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Sample records for solar para controle

  1. Solar Control design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used in the evaluation of design of Solar Control's solar heating and cooling system controller and the Solarstat is given. Some of the information includes system performance specifications, design data brochures, and detailed design drawings.

  2. Solar energy control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, J. R.

    1981-12-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  3. Controlled reflectance solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, H.G.; Lillington, D.R.

    1989-06-13

    A solar cell is described comprising: A semiconductor body having a front layer of a first conductivity type and an adjacent back layer of a second conductivity type opposite of the first conductivity type. The front and back layers form front and back major surfaces, respectively the semiconductor body further having openings through the back major surface and back layer which form recesses extending to the front layer. The recesses having walls which are doped to the first conductivity type; a first electrical contact disposed in the recesses making electrical contact the first conductivity type layer; and a second electrical contact disposed on the back major surface making electrical contact to the second conductivity type layer.

  4. Magnetically controlled solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that a primordial solar nebula, the precursor of the Sun and its planetary system, could be best described in terms of an accretion disk. Such an accretion disk is though to be turbulent, and it is usually imagined that turbulent viscosity alone provides the torque responsible for the structure and the evolution of the nebula. However, it was found that an MHD dynamo operating in a turbulent nebula can contemporaneously produce magnetic fields capable of significantly altering or even dominating the total torque. Thus, it seems that no model of a viscous solar nebula is complete without taking magnetic fields into consideration. It was demonstrated that there are usually two distinct regions of nebular disk where a dynamo can operate: the inner region, where the magnetic field coupled to gas due to relatively high thermal ionization; and the outer region, where this coupling is achieved due to nonthermal ionization. Most models also show the existence of an intermediate region, 'the magnetic gap,' where neither thermal nor nonthermal sources can produce enough ionization to provide the necessary coupling between the magnetic field and the gas. The location and width of the gap change substantially from one model to another. At present, we can only estimate the strength of a generated magnetic field. It seems that a large-scale magnetic field is likely to be in the equipartition with the turbulent kinetic energy; however, the intense magnetic fluctuations may greatly exceed this equipartition strength on short time and length scales. To show how a dynamo-generated magnetic field changes the structure of a viscous nebula, we consider four nebula models extensively.

  5. Solar Sail Control Actuator Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangus, David; Heaton, Andy

    2004-01-01

    The thrust produced by a solar sail is a direct function of its attitude. Thus, solar sail thrust vector control is a key technology that must be developed for sailcraft to become a viable form of deep-space transportation. The solar sail community has been studying various sail Attitude Control System (ACS) actuator designs for near Earth orbit as well as deep space missions. These actuators include vanes, spreader bars, two-axis gimbals, floating/locking gimbals with wheels, and translating masses. This paper documents the various concepts and performs an assessment at the highest level. This paper will only compare the various ACS actuator concepts as they stand at the publication time. This is not an endorsement of any particular concept. As concepts mature, the assessments will change.

  6. Solar Sail Control Actuator Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangus, David; Heaton, Andy

    2004-01-01

    The thrust produced by a solar sail is a direct function of its attitude. Thus, solar sail thrust vector control is a key technology that must be developed for sailcraft to become a viable form of deep-space transportation. The solar sail community has been studying various sail Attitude Control System (ACS) actuator designs for near Earth orbit as well as deep space missions. These actuators include vanes, spreader bars, two-axis gimbals, floating/locking gimbals with wheels, and translating masses. This paper documents the various concepts and performs an assessment at the highest level. This paper will only compare the various ACS actuator concepts as they stand at the publication time. This is not an endorsement of any particular concept. As concepts mature, the assessments will change.

  7. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  8. Optimal control studies of solar heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, C B

    1980-01-01

    In the past few years fuel prices have seen steady increases. Also, the supply of fuel has been on the decline. Because of these two problems there has been an increase in the number of solar heated buildings. Since conventional fuel prices are increasing and as a solar heating system represents a high capital cost it is desirable to obtain the maximum performance from a solar heating system. The control scheme that is used in a solar heated building has an effect on the performance of the solar system. The best control scheme possible would, of course, be desired. This report deals with the control problems of a solar heated building. The first of these problems is to control the inside temperature of the building and to minimize the fuel consumption. This problem applies to both solar and conventionally heated buildings. The second problem considered is to control the collector fluid flow to maximize the difference between the useful energy collected and the energy required to pump the fluid. The third problem is to control the enclosure temperature of a building which has two sources of heat, one solar and the other conventional.

  9. Controller for solar heating-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains performance specifications and detailed drawings for two instruments: (1) differential controller, and (2) temperature monitor, for solar-powered water-heating systems. Included in package are schematics, wiring diagrams, test procedures, and parts list.

  10. Simple control device senses solar position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonborg, J. O.; Randall, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation incident on a specially prepared bimetallic strip is simply and reliably controlled by a light valve. This device is valuable for systems requiring temperature regulation.

  11. Multichannel temperature control for solar heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Multiplexer/amplifier circuit monitors temperatures and temperature differences. Although primarily designed for cycle control in solar-heating systems, it can also measure temperatures in motors, ovens, electronic hardware, and other equipment.

  12. Parachute suspended solar pointing control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoda, G. T.; Fujimoto, R. J.; Shigemoto, J. M.; Windsor, R. M.

    A high altitude parachute suspended solar pointing control system has been developed and flight tested for use in the altitude range of 30 to 70 kilometers. This development provides an opportunity for extended solar observations at altitudes higher than that attainable by helium balloons. The new system utilizes the NASA high altitude cross parachute to slow the descent of a rocket launched payload allowing observations in the region of interest. Solar pointing is established by using solar sensors in conjunction with a servo controlled platform and cold gas thrusters for payload roll control. The inherent spin of the cross parachute is decoupled by a swivel joint attached to the parachute suspension lines. This paper describes the design, test and flight performance of the new system.

  13. Parachute-suspended solar pointing control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoda, G. T.; Fujimoto, R. J.; Shigemoto, J. M.; Windsor, R. M.

    1984-04-01

    A high altitude parachute suspended solar pointing control system has been developed and flight tested for use in the altitude range of 30 to 70 kilometers. This development provides an opportunity for extended solar observations at altitudes higher than that attainable by helium balloons. The new system utilizes the NASA high altitude cross parachute to slow the descent of a rocket launched payload allowing observations in the region of interest. Solar pointing is established by using solar sensors in conjunction with a servo controlled platform and cold gas thrusters for payload roll control. The inherent spin of the cross parachute is decoupled by a swivel joint attached to the parachute suspension lines. This paper describes the design, test and flight performance of the new system.

  14. Solar flares controlled by helicity conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliner, Erast B.; Osherovich, Vladimir A.

    1995-01-01

    The energy release in a class of solar flares is studied on the assumption that during burst events in highly conducting plasma the magnetic helicity of plasma is approximately conserved. The available energy release under a solar flare controlled by the helicity conservation is shown to be defined by the magnetic structure of the associated prominence. The approach throws light on some solar flare enigmas: the role of the associated prominence. The approach throws light on some solar flare enigmas: the role of the associated prominences; the discontinuation of the reconnection of magnetic lines long before the complete reconnection of participated fields occurs; the existence of quiet prominences which, in spite of their usual optical appearance, do not initiate any flare events; the small energy release under a solar flare in comparison with the stockpile of magnetic energy in surrounding fields. The predicted scale of the energy release is in a fair agreement with observations.

  15. Solar flares controlled by helicity conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliner, Erast B.; Osherovich, Vladimir A.

    1995-01-01

    The energy release in a class of solar flares is studied on the assumption that during burst events in highly conducting plasma the magnetic helicity of plasma is approximately conserved. The available energy release under a solar flare controlled by the helicity conservation is shown to be defined by the magnetic structure of the associated prominence. The approach throws light on some solar flare enigmas: the role of the associated prominence. The approach throws light on some solar flare enigmas: the role of the associated prominences; the discontinuation of the reconnection of magnetic lines long before the complete reconnection of participated fields occurs; the existence of quiet prominences which, in spite of their usual optical appearance, do not initiate any flare events; the small energy release under a solar flare in comparison with the stockpile of magnetic energy in surrounding fields. The predicted scale of the energy release is in a fair agreement with observations.

  16. Solar optical telescope primary mirror controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. J.; Liu, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a technique to control the articulated primary mirror (APM) of the solar optical telescope (SOT) is discussed. Program results indicate that a single, all digital controller has sufficient capability to totally handle the computational requirements for control of the SOT APM.

  17. The SolarTrak solar array tracking controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maish, A. B.

    1991-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed an advanced self-contained tracking control system for use with one- or two-axis tracking solar arrays. The SolarTrak system computes the sun's position based on the time and stored position data, and then controls two motors to point the tracker at the sun without using sun sensors. When used with a photovoltaic concentrator array, the system initially performs a self-alignment routine using array-generated current to locate the sun. The routine computes six numbers that are used during the normal operation to correct the array pointing for the tracker's installation misalignment. This enables the tracker to point accurately even with installation misalignments of up to several degrees. The SolarTrak system consists of a control board, which contains a Motorola 68HC11 microcontroller, a power supply board, motor-interface boards, and a hand-held user interface board, which contains a liquid-crystal display and an input keypad. This report contains a thorough discussion of the controller software and hardware, including control algorithms, parts lists and estimated costs (about $300 per system). The performance measured on two trackers is reviewed. Tracking accuracy was better than plus minus 0.1 degrees over a full day on one system. A thorough user's manual is included. Companies interested in licensing the technology should contact the Technology Transfer Division of Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  19. Optimal control of sun tracking solar concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the modern control theory to derive an optimal sun tracking control for a point focusing solar concentrator is presented. A standard tracking problem converted to regulator problem using a sun rate input achieves an almost zero steady state tracking error with the optimal control formulation. However, these control techniques are costly because optimal type algorithms require large computing systems, thus they will be used mainly as comparison standards for other types of control algorithms and help in their development.

  20. A Surface-Controlled Solar Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1987-01-01

    Open-circuit voltage and cell efficiency increased. Proposed technique for controlling recombination velocity on solar-cell surfaces provides cells of increased efficiency and open-circuit voltage. In present cells, uncontrolled surface recombination velocity degrades opencircuit voltage and efficiency. In cell using proposed technique, transparent conducting layer, insulated from cell contacts, biased to enable variable control of surface recombination velocity.

  1. A Surface-Controlled Solar Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1987-01-01

    Open-circuit voltage and cell efficiency increased. Proposed technique for controlling recombination velocity on solar-cell surfaces provides cells of increased efficiency and open-circuit voltage. In present cells, uncontrolled surface recombination velocity degrades opencircuit voltage and efficiency. In cell using proposed technique, transparent conducting layer, insulated from cell contacts, biased to enable variable control of surface recombination velocity.

  2. Flexible Models for Solar Sail Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver Smith, Suzanne; Song, Haiping; Baker, John R.; Black, Jonathan; Muheim, Danniella M.

    2005-01-01

    Solar sails employ a unique form of propulsion, gaining momentum from incident and reflected photons. However, the momentum transferred by an individual photon is extremely small. Consequently, a solar sail must have an extremely large surface area and also be extremely light. The flexibility of the sail then must be considered when designing or evaluating control laws. In this paper, solar sail flexibility and its influence on control effectiveness is considered using idealized two-dimensional models to represent physical phenomena rather than a specific design. Differential equations of motion are derived for a distributed parameter model of a flexible solar sail idealized as a rotating central hub with two opposing flexible booms. This idealization is appropriate for solar sail designs in which the vibrational modes of the sail and supporting booms move together allowing the sail mass to be distributed along the booms in the idealized model. A reduced analytical model of the flexible response is considered. Linear feedback torque control is applied at the central hub. Two translational disturbances and a torque disturbance also act at the central hub representing the equivalent effect of deflecting sail shape about a reference line. Transient simulations explore different control designs and their effectiveness for controlling orientation, for reducing flexible motion and for disturbance rejection. A second model also is developed as a two-dimensional "pathfinder" model to calculate the effect of solar sail shape on the resultant thrust, in-plane force and torque at the hub. The analysis is then extended to larger models using the finite element method. The finite element modeling approach is verified by comparing results from a two-dimensional finite element model with those from the analytical model. The utility of the finite element modeling approach for this application is then illustrated through examples based on a full finite element model.

  3. Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1978-01-01

    The solar tracking control system, Sun Chaser, a method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions is described. The Sun Chaser follows the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and resets itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise.

  4. Spaceborne hypertelescope controlled by solar sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardière, O.; Labeyrie, A.

    2002-10-01

    Snapshot imaging of exoplanets seems feasible with multi-apertures interferometric arrays according the hypertelescope principle. A space hypertelescope can be formed from a vast constellation of ultra-light optical elements positioned by small solar sails along the large primary sphere. Our calculations show that 1 m2 of solar reflective surface is sufficient to control a mass of 1.3 kg in geo-stationary orbit. However, L2 orbits are preferable for hypertelescopes larger than 200m, in order to avoid tidal forces between elements and slow drift of the whole constellation. A 10kg-spacecraft is the heavier limit to have a reasonable solar sail size, but 1kg would be preferable. This mass constraint seems compatible with recent advances in MOEMS and ultra-light mirrors.

  5. Illumination control apparatus for compensating solar light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An illumination control apparatus is presented for supplementing light from solar radiation with light from an artificial light source to compensate for periods of insufficient levels of solar light. The apparatus maintains a desired illumination level within an interior space comprising an artificial light source connected to an electrical power source with a switch means for selectively energizing said light source. An actuator means for controlling the on-off operation of the switch means is connected to a light sensor which responses to the illumination level of the interior space. A limit switch carried adjacent to the actuator limits the movement of the actuator within a predetermined range so as to prevent further movement thereof during detection of erroneous illumination conditions.

  6. Solar wind controls on Mercury's magnetospheric cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Maosheng; Vogt, Joachim; Heyner, Daniel; Zhong, Jun

