Science.gov

Sample records for solar system mission

  1. Future solar system missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's planetary exploration program is discussed, with emphasis on strategy, namely, exploration of all three main classes of solar system bodies (the terrestrial planets, the outer giants and their moons, and the primitive small bodies). Planning of an extensive search for other planetary systems is focused on the application of various approaches to ultra-high precision astrometry and the possible use of a space-based coronagraphic telescope. Program strategy and lunar and Mars outpost precursor missions are illustrated.

  2. Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

  3. Solar system object observations with Gaia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, Maria; Tanga, Paolo; Mignard, Francois; CARRY, Benoit; Christophe, Ordenovic; DAVID, Pedro; Hestroffer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    After a commissioning period, the astrometric mission Gaia of the European Space Agency (ESA) started its survey in July 2014. Throughout passed two years the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been treating the data. The current schedule anticipates the first Gaia Data Release (Gaia-DR1) toward the end of summer 2016. Nevertheless, it is not planned to include Solar System Objects (SSO) into the first release. This is due to a special treatment required by solar system objects, as well as by other peculiar sources (multiple and extended ones). In this presentation, we address issues and recent achivements in SSO processing, in particular validation of SSO-short term data processing chain, GAIA-SSO alerts, as well as the first runs of SSO-long term pipeline.

  4. Nuclear bimodal new vision solar system missions

    SciTech Connect

    Mondt, J.F.; Zubrin, R.M.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential mission capability using space reactor bimodal systems for planetary missions. Missions of interest include the Main belt asteroids, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Pluto. The space reactor bimodal system, defined by an Air Force study for Earth orbital missions, provides 10 kWe power, 1000 N thrust, 850 s Isp, with a 1500 kg system mass. Trajectories to the planetary destinations were examined and optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories were selected. A conceptual design for a spacecraft using the space reactor bimodal system for propulsion and power, that is capable of performing the missions of interest, is defined. End-to-end mission conceptual designs for bimodal orbiter missions to Jupiter and Saturn are described. All missions considered use the Delta 3 class or Atlas 2AS launch vehicles. The space reactor bimodal power and propulsion system offers both; new vision {open_quote}{open_quote}constellation{close_quote}{close_quote} type missions in which the space reactor bimodal spacecraft acts as a carrier and communication spacecraft for a fleet of microspacecraft deployed at different scientific targets and; conventional missions with only a space reactor bimodal spacecraft and its science payload. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

  6. Solar-Electrochemical Power System for a Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Morales, Nelson

    1994-01-01

    This report documents a sizing study of a variety of solar electrochemical power systems for the intercenter NASA study known as 'Mars Exploration Reference Mission'. Power systems are characterized for a variety of rovers, habitation modules, and space transport vehicles based on requirements derived from the reference mission. The mission features a six-person crew living on Mars for 500 days. Mission power requirements range from 4 kWe to 120 kWe. Primary hydrogen and oxygen fuel cells, regenerative hydrogen and oxygen fuel cells, sodium sulfur batteries advanced photovoltaic solar arrays of gallium arsenide on germanium with tracking and nontracking mechanisms, and tent solar arrays of gallium arsenide on germanium are evaluated and compared.

  7. Solar-electrochemical power system for a Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Morales, Nelson

    1994-12-01

    This report documents a sizing study of a variety of solar electrochemical power systems for the intercenter NASA study known as 'Mars Exploration Reference Mission'. Power systems are characterized for a variety of rovers, habitation modules, and space transport vehicles based on requirements derived from the reference mission. The mission features a six-person crew living on Mars for 500 days. Mission power requirements range from 4 kWe to 120 kWe. Primary hydrogen and oxygen fuel cells, regenerative hydrogen and oxygen fuel cells, sodium sulfur batteries advanced photovoltaic solar arrays of gallium arsenide on germanium with tracking and nontracking mechanisms, and tent solar arrays of gallium arsenide on germanium are evaluated and compared.

  8. Analysis of System Margins on Missions Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David Y.; Landau, Damon; Randolph, Thomas; Timmerman, Paul; Chase, James; Sims, Jon; Kowalkowski, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has conducted a study focused on the analysis of appropriate margins for deep space missions using solar electric propulsion (SEP). The purpose of this study is to understand the links between disparate system margins (power, mass, thermal, etc.) and their impact on overall mission performance and robustness. It is determined that the various sources of uncertainty and risk associated with electric propulsion mission design can be summarized into three relatively independent parameters 1) EP Power Margin, 2) Propellant Margin and 3) Duty Cycle Margin. The overall relationship between these parameters and other major sources of uncertainty is presented. A detailed trajectory analysis is conducted to examine the impact that various assumptions related to power, duty cycle, destination, and thruster performance including missed thrust periods have on overall performance. Recommendations are presented for system margins for deep space missions utilizing solar electric propulsion.

  9. Solar system 'fast mission' trajectories using aerogravity assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph, James E.; McRonald, Angus D.

    1992-04-01

    Initial analyses of the aerogravity assist (AGA) delivery technique to solar system targets (and beyond) has been encouraging. Mission opportunities are introduced that do not exist with typical gravity assist trajectories and current launch capabilities. The technique has the most payoff for high-energy missions such as outer planet orbiters and flybys. The goal of this technique is to reduce the flight duration significantly and to eliminate propulsion for orbit insertion. The paper will discuss detailed analyses and parametric studies that consider launch opportunities for missions to the sun, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto using AGA at Venus and Mars.

  10. Solar maximum mission panel jettison analysis remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    A study is presented of the development of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) configurations for jettison of the solar panels on the Solar Maximum Mission/Multimission Satellite. A valid RMS maneuver between jettison configurations was developed. Arm and longeron loads and effector excursions due to the solar panel jettison were determined to see if they were within acceptable limits. These loads and end effector excursions were analyzed under two RMS modes, servos active in position hold submode, and in the brakes on mode.

  11. Solar Electric Power System Analyses for Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Kohout, Lisa L.

    1999-01-01

    The electric power system is a crucial element of any architecture supporting human surface exploration of Mars. In this paper, we describe the conceptual design and detailed analysis of solar electric power system using photovoltaics and regenerative fuel cells to provide surface power on Mars. System performance, mass and deployed area predictions are discussed along with the myriad environmental factors and trade study results that helped to guide system design choices. Based on this work, we have developed a credible solar electric power option that satisfies the surface power requirements of a human Mars mission. The power system option described in this paper has a mass of approximately 10 metric tons, a approximately 5000-sq m deployable photovoltaic array using thin film solar cell technology.

  12. NASA'S RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could

  13. NASA's RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set. Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could

  14. US Decadal Survey Outer Solar System Missions: Trajectory Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atkinson, D. H.; Strange, N. J.; Landau, D.

    2012-04-01

    The report of the US Planetary Science Decadal Survey (PSDS), released in draft form March 7, 2011, identifies several mission concepts involving travel to high-priority outer solar system (OSS) destinations. These include missions to Europa and Jupiter, Saturn and two of its satellites, and Uranus. Because travel to the OSS involves much larger distances and larger excursions out of the sun's gravitational potential well than inner solar system (ISS) missions, transfer trajectories for OSS missions are stronger drivers of mission schedule and resource requirements than for ISS missions. Various characteristics of each planet system, such as obliquity, radiation belts, rings, deep gravity wells, etc., carry ramifications for approach trajectories or trajectories within the systems. The maturity of trajectory studies for each of these destinations varies significantly. Europa has been the focus of studies for well over a decade. Transfer trajectory options from Earth to Jupiter are well understood. Current studies focus on trajectories within the Jovian system that could reduce the total mission cost of a Europa orbiter mission. Three missions to the Saturn system received high priority ratings in the PSDS report: two flagship orbital missions, one to Titan and one to Enceladus, and a Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission for NASA's New Frontiers Program. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) studies of 2007-2009 advanced our understanding of trajectory options for transfers to Saturn, including solar electric propulsion (SEP) trajectories. But SEP trajectories depend more on details of spacecraft and propulsion system characteristics than chemical trajectories, and the maturity of SEP trajectory search tools has not yet caught up with chemical trajectory tools, so there is still more useful research to be done on Saturn transfers. The TSSM studies revealed much about Saturn-orbiting trajectories that yield efficient and timely delivery to Titan or Enceladus

  15. Solar Power System Analyses for Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Gefert, Leon P.

    1999-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission architectures are applicable to a wide range of NASA missions including human Mars exploration and robotic exploration of the outer planets. In this paper, we discuss the conceptual design and detailed performance analysis of an SEP stage electric power system (EPS). EPS performance, mass and area predictions are compared for several PV array technologies. Based on these studies, an EPS design for a 1-MW class, Human Mars Mission SEP stage was developed with a reasonable mass, 9.4 metric tons, and feasible deployed array area, 5800 sq m. An EPS was also designed for the Europa Mapper spacecraft and had a mass of 151 kg and a deployed array area of 106 sq m.

  16. Ground System for Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tann, Hun K.; Silva, Christopher J.; Pages, Raymond J.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has recently completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) of a new dual Ka and S-band ground system for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. SDO, the flagship mission under the new Living with a Star Program Office, is one of GSFC s most recent large-scale in-house missions. The observatory is scheduled for launch in August 2008 from the Kennedy Space Center aboard an Atlas-5 expendable launch vehicle. Unique to this mission is an extremely challenging science data capture requirement. The mission is required to capture 99.99% of available science over 95% of all observation opportunities. Due to the continuous, high volume (150 Mbps) science data rate, no on-board storage of science data will be implemented on this mission. With the observatory placed in a geo-synchronous orbit at 36,000 kilometers within view of dedicated ground stations, the ground system will in effect implement a "real-time" science data pipeline with appropriate data accounting, data storage, data distribution, data recovery, and automated system failure detection and correction to keep the science data flowing continuously to three separate Science Operations Centers (SOCs). Data storage rates of approx. 45 Tera-bytes per month are expected. The Mission Operations Center (MOC) will be based at GSFC and is designed to be highly automated. Three SOCs will share in the observatory operations, each operating their own instrument. Remote operations of a multi-antenna ground station in White Sands, New Mexico from the MOC is part of the design baseline.

  17. The Solar System Survey by NASA's K2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentsen, Geert; Kepler Team

    2016-01-01

    The K2 mission is using the unique assets of the repurposed Kepler space telescope to perform long-baseline, high-cadence, high-precision photometry of targets selected by the community. Unlike the original Kepler mission, the loss of two reaction wheels requires K2 to point near the ecliptic plane. As a result, thousands of faint asteroids can be seen to pass through the target pixel masks that are downlinked to earth after each ~75-day observing campaign. I will show how these serendipitous observations of asteroids can be used to obtain lightcurves for faint (V>18) objects which are otherwise challenging to target from the ground. In particular, I will demonstrate that the data are well-suited to identify small asteroids with rotation periods near or below the ~2 hour "spin barrier". I will also highlight the K2 data of other solar system bodies for which dedicated pixel masks have been (or will be) downlinked, including Neptune, Uranus, Pluto, Jupiter trojans, trans-Neptunian objects, and multiple comets including Siding Spring and Chiron. Owing to its ecliptic pointing and 1.4-meter diameter mirror, K2 is offering unique time-series photometry of solar system objects at a precision which is unlikely to be rivaled by the future, smaller-aperture photometric missions such as TESS and PLATO.

  18. Reuniting the Solar System: Integrated Education and Public Outreach Projects for Solar System Exploration Missions and Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Klug, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Education Forum has worked for five years to foster Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) cooperation among missions and programs in order to leverage resources and better meet the needs of educators and the public. These efforts are coming together in a number of programs and products and in '2004 - The Year of the Solar System.' NASA's practice of having independent E/PO programs for each mission and its public affairs emphasis on uniqueness has led to a public perception of a fragmented solar system exploration program. By working to integrate solar system E/PO, the breadth and depth of the solar system exploration program is revealed. When emphasis is put on what missions have in common, as well as their differences, each mission is seen in the context of the whole program.

  19. New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-08

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

  20. Mission building blocks for outer solar system exploration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, D.; Tarver, P.; Moore, J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the technological building blocks required for exploring the outer planets with maximum scientific yields under stringent resource constraints. Two generic spacecraft types are considered: the Mariner and the Pioneer. Following a discussion of the outer planet mission constraints, the evolutionary development of spacecraft, probes, and propulsion building blocks is presented. Then, program genealogies are shown for Pioneer and Mariner missions and advanced propulsion systems to illustrate the soundness of a program based on spacecraft modification rather than on the development of new spacecraft for each mission. It is argued that, for minimum costs, technological advancement should occur in an evolutionary manner from mission to mission. While this strategy is likely to result in compromises on specific missions, the realization of the overall objectives calls for an advance commitment to the entire mission series.

  1. Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; Bury, Kristen M.; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

  2. Mission Concepts Enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Kurt K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Rogers, F.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: Over the last several years we have introduced a number of planetary mission concepts enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power systems. The Boeing 702 SP: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Hosted payloads allow launch and operations costs to be shared. Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS): The 702 SP for deep space is designed to be able to use the Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) solar array, producing multi Kw power levels with significantly lower system mass than current solar power system technologies. Mission Concepts: Outer Planets. 1) Europa Explorer - Our studies demonstrate that New Frontiers-class science missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems are possible with commercial solar powered spacecraft. 2) Trojan Tour -The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, consistent with the Decadal Survey REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. Small Body. 1) NEO Precursor Mission - NEO missions benefit greatly by using high ISP (Specific Impulse) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) coupled with high power generation systems. This concept further sets the stage for human exploration by doing the type of science exploration needed and flight demonstrating technology advances (high power generation, SEP). 2) Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration - We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). Mars. Our concept involved using the Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Conclusion: Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute baseline science missions and conduct Technology Demonstrations in

  3. Mission Concepts Enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, M. S.; Klaus, K.; Rogers, F.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: Over the last several years we have introduced a number of planetary mission concepts enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power systems. The Boeing 702 SP: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Hosted payloads allow launch and operations costs to be shared. Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS): The 702 SP for deep space is designed to be able to use the Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) solar array, producing multi Kw power levels with significantly lower system mass than current solar power system technologies. Mission Concepts: Outer Planets. 1) Europa Explorer - Our studies demonstrate that New Frontiers-class science missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems are possible with commercial solar powered spacecraft. 2) Trojan Tour -The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, consistent with the Decadal Survey REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. Small Body. 1) NEO Precursor Mission - NEO missions benefit greatly by using high ISP (Specific Impulse) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) coupled with high power generation systems. This concept further sets the stage for human exploration by doing the type of science exploration needed and flight demonstrating technology advances (high power generation, SEP). 2) Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration - We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). Mars. Our concept involved using the Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Conclusion: Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute baseline science missions and conduct Technology Demonstrations in

  4. Navigation for Low-Cost Missions to Small Solar-System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Williams, B. G.; Bollman, W. E.; Davis, R. P.; Helfrich, C. E.; Synnott, S. P.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of low-cost space missions planned by NASA for flight in the late 1990's and early 2000's will involve rendevous with, and orbits about, small solar-system bodies such as asteroids and comets.

  5. Solar Electric Propulsion Mission Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation reviews Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Mission Architectures with a slant towards power system technologies and challenges. The low-mass, high-performance attributes of SEP systems have attracted spacecraft designers and mission planners alike and have led to a myriad of proposed Earth orbiting and planetary exploration missions. These SEP missions are discussed from the earliest missions in the 1960's, to first demonstrate electric thrusters, to the multi-megawatt missions envisioned many decades hence. The technical challenges and benefits of applying high-voltage arrays, thin film and low-intensity, low-temperature (LILT) photovoltaics, gossamer structure solar arrays, thruster articulating systems and microsat systems to SEP spacecraft power system designs are addressed. The overarching conclusion from this review is that SEP systems enhance, and many times enable, a wide class of space missions.

  6. An examination of bimodal nuclear power and propulsion benefits for outer solar system missions

    SciTech Connect

    Zubrin, R.; Mondt, J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of the NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. The radiological hazard associated with using Earth gravity assists on such missions was examined and shown to be small compared to that currently accepted on Earth fly-by missions involving RTGs. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive options for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. The Development of Solar Sail Propulsion for NASA Science Missions to the Inner Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E, IV; Johnson, Charles Les

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines recent assessments of the technology challenges facing solar sails, identifies the systems and technologies needing development, and the approach employed by NASA's In-space Propulsion Program in NASA to achieve near term products that move this important technology from low technology readiness level (TRL) toward the goal of application to science missions in near earth space and beyond. The status of on-going efforts to design, build, and test ground demonstrators of alternate approaches to structures (inflatable versus rigid), membrane materials, optical shape sensing, and attitude control will be presented along with planned future investments.

  8. Playing Around in the Solar System: Mini-games for Many Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D. K.; Leon, N.; Fitzpatrick, A. J.; Wessen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Several NASA solar system missions will have major milestones during 2011, the Year of the Solar System. These events include launches, encounters, and orbit insertions. Other missions will continue the explorations already underway. The “Year of the Solar System Game” on The Space Place website (http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/solar-system) brings all these efforts together in the context of the whole solar system. The game helps to build awareness of the characteristics of our solar system and some of the missions that are continuing to advance our knowledge and understanding. It is one of many educational tools being developed and deployed for the Year of the Solar System. The game is a “super-game” that encompasses a number of mission-related “mini-games.” The mini-games can be played individually, and they all contribute toward achievements in the super-game. The enveloping interface for all the games is an animated solar system. The player clicks on a planet or a moon, sees a close-up image, and reads a short paragraph about the object. If the object has been endowed with a mission mini-game, player can click on the tiny spacecraft, read about the mission, then play the game—or, if impatient, just immediately play the game (and read about the mission later, we hope). A score “page” keeps track of the player’s achievements and scores. Players earn achievements by reading about the planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and missions and by playing the mission mini-games. The game targets upper elementary age children, as does the entire Space Place website. Each mini-game, although simple, incorporates elements of the spacecrafts’ missions and their target objects. For example, in Cassini Commander, the player must navigate the Cassini spacecraft through gaps in Saturn’s rings and around Saturn’s moons. The super-game is designed to accommodate any number of mission mini-games, so we are hoping to continue to add missions and increase

  9. Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

  10. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): A Systems Approach to a Complex Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruffa, John A.; Ward, David K.; Bartusek, LIsa M.; Bay, Michael; Gonzales, Peter J.; Pesnell, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) includes three advanced instruments, massive science data volume, stringent science data completeness requirements, and a custom ground station to meet mission demands. The strict instrument science requirements imposed a number of challenging drivers on the overall mission system design, leading the SDO team to adopt an integrated systems engineering presence across all aspects of the mission to ensure that mission science requirements would be met. Key strategies were devised to address these system level drivers and mitigate identified threats to mission success. The global systems engineering team approach ensured that key drivers and risk areas were rigorously addressed through all phases of the mission, leading to the successful SDO launch and on-orbit operation. Since launch, SDO's on-orbit performance has met all mission science requirements and enabled groundbreaking science observations, expanding our understanding of the Sun and its dynamic processes.

  11. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): A Systems Approach to a Complex Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruffa, John A.; Ward, David K.; Bartusek, Lisa M.; Bay, Michael; Gonzales, Peter J.; Pesnell, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) includes three advanced instruments, massive science data volume, stringent science data completeness requirements, and a custom ground station to meet mission demands. The strict instrument science requirements imposed a number of challenging drivers on the overall mission system design, leading the SDO team to adopt an integrated systems engineering presence across all aspects of the mission to ensure that mission science requirements would be met. Key strategies were devised to address these system level drivers and mitigate identified threats to mission success. The global systems engineering team approach ensured that key drivers and risk areas were rigorously addressed through all phases of the mission, leading to the successful SDO launch and on-orbit operation. Since launch, SDO s on-orbit performance has met all mission science requirements and enabled groundbreaking science observations, expanding our understanding of the Sun and its dynamic processes.

  12. Ice & Fire: Missions to the most difficult solar system destinations… on a budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Brewster, Stephen C.; Carraway, John B.; Chatterjee, Alok K.; Clark, Karla B.; Doyle, Richard J.; Henry, Paul K.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Jorgensen, Edward J.; Kemski, Richard P.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Maddock, Robert W.; Mondt, Jack F.; Randolph, James E.; Terrile, Richard J.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1999-11-01

    Three radii from the surface of the Sun… more natural radiation around Jupiter than would be encountered immediately following a nuclear war… to the farthest planet and beyond… these challenges are faced by the three "Ice & Fire" missions: Solar Probe, Europa Orbiter, and PlutoKuiper Express. These three missions will be beneficiaries of the X2000 and related advanced technology development programs. Technology developments now in progress make these missions achievable at costs recently thought adequate only for missions of relatively short durations to "nearby" destinations. The next mission to Europa after Galileo will determine whether a global subsurface liquid water ocean is currently present, and will identify locations where the ocean, if it exists, may be most accessible to future missions. Pluto-Kuiper Express will complete the reconnaissance of the known planets in our Solar System with geological, compositional, and atmospheric mapping of Pluto and Charon while Pluto remains relatively near the Sun during its 248 year orbit. An extended mission to a Kuiper Disk object may be possible, depending on remaining sciencecraft resources. Using a unique combination of Sun shield/high gain antenna and quadrature encounter geometry, Solar Probe will deeply penetrate our nearest star's atmosphere to make local measurements of the birth of solar wind, and to remotely image features as small as 60 kilometers across on the Sun's surface. Avionics technology, leading to integration of functions among a set of multichip modules with standard interfaces, will enable lower production costs, lower power and mass, and the ability to package with modest shielding to enable survival in orbit around Europa inside Jupiter's intense radiation belts. The same avionics and software can be utilized on the other Ice & Fire missions. Each mission is characterized by a long cruise to its destination, facilitated by planetary flybys. The flight systems will represent a unique

  13. Application of a SNTP-Based Propulsion/Power System to Solar System Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.; Nelson, Caroline V.; Gustafson, Eric R.

    1994-07-01

    A ``bi-modal'' nuclear propulsion and power system based on the United States Air Force's (USAF's)* Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) technology is applied to a set of high energy Solar system exploration missions. Performance comparisons are made to a baseline mission set developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory utilizing a nuclear electric propulsion system based on the SP-100 space power system. Orbiters and probes of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, a Grand Tour of the Galilean moons of Jupiter, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, and a Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous mission are analyzed. The first five missions utilizing SP- 100 required a Shuttle-C or equivalent heavy lift launcher. With the bi-modal PBR system, the payload goals are deliverable in the same transit times, but on the smaller, existing Titan IV launcher. Furthermore, all optional payloads originally available only at increased transit time are accommodated. Available mass margins for these missions are 20%-85% of the power/propulsion system mass, providing significant robustness. The same missions were analyzed on a Titan III launcher in order to pursue further cost reductions. Substantial payload masses (1000 kg or more) were found to be available in all cases with reasonable transit times, coinciding well with the current ``lighter, faster, cheaper'' NASA philosophy.

  14. Conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migra, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    An initial conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems is provided, utilizing a space station to provide a dedicated test facility. The advanced power systems considered included Brayton, Stirling, and liquid metal Rankine systems operating in the temperature range of 1040 to 1400 K. The critical technologies for advanced systems were identified by reviewing the current state of the art of solar dynamic power systems. The experimental requirements were determined by planning a system test of a 20 kWe solar dynamic power system on the space station test facility. These requirements were documented via the Mission Requirements Working Group (MRWG) and Technology Development Advocacy Group (TDAG) forms. Various concepts or considerations of advanced concepts are discussed. A preliminary evolutionary plan for this technology development mission was prepared.

  15. The Space Launch System and Missions to the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Kurt K.; Post, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Introduction: America’s heavy lift launch vehicle, the Space Launch System, enables a variety of planetary science missions. The SLS can be used for most, if not all, of the National Research Council’s Planetary Science Decadal Survey missions to the outer planets. The SLS performance enables larger payloads and faster travel times with reduced operational complexity.Europa Clipper: Our analysis shows that a launch on the SLS would shorten the Clipper mission travel time by more than four years over earlier mission concept studies.Jupiter Trojan Tour and Rendezvous: Our mission concept replaces Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs) in the original design with solar arrays. The SLS capability offers many more target opportunities.Comet Surface Sample Return: Although in our mission concept, the SLS launches later than the NRC mission study (November 2022 instead of the original launch date of January 2021), it reduces the total mission time, including sample return, by two years.Saturn Apmospheric Entry Probe: Though Saturn arrivial time remains the same in our concept as the arrival date in the NRC study (2034), launching on the SLS shortens the mission travel time by three years with a direct ballistic trajectory.Uranus Orbiter with Probes: The SLS shortens travel time for an Uranus mission by four years with a Jupiter swing-by trajectory. It removes the need for a solar electric propulsion (SEP) stage used in the NRC mission concept study.Other SLS Science Mission Candidates: Two other mission concepts we are investigating that may be of interest to this community are the Advanced Technology Large Aperature Space Telescope (ATLAST) and the Interstellar Explorer also referred to as the Interstellar Probe.Summary: The first launch of the SLS is scheduled for 2018 followed by the first human launch in 2021. The SLS in its evolving configurations will enable a broad range of exploration missions which will serve to recapture the enthusiasm and

  16. New vision solar system mission study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mondt, J.F.; Zubrin, R.M.

    1996-03-01

    The vision for the future of the planetary exploration program includes the capability to deliver {open_quotes}constellations{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}fleets{close_quotes} of microspacecraft to a planetary destination. These fleets will act in a coordinated manner to gather science data from a variety of locations on or around the target body, thus providing detailed, global coverage without requiring development of a single large, complex and costly spacecraft. Such constellations of spacecraft, coupled with advanced information processing and visualization techniques and high-rate communications, could provide the basis for development of a {open_quotes}virtual{close_quotes} {open_quotes}presence{close_quotes} in the solar system. A goal could be the near real-time delivery of planetary images and video to a wide variety of users in the general public and the science community. This will be a major step in making the solar system accessible to the public and will help make solar system exploration a part of the human experience on Earth.

  17. A Solar Aspect System for the HEROES Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Rodriguez, Marcello; Gregory, Kyle; Cramer, Alexander; Edgerton, Melissa; Gaskin, Jessica; O'Connor, Brian; Sobey, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A new Solar Aspect System (SAS) has been developed to provide the ability to observe the Sun on an existing balloon payload HERO (short for High Energy Replicated Optics). Developed under the HEROES program (High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun), the SAS aspect system provides solar pointing knowledge in pitch, yaw, and roll. The required precision of these measurements must be better than the HEROES X-ray resolution of approximately 20 arcsec Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) so as to not degrade the image resolution. The SAS consists of two separate systems: the Pitch-Yaw Aspect System (PYAS) and the Roll Aspect System (RAS). The PYAS functions by projecting an image of the Sun onto a screen with precision fiducials. A CCD camera takes an image of these fiducials, and an automated algorithm determines the location of the Sun as well as the location of the fiducials. The spacing between fiducials is unique and allows each to be identified so that the location of the Sun on the screen can be precisely determined. The RAS functions by imaging the Earth's horizon in opposite directions using a silvered prism imaged by a CCD camera. The design and first results of the performance of these systems during the HEROES flight which occurred in September 2013 are presented here.

  18. A Titan Explorer Mission Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion and Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael; Coverstone, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    Mission and Systems analyses were performed for a Titan Explorer Mission scenario utilizing medium class launch vehicles, solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) for primary interplanetary propulsion, and chemical propulsion for capture at Titan. An examination of a range of system factors was performed to determine their affect on the payload delivery capability to Titan. The effect of varying the launch vehicle, solar array power, associated number of SEPS thrusters, chemical propellant combinations, tank liner thickness, and tank composite overwrap stress factor was investigated. This paper provides a parametric survey of the aforementioned set of system factors, delineating their affect on Titan payload delivery, as well as discussing aspects of planetary capture methodology.

  19. The Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipman, E. G.

    1981-03-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft, launched on 1980 February 14, carries seven instruments for the study of solar flares and other aspects of solar activity. These instruments observe in spectral ranges from gamma-rays through the visible, using imaging, spectroscopy, and high-time-resolution light curves to study flare phenomena. In addition, one instrument incorporates an active cavity radiometer for accurate measurement of the total solar radiant output. This paper reviews some of the most important current observational and theoretical questions of solar flare physics and indicates the ways in which the experiments on SMM will be able to attack these questions. The SMM observing program is described.

