project is to investigate the degree of correlation between plage area and solar irradiance. The plage variation shows the expected variation produced by solar rotation and the longer secular changes produced by the solar cycle. The H alpha and sunspot plage area reached a minimum in about late 1994 or early 1995. This is in agreement with the K2 spectral index obtained daily from Sacramento Peak Observatory. The Calcium K plage area minimum seems delayed with respect to the others mentioned above. The minimum of the K line plage area is projected to come within the last few months of 1995.

  15. Solar retinitis.

    PubMed

    SHIRLEY, S Y

    1963-07-20

    Retinal burns can be produced by direct gazing at the sun. This lesion is caused by the thermal effects of the visible and near infrared rays focused on the pigment structure behind the retina. It is rarely seen, as the normal eye will tolerate only fleeting glances at the sun, but is fairly common during a solar eclipse. A case of solar retinitis is presented in which treatment with corticosteroids lessened the retinal edema but the patient suffered a bilateral central scotoma and vision reduced to the 20/40 level. In viewing a solar eclipse a No. 4 density filter is recommended; as a rough test this filter will abolish the readability of print on a 60-watt incandescent frosted electric light bulb.

  16. Solar Retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, S. Y.

    1963-01-01

    Retinal burns can be produced by direct gazing at the sun. This lesion is caused by the thermal effects of the visible and near infrared rays focused on the pigment structure behind the retina. It is rarely seen, as the normal eye will tolerate only fleeting glances at the sun, but is fairly common during a solar eclipse. A case of solar retinitis is presented in which treatment with corticosteroids lessened the retinal edema but the patient suffered a bilateral central scotoma and vision reduced to the 20/40 level. In viewing a solar eclipse a No. 4 density filter is recommended; as a rough test this filter will abolish the readability of print on a 60-watt incandescent frosted electric light bulb. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:13977409

  17. Solar flare particle radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the solar particles accelerated by solar flares and subsequently observed near the orbit of the earth are studied. Considered are solar particle intensity-time profiles, the composition and spectra of solar flare events, and the propagation of solar particles in interplanetary space. The effects of solar particles at the earth, riometer observations of polar cap cosmic noise absorption events, and the production of solar cell damage at synchronous altitudes by solar protons are also discussed.

  18. Solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Bayles, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    A solar panel includes a base within which are mounted transversely extending conduits. A heat collector plate in the base is in heat conductive relationship with the conduits for the heating of a fluid medium. The base additionally supports a transparent cover outwardly spaced from the heat collector plate to provide a protective insulative air space over the plate. A manifold communicates one series of panels with those of an adjacent series. A modified base dispenses with a collector plate and is formed so as to define integral lengthwise extending passageways for the solar heated medium. Inserted nipples interconnect the passageways of adjacent panels.

  19. Solar trap

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, H.S.

    1988-02-09

    A solar trap for collecting solar energy at a concentrated level is described comprising: (a) a compound light funnel including a pair of light reflecting substantially planar members arranged into a trough having a substantially V-shaped cross section; (b) a two dimensional Fresnel lens cover covering the opening of the compound light funnel, the opening being the open diverging end of the substantially V-shaped cross section of the compound light funnel; (c) at least one conduit for carrying a heat transfer fluid disposed substantially adjacent and substantially parallel to the apex line of the compound light funnel.

  20. Solar Energy and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  1. Solar maximum: Solar array degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  2. Solar maximum: solar array degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.

    1985-08-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  3. SURFACE WAVES IN SOLAR GRANULATION OBSERVED WITH SUNRISE

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, M.; Franz, M.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.

    2010-11-10

    Solar oscillations are expected to be excited by turbulent flows in the intergranular lanes near the solar surface. Time series recorded by the IMaX instrument on board the SUNRISE observatory reveal solar oscillations at high spatial resolution, which allow the study of the properties of oscillations with short wavelengths. We analyze two time series with synchronous recordings of Doppler velocity and continuum intensity images with durations of 32 minutes and 23 minutes, respectively, recorded close to the disk center of the Sun to study the propagation and excitation of solar acoustic oscillations. In the Doppler velocity data, both the standing acoustic waves and the short-lived, high-degree running waves are visible. The standing waves are visible as temporary enhancements of the amplitudes of the large-scale velocity field due to the stochastic superposition of the acoustic waves. We focus on the high-degree small-scale waves by suitable filtering in the Fourier domain. Investigating the propagation and excitation of f- and p {sub 1}-modes with wavenumbers k>1.4 Mm{sup -1}, we also find that exploding granules contribute to the excitation of solar p-modes in addition to the contribution of intergranular lanes.