    2017-06-01

    This study assesses the response of the cusp to solar wind changes comprehensively, using 2848 orbits of MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) observation. The assessment entails four steps: (1) propose and validate an approach to estimate the solar wind magnetic field (interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)) for MESSENGER's cusp transit; (2) define an index σ measuring the intensity of the magnetic disturbance which significantly peaks within the cusp and serves as an indicator of the cusp activity level; (3) construct an empirical model of σ as a function of IMF and Mercury's heliocentric distance rsun, through linear regression; and (4) use the model to estimate and compare the polar distribution of the disturbance σ under different conditions for a systematic comparison. The comparison illustrates that the disturbance peak over the cusp is strongest and widest extending in local time for negative IMF Bx and negative IMF Bz, and when Mercury is around the perihelion. Azimuthal shifts are associated with both IMF By and rsun: the cusp moves toward dawn when IMF By or rsun decrease. These dependences are explained in terms of the IMF Bx-controlled dayside magnetospheric topology, the component reconnection model applied to IMF By and Bz, and the variability of solar wind ram pressure associated with heliocentric distance rsun. The applicability of the component reconnection model on IMF By indicates that at Mercury reconnection occurs at lower shear angles than at Earth.Plain Language SummaryMercury's magnetosphere was suggested to be particularly sensitive to <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind conditions. This study investigates the response of the magnetospheric cusp to <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind conditions systematically. For this purpose, we analyze the statistical predictability of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Mercury, develop an approach for estimating the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind magnetic field (IMF) for MErcury Surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790014451','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790014451"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> tracking <span class="hlt">control</span> system Sun Chaser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracking <span class="hlt">control</span> system (Sun Chaser) is believed to be an improved method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions. The Sun Chaser will follow the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and reset itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise. A description of the Sun Chaser hardware and its operation together with results is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040015211&hterms=automobile&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dautomobile','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040015211&hterms=automobile&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dautomobile"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Powered Automobile Interior Climate <span class="hlt">Control</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>There is provided a climate <span class="hlt">control</span> system for a parked vehicle that includes a <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780066312&hterms=define+attitude&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddefine%2Battitude','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780066312&hterms=define+attitude&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddefine%2Battitude"><span>Attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> of large <span class="hlt">solar</span> power satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oglevie, R. E.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Satellite power systems are a promising future source of electrical energy. However, the very large size <span class="hlt">solar</span> power satellites (relative to contemporary spacecraft) requires investigation of the resulting attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> problems and of appropriate <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques. The principal effects of the large size are a great increase in sensitivity to gravity-gradient torques and a great reduction in structural bending frequencies with the attendant likelihood of undesirable <span class="hlt">control</span> system interaction. A wide variety of <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques are investigated to define approaches that minimize implementation penalties. These techniques include space-constructed momentum wheels, gravity-gradient stabilization, quasi-inertial free-drift modes, and various reaction <span class="hlt">control</span> thruster types, some of which reduce the implementation penalties to a few percent of the spacecraft mass. The <span class="hlt">control</span> system/structural dynamic interaction problem is found to have a tractable solution. Some of the results can be applied to other large space structure spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050137595','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050137595"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> Performance Comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bladt, Jeff J.; Lawrence, Dale A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Performance of two <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> implementations is evaluated. One implementation employs four articulated reflective vanes located at the periphery of the sail assembly to generate <span class="hlt">control</span> torque about all three axes. A second attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> configuration uses mass on a gimbaled boom to alter the center-of-mass location relative to the center-of-pressure producing roll and pitch torque along with a pair of articulated <span class="hlt">control</span> vanes for yaw <span class="hlt">control</span>. Command generation algorithms employ linearized dynamics with a feedback inversion loop to map desired vehicle attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> torque into vane and/or gimbal articulation angle commands. We investigate the impact on actuator deflection angle behavior due to variations in how the Jacobian matrix is incorporated into the feedback inversion loop. Additionally, we compare how well each implementation tracks a commanded thrust profile, which has been generated to follow an orbit trajectory from the sun-earth L1 point to a sub-L1 station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...69a2198C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...69a2198C"><span>Design of novel hybrid <span class="hlt">control</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracking system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chao, Jiang; Wu, Zhu; Yun, Hu Yu; Xuan, Tu Yun; Yu, Wu Jun</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>This paper describes a hybrid <span class="hlt">control</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracking system consisted of sunlight gathering platform, mechanical structure and MCU <span class="hlt">controller</span> system which is mainly based on time and light dependent resistors module. An adaptive calibration and operating algorithm are proposed to solve accumulated error for inaccuracy sun position model and servo system error of single axis <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracking system, which can make the focused sunlight matching the <span class="hlt">solar</span> evacuated tube well. The proposed system and algorithm effectively will improve the utilization of <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914789H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914789H"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">controls</span> on Mercury's magnetospheric cusp</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Maosheng; Vogt, Joachim; Heyner, Daniel; Zhong, Jun</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Mercury's magnetospheric cusp results from the interaction between the planetary intrinsic magnetic field and the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind. In this study, we assemble 2848 orbits of MESSENGER data for a comprehensive assessment of <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> on Mercury's cusp. We propose and validate an IMF estimation approach for the cusp transit, and construct an index to measure the magnetic disturbance. The index maximizes within the cusp, more intense than in the adjacent magnetosphere by several orders of magnitude. We develop an empirical model of the index as a function of IMFvector and Mercury's <span class="hlt">solar</span> orbital phase. The model is used to study the cusp activity under different conditions. Comparisons reveal the cusp activity is more intense and extends further in local time, under antisunward IMF (IMFx<0) than sunward (IMFx>0), under southward IMF (IMFz<0) than northward (IMFz>0), and when Mercury orbits at its perihelion than at aphelion. Besides, the cusp shifts azimuthally towards dawn when IMF reverses from westward (IMFy<0) to eastward (IMFy>0), and when Mercury approaches its perihelion. The IMFx dependence is consistent with existing observations and simulations which are ascribed to the asymmetry of dayside magnetospheric configuration between sunward and anti-sunward IMF conditions. We explain the IMFy and IMFz dependences in terms of component reconnection of the magnetospheric field merging with By-dominant and Bz-dominant IMF, respectively. The <span class="hlt">control</span> of the Mercury <span class="hlt">solar</span> orbit phase on the intensity and local time location of the disturbance peak are possibly arising from the modulations of the heliocentric distance on the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind ram pressure. The existence of significant IMF dependence suggests the IMF orientation plays a role in the convection configuration at Mercury. The IMFy-dependence at Mercury is opposite to that at Earth, suggesting that component reconnection at the dayside magnetopause is more important in the Hermean system than in the terrestrial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......530S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......530S"><span>Attitude Dynamics and <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sails</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sperber, Evan</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> sails are space vehicles that rely on <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure in order to generate forces for thrust and attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> torques. They exhibit characteristics such as large moments of inertia, fragility of various system components, and long mission durations that make attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> a particularly difficult engineering problem. Thrust vector <span class="hlt">control</span> (TVC) is a family of sailcraft attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques that is on a short list of strategies thought to be suitable for the primary attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails. Every sailcraft TVC device functions by manipulating the relative locations of the composite mass center (cm) of the sailcraft and the center of pressure (cp) of at least one of its reflectors. Relative displacement of these two points results in body torques that can be used to steer the sailcraft. This dissertation presents a strategy for the large-angle reorientation of a sailcraft using TVC. Two forms of TVC, namely the panel and ballast mass translation methods are well represented in the literature, while rigorous studies regarding a third form, gimballed mass rotation, are conspicuously absent. The gimballed mass method is physically realized by placing a ballast mass, commonly the sailcraft's scientific payload, at the tip of a gimballed boom that has its base fixed at some point on the sailcraft. A TVC algorithm will then strategically manipulate the payload boom's gimbal angles, thereby changing the projection of the sailcraft cm in the plane of the sail. This research demonstrates effective three-axis attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> of a model sailcraft using numerical simulation of its nonlinear equations of motion. The particular TVC algorithm developed herein involves two phases---the first phase selects appropriate gimbal rates with the objective that the sailcraft be placed in the neighborhood of its target orientation. It was discovered, however that concomitantly minimizing attitude error as well as residual body rate was not possible using</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050242040','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050242040"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> Analysis of flexible <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sails</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Stephanie J.; Paluszek, Michael A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Future <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail missions will require sails with dimensions on the order of 100 m to l km. At these sizes, given the gossamer nature of the sail supporting structures, flexible modes may be low enough to interact with the <span class="hlt">control</span> system. This paper develops a practical analysis of the flexible interactions using state-space systems and modal data from standard finite element models of the sail sub- system. The modal data is combined with a rigid core bus to create a modal coordinate state-space plant, which can be analyzed for stability with a state-space <span class="hlt">controller</span>. Results are presented for an 80 m sail for both collocated actuation and <span class="hlt">control</span> by actuators mounted at the sail tips.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/347693','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/347693"><span>A digital <span class="hlt">controlled</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> array regulator employing the charge <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cho, Y.J.; Cho, B.H.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>A microprocessor <span class="hlt">controlled</span> SAR system is presented. The inner analog loops employing the charge current <span class="hlt">control</span> scheme continuously regulate the <span class="hlt">solar</span> array output power according to the reference value generated by the ECU. The ECU consists of the peak power tracking and the battery charge current regulation algorithm. Modeling, analysis and a design procedure of the inner loops and the system loop are presented taking into account of interaction between the inner analog loops and the outer digital loops. Utilizing the inherent characteristics of the inner voltage and current loop, the system dynamic performance and stability can be optimized up to the speed limit of the microprocessor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011977','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011977"><span>Bidirectional <span class="hlt">control</span> system for energy flow in <span class="hlt">solar</span> powered flywheel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An energy storage system for a spacecraft is provided which employs a <span class="hlt">solar</span> powered flywheel arrangement including a motor/generator which, in different operating modes, drives the flywheel and is driven thereby. A <span class="hlt">control</span> circuit, including a threshold comparator, senses the output of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy converter, and when a threshold voltage is exceeded thereby indicating the availability of <span class="hlt">solar</span> power for the spacecraft loads, activates a speed <span class="hlt">control</span> loop including the motor/generator so as to accelerate the flywheel to a constant speed and thereby store mechanical energy, while also supplying energy from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> converter to the loads. Under circumstances where <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy is not available and thus the threshold voltage is not exceeded, the <span class="hlt">control</span> circuit deactivates the speed <span class="hlt">control</span> loop and activates a voltage <span class="hlt">control</span> loop that provides for operation of the motor as a generator so that mechanical energy from the flywheel is converted into electrical energy for supply to the spacecraft loads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7043E..0LT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7043E..0LT"><span>Dspic <span class="hlt">control</span> system of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> follower</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Gomez-Vicario, M. A.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Espinoza-Mendoza, J.; Vera-Dimas, G.; Vargas-Bernal, R.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>In this work, we present the basic considerations of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> follower, realized with a <span class="hlt">control</span> module based on a Dspic 30F40011. The Dspic was programmed considering the basic equations to track the apparent sun position. The Dspic programming was realized considering three fundamental blocks: Real time clock, the movement determined by the hour angle, and the movement determined by the declination angle (based on a CD motor). The mechanical design was realized considering a parabolic antenna used as concentrator, with a diameter of 60 cm, a depth of 6 cm, weight of approximately 1.5 kg, made of glass fiber. The <span class="hlt">control</span> module is easy to use due to the LCD implementation, which indicates all necessaries entries to the correct operation of each block. The LCD is also used to display the date, hour, and the temperature obtained by the sensor temperature located at the antenna focus. As a proof of the correct system calibration and operation, the shadow of the sensor temperature circuit was located at the antenna center, during all realized probes. Due to the antenna characteristics, which were made by hands, the amount of thermal energy is relatively small but for example, enough to heating water. The obtained temperature can be increased by replace the antenna, without to redesign the mechanical and electronic systems because they can be used for antennas weight until 15 kg.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850013459','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850013459"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> powered actuator with continuously variable auxiliary power <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nola, F. J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">solar</span> powered system is disclosed in which a load such as a compressor is driven by a main induction motor powered by a <span class="hlt">solar</span> array. An auxiliary motor shares the load with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> powered motor in proportion to the amount of sunlight available, is provided with a power factor <span class="hlt">controller</span> for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> voltage applied to the auxiliary motor in accordance with the loading on that motor. In one embodiment, when sufficient power is available from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell, the auxiliary motor is driven as a generator by excess power from the main motor so as to return electrical energy to the power company utility lines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850000443&hterms=power+electronics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dpower%2Belectronics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850000443&hterms=power+electronics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dpower%2Belectronics"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> Electronics for <span class="hlt">Solar</span>/Flywheel Power Supply</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nola, F. J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Control</span> circuit automatically directs flow of electrical energy to and from motor with flywheel that constitutes storage element of <span class="hlt">solar</span>-power system. When insolation is sufficient for charging, power is supplied by <span class="hlt">solar</span>-cell array to load and motor. During periods of darkness, motor made to act as generator, drawing kinetic energy from flywheel and supplying it to load.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........59F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........59F"><span>Attitude Dynamics and <span class="hlt">Controls</span> for Large <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sails</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fu, Bo</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation enriches our knowledge of attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> methodologies that are suitable for <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails, and in particularly large <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails. In chapter 1, the fundamental physics of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails and existing <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> methodologies are reviewed. In chapter 2, an attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> methodology (Tip Displacement Method) that is suitable for large <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail is presented. In the proposed method, the sail wing-boom attachment points are allowed to move, and under <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure, the sail membrane sags into a curved profile. A mathematical model of this curved profile is built, and analytical solutions of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation body torque based on the curved wing is derived. It is shown that this methodology along can generate enough body toque in all three body axis directions for attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> of large <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails. In chapter 3, the propose method is further investigated, and the effect of incident <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation direction on <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure body torque generation is studied. The effect of sail shape is also studied a step further, mainly by relaxing previously made cylindrical assumption on the shape of the wing. Based on an optimization process, algorithms for determining the shape of the wing are given, and <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation body torques are developed for the shape of the wing. One finding is that for small tip displacements, the cylindrical sail wing model is sufficient in estimating the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation body torque. In chapters 2 and 3, the analyses are carried out based on the assumption that the wing shape is of a generalized cylinder. In chapter 4 a theoretical basis is provided for this assumption. Using the mathematical model of the single wing for the proposed tip displacement attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy, in chapter 5 a whole square <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail model is built, and the system <span class="hlt">controllability</span> is studied for linearized system states. The system is found to be robust because of the many actuators used, and is <span class="hlt">controllable</span> even</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6170279','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6170279"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> energy utilization and microcomputer <span class="hlt">control</span> in the greenhouse builk curing and drying <span class="hlt">solar</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nassar, A.N.H.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Three agricultural applications in a specially designed greenhouse <span class="hlt">solar</span> system functioning as a multi-purpose <span class="hlt">solar</span> air collector for crop production and curing/drying processes are examined. An automated hydroponic crop production system is proposed for the greenhouse <span class="hlt">solar</span> system. Design criteria of the proposed system and its utilization of <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy for root-zone warming are presented and discussed. Based upon limited testing of the hydroponic system considered, hydroponic production of greenhouse crops is believed reasonable to complement the year-round use of the greenhouse <span class="hlt">solar</span> system. The hardware/software design features of a microcomputer-based <span class="hlt">control</span> system applied in the greenhouse <span class="hlt">solar</span> barn are presented and discussed. On-line management and utilization of incident <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy by the microcomputer system are investigated for both the greenhouse and tobacco curing/drying modes of operation. The design approach considered for the microcomputer <span class="hlt">control</span> system is believed suitable for regulating <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy collection and utilization for crop production applications in greenhouse systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=low+AND+temperature+AND+physics&pg=2&id=EJ187557','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=low+AND+temperature+AND+physics&pg=2&id=EJ187557"><span>A Low-Cost Electronic <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Energy <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blade, Richard A.; Small, Charles T.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Describes the design of a low-cost electronic circuit to serve as a differential thermostat, to <span class="hlt">control</span> the operation of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating system. It uses inexpensive diodes for sensoring temperature, and a mechanical relay for a switch. (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcAau.138..233B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcAau.138..233B"><span>Fuzzy attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail via linear matrix inequalities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baculi, Joshua; Ayoubi, Mohammad A.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>This study presents a fuzzy tracking <span class="hlt">controller</span> based on the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail. First, the T-S fuzzy model is constructed by linearizing the existing nonlinear equations of motion of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail. Then, the T-S fuzzy model is used to derive the state feedback <span class="hlt">controller</span> gains for the Twin Parallel Distributed Compensation (TPDC) technique. The TPDC tracks and stabilizes the attitude of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail to any desired state in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances while satisfying actuator constraints. The performance of the TPDC is compared to a PID <span class="hlt">controller</span> that is tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method. Numerical simulation shows the TPDC outperforms the PID <span class="hlt">controller</span> when stabilizing the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail to a desired state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..58.2304G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..58.2304G"><span>Asteroid rotation <span class="hlt">control</span> via a tethered <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Youtao; Wu, Jingyun</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The rotation of asteroids causes difficulties in the exploration of asteroids or prevention of asteroids impact on the Earth. We propose to use a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail to <span class="hlt">control</span>, i.e., slow down or stop the rotational motion of an asteroid. First, the dynamic model of a tethered <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail in the rotating gravitational field of an asteroid is presented. An optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> method is employed to determine the <span class="hlt">control</span> law of the tethered <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail. The optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> problem is converted into a nonlinear programming problem with the Gauss pseudospectral method. Simulation results show that this method can effectively slow down or even stop the rotation of an asteroid. A <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail of 105 m2 can stop the rotation of the asteroid Apophis in 1000 days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=low+AND+temperature+AND+physics&pg=2&id=EJ187557','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=low+AND+temperature+AND+physics&pg=2&id=EJ187557"><span>A Low-Cost Electronic <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Energy <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blade, Richard A.; Small, Charles T.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Describes the design of a low-cost electronic circuit to serve as a differential thermostat, to <span class="hlt">control</span> the operation of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating system. It uses inexpensive diodes for sensoring temperature, and a mechanical relay for a switch. (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000703','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000703"><span>Active <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Array Dynamics During Spacecraft Maneuvers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ross, Brant A.; Woo, Nelson; Kraft, Thomas G.; Blandino, Joseph R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recent NASA mission plans require spacecraft to undergo potentially significant maneuvers (or dynamic loading events) with large <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays deployed. Therefore there is an increased need to understand and possibly <span class="hlt">control</span> the nonlinear dynamics in the spacecraft system during such maneuvers. The development of a nonlinear <span class="hlt">controller</span> is described. The utility of using a nonlinear <span class="hlt">controller</span> to reduce forces and motion in a <span class="hlt">solar</span> array wing during a loading event is demonstrated. The result is dramatic reductions in system forces and motion during a 10 second loading event. A motion curve derived from the simulation with the closed loop <span class="hlt">controller</span> is used to obtain similar benefits with a simpler motion <span class="hlt">control</span> approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920052189&hterms=triton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtriton','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920052189&hterms=triton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtriton"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> of the upper atmosphere of Triton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lyons, James R.; Yung, Yuk L.; Allen, Mark</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>If the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Triton are <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by precipitation of electrons from Neptune's magnetosphere as previously proposed, Triton could have the only ionosphere in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> system not <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation. However, a new model of Triton's atmosphere, in which only <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation is present, predicts a large column of carbon atoms. With an assumed, but reasonable, rate of charge transfer between N2(+) and C, a peak C(+) abundance results that is close to the peak electron densities measured by Voyager in Triton's ionosphere. These results suggest that Triton's upper atmospheric chemistry may thus be <span class="hlt">solar-controlled</span>. Measurement of key reaction rate constants, currently unknown or highly uncertain at Triton's low temperatures, would help to clarify the chemical and physical processes occurring in Triton's atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BASBr..23Q.201M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BASBr..23Q.201M"><span>BSSDATA - um programa otimizado <span class="hlt">para</span> filtragem de dados em radioastronomia <span class="hlt">solar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões <span class="hlt">solares</span> decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" <span class="hlt">solares</span>. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões <span class="hlt">solares</span> classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões <span class="hlt">solares</span> deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData <span class="hlt">para</span> filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões <span class="hlt">solares</span> ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões <span class="hlt">solares</span> e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......116S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......116S"><span>Model predictive <span class="hlt">control</span> of a <span class="hlt">solar</span>-thermal reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saade Saade, Maria Elizabeth</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span>-thermal reactors represent a promising alternative to fossil fuels because they can harvest <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy and transform it into storable and transportable fuels. The operation of <span class="hlt">solar</span>-thermal reactors is restricted by the available sunlight and its inherently transient behavior, which affects the performance of the reactors and limits their efficiency. Before <span class="hlt">solar</span>-thermal reactors can become commercially viable, they need to be able to maintain a continuous high-performance operation, even in the presence of passing clouds. A well-designed <span class="hlt">control</span> system can preserve product quality and maintain stable product compositions, resulting in a more efficient and cost-effective operation, which can ultimately lead to scale-up and commercialization of <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermochemical technologies. In this work, we propose a model predictive <span class="hlt">control</span> (MPC) system for a <span class="hlt">solar</span>-thermal reactor for the steam-gasification of biomass. The proposed <span class="hlt">controller</span> aims at rejecting the disturbances in <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiation caused by the presence of clouds. A first-principles dynamic model of the process was developed. The model was used to study the dynamic responses of the process variables and to identify a linear time-invariant model used in the MPC algorithm. To provide an estimation of the disturbances for the <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithm, a one-minute-ahead direct normal irradiance (DNI) predictor was developed. The proposed predictor utilizes information obtained through the analysis of sky images, in combination with current atmospheric measurements, to produce the DNI forecast. In the end, a robust <span class="hlt">controller</span> was designed capable of rejecting disturbances within the operating region. Extensive simulation experiments showed that the <span class="hlt">controller</span> outperforms a finely-tuned multi-loop feedback <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy. The results obtained suggest that our <span class="hlt">controller</span> is suitable for practical implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA516830','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA516830"><span>Wave Front Sensor for <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Concentrator <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Hartmann in 1900 and was used for checking optical telescopes for aberrations . It was an array of holes in a plate placed in front of the mirror of...a <span class="hlt">solar</span> application and shows the adjustment from lenslets to cylindrical mirrors on a thruster. Next, the paper details the analysis and...cylindrical mirrors as applied to the problem statement are discussed in Section IV. Section V presents the first algorithm developed and applied to the model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890052693&hterms=Hom&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHom','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890052693&hterms=Hom&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHom"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of Jupiter's hectometric radio emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barrow, C. H.; Desch, M. D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Radio, plasma, and magnetic field data obtained by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were used to examine the manner in which the Jovian hectometric radio emission (HOM) is <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind. Using the method of superposed epochs, it was found that the higher energy HOM is correlated with the IMF as well as with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind density and pressure. However, unlike the Io-independent decametric radio emission (Non-Io DAM), the HOM displayed no correlation with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind velocity, although this radio component appear to be also influenced by the IMF. The results suggest separate HOM amd Non-Io DAM sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011icov.conf..405L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011icov.conf..405L"><span>Experiment Study on Fuzzy Vibration <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Panel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Dongxu X.; Xu, Rui; Jiang, Jiangjian P.</p> <p></p> <p>Some flexible appendages of spacecraft are cantilever plate structures, such as <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels. These structures usually have very low damping ratios, high dimensional order, low modal frequencies and parameter uncertainties in dynamics. Their unwanted vibrations will be caused unavoidably, and harmful to the spacecraft. To solve this problem, the dynamic equations of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel with piezoelectric patches are derived, and an accelerometer based fuzzy <span class="hlt">controller</span> is designed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the vibration <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithms, experiment research was conducted on a piezoelectric adaptive composite honeycomb cantilever panel. The experiment results demonstrate that the accelerometer-based fuzzy vibration <span class="hlt">control</span> method can suppress the vibration of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel effectively, the first bending mode damping ratio of the <span class="hlt">controlled</span> system increase to 1.64%, and that is 3.56 times of the uncontrolled system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11152211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11152211"><span>Development of a neural network heating <span class="hlt">controller</span> for <span class="hlt">solar</span> buildings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Argiriou, A A; Bellas-Velidis, I; Balaras, C A</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>Artificial neural networks (ANN's) are more and more widely used in energy management processes. ANN's can be very useful in optimizing the energy demand of buildings, especially of those of high thermal inertia. These include the so-called <span class="hlt">solar</span> buildings. For those buildings, a <span class="hlt">controller</span> able to forecast not only the energy demand but also the weather conditions can lead to energy savings while maintaining thermal comfort. In this paper, such an ANN <span class="hlt">controller</span> is proposed. It consists of a meteorological module, forecasting the ambient temperature and <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance, the heating energy switch predictor module and the indoor temperature-defining module. The performance of the <span class="hlt">controller</span> has been tested both experimentally and in a building thermal simulation environment. The results showed that the use of the proposed <span class="hlt">controller</span> can lead to 7.5% annual energy savings in the case of a highly insulated passive <span class="hlt">solar</span> test cell.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6983666','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6983666"><span>Bidirectional <span class="hlt">control</span> system for energy flow in <span class="hlt">solar</span> powered flywheel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nola, F.J.</p> <p>1987-03-10</p> <p>An energy supply system is described for a spacecraft for supplying energy to at least one spacecraft load, the system comprising: a flywheel; an electric motor connected to the flywheel for selectively supplying electrical power to the spacecraft load; <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy conversion means for receiving <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy and for converting the received <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy into an output voltage for supply to the spacecraft load; and electrical <span class="hlt">control</span> means for (1) sensing the spacecraft load voltage, and feeding back the sensed voltage to regulate the voltage supplied to the spacecraft load when the spacecraft load voltage changes, and for (2) comparing the output voltage from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy conversion means with a threshold voltage and, when the threshold voltage is exceeded, activating a speed <span class="hlt">control</span> loop including the motor so as to accelerate the flywheel to a constant speed to thereby convert the electrical energy supplied from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy conversion means into mechanical energy. When the threshold voltage is not exceeded, the speed <span class="hlt">control</span> loop is deactivated and a voltage <span class="hlt">control</span> loop is activated for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the amount of mechanical energy from the flywheel which is converted into an electrical energy output from the motor for supply to the spacecraft load in according with the sensed load voltage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070034861&hterms=attitude+control&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dattitude%2Bcontrol','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070034861&hterms=attitude+control&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dattitude%2Bcontrol"><span>Attitude Dynamics and <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sails with Articulated Vanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, A. Behcet; Ploen, Scott R.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we develop a robust nonlinear algorithm for the attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sailcraft with M single degree-of-freedom articulated <span class="hlt">control</span> vanes. A general attitude <span class="hlt">controller</span> that tracks an admissible trajectory while rejecting disturbances such as torques due to center-of-mass to center-of-pressure offsets is applied to this problem. We then describe a methodology based on nonlinear programming to allocate the required <span class="hlt">control</span> torques among the <span class="hlt">control</span> vanes. A simplified allocation strategy is then applied to a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail with four articulated <span class="hlt">control</span> vanes, and simulation results are given. The performance of the <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithm and possible limitations of vane-only <span class="hlt">control</span> are then discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25800254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25800254"><span>Morphology <span class="hlt">control</span> of the perovskite films for efficient <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Lingling; Zhang, Danfei; Ma, Yingzhuang; Lu, Zelin; Chen, Zhijian; Wang, Shufeng; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang</p> <p>2015-06-21</p> <p>In the past two years, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells has significantly increased up to 20.1%. These state-of-the-art new devices surpass other third-generation <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells to become the most promising rival to the silicon-based <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Since the morphology of the perovskite film is one of the most crucial factors to affect the performance of the device, many approaches have been developed for its improvement. This review provides a systematical summary of the methods for morphology <span class="hlt">control</span>. Introductions and discussions on the mechanisms and relevant hotspots are also given. Understanding the growth process of perovskite crystallites has great benefits for further efficiency improvement and enlightens us to exploit new technologies for large-scale, low-cost and high-performance perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090017552','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090017552"><span>Attitude and Translation <span class="hlt">Control</span> of a <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Gurkirpal</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A report discusses the ability to <span class="hlt">control</span> the attitude and translation degrees-of-freedom of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail vehicle by changing its center of gravity. A movement of the spacecraft s center of mass causes <span class="hlt">solar</span>-pressure force to apply a torque to the vehicle. At the compact core of the <span class="hlt">solar</span>-sail vehicle lies the spacecraft bus which is a large fraction of the total vehicle mass. In this concept, the bus is attached to the spacecraft by two single degree-of-freedom linear tracks. This allows relative movement of the bus in the sail plane. At the null position, the resulting <span class="hlt">solar</span> pressure applies no torque to the vehicle. But any deviation of the bus from the null creates an offset between the spacecraft center of mass and center of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure, resulting in a <span class="hlt">solar</span>-pressure torque on the vehicle which changes the vehicle attitude. Two of the three vehicle degrees of freedom can be actively <span class="hlt">controlled</span> in this manner. The third, the roll about the sunline, requires a low-authority vane/propulsive subsystem. Translation <span class="hlt">control</span> of the vehicle is achieved by directing the <span class="hlt">solar</span>-pressure-induced force in the proper inertial direction. This requires attitude <span class="hlt">control</span>. Attitude and translation degrees-of-freedom are therefore coupled. A guidance law is proposed, which allows the vehicle to stationkeep at an appropriate point on the inertially-rotating Sun-Earth line. Power requirements for moving the bus are minimal. Extensive software simulations have been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/992514','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/992514"><span>VERSATILE TWO-AXIS OPEN-LOOP <span class="hlt">SOLAR</span> TRACKER <span class="hlt">CONTROLLER</span>*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ward, Christina D; Maxey, L Curt; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Lapsa, Melissa Voss</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A versatile single-board <span class="hlt">controller</span> for two-axis <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracking applications has been developed and tested on operating <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracking systems with over two years of field experience. The operating experience gained from the two systems and associated modifications are discussed as representative examples of the practical issues associated with implementing a new two-axis <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracker design. In this research, open and closed loop <span class="hlt">control</span> methods were evaluated; however, only the open loop method met the 0.125 tracking accuracy requirement and the requirement to maintain pointing accuracy in hazy and scattered cloudy skies. The open loop algorithm was finally implemented in a microcontroller-based tracking system. Methods of applying this <span class="hlt">controller</span> hardware to different tracker geometries and hardware are discussed along with the experience gained to date.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790066334&hterms=air+amplifier&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dair%2Bamplifier','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790066334&hterms=air+amplifier&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dair%2Bamplifier"><span>Multichannel temperature <span class="hlt">controller</span> for hot air <span class="hlt">solar</span> house</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Currie, J. R.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes an electronic <span class="hlt">controller</span> that is optimized to operate a hot air <span class="hlt">solar</span> system. Thermal information is obtained from copper constantan thermocouples and a wall-type thermostat. The signals from the thermocouples are processed through a single amplifier using a multiplexing scheme. The multiplexing reduces the component count and automatically calibrates the thermocouple amplifier. The processed signals connect to some simple logic that selects one of the four operating modes. This simple, inexpensive, and reliable scheme is well suited to <span class="hlt">control</span> hot air <span class="hlt">solar</span> systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcAau.117..430D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcAau.117..430D"><span>A thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> surface for the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Orbiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doherty, Kevin A. J.; Carton, James G.; Norman, Andrew; McCaul, Terry; Twomey, Barry; Stanton, Kenneth T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A high-absorptivity/high-emissivity (flat absorber) bone char-based thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> surface known as <span class="hlt">Solar</span>Black has been developed for use on rigid and flexible metallic substrates, including titanium, aluminium, copper, stainless steel, Inconel and magnesium alloys. This work describes the thermo-optical properties, stability, and qualification of this surface for use on the European Space Agency's <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Orbiter mission. <span class="hlt">Solar</span>Black is deposited using a proprietry coating technique known as CoBlast and currently stands as the baseline coating for the spacecraft's front surface heat-shield, which is composed of 50 μm titanium foils (1.3×0.3 m) that have been constructed to cover the 3.1×2.4 m2 shield. The heat shield makes use of the material's highly stable ratio of <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance to near-normal thermal emissivity (αs/εN) as well as its low electrical resistivity to regulate both temperature and electrostatic dissipation in service. <span class="hlt">Solar</span>Black also currently stands as the baseline surface for the High-gain and Medium-gain antennae as well as a number of other components on the spacecraft. The thermo-optical stability of <span class="hlt">Solar</span>Black was determined using the STAR Facility space environment simulator in ESTEC., Material characterisation was carried out using: SEM, UV/Vis/NIR spectrometry, and IR emissometry. The coating performance was verified on the Structural Thermal Model using ESA's Large Space Simulator.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23766713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23766713"><span>PSO based PI <span class="hlt">controller</span> design for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> charger system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on <span class="hlt">solar</span> charger integrated system only focus on load charge <span class="hlt">control</span> or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge <span class="hlt">control</span> modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge <span class="hlt">control</span> of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of <span class="hlt">solar</span> power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge <span class="hlt">controller</span> parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the <span class="hlt">control</span> parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666245','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666245"><span>PSO Based PI <span class="hlt">Controller</span> Design for a <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Charger System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on <span class="hlt">solar</span> charger integrated system only focus on load charge <span class="hlt">control</span> or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge <span class="hlt">control</span> modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge <span class="hlt">control</span> of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of <span class="hlt">solar</span> power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge <span class="hlt">controller</span> parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the <span class="hlt">control</span> parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs). PMID:23766713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984STIN...8611663L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984STIN...8611663L"><span>Performance of <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector arrays and collector <span class="hlt">controllers</span> in the National <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Data Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Logee, T. L.; Kendall, P. W.</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>The accumulated National <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Data Network (NSDN) data has been analyzed with regard to collector and collector <span class="hlt">control</span> performance. The collector data is presented in the ASHRAE format as efficiency vs. operating points, (Tinlet - Tambient)/insolation. Collector <span class="hlt">controls</span> were analyzed by determining the losses caused by <span class="hlt">control</span> problems common to the NSDN <span class="hlt">solar</span> systems. This study of collectors and collector <span class="hlt">controls</span> has several objectives which are: (1) to compare actual and predicted collector performance; (2) to determine which generic types of components performed well and which performed poorly; (3) to determine why predicted performance was not achieved in the field; (4) to determine the types and causes of failures; (5) to determine the reliability weaknesses; and (6) to determine whether there are any component integration problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26110382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26110382"><span>Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological <span class="hlt">Control</span> in Organic <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haruk, Alexander M; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M</p> <p>2015-06-11</p> <p>Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational <span class="hlt">control</span> over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011arec.conf..348C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011arec.conf..348C"><span>Design of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Street Lamp <span class="hlt">Control</span> System Based on MPPT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cui, Fengying</p> <p></p> <p>This paper proposes a new <span class="hlt">solar</span> street lamp <span class="hlt">control</span> system which is composed of photovoltaic cell, <span class="hlt">controller</span>, battery and load. In this system <span class="hlt">controller</span> as the key part applies the microchip to achieve many functions. According to the nonlinear output characteristics of <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell and the influence of environment, it uses the perturbation and observation (P&O) method to realize the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and promotes the efficiency. In order to prolong the battery life the pulse width modulation (PWM) charge mode is selected to <span class="hlt">control</span> the battery capacity and provent the battery from the state of over-charge and over-discharge. Meanwhile the function of temperature compensation, charge and discharge protection are set to improve the running safety and stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760052311&hterms=heliostat&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dheliostat','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760052311&hterms=heliostat&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dheliostat"><span>Optical tools and techniques for aligning <span class="hlt">solar</span> payloads with the SPARCS <span class="hlt">control</span> system. [<span class="hlt">Solar</span> Pointing Aerobee Rocket <span class="hlt">Control</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, N. L.; Chisel, D. M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The success of a rocket-borne experiment depends not only on the pointing of the attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> system, but on the alignment of the attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> system to the payload. To ensure proper alignment, special optical tools and alignment techniques are required. Those that were used in the SPARCS program are described and discussed herein. These tools include theodolites, autocollimators, a 38-cm diameter <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator, a high-performance 1-m heliostat to provide a stable <span class="hlt">solar</span> source during the integration of the rocket payload, a portable 75-cm sun tracker for use at the launch site, and an innovation called the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Alignment Prism. Using the real sun as the primary reference under field conditions, the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Alignment Prism facilitates the coalignment of the attitude sun sensor with the payload. The alignment techniques were developed to ensure the precise alignment of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> payloads to the SPARCS attitude sensors during payload integration and to verify the required alignment under field conditions just prior to launch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760052311&hterms=solar+tracker&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Btracker','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760052311&hterms=solar+tracker&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Btracker"><span>Optical tools and techniques for aligning <span class="hlt">solar</span> payloads with the SPARCS <span class="hlt">control</span> system. [<span class="hlt">Solar</span> Pointing Aerobee Rocket <span class="hlt">Control</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, N. L.; Chisel, D. M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The success of a rocket-borne experiment depends not only on the pointing of the attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> system, but on the alignment of the attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> system to the payload. To ensure proper alignment, special optical tools and alignment techniques are required. Those that were used in the SPARCS program are described and discussed herein. These tools include theodolites, autocollimators, a 38-cm diameter <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator, a high-performance 1-m heliostat to provide a stable <span class="hlt">solar</span> source during the integration of the rocket payload, a portable 75-cm sun tracker for use at the launch site, and an innovation called the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Alignment Prism. Using the real sun as the primary reference under field conditions, the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Alignment Prism facilitates the coalignment of the attitude sun sensor with the payload. The alignment techniques were developed to ensure the precise alignment of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> payloads to the SPARCS attitude sensors during payload integration and to verify the required alignment under field conditions just prior to launch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830018855','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830018855"><span>Electronic system for high power load <span class="hlt">control</span>. [<span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, E. L. (Inventor)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Parallel current paths are divided into two groups, with <span class="hlt">control</span> devices in the current paths of one group each having a current limiting resistor, and the <span class="hlt">control</span> devices in the other group each having no limiting resistor, so that when the <span class="hlt">control</span> devices of the second group are turned fully on, a short circuit is achieved by the arrangement of parallel current paths. Separate but coordinated <span class="hlt">control</span> signals are provided to turn on the <span class="hlt">control</span> devices of the first group and increase their conduction toward saturation as a function of <span class="hlt">control</span> input, and when fully on, or shortly before, to turn on the <span class="hlt">control</span> devices of the second group and increase their conduction toward saturation as a function of the <span class="hlt">control</span> input as that input continues to increase. Electronic means may be used to generate signals. The system may be used for 1-V characteristic measurements of <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays as well as for other load <span class="hlt">control</span> purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740027943&hterms=passive+solar+design&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpassive%2Bsolar%2Bdesign','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740027943&hterms=passive+solar+design&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpassive%2Bsolar%2Bdesign"><span>Thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion stage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruttner, L. E.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> requirements consist of functional requirements related to the various mission phase natural environments, operational requirements of induced power loadings by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion stage subsystems, and design temperature limits for performance and reliability. The design approach utilizes passive thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques combining insulation, surface coatings, and sunshields with thermostatically <span class="hlt">controlled</span> louvers. Heaters are used to regulate certain temperatures for extreme conditions. Details regarding the thruster array thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> design are discussed, giving attention to the parameters used in the mathematical model, questions of conductive coupling, and thruster estimated power distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840009159&hterms=deployable+structure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddeployable%2Bstructure','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840009159&hterms=deployable+structure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddeployable%2Bstructure"><span>A deployable structure and <span class="hlt">solar</span> array <span class="hlt">controls</span> experiment for STEP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nishimoto, T. S.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A candidate configuration for a <span class="hlt">controls</span> experiment on the Space Technology Experiments Platform (STEP) is described. The elements of the experiment are the mast, the <span class="hlt">solar</span> array, and an articulation module between the two. The characteristic dimensions are very compatible for integration on a pallet such a STEP's proposed configuration. The <span class="hlt">controls</span>' objective would be the measurement of orbiter interaction as well as the system identification of the appendages. The flight experiment configuration would also provide a test bed for various active vibration <span class="hlt">controls</span> concepts. The instrumentation being considered would measure accelerations, strains, displacements, and temperatures. The deployable mast has eight elements defining a structural bay. Uniaxial measurements would be required to define loads at a cross section of the structure. Displacements due to thermal distortion of the mast and the local state of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrator may be measured by an optical ranging technique from the orbiter aft flight deck.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960052318&hterms=solar+power+system&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bpower%2Bsystem','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960052318&hterms=solar+power+system&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bpower%2Bsystem"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamic Power System Stability Analysis and <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Momoh, James A.; Wang, Yanchun</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this research is to conduct dynamic analysis, <span class="hlt">control</span> design, and <span class="hlt">control</span> performance test of <span class="hlt">solar</span> power system. <span class="hlt">Solar</span> power system consists of generation system and distribution network system. A bench mark system is used in this research, which includes a generator with excitation system and governor, an ac/dc converter, six DDCU's and forty-eight loads. A detailed model is used for modeling generator. Excitation system is represented by a third order model. DDCU is represented by a seventh order system. The load is modeled by the combination of constant power and constant impedance. Eigen-analysis and eigen-sensitivity analysis are used for system dynamic analysis. The effects of excitation system, governor, ac/dc converter <span class="hlt">control</span>, and the type of load on system stability are discussed. In order to improve system transient stability, nonlinear ac/dc converter <span class="hlt">control</span> is introduced. The direct linearization method is used for <span class="hlt">control</span> design. The dynamic analysis results show that these <span class="hlt">controls</span> affect system stability in different ways. The parameter coordination of <span class="hlt">controllers</span> are recommended based on the dynamic analysis. It is concluded from the present studies that system stability is improved by the coordination of <span class="hlt">control</span> parameters and the nonlinear ac/dc converter <span class="hlt">control</span> stabilize system oscillation caused by the load change and system fault efficiently.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........59Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........59Z"><span>Adaptive <span class="hlt">control</span> for <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy based DC microgrid system development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qinhao</p> <p></p> <p>During the upgrading of current electric power grid, it is expected to develop smarter, more robust and more reliable power systems integrated with distributed generations. To realize these objectives, traditional <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques are no longer effective in either stabilizing systems or delivering optimal and robust performances. Therefore, development of advanced <span class="hlt">control</span> methods has received increasing attention in power engineering. This work addresses two specific problems in the <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel based microgrid systems. First, a new <span class="hlt">control</span> scheme is proposed for the microgrid systems to achieve optimal energy conversion ratio in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels. The <span class="hlt">control</span> system can optimize the efficiency of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm by implementing two layers of adaptive <span class="hlt">control</span>. Such a hierarchical <span class="hlt">control</span> architecture has greatly improved the system performance, which is validated through both mathematical analysis and computer simulation. Second, in the development of the microgrid transmission system, the issues related to the tele-communication delay and constant power load (CPL)'s negative incremental impedance are investigated. A reference model based method is proposed for pole and zero placements that address the challenges of the time delay and CPL in closed-loop <span class="hlt">control</span>. The effectiveness of the proposed modeling and <span class="hlt">control</span> design methods are demonstrated in a simulation testbed. Practical aspects of the proposed methods for general microgrid systems are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AAS...21641308N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AAS...21641308N"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Manuvering Spacecraft Guidance and <span class="hlt">Control</span> System Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nejat, Cyrus</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of this project is to discuss the time of a transfer trajectory by consideration of the Earth's shadow. The time of transfer trajectory of a sail spacecraft was determined by consideration of the Earth's shadow and it was compared with the results in a case where the Earth's shadow was not taken into account. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail spacecraft was demonstrated to be oriented in such a way that the <span class="hlt">solar</span> force applies in one appropriate direction. The mathematical concept and feature shape of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail spacecraft were proven as correct design approaches. The equations of motion that were developed in the project were proven in correct format for transfer trajectory approach by means of the purposed CN (Cyrus Nejat) Equations of Motion. Four important comments were discussed from the observed results. The problem statement was depened along with appropriate assumptions. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail craft was defined appropriately. The equations of motion were determined in order to evaluate the transfer trajectory of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail spacecraft. In this case, the time of flight was determined for two cases: with Earth's shadow, and without Earth's shadow. The results showed that the time of fight with the Earth's shadow consideration is higher than the time of fight without the Earth's shadow, but it had close responses due to small amount of force from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure. The future of this project should also apply the Moon's shadow in the problem statement and determine the shadow of the Earth as it can be seen in a cone zone. There are also appropriate <span class="hlt">control</span> system devices that should be designed for attitude determination. It is also necessary to apply appropriate damper system, composite and smart materials to remedy vibration problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790005972','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790005972"><span>Accuracy analysis of pointing <span class="hlt">control</span> system of <span class="hlt">solar</span> power station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, J. C.; Peebles, P. Z., Jr.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The first-phase effort concentrated on defining the minimum basic functions that the retrodirective array must perform, identifying circuits that are capable of satisfying the basic functions, and looking at some of the error sources in the system and how they affect accuracy. The initial effort also examined three methods for generating torques for mechanical antenna <span class="hlt">control</span>, performed a rough analysis of the flexible body characteristics of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector, and defined a <span class="hlt">control</span> system configuration for mechanical pointing <span class="hlt">control</span> of the array.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CeMDA..92..273K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CeMDA..92..273K"><span>Symmetries in the Optimal <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, M.; Hall, C. D.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>The theory of optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> is applied to obtain minimum-time trajectories for <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail spacecraft for interplanetary missions. We consider the gravitational and <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation forces due to the Sun. The spacecraft is modelled as a flat sail of mass m and surface area A and is treated dynamically as a point mass. Coplanar circular orbits are assumed for the planets. We obtain optimal trajectories for several interrelated problem families and develop symmetry properties that can be used to simplify the solution-finding process. For the minimum-time planet rendezvous problem we identify different solution branches resulting in multiple solutions to the associated boundary value problem. We solve the optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> problem via an indirect method using an efficient cascaded computational scheme. The global optimizer uses a technique called Adaptive Simulated Annealing. Newton and Quasi-Newton Methods perform the terminal fine tuning of the optimization parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......100C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......100C"><span>Flexible Dynamics and Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> of a Square <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Mirue</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis presents a comprehensive analysis of attitude and structural dynamics of a square <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail. In particular, this research examines the use of corner-attached reflective vanes to <span class="hlt">control</span> the attitude of the spacecraft. An introduction to known <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail designs is given, then the mathematics involved in calculating <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure forces are presented. A detailed derivation and implementation of the unconstrained nonlinear flexible structural dynamics with Finite Element Method (FEM) models are explored, with several sample simulations of published large deflection experiments used as verification measures. To simulate the inability of a thin membrane to resist compression, the sail membrane elements are augmented with a method that approximates the wrinkling and the slacking dynamics, which is followed by a simulation of another well-known experiment as a verification measure. Once the structural dynamics are established, the usage of the tip vanes is explored. Specifically, a <span class="hlt">control</span> allocation problem formed by having two degrees of freedom for each tip vane is defined and an efficient solution to this problem is presented, allowing desired <span class="hlt">control</span> torques to be converted to appropriate vane angles. A randomized testing mechanism is implemented to show the efficacy of this algorithm. The sail shadowing problem is explored as well, where a component of the spacecraft casts shadow upon the sail and prevents <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure force from being produced. A method to calculate the region of shadow is presented, and two different shadowing examples are examined --- due to the spacecraft bus, and due to the sail itself. Combining all of the above, an attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> simulation of the sail model is presented. A simple PD <span class="hlt">controller</span> combined with the <span class="hlt">control</span> allocation scheme is used to provide the <span class="hlt">control</span> torque for the sail, with which the spacecraft must orient towards a number of pre-specified attitude targets. Several attitude</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4528659','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4528659"><span>Shape <span class="hlt">control</span> of slack space reflectors using modulated <span class="hlt">solar</span> pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Borggräfe, Andreas; Heiligers, Jeannette; Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The static deflection profile of a large spin-stabilized space reflector because of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure acting on its surface is investigated. Such a spacecraft consists of a thin reflective circular film, which is deployed from a supporting hoop structure in an untensioned, slack manner. This paper investigates the use of a variable reflectivity distribution across the surface to <span class="hlt">control</span> the <span class="hlt">solar</span> pressure force and hence the deflected shape. In this first analysis, the film material is modelled as one-dimensional slack radial strings with no resistance to bending or transverse shear, which enables a semi-analytic derivation of the nominal deflection profile. An inverse method is then used to find the reflectivity distribution that generates a specific, for example, parabolic deflection shape of the strings. Applying these results to a parabolic reflector, short focal distances can be obtained when large slack lengths of the film are employed. The development of such optically <span class="hlt">controlled</span> reflector films enables future key mission applications such as <span class="hlt">solar</span> power collection, radio-frequency antennae and optical telescopes. PMID:26345083</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26345083','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26345083"><span>Shape <span class="hlt">control</span> of slack space reflectors using modulated <span class="hlt">solar</span> pressure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borggräfe, Andreas; Heiligers, Jeannette; Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin R</p> <p>2015-07-08</p> <p>The static deflection profile of a large spin-stabilized space reflector because of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure acting on its surface is investigated. Such a spacecraft consists of a thin reflective circular film, which is deployed from a supporting hoop structure in an untensioned, slack manner. This paper investigates the use of a variable reflectivity distribution across the surface to <span class="hlt">control</span> the <span class="hlt">solar</span> pressure force and hence the deflected shape. In this first analysis, the film material is modelled as one-dimensional slack radial strings with no resistance to bending or transverse shear, which enables a semi-analytic derivation of the nominal deflection profile. An inverse method is then used to find the reflectivity distribution that generates a specific, for example, parabolic deflection shape of the strings. Applying these results to a parabolic reflector, short focal distances can be obtained when large slack lengths of the film are employed. The development of such optically <span class="hlt">controlled</span> reflector films enables future key mission applications such as <span class="hlt">solar</span> power collection, radio-frequency antennae and optical telescopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4490500','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4490500"><span>Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological <span class="hlt">Control</span> in Organic <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haruk, Alexander M.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational <span class="hlt">control</span> over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design. PMID:26110382</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5445809','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5445809"><span>Thermotropic and Thermochromic Polymer Based Materials for Adaptive <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seeboth, Arno; Ruhmann, Ralf; Mühling, Olaf</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this review is to present the actual status of development in adaptive <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> by use of thermotropic and organic thermochromic materials. Such materials are suitable for application in smart windows. In detail polymer blends, hydrogels, resins, and thermoplastic films with a reversible temperature-dependent switching behavior are described. A comparative evaluation of the concepts for these energy efficient materials is given as well. Furthermore, the change of strategy from ordinary shadow systems to intrinsic <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy reflection materials based on phase transition components and a first remark about their realization is reported. Own current results concerning extruded films and high thermally stable casting resins with thermotropic properties make a significant contribution to this field. PMID:28883374</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780021637','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780021637"><span>Installation package for integrated programmable electronic <span class="hlt">controller</span> and hydronic subsystem - <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating and cooling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A description is given of the Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual and information on the power panel and programmable microprocessor, a hydronic <span class="hlt">solar</span> pump system and a hydronic heating hot water pumping system. These systems are integrated into various configurations for usages in <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy management, <span class="hlt">control</span> and monitoring, lighting <span class="hlt">control</span>, data logging and other <span class="hlt">solar</span> related applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472112"><span>Temperature <span class="hlt">control</span> in a <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector field using Filtered Dynamic Matrix <span class="hlt">Control</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lima, Daniel Martins; Normey-Rico, Julio Elias; Santos, Tito Luís Maia</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This paper presents the output temperature <span class="hlt">control</span> of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector field of a desalinization plant using the Filtered Dynamic Matrix <span class="hlt">Control</span> (FDMC). The FDMC is a modified <span class="hlt">controller</span> based on the Dynamic Matrix <span class="hlt">Control</span> (DMC), a predictive <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy widely used in industry. In the FDMC, a filter is used in the prediction error, which allows the modification of the robustness and disturbance rejection characteristics of the original algorithm. The implementation and tuning of the FDMC are simple and maintain the advantages of DMC. Several simulation results using a validated model of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> plant are presented considering different scenarios. The results are also compared to nonlinear <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques, showing that FDMC, if properly tuned, can yield similar results to more complex <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH43C..07K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH43C..07K"><span>Which <span class="hlt">Solar</span> and Geomagnetic Drivers <span class="hlt">Control</span> Earth's Upper Atmosphere Thermostat?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knipp, D.; Mlynczak, M. G.; McGranaghan, R. M.; Kilcommons, L. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Nitric Oxide (NO) is a trace component of Earth's upper atmosphere that allows Earth's thermosphere to cool in response to energy input from <span class="hlt">solar</span> extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons and geomagnetic activity. When created and excited, NO molecules provide a natural thermostat via infrared radiative emissions [Kockarts, 1980]. A record of this cooling over the last 13 years has been provided by Mlynczak et al. [2014]. Nitric Oxide emissions in concert with EUV photons, auroral particles, and neutral thermosphere circulation determine if geomagnetic storms will deliver a sudden powerful upheaval of Earth's upper atmosphere or a damped event. In this talk I will review recent findings about the forecastability of <span class="hlt">solar</span> and magnetospheric <span class="hlt">control</span> of this important thermospheric trace constituent. In particular, I will discuss the role of pseudo-streamers and helmet streamers in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind, and the possible role of magnetic cloud orientation, in determining the extent of thermospheric NO storm response. Anticipating the thermospheric NO response to geomagnetic storms is a next step in improving satellite drag forecasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BASBr..23..198E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BASBr..23..198E"><span>Um satélite brasileiro <span class="hlt">para</span> observação do diâmetro <span class="hlt">solar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Propomos uma missão espacial <span class="hlt">para</span> medir a forma e o diâmetro <span class="hlt">solar</span> com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias <span class="hlt">para</span> as observações do diâmetro <span class="hlt">solar</span> feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física <span class="hlt">solar</span>. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21305699','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21305699"><span>Quality <span class="hlt">control</span> and estimation of global <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tang, Wenjun; He, Jie; Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun</p> <p>2010-03-15</p> <p>Measurements of surface radiation in China are too sparse to meet demand for scientific research and engineering applications. Moreover, the radiation data often include erroneous and questionable values though preliminary quality-check has been done before the data release. Therefore, quality <span class="hlt">control</span> of radiation data is often a prerequisite for using these data. In this study, a set of quality-check procedures were implemented to <span class="hlt">control</span> the quality of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation measurements at 97 stations in China. A hybrid model for estimating global <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation was then evaluated against the <span class="hlt">controlled</span> data. The results show that the model can estimate the global radiation with accuracy of MBE less than 1.5 MJ m{sup -2} and RMSE less than 2.8 MJ m{sup -2} for daily radiation and RMSE less than 2.0 MJ m{sup -2} for monthly-mean daily radiation at individual stations over most of China except at a few stations where unsatisfactory estimates were possibly caused by severe air pollution or too dense clouds. The MBE averaged over all stations are about 0.7 MJ m{sup -2} and RMSE about 2.0 MJ m{sup -2} for daily radiation and RMSE about 1.3 MJ m{sup -2} for monthly-mean daily radiation. Finally, this model was used to fill data gaps and to expand <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation data set using routine meteorological station data in China. This data set would substantially contribute to some radiation-related scientific studies and engineering applications in China. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH53A..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH53A..02S"><span>Instrument <span class="hlt">Control</span> Unit for the EPD on board <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Orbiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sánchez Prieto, S.; Prieto Mateo, M.; Rodríguez Polo; Gutiérrez Molina; Parra Espada, P.; da Silva Fariña, A.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Undoubtedly, <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Orbiter is the leading mission of the European Space Agency for studying the Sun in the current decade. Its elliptical orbit around the Sun, with a perihelion as low as 0.28 AU and with an increasing inclination of up to more than 25° with respect to the <span class="hlt">solar</span> equator, makes it ideal for an in-situ environmental study. This study will provide the key to determine how does the Sun create and <span class="hlt">control</span> the heliosphere, which is the main objective of this mission. One of the ten instruments that are part of the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Orbiter's payload is the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD). Its main objective is to measure the composition, timing and distribution functions of suprathermal and energetic particles. Scientific topics to be addressed include the sources, acceleration mechanisms, and transport processes of these particles. EPD is composed of four sensors (STEIN, EPT, HET and SIS), distributed along the spacecraft, and an Instrument <span class="hlt">Control</span> Unit or ICU. The sensors are able to measure electrons in the energy range from 0.002 to 20 MeV, protons from 0.003 to 100 MeV and nucleons of He to Fe in the range of 0.008 to 200 MeV/n. The ICU is the sole interface with the spacecraft, providing <span class="hlt">control</span>, communication and data processing to the sensors. Due to the strong reliability requirements associated to the ICU, special care has been taken in the hardware, software and mechanical designs. In this work the development status of the ICU, together with its hardware and software architectures, design decisions and tools are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012917','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012917"><span><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> Attitude of a <span class="hlt">Solar</span>-Sail Spacecraft Using Vanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, Ahmet; Ploen, Scott</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A paper discusses a concept for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the attitude and thrust vector of a three-axis stabilized <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail spacecraft using only four single degree-of-freedom articulated spar-tip vanes. The vanes, at the corners of the sail, would be turned to commanded angles about the diagonals of the square sail. Commands would be generated by an adaptive <span class="hlt">controller</span> that would track a given trajectory while rejecting effects of such disturbance torques as those attributable to offsets between the center of pressure on the sail and the center of mass. The <span class="hlt">controller</span> would include a standard proportional + derivative part, a feedforward part, and a dynamic component that would act like a generalized integrator. The <span class="hlt">controller</span> would globally track reference signals, and in the presence of such <span class="hlt">control</span>-actuator constraints as saturation and delay, the <span class="hlt">controller</span> would utilize strategies to cancel or reduce their effects. The <span class="hlt">control</span> scheme would be embodied in a robust, nonlinear algorithm that would allocate torques among the vanes, always finding a stable solution arbitrarily close to the global optimum solution of the <span class="hlt">control</span> effort allocation problem. The solution would include an acceptably small angle, slow limit-cycle oscillation of the vanes, while providing overall thrust vector pointing stability and performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8229753L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8229753L"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> energy <span class="hlt">controlled</span>-environment agriculture in the United States and in Saudi Arabia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luft, W.; Froechtenigt, J.</p> <p>1981-11-01</p> <p>Greenhouse designs proposed for use in hot climates to reduce the temperature by essentially passive means are illustrated. The project plans of the SOLERAS, <span class="hlt">solar</span> powered, <span class="hlt">controlled</span> environment agriculture are outlined. The water desalination technology being evaluated is reverse osmosis. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> collection technologies include flat plate thermal collectors, <span class="hlt">solar</span> ponds, photovoltaics and wind turbines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=329635','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=329635"><span>Evaluation of steam and soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span> for Meloidogyne arenaria <span class="hlt">control</span> in Florida floriculture crops</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Steam and soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span> were investigated for <span class="hlt">control</span> of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in two years of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if pre-plant steam treatments in combination with <span class="hlt">solarization</span>, or <span class="hlt">solarization</span> alone effective...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhDT.........9Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhDT.........9Y"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems - <span class="hlt">Control</span> and Protection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yi, Zhehan</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation proposes a comprehensive <span class="hlt">control</span>, power management, and fault detection strategy for <span class="hlt">solar</span> photovoltaic (PV) distribution generations. Battery storages are typically employed in PV systems to mitigate the power fluctuation caused by unstable <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance. With AC and DC loads, a PV-battery system can be treated as a hybrid microgrid which contains both DC and AC power resources and buses. In this thesis, a <span class="hlt">control</span> power and management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery hybrid microgrid is proposed, which provides 1) the DC and AC bus voltage and AC frequency regulating scheme and <span class="hlt">controllers</span> designed to track set points; 2) a power flow management strategy in the hybrid microgrid to achieve system generation and demand balance in both grid-connected and islanded modes; 3) smooth transition <span class="hlt">control</span> during grid reconnection by frequency and phase synchronization <span class="hlt">control</span> between the main grid and microgrid. Due to the increasing demands for PV power, scales of PV systems are getting larger and fault detection in PV arrays becomes challenging. High-impedance faults, low-mismatch faults, and faults occurred in low irradiance conditions tend to be hidden due to low fault currents, particularly, when a PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is in-service. If remain undetected, these faults can considerably lower the output energy of <span class="hlt">solar</span> systems, damage the panels, and potentially cause fire hazards. In this dissertation, fault detection challenges in PV arrays are analyzed in depth, considering the crossing relations among the characteristics of PV, interactions with MPPT algorithms, and the nature of <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance. Two fault detection schemes are then designed as attempts to address these technical issues, which detect faults inside PV arrays accurately even under challenging circumstances, e.g., faults in low irradiance conditions or high-impedance faults. Taking advantage of multi-resolution signal decomposition (MSD), a powerful signal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008023','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008023"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamics Observatory Guidance, Navigation, and <span class="hlt">Control</span> System Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgenstern, Wendy M.; Bourkland, Kristin L.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Liu, Kuo-Chia; Mason, Paul A. C.; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Russo, Angela M.; Starin, Scott R.; Vess, Melissa F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was designed and built at the Goddard Space Flight Center, launched from Cape Canaveral on February 11, 2010, and reached its final geosynchronous science orbit on March 16, 2010. The purpose of SDO is to observe the Sun and continuously relay data to a dedicated ground station. SDO remains Sun-pointing throughout most of its mission for the instruments to take measurements of the Sun. The SDO attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> system (ACS) is a single-fault tolerant design. Its fully redundant attitude sensor complement includes sixteen coarse Sun sensors (CSSs), a digital Sun sensor (DSS), three two-axis inertial reference units (IRUs), and two star trackers (STs). The ACS also makes use of the four guide telescopes included as a part of one of the science instruments. Attitude actuation is performed using four reaction wheels assemblies (RWAs) and eight thrusters, with a single main engine used to provide velocity-change thrust for orbit raising. The attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> software has five nominal <span class="hlt">control</span> modes, three wheel-based modes and two thruster-based modes. A wheel-based Safehold running in the attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> electronics box improves the robustness of the system as a whole. All six modes are designed on the same basic proportional-integral-derivative attitude error structure, with more robust modes setting their integral gains to zero. This paper details the final overall design of the SDO guidance, navigation, and <span class="hlt">control</span> (GN&C) system and how it was used in practice during SDO launch, commissioning, and nominal operations. This overview will include the ACS <span class="hlt">control</span> modes, attitude determination and sensor calibration, the high gain antenna (HGA) calibration, and jitter mitigation operation. The <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamics Observatory mission is part of the NASA Living With a Star program, which seeks to understand the changing Sun and its effects on the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> System, life, and society. To this end, the SDO spacecraft carries three Sun</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160007912','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160007912"><span>Propellantless Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective <span class="hlt">Control</span> Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Munday, Jeremy</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> sails offer an opportunity for a CubeSatscale, propellant-free spacecraft technology that enables long-term and long-distance missions not possible with traditional methods. <span class="hlt">Solar</span> sails operate using the transfer of linear momentum from photons of sunlight reflected from the surface of the sail. To propel the spacecraft, no mechanically moving parts, thrusters, or propellant are needed. However, attitude <span class="hlt">control</span>, or orientation, is still performed using traditional methods involving reaction wheels and propellant ejection, which severely limit mission lifetime. For example, the current state of the art solutions employed by upcoming missions couple <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails with a state of the art propellant ejection gas system. Here, the use of the gas thruster has limited the lifetime of the mission. To solve the limited mission lifetime problem, the Propellantless Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective <span class="hlt">Control</span> Devices project team is working on propellantless attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> using thin layers of material, an optical film, electrically switchable from transparent to reflective. The technology is based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), which allows this switch upon application of a voltage. This technology removes the need for propellant, which reduces weight and cost while improving performance and lifetime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006240','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006240"><span>Development and testing of the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> Corporation modular <span class="hlt">controller</span> and Solarstat subsystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hankins, J. D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Results of development work on an existing <span class="hlt">controller</span> and solarstat subsystem for use with <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating and cooling systems are presented. The deliverable end items, program objectives, and how they were accomplished are described. It is shown that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014852','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014852"><span>Phase <span class="hlt">control</span> system concepts and simulations. [<span class="hlt">solar</span> power satellite system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lindsay, V. C.