  20. The Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, C.

    1980-07-01

    The objectives, instruments, operation and spacecraft design for the Solar Maximum Mission are discussed. The satellite, first in a series of Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft, was launched on February 14, 1980, to take advantage of the current maximum in the solar activity cycle to study solar flares at wavelengths from the visible to the gamma-ray. The satellite carries six instruments for the simultaneous study of solar flares, namely the coronagraph/polarimeter, X-ray polychromator, ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter, hard X-ray imaging spectrometer, hard X-ray burst spectrometer and gamma-ray spectrometer, and an active cavity radiometer for the accurate determination of the solar constant. In contrast to most satellite operations, Solar Maximum Mission investigators work together for the duration of the flight, comparing data obtained by the various instruments and planning observing programs daily on the basis of flare predictions and indicators. Thus far into the mission, over 50 data sets on reasonably large flares have been obtained, and important observations of coronal transients, magnetic fields in the transition region, flare time spectra, and material emitting X-rays between flares have been obtained.

  1. Solar Sail Attitude Control System for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orphee, Juan; Diedrich, Ben; Stiltner, Brandon; Becker, Chris; Heaton, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    An Attitude Control System (ACS) has been developed for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission. The NEA Scout spacecraft is a 6U cubesat with an eighty-six square meter solar sail for primary propulsion that will launch as a secondary payload on the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) and rendezvous with a target asteroid after a two year journey, and will conduct science imagery. The spacecraft ACS consists of three major actuating subsystems: a Reaction Wheel (RW) control system, a Reaction Control System (RCS), and an Active Mass Translator (AMT) system. The reaction wheels allow fine pointing and higher rates with low mass actuators to meet the science, communication, and trajectory guidance requirements. The Momentum Management System (MMS) keeps the speed of the wheels within their operating margins using a combination of solar torque and the RCS. The AMT is used to adjust the sign and magnitude of the solar torque to manage pitch and yaw momentum. The RCS is used for initial de-tumble, performing a Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM), and performing momentum management about the roll axis. The NEA Scout ACS is able to meet all mission requirements including attitude hold, slews, pointing for optical navigation and pointing for science with margin and including flexible body effects. Here we discuss the challenges and solutions of meeting NEA Scout mission requirements for the ACS design, and present a novel implementation of managing the spacecraft Center of Mass (CM) to trim the solar sail disturbance torque. The ACS we have developed has an applicability to a range of potential missions and does so in a much smaller volume than is traditional for deep space missions beyond Earth.

  2. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  3. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a subsequent human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion subsystem must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as an enabling element of an affordable beyond low-earth orbit human-crewed exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, a status on the NASA in-house thruster and power processing is provided, and an update on acquisition for flight provided.

  4. SEPS mission and system integration/interface requirements for the space transportation system. [Solar Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Barnett, P. M.; Shaffer, J., Jr.; Doran, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Earth escape mission requirements on Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), and the interface definition and planned integration between SEPS, user spacecraft, and other elements of the STS. Emphasis is placed on the Comet rendezvous mission, scheduled to be the first SEPS user. Interactive SEPS interface characteristics with spacecraft and mission, as well as the multiple organizations and inter-related development schedules required to integrate the SEPS with spacecraft and STS, require early attention to definition of interfaces in order to assure a successful path to the first SEPS launch in July 1985

  5. Data Acquisition, Control, Communication and Computation System of Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Amish B.; Vadher, N. M.; Jain, Rajma; Dave, Hemant; Shah, Vishal; Manian, K. S. B.; Kayasth, Satish; Patel, Vinod; Ubale, Girish; Shah, Kirit; Solanki, Chirag; Deshpande, M. R.; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Umapathy, C. N.; Viswanath, N.; Kulkarni, Ravi; Kumar, P. S.

    2006-09-01

    The Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission onboardGSAT- 2 Indian Spacecraft was launched on 08 May 2003 using GSLV-D2 rocket by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). SOXS aims to study solar flares, which are the most violent and energetic phenomena in the solar system, in the energy range of 4-56 keV with high spectral and temporal resolution. SOXS employs state-of-the-art semiconductor devices, viz., Si-Pin and CZT detectors to achieve sub-keV energy resolution requirements. In this paper, we present an overview of data acquisition, control,communication and computation of low energy payload of the SOXS mission.

  6. The solar stereo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, D. M.

    The principal scientific objective of the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is to understand the origin and consequences of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). CMEs are the most energetic eruptions on the Sun. They are responsible for essentially all of the largest solar energetic particle events and are the primary cause of major geomagnetic storms. They may be a critical element in the solar dynamo because they remove the dynamo-generated magnetic flux from the Sun. Two spacecraft at 1 AU from the Sun, one drifting ahead of Earth and one behind, will image CMEs. They will also map the distribution of magnetic fields and plasmas in the heliosphere and accomplish a variety of science goals described in the 1997 report of the NASA Science Definition Team for the STEREO Mission. Current plans call for the two STEREO launches in early 2003. Simultaneous image pairs will be obtained by the STEREO telescopes at gradually increasing spacecraft separations in the course of the mission. Additionally, in-situ measurements will provide accurate information about the state of the ambient solar wind and energetic particle populations ahead of and behind CMEs. These measurements will allow definitive tests of CME and interplanetary shock models. The mission will include a "beacon mode" to warn of either coronal or interplanetary conditions indicative of impending disturbances at Earth.

  7. Trajectory and System Analysis For Outer-Planet Solar-Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael; Woo, Byoungsam; Coverstone, Victoria L.; Hartmann, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Outer-planet mission and systems analyses are performed using three next generation solar-electric ion thruster models. The impact of variations in thruster model, flight time, launch vehicle, propulsion and power systems characteristics is investigated. All presented trajectories have a single Venus gravity assist and maximize the delivered mass to Saturn or Neptune. The effect of revolution ratio - the ratio of Venusian orbital period to the flight time between launch and flyby dates - is also discussed.

  8. Present and future Solar System missions in the framework of the ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The Science Directorate is in charge of developing the "Science Mandatory Programme". Through the science programme, ESA implements scientific projects to achieve ambitious objectives. On this ground, science challenges and advancement in technologies work together in a synergistic endeavour. Both long-term science planning and mission calls are bottom-up processes, relying on broad community input and peer review. The Cosmic Vision program is since 2005 the implementation tool for the science mandatory programme. I will present an overview of the space missions in operation, under development and for study with particular emphasis on those visiting the Solar System.

  9. Chemical and Solar Electric Propulsion Systems Analyses for Mars Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.; Green, Shaun E.; Coverstone, Victoria L.; Woo, Byoungsam

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual in-space transfer stages, including those utilizing solar electric propulsion, chemical propulsion, and chemical propulsion with aerobraking or aerocapture assist at Mars, were evaluated. Roundtrip Mars sample return mission vehicles were analyzed to determine how specific system technology selections influence payload delivery capability. Results show how specific engine, thruster, propellant, capture mode, trip time and launch vehicle technology choices would contribute to increasing payload or decreasing the size of the required launch vehicles. Heliocentric low-thrust trajectory analyses for Solar Electric Transfer were generated with the SEPTOP code.

  10. Special issue editorial - Plasma interactions with Solar System Objects: Anticipating Rosetta, Maven and Mars Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Yamauchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Within our solar system, the planets, moons, comets and asteroids all have plasma interactions. The interaction depends on the nature of the object, particularly the presence of an atmosphere and a magnetic field. Even the size of the object matters through the finite gyroradius effect and the scale height of cold ions of exospheric origin. It also depends on the upstream conditions, including position within the solar wind or the presence within a planetary magnetosphere. Soon after ESA's Rosetta reached comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, NASA's Maven and ISRO's Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) reached Mars, and ESA's Venus Express mission was completed, this issue explores our understanding of plasma interactions with comets, Mars, Venus, and moons in the solar system. We explore the processes which characterise the interactions, such as ion pickup and field draping, and their effects such as plasma escape. Papers are based on data from current and recent space missions, modelling and theory, as we explore our local part of the 'plasma universe'.

  11. The Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simnett, G. M.

    The scientific goals, instrumentation and operation, and results from the Solar Maximum Mission are described. The spacecraft was launched to observe the peak of the solar cycle and the impulsive phase of large flares. Instrumentation included a gamma ray spectrometer, X ray burst spectrometer, imaging spectrometer, and polychromator, a UV spectrometer and polarimeter, a coronagraph/polarimeter, and an active cavity radiometer for measurements at wavelengths ranging from the Hα line at 6563 A up to the gamma ray region of the spectrum. Command programs were prepared one day in advance by each team for its instrument, and limited readjustment was available in real-time. The spacecraft was equipped to, and did, point the instruments at one region for an expected flare build-up, and maintain that heading for an extended period of time through the appearance, development, and demise of the flare.

  12. NASA Growth Space Station missions and candidate nuclear/solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, Jack A.; Nainiger, Joseph J.

    1987-01-01

    A brief summary is presented of a NASA study contract and in-house investigation on Growth Space Station missions and appropriate nuclear and solar space electric power systems. By the year 2000 some 300 kWe will be needed for missions and housekeeping power for a 12 to 18 person Station crew. Several Space Station configurations employing nuclear reactor power systems are discussed, including shielding requirements and power transmission schemes. Advantages of reactor power include a greatly simplified Station orientation procedure, greatly reduced occultation of views of the earth and deep space, near elimination of energy storage requirements, and significantly reduced station-keeping propellant mass due to very low drag of the reactor power system. The in-house studies of viable alternative Growth Space Station power systems showed that at 300 kWe a rigid silicon solar cell array with NiCd batteries had the highest specific mass at 275 kg/kWe, with solar Stirling the lowest at 40 kg/kWe. However, when 10 year propellant mass requirements are factored in, the 300 kWe nuclear Stirling exhibits the lowest total mass.

  13. NASA's What's Up Astronomy and Mission video series celebrates the Year of the Solar System: Fall 2010 - late summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston Jones, J.; Alice Wessen, Manager Of Solar System Eduction; Public Engagement

    2010-12-01

    NASA's What's Up video podcast supports the Year of the Solar System (YSS) October 2010 - August 2012. During YSS each podcast pairs a popular night sky viewing target (Moon, Comet, Planets, solar system features) with a mission event (launch, flyby, orbit insertion, landing). This product has proven popular with public, formal and informal audiences and will compliment and augment other programming material.

  14. Solar Electric Propulsion System Integration Technology (SEPSIT). Volume 2: Encke rendezvous mission and space vehicle functional description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A solar electric propulsion system integration technology study is discussed. Detailed analyses in support of the solar electric propulsion module were performed. The thrust subsystem functional description is presented. The space vehicle and the space mission to which the propulsion system is applied are analyzed.

  15. Preliminary Comparison Between Nuclear-Electric and Solar-Electric Propulsion Systems for Future Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppel, Christophe R.; Valentian, Dominique; Latham, Paul; Fearn, David; Bruno, Claudio; Nicolini, David; Roux, Jean-Pierre; Paganucci, F.; Saverdi, Massimo

    2004-02-01

    Recent US and European initiatives in Nuclear Propulsion lend themselves naturally to raising the question of comparing various options and particularly Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) with Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). SEP is in fact mentioned in one of the latest versions of the NASA Mars Manned Mission as a possible candidate. The purpose of this paper is to compare NEP, for instance, using high power MPD, Ion or Plasma thrusters, with SEP systems. The same payload is assumed in both cases. The task remains to find the final mass ratios and cost estimates and to determine the particular features of each technology. Each technology has its own virtues and vices: NEP implies orbiting a sizeable nuclear reactor and a power generation system capable of converting thermal into electric power, with minimum mass and volumes compatible with Ariane 5 or the Space Shuttle bay. Issues of safety and launch risks are especially important to public opinion, which is a factor to be reckoned with. Power conversion in space, including thermal cycle efficiency and radiators, is a technical issue in need of attention if power is large, i.e., of order 0.1 MW and above, and so is power conditioning and other ancillary systems. Type of mission, Isp and thrust will ultimately determine a large fraction of the mass to be orbited, as they drive propellant mass. For manned missions, the trade-off also involves consumables and travel time because of exposure to Solar wind and cosmic radiation. Future manned NEP missions will probably need superconducting coils, entailing cryostat technology. The on-board presence of cryogenic propellant (e.g., LH2) may reassure the feasibility of this technology, implying, however, a trade-off between propellant volume to be orbited and reduced thruster mass. SEP is attractive right now in the mind of the public, but also of scientists involved in Solar system exploration. Some of the appeal derives from the hope of reducing propellant mass because

  16. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Systems for SMD Mission Needs. Technology Infusion Study.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David

    2014-01-01

    Two presentations for SBAG and OPAG meetings: 1) Solar Electric Propulsion Systems for SMD Missions, and 2) Technology Infusion Study - Draft Findings Recommendation Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) meeting is January 9th in Washington D.C., and the Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG) meeting is January 23-14 in Tucson, AZ. NASA sponsors these assessment groups, through the NRC, for the science community to assess and provide advice. These talks are to provide a status of 2 NASA activities, and to seek feedback from the respective science communities.

  17. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

  18. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

  19. Opportunities for Space Science Education Using Current and Future Solar System Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiella Novak, M.; Beisser, K.; Butler, L.; Turney, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) office in The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department strives to excite and inspire the next generation of explorers by creating interactive education experiences. Since 1959, APL engineers and scientists have designed, built, and launched 61 spacecraft and over 150 instruments involved in space science. With the vast array of current and future Solar System exploration missions available, endless opportunities exist for education programs to incorporate the real-world science of these missions. APL currently has numerous education and outreach programs tailored for K-12 formal and informal education, higher education, and general outreach communities. Current programs focus on Solar System exploration missions such as the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) Moon explorer, the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Satellite, to name a few. Education and outreach programs focusing on K-12 formal education include visits to classrooms, summer programs for middle school students, and teacher workshops. APL hosts a Girl Power event and a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Day each year. Education and outreach specialists hold teacher workshops throughout the year to train educators in using NASA spacecraft science in their lesson plans. High school students from around the U.S. are able to engage in NASA spacecraft science directly by participating in the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT) and the Student Principal Investigator Programs. An effort is also made to generate excitement for future missions by focusing on what mysteries will be solved. Higher education programs are used to recruit and train the next generation of scientists and engineers. The NASA/APL Summer Internship Program offers a

  20. Solar sail Engineering Development Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    Since photons have momentum, a useful force can be obtained by reflecting sunlight off of a large, low mass surface (most likely a very thin metal-coated plastic film) and robbing the light of some of its momentum. A solar sail Engineering Development Mission (EDM) is currently being planned by the World Space Foundation for the purpose of demonstrating and evaluating solar sailing technology and to gain experience in the design and operation of a spacecraft propelled by sunlight. The present plan is for the EDM spacecraft to be launched (sail stowed) in a spin-stabilized configuration into an initial elliptical orbit with an apogee of 36,000 km and a perigee of a few hundred kilometers. The spacecraft will then use its own chemical propulsion system to raise the perigee to at least 1,200 km. The deployed sail will have an area of 880 sq m and generate a solar force of about 0.007 N.

  1. Studying the Outer Solar System - Technology Development for the Whipple Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, Charles; Kraft, R.; Kenter, A.; Murray, S.; Gauron, T.; Loose, M.; Werner, M.

    2012-10-01

    The Whipple mission, "Reaching into the Outer Solar System", was proposed to NASA's 2010 Discovery program and was awarded funding for technology development. Whipple will conduct the first direct, systematic study of the outer Solar system, the Kuiper belt, the Sedna region, and the Oort cloud, using a blind stellar occultation survey. The instrument will monitor photometrically 10,000 stars at a cadence of 40 Hz (or 20,000 at 20 Hz, ...) to search for stellar occultations by outer solar system objects to characterize the size and spatial distribution of these objects. The occultations typically last less than a second, so the photometer must be able to continuously monitor the light curves of a large number of stars at video rates. The focal plane will be composed of 32 Teledyne H1RG sensors, each with a dedicated SIDECAR ASIC and an FPGA to process the light curve data and identify candidate occultation events. The H1RG sensor will be operated in a windowing mode with between 700 and 3000 windows per sensor at rates up to 40 Hz. We are currently developing an end-to-end system at SAO to evaluate the focal plane concept. This system includes a stellar occultation simulator that stimulates the sensor with simulated light curves, a Teledyne sensor with custom readout software to operate the sensor and SIDECAR ASIC in this windowed mode, and an FPGA that will process the light curves and identify candidate events. In this presentation we will outline the scientific capabilities of the Whipple mission and discuss the current status of our laboratory efforts.

  2. Mission roles for the solar electric propulsion stage with the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A briefing outline is presented of the mission roles for the solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS). Topics outlined include operational considerations and mission characteristics, trade studies and technology assessments influencing SEPS configuration definition, program support requirements, and development and operations cost estimates.

  3. Effect of Voltage Level on Power System Design for Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents study results quantifying the benefits of higher voltage, electric power system designs for a typical solar electric propulsion spacecraft Earth orbiting mission. A conceptual power system architecture was defined and design points were generated for system voltages of 28-V, 50-V, 120-V, and 300-V using state-of-the-art or advanced technologies. A 300-V 'direct-drive' architecture was also analyzed to assess the benefits of directly powering the electric thruster from the photovoltaic array without up-conversion. Fortran and spreadsheet computational models were exercised to predict the performance and size power system components to meet spacecraft mission requirements. Pertinent space environments, such as electron and proton radiation, were calculated along the spiral trajectory. In addition, a simplified electron current collection model was developed to estimate photovoltaic array losses for the orbital plasma environment and that created by the thruster plume. The secondary benefits of power system mass savings for spacecraft propulsion and attitude control systems were also quantified. Results indicate that considerable spacecraft wet mass savings were achieved by the 300-V and 300-V direct-drive architectures.

  4. Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Planetary Mission Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    We often look "through a glass, darkly" at solar system bodies with tenuous atmospheres and direct surface exposure to the local space environment. Space weathering exposure acts via universal space-surface interaction processes to produce a thin patina of outer material covering, potentially obscuring endogenic surface materials of greatest interest for understanding origins and interior evolution. Examples of obscuring exogenic layers are radiation crusts on cometary nuclei and iogenic components of sulfate hydrate deposits on the trailing hemisphere of Europa. Weathering processes include plasma ion implantation into surfaces, sputtering by charged particles and solar ultraviolet photons, photolytic chemistry driven by UV irradiation, and radiolytic chemistry evolving from products of charged particle irradiation. Regolith structure from impacts, and underlying deeper structures from internal evolution, affects efficacy of certain surface interactions, e.g. sputtering as affected by porosity and surface irradiation dosage as partly attenuated by local topographic shielding. These processes should be regarded for mission science planning as potentially enabling, e.g. since direct surface sputtering, and resultant surface-bound exospheres, can provide in-situ samples of surface composition to ion and neutral mass spectrometers on orbital spacecraft. Sample return for highest sensitivity compOSitional and structural analyses at Earth will usually be precluded by limited range of surface sampling, long times for return, and high cost. Targeted advancements in instrument technology would be more cost efficient for local remote and in-situ sample analysis. More realistic laboratory simulations, e.g. for bulk samples, are needed to interpret mission science observations of weathered surfaces. Space environment effects on mission spacecraft and science operations must also be specified and mitigated from the hourly to monthly changes in space weather and from longer

  5. A Solar-Powered Enceladus Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Reuter, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a concept design study for a New Frontiers or small Flagship-class mission to Enceladus, using solar power. By concentrating on the science objectives most critical for a Cassini follow-on, this mission maximizes the science return while maintaining a power consumption level that can be provided by a practical solar power system. The optimized instrument payload is the product of a broad science community-based Science Definition Team Study. The spacecraft and mission designs are the products of studies carried out by the GSFC Mission Design Lab and Ball Aerospace. In addition to the low isolation at Enceladus, its location deep in Saturn's gravity well makes it a challenging target to reach, meaning that careful consideration must be given to spacecraft mass and the potential mission types. This presentation summarizes the mission science objectives and payload, the dynamical work, and the notional operations plan of this mission.

  6. Rapid Development of Gossamer Propulsion for NASA Inner Solar System Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Roy M.; Montgomery, Edward E.

    2006-01-01

    Over a two and one-half year period dating from 2003 through 2005, NASA s In-Space Propulsion Program matured solar sail technology from laboratory components to full systems, demonstrated in as relevant a space environment as could feasibly be simulated on the ground. This paper describes the challenges identified; as well as the approaches taken toward solving a broad set of issues spanning material science, manufacturing technology, and interplanetary trajectory optimization. Revolutionary advances in system structural predictive analysis and characterization testing occurred. Also addressed are the remaining technology challenges that might be resolved with further ground technology research, geared toward reducing technical risks associated with future space validation and science missions.

  7. Navigation for Rendezvous and Orbit Missions to Small Solar-System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, C. E.; Scheeres, D. J.; Williams, B. G.; Bollman, W. E.; Davis, R. P.; Synnott, S. P.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    All previous spacecraft encounters with small solar-system bodies, such as asteroids and comets, have been flybys (e.g. Galileo's flybys of the asteroids Gaspra and Ida). Several future projects plan to build on the flyby experience and progress to the next level with rendezvous and orbit missions to small bodies. This presents several new issues and challenges for navigation which have never been considered before. This paper addresses these challenges by characterizing the different phases of a small body rendezvous and by describing the navigation requirements and goals of each phase. Prior to the encounter with the small body, improvements to its ephemeris and initial estimates of its physical parameters, e.g. size, shape, mass, rotation rate, rotation pole, and possibly outgassing, are made as accurately as ground-based measurements allow. This characterization can take place over years...

  8. The SOLAR-C Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Hirohisa; JAXA SOLAR-C Working Group

    2009-05-01

    The JAXA SOLAR-C Working Group is planning the next solar observing satellite SOLAR-C that follows Hinode (SOLAR-B) in orbit. Two plans, Plan-A and Plan-B, are concurrently examined. Plan-A is a plan by a spacecraft that is in an out-of-ecliptic interplanetary orbit to observe the polar regions of the Sun. In the Plan-A mission, the solar dynamo and the dynamics of the solar interior by helioseismic and magnetic field observations from an unprecedented vantage point are the central topics. Plan-B is a plan by a spacecraft in a sun-synchronous low-earth orbit or a geostationary orbit. It is a high-spatial resolution mission by largely enhanced spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations. With these new capabilities, the fundamental physical processes in the heating and the dynamics of solar atmosphere are explored in the Plan-B. The SOLAR-C Science Definition Meeting was held with the participation of foreign scientists under the support of JAXA and ESA last November, and the mission is highly anticipated by the solar physicists over the world. The SOLAR-C working group wishes to realize the launch of spacecraft slightly after the middle of the 2010's.

  9. Marco Polo: International Small Solar System Body Exploration Mission in 2010's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime

    Since 2000, Japanese scientists and engineers have investigated new generation primitive body missions in the post-Hayabusa era in 2010's. Receiving the Minorbody Exploration Forum Final Report, ISAS established the nation-wide Small Body Exploration Working Group (SBE-WG) in 2004. After the successful exploration of the S-type NEO Itokawa by Hayabusa in 2005, the Hayabusa-2 concept emerged for a C-type asteroid sample return by the original Hayabusa spacecraft system with minor improvements and modifications. In parallel to that effort, the SBE-WG continued to develop the post-Hayabusa mission concept as "Hayabusa Mk-II," a fully model-changed, advanced spacecraft with the sample return capability from the most primitive bodies of the solar system. It is this Hayabusa Mk-II that has became the foundation of the International small body exploration concept "Marco Polo" since 2006. Jointly proposed to the first call of the ESA Cosmic Vision by scientists from Japan, Europe, and the U.S., the Marco Polo concept was selected as one of the M-class mission candidates for the assessment study phase in the fall of 2007. In 2008, the international joint study team has been created and its mission definitions, system requirements, and target selections are currently under the study. The top-level scientific themes are to decode the solar system formation and evolution in the astrobiology and astromineralogy contexts as one of the most important scientific challenges of 2010's. These themes are sub-divided into several objectives to be achieved by both instruments carried onboard the mother spacecraft (MSC), a large lander, or small hopping rovers and returned samples. The initial mission target candicdates include comet-asteroid transition (CAT) objects, D-type asteroids and C-type binary asteroids in near-Earth orbits. In the baseline scenario, a Soyuz launcher provided by ESA will launch the JAXA-made MSC with sampling and other in-situ science instruments provided by

  10. Estimated performance and future potential of solar dynamic and photovoltaic power systems for selected LEO and HEO missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Lu, Cheng Y.

    1989-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic and thermal dynamic power systems for application to selected low-earth-orbit (LEO) and high-earth-orbit (HEO) missions are characterized in the regime 7 to 35 kWe. Input parameters to the characterization are varied to correspond to anticipated introduction of improved or new technologies. A comparative assessment is made of the two power system types for emerging technologies in cells and arrays, energy storage, optical surfaces, heat engines, thermal energy storage and thermal management. The assessment is made to common ground rules and assumptions. The four missions (Space Station, sun-synchronous, Van Allen belt, and GEO) are representative of the anticipated range of multikilowatt earth-orbit missions. The results give the expected performance, mass and drag of multikilowatt earth-orbiting solar power systems and show how the overall system figure of merit will improve as new component technologies are incorporated.

  11. Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, D. S.; Team, Genesis Science

    2011-01-01

    Science results from the Genesis Mission illustrate the major advantages of sample return missions. (i) Important results not otherwise obtainable except by analysis in terrestrial laboratories: the isotopic compositions of O, N, and noble gases differ in the Sun from other inner solar system objects. The N isotopic composition is the same as that of Jupiter. Genesis has resolved discrepancies in the noble gas data from solar wind implanted in lunar soils. (ii) The most advanced analytical instruments have been applied to Genesis samples, including some developed specifically for the mission. (iii) The N isotope result has been replicated with four different instruments. PMID:21555545

  12. The Solar Probe Mission Study: 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, D. M.; Solar Probe Science and Technology Definition STDT* Team

    2004-05-01

    Solar Probe will experience first hand the processes and conditions in the solar atmosphere that ultimately impact our planet and shape the harsh solar system environment. It will be humanity's first visit to a star and will explore a previously inaccessible region of the inner heliosphere. The 2003 Space Science Enterprise Strategy called for study of a Solar Probe to "fly through the solar atmosphere to answer fundamental questions that can be answered in no other way." The mission received highest priority in the National Academy of Sciences' decadal research strategy in solar and space physics in 2002. Significant advances have been made in the areas of solar and solar wind science, instrument technology, mission resources, and the mission environment since the previous Solar Probe Science Definition Team reports of 1989, 1995, and 1999. Therefore, with the strong support from the international community, NASA's Office of Space Science (OSS) has formed a new Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) to develop an exciting and achievable new mission concept for a Solar Probe mission. It is hoped that this study will be completed this fall with a final report by the end of 2004. This talk provides an update on the progress of the STDT's efforts. *Solar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT): Loren Acton, Marianne Balat, Volker Bothmer, Ray Dirling, Bill Feldman, George Gloeckler, Shadia Habbal, Don Hassler, Geoffrey Landis, Ingrid Mann, Bill Matthaeus, Dave McComas, Ralph McNutt, Dick Mewaldt, Neil Murphy, Leon Ofman, Ed Sittler, Chuck Smith, Marco Velli, and Thomas Zurbuchen

  13. Solar Electric Propulsion for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Use of high-power solar arrays, at power levels ranging from approximately 500 KW to several megawatts, has been proposed for a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) demonstration mission, using a photovoltaic array to provide energy to a high-power xenon-fueled engine. One of the proposed applications of the high-power SEP technology is a mission to rendezvous with an asteroid and move it into lunar orbit for human exploration, the Asteroid Retrieval mission. The Solar Electric Propulsion project is dedicated to developing critical technologies to enable trips to further away destinations such as Mars or asteroids. NASA needs to reduce the cost of these ambitious exploration missions. High power and high efficiency SEP systems will require much less propellant to meet those requirements.