  4. Solar Wind Overview of Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, Antoinette; Farrugia, Charles; Kucharek, Harald; Yu, Wenyuan

    2017-04-01

    The STEREO observatories were commissioned in early 2007, near the end of solar cycle 23, and has continued (outside of the solar conjunction blackout period) providing data into the present phase of cycle 24. During the approach to solar minimum (2007-2008), there are two well-delineated regions of higher speed solar wind (> 500 km/s), associated with the central meridian passage of coronal holes and correlated with lower densities, lower iron ionic charge states, and uniform magnetic polarity. Preceding these regions are higher density ridges associated with stream interaction regions. During the recent solar minimum (2008-2010) there were significant intervals of slow speed solar wind, including small transients (Yu et al., 2016) and slow interplanetary coronal mass ejections. ICMEs characterized by higher speeds and higher iron charge states became more prevalent as the cycle reached solar maximum (2013-2014). We are currently in the declining phase of solar activity in this cycle, though ICME events are still being observed. We present overview synoptic solar wind data as seen at STEREO A for the mission to date and frequency distributions of solar wind iron charge states over time.

  5. Long-Period Solar Variability

    SciTech Connect

    GAUTHIER,JOHN H.

    2000-07-20

    Terrestrial climate records and historical observations of the Sun suggest that the Sun undergoes aperiodic oscillations in radiative output and size over time periods of centuries and millenia. Such behavior can be explained by the solar convective zone acting as a nonlinear oscillator, forced at the sunspot-cycle frequency by variations in heliomagnetic field strength. A forced variant of the Lorenz equations can generate a time series with the same characteristics as the solar and climate records. The timescales and magnitudes of oscillations that could be caused by this mechanism are consistent with what is known about the Sun and terrestrial climate.

  6. Rotation of the Solar Interior: New Results by Helioseismic Data Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.; Dziembowski, W. A.; Paternó, L.

    We determine the variation of the Sun's angular velocity with latitude and radius by means of an helioseismic inversion of more than 30,000 of p-mode splitting coefficients. These data were obtained from the first set of uninterrupted Doppler images from SOI-MDI (on board of the SOHO satellite) in 1996, which yield splittings of great accuracy, never obtained in previous sets of data. The degree ell ranges from 1 to 250, and the frequency from 954 μ Hz to 4556 μ Hz. In order to invert the data, we used the localized averaging kernel method (Backus & Gilbert 1970) in the form as derived by Pijpers and Thompson (1992), known as SOLA (Subtractive Optimally Localized Averaging) in 1.5 dimensions. It means that the 2-dimensional inverse problem has been decomposed into series of 1-dimensional SOLA independent inversions in the radial direction. This has allowed us to probe rotation in the convection zone and the outer part of the radiative core, and obtain more reliable results closer to the poles (Schou et al. 1998). We are also able to study rotational details in the shear layer (tachocline) located near the base of the convection zone and determine the behaviour of the angular velocity in the solar core. Unfortunately, the data uncertainties for low ell degrees result in a rotational profile in the deepest layers of low significance. In order to infer accurately the rotation of the deep interior, we also invert some sets of data with more accurate splittings of the lowest degree modes (ell ~1-4). Currently, the best data sets for this purpose still come from groundbased instruments such as LOWL, BISON and IRIS (Tomczyk et al. 1995; Elsworth et al. 1994; Lazreck et al. 1996). However these inversions give conflicting results in the core. Solution of this problem may await the accurate low-ell data from the GOLF instrument on SOHO.

  7. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-08-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street compared to that with free horizon. This allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in a street depends strongly on the relative width of the street and its orientation towards the sun. Averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, the NO2 photolysis frequency is reduced in comparison with the values for free horizon: to less than 20% for narrow skyscraper streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets. A parameterization with the global solar irradiance is given for the averaged RJ values.

  8. Asymptotic theory of intermediate- and high-degree solar acoustic oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodsky, M.; Vorontsov, S. V.

    1993-01-01

    A second-order asymptotic approximation is developed for adiabatic nonradial p-modes of a spherically symmetric star. The exact solutions of adiabatic oscillations are assumed in the outermost layers, where the asymptotic description becomes invalid, which results in a eigenfrequency equation with model-dependent surface phase shift. For lower degree modes, the phase shift is a function of frequency alone; for high-degree modes, its dependence on the degree is explicitly taken into account.

  9. Asymptotic theory of intermediate- and high-degree solar acoustic oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodsky, M.; Vorontsov, S. V.

    1993-01-01

    A second-order asymptotic approximation is developed for adiabatic nonradial p-modes of a spherically symmetric star. The exact solutions of adiabatic oscillations are assumed in the outermost layers, where the asymptotic description becomes invalid, which results in a eigenfrequency equation with model-dependent surface phase shift. For lower degree modes, the phase shift is a function of frequency alone; for high-degree modes, its dependence on the degree is explicitly taken into account.

  10. Solar cooker

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J. B.; Ware, R. R.

    1985-12-31

    A solar cooking device made of a flat array of concentric mirrors tilted to focus at a small area, the array being movable mounted on a stand to be movable around a ball joint and with a carrier for a cooking vessel held by a double crank to be at the focal area of the mirrors.