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A phase <span class="hlt">control</span> system concept for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> power satellite is proposed which partitions the system into three major levels. The first level of phase <span class="hlt">control</span> consists of a reference phase distribution system implemented in the form of phase distribution tree structure. The major purpose of the tree structure is to electronically compensate for the phase shift due to the transition path lengths from the center of the spacetenna to each phase <span class="hlt">control</span> center located in each subarray. In the reference system, this is accomplished using the master slave returnable timing system technique. The second level of phase <span class="hlt">control</span> consists of the beam steering and microwave power generating system which houses the power transponders. This transponder consists of a set of phase conjugation multipliers driven by the reference phase distribution system output and the output of a pilot spread spectrum receiver which accepts the received pilot via a diplexer connected to a separate receive horn or the subarray itself. The output of the phase conjugation circuits serve as inputs to the third level of the phase <span class="hlt">control</span> system. The third level of phase <span class="hlt">control</span> is associated with maintaining an equal and constant phase shift through the microwave power amplifier devices while minimizing the associated phase noise effects on the generated power beam. This is accomplished by providing a phase locked loop around each high power amplifier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980201681','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980201681"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Radiation Pressure to <span class="hlt">Control</span> L2 Orbits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tene, Noam; Richon, Karen; Folta, David</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The main perturbations at the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L1 and L2 are from <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure (SRP), the Moon and the planets. Traditional approaches to trajectory design for Lagrange-point orbits use maneuvers every few months to correct for these perturbations. The gravitational effects of the Moon and the planets are small and periodic. However, they cannot be neglected because small perturbations in the direction of the unstable eigenvector are enough to cause exponential growth within a few months. The main effect of a constant SRP is to shift the center of the orbit by a small distance. For spacecraft with large sun-shields like the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) and the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), the SRP effect is larger than all other perturbations and depends mostly on spacecraft attitude. Small variations in the spacecraft attitude are large enough to excite or <span class="hlt">control</span> the exponential eigenvector. A closed-loop linear <span class="hlt">controller</span> based on the SRP variations would eliminate one of the largest errors to the orbit and provide a continuous acceleration for use in <span class="hlt">controlling</span> other disturbances. It is possible to design reference trajectories that account for the periodic lunar and planetary perturbations and still satisfy mission requirements. When such trajectories are used the acceleration required to <span class="hlt">control</span> the unstable eigenvector is well within the capabilities of a continuous linear <span class="hlt">controller</span>. Initial estimates show that by using attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> it should be possible to minimize and even eliminate thruster maneuvers for station keeping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......288S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......288S"><span>Proximal Blade Twist Feedback <span class="hlt">Control</span> for Heliogyro <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sails</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Sarah Mitchell</p> <p></p> <p>A heliogyro spacecraft is a specific type of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail that generates thrust from the reflection of <span class="hlt">solar</span> photons. It consists of multiple long (200 to 600 meters), thin blades, similar to a helicopter. The heliogyro's blades remain in tension by spinning around the central hub of the spacecraft. The individual blades are pitched collectively or cyclically to produce the desired maneuver profile. The propellant-free heliogyro is a long-duration sustainable spacecraft whose maneuverability allows it to attain previously inaccessible orbits for traditional spacecraft. The blades are constructed from thin Mylar sheets, approximately 2.5 ?m thick, which have very little inherent damping making it necessary to include some other way of attenuating blade vibration caused by maneuvering. The most common approach is to incorporate damping through the root pitch actuator. However, due to the small root pitch <span class="hlt">control</span> torques required, on the order of 2 ?Nm, compared to the large friction torques associated with a root pitch actuator, it is challenging to design a root <span class="hlt">control</span> system that takes friction into account and can still add damping to the blade. The purpose of this research is to address the limitations of current <span class="hlt">control</span> designs for a heliogyro spacecraft and to develop a physically realizable root pitch <span class="hlt">controller</span> that effectively damps the torsional structural modes of a single heliogyro blade. Classical <span class="hlt">control</span> theory in conjunction with impedance <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques are used to design a position-source root pitch <span class="hlt">controller</span> to dominate friction with high gains, wrapped with an outer loop that adds damping to the blade by sensing differential twist outboard of the blade root. First, modal parameter characterization experiments were performed on a small-scale heliogyro blade in a high vacuum chamber to determine a damping constant to be used in the membrane ladder finite element model of the blade. The experimental damping ratio of the lowest frequency torsional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSA33B1771Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSA33B1771Z"><span>Exospheric temperature variability and the <span class="hlt">solar</span> EUV <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, S.; Holt, J. M.; Erickson, P. J.; Woods, T. N.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Incoherent scatter radar experiments at Millstone Hill for a consecutive 30 days have been conducted in October 2002, enabling this study of the day-to-day thermospheric variability in exospheric temperature Tex. This day-to-day variability is seen as variations at fixed local times as well as those in the tidal decompositions. <span class="hlt">Solar</span> EUV and magnetic activity influences as the main driving factors on the day-to-day variability are investigated quantitatively. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> EUV flux is from the TIMED/SEE space weather product, allowing for detailed studies of the EUV-Tex correlation, EUV band dependency and time delay of thermospheric responses. Main findings include, (1) to precisely understand thermospheric temperature day-to-day variability, the daily F107 data is typically insufficient and the EUV data is essential. (2) There is a 20--60-hour time delay in the Tex response to <span class="hlt">solar</span> EUV flux, being short in the morning and long in the afternoon and at night. (3) Tex is most sensitive, with an approximately 2-day delay, to the EUV flux at wavelengths of 27--34 nm and 30.4 nm. A model including only the EUV flux at 27--34 nm with a 2-day time delay can generate 90% of the observed variability in the diurnal DC component. Tex is relatively less sensitive to the flux at 133.5 nm and 145--165 nm. (4) With a two-day time delay, the flux at 0.1--7 nm band is clearly positively correlated to the diurnal amplitude, and negatively correlated to the semidiurnal amplitude. (5) Magnetic activity <span class="hlt">control</span>, as represented by the Dst index, tends to be weaker during the day and stronger at night, and is, in all three tidal components examined (DC, diurnal and semidiurnal amplitudes), most important for the semidiurnal amplitude and least important for the DC component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED193085.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED193085.pdf"><span>Residential <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Design Review: A Manual on Community Architectural <span class="hlt">Controls</span> and <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Energy Use.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jaffe, Martin; Erley, Duncan</p> <p></p> <p>Presented are architectural design issues associated with <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy use, and procedures for design review committees to consider in examining residential <span class="hlt">solar</span> installation in light of existing aesthetic goals for their communities. Recommended design review criteria include the type of <span class="hlt">solar</span> system being used and the ways in which the system…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840896"><span>NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE <span class="hlt">SOLAR</span> RADIATION <span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> COATINGS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu</p> <p>2003-10-28</p> <p>Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Radiation <span class="hlt">Control</span> (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918779G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918779G"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of the local time of substorm onset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grocott, Adrian; Case, Nathan; Laundal, Karl; Laurens, Hannah; Milan, Steve</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We use <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind and interplanetary magnetic field data, along with satellite global auroral imagery, to investigate what <span class="hlt">controls</span> the magnetic local time (MLT) of substorm onset. We find that substorm onsets occur over a wide range of MLTs (18 - 4 hrs), with a typical MLT (mode) of 23 hrs. In agreement with previous studies, IMF BY , acts to move the onset to an earlier/later local time in the northern hemisphere and a later/earlier local time in the southern hemisphere, depending on the sign of BY , consistent with a twist of the conjugate magnetic field line. This effect explains a small fraction of the observed MLT variation (˜ 1 hr), but cannot account for the tendency of onset to be often displaced to earlier (< 23 hrs) or later (> 23 hrs) MLTs in both hemispheres. We also inspect the relationship between <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind V Y and onset MLT, which also has a small, but measurable effect on the local time of substorm onset. This effect acts in the same sense in the northern and southern hemispheres, moving onset to earlier times for positive V Y and later times for negative V Y . We find that a function relating both BY and V Y to onset MLT produces a better fit than a function based on either parameter alone.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6689792','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6689792"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> heat gain <span class="hlt">control</span> in historic buildings rehabilitation alternatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Basic information is presented regarding the importance of existing windows and their glazing to historic buildings, the phenomenon of <span class="hlt">solar</span> heat gain through windows, the properties of commonly available <span class="hlt">solar</span> glazing types and sympathetic alternatives to the installation of inappropriate darkly tinted or highly reflective <span class="hlt">solar</span> glazing in historic buildings. Although the basic principles of <span class="hlt">solar</span> heat gain through windows is the same for both new construction and existing buildings, the recommendations that are included are specifically targeted toward historic buildings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865663','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865663"><span>Cable tensioned membrane <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector module with variable tension <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Murphy, Lawrence M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Disclosed is a <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector comprising a membrane for concentrating sunlight, a plurality of elongated structural members for suspending the membrane member thereon, and a plurality of <span class="hlt">control</span> members for adjustably tensioning the membrane member, as well as for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> a focus produced by the membrane members. Each <span class="hlt">control</span> member is disposed at a different corresponding one of the plurality of structural members. The collector also comprises an elongated flexible tensioning member, which serves to stretch the membrane member and to thereafter hold it in tension, and a plurality of sleeve members, which serve to provide the membrane member with a desired surface contour during tensioning of the membrane member. The tensioning member is coupled to the structural members such that the tensioning member is adjustably tensioned through the structural members. The tensioning member is also coupled to the membrane member through the sleeve members such that the sleeve members uniformly and symmetrically stretch the membrane member upon applying tension to the tensioning member with the <span class="hlt">control</span> members.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6132349','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6132349"><span>Cable tensioned membrane <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector module with variable tension <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Murphy, L.M.</p> <p>1984-01-09</p> <p>Disclosed is a <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector comprising a membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a plurality of elongated structural members for suspending the membrane member thereon, and a plurality of <span class="hlt">control</span> members for adjustably tensioning the membrane member, as well as for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> a focus produced by the membrane members. Each <span class="hlt">control</span> member is disposed at a different corresponding one of the plurality of structural members. The collector also comprises an elongated flexible tensioning member, which serves to stretch the membrane member and to thereafter hold it in tension, and a plurality of sleeve members which serve to provide the membrane member with a desired surface contour during tensioning of the membrane member. The tensioning member is coupled to the structural members such that the tensioning member is adjustably tensioned through the structural members. The tensioning member is also coupled to the membrane member through the sleeve members such that the sleeve members uniformly and symmetrically stretch the membrane member upon applying tension to the tensioning member with the <span class="hlt">control</span> members.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980asme.meetR....K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980asme.meetR....K"><span>Design and evaluation of a computer <span class="hlt">controlled</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector simulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kotas, J. F.; Wood, B. D.</p> <p>1980-11-01</p> <p>A computer-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> system has been developed to simulate the thermal processes of a flat-plate <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector. The simulator is based on four water heaters of capacities of 1.5, 2.5, 5.0 and 5.0 kW providing a maximum design output of 14.0 kW which are <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by a Nova 3 minicomputer, which also monitors temperatures in the fluid stream. Measurements have been obtained of the steady-state operating values and time constants of the individual heaters at different flow rates in order to utilize effectively their thermal outputs. Software was designed to <span class="hlt">control</span> the heater system so the total thermal output closely approximates that of an actual heater array, utilizing steady-state or dynamic <span class="hlt">control</span> modes. Simulation of the heat output of a previously tested collector has resulted in simulated values differing from actual output by a maximum of 3% under identical operating conditions, thus indicating that the simulator represents a viable alternative to the testing of a large field of collectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050243617','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050243617"><span>Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> System Design for the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamics Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Starin, Scott R.; Bourkland, Kristin L.; Kuo-Chia, Liu; Mason, Paul A. C.; Vess, Melissa F.; Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamics Observatory mission, part of the Living With a Star program, will place a geosynchronous satellite in orbit to observe the Sun and relay data to a dedicated ground station at all times. SDO remains Sun- pointing throughout most of its mission for the instruments to take measurements of the Sun. The SDO attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> system is a single-fault tolerant design. Its fully redundant attitude sensor complement includes 16 coarse Sun sensors, a digital Sun sensor, 3 two-axis inertial reference units, 2 star trackers, and 4 guide telescopes. Attitude actuation is performed using 4 reaction wheels and 8 thrusters, and a single main engine nominally provides velocity-change thrust. The attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> software has five nominal <span class="hlt">control</span> modes-3 wheel-based modes and 2 thruster-based modes. A wheel-based Safehold running in the attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> electronics box improves the robustness of the system as a whole. All six modes are designed on the same basic proportional-integral-derivative attitude error structure, with more robust modes setting their integral gains to zero. The paper details the mode designs and their uses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982SoPh...81..197P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982SoPh...81..197P"><span>The computer-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> radio spectrometer `IKARUS'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perrenoud, M. R.</p> <p>1982-11-01</p> <p>The radiospectrometer IKARUS is a fully computer-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> instrument covering the frequency band 0.11 to 1 GHz in steps of 1 MHz. It can automatically detect <span class="hlt">solar</span> radio bursts and then write, on magnetic tape, 2000 measurements per second of intensity and circular polarization. The frequencies to be measured can be readily programmed in the band, compromising between frequency and time resolution. Reference noise sources are switched in automatically by the computer to calibrate the receiver at each frequency. The dynamic range is about 50 dB, recorded logarithmically with 8 bit resolution. The novelty of the instrument is its ability to measure broadband calibrated spectra (flux and degree of polarization) in the very interesting region of the lower corona.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21308969','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21308969"><span>Nanostructure <span class="hlt">control</span> in polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells by self-organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tajima, Keisuke; Hashimoto, Kazuhito</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Recently, polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (PSCs) based on "bulk heterojunctions" using a simple mixture of electron donor and acceptor materials in thin films have been extensively studied. Although relatively high power conversion efficiencies have been achieved by using this approach, further improvement is necessary to precisely construct stable, reproducible nanostructures that are suitable for both efficient charge separation and transport inside such films. For this purpose, it is highly desirable to utilize a bottom-up approach, such as the self-organized formation of inorganic and organic nanostructures. In this review, an overview of our recent studies on the <span class="hlt">control</span> of nanostructures in PSCs is presented. Copyright © 2011 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760018041','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760018041"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span>-wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of the extent of planetary ionospheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, S. J.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>In our <span class="hlt">solar</span> system there are at least four magnetic planets: Earth, Jupiter, Mercury, and Mars; while at least one planet, Venus, appears to be essentially nonmagnetic. The ionospheres of the magnetic planets are imbedded in their magnetosphere and thus shielded from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind, whereas the ionosphere of Venus, at least, interacts directly with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind. However, the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind interaction with the planetary environment, in both cases, affects the behavior of their ionospheres. The role the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind interaction plays in limiting the extent of the ionospheres of both magnetic and nonmagnetic planets is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28195286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28195286"><span>Cesium lead iodide <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by annealing temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Yu Geun; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Oh, Jeong Hyeon; Choi, Kyoung Soon; Kim, Youn-Jea; Kim, Soo Young</p> <p>2017-02-22</p> <p>An inorganic lead halide perovskite film, CsPbI3, used as an absorber in perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (PSCs) was optimized by <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the annealing temperature and the layer thickness. The CsPbI3 layer was synthesized by one-step coating of CsI mixed with PbI2 and a HI additive in N,N-dimethylformamide. The annealing temperature of the CsPbI3 film was varied from 80 to 120 °C for different durations and the thickness was <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by changing the spin-coating rpm. After annealing the CsPbI3 layer at 100 °C under dark conditions for 10 min, a black phase of CsPbI3 was formed and the band gap was 1.69 eV. Most of the yellow spots disappeared, the surface coverage was almost 100%, and the rms roughness was minimized to 3.03 nm after annealing at 100 °C. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the CsPbI3 based PSC annealed at 100 °C was 4.88%. This high PCE value is attributed to the low yellow phase ratio, high surface coverage, low rms roughness, lower charge transport resistance, and lower charge accumulation. The loss ratio of the PCE of the CH3NH3PbIxCl3-x and CsPbI3 based PSCs after keeping in air was 47 and 26%, respectively, indicating that the stability of the CsPbI3 based PSC is better than that of the CH3NH3PbIxCl3-x based PSC. From these results, it is evident that CsPbI3 is a potential candidate for <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770019278','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770019278"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> array maximum power tracking with closed-loop <span class="hlt">control</span> of a 30-centimeter ion thruster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gruber, R. P.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">solar</span> array/ion thruster system <span class="hlt">control</span> concept has been developed and demonstrated. An ion thruster beam load is used to automatically and continuously operate an unregulated <span class="hlt">solar</span> array at its maximum power point independent of variations in <span class="hlt">solar</span> array voltage and current. Preliminary tests were run which verified that this method of <span class="hlt">control</span> can be implemented with a few, physically small, signal level components dissipating less than two watts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6781986','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6781986"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> heating and cooling system installed at RKL <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Company, Lumberton, New Jersey. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> heating and cooling of a 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales offices and the <span class="hlt">solar</span> computer <span class="hlt">control</span> center/display room are described. Information on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature and as-built drawings are provided also. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> system is composed of 6000 square feet of Sunworks double glazed flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, <span class="hlt">controls</span>, ARKLA absorption chiller, heat recovery and a cooling tower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005437','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005437"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure <span class="hlt">Control</span> Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moore, J. D.; Otto, J. M.; Cody, J. C.; Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Gautney, T. T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>High-energy cryogenic propellant is an essential element in future space exploration programs. Therefore, NASA and its industrial partners are committed to an advanced development/technology program that will broaden the experience base for the entire cryogenic fluid management community. Furthermore, the high cost of microgravity experiments has motivated NASA to establish government/aerospace industry teams to aggressively explore combinations of ground testing and analytical modeling to the greatest extent possible, thereby benefitting both industry and government entities. One such team consisting of ManTech SRS, Inc., Edwards Air Force Base, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was formed to pursue a technology project designed to demonstrate technology readiness for an SRS liquid hydrogen (LH2) in-space propellant management concept. The subject testing was cooperatively performed June 21-30, 2000, through a partially reimbursable Space Act Agreement between SRS, MSFC, and the Air Force Research Laboratory. The joint statement of work used to guide the technical activity is presented in appendix A. The key elements of the SRS concept consisted of an LH2 storage and supply system that used all of the vented H2 for <span class="hlt">solar</span> engine thrusting, accommodated pressure <span class="hlt">control</span> without a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), and minimized or eliminated the need for a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD). The strategy was to balance the LH2 storage tank pressure <span class="hlt">control</span> requirements with the engine thrusting requirements to selectively provide either liquid or vapor H2 at a <span class="hlt">controlled</span> rate to a <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal engine in the low-gravity environment of space operations. The overall test objective was to verify that the proposed concept could enable simultaneous <span class="hlt">control</span> of LH2 tank pressure and feed system flow to the thruster without necessitating a TVS and a capillary LAD. The primary program objectives were designed to demonstrate technology readiness of the SRS concept</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcMSn..28.1479Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcMSn..28.1479Z"><span>Influence of flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays on vibration isolation platform of <span class="hlt">control</span> moment gyroscopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Jing-Rui; Xu, Shi-Jie</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>A high-performance vibration isolation platform (VIP) has been developed for a cluster of <span class="hlt">control</span> moment gyroscopes (CMGs). CMGs have long been used for satellite attitude <span class="hlt">control</span>. In this paper, the influence of flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays on a passive multi-strut VIP of CMGs for a satellite is analyzed. The reasonable parameters design of flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays is discussed. Firstly, the dynamic model of the integrated satellite with flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays, the VIP and CMGs is conducted by Newton-Euler method. Then based on reasonable assumptions, the transmissibility matrix of the VIP is derived. Secondly, the influences of the flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays on both the performance of the VIP and the stability of closed-loop <span class="hlt">control</span> systems are analyzed in detail. The parameter design limitation of these <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays is discussed. At last, by selecting reasonable parameters for both the VIP and flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays, the attitude stabilization performance with vibration isolation system is predicted via simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984acco.rept.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984acco.rept.....H"><span>Development of mass-producible line-focus tracking concentrating <span class="hlt">solar</span> collectors. Category 2: <span class="hlt">Control</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hickman, T. E.</p> <p>1984-08-01</p> <p>The system design criteria and concept of a mass producible modular electronic <span class="hlt">control</span> system for <span class="hlt">solar</span> industrial process heating installations are discussed. The <span class="hlt">control</span> system consists of: the master <span class="hlt">controller</span>; the weather tower, including a <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracking angle reference; and overtemperature switch, group <span class="hlt">control</span> box, tracker/<span class="hlt">controller</span>, and drive motor for each group of single axis tracking parabolic trough <span class="hlt">solar</span> collectors. System automatic operation is outlined for unattended installations. The production approach and cost estimates, both based on a production rate of 5 million ft(2) of collector aperature per year, are discussed here. The potential for further development of the system is also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MART49005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MART49005M"><span><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> Active Layer Morphology in Polymer/Fullerene <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moungthai, Suchanun; Mahadevapuram, Nikhila; Stein, Gila</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The active layer in most polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells is based on the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) design. BHJs are prepared by arresting the phase separation of a polymer/fullerene blend to produce a nanoscale, interpenetrating network. Such non-equilibrium structures are very difficult to <span class="hlt">control</span> and reproduce, posing a significant challenge for fundamental structure-property investigations. We demonstrate a new approach to <span class="hlt">control</span> the active layer morphology with a simple two-step process: First, a thin film of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is cross-linked into stable nanostructures or microstructures with electron-beam lithography [1]. Second, a soluble fullerene is spun-cast on top of the patterned polymer to complete the heterojunction. Significantly, irradiated P3HT films retain good optoelectronic properties and bilayer P3HT/fullerene heterojunctions yield power-conversion efficiencies near 0.5%. We have performed preliminary studies with model nanostructured devices and we find that efficiency increases with interfacial area [2]. These model devices are very valuable for fundamental studies because the interfacial area is accurately measured with small-angle X-ray scattering, and the active layer can be ``deconstructed'' for imaging with atomic force microscopy. [4pt] [1] S. Holdcroft, Adv. Mater. 2001, 13, 1753-1765.[0pt] [2] He et al., Adv Funct. Mater. 2011, 21, 139-146.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2664G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2664G"><span>attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> design for the <span class="hlt">solar</span> polar orbit radio telesope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, D.; Zheng, J.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper studies the attitude dynamics and <span class="hlt">control</span> of the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Polar Orbit Radio Telescope SPORT The SPORT which consists of one parent satellite and eight tethered satellites runs around the Sun in a polar orbit The parent satellite locates at the mass center of the constellation and tethered satellites which are tied with the parent satellite through a non-electric rope rotate around the parent satellite It is also supposed that the parent satellite and all tethered satellites are in a plane when the constellation works begin figure htbp centerline includegraphics width 3 85in height 2 38in 75271331 6a6eb71057 doc1 eps label fig1 end figure Fig 1 the SPORT constellation Firstly this paper gives the dynamic equations of the tethered satellite and the parent satellite From the dynamic characteristic of the tethered satellite we then find that the roll axis is coupled with the yaw axis The <span class="hlt">control</span> torque of the roll axis can <span class="hlt">control</span> the yaw angle But the <span class="hlt">control</span> torque of the roll axis and pitch axis provided by the tether is very small it can not meet the accuracy requirement of the yaw angle In order to improve the attitude pointing accuracy of the tethered satellite a gradient pole is set in the negative orientation of the yaw axis The gradient pole can improve not only the attitude accuracy of roll angle and pitch angle but also that of the yaw angle indirectly As to the dynamic characteristic of the parent satellite the roll axis is coupled with the pitch axis due to the spinning angular velocity At the same</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090032660&hterms=Jupiter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DJupiter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090032660&hterms=Jupiter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DJupiter"><span>Strong <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> of Infrared Aurora on Jupiter: Correlation Since the Last <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Hewagama, T.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora, acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and <span class="hlt">solar</span> activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three <span class="hlt">solar</span> cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane emission brightness and <span class="hlt">solar</span> 10.7 cm radio flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high <span class="hlt">solar</span> activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last <span class="hlt">solar</span> maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward <span class="hlt">solar</span> minimum. An even more convincing correlation with <span class="hlt">solar</span> activity is evident in these data. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next <span class="hlt">solar</span> maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the Europa Jupiter System Mission. Results of observations at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) operated by the University of Hawaii under Cooperative Agreement no. NCC5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Astronomy Program. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920060660&hterms=Vibration+motors&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVibration%2Bmotors','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920060660&hterms=Vibration+motors&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVibration%2Bmotors"><span>Pointing and tracking <span class="hlt">control</span> for freedom's <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamic modules and vibration <span class="hlt">control</span> of freedom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Quinn, Roger D.; Chen, Jiunn-Liang</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy is presented for pointing particular modules of flexible multibody space structures while simultaneously attenuating structural vibrations. The application that is addressed is the planned Space Station Freedom in a growth configuration with <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamic (SD) module. A NASTRAN model of Freedom is used to demonstrate the <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy. Two cases of SD concentrator fine-pointing <span class="hlt">controller</span> bandwidths are studied with examples. The effect of limiting the <span class="hlt">controller</span> motor torques to realistic baseline values is examined. SD pointing and station vibration <span class="hlt">control</span> is accomplished during realistic disturbances due to aerodynamic drag, Shuttle docking, and Shuttle reaction <span class="hlt">control</span> system plume impingement on SD. Gravity gradient induced torques on SD are relatively small and pseudo-steady.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160013205','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160013205"><span>Modeling, Simulation, and <span class="hlt">Control</span> of a <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Electric Propulsion Vehicle in Near-Earth Vicinity Including <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Array Degradation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Witzberger, Kevin (Inventor); Hojnicki, Jeffery (Inventor); Manzella, David (Inventor)</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Modeling and <span class="hlt">control</span> software that integrates the complexities of <span class="hlt">solar</span> array models, a space environment, and an electric propulsion system into a rigid body vehicle simulation and <span class="hlt">control</span> model is provided. A rigid body vehicle simulation of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle may be created using at least one <span class="hlt">solar</span> array model, at least one model of a space environment, and at least one model of a SEP propulsion system. Power availability and thrust profiles may be determined based on the rigid body vehicle simulation as the SEP vehicle transitions from a low Earth orbit (LEO) to a higher orbit or trajectory. The power availability and thrust profiles may be displayed such that a user can use the displayed power availability and thrust profiles to determine design parameters for an SEP vehicle mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1798b0060G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1798b0060G"><span>An approach for the <span class="hlt">control</span> method's determination for an interplanetary mission with <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorbunova, Irina; Starinova, Olga</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This article is devoted to an interplanetary movement of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail spacecraft. Authors propose to use locally-optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> laws for the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail <span class="hlt">control</span> model. We used previously obtained by the authors locally-optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> laws for chosen interplanetary missions. The obtained laws can provide rapid change of Keplerian elements or stabilize its values. Authors offer an approach for combination of these laws. To confirm the result correctness authors simulated the heliocentric motion of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail spacecraft to the selected planet. Model of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail spacecraft called Helios is designed by students of Samara State Aerospace University. We define heliocentric motion of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail spacecraft via Keplerian elements. Authors used combination technique for locally-optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> laws to obtained several trajectories for interplanetary missions. The distinctive feature of the proposed method that parameters of osculating elements are used as destination phase coordinates.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001505','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001505"><span>Flex Dynamics Avoidance <span class="hlt">Control</span> of the NEA Scout <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Spacecraft's Reaction <span class="hlt">Control</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heaton Andrew; Stiltner, Brandon; Diedrich, Benjamin; Becker, Christopher; Orphee, Juan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> System (ACS) is developed for a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission using a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail. The NEA-Scout spacecraft is a 6U cubesat with an 86 square-meter <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail. NEA Scout will launch on Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), currently scheduled to launch in 2018. The spacecraft will rendezvous with a target asteroid after a two year journey, and will conduct science imagery. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail spacecraft ACS consists of three major actuating subsystems: a Reaction Wheel (RW) <span class="hlt">control</span> system, a Reaction <span class="hlt">Control</span> System (RCS), and an Adjustable Mass Translator (AMT) system. The three subsystems allow for a wide range of spacecraft attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> capabilities, needed for the different phases of the NEA-Scout mission. Because the sail is a flexible structure, care must be taken in designing a <span class="hlt">control</span> system to avoid exciting the structural modes of the sail. This is especially true for the RCS, which uses pulse actuated, cold-gas jets to <span class="hlt">control</span> the spacecraft's attitude. While the reaction wheels can be commanded smoothly, the RCS jets are simple on-off actuators. Long duration firing of the RCS jets - firings greater than one second - can be thought of as step inputs to the spacecraft's torque. On the other hand, short duration firings - pulses on the order of 0.1 seconds - can be thought of as impulses in the spacecraft's torque. These types of inputs will excite the structural modes of the spacecraft, causing the sail to oscillate. Sail oscillations are undesirable for many reasons. Mainly, these oscillations will feed into the spacecraft attitude sensors and pointing accuracy, and long term oscillations may be undesirable over the lifetime of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail. In order to limit the sail oscillations, an RCS <span class="hlt">control</span> scheme is being developed to minimize sail excitations. Specifically, an input shaping scheme similar to the method described in Reference 1 will be employed. A detailed description of the RCS <span class="hlt">control</span> scheme will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810060080&hterms=solar+wind+power&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bwind%2Bpower','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810060080&hterms=solar+wind+power&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bwind%2Bpower"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of auroral zone geomagnetic activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clauer, C. R.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Searls, C.; Kivelson, M. G.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind magnetosphere energy coupling functions are analyzed using linear prediction filtering with 2.5 minute data. The relationship of auroral zone geomagnetic activity to <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind power input functions are examined, and a least squares prediction filter, or impulse response function is designed from the data. Computed impulse response functions are observed to have characteristics of a low pass filter with time delay. The AL index is found well related to <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind energy functions, although the AU index shows a poor relationship. High frequency variations of auroral indices and substorm expansions are not predictable with <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind information alone, suggesting influence by internal magnetospheric processes. Finally, the epsilon parameter shows a poorer relationship with auroral geomagnetic activity than a power parameter, having a VBs <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind dependency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012230','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012230"><span>Evidence for <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of Saturn radio emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Desch, M. D.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Using data collected by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in 1980 and 1981, strong evidence is presented for a direct correlation between variations in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind at Saturn and the level of activity of Saturn's nonthermal radio emission. Correlation coefficients of 57 to 58% are reached at lag times of 0 to 1 days between the arrival at Saturn of high pressure <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind streams and the onset of increased radio emission. The radio emission exhibits a long-term periodicity of 25 days, identical to the periodicity seen in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind at this time and consistent with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> rotation period. The energy coupling efficiency between the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind with the Saturn radio emission is estimated and compared with that for Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5099293','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5099293"><span>SOLERAS - <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Energy Applications System Design Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">controlled</span> environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..58.1288L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..58.1288L"><span>Deployment dynamics and <span class="hlt">control</span> of large-scale flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> array system with deployable mast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Hai-Quan; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Shao-Jing; Cai, Guo-Ping</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, deployment dynamics and <span class="hlt">control</span> of large-scale flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> array system with deployable mast are investigated. The adopted <span class="hlt">solar</span> array system is introduced firstly, including system configuration, deployable mast and <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays with several mechanisms. Then dynamic equation of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> array system is established by the Jourdain velocity variation principle and a method for dynamics with topology changes is introduced. In addition, a PD <span class="hlt">controller</span> with disturbance estimation is designed to eliminate the drift of spacecraft mainbody. Finally the validity of the dynamic model is verified through a comparison with ADAMS software and the deployment process and dynamic behavior of the system are studied in detail. Simulation results indicate that the proposed model is effective to describe the deployment dynamics of the large-scale flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays and the proposed <span class="hlt">controller</span> is practical to eliminate the drift of spacecraft mainbody.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960009737&hterms=Active+fixed&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DActive%2Bfixed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960009737&hterms=Active+fixed&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DActive%2Bfixed"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> sail attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Azor, Ruth</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw <span class="hlt">control</span> which is obtained by the use of <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992gnc..conf..226A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992gnc..conf..226A"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azor, Ruth</p> <p>1992-08-01</p> <p>In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by <span class="hlt">solar</span> pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw <span class="hlt">control</span>, which is obtained by the use of <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960009737&hterms=wheel+satellite&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwheel%2Bsatellite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960009737&hterms=wheel+satellite&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwheel%2Bsatellite"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> sail attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Azor, Ruth</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw <span class="hlt">control</span> which is obtained by the use of <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1002G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1002G"><span>The optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> for the tethered system formed by an asteroid and a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Youtao; Wu, Jingyun</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on a method of changing the orbit of an asteroid by attaching a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail to the asteroid. First, the dynamic model of the tethered system is derived. Legendre pseudospectral method is then used to discretize the system, and the sequence of two quadratic programming is utilized to obtain the optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> law. Simulation results show that the tethered <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail can efficiently change the asteroid's orbit. Moreover, the problem of the tether twining around the asteroid caused by the relative orbit motion between the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail and the asteroid can be avoided. Finally, the effectiveness of altering an asteroid's orbit by different <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails is analyzed. Simulation results show that when the area of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail is 106 m2, the asteroid can be deflected at 1.227 × 108 m by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail after about 20 years, which is better than the effect of a gravitational tractor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6284926','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6284926"><span>Electrical charging <span class="hlt">control</span> apparatus and method, and <span class="hlt">solar</span> to electrical energy conversion apparatus incorporating such charging <span class="hlt">control</span> apparatus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Staler, T.; Yerkes, J.W.</p> <p>1984-06-05</p> <p>Electrical charging <span class="hlt">control</span> apparatus regulates the charging of a rechargeable battery by a <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel. The <span class="hlt">control</span> of the charging is through a relay which when closed directly connects the output and charging terminal of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel to the output and charging terminal of the battery to permit the charging of the battery by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel. Such coupling is in turn under the terminals are in a coupling prevention relationship chosen to prevent significant discharging of the battery through the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel; of breaker apparatus which breaks a coupling after a predetermined period of time; and of additional signal-tester apparatus which causes a termination of the coupling when the signal at the connected terminals reaches a chosen charging termination threshold. The breaking of the coupling, which can result in a periodic breaking, permits the testing for discharging prevention. A charging <span class="hlt">control</span> method is in accordance with the above outlined method of operation of the charging <span class="hlt">control</span> apparatus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990110718&hterms=1989&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D1989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990110718&hterms=1989&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D1989"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Particle Induced Upsets in the TDRS-1 Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> System RAM During the October 1989 <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Particle Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Croley, D. R.; Garrett, H. B.; Murphy, G. B.; Garrard,T. L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The three large <span class="hlt">solar</span> particle events, beginning on October 19, 1989 and lasting approximately six days, were characterized by high fluences of <span class="hlt">solar</span> protons and heavy ions at 1 AU. During these events, an abnormally large number of upsets (243) were observed in the random access memory of the attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> system (ACS) <span class="hlt">control</span> processing electronics (CPE) on-board the geosynchronous TDRS-1 (Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite). The RAM unit affected was composed of eight Fairchild 93L422 memory chips. The Galileo spacecraft, launched on October 18, 1989 (one day prior to the <span class="hlt">solar</span> particle events) observed the fluxes of heavy ions experienced by TDRS-1. Two solid-state detector telescopes on-board Galileo, designed to measure heavy ion species and energy, were turned on during time periods within each of the three separate events. The heavy ion data have been modeled and the time history of the events reconstructed to estimate heavy ion fluences. These fluences were converted to effective LET spectra after transport through the estimated shielding distribution around the TDRS-1 ACS system. The number of single event upsets (SEU) expected was calculated by integrating the measured cross section for the Fairchild 93L422 memory chip with average effective LET spectrum. The expected number of heavy ion induced SEU's calculated was 176. GOES-7 proton data, observed during the <span class="hlt">solar</span> particle events, were used to estimate the number of proton-induced SEU's by integrating the proton fluence spectrum incident on the memory chips, with the two-parameter Bendel cross section for proton SEU'S. The proton fluence spectrum at the device level was gotten by transporting the protons through the estimated shielding distribution. The number of calculated proton-induced SEU's was 72, yielding a total of 248 predicted SEU'S, very dose to the 243 observed SEU'S. These calculations uniquely demonstrate the roles that <span class="hlt">solar</span> heavy ions and protons played in the production of SEU</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990110718&hterms=ram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dram','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990110718&hterms=ram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dram"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Particle Induced Upsets in the TDRS-1 Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> System RAM During the October 1989 <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Particle Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Croley, D. R.; Garrett, H. B.; Murphy, G. B.; Garrard,T. L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The three large <span class="hlt">solar</span> particle events, beginning on October 19, 1989 and lasting approximately six days, were characterized by high fluences of <span class="hlt">solar</span> protons and heavy ions at 1 AU. During these events, an abnormally large number of upsets (243) were observed in the random access memory of the attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> system (ACS) <span class="hlt">control</span> processing electronics (CPE) on-board the geosynchronous TDRS-1 (Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite). The RAM unit affected was composed of eight Fairchild 93L422 memory chips. The Galileo spacecraft, launched on October 18, 1989 (one day prior to the <span class="hlt">solar</span> particle events) observed the fluxes of heavy ions experienced by TDRS-1. Two solid-state detector telescopes on-board Galileo, designed to measure heavy ion species and energy, were turned on during time periods within each of the three separate events. The heavy ion data have been modeled and the time history of the events reconstructed to estimate heavy ion fluences. These fluences were converted to effective LET spectra after transport through the estimated shielding distribution around the TDRS-1 ACS system. The number of single event upsets (SEU) expected was calculated by integrating the measured cross section for the Fairchild 93L422 memory chip with average effective LET spectrum. The expected number of heavy ion induced SEU's calculated was 176. GOES-7 proton data, observed during the <span class="hlt">solar</span> particle events, were used to estimate the number of proton-induced SEU's by integrating the proton fluence spectrum incident on the memory chips, with the two-parameter Bendel cross section for proton SEU'S. The proton fluence spectrum at the device level was gotten by transporting the protons through the estimated shielding distribution. The number of calculated proton-induced SEU's was 72, yielding a total of 248 predicted SEU'S, very dose to the 243 observed SEU'S. These calculations uniquely demonstrate the roles that <span class="hlt">solar</span> heavy ions and protons played in the production of SEU</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ap%26SS.361..144H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ap%26SS.361..144H"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> of tetrahedron satellite formation flying in the geosynchronous orbit using <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hou, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Sun, Rong-Yu</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this paper, the <span class="hlt">control</span> of tetrahedron satellite formation flying in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) using <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure is investigated. The long term disturbing effect of the main zonal and tesseral harmonics J2 and J_{22} of the geopotential are eliminated by adjusting the initial orbital elements, and a tetrahedron satellite formation flying in the GEO is designed. Then a <span class="hlt">control</span> system using <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure is further proposed to maintain the tetrahedron satellite formation, in which a sliding mode <span class="hlt">control</span> (SMC) is developed to determine the <span class="hlt">control</span> force. The <span class="hlt">control</span> force is acquired from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails equipped on the satellites, and the final <span class="hlt">control</span> law and strategy using <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure are presented. Moreover, three kinds of numerical simulations are especially given to verify the validity of the <span class="hlt">control</span> system using <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation. It shows that Laplace precession of the GEO satellite can be avoided effectively, and the in-plane and out-of-plane errors of the formation can be eliminated easily. And hence the <span class="hlt">control</span> of tetrahedron satellite formation flying in the GEO using <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure is proved to be feasible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15716946','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15716946"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind dynamic pressure and electric field as the main factors <span class="hlt">controlling</span> Saturn's aurorae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crary, F J; Clarke, J T; Dougherty, M K; Hanlon, P G; Hansen, K C; Steinberg, J T; Barraclough, B L; Coates, A J; Gérard, J-C; Grodent, D; Kurth, W S; Mitchell, D G; Rymer, A M; Young, D T</p> <p>2005-02-17</p> <p>The interaction of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind with Earth's magnetosphere gives rise to the bright polar aurorae and to geomagnetic storms, but the relation between the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind and the dynamics of the outer planets' magnetospheres is poorly understood. Jupiter's magnetospheric dynamics and aurorae are dominated by processes internal to the jovian system, whereas Saturn's magnetosphere has generally been considered to have both internal and <span class="hlt">solar</span>-wind-driven processes. This hypothesis, however, is tentative because of limited simultaneous <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind and magnetospheric measurements. Here we report <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind measurements, immediately upstream of Saturn, over a one-month period. When combined with simultaneous ultraviolet imaging we find that, unlike Jupiter, Saturn's aurorae respond strongly to <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind conditions. But in contrast to Earth, the main <span class="hlt">controlling</span> factor appears to be <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind dynamic pressure and electric field, with the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field playing a much more limited role. Saturn's magnetosphere is, therefore, strongly driven by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind, but the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind conditions that drive it differ from those that drive the Earth's magnetosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992isaa.conf..311A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992isaa.conf..311A"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> sail attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azor, Ruth</p> <p>1992-02-01</p> <p>In the geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances caused by <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw <span class="hlt">control</span> system with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. Roll/yaw <span class="hlt">control</span> is obtained by the use of <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays and fixed flaps as actuators. The design also includes an active nutation damping method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920072690&hterms=dead+zones&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddead%2Bzones','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920072690&hterms=dead+zones&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddead%2Bzones"><span>Classical and adaptive <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithms for the <span class="hlt">solar</span> array pointing system of the Space Station Freedom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ianculescu, G. D.; Klop, J. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Classical and adaptive <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithms for the <span class="hlt">solar</span> array pointing system of the Space Station Freedom are designed using a continuous rigid body model of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> array gimbal assembly containing both linear and nonlinear dynamics due to various friction components. The robustness of the design solution is examined by performing a series of sensitivity analysis studies. Adaptive <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies are examined in order to compensate for the unfavorable effect of static nonlinearities, such as dead-zone uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750056825&hterms=asma&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasma','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750056825&hterms=asma&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasma"><span>Thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> evaluation of a Shuttle Orbiter <span class="hlt">solar</span> observatory using Skylab ATM backup hardware</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Class, C. R.; Presta, G.; Trucks, H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A study under the sponsorship of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) established the feasibility to utilize the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) backup hardware for early low cost Shuttle Orbiter <span class="hlt">solar</span> observation missions. A <span class="hlt">solar</span> inertial attitude and a seven-day, full sun exposure were baselined. As a portion of the study, a series of thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> evaluations were performed to resolve the problems caused by the relocation of the ATM to the Shuttle Orbiter bay and resulting configuration changes. Thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> requirements, problems, the use of <span class="hlt">solar</span> shields, Spacelab supplied fluid cooling and component placement are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850041177&hterms=1055&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231055','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850041177&hterms=1055&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231055"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of magnetospheric pressure (CDAW 6)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fairfield, D. H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The CDAW 6 data base is used to compare <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind and magnetospheric pressures. The flaring angle of the tail magnetopause is determined by assuming that the component of <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind pressure normal to the tail boundary is equal to the total pressure within the tail. Results indicate an increase in the tail flaring angle from 18 deg to 32 deg prior to the 1055 substorm onset and a decrease to 25 deg after the onset. This behavior supports the concept of tail energy storage before the substorm and subsequent release after the onset.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AdSpR..24..971P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AdSpR..24..971P"><span>Biomass Burning <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Modulation of the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Radiation in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pereira, E. B.; Martins, F. R.; Abreu, S. L.; Couto, P.; Colle, S.; Stuhlmann, R.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric combustion products from forest fires in Brazil can affect routine satellite techniques for the assessment of <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy resource information. The mean overestimation of <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance by BRASIL-SR clear sky model was up to 2.5 times larger than that found outside the region of biomass burnings. Within the region of biomass burnings the overestimation was over 5 times larger at the peak of the burning season when compared to the rest of the year. A positive correlation between combustion products and the number of fire spots counted by satellite technique suggests a possible method for the parameterization of these effects in radiation transfer models</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850041177&hterms=1055&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231055','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850041177&hterms=1055&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231055"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of magnetospheric pressure (CDAW 6)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fairfield, D. H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The CDAW 6 data base is used to compare <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind and magnetospheric pressures. The flaring angle of the tail magnetopause is determined by assuming that the component of <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind pressure normal to the tail boundary is equal to the total pressure within the tail. Results indicate an increase in the tail flaring angle from 18 deg to 32 deg prior to the 1055 substorm onset and a decrease to 25 deg after the onset. This behavior supports the concept of tail energy storage before the substorm and subsequent release after the onset.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.1737M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.1737M"><span>Dynamics and <span class="hlt">control</span> of flexible spinning <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails under reflectivity modulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mu, Junshan; Gong, Shengping; Ma, Pengbin; Li, Junfeng</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Electrochromic devices have been used for the attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> of a spinning <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail in a deep space mission by modulating the reflectivity of the sail membrane. As a flexible spinning <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail has no rigid structure to support its membrane, the distributed load due to <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation will lead to the deformation of the sail membrane, and the <span class="hlt">control</span> torque generated by reflectivity modulation can introduce oscillatory motion to the membrane. By contrast, the deformation and oscillatory motion of the sail membrane have an impact on the performance of the reflectivity <span class="hlt">control</span>. This paper investigates the dynamics and <span class="hlt">control</span> of flexible spinning <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails under reflectivity modulation. The static deformation of a spinning sail membrane subjected to <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure in an equilibrium state is analyzed. The von Karman theory is used to obtain the displacements and the stress distribution in the equilibrium states. A simplified analytical first-order mode is chosen to model the membrane oscillation. The coupled membrane oscillation-attitude-orbit dynamics are considered for a GeoSail formation flying mission. The relative attitude and orbit <span class="hlt">control</span> of flexible spinning <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails under reflectivity modulation are numerically tested. The simulations indicate that the membrane deformation and oscillation have a lower impact on the <span class="hlt">control</span> of the reflectivity modulated sails than the increase of the spinning rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860027072&hterms=active+passive+solar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dactive%2Bpassive%2Bsolar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860027072&hterms=active+passive+solar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dactive%2Bpassive%2Bsolar"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> of an orbiting flexible square platform in the presence of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bainum, P. M.; Krishna, R.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An analysis is made of the dynamics of a thin, homogeneous, flexible square plate exposed to <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation disturbance. It is shown that only the first three flexible modes of the plate generate a first order net moment about the center of mass and that the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure does not influence the flexible modes of the plate for small-amplitude vibrations. In the absence of <span class="hlt">control</span>, for a symmetrical homogeneous square platform, the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation induces a steady angular drift about one of the body principal axes. For extremely flexible platforms, nominally oriented in the local horizontal plane, appreciable rigid modal amplitudes can be induced due to <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation, even in the presence of both active and passive <span class="hlt">control</span>. Optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> law and feedback gain values are obtained using linear quadratic Gaussian methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730037983&hterms=spacecraft+dynamic+control&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dspacecraft%2Bdynamic%2Bcontrol','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730037983&hterms=spacecraft+dynamic+control&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dspacecraft%2Bdynamic%2Bcontrol"><span>A dynamic <span class="hlt">solar</span>-electric power/thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> system for spacecraft.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davis, B. K.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a <span class="hlt">solar</span>-electric power and active thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> system for spacecraft with <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy to electricity conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Briefly, the <span class="hlt">solar</span> heat energy is absorbed by flat plate collectors yielding above 70% of the energy incident for conversion by an organic condensing cycle. The cycle operates between 132 and 6.67 deg C. The working fluid is F-114 which flows through a <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector to absorb heat, then through a regenerator and into the radiator where it is condensed to a liquid. The cold liquid flows through two paths, one providing regenerator cooling, the other providing spacecraft thermal <span class="hlt">control</span>. The system total weight is about 170kg/kW of electrical energy produced. The dynamic system replaces batteries by a thermal capacitor for eclipse period energy storage, thereby eliminating many battery charging and <span class="hlt">control</span> problems as well as improving efficiency and weight characteristics of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.8728P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.8728P"><span>Magnetosheath <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind-magnetosphere coupling efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pulkkinen, T. I.; Dimmock, A. P.; Lakka, A.; Osmane, A.; Kilpua, E.; Myllys, M.; Tanskanen, E. I.; Viljanen, A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We examine the role of the magnetosheath in <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms plasma and magnetic field observations in the magnetosheath together with OMNI <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind data and auroral electrojet recordings from the International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects (IMAGE) magnetometer chain. We demonstrate that the electric field and Poynting flux reaching the magnetopause are not linear functions of the electric field and Poynting flux observed in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind: the electric field and Poynting flux at the magnetopause during higher driving conditions are lower than those predicted from a linear function. We also show that the Poynting flux normal to the magnetopause is linearly correlated with the directly driven part of the auroral electrojets in the ionosphere. This indicates that the energy entering the magnetosphere in the form of the Poynting flux is directly responsible for driving the electrojets. Furthermore, we argue that the polar cap potential saturation discussed in the literature is associated with the way <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind plasma gets processed during the bow shock crossing and motion within the magnetosheath.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930029135&hterms=self+study+modules&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dself%2Bstudy%2Bmodules','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930029135&hterms=self+study+modules&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dself%2Bstudy%2Bmodules"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span>-structure interaction study for the Space Station <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic power module</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, J.; Ianculescu, G.; Ly, J.; Kim, M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The authors investigate the feasibility of using a conventional PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative) <span class="hlt">controller</span> design to perform the pointing and tracking functions for the Space Station Freedom <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic power module. Using this simple <span class="hlt">controller</span> design, the <span class="hlt">control</span>/structure interaction effects were also studied without assuming frequency bandwidth separation. From the results, the feasibility of a simple <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic <span class="hlt">control</span> solution with a reduced-order model, which satisfies the basic system pointing and stability requirements, is suggested. However, the conventional <span class="hlt">control</span> design approach is shown to be very much influenced by the order of reduction of the plant model, i.e., the number of the retained elastic modes from the full-order model. This suggests that, for complex large space structures, such as the Space Station Freedom <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic, the conventional <span class="hlt">control</span> system design methods may not be adequate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980STIN...8115536G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980STIN...8115536G"><span>The social <span class="hlt">control</span> of energy: A case for the promise of decentralized <span class="hlt">solar</span> technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilmer, R. W.</p> <p>1980-05-01</p> <p>Decentralized <span class="hlt">solar</span> technology and centralized electric utilities were contrasted in the ways they assign property rights in capital and energy output; in the assignment of operational <span class="hlt">control</span>; and in the means of monitoring, policing, and enforcing property rights. An analogy was drawn between the decision of an energy consumer to use decentralized <span class="hlt">solar</span> and the decision of a firm to vertically integrate, that is, to extend the boundary of a the firm to vertically integrate, that is, to extend the boundary of the firm by making inputs or further processing output. Decentralized <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy production offers the small energy consumer the chance to cut ties to outside suppliers--to vertically integrate energy production into the home or business. The development of this analogy provides insight into important noneconomic aspects of <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy, and it points clearly to the lighter burdens of social management offered by decentralized <span class="hlt">solar</span> technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27765992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27765992"><span>Evaluation of Steam and Soil <span class="hlt">Solarization</span> for Meloidogyne arenaria <span class="hlt">Control</span> in Florida Floriculture Crops.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N; Butler, David M; Fennimore, Steven A; Holzinger, John</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Steam and soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span> were investigated for <span class="hlt">control</span> of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in 2 yr of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if preplant steam treatments in combination with <span class="hlt">solarization</span>, or <span class="hlt">solarization</span> alone effectively <span class="hlt">controlled</span> nematodes compared to methyl bromide (MeBr). Trials were conducted in a field with naturally occurring populations of M. arenaria. Treatments were <span class="hlt">solarization</span> alone, steam treatment after <span class="hlt">solarization</span> using standard 7.6-cm-diameter perforated plastic drain tile (steam 1), steam treatment following <span class="hlt">solarization</span> using custom-drilled plastic drain tile with 1.6-mm holes spaced every 3.8 cm (steam 2), and MeBr applied at 392 kg/ha 80:20 MeBr:chloropicrin. Drain tiles were buried approximately 35 cm deep with four tiles per 1.8 by 30 m plot. Steam application followed a 4-wk <span class="hlt">solarization</span> period concluding in mid-October. All steam was generated using a Sioux propane boiler system. Plots were steamed for sufficient time to reach the target temperature of 70°C for 20 min. <span class="hlt">Solarization</span> plastic was retained on the plots during steaming and plots were covered with a single layer of carpet padding to provide additional insulation. The floriculture crops larkspur (Delphinium elatum and Delphinium × belladonna), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were produced according to standard commercial practices. One month after treatment in both years of the study, soil populations of M. arenaria were lower in both steam treatments and in MeBr compared to <span class="hlt">solarization</span> alone. At the end of the season in both years, galling on larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflowers was lower in both steam treatments than in <span class="hlt">solarization</span>. Both steam treatments also provided <span class="hlt">control</span> of M. arenaria in soil at the end of the season comparable to, or exceeding that provided by MeBr. Both steam treatments also reduced M. arenaria in snapdragon roots comparable to, or exceeding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5070931','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5070931"><span>Evaluation of Steam and Soil <span class="hlt">Solarization</span> for Meloidogyne arenaria <span class="hlt">Control</span> in Florida Floriculture Crops</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N.; Butler, David M.; Fennimore, Steven A.; Holzinger, John</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Steam and soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span> were investigated for <span class="hlt">control</span> of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in 2 yr of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if preplant steam treatments in combination with <span class="hlt">solarization</span>, or <span class="hlt">solarization</span> alone effectively <span class="hlt">controlled</span> nematodes compared to methyl bromide (MeBr). Trials were conducted in a field with naturally occurring populations of M. arenaria. Treatments were <span class="hlt">solarization</span> alone, steam treatment after <span class="hlt">solarization</span> using standard 7.6-cm-diameter perforated plastic drain tile (steam 1), steam treatment following <span class="hlt">solarization</span> using custom-drilled plastic drain tile with 1.6-mm holes spaced every 3.8 cm (steam 2), and MeBr applied at 392 kg/ha 80:20 MeBr:chloropicrin. Drain tiles were buried approximately 35 cm deep with four tiles per 1.8 by 30 m plot. Steam application followed a 4-wk <span class="hlt">solarization</span> period concluding in mid-October. All steam was generated using a Sioux propane boiler system. Plots were steamed for sufficient time to reach the target temperature of 70°C for 20 min. <span class="hlt">Solarization</span> plastic was retained on the plots during steaming and plots were covered with a single layer of carpet padding to provide additional insulation. The floriculture crops larkspur (Delphinium elatum and Delphinium × belladonna), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were produced according to standard commercial practices. One month after treatment in both years of the study, soil populations of M. arenaria were lower in both steam treatments and in MeBr compared to <span class="hlt">solarization</span> alone. At the end of the season in both years, galling on larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflowers was lower in both steam treatments than in <span class="hlt">solarization</span>. Both steam treatments also provided <span class="hlt">control</span> of M. arenaria in soil at the end of the season comparable to, or exceeding that provided by MeBr. Both steam treatments also reduced M. arenaria in snapdragon roots comparable to, or exceeding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800010906','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800010906"><span>Attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> study for a large flexible spacecraft using a <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Electric Propulsion System (SEPS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tolivar, A. F.; Key, R. W.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> performance of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion system (SEPS) was evaluated. A thrust vector <span class="hlt">control</span> system for powered flight <span class="hlt">control</span> was examined along with a gas jet reaction <span class="hlt">control</span> system, and a reaction wheel system, both of which have been proposed for nonpowered flight <span class="hlt">control</span>. Comprehensive computer simulations of each <span class="hlt">control</span> system were made and evaluated using a 30 mode spacecraft model. Results obtained indicate that thrust vector <span class="hlt">control</span> and reaction wheel systems offer acceptable smooth proportional <span class="hlt">control</span>. The gas jet <span class="hlt">control</span> system is shown to be risky for a flexible structure such as SEPS, and is therefore, not recommended as a primary <span class="hlt">control</span> method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..114a2138A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..114a2138A"><span>Fuzzy Logic <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Module for Driving Three- Phase Induction Motor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Sooi Tat, Chan; Ajisman</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Renewable energy produced by <span class="hlt">solar</span> module gives advantages for generated three- phase induction motor in remote area. But, <span class="hlt">solar</span> module's ou tput is uncertain and complex. Fuzzy logic <span class="hlt">controller</span> is one of <span class="hlt">controllers</span> that can handle non-linear system and maximum power of <span class="hlt">solar</span> module. Fuzzy logic <span class="hlt">controller</span> used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to <span class="hlt">control</span> Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) for switching power electronics circuit. DC-DC boost converter used to boost up photovoltaic voltage to desired output and supply voltage source inverter which <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by three-phase PWM generated by microcontroller. IGBT switched Voltage source inverter (VSI) produced alternating current (AC) voltage from direct current (DC) source to <span class="hlt">control</span> speed of three-phase induction motor from boost converter output. Results showed that, the output power of <span class="hlt">solar</span> module is optimized and <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by using fuzzy logic <span class="hlt">controller</span>. Besides that, the three-phase induction motor can be drive and <span class="hlt">control</span> using VSI switching by the PWM signal generated by the fuzzy logic <span class="hlt">controller</span>. This concluded that the non-linear system can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> and used in driving three-phase induction motor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.803a2107N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.803a2107N"><span>Automated Intelligent Monitoring and the <span class="hlt">Controlling</span> Software System for <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Panels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nalamwar, H. S.; Ivanov, M. A.; Baidali, S. A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The inspection of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels on a periodic basis is important to improve longevity and ensure performance of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> system. To get the most <span class="hlt">solar</span> potential of the photovoltaic (PV) system is possible through an intelligent monitoring & <span class="hlt">controlling</span> system. The monitoring & <span class="hlt">controlling</span> system has rapidly increased its popularity because of its user-friendly graphical interface for data acquisition, monitoring, <span class="hlt">controlling</span> and measurements. In order to monitor the performance of the system especially for renewable energy source application such as <span class="hlt">solar</span> photovoltaic (PV), data-acquisition systems had been used to collect all the data regarding the installed system. In this paper the development of a smart automated monitoring & <span class="hlt">controlling</span> system for the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel is described, the core idea is based on IoT (the Internet of Things). The measurements of data are made using sensors, block management data acquisition modules, and a software system. Then, all the real-time data collection of the electrical output parameters of the PV plant such as voltage, current and generated electricity is displayed and stored in the block management. The proposed system is smart enough to make suggestions if the panel is not working properly, to display errors, to remind about maintenance of the system through email or SMS, and to rotate panels according to a sun position using the Ephemeral table that stored in the system. The advantages of the system are the performance of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel system which can be monitored and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1343523','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1343523"><span>Active power <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV generation for large interconnection frequency regulation and oscillation damping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Yong; Zhu, Lin; Zhan, Lingwei; Gracia, Jose R.; King, Thomas Jr.; Liu, Yilu</p> <p>2015-06-23</p> <p>Because of zero greenhouse gas emission and decreased manufacture cost, <span class="hlt">solar</span> photovoltaic (PV) generation is expected to account for a significant portion of future power grid generation portfolio. Because it is indirectly connected to the power grid via power electronic devices, <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV generation system is fully decoupled from the power grid, which will influence the interconnected power grid dynamic characteristics as a result. In this study, the impact of <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV penetration on large interconnected power system frequency response and inter-area oscillation is evaluated, taking the United States Eastern Interconnection (EI) as an example. Furthermore, based on the constructed <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV electrical <span class="hlt">control</span> model with additional active power <span class="hlt">control</span> loops, the potential contributions of <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV generation to power system frequency regulation and oscillation damping are examined. The advantages of <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV frequency support over that of wind generator are also discussed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV generations can effectively work as ‘actuators’ in alleviating the negative impacts they bring about.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1343523-active-power-control-solar-pv-generation-large-interconnection-frequency-regulation-oscillation-damping','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1343523-active-power-control-solar-pv-generation-large-interconnection-frequency-regulation-oscillation-damping"><span>Active power <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV generation for large interconnection frequency regulation and oscillation damping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Liu, Yong; Zhu, Lin; Zhan, Lingwei; ...</p> <p>2015-06-23</p> <p>Because of zero greenhouse gas emission and decreased manufacture cost, <span class="hlt">solar</span> photovoltaic (PV) generation is expected to account for a significant portion of future power grid generation portfolio. Because it is indirectly connected to the power grid via power electronic devices, <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV generation system is fully decoupled from the power grid, which will influence the interconnected power grid dynamic characteristics as a result. In this study, the impact of <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV penetration on large interconnected power system frequency response and inter-area oscillation is evaluated, taking the United States Eastern Interconnection (EI) as an example. Furthermore, based on the constructedmore » <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV electrical <span class="hlt">control</span> model with additional active power <span class="hlt">control</span> loops, the potential contributions of <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV generation to power system frequency regulation and oscillation damping are examined. The advantages of <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV frequency support over that of wind generator are also discussed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV generations can effectively work as ‘actuators’ in alleviating the negative impacts they bring about.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870029831&hterms=dams+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Ddams%2Bwork','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870029831&hterms=dams+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Ddams%2Bwork"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of Jupiter's decametric radio emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barrow, C. H.; Genova, F.; Desch, M. D.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Observations of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind close to Jupiter are compared with the decametric radio emission (DAM), using data recorded by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 during 1979. The Non-Io DAM, recorded by both spacecraft and combined using the superposed epoch technique, is found to correlate with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind density and velocity, as well as with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude. In agreement with earlier work using ground-based observations, there are indications that the Non-Io DAM is somehow associated with magnetic sector structure although the precise details of the relationship are still not known and it is not clear if this is a fundamental effect or some secondary effect of intercorrelation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870029831&hterms=emissions+paris+agreement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Demissions%2Bparis%2Bagreement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870029831&hterms=emissions+paris+agreement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Demissions%2Bparis%2Bagreement"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of Jupiter's decametric radio emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barrow, C. H.; Genova, F.; Desch, M. D.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Observations of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind close to Jupiter are compared with the decametric radio emission (DAM), using data recorded by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 during 1979. The Non-Io DAM, recorded by both spacecraft and combined using the superposed epoch technique, is found to correlate with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind density and velocity, as well as with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude. In agreement with earlier work using ground-based observations, there are indications that the Non-Io DAM is somehow associated with magnetic sector structure although the precise details of the relationship are still not known and it is not clear if this is a fundamental effect or some secondary effect of intercorrelation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950046654&hterms=ISEE-3&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DISEE-3','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950046654&hterms=ISEE-3&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DISEE-3"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of the distant magnetotail: ISEE 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fairfield, D. H.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>During a 40-day period in 1983, International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE 3) was located about 225 R(sub E) behind the Earth and remained within 12 R(sub E) of the nominal tail axis. During this time the spacecraft spent at least 70% of its time in the magnetotail with occasional excursions into the magnetosheath. However, during five geomagnetically distrubed intervals of 1 - 3 days duration during this period, ISEE 3 remained within the magnetosheath for extended intervals, even when it was very near the center of an average tail. Simultaneous observations of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind direction and thermal pressure suggest that nonradial <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind flow associated with interacting <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind streams moves a compressed tail away from the nominal position at these times and explains most of these observations. However, during several few-hour intervals of strongly northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) within these periods, the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind is more radial and cannot explain the residence of the spacecraft in the magnetosheath. At these times ISEE 3 seems to be moving back and forth between two regions, one a higher-density, lower-temperature magnetosheathlike region but with density somewhat lower than the normal magnetosheath, the other a lower-density, higher-temperature taillike region but with density higher than the normal tail. Both regions have larger B(sub z) components and B(sub x) components that tend to vary as if the spacecraft were moving from one hemisphere of the tail to the other. It is suggested that the magnetotail at these times of northward IMF consists mostly of field lines that close Earthward of the spacecraft with a narrow remaining tail at 225 R(sub E) waving back and forth across the spacecraft. If relatively rare intervals of long-duration, very northward IMF can eliminate the extended tail, it seems likely that more common, less northward IMF might well have very important, though less drastic, effects on the tail configurations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770052178&hterms=Control+motor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DControl%2Bmotor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770052178&hterms=Control+motor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DControl%2Bmotor"><span>The sun-tracking <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> collectors using high-performance step motors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hughes, R. O.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Sun-tracking <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy-focusing devices involving a central receiver, thermionic conversion, or a distributed <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal collector system are described. The Perkins <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector uses a fixed focal point about which an 18 m-diameter parabolic dish moves on tracks. The elevation axis also moves on a circular track. A microprocessor manipulates sun sensor information and sun ephemeris data to ensure correct placement. Stepper motors are digital devices which provide direct interface with digital electronics and a wide dynamic range, and could easily be associated with the microprocessors. Design philosophy, performance criteria, wind load analysis, and <span class="hlt">control</span> system requirements are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910013054','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910013054"><span>Evaluation of thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings for use on <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic radiators in low Earth orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dever, Joyce A.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Slemp, Wayne S.; Stoyack, Joseph E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings with high thermal emittance and low <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance are needed for Space Station Freedom (SSF) <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic power module radiator (SDR) surfaces for efficient heat rejection. Additionally, these coatings must be durable to low earth orbital (LEO) environmental effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and deep thermal cycles which occur as a result of start-up and shut-down of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic power system. Eleven candidate coatings were characterized for their <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance and emittance before and after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (200 to 400 nm), vacuum UV (VUV) radiation (100 to 200 nm) and atomic oxygen. Results indicated that the most durable and best performing coatings were white paint thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings Z-93, zinc oxide pigment in potassium silicate binder, and YB-71, zinc orthotitanate pigment in potassium silicate binder. Optical micrographs of these materials exposed to the individual environmental effects of atomic oxygen and vacuum thermal cycling showed that no surface cracking occurred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4564800','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4564800"><span>Photoinduced Charge Transport in a BHJ <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cell <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> by an External Electric Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Yongqing; Feng, Yanting; Sun, Mengtao</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated theoretical photoinduced charge transport in a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by an external electric field. Our method for visualizing charge difference density identified the excited state properties of photoinduced charge transfer, and the charge transfer excited states were distinguished from local excited states during electronic transitions. Furthermore, the calculated rates for the charge transfer revealed that the charge transfer was strongly influenced by the external electric field. The external electric field accelerated the rate of charge transfer by up to one order when charge recombination was significantly restrained. Our research demonstrated that photoinduced charge transport <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by an external electric field in a BHJ <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell is efficient, and the exciton dissociation is not the limiting factor in organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.Our research should aid in the rational design of a novel conjugated system of organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. PMID:26353997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910058774&hterms=makes+paint+durable&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmakes%2Bpaint%2Bdurable','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910058774&hterms=makes+paint+durable&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmakes%2Bpaint%2Bdurable"><span>Evaluation of thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings for use on <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic radiators in low earth orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dever, Joyce A.