  14. Advancement of a 30K W Solar Electric Propulsion System Capability for NASA Human and Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Nazario, Margaret L.; Manzella, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion has evolved into a demonstrated operational capability performing station keeping for geosynchronous satellites, enabling challenging deep-space science missions, and assisting in the transfer of satellites from an elliptical orbit Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) to a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). Advancing higher power SEP systems will enable numerous future applications for human, robotic, and commercial missions. These missions are enabled by either the increased performance of the SEP system or by the cost reductions when compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems. Higher power SEP systems that provide very high payload for robotic missions also trade favorably for the advancement of human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Demonstrated reliable systems are required for human space flight and due to their successful present day widespread use and inherent high reliability, SEP systems have progressively become a viable entrant into these future human exploration architectures. NASA studies have identified a 30 kW-class SEP capability as the next appropriate evolutionary step, applicable to wide range of both human and robotic missions. This paper describes the planning options, mission applications, and technology investments for representative 30kW-class SEP mission concepts under consideration by NASA

  15. ESA extends solar observatory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) announced on 24 May that it would extend the life of its Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) from April 2007 to December 2009. Since it was launched in December 1995, SOHO has provided scientists with a view of the Sun's surface. ``This mission extension will allow SOHO to cement its position as the most important spacecraft in the history of solar physics,'' said SOHO project scientist Bernhard Fleck.

  16. The Solar-B Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro; Acton, Loren; Canfield, Richard; Davila, Joseph; Davis, John; Dere, Kenneth; Doschek, George; Golub, Leon; Harvey, John; Hathaway, David; Hudson, Hugh; Moore, Ronald; Lites, Bruce; Rust, David; Strong, Keith; Title, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Solar-B, the next ISAS mission (with major NASA participation), is designed to address the fundamental question of how magnetic fields interact with plasma to produce solar variability. The mission has a number of unique capabilities that will enable it to answer the outstanding questions of solar magnetism. First, by escaping atmospheric seeing, it will deliver continuous observations of the solar surface with unprecedented spatial resolution. Second, Solar-B will deliver the first accurate measurements of all three components of the photospheric magnetic field. Solar-B will measure both the magnetic energy driving the photosphere and simultaneously its effects in the corona. Solar-B offers unique programmatic opportunities to NASA. It will continue an effective collaboration with our most reliable international partner. It will deliver images and data that will have strong public outreach potential. Finally, the science of Solar-B is clearly related to the themes of origins and plasma astrophysics, and contributes directly to the national space weather and global change programs.

  17. The Gevaltig: An inertial fusion powered manned spacecraft design for outer solar system missions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, K.A.

    1989-10-01

    The Gevaltig is an inertial fusion powered rocket engine capable of manned missions to other planets with round trip mission times as low as 100 days. The Gevaltig design was previously described for a mission to Mars. This effort defines the spacecraft components in terms of mass and presents a mission analysis for a manned trip to Titan, a moon of Saturn. The Gevaltig component masses are provided as a function of fuel pellet ignition frequency. These variable mass components include the fuel tanks, radiators, structure and EM pumps. Fixed mass components include the drivers, coil, coil shield, power processing system, payload, crew shield and laser mirrors. A 6 MW nuclear reactor is included in the design for startup purposes. Various combinations of thrust, mission duration and specific impulse were evaluated to determine a reasonable mission scenario for the Titan mission. The mission analysis yielded several viable mission scenarios, with round trip durations of 370 to 500 days and initial (launch) masses from lunar orbit of 2500 to 20,000 metric tons. 15 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Gas Cromatography In Solar System Exploration:decoding Complex Chromatograms Recovered From Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrogrande, M. C.; Tellini, I.; Dondi, F.; Felinger, A.; Sternberg, R.; Szopa, C.; Vidal-Madjar, C.

    GC plays a predominant role in solar system explorations: it has been applied to space research related to exobiology: i.e., Cassini-Huygens mission devoted to characterize chemical composition of TitanSs atmosphere [2], Rosetta mission to investigate the nucleus of comet p/Wirtamen (COSAC experiments) [1]. GC analysis of planetary atmosphere is a difficult analytical task because of the unknown and low level of an- alytes present in the sample, the high degree of automatization required, the strong constraints due to the flight (short analysis time, low power consumption, high accu- racy and reliability under extreme space conditions). In these circumstances the use of a signal processing procedure is practically mandatory to efficiently extract useful in- formation from the raw chromatogram ­ i.e. to decode the complex chromatogram to determine the number of components, the separation efficiency and the retention pat- tern. In this work a chemometric approach based on the Fourier analysis is applied to complex chromatograms related to space research: from the autocovariance function (ACVF) computed on the digitized chromatogram, the chromatographic parameters ­ number of components, peak shape parameters, retention pattern ­ can be estimated [3-7]. The procedure, originally developed for constant peak width [3], was extended to variable peak width [4], in order to describe chromatograms obtained in isother- mal conditions, i.e., analysis condition compatible with space flight constraints. The chemometric procedure was applied to chromatograms of standard mixtures repre- sentative of planetary atmospheres ­ hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds with carbon atom number ranging from 2 to 8 ­ obtained in flight simulating conditions ­ isothermal or pseudo-isothermal conditions. Both the simplified graphic procedure, based on the assumption of constant peak width [3], and the complete approach de- veloped for variable peak width [4], were applied and the results

  19. Mission roles for the Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) with the space transportation system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammock, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the characteristics of solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS) for the space transportation system. Emphasis is placed on the rationale leading to the concepts for the development and operations program which enhances the cost effectiveness of the SEPS operating with the space transportation system. The approach in describing design concepts and configurations is concerned with the decision controlling factors and selection criteria. The mission roles for the SEPS in accomplishing proposed space activities are defined.

  20. Exotic orbits of asteroids in the solar system and their impacts on space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Speaking of exotic orbits we mean objects in co-orbital motion. Objects in co-orbital motion are two celestial bodies moving in the same orbit or similar distance to the central body then they are in the so called 1:1 mean motion resonance (MMR). There are several configurations of co-orbital objects, depending on their point of libration: 1. The satellite configuration. 2. A common configuration in our Solar System especially for asteroids is the so-called Trojans. These are two groups of asteroids moving close to the equilibrium points (Lagrangian points) L4 and L5 in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter (also with Earth, Mars, Uranus and Neptune). That means that Jupiter's Trojans are moving either close to 60° ahead respectively 60° behind the Jupiter with the same semi-major axis as the planet. 3. Similar class to the Trojan class is the horseshoe orbits, in which objects librates around 180° from the planet. 4. Another exotic class of orbits is the exchange orbit that occurs when two co-orbital objects are of similar masses and thus exert a non-negligible influence on each other. The objects can exchange semi-major axes (e.g. Saturnian moons Janus and Epimetheus) or eccentricities when they approach each other. After the success of space missions like SOHO and Herschel-Plank the scientific interest increased towards to the benefit of the Lagrangian points and other exotic motions.

  1. Renewing Solar Science. The Solar Maximum Repair Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Valerie

    This publication describes the Solar Maximum Repair Mission for restoring the operational capability of the solar observatory in space by using the Space Shuttle. Major sections include: (1) "The Solar Maximum Mission" (describing the duties of the mission); (2) "Studying Solar Flares" (summarizing the major scientific…

  2. STEREO Superior Solar Conjunction Mission Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossing, Daniel A.; Wilson, Daniel; Balon, Kevin; Hunt, Jack; Dudley, Owen; Chiu, George; Coulter, Timothy; Reese, Angel; Cox, Matthew; Srinivasan, Dipak; Denissen, Ronald; Quinn, David A.

    2017-01-01

    With its long duration and high gain antenna (HGA) feed thermal constraint; the NASA Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) solar conjunction mission phase is quite unique to deep space operations. Originally designed for a two year heliocentric orbit mission to primarily study coronal mass ejection propagation, after 8 years of continuous science data collection, the twin STEREO observatories entered the solar conjunction mission phase, for which they were not designed. Nine months before entering conjunction, an unforeseen thermal constraint threatened to stop daily communications and science data collection for 15months. With a 3.5 month long communication blackout from the superior solar conjunction, without ground commands, each observatory will reset every 3 days, resulting in 35 system resets at an Earth range of 2 AU. As the observatories will be conjoined for the first time in 8 years, a unique opportunity for calibrating the same instruments on identical spacecraft will occur. As each observatory has lost redundancy, and with only a limited fidelity hardware simulator, how can the new observatory configuration be adequately and safely tested on each spacecraft? Without ground commands, how would a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft safely manage the ever accumulating system momentum without using propellant for thrusters? Could science data still be collected for the duration of the solar conjunction mission phase? Would the observatories survive? In its second extended mission, operational resources were limited at best. This paper discusses the solutions to the STEREO superior solar conjunction operational challenges, science data impact, testing, mission operations, results, and lessons learned while implementing.

  3. Application of solar electric propulsion to future planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Carl G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Application of solar electric propulsion (SEP) to several near term planetary missions has been investigated and is described in this paper. The missions under consideration include a comet rendezvous-asteroid flyby mission (CRAF), an orbiter mission to Saturn (CASSINI) and a comet nucleus sample return mission (CNSR). Advances in both thruster and solar array technology indicate that these missions could benefit by use of a moderate size solar electric propulsion system. The trajectory scenarios considered in this paper include a solar electric earth gravity assist (SEEGA) mode for all three missions and a SEP rendezvous mode for both the CRAF and CNSR missions. In addition an all SEP propulsion mode and a hybrid SEP-chemical propulsion mode is described for the CNSR mission.

  4. Estimated performance and future potential of solar dynamic and photovoltaic power systems for selected LEO and HEO missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Lu, Cheng Y.

    1989-01-01

    Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) and thermal dynamic power systems for application to selected Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and High Eccentric Orbit (Energy) (HEO) missions are characterized in the regime 7 to 35 kWe. Input parameters to the characterization are varied corresponding to anticipated introduction of improved or new technologies. Comparative assessment is made between the two power system types utilizing newly emerging technologies in cells and arrays, energy storage, optical surfaces, heat engines, thermal energy storage, and thermal management. The assessment is made to common ground rules and assumptions. The four missions (space station, sun-synchronous, Van Allen belt and GEO) are representative of the anticipated range of multi-kWe earth orbit missions. System characterizations include all required subsystems, including power conditioning, cabling, structure, to deliver electrical power to the user. Performance is estimated on the basis of three different levels of component technology: (1) state-of-art, (2) near-term, and (3) advanced technologies. These range from planar array silicon/IPV nickel hydrogen batteries and Brayton systems at 1000 K to thin film GaAs with high energy density secondary batteries or regenerative fuel cells and 1300 K Stirling systems with ultra-lightweight concentrators and radiators. The system estimates include design margin for performance degradations from the known environmental mechanisms (micrometeoroids and space debris, atomic oxygen, electron and proton flux) which are modeled and applied depending on the mission. The results give expected performance, mass and drag of multi-kWe earth orbiting solar power systems and show how overall system figures of merit will improve as new component technologies are incorporated.

  5. Proposals arising from the I.A.A. 1996 Turin symposium on missions to the outer solar system and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    The First I.A.A. Symposium on Realistic Near-Term Advanced Scientific Space Missions was held in Turin (Italy) on June 25-27, 1996. Hosting institution was the Politecnico di Torino with the cooperation of the "Giuseppe Colombo" Centre for Astrodynamics of Turin. This Symposium was the first ever organized by the Interstellar Space Exploration Committee (ISEC) of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) in addition to the similar Symposia that ISEC runs yearly as a part of its activities within the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) Congress. The leading theme of this first Turin Symposium was "Missions to the Outer Solar System and Beyond", i.e. deep space scientific explorations from the orbit of Jupiter outward, up to Pluto, the Kuiper Belt and further still, to 1000 Astronomical units at most. Another important theme was solar sailing. In Turin, new developments found an apt framework to grow, and the talks given are reviewed here, drawing the current perspectives on exploration of the outer solar system and beyond.

  6. Solar Power for Near Sun, High-Temperature Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Existing solar cells lose performance at the high temperatures encountered in Mercury orbit and inward toward the sun. For future missions designed to probe environments close to the sun, it is desirable to develop array technologies for high temperature and high light intensity. Approaches to solar array design for near-sun missions include modifying the terms governing temperature of the cell and the efficiency at elevated temperature, or use of techniques to reduce the incident solar energy to limit operating temperature. An additional problem is found in missions that involve a range of intensities, such as the Solar Probe + mission, which ranges from a starting distance of 1 AU from the sun to a minimum distance of 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 500 times AM0. This requires a power system to operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

  7. Trojan Tour Enabled by Solar Electric Based Mission Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David B.; Klaus, K.; Behrens, J.; Bingaman, G.; Elsperman, M.; Horsewood, J.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: A Trojan Tour and Rendezvous mission was one of the missions recommended by the most recent Planetary Science Decadal Survey. To the greatest extent possible, we will utilize this concept as a basis for re-examining the feasibility of a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission using a Boeing bus and Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) solar power generation. The concept study for the Decadal survey concluded that s SEP mission is not viable because of low solar intensity levels. Mission Overview: With the advent of the new high power solar array technology, SEP missions to the outer planets become viable. The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, a Trojan within the Trojan cloud, consistent with the Decadal Survey. Our mission analysis using SEP yielded a 6 year travel time. The Decadal mission concept uses REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. For comparison, the REP mission concept flight time was 8 years. For the purposes of our study, the science payload instruments, data rates, mass and power requirements are identical to the Trojan Decadal study. Our investments focus on innovative lightweight structures, advanced solar array deployment systems, high voltage power systems, and high efficiency solar cells. Summary/Conclusion: By using advanced, high power generation solar arrays, SEP becomes a viable alternative for Jupiter system missions. We show that a SEP mission reduces the flight time to the Trojans by 2.5 years. We also show that a proven commercial bus can provide the necessary pointing accuracy and stability required for the Decadal mission concept and its science instrument suite.

  8. Trojan Tour and Rendezvous (TTR): A New Frontiers Mission to Explore the Origin and Evolution of the Early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Olkin, C.; Castillo, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The orbital properties, compositions, and physical properties of the diverse populations of small outer solar system bodies provide a forensic map of how our solar system formed and evolved. Perhaps the most potentially diagnostic, but least explored, of those populations are the Jupiter Trojan asteroids, which orbit at ~5 AU in the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter. More than 6200 Jupiter Trojans are presently known, but these are predicted to be only a small fraction of the 500,000 to 1 million Trojans >1 km in size. The Trojans are hypothesized to be either former Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) that were scattered into the inner solar system by early giant planet migration and then trapped in the 1:1 Jupiter mean motion resonance, or bodies formed near 5 AU in a much more quiescent early solar system, and then trapped at L4 and L5. The 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey identified important questions about the origin and evolution of the solar system that can be addressed by studying of the Trojan asteroids, including: (a) How did the giant planets and their satellite systems accrete, and is there evidence that they migrated to new orbital positions? (b) What is the relationship between large and small KBOs? Is the small population derived by impact disruption of the large one? (c) What kinds of surface evolution, radiation chemistry, and surface-atmosphere interactions occur on distant icy primitive bodies? And (d) What are the sources of asteroid groups (Trojans and Centaurs) that remain to be explored by spacecraft? The Trojan Tour and Rendezvous (TTR) is a New Frontiers-class mission designed to answer these questions, and to test hypotheses for early giant planet migration and solar system evolution. Via close flybys of a large number of these objects,, and orbital characterization of at least one large Trojan, TTR will enable the first-time exploration of this population. Our primary mission goals are to characterize the overall surface geology

  9. SCARLET Solar Array Delivered for METEOR Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) is a joint NASA Lewis Research Center/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization program to develop advanced photovoltaic array technology for future space missions. This advanced power system technology uses a unique refractive concentrator design to focus sunlight onto a line of photovoltaic cells located below the optical element. The concentrator design is based on previous work conducted at Lewis under a Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) with Entech, Inc.

  10. Solar Power for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of NASA missions and technology development efforts are discussed. Future spacecraft will need higher power, higher voltage, and much lower cost solar arrays to enable a variety of missions. One application driving development of these future arrays is solar electric propulsion.

  11. Solar Sail Propulsion: An Enabling Technology for Fundamental Physics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachwald, Bernd; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    Solar sails enable a wide range of high-energy missions, many of which are difficult or even impossible to accomplish with any other type of conventional propulsion system. They are also an enabling propulsion technology for two types of deep-space missions that are very favorable for testing current gravitational theories and the large-scale gravitational field of the solar system: the first type comprises missions that go very close to the Sun (<8 solar radii) and the second one comprises missions that go fast very far away from the Sun ( 200AU). Being propelled solely by the freely available solar radiation pressure, solar sails do not consume any propellant. Therefore, their capability to gain (or reduce) orbital energy is theoretically unlimited and practically only limited by their lifetime in the space environment and their distance from the Sun (because the solar radiation pressure decreases with the square of solar distance). Nevertheless, solar sails make also missions that go far away from the Sun feasible because they can gain a large amount of orbital energy by first making one or more close solar approaches that turn the trajectory hyperbolic. For both mission types, the temperature limit of the sail film is a critical issue. In this chapter, we briefly review the physics and the current technological status of solar sails, and then present mission outlines and trade-offs for both mission types. Thereby, we will show that even near- or medium-term solar sails with a relatively moderate performance enable these kinds of missions.

  12. Mission analysis of solar powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. W.; Watson, D. A.; Tuttle, R. P.; Hall, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of a real mission scenario on a solar powered airplane configuration which had been developed in previous work were assessed. The mission used was surveillance of crop conditions over a route from Phoenix to Tucson to Tombstone, Arizona. Appendices are attached which address the applicability of existing platforms and payloads to do this mission.

  13. Revealing Exo-Zody and Exo-Planets from Solar System Dust Measurements: ALADDIN-2 for the Solar Power Sail Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime; Hirai, Takayuki

    2016-07-01

    The dust structure of our Solar System provides a benchmark information of dust disks of other exo-planetary systems in general, just like the Sun as the closest main sequence G-star that we can study with the most details. Heliocentric dust distributions and gravitational and orbital interactions with planets such as mean motion resonances (MMRs) of dust flux of our Solar System are what we can transfer the knowledge of our Solar System dust apply to infer anisotropic exo-zodiacal brightness, or spatial structures within a exo-planetary dust disks with information about potentially embedded planets inside. In the coming era of disk resolved observations by ALMA, TMT and other new telescopes, we will be able to apply what we find in the Solar System to the rest of planetary systems. In 2010-11, the IKAROS solar sail spacecraft carried the ALADDIN large area dust detector array to study large meteoroids between the Earth and Venus orbits. Yano et al. directly detected both the Earth's and Venus' MMRs dust structures, being consistent with numerical simulations that predict the existence of such local enhancements of dust distribution around these terrestrial planets, as well as Neptune. JAXA's Solar Power Sail mission plans to carry even larger dust detector inherited the technology onboard IKAROS, namely ALADDIN-2 in order to search for such MMRs in the Mars and Jupiter orbits, as predicted by Kuchner et al.(2000), in addition to make a continuous measurement of large dust flux from 1.0 to 5.2 AU crossing the main asteroid belt up to Jupiter Trojan region. It is also noted that recent reanalysis of the Pioneer 10 and 11 photo polarimeter data suggests a small enhancement of the brightness towards the anti-solar direction near Jupiter the largest planet of our Solar System, implying a possible existence of a dust belt related to the planet. The spatial density of dust particles directly measured by the ALADDIN-2 will provide a more conclusive and direct proof due to

  14. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Aerial Vehicle Mission and Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists. The mining aerospacecraft (ASC) could fly through the outer planet atmospheres, for global weather observations, localized storm or other disturbance investigations, wind speed measurements, polar observations, etc. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points.

  15. Comparison of Solar Electric and Chemical Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeh, Joshua E.; Burke, Laura M.; Sjauw, Waldy K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Smith, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) offers fuel efficiency and mission robustness for spacecraft. The combination of solar power and electric propulsion engines is currently used for missions ranging from geostationary stationkeeping to deep space science because of these benefits. Both solar power and electric propulsion technologies have progressed to the point where higher electric power systems can be considered, making substantial cargo missions and potentially human missions viable. This paper evaluates and compares representative lunar, Mars, and Sun-Earth Langrangian point missions using SEP and chemical propulsion subsystems. The potential benefits and limitations are discussed along with technology gaps that need to be resolved for such missions to become possible. The connection to NASA's human architecture and technology development efforts will be discussed.

  16. An alternative approach to solar system exploration providing safety of human mission to Mars.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, J I; Bartsev, S I; Mezhevikin, V V; Okhonin, V A

    2003-01-01

    For systematic human Mars exploration, meeting crew safety requirements, it seems perspective to assemble into a spacecraft: an electrical rocket, a well-shielded long-term life support system, and a manipulator-robots operating in combined "presence effect" and "master-slave" mode. The electrical spacecraft would carry humans to the orbit of Mars, providing short distance (and low signal time delay) between operator and robot-manipulators, which are landed on the surface of the planet. Long-term hybrid biological and physical/chemical LSS could provide environment supporting human health and well being. Robot-manipulators operating in "presence effect" and "master-slave" mode exclude necessity of human landing on Martian surface decreasing the level of risk for crew. Since crewmen would not have direct contact with the Martian environment then the problem of mutual biological protection is essentially reduced. Lightweight robot-manipulators, without heavy life support systems and without the necessity of returning to the mother vessel, could be sent as scouts to different places on the planet surface, scanning the most interesting for exobiological research site. Some approximate estimations of electric spacecraft, long-term hybrid LSS, radiation protection and mission parameters are conducted and discussed.

  17. An alternative approach to solar system exploration providing safety of human mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, J. I.; Bartsev, S. I.; Mezhevikin, V. V.; Okhonin, V. A.

    For systematic human Mars exploration, meeting crew safety requirements, it seems perspective to assemble into a spacecraft: an electrical rocket, a well-shielded long-term life support system, and a manipulator-robots operating in combined ``presence effect'' and ``master-slave'' mode. The electrical spacecraft would carry humans to the orbit of Mars, providing short distance (and low signal time delay) between operator and robot-manipulators, which are landed on the surface of the planet. Long-term hybrid biological and physical/chemical LSS could provide environment supporting human health and well being. Robot-manipulators operating in ``presence effect'' and ``master-slave'' mode exclude necessity of human landing on Martian surface decreasing the level of risk for crew. Since crewmen would not have direct contact with the Martian environment then the problem of mutual biological protection is essentially reduced. Lightweight robot-manipulators, without heavy life support systems and without the necessity of returning to the mother vessel, could be sent as scouts to different places on the planet surface, scanning the most interesting for exobiological research site. Some approximate estimations of electric spacecraft, long-term hybrid LSS, radiation protection and mission parameters are conducted and discussed.

  18. New vision solar system mission study: Use of space reactor bimodal system with microspacecraft to determine origin and evolution of the outer plants in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, Jack F.; Zubrin, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    The vision for the future of the planetary exploration program includes the capability to deliver 'constellations' or 'fleets' of microspacecraft to a planetary destination. These fleets will act in a coordinated manner to gather science data from a variety of locations on or around the target body, thus providing detailed, global coverage without requiring development of a single large, complex and costly spacecraft. Such constellations of spacecraft, coupled with advanced information processing and visualization techniques and high-rate communications, could provide the basis for development of a 'virtual presence' in the solar system. A goal could be the near real-time delivery of planetary images and video to a wide variety of users in the general public and the science community. This will be a major step in making the solar system accessible to the public and will help make solar system exploration a part of the human experience on Earth.

  19. SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION: Push to Revive Pluto Mission May Mean Competition for JPL.

    PubMed

    Lawler, A

    2000-11-17

    An unusual coalition of scientists, activists, and politicians is pressuring NASA to rethink a September decision to put a 2004 mission to Pluto on hold because of budget constraints. The growing clamor is shaking up the planetary science community, which is also preparing for a mission at mid-decade to Europa, a moon of Jupiter. The biggest impact may be felt at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which could face serious competition for the first time in decades on contracts to build planetary missions.

  20. Towards an Astrobiological Vision for the Outer Solar System: The Europa and Enceladus Explorer Mission Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, K.; Flores Martinez, C. L.; Hildebrandt, M.; Förstner, R.

    2014-02-01

    Two DLR funded projects to develop a submersible for Europa and a melting probe for Enceladus are presented. A lander mission concept is given. Instruments are proposed, assuming analogous traits for both biospheres.

  1. Solar coronal non-thermal processes (Solar Maximum Mission)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission was used to study solar coronal phenomena in hard X-radiation, since its instrument complement included the first solar hard X-ray telescope. Phenomena related to those discovered from OSO-5 and OSO-7 observations were emphasized.

  2. Graphitic heat shields for solar probe missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundell, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using a graphitic heat-shield system on a solar probe going to within 4 solar radii of the center of the sun is investigated. An analysis of graphite vaporization, with commonly used vaporization coefficients, indicates that the maximum mass-loss rate from a conical shield as large as 4 m in diameter can be kept low enough to avoid interference with measurements of the solar environment. In addition to the mass-loss problem, the problem of protecting the payload from the high-temperature (up to 2300 K) primary shield must be solved. An analysis of radiation exchange between concentric disks provides a technique for designing the intermediate shielding. The technique is applied to the design of a system for the Starprobe spacecraft, and it is found that a system with 10 shields and a payload surface temperature of 600 K will have a payload diameter of 2.45 m. Since this is 61% of the 4-m diameter of the primary shield, it is concluded that a graphitic heat-shield system is feasible for the Starprobe mission.

  3. Mission Medical Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  4. Solar Sail Roadmap Mission GN and C Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion program is funding development work for solar sails to enhance future scientific opportunities. Key to this effort are scientific solar sail roadmap missions identified by peer review. The two near-term missions of interest are L1 Diamond and Solar Polar Imager. Additionally, the New Millennium Program is sponsoring the Space Technology 9 (ST9) demonstration mission. Solar sails are one of five technologies competing for the ST9 flight demonstration. Two candidate solar sail missions have been identified for a potential ST9 flight. All the roadmap missions and candidate flight demonstration missions face various GN&C challenges. A variety of efforts are underway to address these challenges. These include control actuator design and testing, low thrust optimization studies, attitude control system design and modeling, control-structure interaction studies, trajectory control design, and solar radiation pressure model development. Here we survey the various efforts underway and identify a few of specific recent interest and focus.

  5. Advanced Solar-propelled Cargo Spacecraft for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, Jacqueline; Beall, Mark; Burianek, Joseph; Cinniger, Anna; Dunmire, Barbrina; Haberman, Eric; Iwamoto, James; Johnson, Stephen; Mccracken, Shawn; Miller, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  6. Solar Electric Propulsion for Primitive Body Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzberger, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes work that assesses the performance of solar electric propulsion (SEP) for three different primitive body science missions: 1) Comet Rendezvous 2) Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR), and 3) a Trojan asteroid/Centaur object Reconnaissance Flyby. Each of these missions launches from Earth between 2010 and 2016. Beginning-of-life (BOL) solar array power (referenced at 1 A.U.) varies from 10 to 18 kW. Launch vehicle selections range from a Delta II to a Delta IV medium-class. The primary figure of merit (FOM) is net delivered mass (NDM). This analysis considers the effects of imposing various mission constraints on the Comet Rendezvous and CSSR missions. Specifically, the Comet Rendezvous mission analysis examines an arrival date constraint with a launch year variation, whereas the CSSR mission analysis investigates an Earth entry velocity constraint commensurate with past and current missions. Additionally, the CSSR mission analysis establishes NASA's New Frontiers (NF) Design Reference Mission (DRM) in order to evaluate current and future SEP technologies. The results show that transfer times range from 5 to 9 years (depending on the mission). More importantly, the spacecraft's primary propulsion system performs an average 5-degree plane change on the return leg of the CSSR mission to meet the previously mentioned Earth entry velocity constraint. Consequently, these analyses show that SEP technologies that have higher thrust-to-power ratios can: 1) reduce flight time, and 2) change planes more efficiently.