  11. Solar Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Norman C.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    Proposes a method of collecting solar energy by using available plastics for Fresnel lenses to focus heat onto a converter where thermal dissociation of water would produce hydrogen. The hydrogen would be used as an efficient non-polluting fuel. Cost estimates are included. (AL)

  12. Solar Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Norman C.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    Proposes a method of collecting solar energy by using available plastics for Fresnel lenses to focus heat onto a converter where thermal dissociation of water would produce hydrogen. The hydrogen would be used as an efficient non-polluting fuel. Cost estimates are included. (AL)

  13. Solar Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesko, Carolyn, Ed.

    This directory is designed to help the researcher and developer, the manufacturer and distributor, and the general public communicate together on a mutually beneficial basis. Its content covers the wide scope of solar energy activity in the United States primarily, but also in other countries, at the academic, governmental, and industrial levels.…

  14. Solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, M.; Startevant, R.C.

    1985-01-22

    A solar heater has an outlet conduit above an inlet conduit intercoupling a solar heating chamber with the inside of a building through a window opening. In one form the solar collecting chamber is outside the building below the window and the outlet conduit and inlet conduit are contiguous and pass through the window opening between the windowsill and the lower sash. In another form of the invention the solar collecting chambers are located beside each side of the window and joined at the top by the outlet conduit that passes through an opening between the upper window sash and the top of the window frame and at the bottom by an inlet conduit that passes through an opening between the lower sash and the windowsill. The outlet conduit carries photoelectric cells that provide electrical energy for driving a squirrel-cage fan in the outlet conduit through a mercury switch seated on a damper actuated by a bimetallic coil that closes the damper when the temperature in the outlet conduit goes below a predetermined temperature.

  15. Solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1983-03-01

    The increased data base and scope of the theoretical models for solar flares are reviewed. Data have been gathered from the Skylab instrumentation, the Solar Maximum Mission, and the Very Large Array. Skylab X ray images revealed regularly spaced bright spots on the solar surface. Studies have also been performed on the emergence of magnetic fields, the coronal structures defined by magnetic fields above active regions, and the behavior and composition of post-flare loops. It has been found that coronal transients are associated with eruptive prominences with and without flares up to 70 pct of the time. Two classes of solar flares have been identified, i.e., small volume, low altitude with a short rise time, and long decay events with a larger coronal loop structure. Evidence for thermal and nonthermal causes for the electron velocity distribution in the flares is discussed. Finally, SMM data has shown chromospheric reactions to magnetic field variations in the photosphere and the response of the interplanetary medium to coronal transients.

  16. Solar Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesko, Carolyn, Ed.

    This directory is designed to help the researcher and developer, the manufacturer and distributor, and the general public communicate together on a mutually beneficial basis. Its content covers the wide scope of solar energy activity in the United States primarily, but also in other countries, at the academic, governmental, and industrial levels.…

  17. Microwave Frequency Multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazco, J. E.

    2017-02-01

    High-power microwave radiation is used in the Deep Space Network (DSN) and Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) for uplink communications with spacecraft and for monitoring asteroids and space debris, respectively. Intense X-band (7.1 to 8.6 GHz) microwave signals are produced for these applications via klystron and traveling-wave microwave vacuum tubes. In order to achieve higher data rate communications with spacecraft, the DSN is planning to gradually furnish several of its deep space stations with uplink systems that employ Ka-band (34-GHz) radiation. Also, the next generation of planetary radar, such as Ka-Band Objects Observation and Monitoring (KaBOOM), is considering frequencies in the Ka-band range (34 to 36 GHz) in order to achieve higher target resolution. Current commercial Ka-band sources are limited to power levels that range from hundreds of watts up to a kilowatt and, at the high-power end, tend to suffer from poor reliability. In either case, there is a clear need for stable Ka-band sources that can produce kilowatts of power with high reliability. In this article, we present a new concept for high-power, high-frequency generation (including Ka-band) that we refer to as the microwave frequency multiplier (MFM). The MFM is a two-cavity vacuum tube concept where low-frequency (2 to 8 GHz) power is fed into the input cavity to modulate and accelerate an electron beam. In the second cavity, the modulated electron beam excites and amplifies high-power microwaves at a frequency that is a multiple integer of the input cavity's frequency. Frequency multiplication factors in the 4 to 10 range are being considered for the current application, although higher multiplication factors are feasible. This novel beam-wave interaction allows the MFM to produce high-power, high-frequency radiation with high efficiency. A key feature of the MFM is that it uses significantly larger cavities than its klystron counterparts, thus greatly reducing power density and arcing

  18. Solar electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, G.

    1984-01-01

    Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

  19. What have we learned about the solar interior from solar oscillations?

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    After a brief review of the discovery and properties of solar oscillations, I summarize the significant advances in our knowledge of the Sun`s interior structure achieved by using solar oscillation frequency data. I discuss the surprising solar interior rotation profile; the precise determination of the convection zone depth; the convection zone helium abundance; evidence for diffusive settling of helium during the Sun`s 4.5 billion year lifetime; and the Sun`s central structure and implications for the solar neutrino problem.

  20. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.