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Slemp, Wayne S.; Stoyack, Joseph E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings with high thermal emittance and low <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance are needed for Space Station Freedom (SSF) <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic power module radiator (SDR) surfaces for efficient heat rejection. Additionally, these coatings must be durable to low earth orbital (LEO) environmental effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and deep thermal cycles which occur as a result of start-up and shut-down of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic power system. Eleven candidate coatings were characterized for their <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance and emittance before and after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (200 to 400 nm), vacuum UV (VUV) radiation (100 to 200 nm) and atomic oxygen. Results indicated that the most durable and best performing coatings were white paint thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings Z-93, zinc oxide pigment in potassium silicate binder, and YB-71, zinc orthotitanate pigment in potassium silicate binder. Optical micrographs of these materials exposed to the individual environmental effects of atomic oxygen and vacuum thermal cycling showed that no surface cracking occurred.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910058774&hterms=Dever&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DDever','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910058774&hterms=Dever&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DDever"><span>Evaluation of thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings for use on <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic radiators in low earth orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dever, Joyce A.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Slemp, Wayne S.; Stoyack, Joseph E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings with high thermal emittance and low <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance are needed for Space Station Freedom (SSF) <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic power module radiator (SDR) surfaces for efficient heat rejection. Additionally, these coatings must be durable to low earth orbital (LEO) environmental effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and deep thermal cycles which occur as a result of start-up and shut-down of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamic power system. Eleven candidate coatings were characterized for their <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance and emittance before and after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (200 to 400 nm), vacuum UV (VUV) radiation (100 to 200 nm) and atomic oxygen. Results indicated that the most durable and best performing coatings were white paint thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings Z-93, zinc oxide pigment in potassium silicate binder, and YB-71, zinc orthotitanate pigment in potassium silicate binder. Optical micrographs of these materials exposed to the individual environmental effects of atomic oxygen and vacuum thermal cycling showed that no surface cracking occurred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SSRv..122...55A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SSRv..122...55A"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Wind <span class="hlt">Control</span> of the Magnetospheric and Auroral Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alexeev, I. I.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>A dependence of the polar cap magnetic flux on the interplanetary magnetic field and on the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind dynamic pressure is studied. The model calculations of the polar cap and auroral oval magnetic fluxes at the ionospheric level are presented. The obtained functions are based on the paraboloid magnetospheric model calculations. The scaling law for the polar cap diameter changing for different subsolar distances is demonstrated. Quiet conditions are used to compare theoretical results with the UV images of the Earth’s polar region obtained onboard the Polar and IMAGE spacecrafts. The model calculations enable finding not only the average polar cap magnetic flux but also the extreme values of the polar cap and auroral oval magnetic fluxes. These values can be attained in the course of the severe magnetic storm. Spectacular aurora often can be seen at midlatitude during severe magnetic storm. In particularly, the Bastille Day storm of July 15 16, 2000, was a severe magnetic storm when auroral displays were reported at midlatitudes. Enhancement of global magnetospheric current systems (ring current and tail current) and corresponding reconstruction of the magnetospheric structure is a reason for the equatorward displacement of the auroral zone. But at the start of the studied event the contracted polar cap and auroral oval were observed. In this case, the sudden <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind pressure pulse was associated with a simultaneous northward IMF turning. Such IMF and <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind pressure behavior is a cause of the observed aurora dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070031866','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070031866"><span>Application of Semi Active <span class="hlt">Control</span> Techniques to the Damping Suppression Problem of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Booms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adetona, O.; Keel, L. H.; Whorton, M. S.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> sails provide a propellant free form for space propulsion. These are large flat surfaces that generate thrust when they are impacted by light. When attached to a space vehicle, the thrust generated can propel the space vehicle to great distances at significant speeds. For optimal performance the sail must be kept from excessive vibration. Active <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques can provide the best performance. However, they require an external power-source that may create significant parasitic mass to the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail. However, <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails require low mass for optimal performance. Secondly, active <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques typically require a good system model to ensure stability and performance. However, the accuracy of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail models validated on earth for a space environment is questionable. An alternative approach is passive vibration techniques. These do not require an external power supply, and do not destabilize the system. A third alternative is referred to as semi-active <span class="hlt">control</span>. This approach tries to get the best of both active and passive <span class="hlt">control</span>, while avoiding their pitfalls. In semi-active <span class="hlt">control</span>, an active <span class="hlt">control</span> law is designed for the system, and passive <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques are used to implement it. As a result, no external power supply is needed so the system is not destabilize-able. Though it typically underperforms active <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques, it has been shown to out-perform passive <span class="hlt">control</span> approaches and can be unobtrusively installed on a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail boom. Motivated by this, the objective of this research is to study the suitability of a Piezoelectric (PZT) patch actuator/sensor based semi-active <span class="hlt">control</span> system for the vibration suppression problem of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail booms. Accordingly, we develop a suitable mathematical and computer model for such studies and demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach with computer simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1758c0055D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1758c0055D"><span>Fuzzy logic <span class="hlt">controller</span> versus classical logic <span class="hlt">controller</span> for residential hybrid <span class="hlt">solar</span>-wind-storage energy system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J. P.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by <span class="hlt">solar</span> and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22608468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22608468"><span>Fuzzy logic <span class="hlt">controller</span> versus classical logic <span class="hlt">controller</span> for residential hybrid <span class="hlt">solar</span>-wind-storage energy system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M. Charles, J. P.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.</p> <p>2016-07-25</p> <p>Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by <span class="hlt">solar</span> and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080031162&hterms=red+maple+trees&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bmaple%2Btrees','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080031162&hterms=red+maple+trees&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bmaple%2Btrees"><span>Canopy Level <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Induced Fluorescence for Vegetation in <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Middleton, E. M.; Corp, L. A.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) was retrieved from high resolution reflectance spectra acquired one meter above saplings of three deciduous tree species during springtime (three weeks after leaf flush) and in late summer when foliage was mature. SIF was determined by application of the Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) Principal to above-canopy spectra acquired with an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) Fieldspec spectroradiometer (3.2 nm resolution with 1.2 nm sampling interval). SIF retrievals were made at the two atmospheric oxygen (O2) absorption features that occur in the chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) region (660 -780 nm). These telluric features are 02V, the broader and deeper feature centered at 760 nm, but located on the shoulder of the far-red ChlF peak at 740 nm; and 023, a narrow feature centered at 688 nm that is positioned near the red ChlF peak at 685 nm. Supporting, coincident leaf level fluorescence, reflectance, photochemical and other measurements were also made. At the leaf level, these measurements included in situ photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) and light adapted total chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs') collected at steady state under high light and <span class="hlt">controlled</span> chamber conditions (e.g., temperature, PAR, humidity, and COz); optical properties (reflectance, transmittance, absorptance); chlorophyll and carotenoid content; specific leaf mass; carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content; fluorescence emission spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths; the ChlF contribution to red (R) and far-red (FR) reflectance; fluorescence imagery; and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). The tree species examined were tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraczflua L.), and each had been provided four levels of N augmentation (0, 19, 37, and 75 kg Nhectare seasonally) to simulate atmospheric deposition from air pollution. Whole-plant SIF measurements of these species were compared with SIF</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080031162&hterms=carotenoid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcarotenoid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080031162&hterms=carotenoid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcarotenoid"><span>Canopy Level <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Induced Fluorescence for Vegetation in <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Middleton, E. M.; Corp, L. A.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) was retrieved from high resolution reflectance spectra acquired one meter above saplings of three deciduous tree species during springtime (three weeks after leaf flush) and in late summer when foliage was mature. SIF was determined by application of the Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) Principal to above-canopy spectra acquired with an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) Fieldspec spectroradiometer (3.2 nm resolution with 1.2 nm sampling interval). SIF retrievals were made at the two atmospheric oxygen (O2) absorption features that occur in the chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) region (660 -780 nm). These telluric features are 02V, the broader and deeper feature centered at 760 nm, but located on the shoulder of the far-red ChlF peak at 740 nm; and 023, a narrow feature centered at 688 nm that is positioned near the red ChlF peak at 685 nm. Supporting, coincident leaf level fluorescence, reflectance, photochemical and other measurements were also made. At the leaf level, these measurements included in situ photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) and light adapted total chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs') collected at steady state under high light and <span class="hlt">controlled</span> chamber conditions (e.g., temperature, PAR, humidity, and COz); optical properties (reflectance, transmittance, absorptance); chlorophyll and carotenoid content; specific leaf mass; carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content; fluorescence emission spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths; the ChlF contribution to red (R) and far-red (FR) reflectance; fluorescence imagery; and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). The tree species examined were tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraczflua L.), and each had been provided four levels of N augmentation (0, 19, 37, and 75 kg Nhectare seasonally) to simulate atmospheric deposition from air pollution. Whole-plant SIF measurements of these species were compared with SIF</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7169787','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7169787"><span>Combined contamination and space environmental effects on <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells and thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dever, J.A.; Bruckner, E.J.; Scheiman, D.A.; Stidham, C.R.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell materials and thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance for fused silica and various thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> surfaces and degradation of <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells and thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940028516','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940028516"><span>Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells and Thermal <span class="hlt">Control</span> Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell materials and thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance for fused silica and various thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> surfaces and degradation of <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells and thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChA%26A..41...92Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChA%26A..41...92Y"><span>Orbit <span class="hlt">Control</span> of Fly-around Satellite with Highly Eccentric Orbit Using <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Radiation Pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yong-gang, Hou; Chang-yin, Zhao; Ming-jiang, Zhang; Rong-yu, Sun</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The method of <span class="hlt">controlling</span> highly eccentric accompanying flight orbit using the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wing is proposed in this paper. The formation is maintained by <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the orbit of the accompanying satellite (follower). The accompanying satellite rotates around its inertial principal axis with a constant angular velocity. The <span class="hlt">control</span> on the accompanying satellite is divided into the in-plane <span class="hlt">control</span> and out-of-plane <span class="hlt">control</span>. The in-plane <span class="hlt">control</span> is superior to the out-of-plane <span class="hlt">control</span>. The out-of-plane <span class="hlt">control</span> force is applied when the in-plane error is eliminated or the in-plane <span class="hlt">control</span> force can not be supplied due to some geometrical factors. By the sliding mode <span class="hlt">control</span> method, the magnitude and direction of the <span class="hlt">control</span> force required by the in-plane orbit <span class="hlt">control</span> are calculated. Then accordingly, the expression of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wing orientation with respect to the satellite body in the <span class="hlt">control</span> process is derived, so that by adjusting the orientation of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wing, the required <span class="hlt">control</span> force can be obtained. Finally, the verification on this method is performed by numerical simulations, including the orbit adjustment, error elimination, and the orbit maintenance. It is shown that this method can keep the error less than 5 m, and it is feasible for the space formation flight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5878169','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5878169"><span>Application of model reference adaptive <span class="hlt">control</span> to <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal utilization systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tanaka, T. )</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>A proportional plus integral plus derivative (PID) <span class="hlt">controller</span> is used to obtain usable energy from the sun in almost all the <span class="hlt">solar</span> systems in Japan. However, it is difficult to collect the heat continuously close to a prescribed temperature using a PID <span class="hlt">controller</span> because the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation is often interrupted by passing clouds. The authors investigated, therefore, a model reference adaptive <span class="hlt">control</span> (MRAC) system. In order to demonstrate its effectiveness, we constructed a MRAC system and introduced it into the collector loop of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> system. This paper gives an outline of the MRAC algorithm and describes the experimental results for the outlet fluid temperature response of the loop by the MRAC and PID. From these results, it is shown that the MRAC algorithm is suitable for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> a system affected by irregular disturbances in the insolation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015063','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015063"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> heating and cooling system installed at RKL <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Company, Lumberton, New Jersey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The final results of the design and operation of a computer <span class="hlt">controlled</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> heated and cooled 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales office, and computer <span class="hlt">control</span> center/display room are summarized. The system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, equipment manufacturers' literature, and as-built drawings are presented. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> system is composed of 6,000 square feet of flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, <span class="hlt">controls</span>, absorption chiller, heat recovery, and a cooling tower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980SoEn...25..123V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980SoEn...25..123V"><span>A theoretical study of the modelling and <span class="hlt">control</span> of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> water electrolysis plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vandergeest, P.; Fahidy, T. Z.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">control</span>-oriented model is presented for a hydrogen producing plant consisting of a conventional water electrolysis process and a photo-assisted water electrolytic installation which utilizes <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy via a suitable semiconductor/electrolyte assembly. A <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy for daily hydrogen production is illustrated by a numerical example. The proposed simulation of <span class="hlt">solar</span> water electrolysis plants is of potential usefulness for automatic <span class="hlt">control</span> of the photoelectrolytic process when combined with statistical data-logging and model updating carried out in a practical installation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8123597.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8123597."><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> heating and cooling system installed at RKL <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Company, Lumberton, New Jersey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-03-01</p> <p>The final results of the design and operation of a computer <span class="hlt">controlled</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> heated and cooled 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales office, and computer <span class="hlt">control</span> center/display room are summarized. The system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, equipment manufacturers' literature, and as-built drawings are presented. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> system is composed of 6,000 square feet of flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, <span class="hlt">controls</span>, absorption chiller, heat recovery, and a cooling tower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960047688&hterms=grossman&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgrossman','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960047688&hterms=grossman&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgrossman"><span>Shape <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960047688&hterms=long+term+memory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dlong%2Bterm%2Bmemory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960047688&hterms=long+term+memory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dlong%2Bterm%2Bmemory"><span>Shape <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26306585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26306585"><span>Polymer <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells: Solubility <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Fiber Network Formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Franeker, Jacobus J; Heintges, Gaël H L; Schaefer, Charley; Portale, Giuseppe; Li, Weiwei; Wienk, Martijn M; van der Schoot, Paul; Janssen, René A J</p> <p>2015-09-16</p> <p>The photoactive layer of polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells is commonly processed from a four-component solution, containing a semiconducting polymer and a fullerene derivative dissolved in a solvent-cosolvent mixture. The nanoscale dimensions of the polymer-fullerene morphology that is formed upon drying determines the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell performance, but the fundamental processes that govern the size of the phase-separated polymer and fullerene domains are poorly understood. Here, we investigate morphology formation of an alternating copolymer of diketopyrrolopyrrole and a thiophene-phenyl-thiophene oligomer (PDPPTPT) with relatively long 2-decyltetradecyl (DT) side chains blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester. During solvent evaporation the polymer crystallizes into a fibrous network. The typical width of these fibers is analyzed by quantification of transmission electron microscopic images, and is mainly determined by the solubility of the polymer in the cosolvent and the molecular weight of the polymer. A higher molecular weight corresponds to a lower solubility and film processing results in a smaller fiber width. Surprisingly, the fiber width is not related to the drying rate or the amount of cosolvent. We have made <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with fiber widths ranging from 28 to 68 nm and found an inverse relation between fiber width and photocurrent. Finally, by mixing two cosolvents, we develop a ternary solvent system to tune the fiber width. We propose a model based on nucleation-and-growth which can explain these measurements. Our results show that the width of the semicrystalline polymer fibers is not the result of a frozen dynamical state, but determined by the nucleation induced by the polymer solubility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......302L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......302L"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure to formation <span class="hlt">control</span> near libration points</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Hongming</p> <p></p> <p>In this dissertation, the use of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure (SRP) for spacecraft formation <span class="hlt">control</span> near one of the collinear Sun-Earth or Earth-Moon libration points is investigated. Specifically, we consider whether formation spacecraft that are equipped with Sun-facing reflective surfaces (<span class="hlt">solar</span> sail or sun shield) can exploit the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation force that acts on them to perform gradual relative maneuvering. The relative motion between formation spacecraft with <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail or sun shield near libration point is analyzed. A set of linearized equations of relative motion for libration point formations under differential <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation forcing is derived, with the sun shield or <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail off-pointing angle taken as the <span class="hlt">control</span> input variable. These equations are firstly used to study the formation reconfiguration problem. With this model, we study the existence and properties of solution trajectories that take the spacecraft from a given initial formation geometry to a desired final one in the Sun-Earth system. The existence of time-optimal transfer trajectories is also investigated. The problem of formation keeping using <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure in the Sun-Earth system is then discussed. Since the amplitude of the SRP force is constrained by the area of sun shield and the permissible maximum off-pointing angle, the theory of regulator with constrained <span class="hlt">control</span> is applied to design the formation-keeping <span class="hlt">controller</span> in order to use the capacity of on-board sun shield more efficiently. A subtopic of adaption of frequency of out-of-plane relative motion using SRP is also presented. Finally, we extend the investigation to the Earth-Moon system. The modeling of relative motion with SRP in the vicinity of the translunar libration point is examined. A formation-keeping <span class="hlt">controller</span> based on a set of equations of relative motion is developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864858','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864858"><span>Gradient zone boundary <span class="hlt">control</span> in salt gradient <span class="hlt">solar</span> ponds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Hull, John R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient <span class="hlt">solar</span> pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000149&hterms=new+plant&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnew%2Bplant','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000149&hterms=new+plant&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnew%2Bplant"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Heating and Cooling for a <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Manufacturing Plant Lumberton, New Jersey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Comprehensive report documents computer-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> system which has separate <span class="hlt">solar</span>-collector and cooling-tower areas located away from building and is completely computer <span class="hlt">controlled</span>. System description, test data, major problems and resolution, performance, operation and maintenance, manufacturer's literature and drawing comprise part of 257-page report.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000149&hterms=solar+plant&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bplant','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000149&hterms=solar+plant&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bplant"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Heating and Cooling for a <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Manufacturing Plant Lumberton, New Jersey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Comprehensive report documents computer-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> system which has separate <span class="hlt">solar</span>-collector and cooling-tower areas located away from building and is completely computer <span class="hlt">controlled</span>. System description, test data, major problems and resolution, performance, operation and maintenance, manufacturer's literature and drawing comprise part of 257-page report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........26Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........26Q"><span>A practical approach to Model Predictive <span class="hlt">Control</span> (MPC) for <span class="hlt">solar</span> communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quintana, Humberto</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> district heating (SDH) systems are part of the solution to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions required for space heating. This kind of installation takes advantage of the convenience of a centralized system and of <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy to reduce dependency on fossil-fuels. An SDH system is a proven concept that can be enhanced with the addition of long-term thermal energy storage to compensate the seasonal disparity between <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy supply and heating load demand. These systems are especially deployed in Europe. In Canada, the only SDH installation is the Drake Landing <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Community (DLSC). This project, which includes seasonal storage (Borehole Thermal Energy Storage-BTES), has been a remarkable success, reaching a <span class="hlt">solar</span> fraction of 97% by the fifth year of operation. An SDH system cannot be complete without an appropriate supervisory <span class="hlt">control</span> that coordinates the operation and interaction of system components. The <span class="hlt">control</span> is based on a set of rules that must consider the system's internal status and external conditions to guarantee occupant comfort with minimal fossil-fuels consumption. This research project is mainly focused on conceiving and assessing new <span class="hlt">control</span> mechanisms aiming towards an increase of SDH systems' overall energy efficiency. The case study is the DLSC plant, and the proposed <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies are based on the practical application of Model Predictive <span class="hlt">Control</span> (MPC) theory. A calibrated model of DLSC including the supervisory <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies was developed in TRNSYS, building upon the model used for design studies. The model was improved and new components were created when needed. The calibration process delivered a very good agreement for the most important yearly energy performance indices (2 % for <span class="hlt">solar</span> heat input to the district and for gas consumption, and 5 % for electricity use). Proposed <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies were conceived for modifying four aspects of the current <span class="hlt">control</span>: the parameters that define the interaction between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25562465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25562465"><span>Effects of number and position of meta and <span class="hlt">para</span> carboxyphenyl groups of zinc porphyrins in dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells: structure-performance relationship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ambre, Ram B; Mane, Sandeep B; Chang, Gao-Fong; Hung, Chen-Hsiung</p> <p>2015-01-28</p> <p>Porphyrin sensitizers containing meta- and <span class="hlt">para</span>-carboxyphenyl groups in their meso positions have been synthesized and investigated for their performance in dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs). The superior performance of <span class="hlt">para</span>-derivative compared to meta-derivative porphyrins was revealed by optical spectroscopy, electrochemical property measurements, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and stability performance. Absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">para</span>-carboxyphenyl-substituted porphyrins on TiO2 show a broader Soret band compared to meta-carboxyphenyl-substituted porphyrins. ATR-FTIR spectra of the studied porphyrins on TiO2 were applied to investigate the number and mode of carboxyl groups attached to TiO2. The VOC, JSC, and IPCE values of <span class="hlt">para</span>-series porphyrins were distinctly superior to those of meta-series porphyrins. The Nyquist plots of the studied porphyrins show that charge injection in <span class="hlt">para</span>-series porphyrins is superior to that in meta-series porphyrins. The orthogonally positioned <span class="hlt">para</span> derivatives have more efficient charge injection and charge transfer over charge recombination, whereas the efficiencies of flat-oriented meta derivatives are retarded by rapid charge recombination. Photovoltaic measurements of the studied meta- and <span class="hlt">para</span>-carboxyphenyl-functionalized porphyrins show that the number and position of carboxyphenyl groups play a crucial role in the performance of the DSSC. Our results indicate that <span class="hlt">para</span>-carboxyphenyl derivatives outperform meta-carboxyphenyl derivatives to give better device performance. This study will serve as a guideline for the design and development of organic, porphyrin, and ruthenium dyes in DSSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25919372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25919372"><span>Adaptive <span class="hlt">control</span> of the packet transmission period with <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy harvesting prediction in wireless sensor networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kwon, Kideok; Yang, Jihoon; Yoo, Younghwan</p> <p>2015-04-24</p> <p>A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission <span class="hlt">control</span> policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JNR.....4..157S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JNR.....4..157S"><span>Nanoparticle-doped Polymer Foils for Use in <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> Glazing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, G. B.; Deller, C. A.; Swift, P. D.; Gentle, A.; Garrett, P. D.; Fisher, W. K.</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>Since nanoparticles can provide spectrally selective absorption without scattering they can be used to dope polymers for use in windows, to provide a clear view while strongly attenuating both <span class="hlt">solar</span> heat gain and UV, at lower cost than alternative technologies. The underlying physics and how it influences the choice and concentration of nanoparticle materials is outlined. Spectral data, visible and <span class="hlt">solar</span> transmittance, and <span class="hlt">solar</span> heat gain coefficient are measured for clear polymers and some laminated glass, in which the polymer layer is doped with conducting oxide nanoparticles. Simple models are shown to apply making general optical design straightforward. Use with clear glass and tinted glass is considered and performance shown to match existing <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> alternatives. A potential for widespread adoption in buildings and cars is clearly demonstrated, and scopes for further improvements are identified, so that ultimately both cost and performance are superior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481897','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481897"><span>Adaptive <span class="hlt">Control</span> of the Packet Transmission Period with <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Energy Harvesting Prediction in Wireless Sensor Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kwon, Kideok; Yang, Jihoon; Yoo, Younghwan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission <span class="hlt">control</span> policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%. PMID:25919372</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5302574','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5302574"><span>Morphology-<span class="hlt">Controlled</span> High-Efficiency Small Molecule Organic <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells without Additive Solvent Treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Il Ku; Jo, Jun Hyung; Yun, Jung-Ho</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on nano-morphology-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> small-molecule organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells without solvent treatment for high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The maximum high PCE reaches up to 7.22% with a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) thickness of 320 nm. This high efficiency was obtained by eliminating solvent additives such as 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) to find an alternative way to <span class="hlt">control</span> the domain sizes in the BHJ layer. Furthermore, the generalized transfer matrix method (GTMM) analysis has been applied to confirm the effects of applying a different thickness of BHJs for organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells from 100 to 320 nm, respectively. Finally, the study showed an alternative way to achieve high PCE organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells without additive solvent treatments to <span class="hlt">control</span> the morphology of the bulk-heterojunction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9906E..1CL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9906E..1CL"><span>Active thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> for the 1.8-m primary mirror of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> telescope CLST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Li, Cheng; Cheng, Yuntao; Yao, Benxi; Wang, Zhiyong; Rao, Changhui</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The 1.8-m primary mirror of <span class="hlt">solar</span> telescope is heated by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation and introduce harmful mirror seeing degrading the imaging quality. For the Chinese Large <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Telescope (CLST), the thermal requirement based on the quantitative evaluation on mirror seeing effect shows that the temperature rise on mirror surface should be within 1 kelvin. To meet the requirement, an active thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> system design for the CLST primary mirror is proposed, and realized on the subscale prototype of the CLST. The experimental results show that the temperature on the mirror surface is well <span class="hlt">controlled</span>. The average and maximum thermal <span class="hlt">controlled</span> error are less than 0.3 and 0.7 kelvins respectively, which completely meets the requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.1304M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.1304M"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> illumination <span class="hlt">control</span> of ionospheric outflow above polar cap arcs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maes, L.; Maggiolo, R.; De Keyser, J.; Dandouras, I.; Fear, R. C.; Fontaine, D.; Haaland, S.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We measure the flux density, composition, and energy of outflowing ions above the polar cap, accelerated by quasi-static electric fields parallel to the magnetic field and associated with polar cap arcs, using Cluster. Mapping the spacecraft position to its ionospheric foot point, we analyze the dependence of these parameters on the <span class="hlt">solar</span> zenith angle (SZA). We find a clear transition at SZA between ˜94° and ˜107°, with the O+ flux higher above the sunlit ionosphere. This dependence on the illumination of the local ionosphere indicates that significant O+ upflow occurs locally above the polar ionosphere. The same is found for H+, but to a lesser extent. This effect can result in a seasonal variation of the total ion upflow from the polar ionosphere. Furthermore, we show that low-magnitude field-aligned potential drops are preferentially observed above the sunlit ionosphere, suggesting a feedback effect of ionospheric conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5122223','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5122223"><span>SOLERAS - <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 1. Project summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1985-12-30</p> <p>A summary of the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Environment Agriculture Project is presented. The design of the greenhouses include transparent double pane glass roof with channels for fluid between the panes, inner pane tinted and double pane extruded acrylic aluminized mylar shade and diffuser. <span class="hlt">Solar</span> energy technologies provide power for water desalination, for pumping irrigation water, and for cooling and heating the <span class="hlt">controlled</span> environment space so that crops can grow in arid lands. The project is a joint effort between the United States and Saudi Arabia. (BCS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991736','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991736"><span>Real time intelligent process <span class="hlt">control</span> system for thin film <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell manufacturing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>George Atanasoff</p> <p>2010-10-29</p> <p>This project addresses the problem of lower <span class="hlt">solar</span> conversion efficiency and waste in the typical <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased <span class="hlt">solar</span> technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy adoption and extends the time <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical <span class="hlt">control</span> system for <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels, since it would require</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820010425','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820010425"><span>A disturbance isolation <span class="hlt">controller</span> for the <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion system flight experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Waites, H. B.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A disturbance isolation <span class="hlt">controller</span> (DIC) is developed for a simplified model of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion system (SEPS) flight experiment which consists of a rigid Sperry gimbal torquer (AGS) mounted to a rigid orbiter and the SEPS <span class="hlt">solar</span> array (rigid) end mounted to the AGS. The main purpose of the DIC is to reduce the effects of orbiter disturbances which are transmitted to the flight experiment. The DIC uses an observer, which does not require the direct measurement of the plant inputs, to obtain estimates of the plant states and the rate of the plant states. The state and rate of state information is used to design a <span class="hlt">controller</span> which isolates disturbances from specified segments of the plant, and for the flight experiment, the isolated segment is the SEPS <span class="hlt">solar</span> array.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067420&hterms=torque+physics&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtorque%2Bphysics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067420&hterms=torque+physics&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtorque%2Bphysics"><span>Nutation and precession <span class="hlt">control</span> of the High Energy <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Physics (HESP) satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jayaraman, C. P.; Robertson, B. P.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The High Energy <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Physics (HESP) spacecraft is an intermediate class satellite proposed by NASA to study <span class="hlt">solar</span> high-energy phenomena during the next cycle of high <span class="hlt">solar</span> activity in the 1998 to 2005 time frame. The HESP spacecraft is a spinning satellite which points to the sun with stringent pointing requirements. The natural dynamics of a spinning satellite includes an undesirable effect: nutation, which is due to the presence of disturbances and offsets of the spin axis from the angular momentum vector. The proposed Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> System (ACS) attenuates nutation with reaction wheels. Precessing the spacecraft to track the sun in the north-south and east-west directions is accomplished with the use of torques from magnetic torquer bars. In this paper, the basic dynamics of a spinning spacecraft are derived, <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithms to meet HESP science requirements are discussed and simulation results to demonstrate feasibility of the ACS concept are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067420&hterms=energy+Solar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Denergy%2BSolar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067420&hterms=energy+Solar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Denergy%2BSolar"><span>Nutation and precession <span class="hlt">control</span> of the High Energy <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Physics (HESP) satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jayaraman, C. P.; Robertson, B. P.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The High Energy <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Physics (HESP) spacecraft is an intermediate class satellite proposed by NASA to study <span class="hlt">solar</span> high-energy phenomena during the next cycle of high <span class="hlt">solar</span> activity in the 1998 to 2005 time frame. The HESP spacecraft is a spinning satellite which points to the sun with stringent pointing requirements. The natural dynamics of a spinning satellite includes an undesirable effect: nutation, which is due to the presence of disturbances and offsets of the spin axis from the angular momentum vector. The proposed Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> System (ACS) attenuates nutation with reaction wheels. Precessing the spacecraft to track the sun in the north-south and east-west directions is accomplished with the use of torques from magnetic torquer bars. In this paper, the basic dynamics of a spinning spacecraft are derived, <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithms to meet HESP science requirements are discussed and simulation results to demonstrate feasibility of the ACS concept are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21567602','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21567602"><span>On the importance of morphology <span class="hlt">control</span> in polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Bavel, Svetlana; Veenstra, Sjoerd; Loos, Joachim</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Nanostructured polymer-based <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (PSCs) have emerged as a promising low-cost alternative to conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices and are now a subject of intensive research both in academia and industry. For PSCs to become practical efficient devices, several issues should still be addressed, including further understanding of their operation and stability, which in turn are largely determined by the morphological organisation in the photoactive layer. The latter is typically a few hundred nanometres thick film and is a blend composed of two materials: the bulk heterojunction consisting of the electron donor and the electron acceptor. The main requirements for the morphology of efficient photoactive layers are nanoscale phase segregation for a high donor/acceptor interface area and hence efficient exciton dissociation, short and continuous percolation pathways of both components leading through the layer thickness to the corresponding electrodes for efficient charge transport and collection, and high crystallinity of both donor and acceptor materials for high charge mobility. In this paper, we review recent progress of our understanding on how the efficiency of a bulk heterojunction PSC largely depends on the local nanoscale volume organisation of the photoactive layer. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......221A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......221A"><span>Mechanical and Electrical Behavior of Organic <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells Probed Through Detailed Morphological <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Awartani, Omar Marwan</p> <p></p> <p>One of the main advantages of organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells is their potential to be used in flexible or even stretchable applications. Most research in the field of organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells is focused on materials synthesis, device physics, and the relationship between morphology and the optoelectronic performance. In order for this technology to be commercially competitive, especially for flexible applications, a more complete picture that explores the mechanical properties of organic materials and how they relate to their optoelectronic properties is necessary. This thesis consists of two main research tracks: The first track focuses mainly on the effect of morphology on the mechanical, electrical and optical performance of organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells <span class="hlt">controlled</span> through varying processing conditions. Two mechanical properties are investigated including the elastic modulus and crack onset strain of P3HT, PCBM and blend (BHJ) films. The second track utilizes the high achievable ductility of organic semiconducting films that is investigated in the first track of the thesis, to create novel <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell device architectures and to gain insight into the performance and recombination losses of organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Processing ductile BHJ films is used to create organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with <span class="hlt">controlled</span> level of polarization with both opaque and semi-transparent architectures. Moreover, using the strain-alignment method the efficiency of low and high order P3HT aggregates is probed within the same film to show similar internal quantum efficiency for the two different morphological P3HT domains. This selective probing technique provides significant insight into performance loss mechanisms in organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15037359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15037359"><span>A neural network <span class="hlt">controller</span> for hydronic heating systems of <span class="hlt">solar</span> buildings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Argiriou, Athanassios A; Bellas-Velidis, Ioannis; Kummert, Michaël; André, Philippe</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>An artificial neural network (ANN)-based <span class="hlt">controller</span> for hydronic heating plants of buildings is presented. The <span class="hlt">controller</span> has forecasting capabilities: it includes a meteorological module, forecasting the ambient temperature and <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance, an indoor temperature predictor module, a supply temperature predictor module and an optimizing module for the water supply temperature. All ANN modules are based on the Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) model. The operation of the <span class="hlt">controller</span> has been tested experimentally, on a real-scale office building during real operating conditions. The operation results were compared to those of a conventional <span class="hlt">controller</span>. The performance was also assessed via numerical simulation. The detailed thermal simulation tool for <span class="hlt">solar</span> systems and buildings TRNSYS was used. Both experimental and numerical results showed that the expected percentage of energy savings with respect to a conventional <span class="hlt">controller</span> is of about 15% under North European weather conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.127..226W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.127..226W"><span>Robust optimal sun-pointing <span class="hlt">control</span> of a large <span class="hlt">solar</span> power satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Shunan; Zhang, Kaiming; Peng, Haijun; Wu, Zhigang; Radice, Gianmarco</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The robust optimal sun-pointing <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy for a large geostationary <span class="hlt">solar</span> power satellite (SPS) is addressed in this paper. The SPS is considered as a huge rigid body, and the sun-pointing dynamics are firstly proposed in the state space representation. The perturbation effects caused by gravity gradient, <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure and microwave reaction are investigated. To perform sun-pointing maneuvers, a periodically time-varying robust optimal LQR <span class="hlt">controller</span> is designed to assess the pointing accuracy and the <span class="hlt">control</span> inputs. It should be noted that, to reduce the pointing errors, the disturbance rejection technique is combined into the proposed LQR <span class="hlt">controller</span>. A recursive algorithm is then proposed to solve the optimal LQR <span class="hlt">control</span> gain. Simulation results are finally provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed closed-loop system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51jNF08K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51jNF08K"><span>Maximum Output Power <span class="hlt">Control</span> Using Short-Circuit Current and Open-Circuit Voltage of a <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Panel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kato, Takahiro; Miyake, Takuma; Tashima, Daisuke; Sakoda, Tatsuya; Otsubo, Masahisa; Hombu, Mitsuyuki</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">control</span> method to optimize the output power of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell is necessary because the output of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell strongly depends on <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation. We here proposed two output power <span class="hlt">control</span> methods using the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel. One of them used a current ratio and a voltage ratio (αβ <span class="hlt">control</span>), and the other used a current ratio and a short-circuit current-electric power characteristic coefficient (αγ <span class="hlt">control</span>). The usefulness of the αβ and the αγ <span class="hlt">control</span> methods was evaluated. The results showed that the output power <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by our proposed methods was close to the maximum output power of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9682E..0MK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9682E..0MK"><span>Development status on the real-time <span class="hlt">controller</span> for <span class="hlt">solar</span> multi-conjugate adaptive optics system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kong, Lin; Zhu, Lei; Rao, Changhui</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> observations are performed over an extended field of view (FoV) and the isoplanatic patch which conventional adaptive optics (AO) provides diffraction limited resolution is a severe limitation. Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) can be used to extend the corrected FoV of AO system. Compared to AO, MCAO which usually utilizes a wide-field Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to <span class="hlt">control</span> multiple deformable mirrors(DMs) is more complicated. Because the Sun is an extended object, correlation algorithms are applied to detect gradients in <span class="hlt">solar</span> MCAO system. Moreover, due to the fast evolving daytime seeing conditions and the fact that much science has to be done at visible wavelengths, a very high closed-loop bandwidth is also required. The computation and delay development of the real-time <span class="hlt">controller</span> (RTC) in <span class="hlt">solar</span> MCAO system is more challenging than that in night-time MCAO system. This paper reviews the <span class="hlt">solar</span> MCAO techniques and systems in the world, especially emphasizes the framework and implementation of the RTC. The development of MCAO in China is also introduced. An outlook of the RTC for the <span class="hlt">solar</span> MCAO system in development is given.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880044530&hterms=Hom&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHom','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880044530&hterms=Hom&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHom"><span>The <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of Jupiter's broad-band kilometric radio emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barrow, C. H.; Leblanc, Y.; Desch, M. D.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Observations of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind close to Jupiter are compared with the broad-band kilometric radio emission (bKOM), using data recorded by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 during 1979. The lower bKOM frequencies, less than about 300 kHz, are found to correlate with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind density and pressure and with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude during periods when there is a well-defined magnetic sector structure. The results suggest that lower frequency bKOM events are most likely to occur after a sector boundary has passed Jupiter during the period when the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind density and the IMF magnitude are increasing towards the sector center. The average bKOM energy per Jovian rotation tends to have lower values soon after the sector center has passed. Higher-frequency/higher-energy bKOM emission may be contaminated by hectometric emission (HOM) and differently correlated with <span class="hlt">solar</span> activity. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> may also be obscured by some stronger <span class="hlt">control</span>. It is suggested that electron density fluctuations in the Io torus, where the source is believed to be located, may be responsible for variations in the beaming and hence variations in the observed emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28217996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28217996"><span>Precise Morphology <span class="hlt">Control</span> and Continuous Fabrication of Perovskite <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells Using Droplet-<span class="hlt">Controllable</span> Electrospray Coating System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hong, Seung Chan; Lee, Gunhee; Ha, Kyungyeon; Yoon, Jungjin; Ahn, Namyoung; Cho, Woohyung; Park, Mincheol; Choi, Mansoo</p> <p>2017-03-08</p> <p>Herein, we developed a novel electrospray coating system for continuous fabrication of perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with high performance. Our system can systemically <span class="hlt">control</span> the size of CH3NH3PbI3 precursor droplets by modulating the applied electrical potential, shown to be a crucial factor for the formation of perovskite films. As a result, we have obtained pinhole-free and large grain-sized perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells, yielding the best PCE of 13.27% with little photocurrent hysteresis. Furthermore, the average PCE through the continuous coating process was 11.56 ± 0.52%. Our system demonstrates not only the high reproducibility but also a new way to commercialize high-quality perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AcAau..97...73J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AcAau..97...73J"><span>Influence of attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> on transfer mission for a flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Zhang; Tianshu, Wang; Shengping, Gong</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">solar</span>-photon sail space vehicle, or a sailcraft, is a new type of vehicle apt also for deep-space exploration. A sailcraft is pushed by the pressure of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance on the sail. The sailcraft has large and highly flexible structure, and its motion involves a coupling of the orbit, the attitude and structural vibration. Based on the coupling effect of the orbit and the attitude, the theory of time-optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> is used to design the transfer trajectory from an earth-centric orbit to a heliocentric polar orbit. This paper establishes the reduced dynamic model for a flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail with foreshortening deformation and coupling of its attitude and vibration. In the process of attitude <span class="hlt">control</span>, the sailcraft will generate orbital deviations from the designed orbit as well as structural vibration. This is especially true when the sailcraft makes large-angle maneuvers: larger orbital deviations and structural vibrations are generated. When initial deviations and <span class="hlt">solar</span> pressure disturbance torques are considered, the process of attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> leads to greater accumulated error in the transfer trajectory, which demonstrates that the process of attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> is important to the sailcraft mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150006037','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150006037"><span>Recent Advances in Heliogyro <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Structural Dynamics, Stability, and <span class="hlt">Control</span> Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilkie, W. Keats; Warren, Jerry E.; Horta, Lucas G.; Lyle, Karen H.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Gibbs, S. Chad; Dowell, Earl H.; Guerrant, Daniel V.; Lawrence, Dale</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Results from recent NASA sponsored research on the structural dynamics, stability, and <span class="hlt">control</span> characteristics of heliogyro <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails are summarized. Specific areas under investigation include coupled nonlinear finite element analysis of heliogyro membrane blade with <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure effects, system identification of spinning membrane structures, and solarelastic stability analysis of heliogyro <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails, including stability during blade deployment. Recent results from terrestrial 1-g blade dynamics and <span class="hlt">control</span> experiments on "rope ladder" membrane blade analogs, and small-scale in vacuo system identification experiments with hanging and spinning high-aspect ratio membranes will also be presented. A low-cost, rideshare payload heliogyro technology demonstration mission concept is used as a mission context for these heliogyro structural dynamics and solarelasticity investigations, and is also described. Blade torsional dynamic response and <span class="hlt">control</span> are also shown to be significantly improved through the use of edge stiffening structural features or inclusion of modest tip masses to increase centrifugal stiffening of the blade structure. An output-only system identification procedure suitable for on-orbit blade dynamics investigations is also developed and validated using ground tests of spinning sub-scale heliogyro blade models. Overall, analytical and experimental investigations to date indicate no intractable stability or <span class="hlt">control</span> issues for the heliogyro <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail concept.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=photovoltaic&pg=6&id=ED240339','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=photovoltaic&pg=6&id=ED240339"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Systems and Energy Management <span class="hlt">Controls</span>. Final Report, 1982-83.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.</p> <p></p> <p>This project was conducted by the Bergen County Vocational-Technical Schools (1) to develop a practical awareness of energy conservation and management techniques for both commercial and domestic applications; (2) to develop four training courses to teach <span class="hlt">solar</span> troubleshooting and maintenance, commercial energy management <span class="hlt">control</span>, domestic energy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=industrial+AND+maintenance+AND+management&pg=5&id=ED240339','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=industrial+AND+maintenance+AND+management&pg=5&id=ED240339"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Systems and Energy Management <span class="hlt">Controls</span>. Final Report, 1982-83.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.</p> <p></p> <p>This project was conducted by the Bergen County Vocational-Technical Schools (1) to develop a practical awareness of energy conservation and management techniques for both commercial and domestic applications; (2) to develop four training courses to teach <span class="hlt">solar</span> troubleshooting and maintenance, commercial energy management <span class="hlt">control</span>, domestic energy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=246194','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=246194"><span>Active <span class="hlt">solarization</span> as a nonchemical alternative to soil fumigation for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> pests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Deterioration of soil, water, and air resources by soil fumigants represents a serious threat to agricultural production in semiarid regions due to their high volatility and high emission rates. New pest <span class="hlt">control</span> methods are needed that do not rely on fumigant chemicals. Soil heating via <span class="hlt">solarization</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/28659','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/28659"><span><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> light and heat in a forest by managing shadow sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Howard G. Halverson; James L. Smith</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> light and heat to develop the proper growth environment is a desirable goal in forest management. The amount of sunlight and heat reaching the surface is affected by shadows cast by nearby objects, including trees. In timbered areas, the type of forest management practiced can help develop desired microclimates. The results depend on the size and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780012670','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780012670"><span>Modular <span class="hlt">control</span> subsystems for use in <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating systems for multi-family dwellings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Progress in the development of <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating modular <span class="hlt">control</span> subsystems is reported. Circuit design, circuit drawings, and printed circuit board layout are discussed along with maintenance manuals, installation instructions, and verification and acceptance tests. Calculations made to determine the predicted performance of the differential thermostat are given including details and results of tests for the offset temperature, and boil and freeze protect points.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1707e0008M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1707e0008M"><span>On designing of the driven system <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels using type 2 fuzzy sliding mode <span class="hlt">control</span> (T2FSMC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mardlijah, Subiono, S., Sentot D.; Efprianto, Yahya</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Collectors on the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel can work optimally when the collectors position perpendicular to the whole <span class="hlt">solar</span> rays. Therefore we need a <span class="hlt">control</span> system to <span class="hlt">control</span> the position of the collectors always perpendicular to the sun rays. In this paper, <span class="hlt">control</span> system T2FSMC is proposed, combined SMC, FLC and fuzzy type 2 which has a membership function more complex so as to provide an additional degree of freedom that allows uncertainty. the behavior of the <span class="hlt">control</span> system based on T2FSMC for the driven system of <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels was analyzed by comparing T2FSMC with FSMC and SMC methods. It can be concluded that the system <span class="hlt">controller</span> of T2FSMC works better than the system <span class="hlt">controller</span> of FSMC and SMC; i.e. faster response time, more robust to large and small disturbance and more robust to parameter uncertainty. However, the lacks in the system T2FSMC are taking quite a long time in computation and need fuzzy logic reasoning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5461066','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5461066"><span>Maximum power <span class="hlt">control</span> for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> array connected to a load</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steigerwald, R.L.</p> <p>1983-09-13</p> <p>An analog and a digital <span class="hlt">control</span> is provided which causes a dc to ac inverter operated in the constant power mode to supply sinusoidal current to a utility while drawing maximum power from a <span class="hlt">solar</span> array. The current drawn from the array is forced to be proportional to the array voltage by a variable gain amplifier so that the inverter presents a resistive load to the array which remains statically stable under rapid changes of insolation while using a perturb-and-observe method of maximum power tracking. The perturb-and-observe method adjusts the gain of the variable gain amplifier to achieve maximum power output from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> array.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970016303','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970016303"><span>Compact <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Simulator with a Small Subtense Angle and <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Magnification Optics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jefferies, Kent S. (Inventor)</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The present invention is directed to a method of simulating a pseudosun using a <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator. In the present invention the collector and lens of a lamp are designed to properly focus a plurality of light beams onto a segmented turning mirror. The path of light rays are traced from the lamp to the collector and then finally to the lens to <span class="hlt">control</span> the solid and tangential magnification of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator. The segmented turning mirror is located at the focal point of the light beam and redirects the light into a vacuum chamber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/972658','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/972658"><span>Tuning the properties of polymer bulk heterojunction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells by adjusting fullerene size to <span class="hlt">control</span> intercalation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cates, N.C.</p> <p>2010-02-24</p> <p>We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal <span class="hlt">solar</span>-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19780570','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19780570"><span>Tuning the properties of polymer bulk heterojunction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells by adjusting fullerene size to <span class="hlt">control</span> intercalation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cates, Nichole C; Gysel, Roman; Beiley, Zach; Miller, Chad E; Toney, Michael F; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; McGehee, Michael D</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal <span class="hlt">solar</span>-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26037081','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26037081"><span>Solvent engineering towards <span class="hlt">controlled</span> grain growth in perovskite planar heterojunction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rong, Yaoguang; Tang, Zhongjia; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhong, Xin; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Graham, Harrison; Patton, Matthew; Jing, Yan; Guloy, Arnold M; Yao, Yan</p> <p>2015-06-28</p> <p>We report an effective solvent engineering process to enable <span class="hlt">controlled</span> perovskite crystal growth and a wider window for processing uniform and dense methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite films. Planar heterojunction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells fabricated with this method demonstrate hysteresis-free performance with a power conversion efficiency around 10%. The crystal structure of an organic-based Pb iodide intermediate phase is identified for the first time, which is critical in <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the crystal growth and optimizing thin film morphology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780009542','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780009542"><span>System design and installation for RS600 programmable <span class="hlt">control</span> system for <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating and cooling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining a programmable <span class="hlt">control</span> system which utilizes a F8 microprocessor to perform all timing, <span class="hlt">control</span>, and calculation functions in order to customize system performance to meet individual requirements for <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems are described. The manual discusses user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, and warranty and assistance. Wiring lists, parts lists, drawings, and diagrams are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4517466','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4517466"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> of Photoluminescence of Carbon Nanodots via Surface Functionalization using <span class="hlt">Para</span>-substituted Anilines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Kim, Ji-Hee; Seok Jeong, Mun; Rhee, Shi-Woo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, composed of polyaromatic carbon domains surrounded by amorphous carbon frames, and have attracted a great deal of attention because of their interesting properties. There are still, however, challenges ahead such as blue-biased photoluminescence, spectral broadness, undefined energy gaps and etc. In this report, we chemically modify the surface of C-dots with a series of <span class="hlt">para</span>-substituted anilines to <span class="hlt">control</span> their photoluminescence. Our surface functionalization endows our C-dots with new energy levels, exhibiting long-wavelength (up to 650 nm) photoluminescence of very narrow spectral widths. The roles of <span class="hlt">para</span>-substituted anilines and their substituents in developing such energy levels are thoroughly studied by using transient absorption spectroscopy. We finally demonstrate light-emitting devices exploiting our C-dots as a phosphor, converting UV light to a variety of colors with internal quantum yields of ca. 20%. PMID:26218869</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26556356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26556356"><span>An Open Source Low-Cost Wireless <span class="hlt">Control</span> System for a Forced Circulation <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Plant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo</p> <p>2015-11-05</p> <p>The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a low-cost <span class="hlt">control</span> system for a forced circulation <span class="hlt">solar</span> plant in an outdoor test cell located near Milan. Such a system provides for the use of an electric pump for the circulation of heat transfer fluid connecting the <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal panel to the storage tank. The running plant temperatures are the fundamental parameter to evaluate the system performance such as proper operation, and the <span class="hlt">control</span> and management system has to consider these parameters. A <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy-powered wireless-based smart object was developed, able to monitor the running temperatures of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal system and aimed at moving beyond standard monitoring approaches to achieve a low-cost and customizable device, even in terms of installation in different environmental conditions. To this end, two types of communications were used: the first is a low-cost communication based on the ZigBee protocol used for <span class="hlt">control</span> purposes, so that it can be customized according to specific needs, while the second is based on a Bluetooth protocol used for data display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4701265','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4701265"><span>An Open Source Low-Cost Wireless <span class="hlt">Control</span> System for a Forced Circulation <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a low-cost <span class="hlt">control</span> system for a forced circulation <span class="hlt">solar</span> plant in an outdoor test cell located near Milan. Such a system provides for the use of an electric pump for the circulation of heat transfer fluid connecting the <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal panel to the storage tank. The running plant temperatures are the fundamental parameter to evaluate the system performance such as proper operation, and the <span class="hlt">control</span> and management system has to consider these parameters. A <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy-powered wireless-based smart object was developed, able to monitor the running temperatures of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal system and aimed at moving beyond standard monitoring approaches to achieve a low-cost and customizable device, even in terms of installation in different environmental conditions. To this end, two types of communications were used: the first is a low-cost communication based on the ZigBee protocol used for <span class="hlt">control</span> purposes, so that it can be customized according to specific needs, while the second is based on a Bluetooth protocol used for data display. PMID:26556356</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009079','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009079"><span>Results of <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric thrust vector <span class="hlt">control</span> system design, development and tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fleischer, G. E.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Efforts to develop and test a thrust vector <span class="hlt">control</span> system TVCS for a <span class="hlt">solar</span>-energy-powered ion engine array are described. The results of <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion system technology (SEPST) III real-time tests of present versions of TVCS hardware in combination with computer-simulated attitude dynamics of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric multi-mission spacecraft (SEMMS) Phase A-type spacecraft configuration are summarized. Work on an improved <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric TVCS, based on the use of a state estimator, is described. SEPST III tests of TVCS hardware have generally proved successful and dynamic response of the system is close to predictions. It appears that, if TVCS electronic hardware can be effectively replaced by <span class="hlt">control</span> computer software, a significant advantage in <span class="hlt">control</span> capability and flexibility can be gained in future developmental testing, with practical implications for flight systems as well. Finally, it is concluded from computer simulations that TVCS stabilization using rate estimation promises a substantial performance improvement over the present design.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JApA...27..299S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JApA...27..299S"><span>Data Acquisition, <span class="hlt">Control</span>, Communication and Computation System of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shah, Amish B.; Vadher, N. M.; Jain, Rajma; Dave, Hemant; Shah, Vishal; Manian, K. S. B.; Kayasth, Satish; Patel, Vinod; Ubale, Girish; Shah, Kirit; Solanki, Chirag; Deshpande, M. R.; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Umapathy, C. N.; Viswanath, N.; Kulkarni, Ravi; Kumar, P. S.</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Solar</span> X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission onboardGSAT- 2 Indian Spacecraft was launched on 08 May 2003 using GSLV-D2 rocket by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). SOXS aims to study <span class="hlt">solar</span> flares, which are the most violent and energetic phenomena in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> system, in the energy range of 4-56 keV with high spectral and temporal resolution. SOXS employs state-of-the-art semiconductor devices, viz., Si-Pin and CZT detectors to achieve sub-keV energy resolution requirements. In this paper, we present an overview of data acquisition, <span class="hlt">control</span>,communication and computation of low energy payload of the SOXS mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9565E..17O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9565E..17O"><span>Analysis of selective reflection spectrum in cholesteric liquid crystal cells for <span class="hlt">solar</span>-ray <span class="hlt">controller</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogiwara, Akifumi; Kakiuchida, Hiroshi</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) cells are fabricated by varying the concentration of various chiral dopants and liquid crystal (LC) diacrylate monomers. The wavelength and bandwidth of selective reflection spectrum in CLC cells are measured by a spectroscopic technique. The variation of the selective reflection spectrum in CLC cells is investigated by doping the different kinds of liquid crystal (LC) diacrylate monomers which stabilize a helical twisting structure by photopolymerization. The effects of the selective reflection spectrum on the visible and infrared lights in spectral <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance are explained by the performance for a <span class="hlt">solar</span>-ray <span class="hlt">controller</span> based on the spectral <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance for air mass 1.5 and the standard luminous efficiency function for photopic vision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25317666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25317666"><span>Improved morphology <span class="hlt">control</span> using a modified two-step method for efficient perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bi, Dongqin; El-Zohry, Ahmed M; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit</p> <p>2014-11-12</p> <p>A two-step wet chemical synthesis method for methylammonium lead(II) triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite is further developed for the preparation of highly reproducible <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells, with the following structure: fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2 (compact)/TiO2 (mesoporous)/CH3NH3PbI3/spiro-OMeTAD/Ag. The morphology of the perovskite layer could be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by careful variation of the processing conditions. Specifically, by modifying the drying process and inclusion of a dichloromethane treatment, more uniform films could be prepared, with longer emission lifetime in the perovskite material and longer electron lifetime in <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell devices, as well as faster electron transport and enhanced charge collection at the selective contacts. <span class="hlt">Solar</span> cell efficiencies up to 13.5% were obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790003959','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790003959"><span>Automatic phase <span class="hlt">control</span> in <span class="hlt">solar</span> power satellite systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Various approaches to the problem of generating, maintaining and distributing a coherent, reference phase signal over a large area are suggested, mathematically modeled and analyzed with respect to their ability to minimize: phase build-up, beam diffusion and beam steering phase jitter, cable length, and maximize power transfer efficiency. In addition, phase <span class="hlt">control</span> configurations are suggested which alleviate the need for layout symmetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780012085','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780012085"><span>Alignment <span class="hlt">control</span> study for the <span class="hlt">solar</span> optical telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of the alignment and focus errors than can be tolerated, methods of sensing such errors, and mechanisms to make the necessary corrections were addressed. Alternate approaches and their relative merits were considered. The results of this study indicate that adequate alignment <span class="hlt">control</span> can be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...79..289M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...79..289M"><span>A comparative study between <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sailcraft in an Earth-Mars transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mainenti-Lopes, I.; Souza, L. C. Gadelha; De Sousa, Fabiano. L.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The goal of this work was a comparative study of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail trajectory optimization using different <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies. <span class="hlt">Solar</span> sailcraft is propulsion system with great interest in space engineering, since it uses <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation to propulsion. So there is no need for propellant to be used, thus it can remains active throughout the entire transfer maneuver. This type of propulsion system opens the possibility to reduce the cost of exploration missions in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> system. In its simplest configuration, a Flat <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail (FSS) consists of a large and thin structure generally composed by a film fixed to flexible rods. The performance of these vehicles depends largely on the sails attitude relative to the Sun. Using a FSS as propulsion, an Earth-Mars transfer optimization problem was tackled by the algorithms GEOreal1 and GEOreal2 (Generalized Extremal Optimization with real codification). Those algorithms are Evolutionary Algorithms (AE) based on the theory of Self-Organized Criticality. They were used to optimize the FSS attitude angle so it could reach Mars orbit in minimum time. It was considered that the FSS could perform up to ten attitude maneuvers during orbital transfer. Moreover, the time between maneuvers can be different. So, the algorithms had to optimize an objective function with 20 design variables. The results obtained in this work were compared with previously results that considered constant values of time between maneuvers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5585745','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5585745"><span>The Role of Soil <span class="hlt">Solarization</span> in India: How an Unnoticed Practice Could Support Pest <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gill, Harsimran K.; Aujla, Iqbal S.; De Bellis, Luigi; Luvisi, Andrea</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Plant protection represents one of the strategies to fill the yield gap and to achieve food security, a key topic for India development. Analysis of climate risks for crops indicates that South Asia is one of the regions most exposed to the adverse impact on many plants that are relevant to inhabitants exposed to food safety risks. Furthermore, accumulation of pesticide residues in the aquatic and other ecosystems is becoming a significant threat in India. These perspectives require to develop programs of crop protection that can be feasible according to Indian rural development and pollution policy. Here we review the research works done on soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span> in India. Soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span> (also called plasticulture) is an eco-friendly soil disinfestations method for managing soil-borne plant pathogens. This is the process of trapping <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy by moist soil covered with transparent polyethylene films and chemistry, biology and physical properties of soil are involved in pest <span class="hlt">control</span>. So far, this technique is applied in more than 50 countries, mostly in hot and humid regions. India has 29 states and these states fall under five climatic zones, from humid to arid ones. We report pest management application in different climatic zones and their effects on production, weeds, nematodes, and pathogenic microorganisms. The analysis of soil temperatures and crop protection results indicate as environmental requirement for soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span> fits in most of Indian rural areas. Soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span> is compatible with future Indian scenarios and may support Indian national food security programs. PMID:28919903</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790067737&hterms=piston+dynamics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpiston%2Bdynamics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790067737&hterms=piston+dynamics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpiston%2Bdynamics"><span>Dynamics and <span class="hlt">control</span> of Stirling engines in a 15 kWe <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric generation concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Das, R. L.; Bahrami, K. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the application of kinematic and free piston Stirling engines in a 15 kWe dish-electric approach for <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal electric generation. Initially, the principle of operation of Stirling engines in <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal electric generation is discussed. Then, under certain simplifying assumptions, mathematical models describing the dynamic operation of the kinematic and free piston Stirling engines are developed. It is found that the engine dynamics may be approximated by second order models. <span class="hlt">Control</span> mechanisms for both types of Stirling engines are discussed. An approach based on the modulation of the working fluid mean pressure is presented. It is concluded that this approach offers a fast and effective means of <span class="hlt">control</span>. The free piston Stirling engine, being a thermally driven mechanical oscillator, presents unique <span class="hlt">control</span> requirements. These are discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6406292','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6406292"><span>Design of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">controlled</span> environment agriculture system (SCEAS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Landstrom, D.K.; Stickford, G.H.; Talbert, S.G.; Wilkinson, W.H.</p> <p>1983-06-01</p> <p>The overall objective of the SCEAS project was to integrate advanced greenhouse agriculture technology with various energy sources and innovative cooling/ventilation concepts to demonstrate technical and economic feasibility of these facilities in several climatic regions where conventional greenhouse technology will not permit yearround growing of certain crops. The designed facility is capable of high yields of practically any crop, even temperaturesensitive vegetables such as lettuce, in extremely hostile external environments. The recirculation and ventilation system provides considerable flexibility in precise <span class="hlt">control</span> of temperature and humidity throughout the year and in reducing water and energy consumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086476','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086476"><span>Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural <span class="hlt">Control</span> System Design for Space <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Power Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Woods-Vedeler, Jessica (Technical Monitor); Moore, Chris (Technical Monitor); Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural <span class="hlt">control</span> system architecture for very large Space <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km <span class="hlt">solar</span>-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed <span class="hlt">control</span> system architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an o.set of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010071579','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010071579"><span>Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural <span class="hlt">Control</span> Systems Design for Space <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Power Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural <span class="hlt">control</span> systems architecture for very large Space <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km <span class="hlt">solar</span>-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 x 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed <span class="hlt">control</span> systems architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an offset of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920017660','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920017660"><span>Structural dynamic interaction with <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracking <span class="hlt">control</span> for evolutionary Space Station concepts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Tae W.; Cooper, Paul A.; Ayers, J. Kirk</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The sun tracking <span class="hlt">control</span> system design of the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and the interaction of the <span class="hlt">control</span> system with the flexible structure of Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolutionary concepts are addressed. The significant components of the space station pertaining to the SARJ <span class="hlt">control</span> are described and the tracking <span class="hlt">control</span> system design is presented. Finite element models representing two evolutionary concepts, enhanced operations capability (EOC) and extended operations capability (XOC), are employed to evaluate the influence of low frequency flexible structure on the <span class="hlt">control</span> system design and performance. The design variables of the <span class="hlt">control</span> system are synthesized using a constrained optimization technique to meet design requirements, to provide a given level of <span class="hlt">control</span> system stability margin, and to achieve the most responsive tracking performance. The resulting SARJ <span class="hlt">control</span> system design and performance of the EOC and XOC configurations are presented and compared to those of the SSF configuration. Performance limitations caused by the low frequency of the dominant flexible mode are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983csme....7..178G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983csme....7..178G"><span>The efficiency of active <span class="hlt">solar</span> systems as a function of the collector-<span class="hlt">control</span> strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galanis, N.; Clavet, A.; Legouis, T.</p> <p></p> <p>The active water-circulation <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating system of an experimental house near the city of Quebec, Canada, is simulated numerically using the TRNSYS program (Klein et al., 1978) to evaluate the effects of various modifications on the efficiency. Configurations modeled are the classic system (CS) with on-off freeze-protection <span class="hlt">control</span>, CS with an optimized continuous-flow <span class="hlt">control</span>, a modified system (MS) as proposed by Keller (1981) with on-off <span class="hlt">control</span>, and MS with the optimized <span class="hlt">control</span>. The simulation results are presented graphically. The optimized <span class="hlt">control</span> subprogram is found to eliminate the evening and morning cycling problems encountered with on-off <span class="hlt">control</span>. Best efficiencies (at given flow rates) were obtained with the CS/optimized-<span class="hlt">control</span> combination. The economic feasibility of such a <span class="hlt">control</span> is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.126...75T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.126...75T"><span><span class="hlt">Controllable</span> design of solid-state perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells by SCAPS device simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Kai; Lin, Peng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yan; Xu, Zongchang; Lin, Yixin</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solid-state perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (ssPSCs) has achieved 20.1% recently. There is reason to believe that ssPSCs is a strong competitor with silicon and CIGS <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells in photovoltaic field. The deep understanding of operation mechanism of ssPSCs is essential and required to furtherly improve device performance. The configuration and excition type are similar to inorganic semiconductor <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Therefore, <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cell Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS), a device simulator widely using in inorganic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells, was employed to <span class="hlt">controllably</span> design ssPSCs. The validity of device simulation was verified by comparing with real devices from reported literatures. The influence of absorber thickness on device property was discussed, which indicate that it exists an optimal thickness range. Two hypothetical interface layers, TiO2/perovskite layer and perovskite/HTM layer, were introduced into the construction model to consider the effects of interfaces defect density on device performance. It revealed TiO2/perovskite has stronger impact than perovskite/HTM, because higher excess carrier density existing at TiO2/perovskite will cause more recombination rate. In addition, hole transport materials (HTM) parameters, hole mobility and acceptor density, were chosen to study the impact of HTM characteristics on PCE. The analysis illuminate that the design of HTM layer should balance hole mobility and acceptor density. Meanwhile, different HTM candidates were selected and replaced typical HTM layer. The discussion about the function of candidates on <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells performance demonstrated that a thiophene group hole-transporting polymer (PTAA) and a copper-based conductor (CuI) both have relatively high PCE, which is due to their wide bandgap, high conductivity, and better chemical interaction with perovskite absorber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046731','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046731"><span>Power Flow <span class="hlt">Controller</span> for Renewables: Transformer-less Unified Power Flow <span class="hlt">Controller</span> for Wind and <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Power Transmission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-02-08</p> <p>GENI Project: MSU is developing a power flow <span class="hlt">controller</span> to improve the routing of electricity from renewable sources through existing power lines. The fast, innovative, and lightweight circuitry that MSU is incorporating into its <span class="hlt">controller</span> will eliminate the need for a separate heavy and expensive transformer, as well as the construction of new transmission lines. MSU’s <span class="hlt">controller</span> is better suited to <span class="hlt">control</span> power flows from distributed and intermittent wind and <span class="hlt">solar</span> power systems than traditional transformer-based <span class="hlt">controllers</span> are, so it will help to integrate more renewable energy into the grid. MSU‘s power flow <span class="hlt">controller</span> can be installed anywhere in the existing grid to optimize energy transmission and help reduce transmission congestion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9929E..0GS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9929E..0GS"><span>Application of high refractive index and/or chromogenic layers to <span class="hlt">control</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> and thermal radiations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Motofumi; Nishiura, Kensuke; Masunaka, Shoma; Muroi, Naoto; Namura, Kyoko</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this presentation, we demonstrate that high refractive index materials such as β-FeSi2 and/or chromogenic materials such as VO2 are the key to <span class="hlt">control</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> and thermal radiations. β-FeSi2 is known as an eco-friendly semiconductor and for sputtered polycrystalline β-FeSi2 thin films, we recently found that λ 0.3 in IR region, while n is higher than 5. On the other hand, another interesting optical property of β-FeSi2 is that both n and k are considerably high in visible to NIR region ( λ <= 1.55 μm). Using these optical properties in IR and VIS, we designed multilayers consisting of β-FeSi2/SiO2/β-FeSi2/W, where the upper β-FeSi2 layer absorbs VIS and NIR (λ <= 1.0 μm) and the bottom β-FeSi2 layer/W absorbs IR (1.0 <= λ <=2.0 μm). The optimized multilayers absorb more than 90% of <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy and the eminence at 450 °C is lower than 10%. The perfect absorbers with high refractive index layers are useful for applications to <span class="hlt">solar</span> selective absorbers for <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal power generation and spectrally selective thermal emitters for thermophotovoltaic power generation, IR heaters, radiation cooling. Replacing one of β-FeSi2 layers with a chromogenic material allows active <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> and thermal radiation. In the presentation, we also demonstrate the active perfect absorbers including a VO2 layer in NIR region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790012008','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790012008"><span>Closed Loop <span class="hlt">solar</span> array-ion thruster system with power <span class="hlt">control</span> circuitry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gruber, R. P. (Inventor)</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A power <span class="hlt">control</span> circuit connected between a <span class="hlt">solar</span> array and an ion thruster receives voltage and current signals from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> array. The <span class="hlt">control</span> circuit multiplies the voltage and current signals together to produce a power signal which is differentiated with respect to time. The differentiator output is detected by a zero crossing detector and, after suitable shaping, the detector output is phase compared with a clock in a phase demodulator. An integrator receives no output from the phase demodulator when the operating point is at the maximum power but is driven toward the maximum power point for non-optimum operation. A ramp generator provides minor variations in the beam current reference signal produced by the integrator in order to obtain the first derivative of power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SMaS...23g5026B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SMaS...23g5026B"><span>Inverse problem for shape <span class="hlt">control</span> of flexible space reflectors using distributed <span class="hlt">solar</span> pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borggräfe, A.; Heiligers, J.; Ceriotti, M.; McInnes, C. R.