  7. The Stardust Discovery Mission - Returning Unique Samples of Early Solar System Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott

    2006-01-01

    On January 2,2004, the STARDUST spacecraft made the closest ever flyby (236 km) of the nucleus of a comet - Comet Wild 2. During the flyby the spacecraft collected samples of dust from the coma of the comet. These samples were successfully returned to Earth on January 15,2006. After a six-month preliminary examination to establish the nature of the returned samples, they will be made available to the general scientific community for study. During my talk I will discuss the scientific goals of the STARDUST mission and provide a brief overview of the mission's design and flight. I will also discuss the recovery of the Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC), with an emphasis on those aspects of the recovery important for minimizing the degree of contamination (particularly organic contamination) of the samples. Finally, the first samples are only just now being distributed for preliminary examination, but I hope to be able to talk about some of the preliminary findings from the returned comet samples.

  8. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  9. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  10. Vision Algorithm for the Solar Aspect System of the HEROES Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, Alexander; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert

    2014-01-01

    This work covers the design and test of a machine vision algorithm for generating high-accuracy pitch and yaw pointing solutions relative to the sun for the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission. It describes how images were constructed by focusing an image of the sun onto a plate printed with a pattern of small fiducial markers. Images of this plate were processed in real time to determine relative position of the balloon payload to the sun. The algorithm is broken into four problems: circle detection, fiducial detection, fiducial identification, and image registration. Circle detection is handled by an Average Intersection method, fiducial detection by a matched filter approach, identification with an ad-hoc method based on the spacing between fiducials, and image registration with a simple least squares fit. Performance is verified on a combination of artificially generated images, test data recorded on the ground, and images from the 2013 flight.

  11. Vision Algorithm for the Solar Aspect System of the HEROES Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This work covers the design and test of a machine vision algorithm for generating high-accuracy pitch and yaw pointing solutions relative to the sun for the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission. It describes how images were constructed by focusing an image of the sun onto a plate printed with a pattern of small fiducial markers. Images of this plate were processed in real time to determine relative position of the balloon payload to the sun. The algorithm is broken into four problems: circle detection, fiducial detection, fiducial identification, and image registration. Circle detection is handled by an "Average Intersection" method, fiducial detection by a matched filter approach, identification with an ad-hoc method based on the spacing between fiducials, and image registration with a simple least squares fit. Performance is verified on a combination of artificially generated images, test data recorded on the ground, and images from the 2013 flight

  12. Nanosatellites for Interplanetary Exploration : Missions of Co-Operation and Exploration to Mars, Exo-Moons and other worlds in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Aditya; Radhakrishnan, Arun

    2016-07-01

    The last decade has borne witness to a large number of Nano-satellites being launched.This increasing trend is mainly down to the advancements in consumer electronics that has played a crucial role in increasing the potential power available on board for mission study and analysis whilst being much smaller in size when compared to their satellite counterparts. This overall reduction in size and weight is a crucial factor when coupled with the recent innovations in various propulsion systems and orbital launch vehicles by private players has also allowed the cost of missions to brought down to a very small budget whilst able to retain the main science objectives of a dedicated space Missions. The success of first time missions such as India's Mars Orbiter Mission and the upcoming Cube-Sat Mission to Mars has served as a catalyst and is a major eye-opener on how Interplanetary missions can be funded and initiated in small time spans. This shows that Interplanetary missions with the main objective of a scientific study can be objectified by using Dedicated Nano-satellite constellations with each satellite carrying specific payloads for various mission parameters such as Telemetry, Observation and possible small lander payloads for studying the various Atmospheric and Geo-Physical parameters of a particular object with-out the requirement of a very long term expensive Spacecraft Mission. The association of Major Universities and Colleges in building Nano and-satellites are facilitating an atmosphere of innovation and research among students in a class-room level as their creative potential will allow for experiments and innovation on a scale never imagined before. In this paper, the Author envisions the feasibility of such low cost Nano satellite missions to various bodies in the solar system and how Nano satellite partnerships from universities and space agencies from around the world could foster a new era in diplomacy and International Co-operation.

  13. Early Mission Power Assessment of the Dawn Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; DiStefano, Salvatore; Rayman, Marc D.; Ulloa-Severino, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Discovery Mission Dawn was launched in September 2007. Dawn will be the first to orbit two asteroids on a single voyage. The solar array for the Dawn mission will provide power under greatly varying illumination and temperature conditions. Dawn's ion propulsion system (IPS) will provide the spacecraft with enough thrust to reach Vesta and Ceres and orbit both. The demanding mission would be impossible without ion propulsion -- a mission only to the asteroid Vesta (and not including Ceres) would require a much more massive spacecraft and, a much larger launch vehicle.

  14. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  15. Interhelioprobe Mission for Solar and Heliospheric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Zelenyi, Lev; Zimovets, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    A new concept has been adopted for the Interhelioprobe mission intended for studying the inner heliosphere and the Sun at short distances and from out-of-ecliptic positions. In accordance with this concept, two identical SC spaced by a quarter of a period on heliocentric orbits inclined to the ecliptic plane in different directions will orbit the Sun, thus ensuring continuous out-of-ecliptic solar observations and measurements in the heliosphere. The scientific payload will comprise instruments for remote observations of the Sun (Optical photometer, Magnetograph, Chemical Composition Analyzer, EUV Imager-Spectrometer, Coronagraph, X-ray Imager, Heliospheric Imager, X-ray Polarimeter, and Gamma-Spectrometers) and in-situ measurements in the heliosphere (Solar Wind Ion Analyzer, Solar Wind Electron Analyzer, Solar Wind Plasma Analyzers, Energetic Particle Telescope, Neutron Detector, Magnetic Wave Complex, Magnetometer, and Radio Spectrometer Detector). The instruments will study the structure and dynamics of the magnetic fields and plasma flows in the polar regions of the Sun, solar flares and mass ejections, the heating of the solar corona and solar wind acceleration, acceleration and propagation of energetic particles in the Sun and heliosphere, the solar wind, as well as disturbances and ejections that come from the Sun to the Earth and control space weather in the near-Earth space. The schedule of the mission and the development status of the instruments and the spacecraft are provided.

  16. Design of a solar sail mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleri, E. J., Jr.; Galliano, P. A.; Harrison, M. E.; Johnson, W. B.; Meyer, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    A new area of interest in space vehicles is the solar sail. Various applications for which it has been considered are attitude control of satellites, focusing light on the jungles of Vietnam, and a Halley's comet rendezvous. Although for various reasons these projects were never completed, new interest in solar sails has arisen. The solar sail is an alternative to the rocket-propelled space vehicle as an interplanetary cargo vehicle, and manufacture of solar sails on the space station is a possibility. Solar sails have several advantages over rockets, including an unlimited power supply and low maintenance. The purpose of this project is to design a solar sail mission to Mars. The spacecraft will efficiently journey to Mars powered only by a solar sail. The vehicle weighs 487.16 kg and will be launchable on an expendable launch vehicle. The project includes an investigation of options to minimize cost, weight, and flight duration. The design of the sail and its deployment system are a major part of the project, as is the actual mission planning. Various topics researched include solar power, material, space environment, thermal control, trajectories, and orbit transfer. Various configurations are considered in order to determine the optimal structure. Another design consideration is the control system of the vehicle. This system includes the attitude control and the communication system of the sail. This project will aid in determining the feasibility of a solar sail and will raise public interest in space research.

  17. High-Power Solar Electric Propulsion for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Hack, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    NASA has sought to utilize high-power solar electric propulsion as means of improving the affordability of in-space transportation for almost 50 years. Early efforts focused on 25 to 50 kilowatt systems that could be used with the Space Shuttle, while later efforts focused on systems nearly an order of magnitude higher power that could be used with heavy lift launch vehicles. These efforts never left the concept development phase in part because the technology required was not sufficiently mature. Since 2012 the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has had a coordinated plan to mature the requisite solar array and electric propulsion technology needed to implement a 30 to 50 kilowatt solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. Multiple solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission concepts have been developed based on these maturing technologies with recent efforts focusing on an Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission. If implemented, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle will form the basis for a capability that can be cost-effectively evolved over time to provide solar electric propulsion transportation for a range of follow-on mission applications at power levels in excess of 100 kilowatts.

  18. NASA's Advanced Solar Sail Propulsion System for Low-Cost Deep Space Exploration and Science Missions that Use High Performance Rollable Composite Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Juan M.; Rose, Geoffrey K.; Younger, Casey J.; Dean, Gregory D.; Warren, Jerry E.; Stohlman, Olive R.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2017-01-01

    Several low-cost solar sail technology demonstrator missions are under development in the United States. However, the mass saving derived benefits that composites can offer to such a mass critical spacecraft architecture have not been realized yet. This is due to the lack of suitable composite booms that can fit inside CubeSat platforms and ultimately be readily scalable to much larger sizes, where they can fully optimize their use. With this aim, a new effort focused at developing scalable rollable composite booms for solar sails and other deployable structures has begun. Seven meter booms used to deploy a 90 m2 class solar sail that can fit inside a 6U CubeSat have already been developed. The NASA road map to low-cost solar sail capability demonstration envisioned, consists of increasing the size of these composite booms to enable sailcrafts with a reflective area of up to 2000 m2 housed aboard small satellite platforms. This paper presents a solar sail system initially conceived to serve as a risk reduction alternative to Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout's baseline design but that has recently been slightly redesigned and proposed for follow-on missions. The features of the booms and various deployment mechanisms for the booms and sail, as well as ground support equipment used during testing, are introduced. The results of structural analyses predict the performance of the system under microgravity conditions. Finally, the results of the functional and environmental testing campaign carried out are shown.

  19. Solar lens mission concept for interstellar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Turyshev, Slava; Shao, Michael; Zhang, Qicheng

    2015-09-01

    The long standing approach to space travel has been to incorporate massive on-board electronics, probes and propellants to achieve space exploration. This approach has led to many great achievements in science, but will never help to explore the interstellar medium. Fortunately, a paradigm shift is upon us in how a spacecraft is constructed and propelled. This paper describes a mission concept to get to our Sun's Gravity Lens at 550AU in less than 10 years. It will be done by using DE-STAR, a scalable solar-powered phased-array laser in Earth Orbit, as a directed energy photon drive of low-mass wafersats. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] With recent technologies a complete mission can be placed on a wafer including, power from an embedded radio nuclear thermal generator (RTG), PV, laser communications, imaging, photon thrusters for attitude control and other sensors. As one example, a futuristic 200 MW laser array consisting of 1 - 10 kw meter scale sub elements with a 100m baseline can propel a 10 gram wafer scale spacecraft with a 3m laser sail to 60AU/Year. Directed energy propulsion of low-mass spacecraft gives us an opportunity to capture images of Alpha Centauri and its planets, detailed imaging of the cosmic microwave background, set up interstellar communications by using gravity lenses around nearby stars to boost signals from interstellar probes, and much more. This system offers a very large range of missions allowing hundreds of wafer scale payload launches per day to reach this cosmological data reservoir. Directed Energy Propulsion is the only current technology that can provide a near-term path to utilize our Sun's Gravity Lens.

  20. Overview of the Solar-B Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John M.

    2006-01-01

    The Solar-B mission is a collaboration between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) of the United Kingdom and the European Space Agency. The principal scientific goals of the mission are to understand the processes of magnetic field generation, transport and ultimate dissipation of solar magnetic fields and how the release of magnetic energy is responsible for the heating and structuring of the chromosphere and corona. The scientific payload consists of three instruments: the Solar Optical Telescope that consists of the Optical Telescope Assembly and the Focal Plane Package (FPP), the X-ray Telescope and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer Each instrument is a result of the combined talents of all the members of the international team and their design and performance is described in separate papers in this session. The instruments are designed to work together as an 'observatory' simultaneously studying the target, at which the spacecraft is pointed, at different levels in the atmosphere. The spacecraft is scheduled for launch in September 2006 from the Uchinoura Space Center into a 600 km circular, sun-synchronous, polar orbit with a nominal elevation of 97.9 degrees. The orbit provides at least two morning and two evening contacts in Japan. Morning contacts are used for recovering quick look science data and the evening contacts for uploading commands. In addition ESA will provide 15 contacts per day from the Norwegian high latitude (78deg 14' N) ground station at Svalbard. The data downloads are transmitted to the ISAS Sirius database. They will be reformatted into FITS files and archived as Level 0 data on the ISAS DARTS system and made available to the scientific community. Scientific operations will be conducted from the IS AS facility located in Sagamihara, Japan. They are separated into planning

  1. The Europa Jupiter System Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Clark, K.; Erd, C.; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R. R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.; van Houten, T.

    2009-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will be an international mission that will achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission has been selected by NASA as the next Flagship mission to the out solar system. JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM will fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision for exploration of the outer solar system. The Decadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission target. EJSM would uniquely address several of the central themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM will investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geological and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the

  2. Solar Warning Architecture for Manned Missions to Mars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    radius of the respective celestial body from any link distance output by STK for which the Sun or Earth (or both) was an endpoint. 5.2.4 Cost Model...Abstract Solar radiation storms present a significant threat to future manned missions to Mars and other bodies within the solar system. Due to the...relatively high likelihood, the robust body of background data available, and the adaptability of the analytic methods, concepts, and trade spaces to

  3. The Genesis Solar Wind Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, Donald S.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Sasaki, Chester; Sevilla, Donald; Stansbery, Eileen; Clark, Ben; Smith, Nick; Oldham, Lloyd

    1990-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft was launched on August 8 from Cape Canaveral on a journey to become the first spacecraft to return from interplanetary space. The fifth in NASA's line of low-cost Discovery-class missions, its goal is to collect samples of solar wind and return them to Earth for detailed isotopic and elemental analysis. The spacecraft is to collect solar wind for over two years, while circling the L1 point 1.5 million km sunward of the earth, before heading back for a capsule-style re-entry in September, 2004. After parachute deployment, a mid-air helicopter recovery will be used to avoid a hard landing. The mission has been in the planning stages for over ten years. Its cost, including development, mission operations, and sample analysis, is approximately $209M. The Genesis science team, headed by principal investigator Donald Burnett of Caltech, consists of approximately 20 co-investigators from universities and science centers around the country and internationally. The spacecraft consists of a relatively flat spacecraft bus containing most of the subsystem components, situated below a sample return capsule (SRC) which holds the solar-wind collection substrates and an electrostatic solar wind concentrator. Some of the collectors are exposed throughout the collection period, for a sample of bulk solar wind, while others are exposed only to certain solar wind regimes, or types of flow. Ion and electron spectrometers feed raw data to the spacecraft control and data-handling (C&DH) unit, which determines ion moments and electron flux geometries in real time. An algorithm is used to robotically decide between interstream (IS), coronal hole (CH), and coronal mass ejection (CME) regimes, and to control deployment of the proper arrays to sample these wind regimes independently. This is the first time such a solar-wind decision algorithm has been used on board a spacecraft.

  4. Non-Solar Photovoltaics for Small Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Clark, Eric B.; Myers, Matthew G.; Piszazor, Michael F.; Murbach, Marcus S.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has missions planned to targets in the solar system ranging from the permanently shadowed craters of Mercury to the icy reaches of the Kuiper belt and beyond. In 2011, the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) requested the NASA Ames and Glenn Research Centers to assess the potential of small power supplies based on direct conversion of energy from radioisotope sources for future NASA missions; and in particular to assess whether alphavoltaic and betavoltaic power sources could be of potential benefit in small missions, as well as examining the use of miniaturized thermophotovoltaic power supplies. This paper summarizes the results of that assessment.

  5. A Quick Method for Estimating Vehicle Characteristics Appropriate for Continuous Thrust Round Trip Missions Within the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, Bill

    2006-01-01

    A simple method of estimating vehicle parameters appropriate for interplanetary travel can provide a useful tool for evaluating the suitability of particular propulsion systems to various space missions. Although detailed mission analyses for interplanetary travel can be quite complex, it is possible to derive hirly simple correlations which will provide reasonable trip time estimates to the planets. In the present work, it is assumed that a constant thrust propulsion system propels a spacecraft on a round trip mission having equidistant outbound and inbound legs in which the spacecraft accelerates during the first portion of each leg of the journey and decelerates during the last portion of each leg of the journey. Comparisons are made with numerical calculations from low thrust trajectory codes to estimate the range of applicability of the simplified correlations.

  6. Thin-Film Solar Array Earth Orbit Mission Applicability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2002-01-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the applicability and spacecraft-level impact of using very lightweight thin-film solar arrays with relatively large deployed areas for representative Earth orbiting missions. The most and least attractive features of thin-film solar arrays are briefly discussed. A simple calculation is then presented illustrating that from a solar array alone mass perspective, larger arrays with less efficient but lighter thin-film solar cells can weigh less than smaller arrays with more efficient but heavier crystalline cells. However, a proper spacecraft-level systems assessment must take into account the additional mass associated with solar array deployed area: the propellant needed to desaturate the momentum accumulated from area-related disturbance torques and to perform aerodynamic drag makeup reboost. The results for such an assessment are presented for a representative low Earth orbit (LEO) mission, as a function of altitude and mission life, and a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) mission. Discussion of the results includes a list of specific mission types most likely to benefit from using thin-film arrays. NASA Glenn's low-temperature approach to depositing thin-film cells on lightweight, flexible plastic substrates is also briefly discussed to provide a perspective on one approach to achieving this enabling technology. The paper concludes with a list of issues to be addressed prior to use of thin-film solar arrays in space and the observation that with their unique characteristics, very lightweight arrays using efficient, thin-film cells on flexible substrates may become the best array option for a subset of Earth orbiting missions.

  7. Agile: From Software to Mission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Shirley, Mark H.; Hobart, Sarah Groves

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission, designed to search for volatiles at the Lunar South Pole. This is NASA's first near real time tele-operated rover on the Moon. The primary objective is to search for volatiles at one of the Lunar Poles. The combination of short mission duration, a solar powered rover, and the requirement to explore shadowed regions makes for an operationally challenging mission. To maximize efficiency and flexibility in Mission System design and thus to improve the performance and reliability of the resulting Mission System, we are tailoring Agile principles that we have used effectively in ground data system software development and applying those principles to the design of elements of the mission operations system.

  8. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  9. The New Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, J. Kelly; Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Chaikin, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    As the definitive guide for the armchair astronomer, The New Solar System has established itself as the leading book on planetary science and solar system studies. Incorporating the latest knowledge of the solar system, a distinguished team of researchers, many of them Principal Investigators on NASA missions, explain the solar system with expert ease. The completely-revised text includes the most recent findings on asteroids, comets, the Sun, and our neighboring planets. The book examines the latest research and thinking about the solar system; looks at how the Sun and planets formed; and discusses our search for other planetary systems and the search for life in the solar system. In full-color and heavily-illustrated, the book contains more than 500 photographs, portrayals, and diagrams. An extensive set of tables with the latest characteristics of the planets, their moon and ring systems, comets, asteroids, meteorites, and interplanetary space missions complete the text. New to this edition are descriptions of collisions in the solar system, full scientific results from Galileo's mission to Jupiter and its moons, and the Mars Pathfinder mission. For the curious observer as well as the student of planetary science, this book will be an important library acquisition. J. Kelly Beatty is the senior editor of Sky & Telescope, where for more than twenty years he has reported the latest in planetary science. A renowned science writer, he was among the first journalists to gain access to the Soviet space program. Asteroid 2925 Beatty was named on the occasion of his marriage in 1983. Carolyn Collins Petersen is an award-winning science writer and co-author of Hubble Vision (Cambridge 1995). She has also written planetarium programs seen at hundreds of facilities around the world. Andrew L. Chaikin is a Boston-based science writer. He served as a research geologist at the Smithsonian Institution's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies. He is a contributing editor to

  10. Radioisotope Reduction Using Solar Power for Outer Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems have historically been (and still are) the power system of choice from a mass and size perspective for outer planetary missions. High demand for and limited availability of radioisotope fuel has made it necessary to investigate alternatives to this option. Low mass, high efficiency solar power systems have the potential for use at low outer planetary temperatures and illumination levels. This paper documents the impacts of using solar power systems instead of radioisotope power for all or part of the power needs of outer planetary spacecraft and illustrates the potential fuel savings of such an approach.

  11. The Solar-A mission - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawara, Y.; Takano, T.; Kato, T.; Kosugi, T.; Tsuneta, S.; Watanabe, T.; Kondo, I.; Uchida, Y.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the Solar-A spacecraft, launched in August 1991, is presented. This mission is dedicated primarily to the study of solar flares, especially of high-energy phenomena observed in the X- and gamma-ray ranges. With a coordinated set of instruments, including hard X-ray and soft X-ray imaging telescopes as well as spectrometers with advanced capabilities, it is expected to reveal many new aspects of flares and help better understand their physics, supporting international collaboration with ground-based observatories as well as theoretical investigations. The scientific instruments of Solar-A, especially the soft X-ray telescope, require sophisticated control of flight operations to exploit their capabilities with the constraints of the telemetry data rate and the capacity of the data recorder; this is achieved by the 'data processor' unit. Objectives include flare-related phenomena, dynamical phenomena not necessarily related to flares, and global coronal structure.

  12. Solar and Drag Sail Propulsion: From Theory to Mission Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Alhorn, Dean; Boudreaux, Mark; Casas, Joe; Stetson, Doug; Young, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Solar and drag sail technology is entering the mainstream for space propulsion applications within NASA and around the world. Solar sails derive propulsion by reflecting sunlight from a large, mirror- like sail made of a lightweight, reflective material. The continuous sunlight pressure provides efficient primary propulsion without the expenditure of propellant or any other consumable, allowing for very high V maneuvers and long-duration deep space exploration. Drag sails increase the aerodynamic drag on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft, providing a lightweight and relatively inexpensive approach for end-of-life deorbit and reentry. Since NASA began investing in the technology in the late 1990's, significant progress has been made toward their demonstration and implementation in space. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) managed the development and testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems and rigorously tested them under simulated space conditions in the Glenn Research Center's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. One of these systems, developed by L'Garde, Inc., is planned for flight in 2015. Called Sunjammer, the 38m sailcraft will unfurl in deep space and demonstrate solar sail propulsion and navigation as it flies to Earth-Sun L1. In the interim, NASA MSFC funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale drag sail system designed for small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D flew aboard the Fast Affordable Science and Technology SATellite (FASTSAT) in 2010, also developed by MSFC, and began its mission after it was was ejected from the FASTSAT into Earth orbit, where it remained for several weeks before deorbiting as planned. NASA recently selected two small satellite missions as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program, both of which will use solar sails to enable their scientific objectives. Lunar Flashlight, managed by JPL, will search for and map volatiles in permanently shadowed Lunar craters using a solar sail as a gigantic

  13. Priority Science Targets for Future Sample Return Missions within the Solar System Out to the Year 2050

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Burton, A. S.; Draper, D. S.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Jones, J. H.; Keller, L. P.; Lawrence, S. J.; Messenger, S. R.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Niles, P. B.; Righter, K.; Simon, J. I.; Snead, C. J.; Steele, A.; Treiman, A. H.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2017-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. JSC presently curates 9 different astromaterials collections: (1) Apollo samples, (2) LUNA samples, (3) Antarctic meteorites, (4) Cosmic dust particles, (5) Microparticle Impact Collection [formerly called Space Exposed Hardware], (6) Genesis solar wind, (7) Star-dust comet Wild-2 particles, (8) Stardust interstellar particles, and (9) Hayabusa asteroid Itokawa particles. In addition, the next missions bringing carbonaceous asteroid samples to JSC are Hayabusa 2/ asteroid Ryugu and OSIRIS-Rex/ asteroid Bennu, in 2021 and 2023, respectively. The Hayabusa 2 samples are provided as part of an international agreement with JAXA. The NASA Curation Office plans for the requirements of future collections in an "Advanced Curation" program. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. Here we review the science value and sample curation needs of some potential targets for sample return missions over the next 35 years.

  14. (abstract) A Solar Electric Propulsion Mission to the Moon and Beyond!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Pieters, C. M.; Konopliv, A.; Metzger, A.; Sercel, J.; Hickman, M.; Palac, D.; Sykes, M.

    1994-01-01

    The technological development of solar electric propulsion has advanced significantly over the last few years. Mission planners are now seriously studying which missions would benefit most from solar electric propulsion (SEP) and NASA's Solar System Exploration Division is contributing funding to ground and space qualification tests. In response to the impending release of NASA's Announcement of Opportunity for Discovery class planetary missions, we have undertaken a pre-Phase A study of a SEP mission to the Moon. This mission will not only return a wealth of new scientific data but will open up a whole new era of planetary exploration.

  15. The Europa Jupiter system mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, K.; Stankov, A.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Greeley, R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.-P.; van Houten, T.

    2009-04-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)— would be an international mission that would achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System be-fore settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupi-ter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and charac-terize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM would fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Coun-cil's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vi-sion for exploration of the outer solar system. The De-cadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission tar-get. EJSM would uniquely addresse several of the cen-tral themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM would investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Gany-mede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geo-logical, and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupi-ter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the formation and evolution of gas giant plan-ets and their satellites would be

  16. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  17. Prediction of solar particle events for exploration class missions

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, G. ||

    1993-12-31

    Manned space missions beyond the Earth`s magnetosphere require forecasts of solar activity to insure that crews are safe enough to perform their duties and live normal lives after they complete their missions. Solar flares and associated activity produce temporary increases in the number of ionized particles in interplanetary space near Earth, Mars, and the Moon. These increases, called Solar Particle Events (SPE), typically last a few hours and are a source of radiation intense enough to degrade people`s ability to perform physical activity, to cause lingering after effects such as cancer and cataracts, and in extreme cases, to endanger lives. Crews on missions beyond the protective shield of Earth`s atmosphere and magnetic field can go into storm shelters or take protective chemicals if they have timely forecasts of SPEs. A forecast and observing system for SPEs and associated solar activity is already in place. In this paper, comparisons of forecasts and observations for the past several years are analyzed to identify strengths and shortcomings of the present program. This data indicates that forecasts made tens of minutes to a few hours in advance are rather reliable in forecasting whether SPEs will occur but are less reliable in forecasting the intensity of SPEs. Longer term forecasts, made one to three days in advance, would be useful for planning exploration trips away from protective shelters. Though such forecasts are moderately reliable for solar flares, they are less reliable in forecasting whether a SPE will follow.

  18. Mars Mission Concepts: SAR and Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, Michael; Clifford, S.; Lawrence, S.; Klaus, K.; Smith, D.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: The time has come to leverage technology advances to reduce the cost and increase the flight rate of planetary missions, while actively developing a scientific and engineering workforce to achieve national space objectives. Mission Science at Mars: A SAR imaging radar offers an ability to conduct high resolution investigations of the shallow subsurface of Mars, enabling identification of fine-scale layering within the Martian polar layered deposits (PLD), as well as the identification of pingos, investigations of polygonal terrain, and measurements of the thickness of mantling layers at non-polar latitudes. It would allow systematic near-surface prospecting, which is tremendously useful for human exploration purposes. Limited color capabilities in a notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would enable the generation of false color images, resulting in useful science results, and the stereo data could be reduced into high-resolution Digital Elevation Models uniquely useful for exploration planning and science purposes. Mission Concept: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Our concept involves using a Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Summary/Conclusions: A robust and compelling Mars mission can be designed to meet the 2018 Mars launch window opportunity. Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute the baseline science mission and conduct necessary Mars Sample Return Technology Demonstrations in Mars orbit on the same mission. An observation spacecraft platform like the high power 5Kw) 702SP at Mars also enables the use of a SAR instrument to reveal new insights and understanding of the Mars regolith for both

  19. Very high delta-V missions to the edge of the solar system and beyond enabled by the dual-stage 4-grid ion thruster concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramanti, C.; Izzo, D.; Samaraee, T.; Walker, R.; Fearn, D.