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>This paper investigates <span class="hlt">controlled</span> elastic deflection of thin circular space reflectors using an inverse problem approach to non-linear thin membrane theory. When changing the surface reflectivity across the membrane, the distributed loads due to ambient <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure can be manipulated optically, thus <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the surface shape without using mechanical or piezo-electric systems. The surface reflectivity can in principle be modulated using uniformly distributed thin-film electro-chromic coatings. We present an analytic solution to the inverse problem of finding the necessary reflectivity distribution that creates a specific membrane deflection, for example that of a parabolic reflector. Importantly, the reflectivity distribution across the surface is found to be independent of membrane size, thickness and <span class="hlt">solar</span> distance, enabling engineering of the reflectivity distribution directly during the manufacture of the membrane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760004042&hterms=solar+cell+transparent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bcell%2Btransparent','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760004042&hterms=solar+cell+transparent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bcell%2Btransparent"><span>Properties of conductive coatings for thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> mirrors and <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell covers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Joslin, D. E.; Kan, H. K. A.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Conductive transparent coatings applied to the dielectric surfaces of a spacecraft offer the possibility of distributing charge uniformly over the entire spacecraft surface. Optical and electrical measurements of such a coating as a function of temperature are described. These results are used in considering the impact of a conductive coating on the absorptance of thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> mirrors and on the transmittance of <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell cover glass, which can be improved by the application of an antireflection coating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BAAA...58..197F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BAAA...58..197F"><span>Telescopio prototipo complementario de HASTA <span class="hlt">para</span> observaciones de la cromósfera y fotósfera <span class="hlt">solares</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Francile, C.; Luoni, M. L.; López, C. E.; Castro, J. I.; Costa, A.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We report the design of a prototype refractor telescope oriented to complement the functionality of the H-Alpha <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Telescope for Argentine (HASTA). It will allow to make photospheric observations in white light and chromospheric ones in the most intense lines, such as Ca ii K. This new instrument will observe the full <span class="hlt">solar</span> disk or into regions of interest with a maximum pixel spatial-resolution of 0.57, and will allow the study of the sunspots, the faculae, the evolution of active regions and sporadically the most energetic flares in white light by utilizing high speed image acquisition cadences and exposure times of 1--5 ms.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26156116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26156116"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span>-powered oxygen delivery: study protocol for a randomized <span class="hlt">controlled</span> trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nyende, Saleh; Conroy, Andrea; Opoka, Robert Opika; Namasopo, Sophie; Kain, Kevin C; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Bhargava, Ravi; Hawkes, Michael</p> <p>2015-07-09</p> <p>Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality globally. Oxygen therapy improves survival in children with pneumonia, yet its availability remains limited in many resource-constrained settings where most deaths occur. <span class="hlt">Solar</span>-powered oxygen delivery could be a sustainable method to improve oxygen delivery in remote areas with restricted access to a supply chain of compressed oxygen cylinders and reliable electrical power. This study is a randomized <span class="hlt">controlled</span> trial (RCT). <span class="hlt">Solar</span>-powered oxygen delivery systems will be compared to a conventional method (oxygen from cylinders) in patients with hypoxemic respiratory illness. Enrollment will occur at two sites in Uganda: Jinja Regional Referral Hospital and Kambuga District Hospital. The primary outcome will be the length of hospital stay. Secondary study endpoints will be mortality, duration of supplemental oxygen therapy (time to wean oxygen), proportion of patients successfully oxygenated, delivery system failure, cost, system maintenance and convenience. The RCT will provide useful data on the feasibility and noninferiority of <span class="hlt">solar</span>-powered oxygen delivery. This technological innovation uses freely available inputs, the sun and the air, to oxygenate children with pneumonia, and can be applied "off the grid" in remote and/or resource-constrained settings where most pneumonia deaths occur. If proven successful, <span class="hlt">solar</span>-powered oxygen delivery systems could be scaled up and widely implemented for impact on global child mortality. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT0210086 (date of registration: 27 March, 2014).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014220','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014220"><span>Microprocessor <span class="hlt">control</span> of multiple peak power tracking DC/DC converters for use with <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frederick, Martin E. (Inventor); Jermakian, Joel (Inventor)</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A method and an apparatus is provided for efficiently <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the power output of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell array string or a plurality of <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell array strings to achieve a maximum amount of output power from the strings under varying conditions of use. Maximum power output from a <span class="hlt">solar</span> array string is achieved through <span class="hlt">control</span> of a pulse width modulated DC/DC buck converter which transfers power from a <span class="hlt">solar</span> array to a load or battery bus. The input voltage from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> array to the converter is <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by a pulse width modulation duty cycle, which in turn is <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by a differential signal <span class="hlt">controller</span>. By periodically adjusting the <span class="hlt">control</span> voltage up or down by a small amount and comparing the power on the load or bus with that generated at different voltage values a maximum power output voltage may be obtained. The system is totally modular and additional <span class="hlt">solar</span> array strings may be added to the system simply by adding converter boards to the system and changing some constants in the <span class="hlt">controller</span>'s <span class="hlt">control</span> routines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......123L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......123L"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> oriented concentrating <span class="hlt">solar</span> power (CSP) plant model and its applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, Qi</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> receivers in concentrating <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal power plants (CSP) undergo over 10,000 start-ups and shutdowns, and over 25,000 rapid rate of change in temperature on receivers due to cloud transients resulting in performance degradation and material fatigue in their expected lifetime of over 30 years. The research proposes to develop a three-level <span class="hlt">controller</span> that uses multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) <span class="hlt">control</span> technology to minimize the effect of these disturbances, improve plant performance, and extend plant life. The <span class="hlt">controller</span> can be readily installed on any vendor supplied state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">control</span> hardware. We propose a three-level <span class="hlt">controller</span> architecture using multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) <span class="hlt">control</span> for CSP plants that can be implemented on existing plants to improve performance, reliability, and extend the life of the plant. This architecture optimizes the performance on multiple time scalesreactive level (regulation to temperature set points), tactical level (adaptation of temperature set points), and strategic level (trading off fatigue life due to thermal cycling and current production). This <span class="hlt">controller</span> unique to CSP plants operating at temperatures greater than 550 °C, will make CSPs competitive with conventional power plants and contribute significantly towards the Sunshot goal of 0.06/kWh(e), while responding with agility to both market dynamics and changes in <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance such as due to passing clouds. Moreover, our development of <span class="hlt">control</span> software with performance guarantees will avoid early stage failures and permit smooth grid integration of the CSP power plants. The proposed <span class="hlt">controller</span> can be implemented with existing <span class="hlt">control</span> hardware infrastructure with little or no additional equipment. In the thesis, we demonstrate a dynamics model of CSP, of which different components are modelled with different time scales. We also show a real time <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy of CSP <span class="hlt">control</span> oriented model in steady state. Furthermore, we shown different <span class="hlt">controllers</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001501"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> System for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid Scout Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Orphee, Juan; Diedrich, Ben; Stiltner, Brandon; Becker, Chris; Heaton, Andrew</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>An Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> System (ACS) has been developed for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission. The NEA Scout spacecraft is a 6U cubesat with an eighty-six square meter <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail for primary propulsion that will launch as a secondary payload on the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) and rendezvous with a target asteroid after a two year journey, and will conduct science imagery. The spacecraft ACS consists of three major actuating subsystems: a Reaction Wheel (RW) <span class="hlt">control</span> system, a Reaction <span class="hlt">Control</span> System (RCS), and an Active Mass Translator (AMT) system. The reaction wheels allow fine pointing and higher rates with low mass actuators to meet the science, communication, and trajectory guidance requirements. The Momentum Management System (MMS) keeps the speed of the wheels within their operating margins using a combination of <span class="hlt">solar</span> torque and the RCS. The AMT is used to adjust the sign and magnitude of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> torque to manage pitch and yaw momentum. The RCS is used for initial de-tumble, performing a Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM), and performing momentum management about the roll axis. The NEA Scout ACS is able to meet all mission requirements including attitude hold, slews, pointing for optical navigation and pointing for science with margin and including flexible body effects. Here we discuss the challenges and solutions of meeting NEA Scout mission requirements for the ACS design, and present a novel implementation of managing the spacecraft Center of Mass (CM) to trim the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail disturbance torque. The ACS we have developed has an applicability to a range of potential missions and does so in a much smaller volume than is traditional for deep space missions beyond Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.123..446H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.123..446H"><span>Formation <span class="hlt">control</span> of multi-robots for on-orbit assembly of large <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Quan; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Jingrui; Hu, Haiyan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This study focuses on the formation <span class="hlt">control</span> of four robots used for the on-orbit construction of a large <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail under consideration is non-spinning and has a 1 km2 area. It includes a hub as the central body and four large booms supporting the lightweight films. Four formation operating space robots capable of walking on the boom structure are utilized to deploy the sail films. Because of the large size and mass of the sail, the robots should remain in formation during the sail deployment to avoid dramatic changes in the system properties. In this paper, the formation <span class="hlt">control</span> issue of the four robots is solved by an adaptive sliding mode <span class="hlt">controller</span>. A disturbance observer with finite-time convergence is embedded to improve the <span class="hlt">control</span> performance. The proposed <span class="hlt">controller</span> is capable of resisting the strong uncertainties in the operation and do not require the accurate parameters of the system. The stability is proven, and numerical simulations are provided to validate the effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720026200','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720026200"><span>Integrated dynamic analysis simulation of space stations with <span class="hlt">controllable</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heinrichs, J. A.; Fee, J. J.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>A methodology is formulated and presented for the integrated structural dynamic analysis of space stations with <span class="hlt">controllable</span> <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays and non-<span class="hlt">controllable</span> appendages. The structural system flexibility characteristics are considered in the dynamic analysis by a synthesis technique whereby free-free space station modal coordinates and cantilever appendage coordinates are inertially coupled. A digital simulation of this analysis method is described and verified by comparison of interaction load solutions with other methods of solution. Motion equations are simulated for both the zero gravity and artificial gravity (spinning) orbital conditions. Closed loop <span class="hlt">controlling</span> dynamics for both orientation <span class="hlt">control</span> of the arrays and attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> of the space station are provided in the simulation by various generic types of <span class="hlt">controlling</span> systems. The capability of the simulation as a design tool is demonstrated by utilizing typical space station and <span class="hlt">solar</span> array structural representations and a specific structural perturbing force. Response and interaction load solutions are presented for this structural configuration and indicate the importance of using an integrated type analysis for the predictions of structural interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254937','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254937"><span>LabVIEW-based <span class="hlt">control</span> software for <span class="hlt">para</span>-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Agraz, Jose Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn</p> <p>2014-04-15</p> <p>The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. <span class="hlt">Para</span>-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ({sup 13}C) based substances using a process requiring <span class="hlt">control</span> of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B{sub o}), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually <span class="hlt">control</span> the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise <span class="hlt">control</span> of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely <span class="hlt">controls</span> the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated <span class="hlt">control</span> over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of {sup 13}C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24784636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24784636"><span>LabVIEW-based <span class="hlt">control</span> software for <span class="hlt">para</span>-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. <span class="hlt">Para</span>-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ((13)C) based substances using a process requiring <span class="hlt">control</span> of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually <span class="hlt">control</span> the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise <span class="hlt">control</span> of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely <span class="hlt">controls</span> the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated <span class="hlt">control</span> over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of (13)C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85d4705A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85d4705A"><span>LabVIEW-based <span class="hlt">control</span> software for <span class="hlt">para</span>-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. <span class="hlt">Para</span>-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 (13C) based substances using a process requiring <span class="hlt">control</span> of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually <span class="hlt">control</span> the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise <span class="hlt">control</span> of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely <span class="hlt">controls</span> the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated <span class="hlt">control</span> over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of 13C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840015630','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840015630"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> absorptance and thermal emittance of some common spacecraft thermal-<span class="hlt">control</span> coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Henninger, J. H.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> absorptance and thermal emittance of spacecraft materials are critical parameters in determining spacecraft temperature <span class="hlt">control</span>. Because thickness, surface preparation, coatings formulation, manufacturing techniques, etc. affect these parameters, it is usually necessary to measure the absorptance and emittance of materials before they are used. Absorptance and emittance data for many common types of thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings, are together with some sample spectral data curves of absorptance. In some cases for which ultraviolet and particle radiation data are available, the degraded absorptance and emittance values are also listed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.7019K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.7019K"><span>Long-term modulations of Saturn's auroral radio emissions by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind and seasonal variations <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> ultraviolet flux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kimura, T.; Lamy, L.; Tao, C.; Badman, S. V.; Kasahara, S.; Cecconi, B.; Zarka, P.; Morioka, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Maruno, D.; Kasaba, Y.; Fujimoto, M.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Saturn's auroral activities have been suggested to be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the seasonal variations of the polar ionospheric conductivities and atmospheric conditions associated with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux. However, they have not yet been explained self-consistently by only the seasonal <span class="hlt">solar</span> EUV effects. This study investigates the long-term variations of Saturnian Kilometric Radiation (SKR) as a proxy of the auroral activities, which were observed by Cassini's Radio and Plasma Wave Science experiment mostly during the southern summer (DOY (day of year) 001 2004 to DOY 193 2010). We deduced the height distribution of the SKR source region in the Northern (winter) and Southern (summer) Hemispheres from the remote sensing of SKR spectra. The peak spectral density of the southern (summer) SKR was found to be up to 100 times greater than that of the northern (winter) SKR, and the altitude of the peak flux was similar (˜ 0.8 Rs) in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The spectral densities in both hemispheres became comparable with each other around equinox in August 2009. These results suggest a stronger SKR source region during the summer than the winter related to the seasonal EUV effect, which is opposite to the trend observed in the Earth's kilometric radiation. A long-term correlation analysis was performed for the SKR, <span class="hlt">solar</span> EUV flux, and <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind parameters extrapolated from Earth's orbit by an magnetohydrodynamical simulation focusing on variations on timescales longer than several weeks. We confirmed clear positive correlations between the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind dynamic pressure and peak flux density in both the Southern and Northern Hemispheres during the declining phase of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cycle. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind variations on the timescale of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cycle <span class="hlt">control</span> the SKR source region. In addition, it was also confirmed that the south-to-north ratios of SKR power flux and source altitudes are positively correlated with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> EUV flux</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930029136&hterms=Solving+optimal+control+problems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DSolving%2Boptimal%2Bcontrol%2Bproblems','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930029136&hterms=Solving+optimal+control+problems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DSolving%2Boptimal%2Bcontrol%2Bproblems"><span>Optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> study for the Space Station <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamic power module</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Papadopoulos, P. M.; Laub, A. J.; Kenney, C. S.; Pandey, P.; Ianculescu, G.; Ly, J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The authors present the design of an optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> system for the Space Station Freedom's <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamic Fine Pointing and Tracking (SDFPT) module. A very large state model of six rigid body modes and 272 flexible modes is used in conjunction with classical LQG optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> to produce a full-order <span class="hlt">controller</span> which satisfies the requirements. The results obtained are compared with those of a classically designed PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative) <span class="hlt">controller</span> that was implemented for a six-rigid-body-mode forty-flexible-mode model. A major difficulty with designing LQG <span class="hlt">controllers</span> for large models is solving the Riccati equation that arises from the optimal formulation. A Riccati solver based on a Pade approximation to the matrix sign function is used. A symmetric version of this algorithm is derived for the special class of Hamiltonion matrices, thereby yielding, for large problems, a nearly twofold speed increase over a previous algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26317144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26317144"><span>Consecutive Morphology <span class="hlt">Controlling</span> Operations for Highly Reproducible Mesostructured Perovskite <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Yongzhen; Chen, Wei; Yue, Youfeng; Liu, Jian; Bi, Enbing; Yang, Xudong; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan</p> <p>2015-09-23</p> <p>Perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells have shown high photovoltaic performance but suffer from low reproducibility, which is mainly caused by low uniformity of the active perovskite layer in the devices. The nonuniform perovskites further limit the fabrication of large size <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. In this work, we <span class="hlt">control</span> the morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 on a mesoporous TiO2 substrate by employing consecutive antisolvent dripping and solvent-vapor fumigation during spin coating of the precursor solution. The solvent-vapor treatment is found to enhance the perovskite pore filling and increase the uniformity of CH3NH3PbI3 in the porous scaffold layer but slightly decrease the uniformity of the perovskite capping layer. An additional antisolvent dripping is employed to recover the uniform perovskite capping layer. Such consecutive morphology <span class="hlt">controlling</span> operations lead to highly uniform perovskite in both porous and capping layers. By using the optimized perovskite deposition procedure, the reproducibility of mesostructured <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells was greatly improved such that a total of 40 devices showed an average efficiency of 15.3% with a very small standard deviation of 0.32. Moreover, a high efficiency of 14.9% was achieved on a large-size cell with a working area of 1.02 cm(2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdSpR..48.1902P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdSpR..48.1902P"><span>The dynamics and <span class="hlt">control</span> of the CubeSail mission: A <span class="hlt">solar</span> sailing demonstration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pukniel, Andrew; Coverstone, Victoria; Burton, Rodney; Carroll, David</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The CubeSail mission is a low-cost demonstration of the UltraSail <span class="hlt">solar</span> sailing concept ( Burton et al., 2005; Botter et al., 2006; Hargens-Rysanek, 2006; Pukniel, 2009), using two near-identical CubeSat satellites to deploy a 260 m-long, 20 m 2 reflecting film. The two satellites are launched as a unit, detumbled, and separated, with the film unwinding symmetrically from motorized reels. The conformity to the CubeSat specification allows for reduction in launch costs as a secondary payload and utilization of the University of Illinois-developed spacecraft bus. The CubeSail demonstration is the first in a series of increasingly-complex missions aimed at validating several spacecraft subsystems, including attitude determination and <span class="hlt">control</span>, the separation release unit, reel-based film deployment, as well as the dynamical behavior of the sail and on-orbit <span class="hlt">solar</span> propulsion. The presented work describes dynamical behavior and <span class="hlt">control</span> methods used during three main phases of the mission. The three phases include initial detumbling and stabilization using magnetic torque actuators, gravity-gradient-based deployment of the film, and steady-state film deformations in low Earth orbit in the presence of external forces of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure, aerodynamic drag, and gravity-gradient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1395141','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1395141"><span>TiO{sub 2}-Assisted Photoisomerization of Azo Dyes using Self-Assembled Monolayers: Case Study on {ital <span class="hlt">para</span>}Methyl Red Towards <span class="hlt">Solar</span>-Cell Applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M.</p> <p>2014-02-13</p> <p>The optical and electronic properties of a TiO2 nanoparticle-assisted photo-isomerizable surface, prepared by an azo dye/TiO2 nanocomposite film, are examined experimentally and computationally. The azo dye, <span class="hlt">para</span>-methyl red, undergoes photoisomerization at room temperature, catalyzed by the TiO2 nanoparticle supports, while it exhibits negligible photoisomerization in solvents under otherwise identical conditions. Density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory are employed to explain the origin of this photoisomerization in these dye…TiO2 nanoparticle self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The device performance of these SAMs when embedded into dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells is used to further elucidate the nature of this azo dye photoisomerization and relate it to the ensuing optoelectronic properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24524429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24524429"><span>TiO2-assisted photoisomerization of azo dyes using self-assembled monolayers: case study on <span class="hlt">para</span>-methyl red towards <span class="hlt">solar</span>-cell applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M</p> <p>2014-03-12</p> <p>The optical and electronic properties of a TiO2 nanoparticle-assisted photo-isomerizable surface, prepared by an azo dye/TiO2 nanocomposite film, are examined experimentally and computationally. The azo dye, <span class="hlt">para</span>-methyl red, undergoes photoisomerization at room temperature, catalyzed by the TiO2 nanoparticle supports, while it exhibits negligible photoisomerization in solvents under otherwise identical conditions. Density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory are employed to explain the origin of this photoisomerization in these dye···TiO2 nanoparticle self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The device performance of these SAMs when embedded into dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells is used to further elucidate the nature of this azo dye photoisomerization and relate it to the ensuing optoelectronic properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750040887&hterms=Jasper&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DJasper','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750040887&hterms=Jasper&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DJasper"><span>Attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> requirements for an earth-orbital <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion stage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oglevie, R. E.; Andrews, P. D.; Jasper, T. P.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) application in earth orbit requires considerably more maneuvering for thrust vector steering and <span class="hlt">solar</span> array pointing than planetary missions. Attitude maneuver requirements for geosynchronous and low earth-orbital missions are presented. Situations which result in optimum steering torque requirements exceeding the capability of current SEPS configurations are defined. Sub-optimal steering techniques are defined which reduce the geosynchronous mission torque requirements to acceptable levels with negligible performance penalties. Some low earth-orbital flight regimes with earth shadowing are found to result in much larger torque requirements and impose significant mechanization penalties if serious performance losses are to be avoided. Alternative attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> mechanization techniques are defined for these cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990063832','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990063832"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Array Shadowing on the Power Capability of the Interim <span class="hlt">Control</span> Module</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fincannon, James; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Garner, James Christopher</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The Interim <span class="hlt">Control</span> Module (ICM) is being built by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for NASA as a propulsion module for the International Space Station (ISS). Originally developed as a spinning spacecraft used to move payloads to their final orbit, for ISS, the ICM will be in a fixed orientation and location for long periods resulting in substantial <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel shadowing. This paper describes the methods used to determine the incident energy incident energy on the ICM <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels and the power capability of the electric power system (EPS). Applying this methodology has resulted in analyses and assessments used to identify ICM early design changes/options, placement and orientations that enable successful operation of the EPS under a wide variety of anticipated conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1147H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1147H"><span>Switch programming of reflectivity <span class="hlt">control</span> devices for the coupled dynamics of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Tianjian; Gong, Shengping; Mu, Junshan; Li, Junfeng; Wang, Tianshu; Qian, Weiping</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>As demonstrated in the Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun (IKAROS), reflectivity <span class="hlt">control</span> devices (RCDs) are switched on or off independently with each other, which has nevertheless been ignored by many previous researches. This paper emphasizes the discrete property of RCDs, and aims to obtain an appropriate switch law of RCDs for a rigid spinning <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail. First, the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics is derived from the basic <span class="hlt">solar</span> force and torque model into an underdetermined linear system with a binary set constraint. Subsequently, the coupled dynamics is reformulated into a constrained quadratic programming and a basic gradient projection method is designed to search for the optimal solution. Finally, a circular sail flying in the Venus rendezvous mission demonstrates the model and method numerically, which illustrates approximately 103 km terminal position error and 0.5 m/s terminal velocity error as 80 independent RCDs are switched on or off appropriately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107g3507D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107g3507D"><span><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> the conduction band offset for highly efficient ZnO nanorods based perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Juan; Shi, Jiangjian; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The mechanism of charge recombination at the interface of n-type electron transport layer (n-ETL) and perovskite absorber on the carrier properties in the perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell is theoretically studied. By solving the one dimensional diffusion equation with different boundary conditions, it reveals that the interface charge recombination in the perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell can be suppressed by adjusting the conduction band offset (ΔEC) at ZnO ETL/perovskite absorber interface, thus leading to improvements in cell performance. Furthermore, Mg doped ZnO nanorods ETL has been designed to <span class="hlt">control</span> the energy band levels. By optimizing the doping amount of Mg, the conduction band minimum of the Mg doped ZnO ETL has been raised up by 0.29 eV and a positive ΔEC of about 0.1 eV is obtained. The photovoltage of the cell is thus significantly increased due to the relatively low charge recombination.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8973432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8973432"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> disinfection of drinking water and diarrhoea in Maasai children: a <span class="hlt">controlled</span> field trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Conroy, R M; Elmore-Meegan, M; Joyce, T; McGuigan, K G; Barnes, J</p> <p></p> <p>During December 1995-March 1996 in Kajiado Province, Kenya, 206 Maasai children, 5-16 years old, whose drinking water was contaminated with fecal coliform bacteria, were assigned 1.5 liter plastic bottles in which to store their drinking water. These bottles were re-used commercial table water bottles. The families of the children had only community sources for drinking water: 2 open water-holes and 1 tank fed from a piped supply. These water sources were not suited to chlorination. Scarce fuel and indoor air pollution precluded boiling water inside the hut. In the presence of their mothers, 108 children (the <span class="hlt">solar</span> group) were told to fill the bottles with water at dawn, leave them in full sunlight on the roofs of their homes, and wait until midday before drinking from the bottles. The remaining 98 children (the <span class="hlt">control</span> group) were told to leave the bottles in their homes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of <span class="hlt">solar</span> disinfection on diarrheal disease in these Maasai children. Over a 12-week period, children in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> group suffered fewer diarrhea episodes than those in the <span class="hlt">control</span> group (4.1 vs. 4.5; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.66). They also were less likely to have diarrhea episodes severe enough to prevent them from doing their chores (1.7 vs. 2.3; AOR = 0.65). These findings suggest that <span class="hlt">solar</span> disinfection of water may reduce diarrhea in communities with no access to other means of disinfection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050215317','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050215317"><span>Study of a 30-M Boom For <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail-Craft: Model Extendibility and <span class="hlt">Control</span> Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keel, Leehyun</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p> extendibility question of the analytical models. In operation, rapid temperature changes can be induced in <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails as they transition from day to night and vice versa. This generates time dependent thermally induced forces, which may in turn create oscillation in structural members such as booms. Such oscillations have an adverse effect on system operations, precise pointing of instruments and antennas and can lead to self excited vibrations of increasing amplitude. The latter phenomenon is known as thermal flutter and can lead to the catastrophic failure of structural systems. To remedy this problem, an active vibration suppression system has been developed. It was shown that piezoelectric actuators used in conjunction with a Proportional Feedback <span class="hlt">Control</span> (PFC) law (or Velocity Feedback <span class="hlt">Control</span> (VFC) law) can induce moments that can suppress structural vibrations and prevent flutter instability in spacecraft booms. In this study, we will investigate <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies using piezoelectric transducers in active, passive, and/or hybrid <span class="hlt">control</span> configurations. Advantages and disadvantages of each configuration will be studied and experiments to determine their capabilities and limitations will be planned. In particular, special attention will be given to the hybrid <span class="hlt">control</span>, also known as energy recycling, configuration due to its unique characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19624195','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19624195"><span>Quantum dynamical simulations for nuclear spin selective laser <span class="hlt">control</span> of ortho- and <span class="hlt">para</span>-fulvene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belz, S; Grohmann, T; Leibscher, M</p> <p>2009-07-21</p> <p>In the present paper we explore the prospects for laser <span class="hlt">control</span> of the photoinduced nonadiabatic dynamics of <span class="hlt">para</span>- and ortho-fulvene with the help of quantum dynamical simulations. Previous investigations [Bearpark et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 5253 (1996); Alfalah et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 124318 (2009)] show that photoisomerization of fulvene is hindered by ultrafast radiationless decay through a conical intersection at planar configuration. Here, we demonstrate that photoisomerization can nevertheless be initiated by damping unfavorable nuclear vibrations with properly designed laser pulses. Moreover, we show that the resulting intramolecular torsion is nuclear spin selective. The selectivity of the photoexcitation with respect to the nuclear spin isomers can be further enhanced by applying an optimized sequence of two laser pulses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5625298','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5625298"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> system analysis for off-peak auxiliary heating of passive <span class="hlt">solar</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murray, H.S.; Melsa, J.L.; Balcomb, J.D.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A computer simulation method is presented for the design of an electrical auxiliary energy system for passive <span class="hlt">solar</span> heated structures. The system consists of electrical mats buried in the ground underneath the structure. Energy is stored in the ground during utility off-peak hours and released passively to the heated enclosure. An optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy is used to determine the system design parameters of depth of mat placement and minimum instaled electrical heating capacity. The optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> applies combinations of fixed duration energy pulses to the heater, which minimize the room temperature error-squared for each day, assuming advance knowledge of the day's weather. Various realizable <span class="hlt">control</span> schemes are investigated in an attempt to find a system that approaches the performance of the optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAnSc..63..103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAnSc..63..103S"><span>Large Angle Reorientation of a <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Using Gimballed Mass <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sperber, E.; Fu, B.; Eke, F. O.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy for the large angle reorientation of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail equipped with a gimballed mass. The algorithm consists of a first stage that manipulates the gimbal angle in order to minimize the attitude error about a single principal axis. Once certain termination conditions are reached, a regulator is employed that selects a single gimbal angle for minimizing both the residual attitude error concomitantly with the body rate. Because the force due to the specular reflection of radiation is always directed along a reflector's surface normal, this form of thrust vector <span class="hlt">control</span> cannot generate torques about an axis normal to the plane of the sail. Thus, in order to achieve three-axis <span class="hlt">control</span> authority a 1-2-1 or 2-1-2 sequence of rotations about principal axes is performed. The <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithm is implemented directly in-line with the nonlinear equations of motion and key performance characteristics are identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830047832&hterms=attitudes+toward+orientation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dattitudes%2Btoward%2Borientation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830047832&hterms=attitudes+toward+orientation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dattitudes%2Btoward%2Borientation"><span>An investigation of quasi-inertial attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> power satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Juang, J.-N.; Wang, S. J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An efficient means, a quasi-inertial attitude mode, is developed for maintaining the normal <span class="hlt">solar</span> orientation of a space satellite for power collection in a synchronous orbit. Formulae are presented which establish the basic parametric properties for ideal quasi-inertial attitude and phasing. An active <span class="hlt">control</span> system is necessary to compensate for the energy loss since energy dissipation in widely oscillating flexible bodies produces an instability of the quasi-inertial attitude in the sense that the spacecraft will tumble at the orbit rate. A fixed terminal time and state optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> problem is formulated and an algorithm for determining the optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> as a means for the periodical attitude and phase compensation is developed. The vehicle orientation affected by internal disturbance (structural flexibility) and external disturbances (e.g., drag forces) is maintained by a specialized <span class="hlt">controller</span> design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830047832&hterms=satellite+orientation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsatellite%2Borientation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830047832&hterms=satellite+orientation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsatellite%2Borientation"><span>An investigation of quasi-inertial attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> power satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Juang, J.-N.; Wang, S. J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An efficient means, a quasi-inertial attitude mode, is developed for maintaining the normal <span class="hlt">solar</span> orientation of a space satellite for power collection in a synchronous orbit. Formulae are presented which establish the basic parametric properties for ideal quasi-inertial attitude and phasing. An active <span class="hlt">control</span> system is necessary to compensate for the energy loss since energy dissipation in widely oscillating flexible bodies produces an instability of the quasi-inertial attitude in the sense that the spacecraft will tumble at the orbit rate. A fixed terminal time and state optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> problem is formulated and an algorithm for determining the optimal <span class="hlt">control</span> as a means for the periodical attitude and phase compensation is developed. The vehicle orientation affected by internal disturbance (structural flexibility) and external disturbances (e.g., drag forces) is maintained by a specialized <span class="hlt">controller</span> design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...710595R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...710595R"><span>Solvent engineering towards <span class="hlt">controlled</span> grain growth in perovskite planar heterojunction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rong, Yaoguang; Tang, Zhongjia; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhong, Xin; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Graham, Harrison; Patton, Matthew; Jing, Yan; Guloy, Arnold M.; Yao, Yan</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We report an effective solvent engineering process to enable <span class="hlt">controlled</span> perovskite crystal growth and a wider window for processing uniform and dense methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite films. Planar heterojunction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells fabricated with this method demonstrate hysteresis-free performance with a power conversion efficiency around 10%. The crystal structure of an organic-based Pb iodide intermediate phase is identified for the first time, which is critical in <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the crystal growth and optimizing thin film morphology.We report an effective solvent engineering process to enable <span class="hlt">controlled</span> perovskite crystal growth and a wider window for processing uniform and dense methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite films. Planar heterojunction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells fabricated with this method demonstrate hysteresis-free performance with a power conversion efficiency around 10%. The crystal structure of an organic-based Pb iodide intermediate phase is identified for the first time, which is critical in <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the crystal growth and optimizing thin film morphology. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed Experimental methods; photovoltaic performance of the devices; An X-ray crystallographic file (CIF). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02866c</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20000383','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20000383"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> array pointing <span class="hlt">control</span> for the International Space Station electrical power subsystem to optimize power delivery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hill, R.C.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>Precise orientation <span class="hlt">control</span> of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS) photovoltaic (PV) <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays is required for a number of reasons, including the optimization of power delivery to ISS system loads and payloads. To maximize power generation and delivery in general, the PV arrays are pointed directly at the sun with some allowance for inaccuracies in determination of where to point and in the actuation of pointing the PV arrays. <span class="hlt">Control</span> of PV array orientation in this sun pointing mode is performed automatically by onboard hardware and software. During certain conditions, maximum power cannot be generated in automatic sun tracking mode due to shadowing of the PV arrays cast by other ISS structures, primarily adjacent PV arrays. In order to maximize the power generated, the PV arrays must be pointed away from the ideal sun pointing targets to reduce the amount of shadowing. The amount of off-pointing to maximize power is a function of many parameters such as the physical configuration of the ISS structures during the assembly timeframe, the <span class="hlt">solar</span> beta angle and vehicle attitude. Thus the off-pointing cannot be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> automatically and must be determined by ground operators. This paper presents an overview of ISS PV array orientation <span class="hlt">control</span>, PV array power performance under shadowed and off-pointing conditions, and a methodology to maximize power under those same conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917470P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917470P"><span>Is tropospheric weather influenced by <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind through atmospheric vertical coupling downward <span class="hlt">control</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prikryl, Paul; Tsukijihara, Takumi; Iwao, Koki; Muldrew, Donald B.; Bruntz, Robert; Rušin, Vojto; Rybanský, Milan; Turňa, Maroš; Šťastný, Pavel; Pastirčák, Vladimír</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p> (Prikryl et al., Ann. Geophys., 27, 31-57, 2009). It is primarily the energy provided by release of latent heat that leads to intensification of storms. These results indicate that vertical coupling in the atmosphere exerts downward <span class="hlt">control</span> from <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind to the lower atmospheric levels influencing tropospheric weather development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.6240H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.6240H"><span>Distribution and <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of compressional <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind-magnetic anomaly interactions observed at the Moon by ARTEMIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Lue, C.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>A statistical investigation of 5 years of observations from the two-probe Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission reveals that strong compressional interactions occur infrequently at high altitudes near the ecliptic but can form in a wide range of <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind conditions and can occur up to two lunar radii downstream from the lunar limb. The compressional events, some of which may represent small-scale collisionless shocks ("limb shocks"), occur in both steady and variable interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, with those forming in steady IMF well organized by the location of lunar remanent crustal magnetization. The events observed by ARTEMIS have similarities to ion foreshock phenomena, and those observed in variable IMF conditions may result from either local lunar interactions or distant terrestrial foreshock interactions. Observed velocity deflections associated with compressional events are always outward from the lunar wake, regardless of location and <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind conditions. However, events for which the observed velocity deflection is parallel to the upstream motional electric field form in distinctly different <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind conditions and locations than events with antiparallel deflections. Consideration of the momentum transfer between incoming and reflected <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind populations helps explain the observed characteristics of the different groups of events.<abstract type="synopsis"><title type="main">Plain Language SummaryWe survey the environment around the Moon to determine when and where strong amplifications in the charged particle density and magnetic field strength occur. These structures may be some of the smallest shock waves in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> system, and learning about their formation informs us about the interaction of charged particles with small-scale magnetic fields throughout the <span class="hlt">solar</span> system and beyond. We find that these compressions occur in an extended region</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080044795','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080044795"><span>Fault Detection and Correction for the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamics Observatory Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Starin, Scott R.; Vess, Melissa F.; Kenney, Thomas M.; Maldonado, Manuel D.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamics Observatory is an Explorer-class mission that will launch in early 2009. The spacecraft will operate in a geosynchronous orbit, sending data 24 hours a day to a devoted ground station in White Sands, New Mexico. It will carry a suite of instruments designed to observe the Sun in multiple wavelengths at unprecedented resolution. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly includes four telescopes with focal plane CCDs that can image the full <span class="hlt">solar</span> disk in four different visible wavelengths. The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment will collect time-correlated data on the activity of the Sun's corona. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager will enable study of pressure waves moving through the body of the Sun. The attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> system on <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamics Observatory is responsible for four main phases of activity. The physical safety of the spacecraft after separation must be guaranteed. Fine attitude determination and <span class="hlt">control</span> must be sufficient for instrument calibration maneuvers. The mission science mode requires 2-arcsecond <span class="hlt">control</span> according to error signals provided by guide telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, one of the three instruments to be carried. Lastly, accurate execution of linear and angular momentum changes to the spacecraft must be provided for momentum management and orbit maintenance. In thsp aper, single-fault tolerant fault detection and correction of the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Dynamics Observatory attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> system is described. The attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> hardware suite for the mission is catalogued, with special attention to redundancy at the hardware level. Four reaction wheels are used where any three are satisfactory. Four pairs of redundant thrusters are employed for orbit change maneuvers and momentum management. Three two-axis gyroscopes provide full redundancy for rate sensing. A digital Sun sensor and two autonomous star trackers provide two-out-of-three redundancy for fine attitude determination. The use of software to maximize</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050207361','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050207361"><span>AOCS Performance and Stability Validation for a 160-m <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail with <span class="hlt">Control</span>-Structure Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wie, Bong; Murphy, David</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Future <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail missions, such as NASA's <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Polar Imager Vision, will require sails with dimensions on the order of 50-500 m. We are examining a square sail design with moving mass (trim <span class="hlt">control</span> mass, TCM) and quadrant rotation primary actuators plus pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) at the mast tips for backup attitude <span class="hlt">control</span>. Quadrant rotation is achieved via roll stabilizer bars (RSB) at the mast tips. At these sizes, given the gossamer nature of the sail supporting structures, flexible modes may be low enough to interact with the <span class="hlt">control</span> system, especially as these actuators are located on the flexible structure itself and not on the rigid core. This paper develops a practical analysis of the flexible interactions using state-space systems and modal data from finite element models of the system. Torsion and bending of the masts during maneuvers could significantly affect the function of the actuators while activation of the membrane modes could adversely affect the thrust vector direction and magnitude. Analysis of the RSB and TCM dynamics for developing high-fidelity simulations is included. For <span class="hlt">control</span> analysis of the flexible system, standard finite-element models of the flexible sail body are loaded and the modal data is used to create a modal coordinate state-space system. Key parameters include which modes to include, which nodes are of interest for force inputs and displacement outputs, connecting nodes through which external forces and torques are applied from the flex body to the core, any nominal momentum in the system, and any steady rates. The system is linearized about the nominal attitude and rate. The state-space plant can then be analyzed with a state-space <span class="hlt">controller</span>, and Bode, Nyquist, step and impulse responses generated. The approach is general for any rigid core with a flexible appendage. This paper develops a compensator for a simple two-mass flex system and extrapolates the results to the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail. A finite element model of the 20 m</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864827','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864827"><span>Thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> system and method for a passive <span class="hlt">solar</span> storage wall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ortega, Joseph K. E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The invention provides a system and method for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the storing and elease of thermal energy from a thermal storage wall wherein said wall is capable of storing thermal energy from insolation of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation. The system and method includes a device such as a plurality of louvers spaced a predetermined distance from the thermal wall for regulating the release of thermal energy from the thermal wall. This regulating device is made from a material which is substantially transparent to the incoming <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation so that when it is in any operative position, the thermal storage wall substantially receives all of the impacting <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation. The material in the regulating device is further capable of being substantially opaque to thermal energy so that when the device is substantially closed, thermal release of energy from the storage wall is substantially minimized. An adjustment device is interconnected with the regulating mechanism for selectively opening and closing it in order to regulate the release of thermal energy from the wall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........22Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........22Y"><span>Nanomorphology <span class="hlt">control</span> and novel materials studies in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yao, Yan</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation focuses on improving the efficiency of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells from two directions: (i) understanding the nanomorphology-efficiency relationship and <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the active layer morphology during its formation; (ii) developing new materials for both electron donors and electron acceptors in the polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. A solvent annealing approach is successfully demonstrated to <span class="hlt">control</span> the morphology and increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene):fullerene <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. A detailed evolution study on this approach using absorption, photoluminescence, external quantum efficiency, atomic force microscopy, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction techniques leads to following understanding: the optimum nanomorphology must be a balance between large interfacial area for exciton dissociation and continuous pathways for carrier transportation. 4.4% efficiency is demonstrated in this system. Effects of solvent mixture on the nanoscale phase separation are studied further. The donor/acceptor components in the active layer can "intelligently" phase separate into an optimum morphology during the spin-coating process and no further treatment is necessary. Devices with the solvent mixture show about 10 times higher efficiency compared to those devices fabricated without the additive solvent fabricated under the same condition. A model and additive solvent selection rule are proposed to explain the phenomenon. To address the absorption mismatch with <span class="hlt">solar</span> spectrum, two novel low band gap copolymers containing 3-alkoxythiophene have been synthesized with the band gap of 1.64 and 1.77 eV, respectively. In addition, novel electron acceptors also hold great promise. A 50% increase in short-circuit current is demonstrated by using (6,6)-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (C70-PCBM) to replace (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). As the result, 2.4% power conversion efficiency is achieved for low band gap polymer based</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080031465','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080031465"><span><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> Charging and Arcing on a <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Powered Auroral Orbiting Spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ferguson, Dale C.; Rhee, Michael S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Global Precipitation Measurement satellite (GPM) will be launched into a high inclination (65 degree) orbit to monitor rainfall on a global scale. Satellites in high inclination orbits have been shown to charge to high negative potentials, with the possibility of arcing on the <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays, when three conditions are met: a drop in plasma density below approximately 10,000 cm(exp -3), an injection of energetic electrons of energy more that 7-10 keV, and passage through darkness. Since all of these conditions are expected to obtain for some of the GPM orbits, charging calculations were done using first the Space Environment and Effects (SEE) Program Interactive Spacecraft Charging Handbook, and secondly the NASA Air-force Spacecraft Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP-2k). The object of the calculations was to determine if charging was likely for the GPM configuration and materials, and specifically to see if choosing a particular type of thermal white paint would help minimize charging. A detailed NASCAP-2k geometrical model of the GPM spacecraft was built, with such a large number of nodes that it challenged the capability of NASCAP-2k to do the calculations. The results of the calculations were that for worst-case auroral charging conditions, charging to levels on the order of -120 to -230 volts could occur on GPM during night-time, with differential voltages on the <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays that might lead to <span class="hlt">solar</span> array arcing. In sunlit conditions, charging did not exceed -20 V under any conditions. The night-time results were sensitive to the spacecraft surface materials chosen. For non-conducting white paints, the charging was severe, and could continue unabated throughout the passage of GPM through the auroral zone. Somewhat conductive (dissipative) white paints minimized the night-time charging to levels of -120 V or less, and thus were recommended for GPM thermal <span class="hlt">control</span>. It is shown that the choice of thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> paints is important to prevent arcing on high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......151F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......151F"><span>Modelizacion, <span class="hlt">control</span> e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo <span class="hlt">para</span> aplicacion en sistemas multisalida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferreres Sabater, Agustin</p> <p></p> <p> modelizacion, y aplicacion en convertidores PWM, esta aun por estudiar y valorar. El primer Capitulo consiste en una breve introduccion al problema de la regulacion cruzada y la impedancia cruzada <span class="hlt">para</span> posteriormente describir las tecnicas de post-regulacion actualmente mas empleadas, con especial atencion al post-regulador con transformador controlado. El Capitulo segundo trata del estudio de las caracteristicas estaticas del postregulador con transformador controlado. Partiendo de los estudios disponibles sobre el postregulador se plantean mejoras en su modo de actuacion y se discuten tres alternativas diferentes <span class="hlt">para</span> controlar el transformador. Las dos primeras consisten en emplear un convertidor auxiliar Boost en sus dos modos de funcionamiento, continuo y discontinuo. La tercera consiste en controlar el transformador con una tension PWM directamente, sin filtrado. Finalmente se comprueba experimentalmente, <span class="hlt">para</span> el estado estacionario, el funcionamiento del post-regulador <span class="hlt">para</span> cada uno de los tres metodos de <span class="hlt">control</span>. El Capitulo tercero trata de la dinamica de la salida controlada con el post-regulador cuando este emplea un convertidor auxiliar tipo Boost. Mediante la tecnica de promediado de variables de estado se propone el modelo de pequena senal, tanto <span class="hlt">para</span> el modo continuo como <span class="hlt">para</span> el modo discontinuo de funcionamiento del convertidor auxiliar. Los resultados mas significativos de esta seccion son las expresiones analiticas de las impedancias cruzadas y de la impedancia de la salida post-regulada. Como complemento al modelo de pequena senal se plantea un modelo de gran senal implementado sobre el simulador Pspice. Con este nuevo modelo se reproducen los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de pequena senal y ademas es posible simular los transitorios en las tensiones de salida ante cambios de carga. La modelizacion del convertidor cuando el transformador se controla con una tension PWM sin filtrar es el objetivo del Capitulo 4. En las secciones siguientes del Capitulo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA106025','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA106025"><span>The Application of Ion Propulsion to the Transportation and <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Power Satellites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>rectenna via a microwave beam or, in the more distant future, perhaps by a laser system. This 3-7 proposal has been very extensively studied , with various...terminals of the ground rectenna system. The planar silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> array option has an estimated mass of 51000 tonnes and that using GaAIAs technology...ground rectenna . The latter must be accurate to 0.050, with the phased array being used for vernier <span class="hlt">control</span> of the beam, and the former should have a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1826b0026S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1826b0026S"><span>Designing of new structure PID <span class="hlt">controller</span> of boost converter for <span class="hlt">solar</span> photovoltaic stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shabrina, Hanifati Nur; Setiawan, Eko Adhi; Sabirin, Chip Rinaldi</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Nowadays, the utilization of renewable energy as the source on distributed generation system is increasing. It aims to reduce reliance and power losses from utility grid and improve power stability in near loads. One example of renewable energy technology that have been highly proven on the market is <span class="hlt">solar</span> photovoltaic (PV). This technology converts photon from sunlight into electricity. However, the fluctuation of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation that often occurs become the main problem for this system. Due to this condition, the power conversion is needed to convert the change frequently in photovoltaic panel into a stable voltage to the system. Developing <span class="hlt">control</span> of boost converter has important role to keep ability of system stabilization. A conventional PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) <span class="hlt">control</span> is mostly used to achieve this goal. In this research, a design of new structure PID <span class="hlt">controller</span> of boost converter is offered to better optimize system stability comparing to the conventional PID. Parameters obtained from this PID structure have been successfully yield a stable boost converter output at 200 V with 10% overshoot, 1.5 seconds of settling time, and 1.5% of steady-state error.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100010965','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100010965"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Spaceflight Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lisano, Michael; Evans, James; Ellis, Jordan; Schimmels, John; Roberts, Timothy; Rios-Reyes, Leonel; Scheeres, Daniel; Bladt, Jeff; Lawrence, Dale; Piggott, Scott</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Sail Spaceflight Simulation Software (S5) toolkit provides <span class="hlt">solar</span>-sail designers with an integrated environment for designing optimal <span class="hlt">solar</span>-sail trajectories, and then studying the attitude dynamics/<span class="hlt">control</span>, navigation, and trajectory <span class="hlt">control</span>/correction of sails during realistic mission simulations. Unique features include a high-fidelity <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation pressure model suitable for arbitrarily-shaped <span class="hlt">solar</span> sails, a <span class="hlt">solar</span>-sail trajectory optimizer, capability to develop <span class="hlt">solar</span>-sail navigation filter simulations, <span class="hlt">solar</span>-sail attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> models, and <span class="hlt">solar</span>-sail high-fidelity force models.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JIEIB..96...37S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JIEIB..96...37S"><span>Adaptive Harmonic Detection <span class="hlt">Control</span> of Grid Interfaced <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Photovoltaic Energy System with Power Quality Improvement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, B.; Goel, S.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents a grid interfaced <span class="hlt">solar</span> photovoltaic (SPV) energy system with a novel adaptive harmonic detection <span class="hlt">control</span> for power quality improvement at ac mains under balanced as well as unbalanced and distorted supply conditions. The SPV energy system is capable of compensation of linear and nonlinear loads with the objectives of load balancing, harmonics elimination, power factor correction and terminal voltage regulation. The proposed <span class="hlt">control</span> increases the utilization of PV infrastructure and brings down its effective cost due to its other benefits. The adaptive harmonic detection <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithm is used to detect the fundamental active power component of load currents which are subsequently used for reference source currents estimation. An instantaneous symmetrical component theory is used to obtain instantaneous positive sequence point of common coupling (PCC) voltages which are used to derive inphase and quadrature phase voltage templates. The proposed grid interfaced PV energy system is modelled and simulated in MATLAB Simulink and its performance is verified under various operating conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1159..103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1159..103S"><span>Fuzzy Rule Suram for <span class="hlt">Control</span> System of a <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Energy Wood Drying Chamber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Situmorang, Zakarias; Wardoyo, Retantyo; Hartati, Sri; Eko Istiyanto, Jazi</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The paper reports used the fuzzy rule Suram for <span class="hlt">control</span> system of a wood drying chamber with <span class="hlt">solar</span> as source of energy. Rule suram based of fuzzy logic with variables of weather is temperature ambient and conditions of air is humidity ambient, it implemented for wood drying process. The membership function of variable of state represented in error value and change error with typical of triangle and trapezium map. Result of Analysis to reach 8 fuzzy rule to <span class="hlt">control</span> the output system can be constructed in a number of way of weather and conditions of air. It used to minimum of the consumption of electric energy by heater. The rule suram used to stability and equilibrium of schedule of drying in chamber by <span class="hlt">control</span> of temperature and humidity. The result of implemented of fuzzy rule suram with the modification of membership function in range [0.5, 1] represented approximate to he conditions riel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8451E..0IB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8451E..0IB"><span>Software <span class="hlt">control</span> of the Advanced Technology <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Telescope enclosure PLC hardware using COTS software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borrowman, Alastair J.; de Bilbao, Lander; Ariño, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Goodrich, Bret; Hubbard, John R.; Greer, Alan; Mayer, Chris; Taylor, Philip</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>As PLCs evolve from simple logic <span class="hlt">controllers</span> into more capable Programmable Automation <span class="hlt">Controllers</span> (PACs), observatories are increasingly using such devices to <span class="hlt">control</span> complex mechanisms1, 2. This paper describes use of COTS software to <span class="hlt">control</span> such hardware using the Advanced Technology <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Telescope (ATST) Common Services Framework (CSF). We present the Enclosure <span class="hlt">Control</span> System (ECS) under development in Spain and the UK. The paper details selection of the commercial PLC communication library PLCIO. Implemented in C and delivered with source code, the library separates the programmer from communication details through a simple API. Capable of communicating with many types of PLCs (including Allen-Bradley and Siemens) the API remains the same irrespective of PLC in use. The ECS is implemented in Java using the observatory's framework that provides common services for software components. We present a design following a connection-based approach where all components access the PLC through a single connection class. The link between Java and PLCIO C library is provided by a thin Java Native Interface (JNI) layer. Also presented is a software simulator of the PLC based upon the PLCIO Virtual PLC. This creates a simulator operating below the library's API and thus requires no change to ECS software. It also provides enhanced software testing capabilities prior to hardware becoming available. Results are presented in the form of communication timing test data, showing that the use of CSF, JNI and PLCIO provide a <span class="hlt">control</span> system capable of <span class="hlt">controlling</span> enclosure tracking mechanisms, that would be equally valid for telescope mount <span class="hlt">control</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......122W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......122W"><span>The dynamics and <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span>-sail spacecraft in displaced lunar orbits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey George</p> <p></p> <p> structure of the solution space is not well known. Because of their simplicity and speed, the FDM is used to populate a survey to assist in the understanding of the available design space. Trajectories generated by FDMs can also be used to initialize other nonlinear BVP solvers. Any solution is only as accurate as the model used to generate it, especially when the trajectory is dynamically unstable, certainly the case when an orbit is purposefully offset from the Moon. Perturbations, such as unmodeled gravitational forces, variations in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> flux, as well as mis-modeling of the sail and bus properties, all shift the spacecraft off the reference trajectory and, potentially, into a regime from which the vehicle is unrecoverable. Therefore, some type of flight-path <span class="hlt">control</span> is required to maintain the vehicle near the reference path. Reference trajectories, supplied by FDMs, are used to develop guidance algorithms based on other, more accurate, numerical procedures, such as multiple shooting. The primary motivation of this investigation is to determine what level of technology is required to displace a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail spacecraft sufficiently such that a vehicle equipped with a sail supplies a continuous relay between the Earth and an outpost at the lunar south pole. To accomplish this objective, numerical methods to generate reference orbits that meet mission constraints are examined, as well as flight-path <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies to ensure that a sailcraft follows those reference trajectories. A survey of the design space is also performed to highlight vehicle-performance and ground-based metrics critical to a mission that monitors the lunar south pole at all times. Finally, observations about the underlying dynamical structure of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail motion in a multi-body system are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991STIN...9214483G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991STIN...9214483G"><span>Design of the support structure, drive pedestal, and <span class="hlt">controls</span> for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, V. R.; Ford, J. L.; Anderson, A. E.</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>The glass/metal McDonnell-Douglas dish is the state-of-the-art of parabolic dish concentrators. Because of the perceived high production cost of this concentrator, the Department of Energy's <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Thermal Program is developing stretch membrane technology for large (75 kWt) <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrators for integration with receivers and engines in 25 kWe dish-Stirling systems. The objective of this development effort is to reduce the cost of the concentrator while maintaining the high levels of performance characteristic of glass-metal dishes. Under contract to Sandia National Laboratories, Science Applications International Corporation, <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Kinetics Inc. and WG Associates are developing a faceted stretched-membrane heliostat technology. This design will result in a low-risk, near-term concentrator for dish-Stirling systems. WG Associates has designed the support structure, drives and tracking <span class="hlt">controls</span> for this dish. The structure is configured to support 12 stretched-membrane, 3.5-meter diameter facets in a shaped dish configuration. The dish design is sized to power a dish-Stirling system capable of producing 25 kW (electric). In the design of the structure, trade-off studies were conducted to determine the best facet arrangement, dish contour, dish focal length, tracking <span class="hlt">control</span> and walk-off protection. As part of the design, in-depth analyses were performed to evaluate pointing accuracy, compliance with AISC steel design codes, and the economics of fabrication and installation. Detailed fabrication and installation drawings were produced, and initial production cost estimates for the dish were developed. These issues, and the final dish design, are presented in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5301520','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5301520"><span>Design of the support structure, drive pedestal, and <span class="hlt">controls</span> for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goldberg, V.R.; Ford, J.L.; Anderson, A.E. )</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>The glass/metal McDonnell-Douglas dish is the state-of-the-art of parabolic dish concentrators. Because of the perceived high production cost of this concentrator, the Department of Energy's <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Thermal Program is developing stretch-membrane technology for large (75 kWt) <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrators for integration with receivers and engines in 25 kWe dish-Stirling systems. The objective of this development effort is to reduce the cost of the concentrator while maintaining the high levels of performance characteristic of glass-metal dishes. Under contract to Sandia National Laboratories, Science Applications International Corporation, <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Kinetics Inc. and WG Associates are developing a faceted stretched-membrane heliostat technology. This design will result in a low-risk, near-term concentrator for dish-Stirling systems. WG Associates has designed the support structure, drives and tracking <span class="hlt">controls</span> for this dish. The structure is configured to support 12 stretched-membrane, 3.5-meter diameter facets in a shaped dish configuration. The dish design is sized to power a dish-Stirling system capable of producing 25 kW (electric). In the design of the structure, trade-off studies were conducted to determine the best'' facet arrangement, dish contour, dish focal length, tracking <span class="hlt">control</span> and walk-off protection. As part of the design, in-depth analyses were performed to evaluate pointing accuracy, compliance with AISC steel design codes, and the economics of fabrication and installation. Detailed fabrication and installation drawings were produced, and initial production cost estimates for the dish were developed. These issues, and the final dish design, are presented in this report. 7 refs., 33 figs., 18 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ap%26SS.361..327S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ap%26SS.361..327S"><span>Displaced orbits for <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail equipped with reflectance <span class="hlt">control</span> devices in Hill's restricted three-body problem with oblateness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Ming; He, Xingsuo; He, Dongsheng</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We investigate <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail displaced orbits in the Hill's restricted three-body problem, where the larger primary is an oblate spheroid in the system. Firstly, the model of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail equipped with a new version of reflectance <span class="hlt">control</span> device is introduced. Next, dynamical model of the system with the larger primary an oblate spheroid is established and the Hill's restricted three-body problem with oblateness is built through appropriate simplifications. The collinear equilibrium points of the Hill's system varying with the variations of areas of absorption and thermal radiation of reflectance <span class="hlt">control</span> devices in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail, or the dimensionless characteristic acceleration of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail, or the oblateness of the larger primary are also investigated. Then, Linearization near the collinear equilibria of the system is applied. A linear quadratic regulator is used to stabilize the nonlinear system. The simulation reveals that <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail displaced orbits in this system are doable and asymptotically stable by means of adjusting the pitch angle of <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail and the area of absorption in reflectance <span class="hlt">control</span> devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010011207','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010011207"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Power Multi-body Dynamics and <span class="hlt">Controls</span>, Concepts for the Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator Configuration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Glaese, John R.; McDonald, Emmett J.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Orbiting space <span class="hlt">solar</span> power systems are currently being investigated for possible flight in the time frame of 2015-2020 and later. Such space <span class="hlt">solar</span> power (SSP) satellites are required to be extremely large in order to make practical the process of collection, conversion to microwave radiation, and reconversion to electrical power at earth stations or at remote locations in space. These large structures are expected to be very flexible presenting unique problems associated with their dynamics and <span class="hlt">control</span>. The purpose of this project is to apply the expanded TREETOPS multi-body dynamics analysis computer simulation program (with expanded capabilities developed in the previous activity) to investigate the <span class="hlt">control</span> problems associated with the integrated symmetrical concentrator (ISC) conceptual SSP system. SSP satellites are, as noted, large orbital systems having many bodies (perhaps hundreds) with flexible arrays operating in an orbiting environment where the non-uniform gravitational forces may be the major load producers on the structure so that a high fidelity gravity model is required. The current activity arises from our NRA8-23 SERT proposal. Funding, as a supplemental selection, has been provided by NASA with reduced scope from that originally proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003DPS....35.1803D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003DPS....35.1803D"><span>The Robotically <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Telescope and the Search for Extra-<span class="hlt">Solar</span> Planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davis, D. R.; Howell, S. B.; Everett, M. E.; Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E.; Mattox, J. R.; McGruder, C. H.; Walter, D. K.</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>The 1.3 m telescope on Kitt Peak has been refurbished by the Robotically <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Telescope (RCT) consortium (Western Kentucky University, Planetary Science Institute, South Carolina State University, and Villanova University). This telescope will be operated as a robotically <span class="hlt">controlled</span> observatory where the observing parameters for various science programs are entered into a master scheduler which then carries out the observations in an optimal fashion. The scheduler allows for rapid response to transient events such as Gamma-ray bursters, CV flares or AGN eruptions. The consortium plans to commence a full program of science and educational activities beginning in the fall, 2003. High-precision photometry is one of the principal capabilities of this telescope and we anticipate carrying out a photometric search for extra-<span class="hlt">solar</span> planets as one of the main science programs. Photometric precision of 1 mmag per 180-sec exposure has been demonstrated in preliminary tests. The photometric capabilities and extra-<span class="hlt">solar</span> planet search strategy for the RCT will be presented. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG5-8762.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/194838','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/194838"><span>Electroless (autocatalytic) nickel-cobalt thin films as <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>John, S.; Srinivasan, K.N.; Selvam, M.; Anuradha, S.; Rajendran, S.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>This paper describes the deposition of nickel-cobalt-phosphorus coatings by the electroless deposition technique for use as <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings in architectural glazing of buildings. Electroless deposition is characterized by the autocatalytic deposition of a metal/alloy from an aqueous solution of its ions by interaction with a chemical reducing agent. The reducing agent provides electrons for the metal ions to be neutralized. The reduction is initiated by the catalyzed surface of the substrate and continued by the self catalytic activity of the deposited metal/alloy as long as the substrate is immersed in the electroless bath and operating conditions are maintained. Electroless nickel-cobalt-phosphorus thin films were deposited from a solution containing 15 g/l nickel sulphate, 5 g/l cobalt sulphate, 60 g/l ammonium citrate and 25 g/l sodium hypophosphite operating at 30 C, at a pH of 9.5 for two minutes. Electroless nickel-cobalt-phosphorus coatings are found to satisfy the basic requirements of <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings. Autocatalytic deposition technique offers the possibilities of producing large area coatings with low capital investment, stability and good adhesion to glass substrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790019065','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790019065"><span>A thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> approach for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion thrust subsystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Maloy, J. E.; Oglebay, J. C.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A thrust subsystem thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> design is defined for a <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Electric Propulsion System (SEPS) proposed for the comet Halley Flyby/comet Tempel 2 rendezvous mission. A 114 node analytic model, developed and coded on the systems improved numerical differencing analyzer program, was employed. A description of the resulting thrust subsystem thermal design is presented as well as a description of the analytic model and comparisons of the predicted temperature profiles for various SEPS thermal configurations that were generated using this model. It was concluded that: (1) a BIMOD engine system thermal design can be autonomous; (2) an independent thrust subsystem thermal design is feasible; (3) the interface module electronics temperatures can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by a passive radiator and supplementary heaters; (4) maintaining heat pipes above the freezing point would require an additional 322 watts of supplementary heating power for the situation where no thrusters are operating; (5) insulation is required around the power processors, and between the interface module and the avionics module, as well as in those areas which may be subjected to <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating; and (6) insulation behind the heat pipe radiators is not necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5354343','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5354343"><span>Preliminary study of <span class="hlt">solar</span> ponds for salinity <span class="hlt">control</span> in the Colorado River Basin. Technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boegli, W.J.; Dahl, M.M.; Remmers, H.E.</p> <p>1982-12-01</p> <p>In this study, the Bureau of Reclamation investigates the technical and economic benefits of using <span class="hlt">solar</span> salt-gradient ponds in the Colorado River Basin to provide salinity <span class="hlt">control</span> and to produce project power and freshwater. It was assumed that the saline water needed for pond construction would be transported to one of two dry lakebeds in the Basin(Danby Dry Lake in southern California or Sevier Dry Lake in western Utah) as part of a salinity <span class="hlt">control</span>/coal transport project. The ponds would be used to generate electric power that could be integrated with the Bureau's power grid or used in combination with thermal energy from the ponds to power commercially available desalination systems to produce freshwater. Economic benefits were compiled for two methods of concentrating the necessary brine for the ponds--one representing stage construction using collected brine only and the other using salt at the site to produce the concentrated brine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28879759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28879759"><span>Improving Efficiency and Reproducibility of Perovskite <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells through Aggregation <span class="hlt">Control</span> in Polyelectrolytes Hole Transport Layer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Ying-Chiao; Zhu, Liping; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Fang, Junfeng</p> <p>2017-09-08</p> <p>Here, we report that the performance of perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (PSCs) can be improved by aggregation <span class="hlt">control</span> in polyelectrolytes interlayer. Through counterions tailoring and solvent optimization, the strong aggregation of polyelectrolytes P3CT-Na can be broken up by P3CT-CH3NH2. When using P3CT-CH3NH2 to replace P3CT-Na as hole transport layer, the average efficiency is greatly improved from 16.9 to 18.9% (highest 19.6%). Importantly, efficiency over 15% is obtained in 1 cm(2) devices with P3CT-CH3NH2, ∼50% higher than that with P3CT-Na (10.3%). Our work demonstrates the important role of aggregation <span class="hlt">control</span> in polyelectrolytes interlayer, providing new opportunities to promote its application in PSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800010284','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800010284"><span>A ground based phase <span class="hlt">control</span> system for the <span class="hlt">solar</span> power satellite. Executive summary, volume 1, phase 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chie, C. M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Power Satellite (SPS) concept and the reference phase <span class="hlt">control</span> system investigated in earlier efforts are reviewed. A summary overview of the analysis and selection of the pilot signal and power transponder design is presented along with the SOLARSIM program development and the simulated SPS phase <span class="hlt">control</span> performance. Evaluations of the ground based phase <span class="hlt">control</span> system as an alternate phase <span class="hlt">control</span> concept are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22997169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22997169"><span>Enhanced photocurrent in thin-film amorphous silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells via shape <span class="hlt">controlled</span> three-dimensional nanostructures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hilali, Mohamed M; Yang, Shuqiang; Miller, Mike; Xu, Frank; Banerjee, Sanjay; Sreenivasan, S V</p> <p>2012-10-12</p> <p>In this paper, we have explored manufacturable approaches to sub-wavelength <span class="hlt">controlled</span> three-dimensional (3D) nano-patterns with the goal of significantly enhancing the photocurrent in amorphous silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Here we demonstrate efficiency enhancement of about 50% over typical flat a-Si thin-film <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells, and report an enhancement of 20% in optical absorption over Asahi textured glass by fabricating sub-wavelength nano-patterned a-Si on glass substrates. External quantum efficiency showed superior results for the 3D nano-patterned thin-film <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells due to enhancement of broadband optical absorption. The results further indicate that this enhanced light trapping is achieved with minimal parasitic absorption losses in the deposited transparent conductive oxide for the nano-patterned substrate thin-film amorphous silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell configuration. Optical simulations are in good agreement with experimental results, and also show a significant enhancement in optical absorption, quantum efficiency and photocurrent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6515823','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6515823"><span>Tracking instrument and <span class="hlt">control</span> for <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrators. Final technical report, October 1979-January 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gray, J; Kuhlman, J</p> <p>1981-01-31</p> <p>The tracker uses a single photo sensor, and a rotating aperature to obtain tracking accuracies better than 1.5 mrads (0.1 degs). Peak signal detection is used to eliminate tracking of false sources, i.e., clouds, etc. A prism is employed to obtain an extended field of view (150 degs axially - 360 degs radially). The tracker digitally measures the Suns displacement angle relative to the concentrator axis, and repositions it incrementally. This arrangement permits the use of low cost non-servo motors. The local <span class="hlt">controller</span> contains microprocessor based electronics, incorporating digital signal processing. A single <span class="hlt">controller</span> may be time shared by a maximum of sixteen trackers, providing a high performance, cost effective <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracking system, suitable for both line and point focus concentrators. An installation may have the local <span class="hlt">controller</span> programmed as a standalone unit or slaved to a central <span class="hlt">controller</span>. When used with a central <span class="hlt">controller</span>, dynamic data monitoring and logging is available, together with the ability to change system modes and parameters, as desired.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28094376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28094376"><span>Cyclopentadithiophene organic core in small molecule organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells: morphological <span class="hlt">control</span> of carrier recombination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Domínguez, Rocío; Montcada, Núria F; de la Cruz, Pilar; Palomares, Emilio; Langa, Fernando</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Two new planar and symmetrical A-D-A (electron acceptor-electron donor-electron acceptor) small molecules based on a commercial cyclopentadithiophene derivative have been synthesized for solution processed small molecule organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The aim was to synthesise the molecules to be energetically identical (similar HOMO-LUMO energy levels) in order to assign the differences observed to changes in the film morphology or to differences in the interfacial recombination kinetics or both. Devices were electrically characterized under one sun simulated (1.5 AM G) conditions by determining current-voltage curves, light harvesting efficiencies and external quantum efficiencies. Moreover, time-resolved photo-induced techniques such as photo-induced charge extraction and photo-induced transient photo-voltage were also performed. The results demonstrate that, despite having the same core, i.e. cyclopentadithiophene, the use of one hexyl chain instead of two in the organic molecule leads to a greater <span class="hlt">control</span> of the molecular ordering using solvent vapour annealing techniques and also to better <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5268668','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5268668"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> and magnetic declination <span class="hlt">control</span> on the electrojet and distributed currents in the ionosphere over Jicamarca</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Muralikrishna, P.; Abdu, M.A.</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>Daytime variation in the average east-west drift velocity of electrons in the height range of 95--110 km over Jicamarca (0.9 /sup 0/N, dip latitude) is compared with variation in the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field at the closeby Huancayo station (0.6 /sup 0/N, dip latitude). On magnetically quiet days, the ratio of ..delta..H to the electron drift velocity shows a local time variation asymmetric with respect to local noon, although one would expect a symmetric cos chi (where chi is the <span class="hlt">solar</span> zenith angle) type of variation for the same, if, indeed, ..delta..H arises solely from the electrojet region in which the electron drift velocities are measured. The observed asymmetry indicates significant contribution of distributed currents from height regions above the electrojet in the integrated current represented by ..delta..H. Further, the observed seasonal variation in the degree of the asymmetry seems to point out the importance of magnetic and <span class="hlt">solar</span> declination angles in <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the relative contributions of the distributed (and electrojet) currents to the magnitude of the observed ..delta..H values. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4242436','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4242436"><span>Aggregation and morphology <span class="hlt">control</span> enables multiple cases of high-efficiency polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yuhang; Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Zhengke; Mu, Cheng; Hu, Huawei; Jiang, Kui; Lin, Haoran; Ade, Harald; Yan, He</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although the field of polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell has seen much progress in device performance in the past few years, several limitations are holding back its further development. For instance, current high-efficiency (>9.0%) cells are restricted to material combinations that are based on limited donor polymers and only one specific fullerene acceptor. Here we report the achievement of high-performance (efficiencies up to 10.8%, fill factors up to 77%) thick-film polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells for multiple polymer:fullerene combinations via the formation of a near-ideal polymer:fullerene morphology that contains highly crystalline yet reasonably small polymer domains. This morphology is <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the temperature-dependent aggregation behaviour of the donor polymers and is insensitive to the choice of fullerenes. The uncovered aggregation and design rules yield three high-efficiency (>10%) donor polymers and will allow further synthetic advances and matching of both the polymer and fullerene materials, potentially leading to significantly improved performance and increased design flexibility. PMID:25382026</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489129"><span><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> the conduction band offset for highly efficient ZnO nanorods based perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dong, Juan; Shi, Jiangjian; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo</p> <p>2015-08-17</p> <p>The mechanism of charge recombination at the interface of n-type electron transport layer (n-ETL) and perovskite absorber on the carrier properties in the perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell is theoretically studied. By solving the one dimensional diffusion equation with different boundary conditions, it reveals that the interface charge recombination in the perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell can be suppressed by adjusting the conduction band offset (ΔE{sub C}) at ZnO ETL/perovskite absorber interface, thus leading to improvements in cell performance. Furthermore, Mg doped ZnO nanorods ETL has been designed to <span class="hlt">control</span> the energy band levels. By optimizing the doping amount of Mg, the conduction band minimum of the Mg doped ZnO ETL has been raised up by 0.29 eV and a positive ΔE{sub C} of about 0.1 eV is obtained. The photovoltage of the cell is thus significantly increased due to the relatively low charge recombination.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416110','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416110"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> of back surface reflectance from aluminum alloyed contacts on silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cudzinovic, M.; Sopori, B.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>A process for forming highly reflective aluminum back contacts with low contact resistance to silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells is described. By <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the process conditions, it is possible to vary the silicon/aluminum interface from a specular to a diffuse reflector while maintaining a high interface reflectance. The specular interface is found to be a uniform silicon/aluminum alloy layer a few angstroms thick that has epitaxially regrown on the silicon. The diffuse interface consists of randomly distributed (111) pyramids produced by crystallographic out-diffusion of the bulk silicon. The light trapping ability of the diffuse contact is found to be close to the theoretical limit. Both types of contacts are found to have specific contact resistivities of 10{sup {minus}5} {Omega}-cm{sup 2}. The process for forming the contacts involves illuminating the devices with tungsten halogen lamps. The process is rapid (under 100 s) and low temperature (peak temperature < 580{degrees}C), making it favorable for commercial <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fan+AND+system&pg=4&id=EJ310571','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fan+AND+system&pg=4&id=EJ310571"><span>A Practical Application of Microcomputers to <span class="hlt">Control</span> an Active <span class="hlt">Solar</span> System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goldman, David S.; Warren, William</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes the design and implementation of a microcomputer-based model active <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating system. Includes discussions of: (1) the active <span class="hlt">solar</span> components (<span class="hlt">solar</span> collector, heat exchanger, pump, and fan necessary to provide forced air heating); (2) software components; and (3) hardware components (in the form of sensors and actuators). (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=solar+AND+pump+AND+software&id=EJ310571','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=solar+AND+pump+AND+software&id=EJ310571"><span>A Practical Application of Microcomputers to <span class="hlt">Control</span> an Active <span class="hlt">Solar</span> System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goldman, David S.; Warren, William</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes the design and implementation of a microcomputer-based model active <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating system. Includes discussions of: (1) the active <span class="hlt">solar</span> components (<span class="hlt">solar</span> collector, heat exchanger, pump, and fan necessary to provide forced air heating); (2) software components; and (3) hardware components (in the form of sensors and actuators). (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790054170&hterms=Swanson+Conversion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSwanson%2BConversion','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790054170&hterms=Swanson+Conversion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSwanson%2BConversion"><span>Study on the application of NASA energy management techniques for <span class="hlt">control</span> of a terrestrial <span class="hlt">solar</span> water heating system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Swanson, T. D.; Ollendorf, S.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This paper addresses the potential for enhanced <span class="hlt">solar</span> system performance through sophisticated <span class="hlt">control</span> of the collector loop flow rate. Computer simulations utilizing the TRNSYS <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy program were performed to study the relative effect on system performance of eight specific <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithms. Six of these <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithms are of the proportional type: two are concave exponentials, two are simple linear functions, and two are convex exponentials. These six functions are typical of what might be expected from future, more advanced, <span class="hlt">controllers</span>. The other two algorithms are of the on/off type and are thus typical of existing <span class="hlt">control</span> devices. Results of extensive computer simulations utilizing actual weather data indicate that proportional <span class="hlt">control</span> does not significantly improve system performance. However, it is shown that thermal stratification in the liquid storage tank may significantly improve performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790054170&hterms=TRNSYS&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTRNSYS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790054170&hterms=TRNSYS&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTRNSYS"><span>Study on the application of NASA energy management techniques for <span class="hlt">control</span> of a terrestrial <span class="hlt">solar</span> water heating system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Swanson, T. D.; Ollendorf, S.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This paper addresses the potential for enhanced <span class="hlt">solar</span> system performance through sophisticated <span class="hlt">control</span> of the collector loop flow rate. Computer simulations utilizing the TRNSYS <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy program were performed to study the relative effect on system performance of eight specific <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithms. Six of these <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithms are of the proportional type: two are concave exponentials, two are simple linear functions, and two are convex exponentials. These six functions are typical of what might be expected from future, more advanced, <span class="hlt">controllers</span>. The other two algorithms are of the on/off type and are thus typical of existing <span class="hlt">control</span> devices. Results of extensive computer simulations utilizing actual weather data indicate that proportional <span class="hlt">control</span> does not significantly improve system performance. However, it is shown that thermal stratification in the liquid storage tank may significantly improve performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930002777','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930002777"><span>Performance experiments with alternative advanced teleoperator <span class="hlt">control</span> modes for a simulated <span class="hlt">solar</span> maximum satellite repair</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Das, H.; Zak, H.; Kim, W. S.; Bejczy, A. K.; Schenker, P. S.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Experiments are described which were conducted at the JPL Advanced Teleoperator Lab to demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness of various teleoperator <span class="hlt">control</span> modes in the performance of a simulated <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Max Satellite Repair (SMSR) task. THe SMSR was selected as a test because it is very rich in performance capability requirements and it actually has been performed by two EVA astronauts in the Space Shuttle Bay in 1984. The main subtasks are: thermal blanket removal; installation of a hinge attachment for electrical panel opening; opening of electrical panel; removal of electrical connectors; relining of cable bundles; replacement of electrical panel; securing parts and cables; re-mate electrical connectors; closing of electrical panel; and reinstating thermal blanket. The current performance experiments are limited to thermal blanket cutting, electrical panel unbolting and handling electrical bundles and connectors. In one formal experiment even different <span class="hlt">control</span> modes were applied to the unbolting and reinsertion of electrical panel screws subtasks. The seven <span class="hlt">control</span> modes are alternative combinations of manual position and rate <span class="hlt">control</span> with force feedback and remote compliance referenced to force-torque sensor information. Force-torque sensor and end effector position data and task completion times were recorded for analysis and quantification of operator performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27928749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27928749"><span>Effects of portable <span class="hlt">solar</span> water quality <span class="hlt">control</span> machines on aquaculture ponds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Cheng, Guofeng; Liu, Chong; Liu, Shijing; Lu, Shimin; Tian, Changfeng; Tang, Rong; Gu, Zhaojun</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The effects of a portable <span class="hlt">solar</span> water quality <span class="hlt">control</span> machine (PSWM) on water quality and sediment of aquaculture ponds were studied in bream aquaculture ponds in Shanghai, China. PSWM operation reduced the temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) differences between upper and lower water levels. Concentrations of NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N, TN, TP, COD and TSS increased rapidly and reached maximums at 12 h. The density and biomass of phytoplankton and levels of chlorophyll a reached maximums after 40 h of PSWM operation. In a 165-day study, the mean concentrations of NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N and the available phosphorous (AP) in the PSWM ponds were significantly lower than in the <span class="hlt">control</span> ponds, but the TP was significantly greater than the <span class="hlt">control</span> ponds. Compared with the test began, the thickness of the sediment in PSWM ponds declined by 12.4 ± 4.3 cm, the <span class="hlt">control</span> ponds increased by 5.0 ± 2.3 cm and the TN and AP levels in sediment significantly declined. PSWM treatment increased the production of bream and silver carp by 30 and 25%, respectively, and the feed coefficient was reduced by 24.2%. Use of PSWM in bream aquaculture ponds improved water quality, reduced sediment, reduced aquaculture pollution emissions and increased production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030020721','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030020721"><span>GPS-Like Phasing <span class="hlt">Control</span> of the Space <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Power System Transmission Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Psiaki, Mark L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The problem of phasing of the Space <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Power System's transmission array has been addressed by developing a GPS-like radio navigation system. The goal of this system is to provide power transmission phasing <span class="hlt">control</span> for each node of the array that causes the power signals to add constructively at the ground reception station. The phasing <span class="hlt">control</span> system operates in a distributed manner, which makes it practical to implement. A leader node and two radio navigation beacons are used to <span class="hlt">control</span> the power transmission phasing of multiple follower nodes. The necessary one-way communications to the follower nodes are implemented using the RF beacon signals. The phasing <span class="hlt">control</span> system uses differential carrier phase relative navigation/timing techniques. A special feature of the system is an integer ambiguity resolution procedure that periodically resolves carrier phase cycle count ambiguities via encoding of pseudo-random number codes on the power transmission signals. The system is capable of achieving phasing accuracies on the order of 3 mm down to 0.4 mm depending on whether the radio navigation beacons operate in the L or C bands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048811&hterms=particle+box&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dparticle%2B%2Bin%2Ba%2Bbox','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048811&hterms=particle+box&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dparticle%2B%2Bin%2Ba%2Bbox"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> electronics box design and performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> Subsystem (ACS) for the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude <span class="hlt">Control</span> Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic <span class="hlt">control</span> and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4954973','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4954973"><span>Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by different cell architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klein, M.; Pankiewicz, R.; Zalas, M.; Stampor, W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism. PMID:27440452</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4284500','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4284500"><span>Energy Efficient Glazing for Adaptive <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> Fabricated with Photothermotropic Hydrogels Containing Graphene Oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Dowan; Lee, Eunsu; Lee, Heon Sang; Yoon, Jinhwan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Glazing for adaptive <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> is the most promising for energy efficient development, because the use of this technology in buildings can be expected to significantly impact energy use and efficiency by screening sunlight that enters a building in summer. To achieve autonomous adjustable transparency, we have developed photothermotropic material system by combining photothermal materials with thermotropic hydrogels. We found that graphene oxide dispersed within a hydrogel matrix effectively converts the photo energy of sunlight into thermal energy, providing the efficient means to trigger transparency of thermotropic hydrogels. Therefore, we could develop switchable glazing of novel photothermotropic mechanism that screen strong sunlight and heat radiation in response to the sunlight intensity, as well as the temperature. Furthermore, in this study, a prototype device was manufactured with developed materials and successfully operated in outdoor testing. PMID:25561372</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5150489','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5150489"><span>SOLERAS - <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This report sets forth the system requirements for a <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Controlled</span>-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...630077K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...630077K"><span>Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by different cell architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klein, M.; Pankiewicz, R.; Zalas, M.; Stampor, W.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25561372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25561372"><span>Energy efficient glazing for adaptive <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> fabricated with photothermotropic hydrogels containing graphene oxide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Dowan; Lee, Eunsu; Lee, Heon Sang; Yoon, Jinhwan</p> <p>2015-01-06</p> <p>Glazing for adaptive <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> is the most promising for energy efficient development, because the use of this technology in buildings can be expected to significantly impact energy use and efficiency by screening sunlight that enters a building in summer. To achieve autonomous adjustable transparency, we have developed photothermotropic material system by combining photothermal materials with thermotropic hydrogels. We found that graphene oxide dispersed within a hydrogel matrix effectively converts the photo energy of sunlight into thermal energy, providing the efficient means to trigger transparency of thermotropic hydrogels. Therefore, we could develop switchable glazing of novel photothermotropic mechanism that screen strong sunlight and heat radiation in response to the sunlight intensity, as well as the temperature. Furthermore, in this study, a prototype device was manufactured with developed materials and successfully operated in outdoor testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980ITAC...25.1091B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980ITAC...25.1091B"><span>Design of self-calibrating <span class="hlt">controllers</span> for heliostats in a <span class="hlt">solar</span> power plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baheti, R. S.; Scott, P. F.</p> <p>1980-12-01</p> <p>A self-calibrating <span class="hlt">controller</span> is developed for reducing installation and drive errors in a heliostat (steerable mirror used in <span class="hlt">solar</span>/electric energy conversion). In this scheme, the heliostat periodically tracks the sun, which serves as a precision position reference. The difference between commanded and actual drive angles is used to estimate the coefficients of a model representing installation and drive errors. The calibrated model is then used to correct the drive actuator commands for these error sources when the heliostat is in a tracking mode (its principle mode of operation). Simulation results are given for a typical heliostat configuration with realistic errors. The algorithm is very effective in reducing beam steering errors. The concept is demonstrated using a prototype test apparatus and is shown to achieve an error reduction of more than 5:1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750042511&hterms=scientific+attitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dscientific%2Battitude','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750042511&hterms=scientific+attitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dscientific%2Battitude"><span>The attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion /SEP/ spacecraft for an out-of-the-ecliptic mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Marsh, E. L.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A computer-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> attitude and articulation <span class="hlt">control</span> system is proposed for a spacecraft of extremely soft structure that uses two 8-kW <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays with an area of nearly 100 sq m each to power six electric propulsion thrusters. The purpose of the articulation <span class="hlt">control</span> is to point the scientific instruments, to orient the antenna toward the earth, and to reorient the thrust vector as required for trajectory <span class="hlt">control</span>. The attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> system provides <span class="hlt">control</span> both during the low-thrust phase of the mission and during long-term spinning modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9290E..3HT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9290E..3HT"><span>The research of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels-commutator-inverter-load system with the pulse-amplitude <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taissariyeva, K. N.; Issembergenov, N. T.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The system "<span class="hlt">solar</span> panels-commutator-inverter-load" with amplitude-impulse <span class="hlt">control</span> was researched. It was shown that if the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels are located in a certain way at the input of the inverter, it will be possible to get multilevel voltage close to sine wave with the help of amplitude-impulse <span class="hlt">control</span> of commutator at the output of inverter. Herewith the effect is saving of <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels depending on the quantity of voltage level, and also the enhanced voltage distortion coefficient (THD). For instance, with 8-level of voltage 28,2% and THD=4,64%, with 13-level of voltage, 30,5% and THD=2,65%, and with 26-level of voltage 31,7% and THD=1,22%. The given results were obtained through computer modeling and experimental research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.........9Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.........9Z"><span>Morphology <span class="hlt">control</span> of polymer: Fullerene <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells by nanoparticle self-assembly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wenluan</p> <p></p> <p>During the past two decades, research in the field of polymer based <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells has attracted great effort due to their simple processing, mechanical flexibility and potential low cost. A standard polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell is based on the concept of a bulk-heterojunction composed of a conducting polymer as the electron donor and a fullerene derivative as the electron acceptor. Since the exciton lifetime is limited, this places extra emphasis on <span class="hlt">control</span> of the morphology to obtain improved device performance. In this thesis, detailed characterization and novel morphological design of polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells was studied, in addition, preliminary efforts to transfer laboratory scale methods to industrialized device fabrication was made. Magnetic contrast neutron reflectivity was used to study the vertical concentration distribution of fullerene nanoparticles within poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2- b]thiophene (pBTTT) thin film. Due to the wide space between the side chains of polymer, these fullerene nanoparticles intercalate between them creating a stable co-crystal structure. Therefore, a high volume fraction of fullerene was needed to obtain optimal device performance as phase separated conductive pathways are required and resulted in a homogeneous fullerene concentration profile through the film. Small angle neutron scattering was used to find there is amorphous fullerene even at lower concentration since it was previously believed that all fullerene formed a co-crystal. These fullerene molecules evolve into approximately 15 nm sized agglomerates at higher concentrations to improve electron transport. Unfortunately, thermal annealing gives these agglomerates mobility to form micrometer sized crystals and reduce the device performance. In standard poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCMBM) <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells, a higher concentration of PCBM at the cathode interface is desired due to the band alignment structure. This was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5116613','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5116613"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Output <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Periodicity in Lake Productivity and Wetness at Southernmost South America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Gilfedder, Benjamin-Silas; Hermanns, Yvonne-Marie; Biester, Harald</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Cyclic changes in total <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance (TSI) during the Holocene are known to affect global climatic conditions and cause cyclic climatic oscillations, e.g., Bond events and related changes of environmental conditions. However, the processes how changes in TSI affect climate and environment of the Southern Hemisphere, especially in southernmost South America, a key area for the global climate, are still poorly resolved. Here we show that highly sensitive proxies for aquatic productivity derived from sediments of a lake near the Chilean South Atlantic coast (53 °S) strongly match the cyclic changes in TSI throughout the Holocene. Intra-lake productivity variations show a periodicity of ~200–240 years coherent with the time series of TSI-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production. In addition TSI dependent periodicity of Bond events (~1500 years) appear to <span class="hlt">control</span> wetness at the LH site indicated by mineral matter erosion from the catchment to the lake assumingly through shifts of the position of the southern westerly wind belt. Thus, both intra-lake productivity and wetness at the southernmost South America are directly or indirectly <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by TSI. PMID:27869191</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439122','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439122"><span>Daytime <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Heating <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current <span class="hlt">control</span> measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a ‘green’ method to <span class="hlt">control</span> this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves, or infected plants to 35-45°C for 6-9 hours suppressed its survival. Therefore, daytime <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating was employed in the field to <span class="hlt">control</span> the downy mildew disease it causes in basil. Covering growth houses of sweet basil already infected with downy mildew with transparent infra-red-impermeable, transparent polyethylene sheets raised the daily maximal temperature during sunny hours by 11-22°C reaching 40-58°C (greenhouse effect). Such coverage, applied for a few hours during 1-3 consecutive days, had a detrimental effect on the survival of P. belbahrii: killing the pathogen and/or suppressing disease progress while enhancing growth of the host basil plants. PMID:25992649</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...637521P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...637521P"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Output <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Periodicity in Lake Productivity and Wetness at Southernmost South America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Gilfedder, Benjamin-Silas; Hermanns, Yvonne-Marie; Biester, Harald</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Cyclic changes in total <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance (TSI) during the Holocene are known to affect global climatic conditions and cause cyclic climatic oscillations, e.g., Bond events and related changes of environmental conditions. However, the processes how changes in TSI affect climate and environment of the Southern Hemisphere, especially in southernmost South America, a key area for the global climate, are still poorly resolved. Here we show that highly sensitive proxies for aquatic productivity derived from sediments of a lake near the Chilean South Atlantic coast (53 °S) strongly match the cyclic changes in TSI throughout the Holocene. Intra-lake productivity variations show a periodicity of ~200–240 years coherent with the time series of TSI-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production. In addition TSI dependent periodicity of Bond events (~1500 years) appear to <span class="hlt">control</span> wetness at the LH site indicated by mineral matter erosion from the catchment to the lake assumingly through shifts of the position of the southern westerly wind belt. Thus, both intra-lake productivity and wetness at the southernmost South America are directly or indirectly <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by TSI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471762','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471762"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> and Study of the Stoichiometry in Evaporated Perovskite <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teuscher, Joël; Ulianov, Alexey; Müntener, Othmar; Grätzel, Michael; Tétreault, Nicolas</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Herein, we present the precise stoichiometric <span class="hlt">control</span> of methlyammonium lead iodide perovskite thin-films using high vacuum dual-source vapor-phase deposition. We found that UV/Vis absorption and emission spectra were inadequate for assessing precisely the perovskite composition. Alternatively, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to give precise, reproducible, quantitative measurements of the I/Pb ratio without systematic errors that often result from varying device thicknesses and morphologies. This <span class="hlt">controlled</span> deposition method enables better understanding of the evaporation and deposition processes; methylammonium iodide evaporation appears omnidirectional, <span class="hlt">controlled</span> using the chamber pressure and incorporated in the film through interaction with the unidirectionally evaporated PbI2. Furthermore, these thin-films were incorporated into <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell device architectures with the best photovoltaic performance and reproducibility obtained for devices made with stoichiometric perovskite active layers. Additionally, and particularly pertinent to the field of perovskite photovoltaics, we found that the I-V hysteresis was unaffected by varying the film stoichiometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25992649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25992649"><span>Daytime <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Heating <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current <span class="hlt">control</span> measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a 'green' method to <span class="hlt">control</span> this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves, or infected plants to 35-45 °C for 6-9 hours suppressed its survival. Therefore, daytime <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating was employed in the field to <span class="hlt">control</span> the downy mildew disease it causes in basil. Covering growth houses of sweet basil already infected with downy mildew with transparent infra-red-impermeable, transparent polyethylene sheets raised the daily maximal temperature during sunny hours by 11-22 °C reaching 40-58 °C (greenhouse effect). Such coverage, applied for a few hours during 1-3 consecutive days, had a detrimental effect on the survival of P. belbahrii: killing the pathogen and/or suppressing disease progress while enhancing growth of the host basil plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960309"><span><span class="hlt">Controllable</span> self-induced passivation of hybrid lead iodide perovskites toward high performance <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Qi; Zhou, Huanping; Song, Tze-Bin; Luo, Song; Hong, Ziruo; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Dou, Letian; Liu, Yongsheng; Yang, Yang</p> <p>2014-07-09</p> <p>To improve the performance of the polycrystalline thin film devices, it requires a delicate <span class="hlt">control</span> of its grain structures. As one of the most promising candidates among current thin film photovoltaic techniques, the organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites generally inherit polycrystalline nature and exhibit compositional/structural dependence in regard to their optoelectronic properties. Here, we demonstrate a <span class="hlt">controllable</span> passivation technique for perovskite films, which enables their compositional change, and allows substantial enhancement in corresponding device performance. By releasing the organic species during annealing, PbI2 phase is presented in perovskite grain boundaries and at the relevant interfaces. The consequent passivation effects and underlying mechanisms are investigated with complementary characterizations, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), time-resolved photoluminescence decay (TRPL), scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM), and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). This <span class="hlt">controllable</span> self-induced passivation technique represents an important step to understand the polycrystalline nature of hybrid perovskite thin films and contributes to the development of perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells judiciously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869191"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Output <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Periodicity in Lake Productivity and Wetness at Southernmost South America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Gilfedder, Benjamin-Silas; Hermanns, Yvonne-Marie; Biester, Harald</p> <p>2016-11-21</p> <p>Cyclic changes in total <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance (TSI) during the Holocene are known to affect global climatic conditions and cause cyclic climatic oscillations, e.g., Bond events and related changes of environmental conditions. However, the processes how changes in TSI affect climate and environment of the Southern Hemisphere, especially in southernmost South America, a key area for the global climate, are still poorly resolved. Here we show that highly sensitive proxies for aquatic productivity derived from sediments of a lake near the Chilean South Atlantic coast (53 °S) strongly match the cyclic changes in TSI throughout the Holocene. Intra-lake productivity variations show a periodicity of ~200-240 years coherent with the time series of TSI-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> cosmogenic nuclide (10)Be production. In addition TSI dependent periodicity of Bond events (~1500 years) appear to <span class="hlt">control</span> wetness at the LH site indicated by mineral matter erosion from the catchment to the lake assumingly through shifts of the position of the southern westerly wind belt. Thus, both intra-lake productivity and wetness at the southernmost South America are directly or indirectly <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by TSI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19069986','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19069986"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span>: a safe, affective and practicable technique for the <span class="hlt">control</span> of soil born fungi and nematodes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bacha, Nafees; Ayub, Najma; Ahmad, Yasmin; Abbas, Muhammad; Rafi, Abdul</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A technique i.e., Soil <span class="hlt">Solarization</span> and Amendments (neem, chicken farmyard manure, farmyard manure and biokhad viz synthetic bio fertilizer), towards the natural cropping system has been evaluated for its effectiveness and practicability at the National Agricultural Research Center Islamabad Pakistan. Soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span> and amendments were analyzed as a <span class="hlt">control</span> measure against soil born fungi and nematodes. Eight weeks of <span class="hlt">solarization</span> resulted in about 11 degrees C increase in the soil temperature. This increase in soil temperature caused a reduction of about 70 to 80% in the fungal population and about 99% in nematode population at various depths. Neem and Biokhad amendments were proved synergistic for <span class="hlt">solarization</span> and also improved the properties of soil in the benefit of crop plants. Fusarium sp., Macrophomina phyaseolina and Verticillium sp. of fungi and Tylenchus sp., Haplolaimus sp., Xiphenema sp. and almost all of the parasitic nematodes were significantly (p<0.01) <span class="hlt">controlled</span>. It was found that even after 40 days the <span class="hlt">solarized</span> plots contain significantly less number of fungi and nematodes as compared to the nonsolarized plots, which confirmed the durability of this process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108296"><span>Lead Iodide Thin Film Crystallization <span class="hlt">Control</span> for High-Performance and Stable Solution-Processed Perovskite <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Lijun; Wang, Jingchuan; Leung, Wallace Woon-Fong</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>PbI2 thin film crystallization <span class="hlt">control</span> is a prerequisite of high-quality perovskite thin film for sequentially solution-processed perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. An efficient and simple method has been developed by adding HCl to improve perovskite thin film quality, and an efficiency of 15.2% is obtained. This approach improves coverage, uniformity, and stability of pervoskite thin film.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8802V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8802V"><span>Turbulence in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind: what <span class="hlt">controls</span> the slope of the energy spectrum?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verdini, Andrea; Grappin, Roland</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The spectrum of <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind fluctuations is well described by a power law with an average spectral index -5/3 for periods between a few hours and a few minutes. However, the spectral index varies with stream speed and with the correlation of velocity and magnetic field fluctuations (Alfvénicity): the spectrum is softer in fast and Alfvénic streams. Roughly, this variation can be understood in term of the turbulent age of fluctuations at a given scale: the faster is the wind or the stronger is the correlation than the younger is the turbulence. Since the coronal spectrum is supposed to be rather flat (at least in the fast <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind), smaller spectral indices correspond to less evolved spectra. According to this interpretation, one would expect spectral slope to change with distance as the turbulence ages, while observations report fairly stable spectral slopes. In order to quantify the effect of wind speed and Alfvénicity on the spectral slope, we ran a series of numerical simulations of MHD turbulence in the framework of the Expanding Box Model (EBM). In EBM we can vary the expansion rate and the initial correlation of fluctuations so as to investigate the existence of a threshold value for each parameter or for a combination of the two that could explain the observed variation and stability of the spectral index. We present preliminary results that indicate that the expansion rate does <span class="hlt">control</span> the spectral index of energy when the Alfvénicity is high.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052777&hterms=Brace&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBrace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052777&hterms=Brace&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBrace"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> and interplanetary <span class="hlt">control</span> of the location of the Venus bow shock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Russell, C. T.; Chou, E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Gazis, P.; Brace, L. H.; Hoegy, W. R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Venus bow shock location has been measured at nearly 2000 shock crossings, and its dependence on <span class="hlt">solar</span> EUV, <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind conditions, and the interplanetary magnetic field determined. The shock position at the terminator varies from about 2.14 Venus radii at <span class="hlt">solar</span> minimum to 2.40 Venus radii at <span class="hlt">solar</span> maximum. The location of the shock varies little with <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind dynamic pressure but strongly with <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind Mach number. The shock is farthest from Venus on the side of the planet in which newly created ions gyrate away from the ionosphere. When the interplanetary magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow, the cross section of the shock is quite elliptical. This effect appears to be due to the anisotropic propagation of the fast magnetosonic wave. When the interplanetary magnetic field is aligned with the flow, the bow shock cross section is circular and only weakly sensitive to changing EUV flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.719E..39M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.719E..39M"><span>Input Voltage Loop <span class="hlt">Control</span> with AC Current Feedback for Buck Boost Regulators (B2R) Used as <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Array Regulators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mourra, Olivier; Fernandez, Arturo; Tonicello, Ferdinando</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In a satellite, the main function of a Power Conditioning Unit is to manage the energy coming from several power sources (usually <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays and battery) and to deliver it continuously to the users in an appropriate form during the overall mission. <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Array Regulators are used to extract the power from the SA in order to recharge the battery and to supply the loads during sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present a <span class="hlt">control</span> technique that can be used when segregated buck, boost or buck boost SAR are implemented. The paper demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the feasibility of this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720041543&hterms=solar+paint&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bpaint','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720041543&hterms=solar+paint&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bpaint"><span>Analytical and experimental studies of an all specular thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> louver system in a <span class="hlt">solar</span> vacuum environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Michalek, T. J.; Stipandic, E. A.; Coyle, M. J.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> louvers are used on the ATS-F&G spacecraft to regulate temperature by varying the effective radiating area. Since <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy on louvers has a detrimental effect on their ability to radiate energy, an analytical and experimental program was developed to evaluate the performance of an all specular louver system as a function of sun angle and blade angle. <span class="hlt">Solar</span> simulation tests and analyses show a maximum effective absorptance of .25 for the full open condition. The application of white paint to the blades resulted in lowering the blade temperatures by 130 C without significantly affecting the system performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/474448','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/474448"><span>Fault-tolerant <span class="hlt">solar</span> array <span class="hlt">control</span> using digital signal processing for peak power tracking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Griesbach, C.R.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The described power system significantly improves energy conversion efficiency under Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) conditions. Elements of the described DSP-based system apply directly to terrestrial <span class="hlt">solar</span> power processing needs. Use of this system will enable increased efficiency of <span class="hlt">solar</span> power processing in many applications that demand low power under adverse insolation conditions. Examples are portable <span class="hlt">solar</span>-recharged communications systems, <span class="hlt">solar</span>-powered remote telemetry stations, autonomous geological and seismological monitoring stations, portable remote field equipment, remote sight irrigation and area lighting. The feasibility of this system was evaluated by extensive computer simulation and an engineering demonstration model was designed and fabricated to verify the concept.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25004458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25004458"><span>Interfacial alkali diffusion <span class="hlt">control</span> in chalcopyrite thin-film <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ishizuka, Shogo; Yamada, Akimasa; Fons, Paul J; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru</p> <p>2014-08-27</p> <p>Alkali elements, specifically sodium (Na), are key materials to enhance the energy conversion efficiencies of chalcopyrite and related thin-film photovoltaic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Recently, the effect of potassium (K) has also attracted attention because elemental K has unique effects different from Na as well as a similar beneficial effect in improving device performance. In this study, the <span class="hlt">control</span> of selective alkali K and Na diffusion into chalcopyrite thin-films from soda-lime glass substrates, which serve as the monolithic alkali source material and contain both K and Na, is demonstrated using ternary CuGaSe2. Elemental K is found to be incorporated in the several ten nanometer thick Cu-deficient region, which is formed on the CuGaSe2 film surface, while Na is ejected, although both K and Na diffuse from the substrate to the CuGaSe2 film surface during growth. The alkali [K]/[Na] concentration ratio in the surface region of CuGaSe2 films strongly depends on the film structure and can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by growth parameters under the same substrate temperature conditions. The results we present here offer new concepts necessary to explore and develop emerging new chalcopyrite and related materials and optimize their applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22587031','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22587031"><span>Morphology <span class="hlt">control</span> of ZnO nanostructures for high efficient dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fang, Jiawen; Fan, Huiqing; Tian, Hailin; Dong, Guangzhi</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>Dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs) were fabricated based on different ZnO nanostructures with <span class="hlt">controllable</span> morphologies synthesized via capping agent-assisted hydrothermal method. The capping agent hindered the growth along (001) direction, so the morphology evolved from rods to nanosheets with increasing the amounts of capping agents. The kinetics of the photoelectrochemical properties in DSSCs were also evaluated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with focusing on exploring the electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and effective diffusion length of the cells in a quantitative manner based on an equivalent circuit model. The physical properties, such as specific surface area, photoluminescence and ultraviolet–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), were also extensively characterized in detail. DSSCs fabricated with ZnO nanosheets/rod hierarchical structures as photoanodes showed significantly improved photovoltaic performance with open-circuit voltage increasing from 0.45 V to 0.73 V, as well as the overall conversion efficiency 5.69 times better than that of ZnO rod. It was attributed to higher surface area (21.96 m{sup 2}·g{sup −1}) and more efficient light absorption, as well as more efficient electron transfer process. - Highlights: • <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> morphologies from rods to nanosheets were manipulated by hydrothermal method. • Different ZnO morphologies based DSSCs were investigated by IV and EIS with forward biases. • DSSCs based on nano hierarchical structures yield 5.67 times higher of power conversion efficiency than that of rods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24490718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24490718"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> of nanomorphology in all-polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells via assembling nanoaggregation in a mixed solution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Wei; Yang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Guoli; Fan, Dayong; Zhang, Jian; Li, Can</p> <p>2014-02-26</p> <p>The formation of interconnected phase-separated domains on sub-20 nm length scale is a key requirement for all-polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (all-PSCs) with high efficiency. Herein, we report the application of crystalline poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanowires via an O-dichlorobenzene/hexane mixed solution blended with poly{(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-[4,7-bis(3-hexylthiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2″-diyl} (F8TBT) for the first time. The nanomorphology of P3HT:F8TBT all-PSCs can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by P3HT nanowires. The improved film morphology leads to enhanced light absorption, exciton dissociation, and charge transport in all-PSCs, as confirmed by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence spectra. The P3HT nanowire:F8TBT all-PSCs could achieve a power conversion efficiency of 1.87% and a Voc of 1.35 V, both of which are the highest values for P3HT:F8TBT all-PSCs. This work demonstrates that the semiconductor nanowires fabricated by the mixed solvents method is an efficient solution process approach to <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the nanomorphology of all-PSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8442E..4JI','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8442E..4JI"><span>Stray light <span class="hlt">control</span> for asteroid detection at low <span class="hlt">solar</span> elongation for the NEOSSat micro-satellite telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Isbrucker, Victor; Stauder, John; Laurin, Denis; Hollinger, Allan</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a small satellite dedicated to finding near Earth asteroids. Its surveying strategy consists of imaging areas of the sky to low <span class="hlt">solar</span> elongation, while in a sun synchronous polar orbit (dawn-dusk). A high performance baffle will <span class="hlt">control</span> stray light mainly due to Earth shine. Observation scenarios require <span class="hlt">solar</span> shielding down to 45 degree <span class="hlt">solar</span> elongation over a wide range of ecliptic latitudes. In order to detect the faintest objects (approx 20th v mag) given a 15 cm telescope and CCD detection system, background from stray light is a critical operational concern. The required attenuation is in the order of 10-12. The requirement was verified by analyses; testing was not attempted because the level of attenuation is difficult to measure reliably. We report consistent results of stray light optical modelling from two independent analyses. Launch is expected for late 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJTPE.132..629A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJTPE.132..629A"><span>Static and Dynamic Characteristic Models of Global <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Radiation Fluctuation in the Scope of Load Frequency <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akatsuka, Motoki; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Saito, Masami</p> <p></p> <p>Penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) system into the power system may give some negative impacts to stable operations of power system; for example, to the frequency <span class="hlt">control</span>. Therefore, investigation on the short-term fluctuation of PV generation is important as a precaution against further PV penetration. Since the PV generation is almost proportional to the incident <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation, this paper develops static and dynamic characteristic models for short-term fluctuation in the global <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation. The static characteristic model is a set of standard deviations which have been statistically estimated based on the past observed data. The dynamic characteristic model is autoregressive models which are designed for the actually observed time sequential short-term fluctuation data. In both models, the clearness index is used to eliminate seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhNan..21...13Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhNan..21...13Z"><span>Efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells by including inverse opals with <span class="hlt">controlled</span> layer thicknesses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Hanbin; Shah, Said Karim; Abbas, Mamatimin; Ly, Isabelle; Rivera, Thomas; Almeida, Rui M.; Hirsch, Lionel; Toupance, Thierry; Ravaine, Serge</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The photoconversion efficiency of dye sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells can be enhanced by the incorporation of light management nanostructures such as photonic crystals. Here, we present a facile route to incorporate titania inverse opals into solid state dye sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells and report photoconversion efficiency enhancements of up to 56% compared with a model system without the inverse opal. Our approach is based on the precise design of titania inverse opals with a predetermined thickness that can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> at the individual layer level. By choosing an inverse opal exhibiting a photonic bandgap which overlaps the absorption bands of the dye, our results show that there is an optimal thickness of the inverse opal structure for maximum efficiency enhancement of the cell. This is the first experimental proof that the thickness of a titania inverse opal plays a pivotal role in cell efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......175W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......175W"><span>Thermal system design and modeling of meniscus <span class="hlt">controlled</span> silicon growth process for <span class="hlt">solar</span> applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Chenlei</p> <p></p> <p>The direct conversion of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation to electricity by photovoltaics has a number of significant advantages as an electricity generator. That is, <span class="hlt">solar</span> photovoltaic conversion systems tap an inexhaustible resource which is free of charge and available anywhere in the world. Roofing tile photovoltaic generation, for example, saves excess thermal heat and preserves the local heat balance. This means that a considerable reduction of thermal pollution in densely populated city areas can be attained. A semiconductor can only convert photons with the energy of the band gap with good efficiency. It is known that silicon is not at the maximum efficiency but relatively close to it. There are several main parts for the photovoltaic materials, which include, single- and poly-crystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, crystalline thin-film silicon, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide and related compounds, cadmium telluride, et al. In this dissertation, we focus on melt growth of the single- and poly-crystalline silicon manufactured by Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth process, and ribbon silicon produced by the edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) process. These two methods are the most commonly used techniques for growing photovoltaic semiconductors. For each crystal growth process, we introduce the growth mechanism, growth system design, general application, and progress in the numerical simulation. Simulation results are shown for both Czochralski and EFG systems including temperature distribution of the growth system, velocity field inside the silicon melt and electromagnetic field for the EFG growth system. Magnetic field is applied on Cz system to reduce the melt convection inside crucible and this has been simulated in our numerical model. Parametric studies are performed through numerical and analytical models to investigate the relationship between heater power levels and solidification interface movement and shape. An inverse problem <span class="hlt">control</span> scheme is developed to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5449041','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5449041"><span><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> Morphological Parameters of Anodized Titania Nanotubes for Optimized <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Energy Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haring, Andrew; Morris, Amanda; Hu, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Anodized TiO2 nanotubes have received much attention for their use in <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy applications including water oxidation cells and hybrid <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells [dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs) and bulk heterojuntion <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (BHJs)]. High surface area allows for increased dye-adsorption and photon absorption. Titania nanotubes grown by anodization of titanium in fluoride-containing electrolytes are aligned perpendicular to the substrate surface, reducing the electron diffusion path to the external circuit in <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The nanotube morphology can be optimized for the various applications by adjusting the anodization parameters but the optimum crystallinity of the nanotube arrays remains to be realized. In addition to morphology and crystallinity, the method of device fabrication significantly affects photon and electron dynamics and its energy conversion efficiency. This paper provides the state-of-the-art knowledge to achieve experimental tailoring of morphological parameters including nanotube diameter, length, wall thickness, array surface smoothness, and annealing of nanotube arrays.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22434437','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22434437"><span>Position-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> III-V compound semiconductor nanowire <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fukui, Takashi; Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Nakai, Eiji; Tomioka, Katsuhiro</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We demonstrate position-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) by using selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and their application to <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Efficiency of 4.23% is achieved for InP core-shell NW <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. We form a 'flexible NW array' without a substrate, which has the advantage of saving natural resources over conventional thin film photovoltaic devices. Four junction NW <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with over 50% efficiency are proposed and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27760295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27760295"><span>Selective Morphology <span class="hlt">Control</span> of Bulk Heterojunction in Polymer <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells Using Binary Processing Additives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jung, Yen-Sook; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Nam-Koo; Lee, Sehyun; Kim, Dong-Yu</p> <p>2016-11-09</p> <p>We report the effect of binary additives on the fabrication of polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (PSCs) based on a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) system. The combination of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), a high-boiling and selective solvent, for fullerene derivatives and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) precursor, a nonvolatile insulating additive, affords complementary functions on the effective modulation of BHJ morphology. It was found that DIO and PDMS precursor each play different roles in the <span class="hlt">control</span> of BHJ morphology, and thus, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) can be further enhanced to 7.6% by improving the fill factor (FF) from 6.8% compared to that achieved using a conventional device employing only a DIO additive. In the BHJ of the active layer, DIO suppressed the large phase separation of PBDTTT-CF and PC71BM while allowing the formation of continuous polymer networks in the donor polymer through phase separation of the PDMS precursor and BHJ components. The appropriate amount of PDMS precursor does not disturb charge transport in the BHJ despite having insulating properties. In addition, the dependence of photovoltaic parameters on different light intensities reveals that the charge recombination in the device with DIO and PDMS precursor decreases compared to that achieved using the device with only DIO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22697614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22697614"><span>Three-dimensional core-shell hybrid <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells via <span class="hlt">controlled</span> in situ materials engineering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mariani, Giacomo; Wang, Yue; Wong, Ping-Show; Lech, Andrew; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Prikhodko, Sergey; El-Kady, Maher; Kaner, Richard B; Huffaker, Diana L</p> <p>2012-07-11</p> <p>Three-dimensional core-shell organic-inorganic hybrid <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with tunable properties are demonstrated via electropolymerization. Air-stable poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) shells with <span class="hlt">controlled</span> thicknesses are rapidly coated onto periodic GaAs nanopillar arrays conformally, preserving the vertical 3D structure. The properties of the organic layer can be readily tuned in situ, allowing for (1) the lowering of the highest occupied molecular orbital level (|ΔE| ∼ 0.28 eV), leading to the increase of open-circuit voltage (V(OC)), and (2) an improvement in PEDOT conductivity that results in enhanced short-circuit current densities (J(SC)). The incorporation of various anionic dopants in the polymer during the coating process also enables the tailoring of the polymer/semiconductor interface transport properties. Systematic tuning of the device properties results in a J(SC) of 13.6 mA cm(-2), V(OC) of 0.63 V, peak external quantum efficiency of 58.5%, leading to a power conversion efficiencies of 4.11%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApSS..318...43Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApSS..318...43Z"><span>A feasibility study for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> self-organized production of plasmonic enhancement interfaces for <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zolfaghari Borra, Mona; Kayra Güllü, Seda; Es, Fırat; Demircioğlu, Olgu; Günöven, Mete; Turan, Raşit; Bek, Alpan</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The decoration of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) by the self-organized mechanism of dewetting is utilized as a suitable method for plasmonic interface integration to large area full-scale <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell (SC) devices. Reflection measurements are performed on both flat and textured silicon (Si) SCs in order to investigate the local plasmonic resonances of the MNPs. The effects of particle size and thickness of silicon nitride (Si3N4) anti-reflection coating layer are investigated by reflection measurements and the shift of plasmon resonance peak position. It is found that surface roughness, annealing time, annealing temperature, and varying Si3N4 thickness can be used as mechanisms to <span class="hlt">control</span> the size distribution, shape of the resultant nano-islands, and SC efficiency. The findings on the most suitable nanoparticle system production parameters by this method, depends on the applied substrate properties which are expected to guide further applications of plasmonic interfaces and also to the other kinds of device structures in the ultimate quest for attaining affordable high efficiency SCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28731110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28731110"><span>A redox-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> electrolyte for plasmonic enhanced dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fu, Yuqiao; Ng, Siu-Pang; Qiu, Guangyu; Hung, Tak-Fu; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence; Lee, Chun-Sing</p> <p>2017-08-03</p> <p>Plasmonic enhanced dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs) with metallic nanostructures suffer from corrosion problems, especially with the presence of the iodine/triiodide redox couple in the electrolyte. Herein, we introduce an alternative approach by compensating the corrosion with a modified liquid electrolyte. In contrast to the existing method of surface preservation for plasmonic nanostructures, the redox-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> electrolyte (RCE) contains iodoaurate intermediates, i.e. gold(i) diiodide (AuI2(-)) and gold(iii) tetraiodide (AuI4(-)) with optimal concentrations, such that these intermediates are readily reduced to gold nanoparticles during the operation of DSSCs. As corrosion and redeposition of gold occur simultaneously, it effectively provides corrosion compensation to the plasmonic gold nanostructures embedded in the photoanode. Cycling tests of the specific amount of gold contents in the RCE of DSSCs support the fact that the dissolution and deposition of gold are reversible and repeatable. This gold deposition on the TiO2 photoanode results in forming a Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor interface and effectively inhibits the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Therefore, the RCE increases the short-circuit current, amplifies the open-circuit voltage, and reduces the impedance of the TiO2/dye interface. The power conversion efficiency of DSSCs was improved by 57% after incorporating the RCE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8967E..15J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8967E..15J"><span>Optimizing process time of laser drilling processes in <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell manufacturing by coaxial camera <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jetter, Volker; Gutscher, Simon; Blug, Andreas; Knorz, Annerose; Ahrbeck, Christopher; Nekarda, Jan; Carl, Daniel</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In emitter wrap through (EWT) <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells, laser drilling is used to increase the light sensitive area by removing emitter contacts from the front side of the cell. For a cell area of 156 x 156 mm2, about 24000 via-holes with a diameter of 60 μm have to be drilled into silicon wafers with a thickness of 200 μm. The processing time of 10 to 20 s is determined by the number of laser pulses required for safely opening every hole on the bottom side. Therefore, the largest wafer thickness occurring in a production line defines the processing time. However, wafer thickness varies by roughly +/-20 %. To reduce the processing time, a coaxial camera <span class="hlt">control</span> system was integrated into the laser scanner. It observes the bottom breakthrough from the front side of the wafer by measuring the process emissions of every single laser pulse. To achieve the frame rates and latency times required by the repetition rate of the laser (10 kHz), a camera based on cellular neural networks (CNN) was used where the images are processed directly on the camera chip by 176 x 144 sensor-processor-elements. One image per laser pulse is processed within 36 μs corresponding to a maximum pulse rate of 25 kHz. The laser is stopped when all of the holes are open on the bottom side. The result is a quality <span class="hlt">control</span> system in which the processing time of a production line is defined by average instead of maximum wafer thickness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3010..156S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3010..156S"><span>Fabrication of large-format holograms in dichromated gelatin films for sun <span class="hlt">control</span> and <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stojanoff, Christo G.; Schuette, Hartmut; Schulat, Jochen; Kubiza, Ralf; Froening, Philipp</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>Dichromated gelatin layers (DCG) facilitate the design and fabrication of large format holographic optical elements (HOE) of high optical quality and diffraction efficiency. The HOEs are used for the fabrication of spectrally selective <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrators and as glazing materials for daylighting and passive sun <span class="hlt">control</span> in buildings. The suitability of HOEs in these applications depends upon the achievable bandwidth, operating central wavelength, dispersion characteristics and low absorption losses. The HOEs are fabricated on glass or plastic film substrata in a DCG-layer of 5 to 30 micrometer thickness. The layer thickness and the gradient ar precisely <span class="hlt">controlled</span> during the layer deposition and drying (plus or minus 1 micrometer and 0.1 micrometer/cm for standard layer of 10 micrometer thickness). The production process is based on the fabrication of high quality master holograms that are copied by dry copying procedure. The current manufacturing facilities allow the fabrication of 1 m2 HOEs on glass substratum and a continuous production of HOEs on plastic substratum with a width of 20 cm and length of 50 m. This technology is also used to fabricate holograms for instrumentation optics in metrology and for optical interconnects in multichip modules. The fabricated HOEs exhibit the desired operational characteristics: high diffraction efficiency, small Braggshift, large bandwidth and a central wavelength that may be freely selected over a wide spectral range. In this paper, we present the results from the experimental investigation and theoretical analysis of large number of holograms of the transmissive and reflective types. We discuss the attained angular and wavelength spectra, bandwidths, wavelength shifts and the diffraction efficiencies as functions of the holographic parameters. The HOEs are made for technical applications and are designed to operate in the 300 nm - 1500 m spectral range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28124689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28124689"><span>Titanium oxide morphology <span class="hlt">controls</span> charge collection efficiency in quantum dot <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kolay, Ankita; Kumar, P Naresh; Kumar, Sarode Krishna; Deepa, Melepurath</p> <p>2017-02-08</p> <p>Charge transfer at the TiO2/quantum dots (QDs) interface, charge collection at the TiO2/QDs/current collector (FTO or SnO2:F) interface, and back electron transfer at the TiO2/QDs/S(2-) interface are processes <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the electron transport layer or TiO2. These key processes <span class="hlt">control</span> the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of quantum dot <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (QDSCs). Here, four TiO2 morphologies, porous nanoparticles (PNPs), nanowires (NWs), nanosheets (NSHs) and nanoparticles (NPs), were sensitized with CdS and the photovoltaic performances were compared. The marked differences in the cell parameters on going from one morphology to the other have been explained by correlating the shape, structure and the above-described interfacial properties of a given TiO2 morphology to the said parameters. The average magnitudes of PCEs follow the order: NWs (5.96%) > NPs (4.95%) > PNPs (4.85%) > NSHs (2.5%), with the champion cell based on NWs exhibiting a PCE of 6.29%. For NWs, an optimal balance between the fast photo-excited electron injection to NWs at the NW/CdS interface, the high resistance offered at the TiO2 NW/CdS/S(2-) interfaces to electron recombination with the oxidized electrolyte or with the holes in CdS, the low electron transport resistance in NWs, and low dark currents, yields the highest efficiency due to directional unhindered transport of electrons afforded by the NWs. For NSHs, electron trapping in the two dimensional sheets, and a high electron recombination rate prevent the effective transfer of electrons to FTO, thus reducing short circuit current density significantly, resulting in a poor performance. This study provides a deep understanding of charge transfer, transport and collection processes necessary for the design of efficient QDSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982PhDT........16K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982PhDT........16K"><span>A study of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> central power plant with a gas turbine - Project Sirocco modelling and <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kacim, M.</p> <p></p> <p>A thermodynamics and receiver design analysis is presented for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> tower power plant, together with a <span class="hlt">control</span> model for operations in varying working conditions. The analysis covers the central receiver and the gas-air turbine, adapted for functioning at 820 C, such as was experienced with the 100 kW Project Sirocco test station. A heliostat field concentrates <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy onto a central receiver traversed by compressed air, which is allowed to expand while driving a turbine generator. A combustion chamber is included in the loop to augment the thermal performance when insufficient <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy is available. The plant can be either grid-connected or stand alone. Static and dynamic characteristics of the thermal loop are modelled, and are included in the development of <span class="hlt">control</span> laws based on quadratic criteria. An optimized <span class="hlt">control</span> scheme is devised which features weighting criteria matrices, and the results of simulations covering different insolation levels are reported. Finally, an adjoint state <span class="hlt">control</span> system is produced to account for peculiarities of the power plant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850019478','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850019478"><span>Direct evidence for <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of Jupiter's hectometer-wavelength radio emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Desch, M. D.; Barrow, C. H.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Observations of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind close to Jupiter, by the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1978 and 1979, are compared with the hectometer wavelength radio emission from the planet. A significant positive correlation is found between variations in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind plasma density at Jupiter and the level of Jovian radio emission output. During the 173-day interval studied for the Voyager 2 data, the radio emission displayed a long term periodicity of about 13 days, identical to that shown by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind density at Jupiter and consistent with the magnetic sector structure association already proposed for groundbased observations of the decameter wavelength emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26449200','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26449200"><span>Redox Active Compounds in <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Radical Polymerization and Dye-Sensitized <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells: Mutual Solutions to Disparate Problems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ballard, Nicholas; Mecerreyes, David; Asua, José M</p> <p>2015-12-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Controlled</span> radical polymerization (CRP) and dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs) are two fields of research that at an initial glance appear to have little in common. However, despite their obvious differences, both in application and in scientific nature, a closer look reveals a striking similarity between many of the compounds widely used as <span class="hlt">control</span> agents in radical polymerization and as redox couples in dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Herein, we review the various redox active compounds used and examine the characteristics that give them the ability to perform this dual function. In addition we explore the advances in the understanding of the structural features that enhance their activity in both CRP and DSSCs. It is hoped that such a comparison will be conducive to improving process performance in both fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800051190&hterms=ion+implantation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dion%2Bimplantation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800051190&hterms=ion+implantation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dion%2Bimplantation"><span>A study of the factors which <span class="hlt">control</span> the efficiency of ion-implanted silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Douglas, E. C.; Daiello, R. V.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this work was to determine experimentally the ion-implantation parameters and furnace annealing conditions required to produce high-efficiency <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. A comprehensive experimental study was conducted in which the optimum ion-implantation parameters were found by a systematic variation of the implant parameters followed by detailed studies of <span class="hlt">solar</span>-cell devices. Two furnace heat-treatment techniques were found which effectively anneal the implanted layers and at the same time preserve or improve the diffusion length in the bulk silicon. Detailed characteristics of both the junction and bulk properties of <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells fabricated over the spectrum of implant parameters are discussed. Optimized implant parameters and annealing conditions were found which allow for the fabrication of 14-15-percent (AM1) efficient <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24643140','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24643140"><span><span class="hlt">Controlled</span> growth of semiconductor nanofilms within TiO₂ nanotubes for nanofilm sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xiaojia; Yu, Dongqi; Xiong, Feng-Qiang; Li, Mingrun; Yang, Zhou; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Li, Can</p> <p>2014-04-28</p> <p>Anodized TiO2 nanotubes were decorated by II-VI semiconductor nanofilms via atomic layer deposition (ALD) and further employed as photoanodes of semiconductor nanofilm sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (NFSCs) exhibiting superior photovoltaic performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864796','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864796"><span>Roof aperture system for selective collection and <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sanders, William J.; Snyder, Marvin K.; Harter, James W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by at least one pair of <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASTP.121..157M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASTP.121..157M"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> on the cloud liquid water content and integrated water vapor associated with monsoon rainfall over India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maitra, Animesh; Saha, Upal; Adhikari, Arpita</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A long-term observation over three <span class="hlt">solar</span> cycles indicates a perceptible influence of <span class="hlt">solar</span> activity on rainfall and associated parameters in the Indian region. This paper attempts to reveal the <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> on the cloud liquid water content (LWC) and integrated water vapor (IWV) along with Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall during the period of 1977-2012 over nine different Indian stations. Cloud LWC and IWV are positively correlated with each other. An anti-correlation is observed between the Sunspot Number (SSN) and ISM rainfall for a majority of the stations and a poor positive correlation obtained for other locations. Cloud LWC and IWV possess positive correlations with Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and SSN respectively for most of the stations. The wavelet analyses of SSN, ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV have been performed to investigate the periodic characteristics of climatic parameters and also to indicate the varying relationship of <span class="hlt">solar</span> activity with ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV. SSN, ISM rainfall and IWV are found to have a peak at around 10.3 years whereas a dip is observed at that particular period for cloud LWC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121144&hterms=Newton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DNewton','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121144&hterms=Newton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DNewton"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> on Jupiter's Equatorial X-ray Emissions: 26-29 November 2003 XMM-Newton Observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bhardwaj, Anil; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Ramsay, G.; Rodriquez, P.; Soria, R.; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>During November 26-29,2003 XMM-Newton observed X-ray emissions from Jupiter for 69 hours. The 0.7-2.0 keV X-ray disk of Jupiter is observed to be brightest at the subsolar point, and limb darkening is seen in the 0.2-2.0 keV and 0.7-2.0 keV images. We present simultaneous lightcurves of Jovian equatorial X-rays and <span class="hlt">solar</span> X-rays measured by the GOES, SOHO/SEM, and TIMED/SEE satellites. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> X-ray flares occurring on the Jupiter-facing side of the Sun are matched by corresponding features in the Jovian X- rays. These results support the hypothesis that X-ray emissions from Jovian low-latitudes are <span class="hlt">solar</span> X-rays scattered and fluoresced from the planet's upper atmosphere, and confirm that the Sun directly <span class="hlt">controls</span> the non-auroral X-rays fiom Jupiter's disk. Our study suggest that Jovian equatorial X-rays; during certain Jupiter phase, can be used to predict the occurrence of <span class="hlt">solar</span> flare on the hemisphere of the Sun that is invisible to space weather satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121144&hterms=newton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dnewton','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121144&hterms=newton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dnewton"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> on Jupiter's Equatorial X-ray Emissions: 26-29 November 2003 XMM-Newton Observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bhardwaj, Anil; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Ramsay, G.; Rodriquez, P.; Soria, R.; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>During November 26-29,2003 XMM-Newton observed X-ray emissions from Jupiter for 69 hours. The 0.7-2.0 keV X-ray disk of Jupiter is observed to be brightest at the subsolar point, and limb darkening is seen in the 0.2-2.0 keV and 0.7-2.0 keV images. We present simultaneous lightcurves of Jovian equatorial X-rays and <span class="hlt">solar</span> X-rays measured by the GOES, SOHO/SEM, and TIMED/SEE satellites. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> X-ray flares occurring on the Jupiter-facing side of the Sun are matched by corresponding features in the Jovian X- rays. These results support the hypothesis that X-ray emissions from Jovian low-latitudes are <span class="hlt">solar</span> X-rays scattered and fluoresced from the planet's upper atmosphere, and confirm that the Sun directly <span class="hlt">controls</span> the non-auroral X-rays fiom Jupiter's disk. Our study suggest that Jovian equatorial X-rays; during certain Jupiter phase, can be used to predict the occurrence of <span class="hlt">solar</span> flare on the hemisphere of the Sun that is invisible to space weather satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23589766','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23589766"><span><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> Morphology and Molecular Packing of Alkane Substituted Phthalocyanine Blend Bulk Heterojunction <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jurow, Matthew J; Hageman, Brian A; Dimasi, Elaine; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pabon, Cesar; Black, Charles T; Drain, Charles Michael</p> <p>2013-02-07</p> <p>Systematic changes in the exocyclic substiution of core phthalocyanine platform tune the absorption properties to yield commercially viable dyes that function as the primary light absorbers in organic bulk heterojunction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Blends of these complementary phthalocyanines absorb a broader portion of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> spectrum compared to a single dye, thereby increasing <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell performance. We correlate grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering structural data with <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell performance to elucidate the role of nanomorphology of active layers composed of blends of phthalocyanines and a fullerene derivative. A highly reproducible device architecture is used to assure accuracy and is relevant to films for <span class="hlt">solar</span> windows in urban settings. We demonstrate that the number and structure of the exocyclic motifs dictate phase formation, hierarchical organization, and nanostructure, thus can be employed to tailor active layer morphology to enhance exciton dissociation and charge collection efficiencies in the photovoltaic devices. These studies reveal that disordered films make better <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells, short alkanes increase the optical density of the active layer, and branched alkanes inhibit unproductive homogeneous molecular alignment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1758c0046R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1758c0046R"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> device for automatic orientation of a <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel based on a microcontroller (PIC16f628a)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rezoug, M. R.; Krama, A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This work proposes a <span class="hlt">control</span> device for autonomous <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracker based on one axis, It consists of two main parts; the <span class="hlt">control</span> part which is based on "the PIC16f628a"; it has the role of <span class="hlt">controlling</span>, measuring and plotting responses. The second part is a mechanical device, which has the role of making the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel follows the day-night change of the sun throughout the year. Both parties are established to improve energy generation of the photovoltaic panels. In this paper, we will explain the main operating principles of our system. Also, we will provide experimental results which demonstrate the good performance and the efficiency of this system. This innovation is different from what has been proposed in previous studies. The important points of this system are maximum output energy and minimum energy consumption of <span class="hlt">solar</span> tracker, its cost is relatively low with simplicity in implementation. The average power increase produced by using the tracking system for a particular day, is over 30 % compared with the static panel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJSyS..46..896A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJSyS..46..896A"><span>Robust stability of <span class="hlt">solar</span>-power wireless network <span class="hlt">control</span> system with stochastic time delays based on H∞-norm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al-Azzawi, Waleed; Al-Akaidi, Marwan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this paper, the robust stability analysis of <span class="hlt">solar</span> wireless networked <span class="hlt">control</span> systems (SWNCSs) with stochastic time delays and packet dropout is investigated. The robust model predictive <span class="hlt">controller</span> (RMPC) technique for the SWNCS is discussed using the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. Based on the SWNCS model, the RMPC (a full state feedback <span class="hlt">controller</span>) can be constructed by using the Lyapunov functional method. Both sensor-to-<span class="hlt">controller</span> and <span class="hlt">controller</span>-to-actuator time delays of the SWNCS are considered as stochastic variables <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by a Markov chain. A discrete-time Markovian jump linear system (MJLS) with norm bounded time delay is presented to model the SWNCSs. Conditions for H∞-norm is used to evaluate stability and stabilization of the fundamental systems derived via LMIs formulation. Finally, an illustrative numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9527287','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9527287"><span>Implantable <span class="hlt">control</span>, telemetry, and <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy system in the moving actuator type total artificial heart.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahn, J M; Lee, J H; Choi, S W; Kim, W E; Omn, K S; Park, S K; Kim, W G; Roh, J R; Min, B G</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p>The moving actuator type total artificial heart (TAH) developed in the Seoul National University has numerous design improvements based upon the digital signal processor (DSP). These improvements include the implantability of all electronics, an automatic <span class="hlt">control</span> algorithm, and extension of the battery run-time in connection with an amorphous silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> system (SS). The implantable electronics consist of the motor drive, main processor, intelligent Li ion battery management (LIBM) based upon the DSP, telemetry system, and transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) system. Major changes in the implantable electronics include decreasing the temperature rise by over 21 degrees C on the motor drive, volume reduction (40 x 55 x 33 mm, 7 cell assembly) of the battery pack using a Li ion (3.6 V/cell, 900 mA.h), and improvement of the battery run-time (over 40 min) while providing the cardiac output (CO) of 5 L/min at 100 mm Hg afterload when the external battery for testing is connected with the SS (2.5 W, 192.192, 1 kg) for the external battery recharge or the partial TAH drive. The phase locked loop (PLL) based telemetry system was implemented to improve stability and the error correction DSP algorithm programmed to achieve high accuracy. A field focused light emitting diode (LED) was used to obtain low light scattering along the propagation path, similar to the optical property of the laser and miniature sized, mounted on the pancake type TET coils. The TET operating resonance frequency was self tuned in a range of 360 to 410 kHz to provide enough power even at high afterloads. An automatic cardiac output regulation algorithm was developed based on interventricular pressure analysis and carried out in several animal experiments successfully. All electronics have been evaluated in vitro and in vivo and prepared for implantation of the TAH. Substantial progress has been made in designing a completely implantable TAH at the preclinical stage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8222785M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8222785M"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">control</span> systems for <span class="hlt">solar</span> water and <span class="hlt">solar</span> space heating equipment. Choice of heat conducting fluid. Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, H.</p> <p>1981-11-01</p> <p>Flat plate collector systems suitable for hot water supply, swimming pool heating, and auxiliary space heating were developed. A <span class="hlt">control</span> and ready made packaged pipe assembly, adapted to synthetic fluid, was developed. A heat transfer fluid was selected, pumps, safety devices, armatures and seals were tested for their long term performance. External heat exchangers for simple and cascade arrangement of the hot water tanks were tested. It is found that the channel design of a roll bonded absorber has only limited effect on collector performance if the channel width approximates the space between the plates. Systems already installed work satisfactorily.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15498762','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15498762"><span><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> the regiospecific oxidation of aromatics via active site engineering of toluene <span class="hlt">para</span>-monooxygenase of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fishman, Ayelet; Tao, Ying; Rui, Lingyun; Wood, Thomas K</p> <p>2005-01-07</p> <p>A primary goal of protein engineering is to <span class="hlt">control</span> catalytic activity. Here we show that through mutagenesis of three active site residues, the catalytic activity of a multicomponent monooxygenase is altered so that it hydroxylates all three positions of toluene as well as both positions of naphthalene. Hence, for the first time, an enzyme has been engineered so that its regiospecific oxidation of a substrate can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span>. Through the A107G mutation in the alpha-subunit of toluene <span class="hlt">para</span>-monooxygenase, a variant was formed that hydroxylated toluene primarily at the ortho-position while converting naphthalene to 1-naphthol. Conversely, the A107T variant produced >98% p-cresol and p-nitrophenol from toluene and nitrobenzene, respectively, as well as produced 2-naphthol from naphthalene. The mutation I100S/G103S produced a toluene <span class="hlt">para</span>-monooxygenase variant that formed 75% m-cresol from toluene and 100% m-nitrophenol from nitrobenzene; thus, for the first time a true meta-hydroxylating toluene monooxygenase was created.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5159216','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5159216"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> sail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Drexler, K.E.</p> <p>1986-09-30</p> <p>This patent describes a <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail propulsion system comprising: <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail means for intercepting light pressure to produce thrust, the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail means being a thin metal film; tension truss means having two ends attached at one end to the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail means for transferring the thrust from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail and for preventing gross deformation of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail under light pressure, the <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail means being a plurality of separate generally two-dimensional pieces joined by springs to the tension truss means; a payload attached to the other end of the tension truss means, the tension truss means comprising a plurality of attachment means for attaching shroud lines to the top of the tension truss means and a plurality of the shroud lines attached to the attachment means at one of their ends and the payload at the other; a plurality of reel means attached to the shroud lines for <span class="hlt">controllably</span> varying the length of the lines; and a plurality of reflective panel means attached to the sail means for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the orientation of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5642274','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5642274"><span>Microprocessor <span class="hlt">control</span> of power sharing and <span class="hlt">solar</span> array peak power tracking for high power (2. 5 kW) switching power converters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Speer, J.H. Jr.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A prototype system of twin power converters for <span class="hlt">solar</span> array supplement of spacecraft power buses is described. Analog circuits are used for inner <span class="hlt">control</span> loops and a microprocessor directs power sharing and peak power tracking. 3 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22812425','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22812425"><span>Enhancing the photocurrent in diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells via energy level <span class="hlt">control</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Weiwei; Roelofs, W S Christian; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J</p> <p>2012-08-22</p> <p>A series of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based small band gap polymers has been designed and synthesized by Suzuki or Stille polymerization for use in polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The new polymers contain extended aromatic π-conjugated segments alternating with the DPP units and are designed to increase the free energy for charge generation to overcome current limitations in photocurrent generation of DPP-based polymers. In optimized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with [6,6]phenyl-C(71)-butyric acid methyl ester ([70]PCBM) as acceptor, the new DPP-polymers provide significantly enhanced external and internal quantum efficiencies for conversion of photons into collected electrons. This provides short-circuit current densities in excess of 16 mA cm(-2), higher than obtained so far, with power conversion efficiencies of 5.8% in simulated <span class="hlt">solar</span> light. We analyze external and internal photon to collected electron quantum efficiencies for the new polymers as a function of the photon energy loss, defined as the offset between optical band gap and open circuit voltage, and compare the results to those of some of the best DPP-based polymers <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells reported in the literature. We find that for the best <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells there is an empirical relation between quantum efficiency and photon energy loss that presently limits the power conversion efficiency in these devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1245475','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1245475"><span>Intra-Hour Dispatch and Automatic Generator <span class="hlt">Control</span> Demonstration with <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Forecasting - Final Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Coimbra, Carlos F. M.