    2009-04-01

    A new and innovative type of gridded ion thruster, the "Dual-Stage 4-Grid" or DS4G concept, has been proposed and its predicted high performance validated under an ESA research, development and test programme. The DS4G concept is able to operate at very high specific impulse and thrust density values well in excess of conventional 3-grid ion thrusters at the expense of a higher power-to-thrust ratio. This makes it a possible candidate for ambitious missions requiring very high delta-V capability and high power. Such missions include 100 kW-level multi-ton probes based on nuclear and solar electric propulsion (SEP) to distant Kuiper Belt Object and inner Oort cloud objects, and to the Local Interstellar medium. In this paper, the DS4G concept is introduced and its application to this mission class is investigated. Benefits of using the DS4G over conventional thrusters include reduced transfer time and increased payload mass, if suitably advanced lightweight power system technologies are developed. A mission-level optimisation is performed (launch, spacecraft system design and low-thrust trajectory combined) in order to find design solutions with minimum transfer time, maximum scientific payload mass, and to explore the influence of power system specific mass. It is found that the DS4G enables an 8-ton spacecraft with a payload mass of 400 kg, equipped with a 65 kW nuclear reactor with specific mass 25 kg/kW (e.g. Topaz-type with Brayton cycle conversion) to reach 200 AU in 23 years after an Earth escape launch by Ariane 5. In this scenario, the optimum specific impulse for the mission is over 10,000 s, which is well within the capabilities of a single 65 kW DS4G thruster. It is also found that an interstellar probe mission to 200 AU could be accomplished in 25 years using a "medium-term" SEP system with a lightweight 155 kW solar array (2 kg/kW specific mass) and thruster PPU (3.7 kg/kW) and an Earth escape launch on Ariane 5. In this case, the optimum specific

  20. Solar Electric and Chemical Propulsion for a Titan Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael; Green, Shaun E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Coverstone, Victoria L.

    2005-01-01

    Systems analyses were performed for a Titan Explorer Mission characterized by Earth-Saturn transfer stages using solar electric power generation and propulsion systems for primary interplanetary propulsion, and chemical propulsion for capture at Titan. An examination of a range of system factors was performed to determine their effect on the payload delivery capability to Titan. The effect of varying launch vehicle type, solar array power level, ion thruster number, specific impulse, trip time, and Titan capture stage chemical propellant choice was investigated. The major purpose of the study was to demonstrate the efficacy of applying advanced ion propulsion system technologies like NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), coupled with state-of-the-art (SOA) and advanced chemical technologies to a Flagship class mission. This study demonstrated that a NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM) payload of 406 kg could be successfully delivered to Titan using the baseline advanced ion propulsion system in conjunction with SOA chemical propulsion for Titan capture. In addition, the SEPS/Chemical system of this study is compared to an all- chemical NASA DRM mission. Results showed that the NEXT- based SEPS/Chemical system was able to deliver the required payload to Titan in 5 years less transfer time and on a smaller launch vehicle than the SOA chemical option.

  1. Electric Solar Wind Sail (E-sail) mission to asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merikallio, Sini; Janhunen, Pekka; Toivanen, Petri; Jouni Envall, M.(Tech.).

    2012-07-01

    There are an estimated one to two million asteroids of diameter over 1 km in-between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Impact threat, mining prospects and the understanding of solar system history make asteroids interesting objects for further in-situ studies. Electric Solar Wind Sail (E-sail) [1] technology enables touring several different asteroids with the same spacecraft. It is a propulsion technology first proposed in 2006 and currently developed with the EUs FP7 funding (http://www.electric-sailing.fi/fp7). The E-sail utilizes long, conducting, highly charged tethers to gather momentum from the solar wind ions. It does not consume any propellant and is well maneuverable. The Electric Solar Wind Sail producing 1 N of thrust at 1 AU distance from the Sun could be manufactured to weigh 100-150 kg in total. The constant acceleration gives a large advantage over traditional methods when calculated over the mission lifetime. In a ten year mission a baseline 1 N E-sail could produce 300 MNs of total impulse, Itot. As an example, such a total impulse would be able to move a 3 million ton Earth-threatening asteroid to a safer track [2]. With chemical propellant it would take 100 000 tons of fuel to achieve the same feat. Scientists and miners could have a closer look at several targets and they could decide the next target and the duration of investigations once at the vicinity of the asteroid, so the operations would be very flexible. Such a mission could characterize and map several asteroids, some with rapid fly-bys and a few chosen ones during lengthier rendezvous. [1] Janhunen, P., et. al, Electric solar wind sail: Towards test missions (Invited article), Rev. Sci. Instrum., 81, 111301, 2010. [2] Merikallio, S. and P. Janhunen, Moving an asteroid with electric solar wind sail, Astrophys. Space Sci. Trans., 6, 41-48, 2010

  2. The 1989 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1989 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (4) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter, and (6) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) X-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  3. The 1988 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1988 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometers; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronagraph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts, or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observation. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  4. The 1980 solar maximum mission event listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speich, D. M.; Nelson, J. J.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1991-01-01

    Information is contained on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1980 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer, (4) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (6) Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, and (7) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from Sun center are also included.

  5. Prospects for future solar-wind missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bochsler, P.; Moebius, E.

    1993-01-01

    Possible activities and future goals for solar wind research in the post Soho era are discussed. Two major enterprises which will open up important fields in the future study of the Sun are addressed. The first deals with in situ study of the solar corona, a region that has not been accessible for direct study in the past. This exploratory work will include the coronal heating and the acceleration of the solar wind much closer to its origin and the determination of the charge states of a large number of ions as a diagnostic tool for fractionation processes in these regions. The second major goal will be the setting up of a baseline for the isotopic composition in the solar system by studying a sample from the Sun in detail. These studies will be complemented by a direct comparison with extra solar samples of interstellar pick up ions, which become accessible with the same instrumentation as is necessary for the detailed investigation of the solar wind's isotopic composition. In order to achieve these goals, advanced composition experiments are developed to investigate the solar wind with enhanced mass resolution, considerably increased geometrical factor, and improved time resolution. The placing of sophisticated mass/charge spectrometers, with the ability to investigate both charge and velocity distributions with enhanced time resolution, in the solar wind acceleration region, is also proposed.

  6. Solar and Drag Sail Propulsion: From Theory to Mission Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Alhorn, Dean; Boudreaux, Mark; Casas, Joe; Stetson, Doug; Young, Roy

    2014-01-01

    , and began its mission after it was ejected from the FASTSAT into Earth orbit, where it remained for several weeks before deorbiting as planned. NASA recently selected two small satellite missions for study as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program, both of which will use solar sails to enable their scientific objectives. Lunar Flashlight, managed by JPL, will search for and map volatiles in permanently shadowed Lunar craters using a solar sail as a gigantic mirror to steer sunlight into the shaded craters. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission will use the sail as primary propulsion allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interests for possible future human exploration. Both are being studied for possible launch in 2017. The Planetary Society's privately funded LightSail-A and -B cubesat-class spacecraft are nearly complete and scheduled for launch in 2015 and 2016, respectively. MMA Design launched their DragNet deorbit system in November 2013, which will deploy from the STPSat-3 spacecraft as an end of life deorbit system. The University of Surrey is building a suite of cubesat class drag and solar sail systems that will be launched beginning in 2015. As the technology matures, solar sails will increasingly be used to enable science and exploration missions that are currently impossible or prohibitively expensive using traditional chemical and electric rockets. For example, the NASA Heliophysics Decadal Survey identifies no less than three such missions for possible flight before the mid-2020's. Solar and drag sail propulsion technology is no longer merely an interesting theoretical possibility; it has been demonstrated in space and is now a critical technology for science and solar system exploration.

  7. End-to-End Trajectory for Conjunction Class Mars Missions Using Hybrid Solar-Electric/Chemical Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and solar-electric propulsion systems are used to deliver crew and cargo to exploration destinations. By combining chemical and solar-electric propulsion into a single spacecraft and applying each where it is most effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel efficient than an all chemical propulsion architecture without significant increases to trip time. The architecture calls for the aggregation of exploration assets in cislunar space prior to departure for Mars and utilizes high energy lunar-distant high Earth orbits for the final staging prior to departure. This paper presents the detailed analysis of various cislunar operations for the EMC Hybrid architecture as well as the result of the higher fidelity end-to-end trajectory analysis to understand the implications of the design choices on the Mars exploration campaign.

  8. Power Systems for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Power system options were reviewed for their appropriateness to meet mission requirements and guidelines. Contending system technologies include: solar, nuclear, isotopic, electro-chemical and chemical. Mission elements can basically be placed into two categories; in-space transportation systems, both cargo and piloted; and surface systems, both stationary and mobile. All transportation and surface element power system requirements were assessed for application synergies that would suggest common hardware (duplicates of the same or similar design) or multi-use (reuse system in a different application/location), wherever prudent.

  9. A Study of Possible Solar Sail Applications for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percy, Thomas K.; Taylor, Travis; Powell, T. Conley

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed in conjunction with the In Space Technology Investment Area of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to investigate potential applications of solar sails to Mars missions. While solar sails have been proposed as possible candidates for several missions, including Geostorm and a Polar Observer mission, Mars has often been overlooked as a potential destination. It was found that solar sails may have potential in Mars observation missions with smaller payloads. Sail aerocapture maneuvers also show an improvement in payload delivery capability. This study has shown that solar sail spacecraft rival chemical interplanetary probes to Mars and may have applications in future Mars exploration.

  10. Advanced solar-propelled cargo spacecraft for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, J.; Beall, M.; Burianek, J.; Cinniger, A.; Dunmire, B.; Haberman, E.; Iwamoto, J.; Johnson, S.; Mccracken, S.; Miller, M.

    1989-01-01

    At the University of Washington, three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars-support missions have been investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: a solar radiation absorption (SRA) system, a solar-pumped laser (SPL) system, and a solar powered mangetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process developed at the University of Washington. A solar concentrator focuses sunlight into an absorption chamber. A mixture of hydrogen and potassium vapor absorbs the incident radiation and is heated to approximately 3700 K. The hot propellant gas exhausts through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SRA has an I(sub sp) of approximately 1000 sec and produces a thrust of 2940 N using two thrust chambers. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sun-synchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The laser beams are transmitted to the spacecraft via laser relay satellites. The laser energy heats the hydrogen propellant through a plasma breakdown process in the center of an absorption chamber. Propellant flowing through the chamber, heated by the plasma core, expands through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SPL has an I(sub sp) of 1285 sec and produces a thrust of 1200 N using two thrust chambers. The MPD system uses indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. In this system, the argon propellant is ionized and electromagnetically accelerated by a magnetoplasmadynamic arc to produce thrust. The MPD spacecraft has an I(sub sp) of 2490 sec and produces a thrust of 100 N. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary

  11. Analysis of heliographic missions complementary to ISPM. [International Solar Polar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Five concepts were formulated, analyzed, and compared for satisfying heliographic science mission objectives both with and without a concurrent International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Spacecraft. Key astrodynamic constraints and performance factors are known from literature for the Lagrange point mission and the sun-synchronous earth orbit mission, but are set forth in this paper for the three solar orbiting missions concepts considered. Any of these five missions should be doable at modest cost since no strong cost drivers were encountered in the analyses. The mission to be flown depends on mission capability to meet science measurement needs more than on strong economic factors. Each mission offers special advantages for particular measurement emphasis. Based on selected qualitative mission discriminators, an overall 'best mission' was selected and described in some detail.

  12. Analysis of Roll Steering for Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pederson, Dylan, M.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nothing is more vital to a spacecraft than power. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) uses that power to provide a safe, reliable, and, most importantly, fuel efficient means to propel a spacecraft to its destination. The power performance of an SEP vehicle s solar arrays and electrical power system (EPS) is largely influenced by the environment in which the spacecraft is operating. One of the most important factors that determines solar array power performance is how directly the arrays are pointed to the sun. To get the most power from the solar arrays, the obvious solution is to point them directly at the sun at all times. Doing so is not a problem in deep space, as the environment and pointing conditions that a spacecraft faces are fairly constant and are easy to accommodate, if necessary. However, large and sometimes rapid variations in environmental and pointing conditions are experienced by Earth orbiting spacecraft. SEP spacecraft also have the additional constraint of needing to keep the thrust vector aligned with the velocity vector. Thus, it is important to analyze solar array power performance for any vehicle that spends an extended amount of time orbiting the Earth, and to determine how much off-pointing can be tolerated to produce the required power for a given spacecraft. This paper documents the benefits and drawbacks of perfectly pointing the solar arrays of an SEP spacecraft spiraling from Earth orbit, and how this might be accomplished. Benefits and drawbacks are defined in terms of vehicle mass, power, volume, complexity, and cost. This paper will also look at the application of various solar array pointing methods to future missions. One such pointing method of interest is called roll steering . Roll steering involves rolling the entire vehicle twice each orbit. Roll steering, combined with solar array gimbal tracking, is used to point the solar arrays perfectly towards the sun at all points in the orbit, while keeping the vehicle thrusters aligned

  13. Modeling and Simulation for Mission Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, William I.

    1997-01-01

    For the last two years, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been engaged in the process of re-engineering the way in which it does business. a signigicant portion of this effort is devoted toward improving engineering processes such as the building of advanced spacecraft and the design of scientific missions to investigate the solar system and beyond.

  14. Aerothermal Instrumentation Loads To Implement Aeroassist Technology in Future Robotic and Human Missions to MARS and Other Locations Within the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, Devendra S.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2002-01-01

    The strategy of NASA to explore space objects in the vicinity of Earth and other planets of the solar system includes robotic and human missions. This strategy requires a road map for technology development that will support the robotic exploration and provide safety for the humans traveling to other celestial bodies. Aeroassist is one of the key elements of technology planning for the success of future robot and human exploration missions to other celestial bodies. Measurement of aerothermodynamic parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acceleration is of prime importance for aeroassist technology implementation and for the safety and affordability of the mission. Instrumentation and methods to measure such parameters have been reviewed in this report in view of past practices, current commercial availability of instrumentation technology, and the prospects of improvement and upgrade according to the requirements. Analysis of the usability of each identified instruments in terms of cost for efficient weight-volume ratio, power requirement, accuracy, sample rates, and other appropriate metrics such as harsh environment survivability has been reported.

  15. Power systems for future missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive scenario of future missions was developed and applicability of different power technologies to these missions was assessed. Detailed technology development roadmaps for selected power technologies were generated. A simple methodology to evaluate economic benefits of current and future power system technologies by comparing Life Cycle Costs of potential missions was developed. The methodology was demonstrated by comparing Life Cycle Costs for different implementation strategies of DIPS/CBC technology to a selected set of missions.

  16. STS-120 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski Repairs ISS Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    While anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), astronaut Scott Parazynski, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, Parazynski cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Astronaut Doug Wheelock (out of frame), mission specialist, assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  17. STS-120 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski Repairs ISS Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    While anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), astronaut Scott Parazynski, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, Parazynski cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Astronaut Doug Wheelock (out of frame), mission specialist, assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  18. NanoSail-D: A Solar Sail Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Whorton, Mark; Heaton, Andy; Pinson, robin; Laue, Greg; Adams, Charles

    2009-01-01

    During the past decade, within the United States, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was heavily engaged in the development of revolutionary new technologies for in-space propulsion. One of the major in-space propulsion technologies developed was a solar sail propulsion system. Solar sail propulsion uses the solar radiation pressure exerted by the momentum transfer of reflected photons to generate a net force on a spacecraft. To date, solar sail propulsion systems have been designed for large spacecraft in the tens to hundreds of kilograms mass range. Recently, however, MSFC has been investigating the application of solar sails for small satellite propulsion. Likewise, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has been developing small spacecraft missions that have a need for amass-efficient means of satisfying deorbit requirements. Hence, a synergistic collaboration was established between these two NASA field Centers with the objective of conducting a flight demonstration of solar sail technologies for small satellites. The NanoSail-D mission flew onboard the ill-fated Falcon Rocket launched August 2, 2008, and, due to the failure of that rocket, never achieved orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare is ready for flight and a suitable launch arrangement is being actively pursued. Both the original sailcraft and the flight spare are hereafter referred to as NanoSail-D. The sailcraft consists of a sail subsystem stowed in a three-element CubeSat. Shortly after deployment of the NanoSail-D, the solar sail will deploy and mission operations will commence. This demonstration flight has two primary technical objectives: (1) to successfully stow and deploy the sail and (2) to demonstrate deorbit functionality. Given a near-term opportunity for launch on Falcon, the project was given the challenge of delivering the flight hardware in 6 mo, which required a significant constraint on flight system functionality. As a consequence, passive attitude stabilization of the spacecraft

  19. Solar Probe Plus: A NASA Mission to Touch the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, N. J.; Bale, S. D.; Decker, R. B.; Howard, R.; Kasper, J. C.; McComas, D. J.; Szabo, A.; Velli, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Solar Probe Plus (SPP), currently in Phase B, will be the first mission to fly into the low solar corona, revealing how the corona is heated and the solar wind is accelerated, solving two fundamental mysteries that have been top priority science goals since such a mission was first proposed in 1958. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. The primary science goal of the Solar Probe Plus mission is to determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun's coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what mechanisms accelerate and transport energetic particles. The SPP mission will achieve this by identifying and quantifying the basic plasma physical processes at the heart of the Heliosphere. SPP uses an innovative mission design, significant technology development and a risk-reducing engineering development to meet the SPP science objectives: 1) Trace the flow of energy that heats and accelerates the solar corona and solar wind; 2) Determine the structure and dynamics of the plasma and magnetic fields at the sources of the solar wind; and 3) Explore mechanisms that accelerate and transport energetic particles. In this poster, we present Solar Probe Plus and examine how the mission will address the science questions that have remained unanswered for over 5 decades.

  20. A thermal shield concept for the Solar Probe mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyake, Robert N.; Millard, Jerry M.; Randolph, James E.

    1991-01-01

    The Solar Probe spacecraft will travel to within 4 solar radii of the sun's center while performing a variety of fundamental experiments in space physics. Exposure to 2900 earth suns (400 W/sq cm) at perihelion imposes severe thermal and material demands on a solar shield system designed to protect the payload that will reside within the shield's shadow envelope or umbra. The design of the shield subsystem is a thermal/materials challenge requiring new technology development. While currently in the preproject study phase, anticipating a 1995 project start, shield preliminary design efforts are currently underway. This paper documents the current status of the mission concept, the materials issues, the configuration concept for the shield subsystem, the current configuration studies performed to date, and the required material testing to provide a database to support a design effort required to develop the shield subsystem.

  1. The Implementation of Advanced Solar Array Technology in Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.; White, Steve; Douglas, Mark; Spence, Brian; Jones, P. Alan

    2003-01-01

    Advanced solar array technology is expected to be critical in achieving the mission goals on many future NASA space flight programs. Current PV cell development programs offer significant potential and performance improvements. However, in order to achieve the performance improvements promised by these devices, new solar array structures must be designed and developed to accommodate these new PV cell technologies. This paper will address the use of advanced solar array technology in future NASA space missions and specifically look at how newer solar cell technologies impact solar array designs and overall power system performance.

  2. Results from the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.

    1986-01-01

    The major results from SMM (Solar Max Mission) are presented as they relate to the understanding of the energy release and particle transportation processes that led to the high energy X-ray aspects of solar flares. Evidence is reviewed for a 152- to 158-day periodicity in various aspects of solar activity including the rate of occurrence of hard X-ray and gamma-ray flares. The statistical properties of over 7000 hard X-ray flares detected with the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer are presented including the spectrum of peak rates and the distribution of the photo number spectrum. A flare classification scheme is used to divide flares into three different types. Type A flares have purely thermal, compact sources with very steep hard X-ray spectra. Type B flares are impulsive bursts which show double footpoints in hard X-rays, and soft-hard-soft spectral evolution. Type C flares have gradually varying hard X-ray and microwave fluxes from high altitudes and show hardening of the X-ray spectrum through the peak and on the decay. SSM data are presented for examples of Type B and Type C events. New results are presented showing coincident hard X rays, O V, and UV continuum observations in Type B events with a time resolution of 128 ms. The subsecond variations in the hard X-ray flux during 10% of the stronger events are discussed and the fastest observed variation in a time of 20 ms is presented. The properties of Type C flares are presented as determined primarily from the non-imaged hard X-ray and microwave spectral data. A model based on the association of Type C flares and coronal mass ejections is presented to explain many of the characteristics of these gradual flares.

  3. The Ion Propulsion System for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Sekerak, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (ARRM) whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of NASA'a future beyond-low-Earth-orbit, human-crewed exploration plans. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. This paper presents the conceptual design of the ARRM ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing development activities, the status of the planned technology maturation for the mission through flight hardware delivery, and the status of the mission formulation and spacecraft acquisition.

  4. Mission planning for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  5. Advances in Radiation-Tolerant Solar Arrays for SEP Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    As the power levels of commercial communications satellites reach the 20 kWe and higher, new options begin to emerge for transferring the satellite from LEO to GEO. In the past electric propulsion has been demonstrated successfully for this mission - albeit under unfortunate circumstances when the kick motor failed. The unexpected use of propellant for the electric propulsion (EP) system compromised the life of that vehicle, but did demonstrate the viability of such an approach. Replacing the kick motor on a satellite and replacing that mass by additional propellant for the EP system as well as mass for additional revenue-producing transponders should lead to major benefits for the provider. Of course this approach requires that the loss in solar array power during transit of the Van Allen radiation belts is not excessive and still enables the 15 to 20 year mission life. In addition, SEP missions to Jupiter, with its exceptional radiation belts, would mandate a radiation-resistant solar array to compete with a radioisotope alternative. Several critical issues emerge as potential barriers to this approach: reducing solar array radiation damage, operating the array at high voltage (>300 V) for extended times for Hall or ion thrusters, designing an array that will be resistant to micrometeoroid impacts and the differing environmental conditions as the vehicle travels from LEO to GEO (or at Jupiter), producing an array that is light weight to preserve payload mass fraction - and to do this at a cost that is lower than today's arrays. This paper will describe progress made to date on achieving an array that meets all these requirements and is also useful for deep space electric propulsion missions.

  6. Microspacecraft missions and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross M.

    1989-01-01

    The microspacecraft is defined as a fully functional spacecraft whose mass is on the order of 10 kg or less. The results of a recent microspacecraft workshop are reviewed. The workshop concluded that microspacecraft are feasible and can be enabling for missions that require multiple simultaneous measurements displaced in position or very high mission delta-VSDIO-s. The paper includes discussions of science objectives and instruments as well as potential missions. Potential missions include a very close approach to the sun, determining the origin of gamma ray bursters and a search for gravity waves. Technology for microspacecraft is coming from the 'Lightsat' or small satellite community and developments sponsored by the SDIO. Concepts for microspacecraft power and telecommunications subsystems developed at the JPL are presented. Due to their small size, microspacecraft can be launched by traditional chemical rockets and also unconventional launchers such as electromagnetic launchers.

  7. Momentum Management for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew; Diedrich, Benjamin L.; Orphee, Juan; Stiltner, Brandon; Becker, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The Momentum Management (MM) system is described for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid Scout (NEA Scout) cubesat solar sail mission. Unlike many solar sail mission proposals that used solar torque as the primary or only attitude control system, NEA Scout uses small reaction wheels (RW) and a reaction control system (RCS) with cold gas thrusters, as described in the abstract "Solar Sail Attitude Control System for Near Earth Asteroid Scout Cubesat Mission." The reaction wheels allow fine pointing and higher rates with low mass actuators to meet the science, communication, and trajectory guidance requirements. The MM system keeps the speed of the wheels within their operating margins using a combination of solar torque and the RCS.

  8. Mariner Mars 1971 project. Volume 3: Mission operations system implementation and standard mission flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Mariner Mars 1971 mission which was another step in the continuing program of planetary exploration in search of evidence of exobiological activity, information on the origin and evolution of the solar system, and basic science data related to the study of planetary physics, geology, planetology, and cosmology is reported. The mission plan was designed for two spacecraft, each performing a separate but complementary mission. However, a single mission plan was actually used for Mariner 9 because of failure of the launch vehicle for the first spacecraft. The implementation is described, of the Mission Operations System, including organization, training, and data processing development and operations, and Mariner 9 spacecraft cruise and orbital operations through completion of the standard mission from launch to solar occultation in April 1972 are discussed.

  9. International solar-terrestrial physics program: a plan for the core spaceflight missions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This brochure has been prepared to describe the scope of the science problems to be investigated and the mission plan for the core International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. This information is intended to stimulate discussions and plans for the comprehensive worldwide ISTP Program. The plan for the study of the solar - terrestrial system is included. The Sun, geospace, and Sun-Earth interaction is discussed as is solar dynamics and the origins of solar winds.

  10. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  11. Introduction to mission data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, S.; Rasmussen, R.

    2001-01-01

    MDS state-based architecture. A system compromises project assets in the context of some external environments that influences them. The function of mission software is to monitor and control a system to meet operators' intents.

  12. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The STS 41-C National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the eleventh Shuttle flight and fifth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Also summarized are the significant problems that occurred during STS 41-C, and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight. The major objectives of flight STS 41-C were to successfully deploy the LDEF (long duration exposure facility) and retrieve, repair and redeploy the SMM (Solar Maximum Mission) spacecraft, and perform functions of IMAX and Cinema 360 cameras.

  13. MSFC Skylab contamination control systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Cluster external contamination control evaluation was made throughout the Skylab Mission. This evaluation indicated that contamination control measures instigated during the design, development, and operational phases of this program were adequate to reduce the general contamination environment external to the Cluster below the threshold senstivity levels for experiments and affected subsystems. Launch and orbit contamination control features included eliminating certain vents, rerouting vents for minimum contamination impact, establishing filters, incorporating materials with minimum outgassing characteristics and developing operational constraints and mission rules to minimize contamination effects. Prior to the launch of Skylab, contamination control math models were developed which were used to predict Cluster surface deposition and background brightness levels throughout the mission. The report summarizes the Skylab system and experiment contamination control evaluation. The Cluster systems and experiments evaluated include Induced Atmosphere, Corollary and ATM Experiments, Thermal Control Surfaces, Solar Array Systems, Windows and Star Tracker.

  14. The genesis solar-wind sample return mission

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger C

    2009-01-01

    The compositions of the Earth's crust and mantle, and those of the Moon and Mars, are relatively well known both isotopically and elementally. The same is true of our knowledge of the asteroid belt composition, based on meteorite analyses. Remote measurements of Venus, the Jovian atmosphere, and the outer planet moons, have provided some estimates of their compositions. The Sun constitutes a large majority, > 99%, of all the matter in the solar system. The elemental composition of the photosphere, the visible 'surface' of the Sun, is constrained by absorption lines produced by particles above the surface. Abundances for many elements are reported to the {+-}10 or 20% accuracy level. However, the abundances of other important elements, such as neon, cannot be determined in this way due to a relative lack of atomic states at low excitation energies. Additionally and most importantly, the isotopic composition of the Sun cannot be determined astronomically except for a few species which form molecules above sunspots, and estimates derived from these sources lack the accuracy desired for comparison with meteoritic and planetary surface samples measured on the Earth. The solar wind spreads a sample of solar particles throughout the heliosphere, though the sample is very rarified: collecting a nanogram of oxygen, the third most abundant element, in a square centimeter cross section at the Earth's distance from the Sun takes five years. Nevertheless, foil collectors exposed to the solar wind for periods of hours on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo missions were used to determine the helium and neon solar-wind compositions sufficiently to show that the Earth's atmospheric neon was significantly evolved relative to the Sun. Spacecraft instruments developed subsequently have provided many insights into the composition of the solar wind, mostly in terms of elemental composition. These instruments have the advantage of observing a number of parameters simultaneously

  15. Mission operations computing systems evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurzhals, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its preparation for the operational Shuttle era, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently replacing most of the mission operations computing complexes that have supported near-earth space missions since the late 1960's. Major associated systems include the Metric Data Facility (MDF) which preprocesses, stores, and forwards all near-earth satellite tracking data; the Orbit Computation System (OCS) which determines related production orbit and attitude information; the Flight Dynamics System (FDS) which formulates spacecraft attitude and orbit maneuvers; and the Command Management System (CMS) which handles mission planning, scheduling, and command generation and integration. Management issues and experiences for the resultant replacement process are driven by a wide range of possible future mission requirements, flight-critical system aspects, complex internal system interfaces, extensive existing applications software, and phasing to optimize systems evolution.

  16. Crewed Mission to Callisto Using Advanced Plasma Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; White, S.; Patton, B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Chapman, J.; Hopkins, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the engineering of several vehicles designed for a crewed mission to the Jovian satellite Callisto. Each subsystem is discussed in detail. Mission and trajectory analysis for each mission concept is described. Crew support components are also described. Vehicles were developed using both fission powered magneto plasma dynamic (MPD) thrusters and magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion systems. Conclusions were drawn regarding the usefulness of these propulsion systems for crewed exploration of the outer solar system.

  17. Trajectory analysis for solar electric propulsion stage /SEPS/ planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dazzo, E. J.; Nagorski, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    This paper summarizes a portion of the planetary mission analysis results of past and present studies conducted by Rockwell International for NASA-MSFC (Contract NAS8-27360) dealing with the feasibility of a Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS). The SEPS is envisioned as an upper stage of a transportation system capable of delivering either separable payload spacecraft or attached science packages to various planetary targets. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that, from a payload performance capability standpoint, a common SEP Stage can deliver various payloads to a host of planetary targets including inner and outer planets, asteroids, and comets.

  18. Systems Analysis for a Venus Aerocapture Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Starr, Brett R.; Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kontinos, Dean A.; Chen, Y. K.; Laub, Bernard; Olejniczak, Joseph; Wright, Michael J.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Justus, Carl G.

    2006-01-01

    Previous high level analysis has indicated that significant mass savings may be possible for planetary science missions if aerocapture is employed to place a spacecraft in orbit. In 2001 the In-Space Propulsion program identified aerocapture as one of the top three propulsion technologies for planetary exploration but that higher fidelity analysis was required to verify the favorable results and to determine if any supporting technology gaps exist that would enable or enhance aerocapture missions. A series of three studies has been conducted to assess, from an overall system point of view, the merit of using aerocapture at Titan, Neptune and Venus. These were chosen as representative of a moon with an atmosphere, an outer giant gas planet and an inner planet. The Venus mission, based on desirable science from plans for Solar System Exploration and Principal Investigator proposals, to place a spacecraft in a 300km polar orbit was examined and the details of the study are presented in this paper.

  19. Project Helios-A. [mission planning for solar probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Helios-A solar probe which will fly within 28 million miles of the sun is described as a joint American and German project. The spacecraft and instrument designs, planned experiments, and mission are briefly discussed.

  20. Coordinated science with the Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe Plus, Interhelioprobe and SPORT missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, Milan; Vourlidas, Angelos; Zimovets, Ivan; Velli, Marco; Zhukov, Andrei; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Liu, Ying; Bale, Stuart; Ming, Xiong

    The concurrent science operations of the ESA Solar Orbiter (SO), NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP), Russian Interhelioprobe (IHP) and Chinese SPORT missions will offer a truly unique epoch in heliospheric science. While each mission will achieve its own important science objectives, taken together the four missions will be capable of doing the multi-point measurements required to address many problems in Heliophysics such as the coronal origin of the solar wind plasma and magnetic field or the way the Solar transients drive the heliospheric variability. In this presentation, we discuss the capabilities of the four missions and the Science synergy that will be realized by concurrent operations

  1. An ultraviolet polarimeter for the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, J.; Griner, D.; Montenegro, J.; Nola, F.; Rutledge, F.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Wyman, C. L.; Beckers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission experiment contingency will include one instrument originally designed and built for OSO-8. The engineering model of the OSO-8 High Resolution Spectrometer has been rebuilt to make it lightworthy and to encompass several new functions, including solar ultraviolet polarimetry. The rebuilt package is designated as the High Resolution Ultraviolet Spectrometer/Polarimeter. The device that enables polarimetry is a dual channel rotating waveplate system. The waveplates are magnesium fluoride and will allow measurements to be made ranging from the Lyman alpha line to near visible ultraviolet. One wavelength channel will use the polarization characteristics of the spectrometer diffraction grating as the analyzer. The second channel has a built-in four-mirror polarizer. This paper describes the polarimeter design, operation, and calibration.

  2. Manned Mars mission solar physics: Solar energetic particle prediction and warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    There are specific risks to the crew of the manned Mars mission from energetic particles generated by solar activity. Therefore, mission planning must provide for solar monitoring and solar activity forecasts. The main need is to be able to anticipate the energetic particle events associated with some solar flares and, occasionally, with erupting filaments. A second need may be for forecasts of solar interference with radio communication between the manned Mars mission (during any of its three phases) and Earth. These two tasks are compatible with a small solar observatory that would be used during the transit and orbital phases of the mission. Images of the Sun would be made several times per hour and, together with a solar X-ray detector, used to monitor for the occurrence of solar activity. The data would also provide a basis for research studies of the interplanetary medium utilizing observations covering more of the surface of the Sun than just the portion facing Earth.

  3. Solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

  4. Solar particle event predictions for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Gary

    1986-01-01

    Manned space missions to Mars require consideration of the effects of high radiation doses produced by solar particle events (SPE). Without some provision for protection, the radiation doses from such events can exceed standards for maximum exposure and may be life threatening. Several alternative ways of providing protection require a capability for predicting SPE in time to take some protective actions. The SPE may occur at any time during the eleven year solar cycle so that two year missions cannot be scheduled to insure avoiding them although they are less likely to occur at solar minimum. The present forecasts are sufficiently accurate to use for setting alert modes but are not accurate enough to make yes/no decisions that have major mission operational impacts. Forecasts made for one to two year periods can only be done as probabilistic forecasts where there is a chance of SPE occurring. These are current capabilities but are not likely to change significantly by the year 2000 with the exception of some improvement in the one to ten day forecasts. The effects of SPE are concentrated in solar longitudes near where their parent solar flares occur, which will require a manned Mars mission to carry its own small solar telescope to monitor the development of potentially dangerous solar activity. The preferred telescope complement includes a solar X-ray imager, a hydrogen-alpha scanner, and a solar magnetograph.

  5. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  6. Using a Solar Orbit for a SIRTF-Type Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, J.; Eisenhardt, P.

    1992-12-01

    A solar orbit in which a spacecraft flies nearly in formation with the Earth will be stable for many years if the spacecraft drifts away from the Earth at a rate of several million km per year. There are many advantages of the solar orbit over an Earth orbit. The spacecraft will be completely out of the Van Allen radiation belt, although it will be more exposed to solar flares. There is no need for a propulsion system since the spacecraft is just drifting in space. Pointing and control, as well as fault protection are much simplified. Communications and operations can be geared to a 24 hour day, although a directional antenna is needed because of the increasing distance. For an astronomical telescope, additional advantages are the elimination of the need for Earth/Moon avoidance, greatly simplified baffles, and the ability to view large portions of the sky continuously for days or even months. We describe a mission concept that uses an Atlas IIAS to launch an 85 cm diameter infrared telescope with a 3 year minimum cryogenic lifetime into a solar orbit. This concept is radically different from other infrared missions such as IRAS and COBE which used low altitude (900 km) circular orbits, or the Infrared Space Observatory which will have a highly elliptical 24-hour orbit. The concept provides most of the scientific capabilities of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), as launched by a Titan IV/Centaur into a 100,000 km altitude high Earth orbit (HEO). Two additional aspects of the solar orbit make the new concept viable. The first is that the solar orbit requires much less energy to achieve than does HEO. The Atlas IIAS can place 2500 kg into a solar orbit, vs. 1500 kg into HEO. The second is the absence of the Earth's thermal radiation which allows a colder outer shell temperature. Consequently, 60% of the cryogenic lifetime of the SIRTF HEO concept can be achieved with a helium dewar one quarter the size. All of these advantages result in tremendous size

  7. LEMUR: Large European module for solar Ultraviolet Research. European contribution to JAXA's Solar-C mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teriaca, Luca; Andretta, Vincenzo; Auchère, Frédéric; Brown, Charles M.; Buchlin, Eric; Cauzzi, Gianna; Culhane, J. Len; Curdt, Werner; Davila, Joseph M.; Del Zanna, Giulio; Doschek, George A.; Fineschi, Silvano; Fludra, Andrzej; Gallagher, Peter T.; Green, Lucie; Harra, Louise K.; Imada, Shinsuke; Innes, Davina; Kliem, Bernhard; Korendyke, Clarence; Mariska, John T.; Martínez-Pillet, Valentin; Parenti, Susanna; Patsourakos, Spiros; Peter, Hardi; Poletto, Luca; Rutten, Robert J.; Schühle, Udo; Siemer, Martin; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Socas-Navarro, Hector; Solanki, Sami K.; Spadaro, Daniele; Trujillo-Bueno, Javier; Tsuneta, Saku; Dominguez, Santiago Vargas; Vial, Jean-Claude; Walsh, Robert; Warren, Harry P.; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Winter, Berend; Young, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The solar outer atmosphere is an extremely dynamic environment characterized by the continuous interplay between the plasma and the magnetic field that generates and permeates it. Such interactions play a fundamental role in hugely diverse astrophysical systems, but occur at scales that cannot be studied outside the solar system. Understanding this complex system requires concerted, simultaneous solar observations from the visible to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-rays, at high spatial resolution (between 0.1'' and 0.3''), at high temporal resolution (on the order of 10 s, i.e., the time scale of chromospheric dynamics), with a wide temperature coverage (0.01 MK to 20 MK, from the chromosphere to the flaring corona), and the capability of measuring magnetic fields through spectropolarimetry at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectroscopic measurements sampling the entire temperature range are particularly important. These requirements are fulfilled by the Japanese Solar-C mission (Plan B), composed of a spacecraft in a geosynchronous orbit with a payload providing a significant improvement of imaging and spectropolarimetric capabilities in the UV, visible, and near-infrared with respect to what is available today and foreseen in the near future. The Large European Module for solar Ultraviolet Research (LEMUR), described in this paper, is a large VUV telescope feeding a scientific payload of high-resolution imaging spectrographs and cameras. LEMUR consists of two major components: a VUV solar telescope with a 30 cm diameter mirror and a focal length of 3.6 m, and a focal-plane package composed of VUV spectrometers covering six carefully chosen wavelength ranges between 170 Å and 1270 Å. The LEMUR slit covers 280'' on the Sun with 0.14'' per pixel sampling. In addition, LEMUR is capable of measuring mass flows velocities (line shifts) down to 2 km s - 1 or better. LEMUR has been proposed to ESA as the European contribution to the Solar

  8. Maximizing the Scientific Return of Low Cost Planetary Missions Using Solar Electric Propulsion(abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Metzger, A.; Pieters, C.; Elphic, R. C.; McCord, T.; Head, J.; Abshire, J.; Philips, R.; Sykes, M.; A'Hearn, M.; Hickman, M.; Sercel, J.; Kluever, C.; Rosenthal, R.; Purdy, W.

    1994-01-01

    After many years of development, solar electric propulsion is now a practical low cost alternative for many planetary missions. In response to the recent Discovery AO, we and a number of colleagues have examined the scientific return from a missioon to map the Moon and then rendezvous with a small body. In planning this mission, we found that solar electric propulsion was quite affordable under the Discovery guidelines, that many targets could be reached more rapidly with solar electric propulsion than chemical propulsion, that a large number of planetary bodies were accessible with modest propulsion systems, and that such missions were quite adaptable, with generous launch windows which minimized mission risks. Moreover, solar electric propulsion is ideally suited for large payloads requiring a large amount of power.

  9. Mars Mission Concepts: SAR and Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, M.; Klaus, K.; Smith, D. B.; Clifford, S. M.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: The time has come to leverage technology advances (including advances in autonomous operation and propulsion technology) to reduce the cost and increase the flight rate of planetary missions, while actively developing a scientific and engineering workforce to achieve national space objectives. Mission Science at Mars: A SAR imaging radar offers an ability to conduct high resolution investigations of the shallow (<10 m depth) subsurface of Mars, enabling identification of fine-scale layering within the Martian polar layered deposits (PLD), as well as the identification of pingos, investigations of polygonal terrain, and measurements of the thickness of mantling layers at non-polar latitudes. It would allow systematic near-surface prospecting, which is tremendously useful for human exploration purposes (in particular, the identification of accessible ice deposits and quantification of Martian regolith properties). Limited color capabilities in a notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would enable the generation of false color images, resulting in useful science results, and the stereo data could be reduced into high-resolution Digital Elevation Models uniquely useful for exploration planning and science purposes. Since the SAR and the notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would be huge data volume producers - to maximize the science return we are currently considering the usage of laser communications systems; this notional spacecraft represents one pathway to evaluate the utility of laser communications in planetary exploration while providing useful science return.. Mission Concept: Using a common space craft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. SEP provides the greatest payload advantage albeit at the sacrifice of mission time. Our concept involves using a SEP enabled space craft (Boeing 702SP) with a highly capable SAR imager that also

  10. Flyby of Io with Repeat Encounters (FIRE): Designing a New Frontiers mission to study the most volcanic body in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovan, S.; Cable, M. L.; Cumbers, J.; Gentry, D.; Harrison, T. N.; Naidu, S.; Parker, C. W.; Potter, R.; Reimuller, J.; Shkolyar, S.; Suer, T. K.; Szalay, J.; Trammell, H. J.; Walker, C. C.; Whitten, J.

    2012-12-01

    FIRE (Flyby of Io with Repeat Encounters) is a mission designed by the authors, in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Lab's TeamX, while attending NASA's Planetary Science Summer School in June 2012. The target of FIRE is Io,the innermost of Jupiter's Galilean moons and the most geologically active body in the Solar System. Io represents a laboratory with which to improve our understanding of volcanic processes and their relation to outgassing and atmosphere formation. These are believed to be pivotal events in the early phases of terrestrial planets' evolution. The mission is designed to directly address the science objectives laid out in the 2009 New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity. FIRE will be an ASRG powered spacecraft flying on an ATLAS V rocket. The nominal mission includes ten close (altitude above the surface < 100 km) flybys of Io while the spacecraft is on a Jupiter-bound orbit. The instrument package includes (1) a visual and NIR camera (VOLCANO), an instrument devoted to the characterization of the composition and morphology of the surface, and of hot spots' thermal emission; (2) a magnetic instrumentation sub-package (MAGMA) which, combining magnetic field, plasma and charged particle measurements, will test the presence of the putative magma ocean at Io and will provide important clues on the moon's interior structure; (3) a dust analyzer (CALDERA), to determine the composition of the material which is continuously ejected from Io, thus directly identifying silicates and other species and improving our understanding of the volcanic activity and related outgassing processes; and (4) a radio science experiment (FLARE) which takes advantage of a gimbaled, two-band high gain antenna to measure both the static and the time-variable components of the gravity field of Io, thus informing on the radial distribution and physical state of the matter in the interior of the moon. FIRE, with its potential science return, would give an invaluable

  11. Solar Probe Plus: Mission design challenges and trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yanping

    2010-11-01

    NASA plans to launch the first mission to the Sun, named Solar Probe Plus, as early as 2015, after a comprehensive feasibility study that significantly changed the original Solar Probe mission concept. The original Solar Probe mission concept, based on a Jupiter gravity assist trajectory, was no longer feasible under the new guidelines given to the mission. A complete redesign of the mission was required, which called for developing alternative trajectories that excluded a flyby of Jupiter. Without the very powerful gravity assist from Jupiter it was extremely difficult to get to the Sun, so designing a trajectory to reach the Sun that is technically feasible under the new mission guidelines became a key enabler to this highly challenging mission. Mission design requirements and challenges unique to this mission are reviewed and discussed, including various mission scenarios and six different trajectory designs utilizing various planetary gravity assists that were considered. The V 5GA trajectory design using five Venus gravity assists achieves a perihelion of 11.8 solar radii ( RS) in 3.3 years without any deep space maneuver (DSM). The V 7GA trajectory design reaches a perihelion of 9.5 RS using seven Venus gravity assists in 6.39 years without any DSM. With nine Venus gravity assists, the V 9GA trajectory design shows a solar orbit at inclination as high as 37.9° from the ecliptic plane can be achieved with the time of flight of 5.8 years. Using combined Earth and Venus gravity assists, as close as 9 RS from the Sun can be achieved in less than 10 years of flight time at moderate launch C3. Ultimately the V 7GA trajectory was chosen as the new baseline mission trajectory. Its design allowing for science investigation right after launch and continuing for nearly 7 years is unprecedented for interplanetary missions. The redesigned Solar Probe Plus mission is not only feasible under the new guidelines but also significantly outperforms the original mission concept

  12. Electrical Power System Architectures for In-House NASA/GSFC Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Diane D.

    2006-01-01

    This power point presentation reviews the electrical power system (EPS) architecture used for a few NASA GSFC's missions both current and planned. Included in the presentation are reviews of electric power systems for the Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). There is a slide that compares the three missions' electrical supply systems.

  13. Factors Influencing Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Payload Delivery for Outer Planet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael; Green, Shaun; Coverstone, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Systems analyses were performed for missions utilizing solar electric propulsion systems to deliver payloads to outer-planet destinations. A range of mission and systems factors and their affect on the delivery capability of the solar electric propulsion system was examined. The effect of varying the destination, the trip time, the launch vehicle, and gravity-assist boundary conditions was investigated. In addition, the affects of selecting propulsion system and power systems characteristics (including primary array power variation, number of thrusters, thruster throttling mode, and thruster Isp) on delivered payload was examined.

  14. Solar electric propulsion cargo spacecraft for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    One of the topics available to the 1990-91 Aerospace Engineering senior class was the development of a preliminary design of an unmanned cargo ferry that would support the Mars mission by bringing equipment and supplies from a low Earth orbit (LEO) to a low Mars orbit (LMO). Several previous studies initiated by NASA have indicated that low-thrust transportation systems seem to offer the best performance for Mars missions. Such systems are characterized by long spiral times during escape and capture maneuvers, high payload mass fractions, and, typically, low propellant mass fractions. Of two main low-thrust candidates, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and solar electric propulsion (SEP), only the first one received extensive consideration because it seemed to represent the most promising concept for a manned mission to Mars. However, any sustained Mars initiative will have to include an unmanned cargo transportation system, for which an SEP concept deserves very careful consideration. The key assumptions and requirements established in cooperation with the Space Exploration Initiative office at the NASA Langley Research Center were (1) vehicle is assembled at the Space Station Freedom (SSF); (2) Earth-to-orbit delivery of the vehicle components, propellant, and payload is via shuttle-C; (3) vehicle's cargo mass is 61,000 kg; (4) vehicle delivers cargo to LMO at an altitude of 500 km and inclination of 70 deg; (5) vehicle returns (without cargo) to SSF; (6) vehicle should be reusable for at least three missions; and (7) vehicle is powered by ion argon thrusters. Two configurations were developed by two student teams, working mostly independently.

  15. Solar and Solar-Wind Composition Results from the Genesis Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Burnett, D. S.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A.; Heber, V.; Grimberg, A.; Wieler, R.; Reisenfeld, D. B.

    The Genesis mission returned samples of solar wind to Earth in September 2004 for ground-based analyses of solar-wind composition, particularly for isotope ratios. Substrates, consisting mostly of high-purity semiconductor materials, were exposed to the solar wind at L1 from December 2001 to April 2004. In addition to a bulk sample of the solar wind, separate samples of coronal hole (CH), interstream (IS), and coronal mass ejection material were obtained. Although many substrates were broken upon landing due to the failure to deploy the parachute, a number of results have been obtained, and most of the primary science objectives will likely be met. These objectives include He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotope ratios in the bulk solar wind and in different solar-wind regimes, and 15N/14N and 18O/17O/16O to high precision. The greatest successes to date have been with the noble gases. Light noble gases from bulk solar wind and separate solar-wind regime samples have now been analyzed. Helium results show clear evidence of isotopic fractionation between CH and IS samples, consistent with simplistic Coulomb drag theory predictions of fractionation between the photosphere and different solar-wind regimes, though fractionation by wave heating is also a possible explanation. Neon results from closed system stepped etching of bulk metallic glass have revealed the nature of isotopic fractionation as a function of depth, which in lunar samples have for years deceptively suggested the presence of an additional, energetic component in solar wind trapped in lunar grains and meteorites. Isotope ratios of the heavy noble gases, nitrogen, and oxygen are in the process of being measured.

  16. Solar and Solar-Wind Composition Results from the Genesis Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Burnett, D. S.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A.; Heber, V.; Grimberg, A.; Wieler, R.; Reisenfeld, D. B.

    2007-06-01

    The Genesis mission returned samples of solar wind to Earth in September 2004 for ground-based analyses of solar-wind composition, particularly for isotope ratios. Substrates, consisting mostly of high-purity semiconductor materials, were exposed to the solar wind at L1 from December 2001 to April 2004. In addition to a bulk sample of the solar wind, separate samples of coronal hole (CH), interstream (IS), and coronal mass ejection material were obtained. Although many substrates were broken upon landing due to the failure to deploy the parachute, a number of results have been obtained, and most of the primary science objectives will likely be met. These objectives include He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotope ratios in the bulk solar wind and in different solar-wind regimes, and 15N/14N and 18O/17O/16O to high precision. The greatest successes to date have been with the noble gases. Light noble gases from bulk solar wind and separate solar-wind regime samples have now been analyzed. Helium results show clear evidence of isotopic fractionation between CH and IS samples, consistent with simplistic Coulomb drag theory predictions of fractionation between the photosphere and different solar-wind regimes, though fractionation by wave heating is also a possible explanation. Neon results from closed system stepped etching of bulk metallic glass have revealed the nature of isotopic fractionation as a function of depth, which in lunar samples have for years deceptively suggested the presence of an additional, energetic component in solar wind trapped in lunar grains and meteorites. Isotope ratios of the heavy noble gases, nitrogen, and oxygen are in the process of being measured.

  17. The Ion Propulsion System for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard; Sekerak, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (ARRM) whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of NASA's future beyond-low-Earth-orbit, human-crewed exploration plans. This presentation presents the conceptual design of the ARRM ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing development activities, the status of the planned technology maturation for the mission through flight hardware delivery, and the status of the mission formulation and spacecraft acquisition.

  18. A Parametric Assessment of the Mission Applicability of Thin-film Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented from a parametric assessment of the applicability and spacecraft-level impacts of very lightweight thin-film solar arrays with relatively large deployed areas for representative space missions. The most and least attractive features of thin-film solar arrays are briefly discussed. A calculation is then presented illustrating that from a solar array alone mass perspective, larger arrays with less efficient but lighter thin-film solar cells can weigh less than smaller arrays with more efficient but heavier crystalline cells. However, a spacecraft-level systems assessment must take into account the additional mass associated with solar array deployed area: the propellant needed to desaturate the momentum accumulated from area-related disturbance torques and to perform aerodynamic drag makeup reboost. The results for such an assessment are presented for a representative low Earth orbit (LEO) mission, as a function of altitude and mission life, and a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) mission. Discussion of the results includes a list of specific mission types most likely to benefit from using thin-film arrays. The presentation concludes with a list of issues to be addressed prior to use of thin-film solar arrays in space and the observation that with their unique characteristics, very lightweight arrays using efficient, thin film cells on flexible substrates may become the best array option for a subset of Earth orbiting and deep space missions.

  19. Next space solar observatory SOLAR-C: mission instruments and science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Hara, H.; Ichimoto, K.; Kubo, M.; Kusano, K.; Sakao, T.; Shimizu, T.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.

    2012-12-01

    SOLAR-C, the fourth space solar mission in Japan, is under study with a launch target of fiscal year 2018. A key concept of the mission is to view the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona as one system coupled by magnetic fields along with resolving the size scale of fundamental physical processes connecting these atmospheric layers. It is especially important to study magnetic structure in the chromosphere as an interface layer between the photosphere and the corona. The SOLAR-C satellite is equipped with three telescopes, the Solar UV-Visible-IR Telescope (SUVIT), the EUV/FUV High Throughput Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVS/LEMUR), and the X-ray Imaging Telescope (XIT). Observations with SUVIT of photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields make it possible to infer three dimensional magnetic structure extending from the photosphere to the chromosphere and corona.This helps to identify magnetic structures causing magnetic reconnection, and clarify how waves are propagated, reflected, and dissipated. Phenomena indicative of or byproducts of magnetic reconnection, such as flows and shocks, are to be captured by SUVIT and by spectroscopic observations using EUVS/LEMUR, while XIT observes rapid changes in temperature distribution of plasma heated by shock waves.

  20. An Overview of the Solar-C Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemen, J. R.; Tarbell, T. D.; Cirtain, J. W.; DeLuca, E. E.; Doschek, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Solar-C is a new mission in solar and heliospheric physics that is being proposed to JAXA for launch in 2020. It will be led by Japan with major contributions from the US and Europe. The main scientific objectives of the mission are to: * Determine the properties and evolution of the three dimensional magnetic field, especially on small spatial scales, using direct spectro-polarimetric measurements in the photosphere and chromosphere, and accurate model extrapolations and dynamic simulations into the corona that are based, for the first time, on boundary fields observed in a low plasma beta region; * Observe and understand fundamental physical processes such as magnetic reconnection, magneto-hydrodynamic waves, shocks, turbulence, and plasma instabilities * Reveal the mechanisms responsible for the heating and dynamics of the chromosphere and corona and the acceleration of the solar wind, and understand how plasma and energy are transferred between different parts of the solar atmosphere; * Determine the physical origin of the large-scale explosions and eruptions (flares, jets, and CMEs) that drive short-term solar, heliospheric, and geospace variability. To achieve the science objectives, Solar-C will deploy a carefully coordinated suite of three complementary instruments: the Solar Ultra-violet Visible and IR Telescope (SUVIT), the high-throughput EUV Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVST), and an X-ray Imaging Telescope/Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope (XIT). For the first time, it will simultaneously observe the entire atmosphere---photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona---and do so with essentially the same spatial and temporal resolution at all locations. As is the case for other solar observatories, the Solar-C mission will have an open data policy. We provide an overview of the mission and its contributions to the future of solar physics and space weather research.

  1. Solar electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, G.

    1984-01-01

    Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

  2. Solar System Voyage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunier, Serge

    2002-11-01

    In the last few decades, the exploration of our solar system has revealed fascinating details about the worlds that lie beyond our Earth. This lavishly illustrated book invites the reader on a journey through the solar system. After locating our planetary system in the Universe, Brunier describes the Sun and its planets, the large satellites, asteroids, and comets. Photographs and information taken from the latest space missions allow readers to experience spectacular scenes: the lunar plains scarred by asteroid impacts, the frozen deserts of Mars and Europa, the continuously erupting volcanoes of Io and the giant geysers of Triton, the rings of Saturn and the clouds of Venus and Titan, and the powerful crash of the comet Shoemaker-Levy into Jupiter. Inspired by the extraordinary photographs and incisive text, readers of Solar System Voyage will gain a greater appreciation of the hospitable planet we call home. Serge Brunier is chief editor of the journal Ciel et Espace, a photojournalist, and the author of many nonfiction books aimed at both specialists and the general public. His previous books include Space Odyssey (Cambridge, 2002), Glorious Eclipses with Jean-Pierre Luminet (Cambridge, 2000), and Majestic Universe (Cambridge, 1999).

  3. Solar System Visualizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Alison M.

    2005-01-01

    Solar System Visualization products enable scientists to compare models and measurements in new ways that enhance the scientific discovery process, enhance the information content and understanding of the science results for both science colleagues and the public, and create.visually appealing and intellectually stimulating visualization products. Missions supported include MER, MRO, and Cassini. Image products produced include pan and zoom animations of large mosaics to reveal the details of surface features and topography, animations into registered multi-resolution mosaics to provide context for microscopic images, 3D anaglyphs from left and right stereo pairs, and screen captures from video footage. Specific products include a three-part context animation of the Cassini Enceladus encounter highlighting images from 350 to 4 meter per pixel resolution; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter screen captures illustrating various instruments during assembly and testing at the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at Kennedy Space Center; and an animation of Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' panorama where the rover was stuck in the deep fine sand for more than a month. This task creates new visualization products that enable new science results and enhance the public's understanding of the Solar System and NASA's missions of exploration.

  4. Solar Sail Readies for Early Warning Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Solar Sail project, directed by L’Garde of Tustin, Calif., plans to take this innovative technology beyond Earth's orbit. The spacecraft will have a "sail" one quarter the size of a footb...