</p> <p>2016-02-25</p> <p>In this project we address multiple resource integration challenges associated with increasing levels of <span class="hlt">solar</span> penetration that arise from the variability and uncertainty in <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance. We will model the SMUD service region as its own balancing region, and develop an integrated, real-time operational tool that takes <span class="hlt">solar</span>-load forecast uncertainties into consideration and commits optimal energy resources and reserves for intra-hour and intra-day decisions. The primary objectives of this effort are to reduce power system operation cost by committing appropriate amount of energy resources and reserves, as well as to provide operators a prediction of the generation fleet’s behavior in real time for realistic PV penetration scenarios. The proposed methodology includes the following steps: clustering analysis on the expected <span class="hlt">solar</span> variability per region for the SMUD system, Day-ahead (DA) and real-time (RT) load forecasts for the entire service areas, 1-year of intra-hour CPR forecasts for cluster centers, 1-year of smart re-forecasting CPR forecasts in real-time for determination of irreducible errors, and uncertainty quantification for integrated <span class="hlt">solar</span>-load for both distributed and central stations (selected locations within service region) PV generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1078075','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1078075"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex <span class="hlt">Solar</span> PVB <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SuMi...74..261Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SuMi...74..261Z"><span>Morphology-<span class="hlt">controllable</span> ZnO nanostructures: Ethanol-assisted synthesis, growth mechanism and <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Y. F.; Fan, D. H.; Dong, Y. W.; Zhou, G. H.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>A very cheap solvent, ethanol, was successfully applied to <span class="hlt">control</span> ZnO crystal growth for fabricating a series of ZnO composite nanostructures. During the experimental process, a two-step chemical route was adopted. In step-one, ZnO nanowire arrays were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrate. In step-two, the step-one prepared samples were used as substrates for composite nanostructure deposition. The morphologies of the obtained products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the morphologies of the final products can be effectively <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by changing the water/ethanol ratios in the chemical solution. The obtained ZnO composite nanostructures with various morphologies were successfully employed in dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the composite nanostructures consisting of nanowires and pseudospherical nanostructures enable 80% improvement in <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy conversion efficiency as compared with the nanowire arrays. These results indicate that the synthesized ZnO composite nanostructures are more suitable for application as photoelectrodes in <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..196a2037B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..196a2037B"><span>Pin-Hole Free Perovskite Film for <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells Application Prepared by <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Two-Step Spin-Coating Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahtiar, A.; Rahmanita, S.; Inayatie, Y. D.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Morphology of perovskite film is a key important for achieving high performance perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Perovskite films are commonly prepared by two-step spin-coating method. However, pin-holes are frequently formed in perovskite films due to incomplete conversion of lead-iodide (PbI2) into perovskite CH3NH3PbI3. Pin-holes in perovskite film cause large hysteresis in current-voltage curve of <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells due to large series resistance between perovskite layer-hole transport material. Moreover, crystal structure and grain size of perovskite crystal are also other important parameters for achieving high performance <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells, which are significantly affected by preparation of perovskite film. We studied the effect of preparation of perovskite film using <span class="hlt">controlled</span> spin-coating parameters on crystal structure and morphological properties of perovskite film. We used two-step spin-coating method for preparation of perovskite film with varied spinning speed, spinning time and temperature of spin-coating process to <span class="hlt">control</span> growth of perovskite crystal aimed to produce high quality perovskite crystal with pin-hole free and large grain size. All experiment was performed in air with high humidity (larger than 80%). The best crystal structure, pin-hole free with large grain crystal size of perovskite film was obtained from film prepared at room temperature with spinning speed 1000 rpm for 20 seconds and annealed at 100°C for 300 seconds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810035606&hterms=polycrystalline+silicon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpolycrystalline%2Bsilicon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810035606&hterms=polycrystalline+silicon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpolycrystalline%2Bsilicon"><span>The properties of polycrystalline silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with <span class="hlt">controlled</span> titanium additions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rohatgi, A.; Hopkins, R. H.; Davis, J. R., Jr.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>By coupling the results of electrical measurements, such as spectral response, lighted and dark I-V determinations, and deep-level-transient spectroscopy with optical and laser scan photomicroscopy, the effects of grain boundaries and impurities on silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells were evaluated. Titanium, which produces two deep levels in silicon, degrades cell performance by reducing bulk lifetime and thus cell short-circuit current. Electrically active grain boundaries induce carrier recombination in the bulk and depletion regions of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell. Experimental data imply a small but measurable segregation of titanium into some grain boundaries of the polycrystalline silicon containing high Ti concentration. However, for the titanium-contaminated polycrystalline material used in this study, <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell performance is dominated by the electrically active titanium concentration in the grains. Microstructural impacts on the devices are of secondary importance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5982128','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5982128"><span>Prevention of thermal buildup by <span class="hlt">controlled</span> exterior means and <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy collectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nevins, R.L.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy system for a building. A plurality of interlocked thermally conductive flat <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy collecting plates form a portion of the building's surface. Each of these plates has a web which is generally perpendicular to the web surface. This web supports a suitable tube which is received in notched rafters. The tube contains working fluid which absorbs thermal energy collected by the plates and transfers it to storage or to air flowing in a duct which is formed in the building or structure between a sheet which is attached to the opposite side of the rafters and the flat <span class="hlt">solar</span> collecting plates which provide one surface of the building.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26399298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26399298"><span><span class="hlt">Controlled</span> reaction for improved CH3NH3PbI3 transition in perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, J J; Wang, P; Liu, Z H; Wei, L Y; Yang, Z; Chen, H R; Fang, X Q; Liu, X L; Mai, Y H</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Hybrid halide perovskites represent one of the most promising solutions toward the fabrication of all solid nanostructured <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells, with improved efficiency and long-term stability. This article aims at investigating the properties of CH3NH3PbI3 with <span class="hlt">controlled</span> loading time in CH3NH3I solution via a two-step sequential deposition and correlating them with their photovoltaic performances. It is found that the optimum PCE of the loading time in the CH3NH3I solution is possible only at a relatively short time (10 min). Prolonging the loading time will degrade the perovskite film, and deteriorate the device performance by introducing a large amount of excessive defects and recombination. However, even if the material band gap remains substantially unchanged, a suitable loading time can dramatically improve the charge transport within the perovskite layer, exhibiting the out-standing performances of meso-superstructured <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23934483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23934483"><span>Surface plasmon resonance induced excellent <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> for VO₂@SiO₂ nanorods-based thermochromic foils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Li, Yamei; Ji, Shidong; Gao, Yanfeng; Jin, Ping</p> <p>2013-10-07</p> <p>Transition-metal oxide nanocrystals are novel candidates for being used as the hosts of localized surface plasmon resonance because they exhibit fascinating properties arising from the unique characteristics of their outer-d valence electrons. VO₂(M) nanocrystal is well-known due to its reversible metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature near room temperature (∼68 °C) corresponding to the appearance/disappearance of localized surface plasmon resonance across the MIT. In this study, a microemulsion-based method was introduced to synthesize VO₂(M)@SiO₂ nanoparticles which were applied to prepare VO₂-based thermochromic foils owing to a strong and tunable surface plasmon resonance in the metallic state. The optical transmittance spectra demonstrates that the employment of surface plasmon resonance in VO₂-based thermochromic foils greatly improves their <span class="hlt">solar</span> regulating efficiency up to 18.54%, and provides an unprecedented insight in optimizing VO₂-based thermochromic windows for <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Nanos...5.7499K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Nanos...5.7499K"><span>Three-dimensional imaging for precise structural <span class="hlt">control</span> of Si quantum dot networks for all-Si <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Hao, Xiaojing; Huang, Shujuan; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Conibeer, Gavin; Green, Martin A.; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>All-Si tandem <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells based on Si quantum dots (QDs) are a promising approach to future high-performance, thin film <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells using abundant, stable and non-toxic materials. An important prerequisite to achieve a high conversion efficiency in such cells is the ability to <span class="hlt">control</span> the geometry of the Si QD network. This includes the ability to <span class="hlt">control</span> both, the size and arrangement of Si QDs embedded in a higher bandgap matrix. Using plasmon tomography we show the size, shape and density of Si QDs, that form in Si rich oxide (SRO)/SiO2 multilayers upon annealing, can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by varying the SRO stoichiometry. Smaller, more spherical QDs of higher densities are obtained at lower Si concentrations. In richer SRO layers ellipsoidal QDs tend to form. Using electronic structure calculations within the effective mass approximation we show that ellipsoidal QDs give rise to reduced inter-QD coupling in the layer. Efficient carrier transport via mini-bands is in this case more likely across the multilayers provided the SiO2 spacer layer is thin enough to allow coupling in the vertical direction.All-Si tandem <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells based on Si quantum dots (QDs) are a promising approach to future high-performance, thin film <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells using abundant, stable and non-toxic materials. An important prerequisite to achieve a high conversion efficiency in such cells is the ability to <span class="hlt">control</span> the geometry of the Si QD network. This includes the ability to <span class="hlt">control</span> both, the size and arrangement of Si QDs embedded in a higher bandgap matrix. Using plasmon tomography we show the size, shape and density of Si QDs, that form in Si rich oxide (SRO)/SiO2 multilayers upon annealing, can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by varying the SRO stoichiometry. Smaller, more spherical QDs of higher densities are obtained at lower Si concentrations. In richer SRO layers ellipsoidal QDs tend to form. Using electronic structure calculations within the effective mass approximation we show that ellipsoidal QDs give rise to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........49V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........49V"><span>Synthesis, loading <span class="hlt">control</span> and applications of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrilium as a <span class="hlt">solar</span> photocatalyst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vercher Perez, Rosa</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>The technologies or processes of oxidation outpost that uses like energy the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation for the degradation of polluting agents, suppose a novel alternative with important economic and environmental advantages. A proof of it has been the spectacular development which they have been these applications at world-wide level in the last years old, as well as the interest that the subject in international the scientific community has provoked. 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio by its singularity in this field has been chosen for this thesis the cation. It has been left from a study about the fotocatalitica activity of this cation, from the salt of hidrogenosulfato 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio and of the salt of tetrafluorborato 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio, when they act in homogenous phase on polluting agents, derivatives of dissolved fenolicos compounds in residual coming from the industry. In the first stage of the study I confirm the degradativo power of this cation but nevertheless a series of disadvantages in homogena phase was detected, had to the chemical characteristics of this organic species: hidrolitica opening of the ring and impossibility of reusability. With the purpose of correcting these problems it has been investigated and developed different methods from synthesis, in which this cation is supported in inorganic materials, concretely: silica gel, zeolites and sepiolitas. It has been come to the study, of individual form, the parameters that influence of significant form in the yield of the different processes and also has been verified the fotocatalitica activity of the new synthesized materials. In the developed methods it has been managed to totally <span class="hlt">control</span> the amount of cation supported in the chosen materials and of this form to be able to know the effectiveness his activity like fotocatalizador in heterogenous phase. It is possible to emphasize, that the proposed procedures of synthesis, are quite simple and fast in his execution. The made studies have been carried</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1062091','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1062091"><span>Comparison of Proportional and On/Off <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Collector Loop <span class="hlt">Control</span> Strategies Using a Dynamic Collector Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schiller, Steven R.; Warren, Mashuri L.; Auslander, David M.</p> <p>1980-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, common <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies used to regulate the flow of liquid through flat-plate <span class="hlt">solar</span> collectors are discussed and evaluated using a dynamic collector model. Performance of all strategies is compared using different set points, flow rates, insolation levels and patterns, and ambient temperature conditions. The unique characteristic of the dynamic collector model is that it includes the effect of collector capacitance. Short term temperature response and the energy-storage capability of collector capacitance are shown to play significant roles in comparing on/off and proportional <span class="hlt">controllers</span>. Inclusion of these effects has produced considerably more realistic simulations than any generated by steady-state models. Finally, simulations indicate relative advantages and disadvantages of both types of <span class="hlt">controllers</span>, conditions under which each performs better, and the importance of pump cycling and <span class="hlt">controller</span> set points on total energy collection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984STIN...8519540C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984STIN...8519540C"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> collection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cole, S. I.</p> <p>1984-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> dishes, photovoltaics, passive <span class="hlt">solar</span> building and <span class="hlt">solar</span> hot water systems, Trombe walls, hot air panels, hybrid <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating systems, <span class="hlt">solar</span> grain dryers, <span class="hlt">solar</span> greenhouses, <span class="hlt">solar</span> hot water worhshops, and <span class="hlt">solar</span> workshops are discussed. These <span class="hlt">solar</span> technologies are applied to residential situations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030014815','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030014815"><span>Interplanetary Magnetic Field <span class="hlt">Control</span> of the Entry of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Energetic Particles into the Magnetosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richard, R. L.; El-Alaoui, M.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Walker, R. J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>We have investigated the entry of energetic ions of <span class="hlt">solar</span> origin into the magnetosphere as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field orientation. We have modeled this entry by following high energy particles (protons and 3 He ions) ranging from 0.1 to 50 MeV in electric and magnetic fields from a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the magnetosphere and its interaction with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind. For the most part these particles entered the magnetosphere on or near open field lines except for some above 10 MeV that could enter directly by crossing field lines due to their large gyroradii. The MHD simulation was driven by a series of idealized <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. It was found that the flux of particles in the magnetosphere and transport into the inner magnetosphere varied widely according to the IMF orientation for a constant upstream particle source, with the most efficient entry occurring under southward IMF conditions. The flux inside the magnetosphere could approach that in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind implying that SEPs can contribute significantly to the magnetospheric energetic particle population during typical SEP events depending on the state of the magnetosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840019034&hterms=Poker&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPoker','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840019034&hterms=Poker&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPoker"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> of winter mesospheric echo occurrence at Poker Flat, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ecklund, W. L.; Balsley, B. B.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Winter mesospheric echoes are observed between about 55 and 80 km when auroral absorption is present during daylight hours. Relatively steady auroral absorption during sunrise and sunset periods causes a distinct onset and decay signature in mesospheric echo occurrence. The echo onset and disappearance time are shown versus height by the inclined lines for four different dates. The more vertical lines give the visible sunlight height/time curves for both sunrise (SR) and sunset (SS). The data is combined and replotted to give the morning onset height and the afternoon disappearance height as a function of <span class="hlt">solar</span> zenith angle. Echoes are not observed at the lowest heights in the morning until the <span class="hlt">solar</span> zenith angle is less than 90 deg. The afternoon echoes at the lowest heights also start to disappear as soon as the <span class="hlt">solar</span> zenith angle exceeds 90 deg, implying that the <span class="hlt">solar</span> component which sustains the mesospheric echo is screened by a layer extending up to about 60 km. The morning echo at 73 km onsets near the time of visible sunrise, but in the afternoon the 73 km echo lasts well past visible sunset.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..262..170S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..262..170S"><span>Is the O2(a1Δg) Venus nightglow emission <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by <span class="hlt">solar</span> activity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soret, Lauriane; Gérard, Jean-Claude</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Several past studies showed that the O2(a1Δg) Venus nightglow emission at 1.27 μm is highly variable on a timescale of hours. We examine whether the intensity of this emission shows a more global trend linked to <span class="hlt">solar</span> activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860060457&hterms=silicon+resistivity+mobility&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsilicon%2Bresistivity%2Bmobility','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860060457&hterms=silicon+resistivity+mobility&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsilicon%2Bresistivity%2Bmobility"><span>Voltage-<span class="hlt">controlling</span> mechanisms in low-resistivity silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells - A unified approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weizer, V. G.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E.; Godlewski, M. P.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>An experimental technique is used to determine the relative values of the base and emitter components of the dark saturation current of six types of high-voltage low-resistivity silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. One of the surprising findings is the suggestion that the magnitude of the minority-carrier mobility may be process-dependent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25773573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25773573"><span>Enhanced performance of PbS-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells via <span class="hlt">controlled</span> successive ionic-layer adsorption and reaction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abbas, Muhammad A; Basit, Muhammad A; Park, Tae Joo; Bang, Jin Ho</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>Despite the potential of PbS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers for quantum-dot-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (QDSSCs), achieving a high photocurrent density over 30 mA cm(-2) remains a challenging task in PbS-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. In contrast to previous attempts, where Hg(2+)-doping or multi-step post-treatment is necessary, we are capable of achieving a high photocurrent exceeding 30 mA cm(-2) simply by manipulating the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. We show that <span class="hlt">controlling</span> temperature at which SILAR is performed is critical to obtain a higher and more uniform coverage of PbS QDs over a mesoporous TiO2 film. The deposition of a CdS inter-layer between TiO2 and PbS is found to be an effective means of ensuring high photocurrent and stability. Not only does this modification improve the light absorption capability of the photoanode, but it also has a significant effect on charge recombination and electron injection efficiency at the PbS/TiO2 interface according to our in-depth study using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The implication of subtle changes in the interfacial events via modified SILAR conditions for PbS-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38138','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38138"><span>Diseño y Operación de un Secador <span class="hlt">Solar</span> de Madera <span class="hlt">para</span> Países Tropicales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Brian Bond; Omar Espinoza; Philip Araman</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>La madera es usualmente secada a un contenido de humedad específico antes de ser transformada en productos finales. A pesar de que la madera puede ser secada al aire, la humedad ambiental en la mayoría de las ubicaciones previene a la madera alcanzar el contenido de humedad necesario <span class="hlt">para</span> su estabilidad dimensional y adecuado procesamiento, especialmente <span class="hlt">para</span> usos de...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ExFl...56..210F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ExFl...56..210F"><span>Refractive index and solubility <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">para</span>-cymene solutions for index-matched fluid-structure interaction studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fort, Charles; Fu, Christopher D.; Weichselbaum, Noah A.; Bardet, Philippe M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To deploy optical diagnostics such as particle image velocimetry or planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in complex geometries, it is beneficial to use index-matched facilities. A binary mixture of <span class="hlt">para</span>-cymene and cinnamaldehyde provides a viable option for matching the refractive index of acrylic, a common material for scaled models and test sections. This fluid is particularly appropriate for large-scale facilities and when a low-density and low-viscosity fluid is sought, such as in fluid-structure interaction studies. This binary solution has relatively low kinematic viscosity and density; its use enables the experimentalist to select operating temperature and to increase fluorescence signal in PLIF experiments. Measurements of spectral and temperature dependence of refractive index, density, and kinematic viscosity are reported. The effect of the binary mixture on solubility <span class="hlt">control</span> of Rhodamine 6G is also characterized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APJAS..53...11Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APJAS..53...11Z"><span>Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) quality <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation data on the Gangneung-Wonju National University radiation station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zo, Il-Sung; Jee, Joon-Bum; Kim, Bu-Yo; Lee, Kyu-Tae</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Gangneung-Wonju National University (GWNU) radiation station has been collecting data on global, direct, and diffuse <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation since 2011. We conducted a quality <span class="hlt">control</span> (QC) assessment of GWNU data collected between 2012 and 2014, using procedures outlined by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The QC process involved the comparison of observations, the correction of observational equipment, the examination of physically possible limits, and the comparative testing of observations and model calculations. Furthermore, we performed a shading check of the observational environment around the GWNU <span class="hlt">solar</span> station. For each <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation element (observed every minute), we performed a QC check and investigated any flagged problems. 98.31% of the data were classified as good quality, while the remaining 1.69% were flagged as bad quality based on the shading check and comparison tests. We then compared the good-quality data to the global <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation data observed at the Gangwon Regional Office of Meteorology (GROM). After performing this comparison, the determination coefficient (R2; 0.98) and standard deviation (SD; 0.92 MJ m-2) increased compared to those computed before the QC check (0.97 and 1.09 MJ m-2). Even considering the geographical differences and weather effects between the two stations, these results are statistically significant. However, we also confirmed that the quality of the GROM data deteriorated in relation to weather conditions because of poor maintenance. Hence, we conclude that good-quality observational data rely on the maintenance of both observational equipment and the surrounding environment under optimal conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22266874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22266874"><span>Accurate <span class="hlt">control</span> of multishelled ZnO hollow microspheres for dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with high efficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Zhenghong; Lai, Xiaoyong; Halpert, Jonathan E; Yang, Nailiang; Yi, Luoxin; Zhai, Jin; Wang, Dan; Tang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Lei</p> <p>2012-02-21</p> <p>A series of multishelled ZnO hollow microspheres with <span class="hlt">controlled</span> shell number and inter-shell spacing have been successfully prepared by a simple carbonaceous microsphere templating method, whose large surface area and complex multishelled hollow structure enable them load sufficient dyes and multi-reflect the light for enhancing light harvesting and realize a high conversion efficiency of up to 5.6% when used in dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCrGr.475..136L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCrGr.475..136L"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> of ingot quality and <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell appearance of cast mono-like silicon by using seed partitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lan, C. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Lan, A.; Yang, C. F.; Hsu, C.; Lu, C. M.; Yang, A.; Lan, C. W.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The growth of mono-like ingot by directional solidification has suffered serious problems in defect <span class="hlt">control</span>. We proposed a simple approach by using seed partitions, and the grown crystal had much lower defects and better orientation uniformity. Furthermore, the partitions allowed the much easier seed preparation, which had a significant advantage in production. The concept was demonstrated by a G1 experiment, and the detailed defect analyses were carried out. The wafers after gettering had the best lifetime of more than 1 ms after surface passivation. The color mismatch in the appearance of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells made from the wafer was also significantly mitigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APExp..10a2301O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APExp..10a2301O"><span>Self-assembly method for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> spatial frequency response of plasmonic back reflectors in organic thin-film <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okamoto, Takayuki; Shinotsuka, Kei; Kawamukai, Etsuko; Ishibashi, Koji</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We propose a novel colloidal lithography technique that uses a mixture of colloidal particles with a few different diameters. This technique can be used for fabricating quasi-random nanostructures whose k-space spectra can be easily <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by using an appropriate combination of particles. We introduced such nanostructures into the back reflectors of organic thin-film <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells, where they serve as plasmonic back reflectors for recycling the nonabsorbed transmitted light into surface plasmons. The obtained photon-to-current efficiency was enhanced by 14-20% compared with that of a flat cell.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..225a2245D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..225a2245D"><span>Droop <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> PV, Grid and Critical Load using Suppressing DC Current Injection Technique without Battery Storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dama Mr., Jayachandra; (Mrs. , Lini Mathew, Dr.; Srikanth Mr., G.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents design of a sustainable <span class="hlt">solar</span> Photo voltaic system for an Indian cities based residential/community house, integrated with grid, supporting it as supplementary sources, to meet energy demand of domestic loads. The role of renewable energy sources in Distributed Generation (DG) is increasingly being recognized as a supplement and an alternative to large conventional central power supply. Though centralized economic system that solely depends on cities is hampered due to energy deficiency, the use of <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy in cities is never been tried widely due to technical inconvenience and high installation cost. To mitigate these problems, this paper proposes an optimized design of grid-tied PV system without storage which is suitable for Indian origin as it requires less installallation cost and supplies residential loads when the grid power is unavailable. The energy requirement is mainly fulfilled from PV energy module for critical load of a city located residential house and supplemented by grid/DG for base and peak load. The system has been developed for maximum daily household demand of 50kWp and can be scaled to any higher value as per requirement of individual/community building ranging from 50kWp to 60kWp as per the requirement. A simplified <span class="hlt">control</span> system model has been developed to optimize and <span class="hlt">control</span> flow of power from these sources. The simulation work, using MATLAB Simulink software for proposed energy management, has resulted in an optimal yield leading efficient power flow <span class="hlt">control</span> of proposed system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.439a2018O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.439a2018O"><span>Photocatalytic thin films coupled with polymeric microcapsules for the <span class="hlt">controlled</span>-release of volatile agents upon <span class="hlt">solar</span> activation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliveira, L. F.; Marques, J.; Coutinho, P. J. G.; Parpot, P.; Tavares, C. J.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>This work reportson the application of <span class="hlt">solar</span>-activated photocatalytic thin films that allow the <span class="hlt">controlled</span>-release of volatile agents (e.g., insecticides, repellents) from the interior of adsorbedpolymericmicrocapsules. In order to standardize the tests, a quantification of the inherent <span class="hlt">controlled</span>-release of a particular volatile agent is determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy, so that an application can be offered to a wide range of supports from various industrial sectors, such as in textiles (clothing, curtains, mosquito nets). This technology takes advantage of the established photocatalytic property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) for the use as an active surface/site to promote the <span class="hlt">controlled</span>-release of a specific vapor (volatile agentfrom within the aforementioned microcapsules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9911E..0KM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9911E..0KM"><span>Project management and <span class="hlt">control</span> of the Daniel K. Inouye <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McMullin, Joseph P.; McVeigh, William; Warner, Mark; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Craig, Simon C.; Ferayorni, Andrew; Goodrich, Bret D.; Hubbard, Robert P.; Hunter, Rex; Jeffers, Paul; Johansson, Erik; Marshall, Heather; McBride, William R.; Phelps, LeEllen; Shimko, Steve; Tritschler, Alexandra; Williams, Timothy R.; Wöger, Friedrich</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We provide a brief update on the construction status of the Daniel K. Inouye <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Telescope, a $344M, 10-year construction project to design and build the world's largest <span class="hlt">solar</span> physics observatory. We review the science drivers along with the challenges in meeting the evolving scientific needs over the course of the construction period without jeopardizing the systems engineering and management realization. We review the tools, processes and performance measures in use in guiding the development as well as the risks and challenges as the project transitions through various developmental phases. We elaborate on environmental and cultural compliance obligations in building in Hawai'i. We discuss the broad "lessons learned". Finally, we discuss the project in the context of the evolving management oversight within the US (in particular under the NSF).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1798b0074K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1798b0074K"><span>Nonlinear modeling and study for <span class="hlt">control</span> of the research spacecraft with <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khabibullin, Roman; Starinova, Olga</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This paper outlines the mathematical motion model of the research spacecraft that uses <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail instead of an engine and a propellant. The mathematical motion model for <span class="hlt">solar</span> sail spacecraft is formulated and described. The work considers the mathematical motion model within the heliocentric system of coordinates. The best way to assess the reasonableness of the mathematical model is the using model in motion simulation process. On the basis of the formulated mathematical model the special software complex for interplanetary transfer simulation is developed. Especially, the mission of the transfer of the spacecraft from the Earth's orbit to the potentially hazardous asteroid is simulated. The obtained results during simulation demonstrate correctness and feasibility of the considered mathematical motion model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8811E..19N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8811E..19N"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> of light absorption in organic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells using semi-transparent metal electrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neutzner, Stefanie; van de Groep, Jorik; Bakulin, Artem A.; Bakker, Huib J.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>In this contribution we combine optical modeling and device fabrication/characterization techniques to demonstrate that semitransparent metal electrodes can improve light harvesting in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. We show that inverted P3HT:PCBM <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells using a thin ~8 nm silver film as a front electrode outperform the ITO-based devices, despite the lower transmittance of silver films in comparison to ITO. The variation of silver thickness allows tailoring the field distribution inside the cell, which leads to a broad resonance window where the absorption is enhanced. Thereby the short-circuit current was increased by 84% and the <span class="hlt">solar</span>-cell efficiency was doubled. These results show that semitransparent metal electrodes can be efficiently used for light trapping and also form a very promising alternative to ITO in OPV devices. The stacked silver electrodes used in this work are flexible and can be easily produced on a large scale, including printing techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770066309&hterms=evacuated+solar+collector&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Devacuated%2Bsolar%2Bcollector','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770066309&hterms=evacuated+solar+collector&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Devacuated%2Bsolar%2Bcollector"><span>Evaluation of flat-plate collector efficiency under <span class="hlt">controlled</span> conditions in a <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, S. M.; Simon, F. F.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The measured thermal efficiencies of 35 collectors tested with a <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator, along with the correlation equations used to generalize the data, are presented in this report. The single correlation used is shown to apply to all the different types of collectors tested, including one with black paint and one cover, one with a selective surface coating and two covers, and an evacuated-tube collector. The test and correlation technique is also modified by using a shield so that collectors larger than the simulator test area can also be tested. This technique was verified experimentally for a shielded collector for which the collector shielded area was 31% of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator radiation area. A table lists all the collectors tested, the collector areas, and the experimental constants used to correlate the data for each collector.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770004587','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770004587"><span>Evaluation of flat-plate collector efficiency under <span class="hlt">controlled</span> conditions in a <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, S. M.; Simon, F. F.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The measured thermal efficiencies of 35 collectors tested with a <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator, along with the correlation equations used to generalize the data, are presented. The single correlation used is shown to apply to all the different types of collectors tested, including one with black paint and one cover, one with a selective surface coating and two covers, and an evacuated-tube collector. The test and correlation technique is also modified by using a shield so that collectors larger than the simulator test area can also be tested. This technique was verified experimentally for a shielded collector for which the collector shielded area was 31% of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator radiation area. A table lists all the collectors tested, the collector areas, and the experimental constants used to correlate the data for each collector.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086726','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086726"><span>Radiation in Space and Its <span class="hlt">Control</span> of Equilibrium Temperatures in the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Juhasz, Albert J.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The problem of determining equilibrium temperatures for reradiating surfaces in space vacuum was analyzed and the resulting mathematical relationships were incorporated in a code to determine space sink temperatures in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> system. A brief treatment of planetary atmospheres is also included. Temperature values obtained with the code are in good agreement with available spacecraft telemetry and meteorological measurements for Venus and Earth. The code has been used in the design of space power system radiators for future interplanetary missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA480829','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA480829"><span>Performance Feedback & <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Concentrators Using Wave Front Sensing Techniques (Preprint)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-09-07</p> <p>18 Figure 7 CONTOUR PLOT FOR FIGURE 4....................... 18 Figure 8 OFF-AXIS PARABOLOID GEOMETRY.................... 19 Figure 9 CCD...1963, the next development of the technology occurred in 1979 with the development of a twin off axis paraboloid concentrator concept, by Rocketdyne...Figure 1. Figure 1 Hyperboloid Construction The current AFRL concept for the concentrators for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> thruster is two off axis paraboloid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5320644','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5320644"><span>To develop a dynamic model of a collector loop for purpose of improved <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating and cooling. Final technical report. [TRNSYS code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herczfeld, P R; Fischl, R</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The program objectives were to (1) assess the feasibility of using the TRNSYS computer code for <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating and cooling <span class="hlt">control</span> studies and modify it wherever possible, and (2) develop a new dynamic model of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector which reflects the performance of the collector under transient conditions. Also, the sensitivity of the performance of this model to the various system parameters such as collector time constants, flow rates, turn-on and turn-off temperature set points, <span class="hlt">solar</span> insolation, etc., was studied. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/205156','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/205156"><span>Shape <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> collectors using torsional shape memory alloy actuators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lobitz, D.W.; Rice, T.M.; Grossman, J.W.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun`s rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper will be principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a small amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. In order to accommodate the large, nonlinear deformations required in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector plate to obtain desired focal lengths, a torsional shape memory alloy actuator was developed that produces a stroke of 0.5 inches. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM41B..05J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM41B..05J"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Wind and IMF <span class="hlt">Control</span> of Large-Scale Ionospheric Currents and Their Time Variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Juusola, L.; Kauristie, K.; Tanskanen, E.; Partamies, N.; Viljanen, A.; Andréeová, K.; van de Kamp, M.; Vanhamäki, H.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.; Grocott, A.; Imber, S. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Patterns of high-latitude ionospheric currents are a manifestation of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Rapid variations of the currents are associated with geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological conductor systems and displays of bright, diverse auroras. One advantage of a ground-based magnetometer network over a low-orbit satellite is the possibility to distinguish between temporal and spatial variations in the data. Although ground magnetic field data can only yield distributions of ionospheric equivalent currents instead of the full horizontal and field-aligned current density, estimates for these can be obtained, under certain assumptions. We use data (1994-2013) from the ground-based IMAGE magnetometer network to derive statistical distributions of the large-scale ionospheric equivalent current density and its time-derivative as well as estimates for the field-aligned current density. These are compared with and validated against horizontal and field-aligned current density distributions obtained from low-orbit CHAMP satellite magnetic field data (2000-2010) and convection maps obtained from SuperDARN radar data (2000-2010). The ground-based distributions reveal a strong dependence of the dayside variations on radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation and <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind speed. The spatial distribution of enhanced nightside activity agrees with that of the average substorm bulge and depends on <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind energy input into the magnetosphere. The most intense time variation events are related to substorm activity and occur on the nightside.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RELEA..14....7C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RELEA..14....7C"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Para</span> Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física <span class="hlt">Solar</span> no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This work analyses results obtained in a <span class="hlt">solar</span> physics course for high school students promoted at the Dietrich Schiel Observatory of the University of São Paulo (USP). The course was elaborated by the authors with the intention of investigating student's concepts about the Sun, teaching topics of modern physics related to the Sun and providing students with knowledge about our star as well. The methodology of data gathering consisted of audio and video records of classes and of semi-structured interviews, and analysis of answers to written questionnaires. The results showed that most high school students conceived the Sun as made of fire, while sunspots were thought to be holes in the Sun. Even though some students did know that a spectrum is formed using a prism or diffraction grating, most of them ignored the nature of the observed spectral lines. Through the course, this topic was developed by means of a practical approach with <span class="hlt">solar</span> and lamp spectra observations. The results obtained in the course point to the importance of science centers as partners in formal education. In this specific case, the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Room at the Dietrich Schiel Observatory is as a favorable environment for teaching modern physics in high school. Este artículo analiza los resultados obtenidos en un curso sobre la física <span class="hlt">solar</span>, auspiciado por el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel de la USP <span class="hlt">para</span> estudiantes de las escuelas secundarias. El curso fue diseñado por los autores con la intención de investigar las concepciones sobre el sol, enseñar temas relacionados con la física moderna del Sol y conocimientos generales sobre el astro rey. La metodología utilizada <span class="hlt">para</span> la recolección de datos consistió en grabar, en audio y video, las clases, las entrevistas semi-estructuradas y las respuestas a los cuestionarios escritos. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de los participantes conciben el Sol como constituido por fuego y las manchas <span class="hlt">solares</span> en la superficie <span class="hlt">solar</span> como agujeros. Aunque</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1340870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1340870"><span>Role of 4- <i>tert</i> -Butylpyridine as a Hole Transport Layer Morphological <span class="hlt">Controller</span> in Perovskite <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Shen; Sina, Mahsa; Parikh, Pritesh; Uekert, Taylor; Shahbazian, Brian; Devaraj, Arun; Meng, Ying Shirley</p> <p>2016-09-14</p> <p>Hybrid organic-inorganic materials for high efficiency, low cost photovoltaic devices have seen rapid progress since the introduction of lead based perovskites and solid-state hole transport layers. Although majority of the materials used for perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (PSC) are introduced from dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs), the presence of a perovskite capping layer as opposed to a single dye molecule (in DSSCs) changes the interactions between the various layers in perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. 4-tert-butylpyridine (tBP), commonly used in PSCs, is assumed to function as a charge recombination inhibitor, similar to DSSCs. However, the presence of a perovskite capping layer calls for a re-evaluation of its function in PSCs. Using TEM (transmission electron microscopy), we first confirm the role of tBP as a HTL morphology <span class="hlt">controller</span> in PSCs. Our observations suggest that tBP significantly improves the uniformity of the HTL and avoids accumulation of Li salt. We also study degradation pathways by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and APT (atom probe tomography) to investigate and visualize in 3-dimensions the moisture content associated with the Li salt. Long term effects, over 1000 hours, due to evaporation of tBP have also been studied. Based on our findings, a PSC failure mechanism associated with the morphological change of the HTL is proposed. tBP, the morphology <span class="hlt">controller</span> in HTL, plays a key role in this process and thus this study highlights the need for additive materials with higher boiling points for consistent long term performance of PSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27547991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27547991"><span>Role of 4-tert-Butylpyridine as a Hole Transport Layer Morphological <span class="hlt">Controller</span> in Perovskite <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Shen; Sina, Mahsa; Parikh, Pritesh; Uekert, Taylor; Shahbazian, Brian; Devaraj, Arun; Meng, Ying Shirley</p> <p>2016-09-14</p> <p>Hybrid organic-inorganic materials for high-efficiency, low-cost photovoltaic devices have seen rapid progress since the introduction of lead based perovskites and solid-state hole transport layers. Although majority of the materials used for perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (PSC) are introduced from dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs), the presence of a perovskite capping layer as opposed to a single dye molecule (in DSSCs) changes the interactions between the various layers in perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. 4-tert-Butylpyridine (tBP), commonly used in PSCs, is assumed to function as a charge recombination inhibitor, similar to DSSCs. However, the presence of a perovskite capping layer calls for a re-evaluation of its function in PSCs. Using TEM (transmission electron microscopy), we first confirm the role of tBP as a HTL morphology <span class="hlt">controller</span> in PSCs. Our observations suggest that tBP significantly improves the uniformity of the HTL and avoids accumulation of Li salt. We also study degradation pathways by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and APT (atom probe tomography) to investigate and visualize in 3-dimensions the moisture content associated with the Li salt. Long-term effects, over 1000 h, due to evaporation of tBP have also been studied. Based on our findings, a PSC failure mechanism associated with the morphological change of the HTL is proposed. tBP, the morphology <span class="hlt">controller</span> in HTL, plays a key role in this process, and thus this study highlights the need for additive materials with higher boiling points for consistent long-term performance of PSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9358E..19Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9358E..19Y"><span>Density-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode for improving dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yao, Jimmy; Lin, Chih-Min; Yin, Stuart (.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs) via ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode with density-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> abilities are presented in this paper. This nanocomposite photoanode is composed of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed into densitycontrolled vertically aligned ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays. The density-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays were synthesized directly onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using an innovative two-step wet chemical route. First, the density-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> ZnO nanorod arrays were formed by applying a ZnO hydrothermal process from a TiO2 nanocrystals template. Second, the ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays were formed by depositing a TiO2 shell layer from a sol-gel process. The major advantages of a density-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode include (1) providing a better diffusion path from ZnO nanorod arrays and (2) reducing the recombination loss by introducing an energy barrier layer TiO2 conformal shell coating. To validate the advantages of a density-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode, DSSCs based on a ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode were fabricated, in which N719 dye was used. The average dimensions of the ZnO nanorod arrays were 20 μm and 650 nm for the length and the diameter, respectively, while the designated spacing between each nanorod was around 5 μm. The performance of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell was tested by using a standard AM 1.5 <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator from Newport Corporation. The experimental results confirmed that an open-circuit voltage, 0.93 V, was achieved, which was much higher than the conventional TiO2 nanoparticles thin film structure for the same thickness. Thus, density-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanodes could improve the performance of DSSCs by offering a better electron diffusion path.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25578926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25578926"><span>¡Cocinar <span class="hlt">Para</span> Su Salud!: Randomized <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Trial of a Culturally Based Dietary Intervention among Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenlee, Heather; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Aycinena, A Corina; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Karmally, Wahida; Richardson, John M; Lim, Emerson; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Crew, Katherine; Maurer, Matthew; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>There is a need for culturally relevant nutrition programs targeted to underserved cancer survivors. Our aim was to examine the effect of a culturally based approach to dietary change on increasing fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake and decreasing fat intake among Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Participants were randomized to Intervention and <span class="hlt">Control</span> groups. Diet recalls, detailed interviews, fasting blood, and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Hispanic women (n=70) with stage 0 to III breast cancer who completed adjuvant treatment and lived in New York City were randomized between April 2011 and March 2012. The Intervention group (n=34) participated in ¡Cocinar <span class="hlt">Para</span> Su Salud!, a culturally based nine-session (24 hours over 12 weeks) intervention including nutrition education, cooking classes, and food-shopping field trips. The <span class="hlt">Control</span> group (n=36) received written dietary recommendations for breast cancer survivors. Change at 6 months in daily F/V servings and percent calories from total fat were the main outcome measures. Linear regression models adjusted for stratification factors and estimated marginal means were used to compare changes in diet from baseline to 3 and 6 months. Baseline characteristics were the following: mean age 56.6 years (standard deviation 9.7 years), mean time since diagnosis 3.4 years (standard deviation 2.7 years), mean body mass index (calculated as kg/m²) 30.9 (standard deviation 6.0), 62.9% with annual household income ≤$15,000, mean daily servings of all F/V was 5.3 (targeted F/V 3.7 servings excluding legumes/juices/starchy vegetables/fried foods), and 27.7% of daily calories from fat. More than 60% in the Intervention group attended seven or more of nine classes, with overall study retention of 87% retention at 6 months. At month 6, the Intervention group compared with <span class="hlt">Control</span> group reported an increase in mean servings of F/V from baseline (all F/V: +2.0 vs -0.1; P=0.005; targeted F/V: +2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790035489&hterms=Advanced+control+strategies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DAdvanced%2Bcontrol%2Bstrategies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790035489&hterms=Advanced+control+strategies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DAdvanced%2Bcontrol%2Bstrategies"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">solar</span> space missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bohlin, J. D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The space missions in <span class="hlt">solar</span> physics planned for the next decade are similar in that they will have, for the most part, distinct, unifying science objectives in contrast to the more general 'exploratory' nature of the Orbiting <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Observatory and Skylab/ATM missions of the 1960's and 70's. In particular, the strategy for advanced <span class="hlt">solar</span> physics space missions will focus on the quantitative understanding of the physical processes that create and <span class="hlt">control</span> the flow of electromagnetic and particulate energy from the sun and through interplanetary space at all phases of the current sunspot cycle No. 21. Attention is given to the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Maximum Mission, the International <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Polar Mission, <span class="hlt">solar</span> physics on an early Shuttle mission, principal investigator class experiments for future spacelabs, the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Optical Telescope, the Space Science Platform, the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cycle and Dynamics Mission, and an attempt to send a spacecraft to within 4 <span class="hlt">solar</span> radii of the sun's surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22485945','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22485945"><span>Bi-Sn alloy catalyst for simultaneous morphology and doping <span class="hlt">control</span> of silicon nanowires in radial junction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yu, Zhongwei; Lu, Jiawen; Qian, Shengyi; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Wang, Junzhuan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Yu, Linwei E-mail: linwei.yu@polytechnique.edu</p> <p>2015-10-19</p> <p>Low-melting point metals such as bismuth (Bi) and tin (Sn) are ideal choices for mediating a low temperature growth of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) for radial junction thin film <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The incorporation of Bi catalyst atoms leads to sufficient n-type doping in the SiNWs core that exempts the use of hazardous dopant gases, while an easy morphology <span class="hlt">control</span> with pure Bi catalyst has never been demonstrated so far. We here propose a Bi-Sn alloy catalyst strategy to achieve both a beneficial catalyst-doping and an ideal SiNW morphology <span class="hlt">control</span>. In addition to a potential of further growth temperature reduction, we show that the alloy catalyst can remain quite stable during a vapor-liquid-solid growth, while providing still sufficient n-type catalyst-doping to the SiNWs. Radial junction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells constructed over the alloy-catalyzed SiNWs have demonstrated a strongly enhanced photocurrent generation, thanks to optimized nanowire morphology, and largely improved performance compared to the reference samples based on the pure Bi or Sn-catalyzed SiNWs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023712','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023712"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> astronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An overview is given of modern <span class="hlt">solar</span> physics. Topics covered include the <span class="hlt">solar</span> interior, the <span class="hlt">solar</span> surface, the <span class="hlt">solar</span> atmosphere, the Large Earth-based <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Laboratory, the High Energy <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, <span class="hlt">solar</span>-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating <span class="hlt">solar</span> research, and integrated support for <span class="hlt">solar</span> research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..128....1U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..128....1U"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> of the Martian magnetic topology: Implications from model-data comparisons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulusen, D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Ma, Y.; Brain, D. A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>One of the goals of the upcoming MAVEN mission to Mars is to investigate the effects of the crustal remanent fields on the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind plasma interaction and the upper atmosphere. The MGS Electron Reflectometer and magnetometer observations can be used to test the idea that, if the future data from the electron spectrometer (SWEA) are separated for the two prevalent interplanetary field orientations (Parker spirals 'toward' and 'away' from the Sun), one may be able to detect specific differences in the pattern of locations of open magnetic fields (where photoelectrons can escape from Mars' ionosphere into space), as well as patterns of photoelectrons in the Martian magnetotail. We use a pair of BATS-R-US MHD model results of the Mars-<span class="hlt">solar</span> wind interaction, in a manner similar to that tested by Liemohn et al. in 2006 on Mars Express ELS electron data, to define these patterns of expected photo-electron detections on a global scale. Those cases have the strongest southern hemisphere crustal fields at noon or midnight, a matter of importance in such investigations because these patterns will be sensitive to the local time of those fields. We compare some MGS data-based maps of the time periods selected for their open field signatures in the pitch angle distributions and energy spectra, and separated by interplanetary field orientation inferred from Mars magnetosheath observations. This exercise illustrates the power (and necessity) of the global model comparisons as a means of interpreting the very complex Mars-<span class="hlt">solar</span> wind interaction and its effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5848244','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5848244"><span>Gradient zone-boundary <span class="hlt">control</span> in salt-gradient <span class="hlt">solar</span> ponds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Hull, J.R.</p> <p>1982-09-29</p> <p>A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient <span class="hlt">solar</span> pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...812892R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...812892R"><span>Critical kinetic <span class="hlt">control</span> of non-stoichiometric intermediate phase transformation for efficient perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rong, Yaoguang; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Guo, Rui; Wang, Yanan; Bao, Jiming; Li, Wenzhi; Fan, Zhiyong; Yao, Yan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Organometal trihalide perovskites (OTP) have attracted significant attention as a low-cost and high-efficiency <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell material. Due to the strong coordination between lead iodide (PbI2) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, a non-stoichiometric intermediate phase of MA2Pb3I8(DMSO)2 (MA = CH3NH3+) usually forms in the one-step deposition method that plays a critical role in attaining high power conversion efficiency. However, the kinetic understanding of how the non-stoichiometric intermediate phase transforms during thermal annealing is currently absent. In this work, we investigated such a phase transformation and provided a clear picture of three phase transition pathways as a function of annealing conditions. The interdiffusion of MAI and DMSO varies strongly with the annealing temperature and time, thus determining the final film composition and morphology. A surprising finding reveals that the best performing cells contain ~18% of the non-stoichiometric intermediate phase, instead of pure phase OTP. The presence of such an intermediate phase enables smooth surface morphology and enhances the charge carrier lifetime. Our results highlight the importance of the intermediate phase growth kinetics that could lead to large-scale production of efficient solution processed perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.Organometal trihalide perovskites (OTP) have attracted significant attention as a low-cost and high-efficiency <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell material. Due to the strong coordination between lead iodide (PbI2) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, a non-stoichiometric intermediate phase of MA2Pb3I8(DMSO)2 (MA = CH3NH3+) usually forms in the one-step deposition method that plays a critical role in attaining high power conversion efficiency. However, the kinetic understanding of how the non-stoichiometric intermediate phase transforms during thermal annealing is currently absent. In this work, we investigated such a phase transformation and provided a clear picture of three phase transition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..813..982W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..813..982W"><span>Flight Mechanics and <span class="hlt">Control</span> Requirements for a Modular <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Electric Tug Operating in Earth-Moon Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woodcock, Gordon; Wingo, Dennis</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A modular design for a <span class="hlt">solar</span>-electric tug was analyzed to establish flight <span class="hlt">control</span> requirements and methods. Thrusters are distributed around the periphery of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> array. This design enables modules to be berthed together to create a larger system from smaller modules. It requires a different flight mode than traditional design and a different thrust direction scheme, to achieve net thrust in the desired direction, observe thruster pointing constraints that avoid plume impingement on the tug, and balance moments. The array is perpendicular to the Sun vector for maximum electric power. The tug may maintain a constant inertial attitude or rotate around the Sun vector once per orbit. Either non-rotating or constant angular velocity rotation offers advantages over the conventional flight mode, which has highly variable roll rates. The baseline single module has 12 thrusters: two 2-axis gimbaling main thrusters, one at each ``end'', and two back-to-back Z axis thrusters at each corner of the array. Thruster pointing and throttling were optimized to maximize net thrust effectiveness while observing constraints. <span class="hlt">Control</span> design used a spread sheet with Excel Solver to calculate nominal thruster pointing and throttling. These results are used to create lookup tables. A conventional <span class="hlt">control</span> system generates a thruster pointing and throttling overlay on the nominals to maintain active attitude <span class="hlt">control</span>. Gravity gradients can cause major attitude perturbations during occultation periods if thrust is off during these periods. Thrust required to maintain attitude is about 4% of system rated power. This amount of power can be delivered by a battery system, avoiding the performance penalty if chemical propulsion thrusters were used to maintain attitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10107828','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10107828"><span>Rapid thermal processing of high-efficiency silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with <span class="hlt">controlled</span> in-situ annealing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.; Ropp, M.; Chen, Z.; Ruby, D.; Meier, D.L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell efficiencies of 17.1%, 16.4%, 14.8%, and 14.9% have been achieved on FZ, Cz, multicrystalline (mc-Si), and dendritic web (DW) silicon, respectively, using simplified, cost-effective rapid thermal processing (RTP). These represent the highest reported efficiencies for <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells processed with simultaneous front and back diffusion with no conventional high-temperature furnace steps. Appropriate diffusion temperature coupled with the added in-situ anneal resulted in suitable minority-carrier lifetime and diffusion profiles for high-efficiency cells. The cooling rate associated with the in-situ anneal can improve the lifetime and lower the reverse saturation current density (J{sub 0}), however, this effect is material and base resistivity specific. PECVD antireflection (AR) coatings provided low reflectance and efficient front surface and bulk defect passivation. Conventional cells fabricated on FZ silicon by furnace diffusions and oxidations gave an efficiency of 18.8% due to greater short wavelength response and lower J{sub 0}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1019170','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1019170"><span>Sodium-Doped Molybdenum Targets for <span class="hlt">Controllable</span> Sodium Incorporation in CIGS <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mansfield, L. M.; Repins, I. L.; Glynn, S.; Carducci, M. D.; Honecker, D. M.; Pankow, J.; Young, M.; DeHart, C.; Sundaramoorthy, R.; Beall, C. L.; To, B.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells is enhanced when Na is incorporated in the CIGS absorber layer. This work examines Na incorporation in CIGS utilizing Na-doped Mo sputtered from targets made with sodium molybdate-doped (MONA) powder. Mo:Na films with varying thicknesses were sputtered onto Mo-coated borosilicate glass (BSG) or stainless steel substrates for CIGS <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. By use of this technique, the Na content of CIGS can be varied from near-zero to higher than that obtained from a soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate. Targets and deposition conditions are described. The doped Mo films are analyzed, and the resulting devices are compared to devices fabricated on Mo-coated SLG as well as Mo-coated BSG with NaF. Completed devices utilizing MONA exceeded 15.7% efficiency without anti-reflective coating, which was consistently higher than devices prepared with the NaF precursor. Strategies for minimizing adhesion difficulties are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1049620','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1049620"><span>Sodium-Doped Molybdenum Targets for <span class="hlt">Controllable</span> Sodium Incorporation in CIGS <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mansfield, L. M.; Repins, I. L.; Glynn, S.; Carducci, M. D.; Honecker, D. M.; Pankow, J.l W.; Young, M. R.; DeHart, C.; Sundaramoorthy, R.; Beall, C. L.; To, B.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The efficiency of Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells is enhanced when Na is incorporated in the CIGS absorber layer. This work examines Na incorporation in CIGS utilizing Na-doped Mo sputtered from targets made with sodium molybdate-doped (MONA) powder. Mo:Na films with varying thicknesses were sputtered onto Mo-coated borosilicate glass (BSG) or stainless steel substrates for CIGS <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. By use of this technique, the Na content of CIGS can be varied from near-zero to higher than that obtained from a soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate. Targets and deposition conditions are described. The doped Mo films are analyzed, and the resulting devices are compared to devices fabricated on Mo-coated SLG as well as Mo-coated BSG with NaF. Completed devices utilizing MONA exceeded 15.7% efficiency without anti-reflective coating, which was consistently higher than devices prepared with the NaF precursor. Strategies for minimizing adhesion difficulties are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H13E1157I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H13E1157I"><span>On modeling the organization of landscapes and vegetation patterns <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Istanbulluoglu, E.; Yetemen, O.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> radiation is a critical driver of ecohydrologic processes and vegetation dynamics. Patterns of runoff generation and vegetation dictate landscape geomorphic response. Distinct patterns in the organization of soil moisture, vegetation type, and landscape morphology have been documented in close relation to aspect in a range of climates. Within catchments, from north to south facing slopes, studies have shown ecotone shifts from forest to shrub species, and steep diffusion-dominated landforms to fluvial landforms. Over the long term differential evolution of ecohydrology and geomorphology leads to observed asymmetric structure in the planform of channel network and valley morphology. In this talk we present examples of coupled modeling of ecohydrology and geomorphology driven by <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation. In a cellular automata model of vegetation dynamics we will first show how plants organize in north and south facing slopes and how biodiversity changes with elevation. When vegetation-erosion feedbacks are coupled emergent properties of the coupled system are observed in the modeled elevation and vegetation fields. Integrating processes at a range of temporal and spatial scales, coupled models of ecohydrologic and geomorphic dynamics enable examination of global change impacts on landscapes and ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1026632','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1026632"><span>Microgrid <span class="hlt">Control</span> Strategy Utlizing Thermal Energy Storage With Renewable <span class="hlt">Solar</span> And Wind Power Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>capabilities. A novel <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy was also implemented to decrease the need for backup electrical power. The <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy matches load...novel <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy was also implemented to decrease the need for backup electrical power. The <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy matches load demand from a chiller...65 Figure 36. Energy Paths for Electrical and Thermal Storage Devices ........................66 xi LIST OF TABLES Table</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH13A1139D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH13A1139D"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span>-terrestrial effect <span class="hlt">controls</span> seismic activity to a large extent (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duma, G.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Several observational results and corresponding publications in the 20 century indicate that earthquakes in many regions happen systematically in dependence on the time of day and on the season as well. In the recent decade, studies on this topic have also been intensively performed at the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), Vienna. Any natural effect on Earth which systematically appears at certain hours of the day or at a special season can solely be caused by a <span class="hlt">solar</span> or lunar influence. And actually, statistic results on seismic activity reveal a correlation with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cycles. Examples of this seismic performance are shown. To gain more clarity about these effects, the three-hour magnetic index Kp, which characterizes the magnetic field disturbances, mainly caused by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> particle radiation, the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind, was correlated with the seismic energy released by earthquakes over decades. Kp is determined from magnetic records of 13 observatories worldwide and continuously published by ISGI, France. It is demonstrated that a highly significant correlation between the geomagnetic index Kp and the annual seismic energy release in regions at latitudes between 35 and 60° N exists. Three regions of continental size were investigated, using the USGS (PDE) earthquake catalogue data. In the period 1974-2009 the Kp cycle periods range between 9 and 12 years, somewhat different to the sunspot number cycles of 11 years. Seismicity follows the Kp cycles with high coincidence. A detailed analysis of this correlation for N-America reveals, that the sum of released energy by earthquakes per year changes by a factor up to 100 with Kp. It is shown that during years of high Kp there happen e.g. 1 event M7, 4 events M6 and 30 events M5 per year, instead of only 10 events M5 in years with lowest Kp. Almost the same relation appears in other regions of continental size, with the same significance. The seismicity in S-America clearly follows the Kp cycles</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920064859&hterms=solar+revolutions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Brevolutions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920064859&hterms=solar+revolutions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Brevolutions"><span>Comment on '<span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of the magnetopause shape, location, and motion' by D. G. Sibeck, R. E. Lopez, and E. C. Roelof</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dunlop, M. W.; Freeman, M. P.; Farrugia, C. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The methodology employed in the paper '<span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of the magnetopause shape, location, and motion' by Sibeck et al. (1991), which quantifies the magnetospheric response to <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field variations, is commented on, with emphasis on how the shape and position of the magnetopause boundary can be specified, within some uncertainty, for particular simultaneous values of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind pressure in the magnetic field. The reply of Sibeck et al. included a data set of 1821 magnetopause crossings, each associated with an hourly averaged <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind dynamic pressure and/or north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field. A least squares fit to an ellipsoid of revolution to subsets of the data was performed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JaJAP..56hMC17M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JaJAP..56hMC17M"><span>Crystalline orientation <span class="hlt">control</span> using self-assembled TiO2 nanosheet scaffold to improve CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maitani, Masato M.; Satou, Hirokazu; Ohmura, Aoi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Wada, Yuji</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>In perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with an organic inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskite crystalline semiconductor as the active layer, the properties of the n-type semiconductor scaffold, the materials used, and the morphology, wettability, and surface reactivity of the cells are important decisive factors affecting the overall device efficiency of the perovskite <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. We <span class="hlt">control</span> the orientation of anatase titania nanosheets by a self-assembly technique to create the ordered mesoporous scaffolds with ordered voids. Differences between nanosheet orientations in each mesoporous scaffold indicate differences in the photoelectric properties of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystals embedded in each scaffold. Although each scaffold consists of the same anatase TiO2 nanosheets, the properties of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells are affected by the oxide scaffold nanomorphology, which determines the growth orientation of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystals that affects the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.100e3901S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.100e3901S"><span>High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells enabled by <span class="hlt">controlled</span> spalling technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shahrjerdi, D.; Bedell, S. W.; Ebert, C.; Bayram, C.; Hekmatshoar, B.; Fogel, K.; Lauro, P.; Gaynes, M.; Gokmen, T.; Ott, J. A.; Sadana, D. K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this letter, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">controlled</span> spalling technology for producing high-efficiency (28.7%) thin-film InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge tandem <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The <span class="hlt">controlled</span> spalling technique was employed to separate the as-grown <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell structure from the host Ge wafer followed by its transfer to an arbitrary Si support substrate. The structural and electrical properties of the thin-film tandem cells were examined and compared against those on the original bulk Ge substrate. The comparison of the electrical data suggests the equivalency in cell parameters for both the thin-film (spalled) and bulk (non-spalled) cells, confirming that the <span class="hlt">controlled</span> spalling technology does maintain the integrity of all layers in such an elaborate <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9816D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9816D"><span>Plasma surrounding the global heliosphere at large distances <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dialynas, Konstantinos; Krimigis, Stamatios; Mitchell, Donald; Decker, Robert; Roelof, Edmond</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The past decade can be characterized by a series of key, groundbreaking remote energetic neutral atom (ENA) images (INCA, IBEX) and in-situ ion (Voyager 1 & 2) observations concerning the characteristics and interactions of the heliosphere with the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM). Voyagers 1 and 2 (V1, V2) discovered the reservoir of ions and electrons that constitute the heliosheath (HS) after crossing the termination shock (TS) 35deg north and 32deg south of the ecliptic plane at 94 and 84 astronomical units (1 AU= 1.5 x108 km), respectively. The in situ measurements by each Voyager were placed in a global context by remote sensing images using ENA obtained with the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) onboard Cassini orbiting Saturn. The ENA images contain a 5.2-55 keV hydrogen (H) ENA region (Belt) that loops through the celestial sphere and contributes to balancing the pressure of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The success of any future mission with dedicated ENA detectors (e.g. the IMAP mission), highly depends on the antecedent understanding of the details of the plasma processes in the Heliosphere as revealed by remote sensing of the plasma environment characteristics. Therefore, we address here one of the remaining and most important questions: "Where do the 5-55 keV ENAs that INCA measures come from?". We analyzed INCA all-sky maps from 2003 to 2015 and compare the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cycle (SC) variation of the ENAs in both the nose (upstream) and anti-nose (downstream) directions with the intensities of > 30 keV ions (source of ENA through charge exchange-CE with H) measured in-situ by V1 and V2, in overlapping energy bands ~30-55 keV. ENA intensities decrease during the declining phase of SC23 by ~x3 from 2003 to 2011 but recover through 2014 (SC24); similarly, V1 and V2 ion intensities also decrease and then recover through 2014. The similarity of time profiles of remotely sensed ENA and locally measured ions are consistent with (a) ENA originating in the HS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4140S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4140S"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> forcing and atmospheric <span class="hlt">control</span> of paleoflood dynamics in the Bernese Alps, Switzerland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Burjachs, Francesc; Carvalho, Filipe; Llorca, Jaime; Julià, Ramon; Lomax, Johanna; Schmidt, Thomas; Rubio, Patricio; Losada, Justino; Veit, Heinz</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A multidisciplinary approach provides data from natural, historical, and instrumental time series, for the study of potential effects of climatic changes on alpine floods outside the known range of extreme events. The research focuses on the densely populated Bernese Alps, which are a true "hot spot" of hydrological risk. For the reconstruction of climate variability and floods, interdecadal-resolution alluvial delta plain records were examined. The multi-proxy approach affords insight into alpine flood dynamics of mid-scale catchments during the last three millennia. Spectral analysis of the geochemical and pollen time series records and climate proxies (δ14C, δ18O isotopes from the Greenland ice, NAO) evidence similar periodicities of 60, 85, 105 and 200 yrs. Thus, the mechanisms of the flood processes are strongly influenced by the North Atlantic dynamics and <span class="hlt">solar</span> activity. The proxies indicate that cooler climate pulses and transitions from cool to warm climate pulses were an important external driving force of floods. This hypothesis is supported by the reconstructed floods of the Aare and Lütschine rivers from local documentary sources during the last 500 yrs. Flood periods inferred from sedimentary archives (flood layers, geochemical proxies and shifts of river channel) were calibrated by local documentary flood records and compared with the pattern of settlement on flood prone landforms. The generated data series shows also a good correlation with climate proxies, such as the annual temperatures of Europe (Luterbacher et al., 2004), tree ring based summer temperatures of Central Europe (Büntgen et al., 2011) and total <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiance according to the model of Steinhilber et al. (2009). With regard to the last two centuries flood magnitude and frequencies (exact dating) as well as driving mechanisms were reconstructed with more precision. Furthermore, a summer flood index of Switzerland (INU) based on damages recorded from 1800 to 2008 AD was performed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820028266&hterms=Thermal+power+plant&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DThermal%2Bpower%2Bplant','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820028266&hterms=Thermal+power+plant&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DThermal%2Bpower%2Bplant"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> system development for a 1 MW/e/ <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal power plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Daubert, E. R.; Bergthold, F. M., Jr.; Fulton, D. G.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The point-focusing distributed receiver power plant considered consists of a number of power modules delivering power to a central collection point. Each power module contains a parabolic dish concentrator with a closed-cycle receiver/turbine/alternator assembly. Currently, a single-module prototype plant is under construction. The major <span class="hlt">control</span> system tasks required are related to concentrator pointing <span class="hlt">control</span>, receiver temperature <span class="hlt">control</span>, and turbine speed <span class="hlt">control</span>. Attention is given to operational <span class="hlt">control</span> details, <span class="hlt">control</span> hardware and software, and aspects of CRT output display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820028266&hterms=solar+plant&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bplant','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820028266&hterms=solar+plant&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bplant"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> system development for a 1 MW/e/ <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal power plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Daubert, E. R.; Bergthold, F. M., Jr.; Fulton, D. G.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The point-focusing distributed receiver power plant considered consists of a number of power modules delivering power to a central collection point. Each power module contains a parabolic dish concentrator with a closed-cycle receiver/turbine/alternator assembly. Currently, a single-module prototype plant is under construction. The major <span class="hlt">control</span> system tasks required are related to concentrator pointing <span class="hlt">control</span>, receiver temperature <span class="hlt">control</span>, and turbine speed <span class="hlt">control</span>. Attention is given to operational <span class="hlt">control</span> details, <span class="hlt">control</span> hardware and software, and aspects of CRT output display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26566176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26566176"><span>Perovskite/c-Si tandem <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell with inverted nanopyramids: realizing high efficiency by <span class="hlt">controllable</span> light trapping.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Dai; Zeng, Yang; Shen, Wenzhong</p> <p>2015-11-13</p> <p>Perovskite/c-Si tandem <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (TSCs) have become a promising candidate in recent years for achieving efficiency over 30%. Although general analysis has shown very high upper limits for such TSCs, it remains largely unclear what specific optical structures could best approach these limits. Here we propose the combination of perovskite/c-Si tandem structure with inverted nanopyramid morphology as a practical way of achieving efficiency above 31% based on realistic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell parameters. By full-field simulation, we have shown that an ultra-low surface reflectance can be achieved by tuning the pyramid geometry within the range of experimental feasibility. More importantly, we have demonstrated that the index-guided modes can be excited within the top cell layer by introducing a TCO interlayer that prevents coupling of guided light energy into the bottom cell. This light trapping scheme has shown superior performance over the Bragg stack intermediate reflector utilized in previous micropyramid-based TSCs. Finally, by <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the coupling between the top and bottom cell through the thickness of the interlayer, current generation within the tandem can be optimized for both two- and four-terminal configurations, yielding efficiencies of 31.9% and 32.0%, respectively. These results have provided useful guidelines for the fabrication of perovskite/c-Si TSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4643242','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4643242"><span>Perovskite/c-Si tandem <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell with inverted nanopyramids: realizing high efficiency by <span class="hlt">controllable</span> light trapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shi, Dai; Zeng, Yang; Shen, Wenzhong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Perovskite/c-Si tandem <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (TSCs) have become a promising candidate in recent years for achieving efficiency over 30%. Although general analysis has shown very high upper limits for such TSCs, it remains largely unclear what specific optical structures could best approach these limits. Here we propose the combination of perovskite/c-Si tandem structure with inverted nanopyramid morphology as a practical way of achieving efficiency above 31% based on realistic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell parameters. By full-field simulation, we have shown that an ultra-low surface reflectance can be achieved by tuning the pyramid geometry within the range of experimental feasibility. More importantly, we have demonstrated that the index-guided modes can be excited within the top cell layer by introducing a TCO interlayer that prevents coupling of guided light energy into the bottom cell. This light trapping scheme has shown superior performance over the Bragg stack intermediate reflector utilized in previous micropyramid-based TSCs. Finally, by <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the coupling between the top and bottom cell through the thickness of the interlayer, current generation within the tandem can be optimized for both two- and four-terminal configurations, yielding efficiencies of 31.9% and 32.0%, respectively. These results have provided useful guidelines for the fabrication of perovskite/c-Si TSCs. PMID:26566176</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516504S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516504S"><span>Perovskite/c-Si tandem <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell with inverted nanopyramids: realizing high efficiency by <span class="hlt">controllable</span> light trapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shi, Dai; Zeng, Yang; Shen, Wenzhong</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Perovskite/c-Si tandem <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (TSCs) have become a promising candidate in recent years for achieving efficiency over 30%. Although general analysis has shown very high upper limits for such TSCs, it remains largely unclear what specific optical structures could best approach these limits. Here we propose the combination of perovskite/c-Si tandem structure with inverted nanopyramid morphology as a practical way of achieving efficiency above 31% based on realistic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell parameters. By full-field simulation, we have shown that an ultra-low surface reflectance can be achieved by tuning the pyramid geometry within the range of experimental feasibility. More importantly, we have demonstrated that the index-guided modes can be excited within the top cell layer by introducing a TCO interlayer that prevents coupling of guided light energy into the bottom cell. This light trapping scheme has shown superior performance over the Bragg stack intermediate reflector utilized in previous micropyramid-based TSCs. Finally, by <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the coupling between the top and bottom cell through the thickness of the interlayer, current generation within the tandem can be optimized for both two- and four-terminal configurations, yielding efficiencies of 31.9% and 32.0%, respectively. These results have provided useful guidelines for the fabrication of perovskite/c-Si TSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990019476','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990019476"><span>Simulated <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Flare X-Ray and Thermal Cycling Durability Evaluation of Hubble Space Telescope Thermal <span class="hlt">Control</span> Candidate Replacement Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Scheiman, David A.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) second servicing mission (SM2), astronauts noticed that the multilayer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was damaged. Large pieces of the outer layer of MLI (aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP)) were torn in several locations around the telescope. A piece of curled up Al-FEP was retrieved by the astronauts and was found to be severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) organized a HST MLI Failure Review Board (FRB) to determine the damage mechanism of FEP in the HST environment, and to recommend replacement insulation material to be installed on HST during the third servicing mission (SM3) in 1999. Candidate thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> replacement materials were chosen by the FRB and tested for environmental durability under various exposures and durations. This paper describes durability testing of candidate materials which were exposed to charged particle radiation, simulated <span class="hlt">solar</span> flare x-ray radiation and thermal cycling under load. Samples were evaluated for changes in <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance and tear resistance. Descriptions of environmental exposures and durability evaluations of these materials are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23001762','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23001762"><span>A new mussel-inspired polydopamine sensitizer for dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells: <span class="hlt">controlled</span> synthesis and charge transfer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nam, Hye Jin; Kim, Boeun; Ko, Min Jae; Jin, Mingshi; Kim, Ji Man; Jung, Duk-Young</p> <p>2012-10-29</p> <p>The efficient electron injection by direct dye-to-TiO(2) charge transfer and strong adhesion of mussel-inspired synthetic polydopamine (PDA) dyes with TiO(2) electrode is demonstrated. Spontaneous self-polymerization of dopamine using dip-coating (DC) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in basic buffer solution were applied to TiO(2) layers under a nitrogen atmosphere, which offers a facile and reliable synthetic pathway to make the PDA dyes, PDA-DC and PDA-CV, with conformal surface and perform an efficient dye-to-TiO(2) charge transfer. Both synthetic methods led to excellent photovoltaic results and the PDA-DC dye exhibited larger current density and efficiency values than those in the PDA-CV dye. Under simulated AM 1.5 G <span class="hlt">solar</span> light (100 mW cm(-2)), a PDA-DC dye exhibited a short circuit current density of 5.50 mW cm(-2), corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.2 %, which is almost 10 times that of the dopamine dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell. The PDA dyes showed strong adhesion with the nanocrystalline TiO(2) electrodes and the interface engineering of a dye-adsorbed TiO(2) surface through the <span class="hlt">control</span> of the coating methods, reaction times and solution concentration maximized the overall conversion efficiency, resulting in a remarkably high efficiency. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015773','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015773"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure <span class="hlt">Control</span> Testing and Analytical Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Olsen, A. D.; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.; Chandler, F. O.; Grayson, G. D.; Lopez, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Pedersen, K. W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The demonstration of a unique liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and feed system concept for <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal upper stage was cooperatively accomplished by a Boeing/NASA Marshall Space Flight Center team. The strategy was to balance thermodynamic venting with the engine thrusting timeline during a representative 30-day mission, thereby, assuring no vent losses. Using a 2 cubic m (71 cubic ft) LH2 tank, proof-of-concept testing consisted of an engineering checkout followed by a 30-day mission simulation. The data were used to anchor a combination of standard analyses and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Dependence on orbital testing has been incrementally reduced as CFD codes, combined with standard modeling, continue to be challenged with test data such as this.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012848','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012848"><span>Voltage <span class="hlt">controlling</span> mechanisms in low resistivity silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells: A unified approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weizer, V. G.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E.; Godlewski, M. P.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>An experimental technique capable of resolving the dark saturation current into its base and emitter components is used as the basis of an analysis in which the voltage limiting mechanisms were determined for a variety of high voltage, low resistivity silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The cells studied include the University of Florida hi-low emitter cell, the NASA and the COMSAT multi-step diffused cells, the Spire Corporation ion-implanted emitter cell, and the University of New South Wales MINMIS and MINP cells. The results proved to be, in general, at variance with prior expectations. Most surprising was the finding that the MINP and the MINMIS voltage improvements are due, to a considerable extent, to a previously unrecognized optimization of the base component of the saturation current. This result is substantiated by an independent analysis of the material used to fabricate these devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850053466&hterms=solar+cells+optimization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bcells%2Boptimization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850053466&hterms=solar+cells+optimization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bcells%2Boptimization"><span>Voltage <span class="hlt">controlling</span> mechanisms in low resistivity silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells - A unified approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weizer, V. G.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E.; Godlewski, M. P.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>An experimental technique capable of resolving the dark saturation current into its base and emitter components is used as the basis of an analysis in which the voltage limiting mechanisms were determined for a variety of high voltage, low resistivity silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The cells studied include the University of Florida hi-low emitter cell, the NASA and the COMSAT multi-step diffused cells, the Spire Corporation ion-implanted emitter cell, and the University of New South Wales MINMIS and MINP cells. The results proved to be, in general, at variance with prior expectations. Most surprising was the finding that the MINP and the MINMIS voltage improvements are due, to a considerable extent, to a previously unrecognized optimization of the base component of the saturation current. This result is substantiated by an independent analysis of the material used to fabricate these devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420438"><span>Improved photovoltaic response of nanocrystalline CdS-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells through interface <span class="hlt">control</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hwang, Jae-Yeol; Lee, Sang-A; Lee, Yong Hui; Seok, Sang-Il</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Nanocrystalline CdS-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (CdS-SSCs) based on mesoporous TiO(2) were fabricated by the spray pyrolysis deposition method. The energy conversion efficiency of these cells was drastically increased (156%) by modifying the junction structure through post-treatment that included soaking in a dilute TiCl(4) aqueous solution and subsequent thermal annealing. We propose that the post-treatment is responsible for an increased number of interconnections between TiO(2) and CdS, as well as surface passivation of the CdS sensitizer. The increase in the cell efficiency is attributed to the improved charge carrier transport, suppression of photoelectron recombination with holes both in the same sensitizer particle and in nearby ones, and suppression of photoelectron capture by the electrolyte.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JQSRT.149...81G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JQSRT.149...81G"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> of thermal barrier performance by optimized nanoparticle size and experimental evaluation using a <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonome, Hiroki; Baneshi, Mehdi; Okajima, Junnosuke; Komiya, Atsuki; Yamada, Noboru; Maruyama, Shigenao</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>An experimental investigation to evaluate the radiative properties of a selectively transparent thin coating on a substrate of a different material has been performed in order to evaluate its thermal behavior for applications where a low temperature at the surface exposed to the sun is desired. Copper (II) oxide (CuO) micro-particles have been used to create a pigmented coating on a paper substrate. The particle volume fraction and size have been optimized by the theoretical methodology. The spectral reflectance was measured using spectroscopy in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) regions. The spectral emissivity was evaluated from the reflectance in IR region. The temperatures of the designed coatings and typical black paints are measured in a <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulator. The temperature measurement was simulated by numerical analysis. The temperature of CuO coating on standard white paper was 10 °C lower than the ones of typical black paint while keeping the desired dark tone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24495102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24495102"><span>Nanoporous thermochromic VO₂ (M) thin films: <span class="hlt">controlled</span> porosity, largely enhanced luminous transmittance and <span class="hlt">solar</span> modulating ability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cao, Xun; Wang, Ning; Law, Jia Yan; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Magdassi, Shlomo; Long, Yi</p> <p>2014-02-18</p> <p>Vanadium dioxide is the most widely researched thermochromic material with a phase transition temperature (τ(c)) of around 68 °C, and its thermochromic performance can be enhanced by adding nanoporosity. Freeze-drying has been employed to fabricate nanostructures with different porosities from 16 to 45% by varying the prefreezing temperature and precursor concentration. The luminous transmittance (Tlum) and <span class="hlt">solar</span> modulating ability (ΔTsol) are greatly enhanced as a result of increasing pore size and pore density. The freeze-dried sample with 7.5 mL of H2O2 precursor dip-coated at 300 mm/min gives the best combination of thermochromic properties (Tlum ≈ 50%, ΔTsol = 14.7%), which surpasses the best combined thermochromic performance reported to date that we are aware of (Tlum ≈ 41%, ΔTsol = 14.1%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1163442','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1163442"><span>Examining System-Wide Impacts of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> PV <span class="hlt">Control</span> Systems with a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, Tess L.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta</p> <p>2014-10-11</p> <p>High penetration levels of distributed <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV power generation can lead to adverse power quality impacts such as excessive voltage rise, voltage flicker, and reactive power values that result in unacceptable voltage levels. Advanced inverter <span class="hlt">control</span> schemes have been proposed that have the potential to mitigate many power quality concerns. However, closed-loop <span class="hlt">control</span> may lead to unintended behavior in deployed systems as complex interactions can occur between numerous operating devices. In order to enable the study of the performance of advanced <span class="hlt">control</span> schemes in a detailed distribution system environment, a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) platform has been developed. In the HIL system, GridLAB-D, a distribution system simulation tool, runs in real-time mode at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supplies power system parameters at a point of common coupling to hardware located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Hardware inverters interact with grid and PV simulators emulating an operational distribution system and power output from the inverters is measured and sent to PNNL to update the real-time distribution system simulation. The platform is described and initial test cases are presented. The platform is used to study the system-wide impacts and the interactions of <span class="hlt">controls</span> applied to inverters that are integrated into a simulation of the IEEE 8500-node test feeder, with inverters in either constant power factor <span class="hlt">control</span> or active volt/VAR <span class="hlt">control</span>. We demonstrate that this HIL platform is well-suited to the study of advanced inverter <span class="hlt">controls</span> and their impacts on the power quality of a distribution feeder. Additionally, the results from HIL are used to validate GridLAB-D simulations of advanced inverter <span class="hlt">controls</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22842825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22842825"><span><span class="hlt">Controllable</span> growth of dendritic ZnO nanowire arrays on a stainless steel mesh towards the fabrication of large area, flexible dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Qi; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Zhigang</p> <p>2012-09-07</p> <p>Well-defined ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with <span class="hlt">controlled</span> dendritic structures were successfully built on a stainless steel mesh and utilized as photoanodes for the fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs). The dendritic nanostructure proves favorable for the improvement of the overall light conversion efficiency of the DSSC. An optimized etching time for the affixion of ZnO seeds on the ZnO backbone of the dendritic "tree" and the <span class="hlt">controlled</span> growth conditions of the branch NW are critical to achieve high conversion efficiency <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Nanos...4.5454D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Nanos...4.5454D"><span><span class="hlt">Controllable</span> growth of dendritic ZnO nanowire arrays on a stainless steel mesh towards the fabrication of large area, flexible dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Qi; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Zhigang</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Well-defined ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with <span class="hlt">controlled</span> dendritic structures were successfully built on a stainless steel mesh and utilized as photoanodes for the fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs). The dendritic nanostructure proves favorable for the improvement of the overall light conversion efficiency of the DSSC. An optimized etching time for the affixion of ZnO seeds on the ZnO backbone of the dendritic ``tree'' and the <span class="hlt">controlled</span> growth conditions of the branch NW are critical to achieve high conversion efficiency <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22954603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22954603"><span>Automatic dosage of hydrogen peroxide in <span class="hlt">solar</span> photo-Fenton plants: development of a <span class="hlt">control</span> strategy for efficiency enhancement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ortega-Gómez, E; Moreno Úbeda, J C; Alvarez Hervás, J D; Casas López, J L; Santos-Juanes Jordá, L; Sánchez Pérez, J A</p> <p>2012-10-30</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">solar</span> photo-Fenton process is widely used for the elimination of pollutants in aqueous effluent and, as such, is amply cited in the literature. In this process, hydrogen peroxide represents the highest operational cost. Up until now, manual dosing of H(2)O(2) has led to low process performance. Consequently, there is a need to automate the hydrogen peroxide dosage for use in industrial applications. As it has been demonstrated that a relationship exists between dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and hydrogen peroxide consumption, DO can be used as a variable in optimising the hydrogen peroxide dosage. For this purpose, a model was experimentally obtained linking the dynamic behaviour of DO to hydrogen peroxide consumption. Following this, a <span class="hlt">control</span> system was developed based on this model. This <span class="hlt">control</span> system - a proportional and integral <span class="hlt">controller</span> (PI) with an anti-windup mechanism - has been tested experimentally. The assays were carried out in a pilot plant under sunlight conditions and with paracetamol used as the model pollutant. In comparison with non-assisted addition methods (a sole initial or continuous addition), a decrease of 50% in hydrogen peroxide consumption was achieved when the automatic <span class="hlt">controller</span> was used, driving an economic saving and an improvement in process efficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215031','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215031"><span>Design, Operation, and <span class="hlt">Controlled</span>-Island Operation of the U.S. Department of Energy <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Decathlon 2013 Microgrid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kurnik, C.; Butt, R. S.; Metzger, I.; Lavrova, O.; Patibandla, S.; Wagner, V.; Frankosky, M.; Wiegand, G.</p> <p>2015-04-22</p> <p>This document reports on the design and operation of a high-capacity and high-penetration-ratio microgrid, which consists of 19 photovoltaic-powered residential houses designed by collegiate teams as part of their participation in the U.S. Department of Energy <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Decathlon 2013. The microgrid was interconnected with the local utility, and resulting net-power and power-quality events were recorded in high detail (1-minute data sampling or better). Also, a <span class="hlt">controlled</span>-island operation test was conducted to evaluate the microgrid response to additional events such as increased loads (e.g., from electric vehicles) and bypassing of voltage regulators. This temporary ground-laid microgrid was stable under nominal and island-operation conditions; adverse weather and loads did not lead to power-quality degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021940','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021940"><span>Gimbals Drive and <span class="hlt">Control</span> Electronics Design, Development and Testing of the LRO High Gain Antenna and <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Array Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chernyakov, Boris; Thakore, Kamal</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Launched June 18, 2009 on an Atlas V rocket, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration program and for a human return to the Moon. The spacecraft (SC) carries a wide variety of scientific instruments and provides an extraordinary opportunity to study the lunar landscape at resolutions and over time scales never achieved before. The spacecraft systems are designed to enable achievement of LRO's mission requirements. To that end, LRO's mechanical system employed two two-axis gimbal assemblies used to drive the deployment and articulation of the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Array System (SAS) and the High Gain Antenna System (HGAS). This paper describes the design, development, integration, and testing of Gimbal <span class="hlt">Control</span> Electronics (GCE) and Actuators for both the HGAS and SAS systems, as well as flight testing during the on-orbit commissioning phase and lessons learned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080032771','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080032771"><span>The Effect of Reaction <span class="hlt">Control</span> System Thruster Plume Impingement on Orion Service Module <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Array Power Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bury, Kristen M.; Kerslake, Thomas W.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>NASA's new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle has geometry that orients the reaction <span class="hlt">control</span> system (RCS) thrusters such that they can impinge upon the surface of Orion's <span class="hlt">solar</span> array wings (SAW). Plume impingement can cause Paschen discharge, chemical contamination, thermal loading, erosion, and force loading on the SAW surface, especially when the SAWs are in a worst-case orientation (pointed 45 towards the aft end of the vehicle). Preliminary plume impingement assessment methods were needed to determine whether in-depth, timeconsuming calculations were required to assess power loss. Simple methods for assessing power loss as a result of these anomalies were developed to determine whether plume impingement induced power losses were below the assumed contamination loss budget of 2 percent. This paper details the methods that were developed and applies them to Orion's worst-case orientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JIEIB..97..281V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JIEIB..97..281V"><span>A Novel Hybrid Statistical Particle Swarm Optimization for Multimodal Functions and Frequency <span class="hlt">Control</span> of Hybrid Wind-<span class="hlt">Solar</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verma, Harish Kumar; Jain, Cheshta</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this article, a hybrid algorithm of particle swarm optimization (PSO) with statistical parameter (HSPSO) is proposed. Basic PSO for shifted multimodal problems have low searching precision due to falling into a number of local minima. The proposed approach uses statistical characteristics to update the velocity of the particle to avoid local minima and help particles to search global optimum with improved convergence. The performance of the newly developed algorithm is verified using various standard multimodal, multivariable, shifted hybrid composition benchmark problems. Further, the comparative analysis of HSPSO with variants of PSO is tested to <span class="hlt">control</span> frequency of hybrid renewable energy system which comprises <span class="hlt">solar</span> system, wind system, diesel generator, aqua electrolyzer and ultra capacitor. A significant improvement in convergence characteristic of HSPSO algorithm over other variants of PSO is observed in solving benchmark optimization and renewable hybrid system problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911520"><span>¡Cocinar <span class="hlt">Para</span> Su Salud!: Randomized <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Trial of a Culturally Based Dietary Intervention among Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenlee, Heather; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Aycinena, A Corina; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Karmally, Wahida; Richardson, John M; Lim, Emerson; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Crew, Katherine; Maurer, Matthew; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>There is a need for culturally relevant nutrition programs targeted to underserved cancer survivors. Our aim was to examine the effect of a culturally based approach to dietary change on increasing fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake and decreasing fat intake among Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Participants were randomized to Intervention and <span class="hlt">Control</span> groups. Diet recalls, detailed interviews, fasting blood, and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Hispanic women (n=70) with stage 0 to III breast cancer who completed adjuvant treatment and lived in New York City were randomized between April 2011 and March 2012. The Intervention group (n=34) participated in ¡Cocinar <span class="hlt">Para</span> Su Salud!, a culturally based nine-session (24 hours over 12 weeks) intervention including nutrition education, cooking classes, and food-shopping field trips. The <span class="hlt">Control</span> group (n=36) received written dietary recommendations for breast cancer survivors. Change at 6 months in daily F/V servings and percent calories from total fat were the main outcome measures. Linear regression models adjusted for stratification factors and estimated marginal means were used to compare changes in diet from baseline to 3 and 6 months. Baseline characteristics were the following: mean age 56.6 years (standard deviation 9.7 years), mean time since diagnosis 3.4 years (standard deviation 2.7 years), mean body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) 30.9 (standard deviation 6.0), 62.9% with annual household income ≤$15,000, mean daily servings of all F/V was 5.3 (targeted F/V 3.7 servings excluding legumes/juices/starchy vegetables/fried foods), and 27.7% of daily calories from fat. More than 60% in the Intervention group attended seven or more of nine classes, with overall study retention of 87% retention at 6 months. At month 6, the Intervention group compared with <span class="hlt">Control</span> group reported an increase in mean servings of F/V from baseline (all F/V: +2.0 vs -0.1; P=0.005; targeted F</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23B0926S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23B0926S"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> and planetary oscillation <span class="hlt">control</span> on climate change: a novel theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scafetta, N.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>I propose a theory of climate change that identifies patterns of natural variability and outperforms the anthropogenic global warming theory. Global surface temperature records (e.g. HadCRUT4) since 1850 are found to be characterized by climatic oscillations synchronous with specific <span class="hlt">solar</span>, planetary and lunar harmonics superimposed on a background warming modulation. The latter is related to a long millennial <span class="hlt">solar</span> oscillation and to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere (e.g. aerosol and greenhouse gases). By using also temperature, sea levels and <span class="hlt">solar</span> proxy models throughout the Holocene, the main natural climatic oscillations appear to have periods of about 9.1, 10-11, 20-22, 60-62, ~115 and ~1000 years. However, current general circulation climate models, e.g. the CMIP5 GCMs, to be used in the AR5 IPCC Report in 2013, fail to reconstruct the observed climatic oscillations. The divergence between the data and the models predictions becomes particularly macroscopic after 2000 (the models have predicted an average warming of about 2 oC/century while the temperature did not rise) and during the last millennium (the models have predicted hockey-stick temperature patterns but fail to reconstruct the larger pre-industrial variability emerging from modern paleoclimatic temperature reconstructions). As an alternate, an empirical model is proposed that uses: (1) a specific set of decadal, multidecadal, secular and millennial astronomic harmonics to simulate the observed climatic oscillations; and (2) a 0.45 attenuation of the GCM ensemble mean simulations to model the anthropogenic and volcano forcing effects. The proposed empirical model outperforms the GCMs by better hindcasting the observed 1850-2012 climatic patterns. It is found that: (1) about 50-60% of the warming observed since 1850 and since 1970 was induced by natural oscillations likely resulting from harmonic astronomical forcings that are not yet included in the GCMs; (2) a 2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800008863','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800008863"><span>A ground based phase <span class="hlt">control</span> system for the <span class="hlt">solar</span> power satellite, volume 4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chie, C. M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A ground phase <span class="hlt">control</span> system is studied as an alternative approach to the current reference retrodirective phase <span class="hlt">control</span> system in order to simplify the spaceborne hardware requirement. Based on waveform selections, functional subsystems to implement the ground-based phase <span class="hlt">control</span> concept are identified and functionally represented. It was concluded that the feasibility of the concept becomes unclear if the conditions of the ionosphere and satellite motion are not met.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800017286','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800017286"><span>Test results on the Frenchman's Reef <span class="hlt">solar</span> data acquisition and <span class="hlt">control</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The Frenchman's Reef Data Acquisition and <span class="hlt">Control</span> System (DACS), Sunlogger model 10000-1 was evaluated to determine the accuracy of <span class="hlt">control</span> functions and the performance of the system in the environment of the planned installation site. The Sunlogger system was verified to perform normally in an environment of 100 F and approximately 90% humidity. It is recommended however that the Sunlogger be installed in a <span class="hlt">controlled</span> environment with temperatures and humidity significantly lower than those referenced above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1214117','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1214117"><span>Photovoltaic <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.</p> <p>2015-09-08</p> <p>A photovoltaic <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (also termed point contact <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells) and a lens located above each <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell to concentrate sunlight onto the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-<span class="hlt">control</span> circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the piezoelectric actuators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1082448','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1082448"><span>Photovoltaic <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis</p> <p>2012-12-11</p> <p>A photovoltaic <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (also termed point contact <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells) and a lens located above each <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell to concentrate sunlight onto the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-<span class="hlt">control</span> circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the piezoelectric actuators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1243033','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1243033"><span>Photovoltaic <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>A photovoltaic <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (also termed point contact <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells) and a lens located above each <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell to concentrate sunlight onto the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-<span class="hlt">control</span> circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the <span class="hlt">solar</span> concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the piezoelectric actuators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1253341','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1253341"><span>Optical <span class="hlt">control</span> of multi-stage thin film <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Li, Jian; Levi, Dean H.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Scharf, John</p> <p>2016-05-17</p> <p>Embodiments include methods of depositing and <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the deposition of a film in multiple stages. The disclosed deposition and deposition <span class="hlt">control</span> methods include the optical monitoring of a deposition matrix to determine a time when at least one transition point occurs. In certain embodiments, the transition point or transition points are a stoichiometry point. Methods may also include <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the length of time in which material is deposited during a deposition stage or <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the amount of the first, second or subsequent materials deposited during any deposition stage in response to a determination of the time when a selected transition point occurs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1237817','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1237817"><span>Examining System-Wide Impacts of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> PV <span class="hlt">Control</span> Systems with a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, Tess L.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta</p> <p>2014-06-08</p> <p>High penetration levels of distributed <span class="hlt">solar</span> PV power generation can lead to adverse power quality impacts, such as excessive voltage rise, voltage flicker, and reactive power values that result in unacceptable voltage levels. Advanced inverter <span class="hlt">control</span> schemes have been developed that have the potential to mitigate many power quality concerns. However, local closed-loop <span class="hlt">control</span> may lead to unintended behavior in deployed systems as complex interactions can occur between numerous operating devices. To enable the study of the performance of advanced <span class="hlt">control</span> schemes in a detailed distribution system environment, a test platform has been developed that integrates Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) with concurrent time-series electric distribution system simulation. In the test platform, GridLAB-D, a distribution system simulation tool, runs a detailed simulation of a distribution feeder in real-time mode at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supplies power system parameters at a point of common coupling. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a hardware inverter interacts with grid and PV simulators emulating an operational distribution system. Power output from the inverters is measured and sent to PNNL to update the real-time distribution system simulation. The platform is described and initial test cases are presented. The platform is used to study the system-wide impacts and the interactions of inverter <span class="hlt">control</span> modes—constant power factor and active Volt/VAr control—when integrated into a simulated IEEE 8500-node test feeder. We demonstrate that this platform is well-suited to the study of advanced inverter <span class="hlt">controls</span> and their impacts on the power quality of a distribution feeder. Additionally, results are used to validate GridLAB-D simulations of advanced inverter <span class="hlt">controls</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27782242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27782242"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> of morphology and defect density in zinc oxide for improved dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Seul Ah; Abbas, Muhammad Awais; Lee, Lanlee; Kang, Byungwuk; Kim, Hahkjoon; Bang, Jin Ho</p> <p>2016-11-09</p> <p>While zinc oxide (ZnO) with a mesoporous network has long been explored for adsorption of dyes and as an electron-transporting medium in dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs), the performance of ZnO-based DSSCs remains unsatisfactory. Despite the importance of understanding the surface characteristics of ZnO in DSSC applications, most of the studies relevant to ZnO-based DSSCs are focused on the synthesis of unique nanostructures of ZnO. In this study, we not only introduce a novel disk-shaped ZnO nanostructure, but also provide insight into the distinctive surface properties of ZnO and its influence on DSSC performance. When utilized in DSSCs, the mesoporous ZnO nanodisk yields 60% better power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to commercial ZnO nanoparticles, which is attributed to less surface and bulk trap densities as concluded by an in-depth open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Another aspect that contributes to the higher PCE is the better connectivity of primary particles that join together to form secondary disk-shaped particles. Furthermore, a 40% improvement in the PCE was observed by coating the mesoporous ZnO nanodisk with TiO2, which results from the passivation of the surface defects that aid in suppressing the interfacial charge recombination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26742042','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26742042"><span>Energy-Efficient <span class="hlt">Control</span> with Harvesting Predictions for <span class="hlt">Solar</span>-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zou, Tengyue; Lin, Shouying; Feng, Qijie; Chen, Yanlian</p> <p>2016-01-04</p> <p>Wireless sensor networks equipped with rechargeable batteries are useful for outdoor environmental monitoring. However, the severe energy constraints of the sensor nodes present major challenges for long-term applications. To achieve sustainability, <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells can be used to acquire energy from the environment. Unfortunately, the energy supplied by the harvesting system is generally intermittent and considerably influenced by the weather. To improve the energy efficiency and extend the lifetime of the networks, we propose algorithms for harvested energy prediction using environmental shadow detection. Thus, the sensor nodes can adjust their scheduling plans accordingly to best suit their energy production and residual battery levels. Furthermore, we introduce clustering and routing selection methods to optimize the data transmission, and a Bayesian network is used for warning notifications of bottlenecks along the path. The entire system is implemented on a real-time Texas Instruments CC2530 embedded platform, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms sustain the networks' activities in an uninterrupted and efficient manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732086','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732086"><span>Energy-Efficient <span class="hlt">Control</span> with Harvesting Predictions for <span class="hlt">Solar</span>-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zou, Tengyue; Lin, Shouying; Feng, Qijie; Chen, Yanlian</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Wireless sensor networks equipped with rechargeable batteries are useful for outdoor environmental monitoring. However, the severe energy constraints of the sensor nodes present major challenges for long-term applications. To achieve sustainability, <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells can be used to acquire energy from the environment. Unfortunately, the energy supplied by the harvesting system is generally intermittent and considerably influenced by the weather. To improve the energy efficiency and extend the lifetime of the networks, we propose algorithms for harvested energy prediction using environmental shadow detection. Thus, the sensor nodes can adjust their scheduling plans accordingly to best suit their energy production and residual battery levels. Furthermore, we introduce clustering and routing selection methods to optimize the data transmission, and a Bayesian network is used for warning notifications of bottlenecks along the path. The entire system is implemented on a real-time Texas Instruments CC2530 embedded platform, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms sustain the networks’ activities in an uninterrupted and efficient manner. PMID:26742042</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.........1U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.........1U"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind <span class="hlt">control</span> of the open magnetosphere: Comparison of GGS/polar images and theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urquhart, Andrew Lee</p> <p></p> <p>This investigation explores the connection between the open polar cap magnetic flux ΦPCF and interplanetary conditions. Φ PCF is determined from GGS/Polar VIS Earth Camera far ultraviolet observations of the aurora borealis. Observations from the GGS/Wind SWE and MFI instruments are used to characterize the interplanetary conditions. Additional observations from the IMP-8 PLA and MAG instruments are used to evaluate <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind propagation time delay estimation methods so that the GGS/Wind observations can be better associated with the GGS/Polar observations. This allows the GGS/Wind observations to be used to estimate the polar cap potential φPCP values associated with the GGS/Polar ΦPCF values. Statistical methods are applied to determine a proxy relationship between φPCP and ΦPCF. The Rice Field Model (RFM) is modified to accept Φ PCF as a configuration parameter, and RFM polar caps are produced using Φ PCF determined both directly from the GGS/Polar images and by the proxy relationship from the GGS/Wind data. The RFM is able to produce polar caps with the same areas and open magnetic fluxes as the GGS/Polar observations, but the agreement in the polar cap shapes and locations leaves opportunities for further improvements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950023936','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950023936"><span>Guidance, navigation, and <span class="hlt">control</span> study for a <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kluever, Craig A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A preliminary investigation of a lunar-comet rendezvous mission using a <span class="hlt">solar</span> electric propulsion (SEP) spacecraft was performed in two phases.The first phase involved exploration of the moon and the second involved rendezvous with a comet. The initial phase began with a chemical propulsion translunar injection and chemical insertion into a lunar orbit, followed by a low thrust SEP transfer to a circular, polar, low-lunar orbit. After collecting scientific data at the moon, the SEP spacecraft performed a spiral lunar escape maneuver to begin the interplanetary leg of the mission. After escape from the Earth-moon system, the SEP spacecraft maneuvered in interplanetary space and performed a rendezvous with a comet.The immediate goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a low-thrust SEP spacecraft for orbit transfer to both the moon and a comet. Another primary goal was to develop a computer optimization code which would be robust enough to obtain minimum-fuel rendezvous trajectories for a wide range of comets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1393372-enhanced-sb2se3-solar-cell-performance-through-theory-guided-defect-control','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1393372-enhanced-sb2se3-solar-cell-performance-through-theory-guided-defect-control"><span>Enhanced Sb2Se3 <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cell Performance through Theory-Guided Defect <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Yang, Ye; Beard, Matthew C; Liu, Xinsheng; ...</p> <p>2017-05-03</p> <p>Defects present in the absorber layer largely dictate photovoltaic device performance. Recently, a binary photovoltaic material, Sb2Se3, has drawn much attention due to its low-cost and nontoxic constituents and rapid performance promotion. So far, however, the intrinsic defects of Sb2Se3 remain elusive. Here, through a combined theoretical and experimental investigation, we revealed that shallow acceptors, SeSb antisites, are the dominant defects in Sb2Se3 produced in an Se-rich environment, where deep donors, SbSe and VSe, dominate in Sb2Se3 produced in an Se-poor environment. We further constructed a superstrate CdS/Sb2Se3 thin-film <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell achieving 5.76% efficiency through in situ Se compensation duringmore » Sb2Se3 evaporation and through careful optimization of absorber layer thickness. The understanding of intrinsic defects in Sb2Se3 film and the demonstrated success of in situ Se compensation strategy pave the way for further efficiency improvement of this very promising photovoltaic technology.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...280..476W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...280..476W"><span><span class="hlt">Controllable</span> synthesis of hierarchical SnO2 microspheres for dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yu-Fen; Li, Xi-Fei; Li, De-Jun; Sun, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Xian-Xi</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional hierarchical SnO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a rapid sonochemical reaction followed by a facile solvothermal process. The resultant samples were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed that the hierarchical SnO2 microspheres (∼2.2 μm) consist of nanoparticles (∼23-30 nm). These samples are used to fabricate photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs). The effects of different samples on the photovoltaic performance were studied based on photocurrent-voltage (J-V), intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and intensity-modulated voltage spectroscopy (IMVS). It is found that the highest power conversion efficiency of 6.25% has been achieved based on the hierarchical SnO2 microspheres film photoanode with thickness of ∼13.5 μm, and the corresponding photovoltaic parameters are 14.11 mA cm-2 in short-circuit current density, 803 mV in open-circuit voltage and 0.55 in fill factor, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4730244','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4730244"><span>Correlation between Hierarchical Structure and Processing <span class="hlt">Control</span> of Large-area Spray-coated Polymer <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells toward High Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cha, Hou-Chin; Chuang, Chih-Min; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Chen, Charn-Ying</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The formation mechanism of a spray-coated film is different from that of a spin-coated film. This study employs grazing incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS, respectively) quantitatively and systematically to investigate the hierarchical structure and phase-separated behavior of a spray-deposited blend film. The formation of PCBM clusters involves mutual interactions with both the P3HT crystal domains and droplet boundary. The processing <span class="hlt">control</span> and the formed hierarchical structure of the active layer in the spray-coated polymer/fullerene blend film are compared to those in the spin-coated film. How the different post-treatments, such as thermal and solvent vapor annealing, tailor the hierarchical structure of the spray-coated films is quantitatively studied. Finally, the relationship between the processing <span class="hlt">control</span> and tailored BHJ structures and the performance of polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell devices is established here, taking into account the evolution of the device area from 1 × 0.3 and 1 × 1 cm2. The formation and <span class="hlt">control</span> of the special networks formed by the PCBM cluster and P3HT crystallites, respectively, are related to the droplet boundary. These structures are favorable for the transverse transport of electrons and holes. PMID:26817585</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26817585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26817585"><span>Correlation between Hierarchical Structure and Processing <span class="hlt">Control</span> of Large-area Spray-coated Polymer <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells toward High Performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cha, Hou-Chin; Chuang, Chih-Min; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Chen, Charn-Ying</p> <p>2016-01-28</p> <p>The formation mechanism of a spray-coated film is different from that of a spin-coated film. This study employs grazing incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS, respectively) quantitatively and systematically to investigate the hierarchical structure and phase-separated behavior of a spray-deposited blend film. The formation of PCBM clusters involves mutual interactions with both the P3HT crystal domains and droplet boundary. The processing <span class="hlt">control</span> and the formed hierarchical structure of the active layer in the spray-coated polymer/fullerene blend film are compared to those in the spin-coated film. How the different post-treatments, such as thermal and solvent vapor annealing, tailor the hierarchical structure of the spray-coated films is quantitatively studied. Finally, the relationship between the processing <span class="hlt">control</span> and tailored BHJ structures and the performance of polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cell devices is established here, taking into account the evolution of the device area from 1 × 0.3 and 1 × 1 cm(2). The formation and <span class="hlt">control</span> of the special networks formed by the PCBM cluster and P3HT crystallites, respectively, are related to the droplet boundary. These structures are favorable for the transverse transport of electrons and holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014acm..conf..601Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014acm..conf..601Z"><span>Rantiga Osservatorio, Tincana (MPC-D03): Observations and searching for small <span class="hlt">Solar</span> System bodies using a remotely <span class="hlt">controlled</span> telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zolnowski, M.; Kusiak, M.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Rantiga Osservatorio is the first Polish project aimed at discovering and observing small <span class="hlt">solar</span>-system objects, including near-Earth objects and comets. The observatory officially started in March 2012, as a result of cooperation between two amateur astronomers: Michal Zolnowski and Michal Kusiak. Subsequently, our station received official designation D03 assigned by the IAU's Minor Planet Center. The equipment is installed in northern Italy, on the border between Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany, in the small village of Tincana at an altitude of 643 m. The heart of the observatory is a 0.4-meter reflector f/3.8, mounted on Paramount ME and CCD camera SBIG STX-16803. The equipment is <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by an industrial computer connected to the internet, and software allowing for automation and remote <span class="hlt">control</span> of the telescope from Poland. It is also the first Polish amateur observatory which has been used for the discoveries of potentially new asteroids since 1949. Between 2012 and 2013, Rantiga Osservatorio made it possible to submit over 13,000 astrometric measurements of 3,500 asteroids, and we also reported 1,151 candidates for potentially unknown objects. During our presentation, we would like to introduce details of design and several enhancements to allow a convenient and safe way to <span class="hlt">control</span> an observing session from anywhere in the world using a smartphone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862923','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862923"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> radiation absorbing material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solar</span> energy absorbing means in <span class="hlt">solar</span> collectors are provided by a <span class="hlt">solar</span> selective carbon surface. A <span class="hlt">solar</span> selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a <span class="hlt">solar</span> selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9134E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9134E"><span>On quality <span class="hlt">control</span> procedures for <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation and meteorological measures, from subhourly to montly average time periods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Espinar, B.; Blanc, P.; Wald, L.; Hoyer-Klick, C.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Wanderer, T.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Meteorological data measured by ground stations are often a key element in the development and validation of methods exploiting satellite images. These data are considered as a reference against which satellite-derived estimates are compared. Long-term radiation and meteorological measurements are available from a large number of measuring stations. However, close examination of the data often reveals a lack of quality, often for extended periods of time. This lack of quality has been the reason, in many cases, of the rejection of large amount of available data. The quality data must be checked before their use in order to guarantee the inputs for the methods used in modelling, monitoring, forecast, etc. To <span class="hlt">control</span> their quality, data should be submitted to several conditions or tests. After this checking, data that are not flagged by any of the test is released as a plausible data. In this work, it has been performed a bibliographical research of quality <span class="hlt">control</span> tests for the common meteorological variables (ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) and for the usual <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiometrical variables (horizontal global and diffuse components of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation and the beam normal component). The different tests have been grouped according to the variable and the average time period (sub-hourly, hourly, daily and monthly averages). The quality test may be classified as follows: • Range checks: test that verify values are within a specific range. There are two types of range checks, those based on extrema and those based on rare observations. • Step check: test aimed at detecting unrealistic jumps or stagnation in the time series. • Consistency checks: test that verify the relationship between two or more time series. The gathered quality tests are applicable for all latitudes as they have not been optimized regionally nor seasonably with the aim of being generic. They have been applied to ground measurements in several geographic locations, what</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8233859T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8233859T"><span>Homeostatic <span class="hlt">control</span>: Economic integration of <span class="hlt">solar</span> technologies into electric power operations and planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tabors, R. D.</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>The economic issues associated with the interface of new energy technologies and the electric utility grid are discussed. The concept of homestatic <span class="hlt">control</span> is introduced and the use of such an economic concept applied to the introduction of nondispatchable technologies into the existing utility system is examined. The transition and potential impact of a homeostatic <span class="hlt">control</span> system working with the existing electric utility system is treated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27028166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27028166"><span>Polyfluorene Electrolytes Interfacial Layer for Efficient Polymer <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells: <span class="hlt">Controllably</span> Interfacial Dipoles by Regulation of Polar Groups.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Huimin; Hu, Lin; Wu, Feiyan; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang</p> <p>2016-04-20</p> <p>The polar groups in the conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) can create the favorable dipoles at the electrode/active layer interface, which is critical for the CPEs to minimize the interfacial energy barrier in polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (PSCs). Herein, a series of CPEs based on poly [(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-co-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] derivates (PFNs) (PFN30, PFN50, PFN70, and PFN100) with different mole ratio of polar groups (-N(C2H5)2) were designed and synthesized to investigate the effect of the numbers of polar groups on the interfacial dipoles. <span class="hlt">Controllably</span> interfacial dipoles could be readily achieved by only tuning the numbers of -N(C2H5)2 in PFNs, as revealed by the work function of the PFNs modified ITO gradually reduced as the loadings of the -N(C2H5)2 increased. In addition, increasing the numbers of -N(C2H5)2 in PFNs were also favorable for developing the smooth and homogeneous morphology of the active layer. As a result, the content of the polar amine in the PFNs exerted great influence on the performance of polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Increasing the numbers of the pendent -N(C2H5)2 could effectively improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices. Among these PFNs, PFN100 with the highest content of -N(C2H5)2 polar groups delivered the device with the best PCE of 3.27%. It indicates tailoring the content of the polar groups in the CPEs interlayer is a facial and promising approach for interfacial engineering to developing high performance PSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3419G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3419G"><span><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> The Quality of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Irradiation Data By Means of A Web Service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geiger, M.; Diabaté, L.; Ménard, L.; Wald, L.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">control</span> of the quality of the irradiation data is often a prerequisite to the further processing of the data. Though data are usually <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by meteorological offices, the sources are so numerous that the user often faces time-series of measurements containing questionable values. As customers of radiation data, we established our own procedures to screen time-series of measurements. Since this problem of quality <span class="hlt">control</span> is of concern to many researchers and engineers and since it is often a lengthy and tedious task, we decided to make this screening procedure available to everyone as a web service. This service is the purpose of this paper. The objective is not to perform a precise and fine <span class="hlt">control</span>, an objective out of reach without details on the site and instruments, but to perform a likelihood <span class="hlt">control</span> of the data and to check their plausibility. This is achieved by comparing observations with some expectations based upon the extraterrestrial irradiation and a simulation of the irradiation for clear skies. This service is available to everyone on the Web site www.helioclim.net. It offers a very convenient mean to check time-series of irradiation: data are input in a HTML page by a copy and paste procedure and the return is also a HTML page that can be analyzed in details for the data flagged as suspicious.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960000401&hterms=core+stability&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcore%2Bstability','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960000401&hterms=core+stability&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcore%2Bstability"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">controls</span> for stability assessment of <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamics space power generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Momoh, James A.; Anwah, Nnamdi A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>In support of the power requirements for the Space Station Alpha (SSA), a joint program by the U.S. and Russia for a permanently manned space station to be launched into orbit by 1998, a robust <span class="hlt">control</span> scheme is needed to assure the stability of the rotating machines that will be integrated into the power subsystem. A framework design and systems studies for modeling and analysis is presented. It employs classical d-q axes machine model with voltage/frequency dependent loads. To guarantee that design requirements and necessary trade studies are done, a functional analysis tool CORE is used for the study. This provides us with different <span class="hlt">control</span> options for stability assessment. Initial studies and recommendations using advanced simulation tools are also presented. The benefits of the stability/<span class="hlt">control</span> scheme for evaluating future designs and power management are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995hbcu.rept...28M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995hbcu.rept...28M"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">controls</span> for stability assessment of <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamics space power generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Momoh, James A.; Anwah, Nnamdi A.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>In support of the power requirements for the Space Station Alpha (SSA), a joint program by the U.S. and Russia for a permanently manned space station to be launched into orbit by 1998, a robust <span class="hlt">control</span> scheme is needed to assure the stability of the rotating machines that will be integrated into the power subsystem. A framework design and systems studies for modeling and analysis is presented. It employs classical d-q axes machine model with voltage/frequency dependent loads. To guarantee that design requirements and necessary trade studies are done, a functional analysis tool CORE is used for the study. This provides us with different <span class="hlt">control</span> options for stability assessment. Initial studies and recommendations using advanced simulation tools are also presented. The benefits of the stability/<span class="hlt">control</span> scheme for evaluating future designs and power management are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960000401&hterms=core+stability&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcore%2Bstability','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960000401&hterms=core+stability&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcore%2Bstability"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">controls</span> for stability assessment of <span class="hlt">solar</span> dynamics space power generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Momoh, James A.; Anwah, Nnamdi A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>In support of the power requirements for the Space Station Alpha (SSA), a joint program by the U.S. and Russia for a permanently manned space station to be launched into orbit by 1998, a robust <span class="hlt">control</span> scheme is needed to assure the stability of the rotating machines that will be integrated into the power subsystem. A framework design and systems studies for modeling and analysis is presented. It employs classical d-q axes machine model with voltage/frequency dependent loads. To guarantee that design requirements and necessary trade studies are done, a functional analysis tool CORE is used for the study. This provides us with different <span class="hlt">control</span> options for stability assessment. Initial studies and recommendations using advanced simulation tools are also presented. The benefits of the stability/<span class="hlt">control</span> scheme for evaluating future designs and power management are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20583755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20583755"><span><span class="hlt">Controlled</span> assembly of hydrogenase-CdTe nanocrystal hybrids for <span class="hlt">solar</span> hydrogen production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Katherine A; Dayal, Smita; Ai, Xin; Rumbles, Garry; King, Paul W</p> <p>2010-07-21</p> <p>We present a study of the self-assembly, charge-transfer kinetics, and catalytic properties of hybrid complexes of CdTe nanocrystals (nc-CdTe) and Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase I (H(2)ase). Molecular assembly of nc-CdTe and H(2)ase was mediated by electrostatic interactions and resulted in stable, enzymatically active complexes. The assembly kinetics was monitored by nc-CdTe photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and exhibited first-order Langmuir adsorption behavior. PL was also used to monitor the transfer of photogenerated electrons from nc-CdTe to H(2)ase. The extent to which the intramolecular electron transfer (ET) contributed to the relaxation of photoexcited nc-CdTe relative to the intrinsic radiative and nonradiative (heat dissipation and surface trapping) recombination pathways was shown by steady-state PL spectroscopy to be a function of the nc-CdTe/H(2)ase molar ratio. When the H(2)ase concentration was lower than the nc-CdTe concentration during assembly, the resulting contribution of ET to PL bleaching was enhanced, which resulted in maximal rates of H(2) photoproduction. Photoproduction of H(2) was also a function of the nc-CdTe PL quantum efficiency (PLQE), with higher-PLQE nanocrystals producing higher levels of H(2), suggesting that photogenerated electrons are transferred to H(2)ase directly from core nanocrystal states rather than from surface-trap states. The duration of H(2) photoproduction was limited by the stability of nc-CdTe under the reactions conditions. A first approach to optimization with ascorbic acid present as a sacrificial donor resulted in photon-to-H(2) efficiencies of 9% under monochromatic light and 1.8% under AM 1.5 white light. In summary, nc-CdTe and H(2)ase spontaneously assemble into complexes that upon illumination transfer photogenerated electrons from core nc-CdTe states to H(2)ase, with low H(2)ase coverages promoting optimal orientations for intramolecular ET and <span class="hlt">solar</span> H(2) production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED170122.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED170122.pdf"><span>Fundamentals of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Heating. Correspondence Course.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Vienna, VA.</p> <p></p> <p>This course is designed for the use of employees of the air conditioning industry, and offers supervised correspondence instruction about <span class="hlt">solar</span> technology. The following aspects of applied <span class="hlt">solar</span> technology are covered: <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating and cooling, <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation, <span class="hlt">solar</span> collectors, heat storage <span class="hlt">control</span> devices and specialty items, sizing solar…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5321764','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5321764"><span>Homeostatic <span class="hlt">control</span>: economic integration of <span class="hlt">solar</span> technologies into electric power operations and planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tabors, R.D.</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>The economic and technical interfaces between the electrical utility and the distributed, nondispatchable electric generation systems are only minimally understood at the present time. The economic issues associated with the interface of new energy technologies and the electric utility grid are discussed. Then the concept of Homeostatic <span class="hlt">Control</span> is introduced and the use of such an economic concept applied to the introduction of nondispatchable technologies into the existing utility system is discussed. The transition and potential impact of a Homoeostatic <span class="hlt">Control</span> system working with the existing electric utility system is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25807377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25807377"><span>n-Type semiconducting naphthalene diimide-perylene diimide copolymers: <span class="hlt">controlling</span> crystallinity, blend morphology, and compatibility toward high-performance all-polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hwang, Ye-Jin; Earmme, Taeshik; Courtright, Brett A E; Eberle, Frank N; Jenekhe, Samson A</p> <p>2015-04-08</p> <p>Knowledge of the critical factors that determine compatibility, blend morphology, and performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells composed of an electron-accepting polymer and an electron-donating polymer remains limited. To test the idea that bulk crystallinity is such a critical factor, we have designed a series of new semiconducting naphthalene diimide (NDI)-selenophene/perylene diimide (PDI)-selenophene random copolymers, xPDI (10PDI, 30PDI, 50PDI), whose crystallinity varies with composition, and investigated them as electron acceptors in BHJ <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. Pairing of the reference crystalline (crystalline domain size Lc = 10.22 nm) NDI-selenophene copolymer (PNDIS-HD) with crystalline (Lc = 9.15 nm) benzodithiophene-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene copolymer (PBDTTT-CT) donor yields incompatible blends, whose BHJ <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells have a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.4%. However, pairing of the new 30PDI with optimal crystallinity (Lc = 5.11 nm) as acceptor with the same PBDTTT-CT donor yields compatible blends and all-polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with enhanced performance (PCE = 6.3%, Jsc = 18.6 mA/cm(2), external quantum efficiency = 91%). These photovoltaic parameters observed in 30PDI:PBDTTT-CT devices are the best so far for all-polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells, while the short-circuit current (Jsc) and external quantum efficiency are even higher than reported values for [70]-fullerene:PBDTTT-CT <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. The morphology and bulk carrier mobilities of the polymer/polymer blends varied substantially with crystallinity of the acceptor polymer component and thus with the NDI/PDI copolymer composition. These results demonstrate that the crystallinity of a polymer component and thus compatibility, blend morphology, and efficiency of polymer/polymer blend <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by molecular design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18396818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18396818"><span>Wilting of date palm branches by Fusarium oxysporum in south of Iran and its <span class="hlt">control</span> managements with soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span> method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saremi, H; Okhovvat, S M; Ashrafi, S J</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Wilting of some branches in nurseries and orchards of date palm were studied in south of Iran including Ahvaz and Abadan cities in 2005-2006 years. Different infected plants were visited and samples showing symptoms including wilting or death of branches collected from various areas and transferred to laboratory. Samples were cultured in common media (PDA) and different fungi were studied and identified. The most frequently isolated pathogen was Fusarium oxysporum which caused wilting of some branches of date palm seedling or trees in studied areas. Results showed that the disease caused main losses where date palm cuttings were cultured in infected soils, previously cropped to susceptible plants. Since chemical <span class="hlt">control</span> was not managed the disease, soil disinfestations by soil <span class="hlt">solarization</span> method was carried in Ahvaz as the warmer climate in studied areas to <span class="hlt">control</span> the pathogen. Application of this method reduced population density of the pathogen from 1800 CFU -g/soil to 600 after 5 week. This method was simple, effective, non negative side and economic which can be used in nearly warm areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8215572.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8215572."><span>Annual DOE Active <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Heating and Cooling Contractors Review meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>Ninety three project summaries dicussing the following aspects of active <span class="hlt">solar</span> heating and cooling are presented: Rankine <span class="hlt">solar</span> cooling systems; absorption <span class="hlt">solar</span> cooling systems; desiccant <span class="hlt">solar</span> cooling systems; <span class="hlt">solar</span> heat pump systems; <span class="hlt">solar</span> hot water systems; special projects (such as the National <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Data Network, hybrid <span class="hlt">solar</span> thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and <span class="hlt">solar</span> collector, storage, <span class="hlt">controls</span>, analysis, and materials technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800009704&hterms=suns+radiation+go&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsuns%2Bradiation%2Bgo','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800009704&hterms=suns+radiation+go&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsuns%2Bradiation%2Bgo"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> of the Earth's electric field intensity through <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind modulation of galactic cosmic radiation: Support for a proposed atmospheric electrical sun-weather mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Markson, R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The ionospheric potential and galactic cosmic radiation, found to be inversely correlated with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind velocity are examined as being germane to weather modification. Since the ionospheric potential is proportional to the fair weather electric field intensity and cosmic radiation is the dominant source of atmospheric ionization, it is concluded that the Earth's overall electric field varies in phase with atmospheric ionization and that the latter is modulated by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind. A proposed mechanism, in which <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> of ionizing radiation influences atmospheric electrification and thus possibly cloud physical processes is discussed. An experimental approach to critically test the proposed mechanism through comparison of the temporal variation of the Earth's electric field with conditions in the interplanetary medium is outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720044199&hterms=vacuum+coating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dvacuum%2Bcoating','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720044199&hterms=vacuum+coating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dvacuum%2Bcoating"><span>Optical properties of thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings contaminated by MMH/N2O4 5-pound thruster in a vacuum environment with <span class="hlt">solar</span> simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sommers, R. D.; Raquet, C. A.; Cassidy, J. F.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Cat-a-lac Black and S13G thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings were exposed to the exhaust of a thrustor in a simulated space environment. Vacuum was maintained at less than 10 microtorr during thrustor firing in the liquid helium cooled facility. The thrustor was fired in a 50-millisecond pulse mode, and the accumulated firing time was 224 seconds. <span class="hlt">Solar</span> absorptance and thermal emittance of the coatings were measured in-situ at intervals of 300 pulses, using a calorimetric technique. The Cat-a-lac Black coatings showed no change in <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance or thermal emittance. The S13G showed up to 25% increase in <span class="hlt">solar</span> absorptance but no change in thermal emittance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800009704&hterms=WEATHER+MODIFICATION&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DWEATHER%2BMODIFICATION','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800009704&hterms=WEATHER+MODIFICATION&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DWEATHER%2BMODIFICATION"><span><span class="hlt">Control</span> of the Earth's electric field intensity through <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind modulation of galactic cosmic radiation: Support for a proposed atmospheric electrical sun-weather mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Markson, R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The ionospheric potential and galactic cosmic radiation, found to be inversely correlated with the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind velocity are examined as being germane to weather modification. Since the ionospheric potential is proportional to the fair weather electric field intensity and cosmic radiation is the dominant source of atmospheric ionization, it is concluded that the Earth's overall electric field varies in phase with atmospheric ionization and that the latter is modulated by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind. A proposed mechanism, in which <span class="hlt">solar</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> of ionizing radiation influences atmospheric electrification and thus possibly cloud physical processes is discussed. An experimental approach to critically test the proposed mechanism through comparison of the temporal variation of the Earth's electric field with conditions in the interplanetary medium is outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5779288','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5779288"><span>Microprocessor-based <span class="hlt">control</span> of the photovoltaic <span class="hlt">solar</span> power system for an AM radio station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Much, C. H.; Rothenheber, P. J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A microprocessor-based <span class="hlt">controller</span> for a 15 kW photovoltaic power system powering an AM radio station keeps dc bus voltage between desired limits, governs battery operation, monitors safety conditions, and provides status reporting. The microprocessor also facilitates complicated algorithms that improve performance. The first three months of system operation are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1330467','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1330467"><span>Rigid Biopolymer Nanocrystal Systems for <span class="hlt">Controlling</span> Multicomponent Nanoparticle Assembly and Orientation in Thin Film <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cha, Jennifer</p> <p>2016-10-31</p> <p>We have discovered techniques to synthesize well-defined DN conjugated nanostructures that are stable in a wide variety of conditions needed for DNA mediated assembly. Starting from this, we have shown that DNA can be used to <span class="hlt">control</span> the assembly and integration of semiconductor nanocrystals into thin film devices that show photovoltaic effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1734m0016P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1734m0016P"><span>Modelling and <span class="hlt">control</span> synthesis of a micro-combined heat and power interface for a concentrating <span class="hlt">solar</span> power system in off-grid rural power applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prinsloo, Gerro; Dobson, Robert; Brent, Alan; Mammoli, Andrea</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Concentrating <span class="hlt">solar</span> power co-generation systems have been identified as potential stand-alone <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy supply solutions in remote rural energy applications. This study describes the modelling and synthesis of a combined heat and power Stirling CSP system in order to evaluate its potential performance in small off-grid rural village applications in Africa. This Stirling micro-Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) system has a 1 kW electric capacity, with 3 kW of thermal generation capacity which is produced as waste heat recovered from the <span class="hlt">solar</span> power generation process. As part of the development of an intelligent microgrid <span class="hlt">control</span> and distribution solution, the Trinum micro-CHP system and other co-generation systems are systematically being modelled on the TRNSYS simulation platform. This paper describes the modelling and simulation of the Trinum micro-CHP configuration on TRNSYS as part of the process to develop the <span class="hlt">control</span> automation solution for the smart rural microgrid in which the Trinum will serve as a <span class="hlt">solar</span> powerpack. The results present simulated performance outputs for the Trinum micro-CHP system for a number of remote rural locations in Africa computed from real-time TRNSYS <span class="hlt">solar</span> irradiation and weather data (yearly, monthly, daily) for the relevant locations. The focus of this paper is on the parametric modelling of the Trinum Stirling micro-CHP system, with specific reference to this system as a TRNSYS functional block in the microgrid simulation. The model is used to forecast the <span class="hlt">solar</span> energy harvesting potential of the Trinum micro-CHP unit at a number of remote rural sites in Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750056787&hterms=asma&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dasma','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750056787&hterms=asma&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dasma"><span>Design of a heat pipe governed thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> system for the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Electric Propulsion Stage /SEPS/</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruttner, L. E.; Wright, J. P.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A 2200-w capacity spacecraft heat rejection system designed for the SEPS and utilizing heat pipe radiator panels has been investigated. The total thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> system consists of two radiator panels connected to the heat source by variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP's). The system was designed to operate in the 223 to 333 temperature range. The radiators have an emittance of 0.88 at their operational temperature and a fin efficiency of approximately 80 percent. The radiators are thermally isolated from the SEPS and environment by multilayer insulation and thermal shields. Butane was selected as the working fluid for the VCHP because of its low freezing point (135), which is necessary to prevent diffusion freezeout of the liquid during the cold outbond missions. Helium was selected for the <span class="hlt">control</span> gas. This paper describes the VCHP system, discusses the system design parameters and presents the results of the analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750056787&hterms=asma&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasma','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750056787&hterms=asma&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasma"><span>Design of a heat pipe governed thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> system for the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Electric Propulsion Stage /SEPS/</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruttner, L. E.; Wright, J. P.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A 2200-w capacity spacecraft heat rejection system designed for the SEPS and utilizing heat pipe radiator panels has been investigated. The total thermal <span class="hlt">control</span> system consists of two radiator panels connected to the heat source by variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP's). The system was designed to operate in the 223 to 333 temperature range. The radiators have an emittance of 0.88 at their operational temperature and a fin efficiency of approximately 80 percent. The radiators are thermally isolated from the SEPS and environment by multilayer insulation and thermal shields. Butane was selected as the working fluid for the VCHP because of its low freezing point (135), which is necessary to prevent diffusion freezeout of the liquid during the cold outbond missions. Helium was selected for the <span class="hlt">control</span> gas. This paper describes the VCHP system, discusses the system design parameters and presents the results of the analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCrGr.468..610H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCrGr.468..610H"><span><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> impurity distributions in crystalline Si for <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells by using artificial designed defects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayama, Yusuke; Takahashi, Isao; Usami, Noritaka</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We report on the <span class="hlt">controlling</span> of iron impurity distributions in Si by using artificial designed defects. We utilized Si wafers, which were designed to have high density of localized dislocations and high-quality region, for measurement of the interstitial iron concentration and total iron amount. It is suggested that interstitial irons can be accumulated at high density of dislocations by annealing at 600 °C. In addition, interstitial iron concentrations were decreased by slow cooling from 800 °C to 400 °C. These results show that a large number of interstitial irons are precipitated at high density of dislocations by annealing. Therefore, it is considered that impurity distribution can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by using artificial designed defects under certain annealing condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6702041','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6702041"><span>Microprocessor-based <span class="hlt">controller</span> for automatic amorphous silicon <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cibils, R.M.; Buitrago, R.H.</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>This work describes an innovation of traditional systems used in C--V and G--V curve measurements. Although this system has been specifically developed to be used in the characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), it is useful when information about conductance (G) or capacitance (C) frequency dependence is needed. The highlights of the new system are signal heterodination and microprocessor-based digital <span class="hlt">control</span> over current range and modulation frequency. The outstanding advantages of this system are significant reduction of operation time and more reliable measurements. Additionally, there is no waste of computer time in the <span class="hlt">control</span> of data-acquisition operations. The system has an excellent signal-to-noise ratio, a nearly infinite line signal rejection, and a broad frequency range of operation (20 to 10/sup 5/ Hz).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/918816','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/918816"><span><span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Assembly of Hybrid Bulk-Heterojunction <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells bySequential Deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul</p> <p>2006-08-13</p> <p>This work presents a technique to create ordered and easily characterized hybrid nanocrystal-polymer composites by sequential deposition of tetrapod-shaped cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystals and poly(3-hexlythiophene). With <span class="hlt">controlled</span> fabrication and composite morphology, these devices offer several advantages over traditional codeposited hybrid cells, and provide a model system for detailed investigation into the operation of bulk-heterojunction cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9567E..06Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9567E..06Y"><span>Aggregation and morphology <span class="hlt">control</span> enables polymer <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells with efficiencies near 11.5% (Presentation Recording)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, He</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Current high-efficiency (>9.0%) PSCs are restricted to materials combinations that are based on limited donor polymers and only one specific fullerene acceptor, PC71BM. Furthermore, best-efficiency PSCs are mostly based on relatively thin (100 nm) active layers. Here we first report multiple cases of high-performance thick-film (300 nm) PSCs (efficiencies up to 10.8%, fill factors up to 77%) based on conventional PCBM and many non-PCBM fullerenes. Our simple aggregation <span class="hlt">control</span> and materials design rules allowed us to develop, within a short time, three new donor polymer, six fullerenes (including C60-based fullerenes), and over ten polymer:fullerene combinations, all of which yielded higher efficiency than previous state of art devices (~9.5%). The common structural feature of the three new donor polymers, the 2-octyldodecyl (2OD) alkyl chains sitting on quaterthiophene, causes a temperature-dependent aggregation behavior that allows for the processing of the polymer solutions at moderately elevated temperature, and more importantly, <span class="hlt">controlled</span> aggregation and strong crystallization of the polymer during the film cooling and drying process. This results in a well-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> and near-ideal polymer:fullerene morphology (containing highly crystalline, preferentially orientated, yet small polymer domains) that is <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by polymer aggregation during warm casting and thus insensitive to the choice of fullerenes. The 2OD structural motif is then further applied to several other polymer backbones and produces three additional polymers with efficiencies between 10-11.5%. Our best efficiency (11.5%) is achieved via the combination of new structural designs, interface and optical engineering and optimizations on the solvents and additives of the polymer:fullerene solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcAau.139..357D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcAau.139..357D"><span>Attitude and vibration <span class="hlt">control</span> of a satellite containing flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays by using reaction wheels, and piezoelectric transducers as sensors and actuators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Rade, Domingos A.; Goes, Luiz C. S.; de Paula Sales, Thiago</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The primary purpose of this paper is to provide insight into <span class="hlt">control</span>-structure interaction for satellites comprising flexible appendages and internal moving components. The physical model considered herein aiming to attend such purpose is a rigid-flexible satellite consisting of a rigid platform containing two rotating flexible <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels. The <span class="hlt">solar</span> panels rotation is assumed to be in a sun-synchronous configuration mode. The panels contain surface-bonded piezoelectric patches that can be used either as sensors for the elastic displacements or as actuators to counteract the vibration motion. It is assumed that in the normal mode operation the satellite platform points towards the Earth while the <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays rotate so as to follow the Sun. The vehicle moves in a low Earth polar orbit. The technique used to obtain the mathematical model combines the Lagrangian formulation with the Finite Elements Method used to describe the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> panel. The gravity-gradient torque as well as the torque due to the interaction of the Earth magnetic field and the satellite internal residual magnetic moment is included as environmental perturbations. The actuators are three reaction wheels for attitude <span class="hlt">control</span> and piezoelectric actuators to <span class="hlt">control</span> the flexible motion of the <span class="hlt">solar</span> arrays. Computer simulations are performed using the MATLAB® software package. The following on-orbit satellite operating configurations are object of analysis: i) Satellite pointing towards the Earth (Earth acquisition maneuver) by considering the initial conditions in the elastic displacement equal to zero, aiming the assessment of the flexible modes excitation by the referred maneuver; ii) the satellite pointing towards the Earth with the assumption of an initial condition different from zero for the flexible motion such that the attitude alterations are checked against the elastic motion disturbance; and iii) attitude acquisition accomplished by taking into account initial conditions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OSJ....50..529H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OSJ....50..529H"><span>Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-<span class="hlt">control</span> of microalgae blooms in <span class="hlt">solar</span> salterns?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can <span class="hlt">control</span> D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate <span class="hlt">controlled</span> the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on <span class="hlt">solar</span> salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-<span class="hlt">control</span> of micoalgae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26276343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26276343"><span>Electric Fields <span class="hlt">Control</span> TiO2(e(-)) + I3(-) → Charge Recombination in Dye-Sensitized <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sampaio, Renato N; O'Donnell, Ryan M; Barr, Timothy J; Meyer, Gerald J</p> <p>2014-09-18</p> <p>The electric fields generated by excited-state electron injection into anatase TiO2 nanocrystallites are screened by cations present in the external electrolyte. With some assumptions, a newly discovered electroabsorption signature enables quantification of the electric field strength experienced by surface-anchored dye molecules. Here, it was found that the fields increased in the order Na(+) < Li(+) < Mg(2+) < Ca(2+), with magnitudes of 1.1 MV/cm for Na(+) and 2.2 MV/cm for Ca(2+), values that were insensitive to whether the anion was iodide or perchlorate. The magnitude of the field was directly related to average TiO2(e(-)) + I3(-) → charge recombination rate constants abstracted from time-resolved kinetic data. Extrapolation to zero field provided an estimate of recombination dynamics when diffusion alone <span class="hlt">controlled</span> I3(-) mass transport, k = 300 s(-1). The decreased rate constants measured after excited-state injection were attributed to migration of I3(-) away from the TiO2. Cation transference coefficients were tabulated that ranged from t = 0.97 for Ca(2+) to 0.40 for Na(+) and represented the ability of the unscreened electric field to block the TiO2(e(-)) + I3(-) → charge recombination reaction. This data provides the first compelling evidence that the anionic nature of I3(-) inhibits unwanted charge recombination in dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5122195','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5122195"><span>SOLERAS - <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 9. Science Applications, Incorporated Phase 2 - definition study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This report describes the effort required to implement the design of the <span class="hlt">Solar</span> <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Environment Agriculture Engineering Test Facility, SCEA-ETF. This report is a basic blueprint for the Phase 2 activities which have as a goal the construction of the ETF. These activities have been broken down into five major tasks, namely Project Management; Engineering and Design; Procurement/Fabrication; Construction, Installation and Checkout; and Operation and Maintenance. The type of activities required under each of these tasks are described followed by a detailed work breakdown structure. The Phase 2 project organization is discussed. A 13 month schedule for the total project is also given. Lastly, two appendices discuss cost adjustment factors for an ETF located in the KSA, and an update of the commercial system cost estimate based on preliminary cost quotations for the ETF. The results show a 63% cost increase for the KSA ETF primarily due to higher construction costs and greater well depth. The commercial system cost required an adjustment upwards of 7.7%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1136601','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1136601"><span>Dynamics of the Coupled Human-climate System Resulting from Closed-loop <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Geoengineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>MacMartin, Douglas; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Keith, David; Jarvis, Andrew</p> <p>2014-07-08</p> <p>If <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM, in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response; this would also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. This feedback creates an emergent coupled human-climate system, with entirely new dynamics. In addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a simple box-diffusion dynamic model to understand how changing feedback-<span class="hlt">control</span> parameters and time delay affect the behavior of this coupled natural-human system, and verify these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain), but a delayed response needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to uncertain changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23116194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23116194"><span>Size-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> anatase titania single crystals with octahedron-like morphology for dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shiu, Jia-Wei; Lan, Chi-Ming; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Hui-Ping; Huang, Wei-Kai; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang</p> <p>2012-12-21</p> <p>A simple hydrothermal method with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a precursor and triethanolamine (TEOA) as a chelating agent enabled growth in the presence of a base (diethylamine, DEA) of anatase titania nanocrystals (HD1-HD5) of <span class="hlt">controlled</span> size. DEA played a key role to expedite this growth, for which a biphasic crystal growth mechanism is proposed. The produced single crystals of titania show octahedron-like morphology with sizes in a broad range of 30-400 nm; a typical, extra large, octahedral single crystal (HD5) of length 410 nm and width 260 nm was obtained after repeating a sequential hydrothermal treatment using HD3 and then HD4 as a seed crystal. The nanocrystals of size ~30 nm (HD1) and ~300 nm (HD5) served as active layer and scattering layer, respectively, to fabricate N719-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells. These HD devices showed greater V(OC) than devices of conventional nanoparticle (NP) type; the overall device performance of HD attained an efficiency of 10.2% power conversion at a total film thickness of 28 μm, which is superior to that of a NP-based reference device (η = 9.6%) optimized at a total film thickness of 18-20 μm. According to results obtained from transient photoelectric and charge extraction measurements, this superior performance of HD devices relative to their NP counterparts is due to the more rapid electron transport and greater TiO(2) potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...43..243M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...43..243M"><span>Dynamics of the coupled human-climate system resulting from closed-loop <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">solar</span> geoengineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Keith, David W.; Jarvis, Andrew</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>If <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response. Feedback might also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. However, in addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a box-diffusion dynamic model of the climate system to understand how changing the properties of the feedback <span class="hlt">control</span> affect the emergent dynamics of this coupled human-climate system, and evaluate these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain). This is a challenge for policy as a delayed response is needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification of natural variability, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to changes in the observed state of the climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25404681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25404681"><span>Stratospheric <span class="hlt">controlled</span> perturbation experiment: a small-scale experiment to improve understanding of the risks of <span class="hlt">solar</span> geoengineering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dykema, John A; Keith, David W; Anderson, James G; Weisenstein, Debra</p> <p>2014-12-28</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">solar</span> radiation management (SRM) through stratospheric aerosol methods has the potential to mitigate impacts of climate change, our current knowledge of stratospheric processes suggests that these methods may entail significant risks. In addition to the risks associated with current knowledge, the possibility of 'unknown unknowns' exists that could significantly alter the risk assessment relative to our current understanding. While laboratory experimentation can improve the current state of knowledge and atmospheric models can assess large-scale climate response, they cannot capture possible unknown chemistry or represent the full range of interactive atmospheric chemical physics. Small-scale, in situ experimentation under well-regulated circumstances can begin to remove some of these uncertainties. This experiment-provisionally titled the stratospheric <span class="hlt">controlled</span> perturbation experiment-is under development and will only proceed with transparent and predominantly governmental funding and independent risk assessment. We describe the scientific and technical foundation for performing, under external oversight, small-scale experiments to quantify the risks posed by SRM to activation of halogen species and subsequent erosion of stratospheric ozone. The paper's scope includes selection of the measurement platform, relevant aspects of stratospheric meteorology, operational considerations and instrument design and engineering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRA..117.9308W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRA..117.9308W"><span><span class="hlt">Solar</span> wind density <span class="hlt">controlling</span> penetration electric field at the equatorial ionosphere during a saturation of cross polar cap potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Y.; Wan, W.; Zhao, B.; Hong, M.; Ridley, A.; Ren, Z.; Fraenz, M.; Dubinin, E.; He, M.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The most important source of electrodynamic disturbances in the equatorial ionosphere during the main phase of a storm is the prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) originating from the high-latitude region. It has been known that such an electric field is correlated with the magnetospheric convection or interplanetary electric field. Here we show a unique case, in which the electric field disturbance in the equatorial ionosphere cannot be interpreted by this concept. During the superstorm on Nov. 20-21, 2003, the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturated at least for 8.2 h. The CPCP reconstructed by Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure suggested that the PPEF at the equatorial ionosphere still correlated with the saturated CPCP, but the CPCP was <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the <span class="hlt">solar</span> wind density instead of the interplanetary electric field. However, the predicted CPCPs by Hill-Siscoe-Ober (HSO) model and Boyle-Ridley (BR) model were not fully consistent with the AMIE result and PPEF. The PPEF also decoupled from the convection electric field in the magnetotail. Due to the decoupling, the electric field in the ring current was not able to comply with the variations of PPEF, and this resulted in a long-duration electric field penetration without shielding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5456491','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5456491"><span><span class="hlt">Controllable</span> Electrochemical Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin-Film Constructed as Efficient Photoanode in Dye-Sensitized <span class="hlt">Solar</span> Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chong, Soon Weng; Lai, Chin Wei; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">controllable</span> electrochemical synthesis to convert reduced graphene oxide (rGO) from graphite flakes was introduced and investigated in detail. Electrochemical reduction was used to prepare rGO because of its cost effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and ability to produce rGO thin films in industrial scale. This study aimed to determine the optimum applied potential for the electrochemical reduction. An applied voltage of 15 V successfully formed a uniformly coated rGO thin film, which significantly promoted effective electron transfer within dye-sensitized <span class="hlt">solar</span> cells (DSSCs). Thus, DSSC performance improved. However, rGO thin films formed in voltages below or exceeding 15 V resulted in poor DSSC performance. This behavior was due to poor electron transfer within the rGO thin films caused by poor uniformity. These results revealed that DSSC constructed using 15 V rGO thin film exhibited high efficiency (η = 1.5211%) attributed to its higher surface uniformity than other samples. The addition of natural lemon juice (pH ~ 2.3) to the electrolyte accelerated the deposition and strengthened the adhesion of rGO thin film onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses. PMID:28787869</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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