  5. Uranus and Neptune orbiter missions via solar electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Brandenburg, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of solar electric propulsion for performing orbiter missions at the planets Uranus and Neptune are described. An assessment of the scientific objectives and instrumentation requirements, their relation to orbit size selection, and parametric analysis of solar electric propulsion trajectory/payload performance are included. Utilizing the Titan 3D/Centaur launch vehicle, minimum flight times of about 3400 days to Uranus and 5300 days to Neptune are required to place the TOPS spacecraft into the nominal orbits. It has been shown that solar electric propulsion can be used effectively to accomplish elliptical orbiter missions at Uranus and Neptune. However, because of the very long flight time required, these mission profiles are not too attractive. Previous studies have shown that nuclear electric propulsion, if developed, would allow much faster trips; 5 years to Uranus and 8 years to Neptune.

  6. Solar probe mission: close encounter with the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; McComas, D. J.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Stdt Team

    The Solar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) recently completed a detailed study of the Solar Probe Mission based on an earliest launch date of October 2014. Solar Probe, when implemented, will be the first close encounter by a spacecraft with a star (i.e., 3 RS above the Sun's photosphere). The report and its executive summary were published by NASA (NASA/TM-2005-212786) in September 2005 and can be found at the website http://solarprobe.gsfc.nasa.gov/. A description of the science will appear in Reviews of Geophysics article led by D. J. McComas. For this talk, we presented the consensus view of the STDT including a brief description of the scientific goals, a description of the overall mission, including trajectory scenarios, spacecraft description and proposed scientific payload. We will discuss all these topics and the importance of flying the Solar Probe mission both with regard to understanding fundamental issues of solar wind acceleration and coronal heating near the Sun and Solar Probe's unique role in understanding the acceleration of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), which is critical to future Human Exploration.

  7. The Hinode(Solar-B)Mission: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosugi, T.; Matsuzaki, K.; Sakao, T.; Shimizu, T.; Sone, Y.; Tachikawa, S.; Minesugi, K.; Ohnishi, A.; Yamada, T.; Tsuneta, S.; Hara, H.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimojo, M.; Watanabe, T.; Shimada, S.; Davis, J. M.; Hill, L. D.; Owens, J. K.; Title, A. M.; Culhane, J. L.; Harra, L. K.; Doschek, G. A.; Golub, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Hinode satellite (formerly Solar-B) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS/JAXA) was successfully launched in September 2006. As the successor to the Yohkoh mission, it aims to understand how magnetic energy is transferred from the photosphere to the upper atmospheres and resulting in explosive energy releases. Hinode is an observatory style mission, with all the instruments being designed and built to work together to address the science aims. There are three instruments onboard: the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), and the X-ray Telescope (XRT). This paper overviews the mission, including the satellite, the scientific payload and operations. It will conclude with discussions on how the international science community can participate in the analysis of the mission data.

  8. Exploration of Jovian Magnetosphere and Trojan Asteroids by a Solar Power Sail Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Kawaguchi, J.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Mori, O.; Takashima, T.; Tsuda, Y.; Yano, H.; Jupiter Exploration Working Group

    2009-04-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) is a proposed international mission to explore Jupiter, Jovian satellites and environment. EJSM consists of (1) The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) by NASA, (2) the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) by ESA, (3) the Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO) studied by JAXA. (4) The Europa lander is also studied by Roscosmos. Together with plasma instruments on board JEO and JGO, JMO will investigate the fast and huge rotating magnetosphere to clarify the energy procurement from Jovian rotation to the magnetosphere, to clarify the interaction between the solar wind the magnetosphere. JMO will clarify the characteristics of the strongest accelerator in the solar system. JMO will investigate the role of Io as a source of heavy ions in the magnetosphere. Proposed instruments on board JMO are magnetometers, low-energy plasma spectrometers, medium energy particle detectors, energetic particle detectors, electric field / plasma wave instruments, a dust detector, an ENA imager, and EUV spectrometer. JAXA is studying solar power sail for deep space explorations following the successful ion engine mission Hayabusa. This is not only solar sail (photon propulsion) but also include very efficient ion engines where electric power is produced solar panels within the sail. Currently we are studying a mission to Jupiter and one (or two) of Trojan asteroids, which are primitive bodies with information of the early solar system as well as raw solid materials of Jovian system. As the main spacecraft flies by Jupiter heading for an asteroid, it will deploy JMO spinner around Jupiter.

  9. Design of an Integrated LC-MS Prototype for an In Situ Mission to an Icy Body in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southard, A. E.; Getty, S. A.; Ferrance, J. P.; Balvin, M. A.; Elsila, J. E.; Stewart, D.; Stamos, B.; Kotecki, C.; Glavin, D. P.

    2016-10-01

    The OASIS instrument is being developed to perform in situ liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry on icy bodies in the solar system. A chief goal for OASIS is to detect enantiomeric excess in amino acids, a compelling biosignature.

  10. Solar System Exploration -- What Comes Next?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Do you think we already know everything about our solar system? Think again. We've barely scratched the surface of what there is to learn. Join NASA as it sends missions to the far ends of the sola...

  11. The NASA atlas of the solar system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, Ronald; Batson, Raymond M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes every planet, moon, and body that has been the subject of a NASA mission, including images of 30 solar system objects and maps of 26 objects. The presentation includes geologic history, geologic and reference maps, and shaded relief maps.

  12. Solar and solar-wind composition results from the genesis mission

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, D. S.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A.; Heber, V.; Grimberg, A.; Wieler, R.; Reisenfeld, D. B.

    2007-02-20

    The Genesis mission returned samples of solar wind to Earth in September, 2004 for ground-based analyses of solar-wind composition, particularly for isotope ratios. Substrates, consisting mostly of high-purity semiconductor materials, were exposed to the solar wind at L1 from December 2001 to April 2004. In addition to a bulk sample of the solar wind, separate samples of coronal hole, interstream, and coronal mass ejection material were obtained. While many of the substrates were broken upon landing due to the failure to deploy the parachute, a number of results have been obtained, and most of the primary science objectives will likely be met. These include noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) isotope ratios in the bulk solar wind and in different solarwind regimes, and the nitrogen and oxygen isotope ( 18O/17O/16O) ratios to high precision. The greatest successes to date have been with the noble gases. Light noble gases from bulk solar wind and separate solar-wind regime samples have been analyzed to date. The regime compositions are so far ambiguous on the occurrence of the type of isotopic fractionation expected from Coulomb drag acceleration. Neon results from closed system stepped etching of bulk metallic glass have revealed the nature of isotopic fractionation as a function of depth, which in lunar samples have for years deceptively suggested the presence of a separate solar component. Isotope ratios of the heavy noble gases, nitrogen, and oxygen are still in the process of being measured.

  13. NASA's solar maximum mission: A look at a new Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, Joseph B. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    As part of the ongoing process of trying to understand the physical processes at work in the Sun, the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft was launched on February 14, 1980, near the height of the solar cycle, to enable the solar physics community to examine, in more physically meaningful detail than ever before, the most violent aspect of solar activity: flares. The scientific products of SMM are substantial: by 1986, over 400 papers based on SMM observations and their interpretations had appeared in scientific journals. More important than such numerical measures of success is the significance of the science that has come from SMM. The following topics, the Sun as a star, solar flares, and the active solar atmosphere, as well as other findings of SMM investigators are described. The instruments on the SMM are also described.

  14. Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are 'in house' spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are 'out of house' spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC 'in house' and 'out of house' spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

  15. Views of the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  16. Exobiology in Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, Glenn C. (Editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (Editor); Huntington, Judith L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A symposium, 'Exobiology in Solar System Exploration,' was held on 24-26 Aug. 1988. The symposium provided an in-depth investigation of the role of Exobiology in solar system exploration. It is expected that the symposium will provide direction for future participation of the Exobiology community in solar system exploration and alert the Planetary community to the continued importance of an Exobiology Flight Program. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily on Exobiology in solar system exploration missions, several ground based and Earth-orbital projects such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Gas Grain Facility, and Cosmic Dust Collection Facility represent upcoming research opportunities planned to accommodate the goals and objectives of the Exobiology community as well. This report contains papers for all but one of the presentations given at the symposium.

  17. Aerocapture Systems Analysis for a Titan Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary K.; Queen, Eric M.; Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Edquist, Karl; Starr, Brett W.; Hollis, Brian R.; Zoby, E. Vincent; Hrinda, Glenn A.; Bailey, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Performance projections for aerocapture show a vehicle mass savings of between 40 and 80%, dependent on destination, for an aerocapture vehicle compared to an all-propulsive chemical vehicle. In addition aerocapture is applicable to multiple planetary exploration destinations of interest to NASA. The 2001 NASA In-Space Propulsion Program (ISP) technology prioritization effort identified aerocapture as one of the top three propulsion technologies for solar system exploration missions. An additional finding was that aerocapture needed a better system definition and that supporting technology gaps needed to be identified. Consequently, the ISP program sponsored an aerocapture systems analysis effort that was completed in 2002. The focus of the effort was on aerocapture at Titan with a rigid aeroshell system. Titan was selected as the initial destination for the study due to potential interest in a follow-on mission to Cassini/Huygens. Aerocapture is feasible, and the performance is adequate, for the Titan mission and it can deliver 2.4 times more mass to Titan than an all-propulsive system for the same launch vehicle.

  18. Viking orbiter system primary mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudy, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of Viking Orbiter (VO) system and subsystem performances during the primary mission (the time period from VO-1 launch on August 20, 1975, through November 15, 1976) is presented. Brief descriptions, key design requirements, pertinent historical information, unique applications or situations, and predicted versus actual performances are included for all VO-1 and VO-2 subsystems, both individually and as an integrated system.

  19. The Genesis Mission Solar Wind Collection: Solar-Wind Statistics over the Period of Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barraclough, B. L.; Wiens, R. C.; Steinberg, J. E.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Neugebauer, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Gosling, J.; Bremmer, R. R.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Genesis spacecraft was launched August 8, 2001 on a mission to collect samples of solar wind for 2 years and return them to earth September 8, 2004. Detailed analyses of the solar wind ions implanted into high-purity collection substrates will be carried out using various mass spectrometry techniques. These analyses are expected to determine key isotopic ratios and elemental abundances in the solar wind, and by extension, in the solar photosphere. Further, the photospheric composition is thought to be representative of the solar nebula with a few exceptions, so that the Genesis mission will provide a baseline for the average solar nebula composition with which to compare present-day compositions of planets, meteorites, and asteroids. The collection of solar wind samples is almost complete. Collection began for most substrates in early December, 2001, and is scheduled to be complete on April 2 of this year. It is critical to understand the solar-wind conditions during the collection phase of the mission. For this reason, plasma ion and electron spectrometers are continuously monitoring the solar wind proton density, velocity, temperature, the alpha/proton ratio, and angular distribution of suprathermal electrons. Here we report on the solar-wind conditions as observed by these in-situ instruments during the first half of the collection phase of the mission, from December, 2001 to present.

  20. Proximity operations analysis: Retrieval of the solar maximum mission observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yglesias, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Retrieval of the solar maximum mission (SMM) observatory is feasible in terms of orbiter primary reaction control system (PRCS) plume disturbance of the SMM, orbiter propellant consumed, and flight time required. Man-in-loop simulations will be required to validate these operational techniques before the verification process is complete. Candidate approach and flyaround techniques were developed that allow the orbiter to attain the proper alinement with the SMM for clear access to the grapple fixture (GF) prior grappling. Because the SMM has very little control authority (approximately 14.8 pound-foot-seconds in two axes and rate-damped in the third) it is necessary to inhibit all +Z (upfiring) PRCS jets on the orbiter to avoid tumbling the SMM. A profile involving a V-bar approach and an out-of-plane flyaround appears to be the best choice and is recommended at this time. The flyaround technique consists of alining the +X-axes of the two vehicles parallel with each other and then flying the orbiter around the SMM until the GF is in view. The out-of-plane flyaround technique is applicable to any inertially stabilized payload, and, the entire final approach profile could be considered as standard for most retrieval missions.

  1. Mission planning and execution within the mission data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Anthony; Knight, Russell; Morris, Richard; Rasmussen, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Not only has the number of launched spacecraft per year exploded over the past few years, but also spacecraft are getting progressively more complex, as flyby missions give way to remote orbiters, which in turn give way to rovers and other in situ explorers. To address the software issues in this expanding mission set, JPL started the Mission Data System (MDS) project, an effort to make flight software engineering more straightforward and less prone to error through the eplicit modeling of spacecraft state. This paper presents how MDS performs mission planning and execution in the context of explicitly managing spacecraft state.

  2. International solar-terrestrial physics program: A plan for the core spaceflight missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This brochure has been prepared by NASA on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA), the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan) (ISAS), and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to describe the scope of the science problems to be investigated and the mission plan for the core International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. This information is intended to stimulate discussions and plans for the comprehensive worldwide ISTP Program. The plan for the study of the solar - terrestrial system is included. The Sun, geospace, and Sun-Earth interaction is discussed as is solar dynamics and the origins of solar winds.

  3. Update on the Fire (solar probe) mission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. Veron; Forman, Miriam A.

    1995-01-01

    Since mid-1994 the U.S. and Russia have been studying the technical feasibility of a joint solar probe mission as part of the 'Fire and Ice' concept to explore close to the Sun, and Pluto, together. In the current concept of the 'Fire' mission, separate spacecraft built by each country would be launched together, fly by Jupiter to shed orbital angular momentum and achieve a solar polar orbit, and arrive 3.6 years later at 4 and 10 R(sub s). The Fire mission would measure basic parameters of the modes of energy and momentum flow and transfer to the coronal plasma that are not observable remotely. Specifically, measurement of magnetic fields, waves, suprathermal particles, and critical features of the plasma particle composition and distribution function would be made from 4 to 30 R(sub s) where the solar wind is known to be accelerated. In addition, the Fire spacecraft should image coronal structures unambiguously and relate the underlying and flown-through structures to plasma characteristics measured in situ. Each country is developing a backup plan to pursue the solar probe objectives alone if the other side is unable to carry out its mission.

  4. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  5. A review of mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Sorensen, E. M.; Wolff, T.; Haddow, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    A general definition of Mission Planning is given. The definition covers the full scope of an end-to-end mission planning system. Noting the mission-specific nature of most mission planning systems, a classification of autonomous spacecraft missions is made into Observatory, Survey, multi-instrument science, and Telecommunications missions. The mission planning approach for one mission in each category is examined critically. The following missions were chosen: ISO (Infrared Space Observatory); ERS-1 (European Remote Sensing Satellite); and Eureca (European Retrievable Carrier). The paper gives a summary of lessons learned from these missions suggesting improvements in areas such as requirements analysis, testing, user interfacing, rules, and constraints handling. The paper will also examine commonalities in functions, which could constitute a basis for identification of generic mission planning support tools.

  6. Ares V: Application to Solar System Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim; Spilker, Tom; Elliott, John; Balint, Tibor; Donahue, Ben; McCormick, Dave; Smith, David B.; Tandon, Sunil; Woodcock, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The following sections describe Ares V performance and its payoff to a wide array of potential solar system exploration missions. Application to potential Astrophysics missions is addressed in Reference 3.

  7. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, Luc

    2013-05-01

    We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200-220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017-2018.

  8. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission

    PubMed Central

    Damé, Luc; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Sarkissian, Alain; Marchand, Marion; Irbah, Abdenour; Quémerais, Éric; Bekki, Slimane; Foujols, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Cessateur, Gaël; Shapiro, Alexander; Schmutz, Werner; Kuzin, Sergey; Slemzin, Vladimir; Urnov, Alexander; Bogachev, Sergey; Merayo, José; Brauer, Peter; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Paschalis, Antonis; Mahrous, Ayman; Khaled, Safinaz; Ghitas, Ahmed; Marzouk, Besheir; Zaki, Amal; Hady, Ahmed A.; Kariyappa, Rangaiah

    2013-01-01

    We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200–220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017–2018. PMID:25685424

  9. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  10. Photogrammetric Assessment of the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Arrays During the Second Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, C. A.; Dragg, J. L.; Snyder, M. W.; Gaunce, M. T.; Decker, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the photogrammetric assessment of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar arrays conducted by the NASA c Center Image Science and Analysis Group during Second Servicing Mission 2 (SM-2) on STS-82 in February 1997. Two type solar array analyses were conducted during the mission using Space Shuttle payload bay video: (1) measurement of solar array motion due to induced loads, and (2) measurement of the solar array static or geometric twist caused by the cumulative array loading. The report describes pre-mission planning and analysis technique development activities conducted to acquire and analyze solar array imagery data during SM-2. This includes analysis of array motion obtained during SM-1 as a proof-of-concept of the SM-2 measurement techniques. The report documents the results of real-time analysis conducted during the mission and subsequent analysis conducted post-flight. This report also provides a summary of lessons learned on solar array imagery analysis from SM-2 and recommendations for future on-orbit measurements applicable to HST SM-3 and to the International Space Station. This work was performed under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center HST Flight Systems and Servicing Project.

  11. International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) geotail mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanford, R.; Sizemore, K. O.

    1991-01-01

    The Geotail spacecraft will be provided by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and will provide a Delta Launch Vehicle, tracking support by the Deep Space Network (DSN), and data processing support by GSFC. In exchange, ISAS will reserve part of the payload for NASA instruments together with a certain number of investigators from the United States. As the solar wind flows toward the Earth, some of the energy is modified by the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere. This interaction causes the flow to be altered, creating a plasmasphere, plasma sheet, and ring currents in the Earth's Geomagnetic Tail region. The result is a series of distinct regions which affect processes on the Earth. By traversing the tail region to a variety of depths, Geotail will be able to determine the size, position, and other properties of these regions. When correlated with information obtained from the other ISAS spacecraft, Geotail data should help to provide a more complete understanding of how the solar processes affect the Earth's environment. The flight profile is given, and information is presented in tabular form on the following topics: DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  12. Science Planning for the Solar Probe Plus NASA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterer, M. B.; Fox, N. J.; Turner, F. S.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    With a planned launch in 2018, there are a number of challenges for the Science Planning Team (SPT) of the Solar Probe Plus mission. The geometry of the celestial bodies and the spacecraft during some of the Solar Probe Plus mission orbits cause limited uplink and downlink opportunities. The payload teams must manage the volume of data that they write to the spacecraft solid-state recorders (SSR) for their individual instruments for downlink to the ground. The aim is to write the instrument data to the spacecraft SSR for downlink before a set of data downlink opportunities large enough to get the data to the ground and before the start of another data collection cycle. The SPT also intend to coordinate observations with other spacecraft and ground based systems. To add further complexity, two of the spacecraft payloads have the capability to write a large volumes of data to their internal payload SSR while sending a smaller "survey" portion of the data to the spacecraft SSR for downlink. The instrument scientists would then view the survey data on the ground, determine the most interesting data from their payload SSR, send commands to transfer that data from their payload SSR to the spacecraft SSR for downlink. The timing required for downlink and analysis of the survey data, identifying uplink opportunities for commanding data transfers, and downlink opportunities big enough for the selected data within the data collection period is critical. To solve these challenges, the Solar Probe Plus Science Working Group has designed a orbit-type optimized data file priority downlink scheme to downlink high priority survey data quickly. This file priority scheme would maximize the reaction time that the payload teams have to perform the survey and selected data method on orbits where the downlink and uplink availability will support using this method. An interactive display and analysis science planning tool is being designed for the SPT to use as an aid to planning. The

  13. System Engineering Challenges of Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tristam Tupper

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the system engineering challenges that face NASA's future space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Future Space Missions; 2) Trends; and 3) Developing System Engineers.

  14. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  15. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  16. A Summary of Solar Sail Technology Developments and Proposed Demonstration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, C.; Diedrich, B.; Leipold, M.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's drive to reduce mission costs and accept the risk of incorporating innovative, high payoff technologies into it's missions while simultaneously undertaking ever more difficult missions has sparked a greatly renewed interest in solar sails.

  17. Solar Orbiter- Solar Array- Thermal Design for an Extreme Temperature Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Jens; Paarmann, Carola; Lindner, Anton; Kreutz, Martin; Oberhuttinger, Carola; Costello, Ian; Icardi, Lidia

    2014-08-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission is an interdisciplinary mission to the sun, carried out by ESA in collaboration with NASA. The spacecraft will approach the sun close to 0.28 AU. At this distance, the solar array has to be operated under high solar array inclination angles to limit the temperatures to a maximum qualification temperature of 200°C for the photo voltaic assembly (PVA). Nevertheless, extreme temperatures appear at specific locations of the solar array which require purpose-built temperature protection measures. A very specific thermal protection is needed to keep the PVA and its supporting structures within the qualified temperature range and simultaneously minimize the thermal flux into the spacecraft.This paper describes the Solar Orbiter solar array design in general and its specific thermal design in particular. It describes the interdisciplinary steps between thermal- and mechanical analysis as well as design engineering necessary to result to the different shielding methods.

  18. Analysis of Surface Charging for a Candidate Solar Sail Mission Using Nascap-2k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.; Davis, Victoria; Mandell, Myron; Gardner, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a solar sail in the solar wind environment and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies are critical solar sail mission design task. Spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for lifetime and reliability issues of sail propulsion systems. To that end, surface charging calculations of a candidate 150-meter-class solar sail spacecraft for the 0.5 AU solar polar and 1.0 AU L1 solar wind environments are performed. A model of the spacecraft with candidate materials having appropriate electrical properties is constructed using Object Toolkit. The spacecraft charging analysis is performed using Nascap-2k, the NASA/AFRL sponsored spacecraft charging analysis tool. Nominal and atypical solar wind environments appropriate for the 0.5 AU and 1.0 AU missions are used to establish current collection of solar wind ions and electrons. Finally, a geostationary orbit environment case is included to demonstrate a bounding example of extreme (negative) charging of a solar sail spacecraft. Results from the charging analyses demonstrate that minimal differential potentials (and resulting threat of electrostatic discharge) occur when the spacecraft is constructed entirely of conducting materials, as anticipated from standard guidelines for mitigation of spacecraft charging issues. Examples with dielectric materials exposed to the space environment exhibit differential potentials ranging from a few volts to extreme potentials in the kilovolt range.

  19. Analysis of Surface Charging for a Candidate Solar Sail Mission Using NASCAP-2K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph L.; Davis, V. A.; Mandell, Myron; Gardner, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a solar sail in the solar wind environment and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies are critical solar sail mission design tasks. Spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for lifetime and reliability issues of sail propulsion systems. To that end, surface charging calculations of a candidate 150-meter-class solar sail spacecraft for the 0.5 AU solar polar and 1.9 AU LI solar wind environments are performed. A model of the spacecraft with candidate materials having appropriate electrical properties is constructed using Object Toolkit. The spacecraft charging analysis is performed using Nascap-2k. the NASA/AFRL sponsored spacecraft charging analysis tool. Nominal and atypical solar wind environments appropriate for the 0.5 AU and 1.0 AU missions are used to establish current collection of solar wind ions and electrons. Finally, a geostationary orbit environment case is included to demonstrate a bounding example of extreme (negative) charging of a solar sail spacecraft. Results from the charging analyses demonstrate that minimal differential potentials (and resulting threat of electrostatic discharge) occur when the spacecraft is constructed entirely of conducting materials, as anticipated from standard guidelines for mitigation of spacecraft charging issues. Examples with dielectric materials exposed to the space environment exhibit differential potentials ranging from a few volts to extreme potentials in the kilovolt range.

  20. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  1. Mission Planning and Scheduling System for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Gonzalo; Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa; Saylor, Rick; Cosgrove, Sager; Ritter, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of NASA's return to the Moon efforts, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step. It is an unmanned mission to create a comprehensive atlas of the Moon's features and resources necessary to design and build a lunar outpost. LRO is scheduled for launch in April, 2009. LRO carries a payload comprised of six instruments and one technology demonstration. In addition to its scientific mission LRO will use new technologies, systems and flight operations concepts to reduce risk and increase productivity of future missions. As part of the effort to achieve robust and efficient operations, the LRO Mission Operations Team (MOT) will use its Mission Planning System (MPS) to manage the operational activities of the mission during the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) and operational phases of the mission. The MPS, based on GMV's flexplan tool and developed for NASA with Honeywell Technology Solutions (prime contractor), will receive activity and slew maneuver requests from multiple science operations centers (SOC), as well as from the spacecraft engineers. flexplan will apply scheduling rules to all the requests received and will generate conflict free command schedules in the form of daily stored command loads for the orbiter and a set of daily pass scripts that help automate nominal real-time operations.

  2. Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Demonstration to Support Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Nazario, Margaret L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.

    2012-01-01

    Human and robotic exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will require enabling capabilities that are efficient, affordable, and reliable. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) is highly advantageous because of its favorable in-space mass transfer efficiency compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. The NASA studies have demonstrated that this advantage becomes highly significant as missions progress beyond Earth orbit. Recent studies of human exploration missions and architectures evaluated the capabilities needed to perform a variety of human exploration missions including missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The studies demonstrated that SEP stages have potential to be the most cost effective solution to perform beyond LEO transfers of high mass cargoes for human missions. Recognizing that these missions require power levels more than 10X greater than current electric propulsion systems, NASA embarked upon a progressive pathway to identify critical technologies needed and a plan for an incremental demonstration mission. The NASA studies identified a 30kW class demonstration mission that can serve as a meaningful demonstration of the technologies, operational challenges, and provide the appropriate scaling and modularity required. This paper describes the planning options for a representative demonstration 30kW class SEP mission.

  3. Future planetary missions potentially requiring Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondt, Jack F.; Nesmith, Bill J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the potential Radioisotope Power System, (RPS), technology requirements for future missions being planned for NASA's Solar System Exploration (SSE) theme. Many missions to the outer planets (Jupiter and beyond) require completion of the work on advanced radioisotope power systems (ARPS) now underway in NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program. The power levels for the ARPS can be divided into four classes. Forty to one hundred milliwatt-class provides both thermal and electric power for small in situ science laboratories on the surface of bodies in the solar system. One to two watt class for surface and aerobot science laboratories. Ten to twenty-watt class for micro satellites in orbit, surface science stations and aerobots. One hundred to two hundred watt class for orbiter science spacecraft, for drilling core samples, for powering subsurface hydrobots and cryobots on accessible bodies and for data handling and communicating data from small orbiters, surface laboratories, aerobots and hydrobots back to Earth. Using the most optimistic solar-based power system instead of advanced RPSs pushes the launch masses of these missions beyond the capability of affordable launch vehicles. Advanced RPS is also favored over solar power for obtaining comet samples on extended-duration missions. .

  4. Navigation system design for a Halley Flyby/Tempel 2 Rendezvous mission using ion drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, L. J.; Hast, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    A dual comet (Hall Flyby/Tempel 2 Rendezvous) mission, making use of the solar electric propulsion system, is under consideration for a 1985 launch. This paper describes the preliminary navigation system design for this mission. Orbit determination and guidance strategies for each mission phase are discussed. Navigation accuracy analyses and parametric senstivity studies for the Tempel 2 rendezvous approach phase are presented.

  5. The gamma ray spectrometer for the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.; Ryan, J. M.; Cherry, M. L.; Gleske, I. U.; Reppin, C.; Pinkau, K.; Rieger, E.; Kanbach, G.; Kinzer, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an actively shielded, multicrystal scintillation spectrometer for measurement of the solar gamma ray flux used by the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma Ray Experiment. The instrument provides a 476-channel pulse height spectrum every 16.38 s over the 0.3-9 MeV energy range; the gamma ray spectral analysis can be extended to at least 15 MeV on command. The instrument is designed to measure the intensity, energy, and Doppler shift of narrow gamma ray lines, the intensity of extremely broadened lines, and the photon continuum.

  6. Interplanetary missions with the GDM propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, T.; Emrich, W. Jr.

    1998-01-15

    The Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system utilizes a magnetic mirror machine in which a hot dense plasma is confined long enough to produce fusion energy while allowing a fraction of its charged particle population to escape from one end to generate thrust. The particles escaping through the opposite end have their energy converted to electric power which can be used to sustain the system in a steady state operation. With the aid of a power flow diagram the minimum demands on energy production can be established and the propulsive capability of the system can be determined by solving an appropriate set of governing equations. We apply these results to several missions within the solar system and compute the trip time by invoking a continuous burn, acceleration/deceleration type of trajectory with constant thrust and specific impulse. Ignoring gravitational effects of the planets or the sun, and neglecting the change in the Earth's position during the flight we compute the round trip time for missions from Earth to Mars, Jupiter, and Pluto using linear distances and certain payload fractions. We find that a round trip to Mars with the GDM rocket takes about 170 days while those to Jupiter and Pluto take 494 and 1566 days respectively.

  7. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  8. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer; Bochsler, Peter; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-11-10

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over {approx}2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 {+-} 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ne and 2.6 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  9. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array observations at 20 cm wavelength can detect the hot coronal plasma previously observed at soft x ray wavelengths. Thermal cyclotron line emission was detected at the apex of coronal loops where the magnetic field strength is relatively constant. Detailed comparison of simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and VLA data indicate that physical parameters such as electron temperature, electron density, and magnetic field strength can be obtained, but that some coronal loops remain invisible in either spectral domain. The unprecedent spatial resolution of the VLA at 20 cm wavelength showed that the precursor, impulsive, and post-flare components of solar bursts originate in nearby, but separate loops or systems of loops.. In some cases preburst heating and magnetic changes are observed from loops tens of minutes prior to the impulsive phase. Comparisons with soft x ray images and spectra and with hard x ray data specify the magnetic field strength and emission mechanism of flaring coronal loops. At the longer 91 cm wavelength, the VLA detected extensive emission interpreted as a hot 10(exp 5) K interface between cool, dense H alpha filaments and the surrounding hotter, rarefield corona. Observations at 91 cm also provide evidence for time-correlated bursts in active regions on opposite sides of the solar equator; they are attributed to flare triggering by relativistic particles that move along large-scale, otherwise-invisible, magnetic conduits that link active regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun.

  10. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  11. Genesis Solar-Wind Sample Return Mission: The Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Burnett, D. S.; Wiens, R. C.; Woolum, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft has two primary instruments which passively collect solar wind. The first is the collector arrays , a set of panels, each of which can deploy separately to sample the different kinds of solar wind (regimes). The second is the concentrator, an electrostatic mirror which will concentrate ions of mass 4 through mass 25 by about a factor of 20 by focusing them onto a 6 cm diameter target. When not deployed, these instruments fit into a compact canister. After a two year exposure time, the deployed instruments can be folded up, sealed into the canister, and returned to earth for laboratory analysis. Both the collector arrays and the concentrator will contain suites of ultra-high purity target materials, each of which is tailored to enable the analysis of a different family of elements. This abstract is meant to give a brief overview of the Genesis mission, insight into what materials were chosen for flight and why, as well as head s up information as to what will be available to planetary scientist for analysis when the solar-wind samples return to Earth in 2003. Earth. The elemental and isotopic abundances of the solar wind will be analyzed in state-of-the-art laboratories, and a portion of the sample will be archived for the use of future generations of planetary scientists. Technical information about the mission can be found at www.gps.caltech.edu/genesis.

  12. Round-Trip Solar Electric Propulsion Missions for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Zachary J.; Sturm, Erick J.; Kowalkowski, Theresa D.; Lock, Robert E.; Woolley, Ryan C.; Nicholas, Austin K.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) missions could benefit from the high specific impulse of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to achieve lower launch masses than with chemical propulsion. SEP presents formulation challenges due to the coupled nature of launch vehicle performance, propulsion system, power system, and mission timeline. This paper describes a SEP orbiter-sizing tool, which models spacecraft mass & timeline in conjunction with low thrust round-trip Earth-Mars trajectories, and presents selected concept designs. A variety of system designs are possible for SEP MSR orbiters, with large dry mass allocations, similar round-trip durations to chemical orbiters, and reduced design variability between opportunities.

  13. Solar System Visualization (SSV) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Jessida L.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar System Visualization (SSV) project aims at enhancing scientific and public understanding through visual representations and modeling procedures. The SSV project's objectives are to (1) create new visualization technologies, (2) organize science observations and models, and (3) visualize science results and mission Plans. The SSV project currently supports the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and Cassini. In support of the these missions, the SSV team has produced pan and zoom animations of large mosaics to reveal details of surface features and topography, created 3D animations of science instruments and procedures, formed 3-D anaglyphs from left and right stereo pairs, and animated registered multi-resolution mosaics to provide context for microscopic images.

  14. Solar thermoelectric power generation for Mercury orbiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swerdling, M.; Raag, V.

    1979-01-01

    Mercury orbiter mission study results have shown that conventional silicon solar cell array technology is not adequate to produce power because of expected temperatures which range from -90 C to +285 C in about 50 minutes for 16 sun eclipses/day. The solar thermoelectric generator (STG), which requires relatively high temperatures, is being developed as a replacement power source. Several thermoelectric technologies (i.e., lead telluride alloys, bismuth telluride, selenide, and silicon-germanium alloys have been examined for their suitability. Solar concentrator configurations (i.e., flat plate, Fresnel lens, mini-cone, and Cassegrain types) were also studied as candidates for increasing incident radiation during Mercury orbital operations. Detailed results are presented, and show that an STG design based on the use of silicon-germanium alloy thermoelectric material and using high-voltage thermopiles with individual miniconical concentrators presents the optimum combination of technology and configuration for minimizing power source mass.

  15. The Messenger Spacecraft Power System Design and Early Mission Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dakermanji, G.; Person, C.; Jenkins, J.; Kennedy, L.; Temkin, D.

    2005-05-01

    The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft was launched on August 3, 2004. The spacecraft will be inserted into Mercury orbit in March 2011 for one year of orbital operation. During the mission, the spacecraft distance to the Sun will vary between approximately 1 and 0.3 Astronomical Units (AU), imposing severe requirements on the spacecraft thermal and power systems design. The spacecraft is maintained behind a sunshade. The two single-axis, gimbaled solar array panels are designed to withstand the expected high temperatures. A peak power tracking system has been selected to allow operation over the widely varying solar array I-V curves. In order to reduce cost and risk while increasing the likelihood of mission success, the approach taken in the power system design, including the solar arrays, was to use conventional design, materials, and fabrication techniques.

  16. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Study of the Sun and Interplanetary Medium in Three Dimensions. [space mission planning and interplanetary trajectories by NASA and ESA to better observe the sun and solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, L. A. (Editor); Axford, W. I. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A series of papers are presented from a symposium attended by over 200 European and American scientists to examine the importance of exploring the interplanetary medium and the sun by out-of-the-ecliptic space missions. The likely scientific returns of these missions in the areas of solar, interplanetary, and cosmic ray physics is examined. Theoretical models of the solar wind and its interaction with interplanetary magnetic fields are given.

  17. MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount thermal control system mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, U.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab Saturn Workshop Assembly was designed to expand the knowledge of manned earth orbital operations and accomplish a multitude of scientific experiments. The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), a module of the Skylab Saturn Workshop Assembly, was the first manned solar observatory to successfully observe, monitor, and record the structure and behavior of the sun outside the earth's atmosphere. The ATM contained eight solar telescopes that recorded solar phenomena in X-ray, ultraviolet, white light, and hydrogen alpha regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, the ATM contained the Saturn Workshop Assembly's pointing and attitude control system, a data and communication system, and a solar array/rechargeable battery power system. This document presents the overall ATM thermal design philosophy, premission and mission support activity, and the mission thermal evaluation. Emphasis is placed on premission planning and orbital performance with particular attention on problems encountered during the mission. ATM thermal performance was satisfactory throughout the mission. Although several anomalies occurred, no failure was directly attributable to a deficiency in the thermal design.

  18. Large solar flare radiation shielding requirements for manned interplanetary missions.

    PubMed

    Townsend, L W; Nealy, J E; Wilson, J W; Atwell, W

    1989-01-01

    As the 21st century approaches, there is an ever-increasing interest in launching manned missions to Mars. A major concern to mission planners is exposure of the flight crews to highly penetrating and damaging space radiations. Beyond the protective covering of the Earth's magnetosphere, the two main sources of these radiations are galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. Preliminary analyses of potential exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) were presented elsewhere. In this Note, estimates of shielding thicknesses required to protect astronauts on interplanetary missions from the effects of large solar flare events are presented. The calculations use integral proton fluences for the February 1956, November 1960, and August 1972 solar particle events as inputs into the NASA Langley Research Center nucleon transport code BRYNTRN. This deterministic computer code transports primary protons and secondary protons and neutrons through any number of layers of target material of arbitrary thickness and composition. Contributions from target nucleus breakup (fragmentation) and recoil are also included. The results for each flare are presented as estimates of dose equivalent [in units of roentgen equivalent man (rem)] to the skin, eye, and bloodforming organs (BFO) behind various thicknesses of aluminum shielding. These results indicate that the February 1956 event was the most penetrating; however, the August 1972 event, the largest ever recorded, could have been mission- or life-threatening for thinly shielded (< or = 5 g/cm2) spacecraft. Also presented are estimates of the thicknesses of water shielding required to reduce the BFO dose equivalent to currently recommended astronaut exposure limits. These latter results suggest that organic polymers, similar to water, appear to be a much more desirable shielding material than aluminum.

  19. The Suess-Urey mission (return of solar matter to Earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Donald; Naderi, Firouz; Neugebauer, Marcia; Sevilla, Donald; Sweetnam, Donald; Burnett, Donald; Wiens, Roger; Smith, Nicholas; Clark, Benton; McComas, David

    1996-07-01

    The Suess-Urey (S-U) mission has been proposed as a NASA Discovery mission to return samples of matter from the Sun to the Earth for isotopic and chemical analyses in terrestrial laboratories to provide a major improvement in our knowledge of the average chemical and isotopic composition of the solar system. The S-U spacecraft and sample return capsule will be placed in a halo orbit around the L1 Sun-Earth libration point for two years to collect solar wind ions which implant into large passive collectors made of ultra-pure materials. Constant Spacecraft-Sun-Earth geometries enable simple spin stabilized attitude control, simple passive thermal control, and a fixed medium gain antenna. Low data requirements and the safety of a Sun-pointed spinner, result in extremely low mission operations costs.

  20. The Suess-Urey mission (return of solar matter to Earth).

    PubMed

    Rapp, D; Naderi, F; Neugebauer, M; Sevilla, D; Sweetnam, D; Burnett, D; Wiens, R; Smith, N; Clark, B; McComas, D; Stansbery, E

    1996-01-01

    The Suess-Urey (S-U) mission has been proposed as a NASA Discovery mission to return samples of matter from the Sun to the Earth for isotopic and chemical analyses in terrestrial laboratories to provide a major improvement in our knowledge of the average chemical and isotopic composition of the solar system. The S-U spacecraft and sample return capsule will be placed in a halo orbit around the L1 Sun-Earth libration point for two years to collect solar wind ions which implant into large passive collectors made of ultra-pure materials. Constant Spacecraft-Sun-Earth geometries enable simple spin stabilized attitude control, simple passive thermal control, and a fixed medium gain antenna. Low data requirements and the safety of a Sun-pointed spinner, result in extremely low mission operations costs.

  1. Solar thermal power systems. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

  2. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  3. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable md sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (8) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, end verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered systems are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are made to refine model details.

  4. Space construction system analysis study: Project systems and missions descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Three project systems are defined and summarized. The systems are: (1) a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Development Flight Test Vehicle configured for fabrication and compatible with solar electric propulsion orbit transfer; (2) an Advanced Communications Platform configured for space fabrication and compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion; and (3) the same Platform, configured to be space erectable but still compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion. These project systems are intended to serve as configuration models for use in detailed analyses of space construction techniques and processes. They represent feasible concepts for real projects; real in the sense that they are realistic contenders on the list of candidate missions currently projected for the national space program. Thus, they represent reasonable configurations upon which to base early studies of alternative space construction processes.

  5. Solar energy systems cost

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Five major areas of work currently being pursued in the United States in solar energy which will have a significant impact on the world's energy situation in the future are addressed. The five significant areas discussed include a technical description of several solar technologies, current and projected cost of the selected solar systems, and cost methodologies which are under development. In addition, sensitivity considerations which are unique to solar energy systems and end user applications are included. A total of six solar technologies - biomass, photovoltaics, wind, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), solar thermal, and industrial process heat (IPH) have been included in a brief technical description to present the variety of systems and their techncial status. System schematics have been included of systems which have been constructed, are currently in the detail design and test stage of development, or are of a conceptual nature.

  6. The solar and heliospheric imager (SoloHI) instrument for the solar orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Russell A.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Plunkett, Simon P.; Carter, Michael T.; Wang, Dennis; Rich, Nathan; McMullin, Donald R.; Lynch, Sean; Thurn, Adam; Clifford, Greg; Socker, Dennis G.; Thernisien, Arnaud F.; Chua, Damien; Linton, Mark G.; Keller, David; Janesick, James R.; Tower, John; Grygon, Mark; Hagood, Robert; Bast, William; Liewer, Paulett C.; DeJong, Eric M.; Velli, Marco M. C.; Mikic, Zoran; Bothmer, Volker; Rochus, Pierre; Halain, Jean-Philippe; Lamy, Philippe L.

    2013-09-01

    The SoloHI instrument for the ESA/NASA Solar Orbiter mission will track density fluctuations in the inner heliosphere, by observing visible sunlight scattered by electrons in the solar wind. Fluctuations are associated with dynamic events such as coronal mass ejections, but also with the "quiescent" solar wind. SoloHI will provide the crucial link between the low corona observations from the Solar Orbiter instruments and the in-situ measurements on Solar Orbiter and the Solar Probe Plus missions. The instrument is a visible-light telescope, based on the SECCHI/Heliospheric Imager (HI) currently flying on the STEREO mission. In this concept, a series of baffles reduce the scattered light from the solar disk and reflections from the spacecraft to levels below the scene brightness, typically by a factor of 1012. The fluctuations are imposed against a much brighter signal produced by light scattered by dust particles (the zodiacal light/F-corona). Multiple images are obtained over a period of several minutes and are summed on-board to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to reduce the telemetry load. SoloHI is a single telescope with a 40⁰ field of view beginning at 5° from the Sun center. Through a series of Venus gravity assists, the minimum perihelia for Solar Orbiter will be reduced to about 60 Rsun (0.28 AU), and the inclination of the orbital plane will be increased to a maximum of 35° after the 7 year mission. The CMOS/APS detector is a mosaic of four 2048 x 1930 pixel arrays, each 2-side buttable with 11 μm pixels.

  7. Future L5 Missions for Solar Physics and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchere, Frederic; Gopalswamy, Nat

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIR) are the sources of intense space weather in the heliosphere. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). In this paper, the advantages of remote-sensing and in-situ observations from the Sun-Earth L5 point are discussed. Locating a mission at Sun-Earth L5 has several key benefits for solar physics and space weather: (1) off the Sun-Earth line view is critical in observing Earth-arriving parts of CMEs, (2) L5 coronagraphic observations can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input to models that forecast Earth-arrival time of CMEs, (3) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, (4) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, (5) CIRs reach the L5 point a few days before they arrive at Earth, and hence provide significant lead time before CIR arrival, (6) L5 observations can provide advance knowledge of CME and CIR source regions (coronal holes) rotating to Earth view, and (7) magnetograms obtained from L5 can improve the surface magnetic field distribution used as input to MHD models that predict the background solar wind. The paper also discusses L5 mission concepts that can be achieved in the near future. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C

  8. Solar Electric and Chemical Propulsion Technology Applications to a Titan Orbiter/Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion technology options were assessed for a conceptual Titan Orbiter/Lander mission. For convenience of presentation, the mission was broken into two phases: interplanetary and Titan capture. The interplanetary phase of the mission was evaluated for an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), while the Titan capture phase was evaluated for state-of-art chemical propulsion (NTO/Hydrazine), three advanced chemical propulsion options (LOX/Hydrazine, Fluorine/Hydrazine, high Isp mono-propellant), and advanced tank technologies. Hence, this study was referred to as a SEPS/Chemical based option. The SEPS/Chemical study results were briefly compared to a 2002 NASA study that included two general propulsion options for the same conceptual mission: an all propulsive based mission and a SEPS/Aerocapture based mission. The SEP/Chemical study assumed identical science payload as the 2002 NASA study science payload. The SEPS/Chemical study results indicated that the Titan mission was feasible for a medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 8 years, an advanced SEPS (30 kW), and current chemical engine technology (yet with advanced tanks) for the Titan capture. The 2002 NASA study showed the feasibility of the mission based on a somewhat smaller medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 5.9 years, an advanced SEPS (24 kW), and advanced Aerocapture based propulsion technology for the Titan capture. Further comparisons and study results were presented for the advanced chemical and advanced tank technologies.

  9. Trajectory Optimization of an Interstellar Mission Using Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kluever, Craig A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents several mission designs for heliospheric boundary exploration using spacecraft with low-thrust ion engines as the primary mode of propulsion The mission design goal is to transfer a 200-kg spacecraft to the heliospheric boundary in minimum time. The mission design is a combined trajectory and propulsion system optimization problem. Trajectory design variables include launch date, launch energy, burn and coast arc switch times, thrust steering direction, and planetary flyby conditions. Propulsion system design parameters include input power and specific impulse. Both SEP and NEP spacecraft arc considered and a wide range of launch vehicle options are investigated. Numerical results are presented and comparisons with the all chemical heliospheric missions from Ref 9 are made.

  10. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  11. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  12. Attitude sensor alignment calibration for the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitone, Daniel S.; Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1990-01-01

    An earlier heuristic study of the fine attitude sensors for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) revealed a temperature dependence of the alignment about the yaw axis of the pair of fixed-head star trackers relative to the fine pointing Sun sensor. Here, new sensor alignment algorithms which better quantify the dependence of the alignments on the temperature are developed and applied to the SMM data. Comparison with the results from the previous study reveals the limitations of the heuristic approach. In addition, some of the basic assumptions made in the prelaunch analysis of the alignments of the SMM are examined. The results of this work have important consequences for future missions with stringent attitude requirements and where misalignment variations due to variations in the temperature will be significant.

  13. Attitude sensor alignment calibration for the solar maximum mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitone, Daniel S.; Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1990-12-01

    An earlier heuristic study of the fine attitude sensors for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) revealed a temperature dependence of the alignment about the yaw axis of the pair of fixed-head star trackers relative to the fine pointing Sun sensor. Here, new sensor alignment algorithms which better quantify the dependence of the alignments on the temperature are developed and applied to the SMM data. Comparison with the results from the previous study reveals the limitations of the heuristic approach. In addition, some of the basic assumptions made in the prelaunch analysis of the alignments of the SMM are examined. The results of this work have important consequences for future missions with stringent attitude requirements and where misalignment variations due to variations in the temperature will be significant.

  14. A close-up of the sun. [solar probe mission planning conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Davies, R. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    NASA's long-range plan for the study of solar-terrestrial relations includes a Solar Probe Mission in which a spacecraft is put into an eccentric orbit with perihelion near 4 solar radii (0.02 AU). The scientific experiments which might be done with such a mission are discussed. Topics include the distribution of mass within the Sun, solar angular momentum, the fine structure of the solar surface and corona, the acceleration of the solar wind and energetic particles, and the evolution of interplanetary dust. The mission could also contribute to high-accuracy tests of general relativity and the search for cosmic gravitational radiation.

  15. Solar System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Carl D.; Dermott, Stanley F.

    2000-02-01

    Preface; 1. Structure of the solar system; 2. The two-body problem; 3. The restricted three-body problem; 4. Tides, rotation and shape; 5. Spin-orbit coupling; 6. The disturbing function; 7. Secular perturbations; 8. Resonant perturbations; 9. Chaos and long-term evolution; 10. Planetary rings; Appendix A. Solar system data; Appendix B. Expansion of the disturbing function; Index.

  16. Homemade Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Through the use of NASA Tech Briefs, Peter Kask, was able to build a solarized domestic hot water system. Also by applying NASA's solar energy design information, he was able to build a swimming pool heating system with minimal outlay for materials.

  17. The Solar System: Recent Exploration Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The solar system has been visited by space probes, ranging from the Mariner Mercury-Venus mission exploring inward toward the sun, and continuing through the Voyager probes out into interstellar space and (on its way now) the New Horizons probe to Pluto and the Kuiper belt. This talk examines what we know of the planets of the solar system from probes, and talks about where we will go from here.

  18. The 1984 - 1987 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Nelson, J. J.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1984-1987 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x-ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometer; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronograph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  19. Solar rocket system concept analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of solar energy to heat propellant for application to Earth orbital/planetary propulsion systems is of interest because of its performance capabilities. The achievable specific impulse values are approximately double those delivered by a chemical rocket system, and the thrust is at least an order of magnitude greater than that produced by a mercury bombardment ion propulsion thruster. The primary advantage the solar heater thruster has over a mercury ion bombardment system is that its significantly higher thrust permits a marked reduction in mission trip time. The development of the space transportation system, offers the opportunity to utilize the full performance potential of the solar rocket. The requirements for transfer from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) was examined as the return trip, GEO to LEO, both with and without payload. Payload weights considered ranged from 2000 to 100,000 pounds. The performance of the solar rocket was compared with that provided by LO2-LH2, N2O4-MMH, and mercury ion bombardment systems.

  20. Solar photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy's photovoltaic program is outlined. The main objective of the program is the development of low cost reliable terrestrial photovoltaic systems. A second objective is to foster widespread use of the system in residential, industrial and commercial application. The system is reviewed by examining each component; silicon solar cell, silicon solar cell modules, advanced development modules and power systems. Cost and applications of the system are discussed.

  1. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic and Human Missions in Near-Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Solar-electric propulsion (SEP) is becoming of interest for application to a wide range of missions. The benefits of SEP are strongly influenced by system element performance, especially that for the power system. Solar array performance is increasing rapidly and promises to continue to do so for another 10 to 20 years (Fig. 1). At the same time, cost per watt is decreasing. Radiation hardness is increasing. New concepts for how to design a SEP are emerging. These improvements lead to changes in the best ways to apply SEP technology to missions, and broadening of the practical uses of SEP technology compared to competing technologies. This paper addresses the evolving characteristics of SEP technology from the point of view of mission design, and how mission profile characteristics can be designed to best take advantage of evolving SEP characteristics. Mission concepts include robotic lunar landers and orbiters; scientific planetary spacecraft; delivery of spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit from inclined and low-inclination launch orbits; and lunar cargo delivery from Earth orbit to lunar orbit. Expendable and re-usable SEP profiles are considered. Flight control considerations are abstracted from recent papers by the author to describe how these influence SEP design and operations.

  2. Solar-A Prelaunch Mission Operation Report (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Solar-A mission is a Japanese-led program with the participation of the United States and the United Kingdom. The Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is providing the Solar-A spacecraft, two of the four science instruments, the launch vehicle and launch support, and the principal ground station with Operational Control Center. NASA is providing a science instrument, the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)and tracking support using the Deep Space Network (DSN) ground stations. The United Kingdom s Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) provides the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer. The Solar-A mission will study solar flares using a cluster of instruments on a satellite in a 600 km altitude, 31 degree inclination circular orbit. The emphasis of the mission is on imaging and spectroscopy of hard and soft X-rays. The principal instruments are a pair of X-ray imaging instruments, one for the hard X-ray range and one for the soft X-ray range. The Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT), provided by ISAS, operates in the energy range of 10-100 keV and uses an array of modulation collimators to record Fourier transform images of the non-thermal and hot plasmas that are formed during the early phases of a flare. These images are thought to be intimately associated with the sites of primary energy release. The Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT), jointly provided by NASA and ISAS, operates in the wavelength range of 3-50 Angstroms and uses a grazing incidence mirror to form direct images of the lower temperature (but still very hot) plasmas that form as the solar atmosphere responds to the injection of energy. The SXT instrument is a joint development effort between the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The U.S. effort also involves Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley and the University of Hawaii, who provide support in the areas of theory, data analysis and interpretation, and ground

  3. Performance of High-Efficiency Advanced Triple-Junction Solar Panels for the LILT Mission Dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.; Sharma, Surya; Buitrago, Oscar; Sharps, Paul R.; Blok, Ron; Kroon, Martin; Jalink, Cees; Harris, Robin; Stella, Paul; Distefano, Sal

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Discovery Mission Dawn is designed to (LILT) conditions. operate within the solar system's Asteroid belt, where the large distance from the sun creates a low-intensity, low-temperature (LILT) condition. To meet the mission power requirements under LlLT conditions, very high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft to be built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) under contract with JPL. Emcore's InGaP/InGaAs/Ge advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of greater than 27.6% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the solar panels [1]. The two solar array wings, to be built by Dutch Space, with 5 large- area panels each (total area of 36.4 sq. meters) are projected to produce between 10.3 kWe and 1.3 kWe of end-of life (EOL) power in the 1.0 to 3.0 AU range, respectively. The details of the solar panel design, testing and power analysis are presented.

  4. Mission Analysis Program for Solar Electric Propulsion (MAPSEP). Volume 1: Analytical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, P. E.; Shults, G. L.; Boain, R. J.; Huling, K. R.; Wilson, T.

    1974-01-01

    The mission analysis program for solar electric propulsion (MAPSEP) is comprised of the basic modes: TOPSEP (trajectory generation), GODSEP (linear error analysis), and SIMSEP (simulation). The program is designed to analyze any low thrust mission with respect to trajectory performance, guidance and navigation, and to provide system related requirements for the purpose of vehicle design. The MAPSEP organization is described along with all models and algorithms. Topics discussed include: trajectory and error covariance propagation methods, orbit determination processes, thrust modeling, and trajectory correction (guidance) schemes.

  5. Application of Solar Electric Propulsion to a Comet Surface Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Mike; Coverstone, Victoria; Woo, Byoungsam

    2004-01-01

    Current NSTAR (planned for the Discovery Mission: Dawn) and NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster based propulsion systems were compared for a comet surface sample return mission to Tempe1 1. Mission and systems analyses were conducted over a range of array power for each propulsion system with an array of 12 kW EOL at 1 AU chosen for a baseline. Engine configurations investigated for NSTAR included 4 operational engines with 1 spare and 5 operational engines with 1 spare. The NEXT configuration investigated included 2 operational engines plus 1 spare, with performance estimated for high thrust and high Isp throttling modes. Figures of merit for this comparison include Solar Electric Propulsion dry mass, average engine throughput, and net non-propulsion payload returned to Earth flyby.

  6. Three Dimensional Rover/Lander/Orbiter Mission-Planning (3D-ROMPS) System: A Modern Approach to Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharfe, Nathan D.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's current mission planning system is based on point design, two-dimensional display, spread sheets, and report technology. This technology does not enable engineers to analyze the results of parametric studies of missions plans. This technology will not support the increased observational complexity and data volume of missions like Cassini, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), and Mars Sample Return (MSR). The goal of the 3D-ROMPS task has been to establish a set of operational mission planning and analysis tools in the Image Processing Laboratory (IPL) Mission Support Area (MSA) that will respond to engineering requirements for planning future Solar System Exploration (SSE) missions using a three-dimensional display.

  7. Evaluation of solar electric propulsion technologies for discovery class missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David Y.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study examines the potential benefits that advanced electric propulsion (EP) technologies offer to the cost-capped missions in NASA's Discovery program. The study looks at potential cost and performance benefits provided by three EP technologies that are currently in development: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), an Enhanced NSTAR system, and a Low Power Hall effect thruster. These systems are analyzed on three straw man Discovery class missions and their performance is compared to a state of the art system using the NSTAR ion thruster. An electric propulsion subsystem cost model is used to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for each option. The results show that each proposed technology offers a different degree of performance and/or cost benefit for Discovery class missions.

  8. Parabolic solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, W. L., IV; Goetchius, W.

    The further development of parabolic solar collectors to increase their efficiency and simplify their operation was the prime objective of this research project. Three primary objectives were pursued. The first of these was to investigate the simplest and most efficient techniques to build and mass-produce parabolic solar collectors. The second objective was to further develop and simplify absorber tubes used to collect and transfer the solar energy. Absorber tubes represented a significant area of this research project. The third objective was to develop accurate, low cost, and durable tracking systems for solar collectors. Solar tracking systems are covered including several schematic representations of various systems and designs. The testing systems and associated mechanisms for the designs discussed in this report are described.

  9. A High Power Solar Electric Propulsion - Chemical Mission for Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Laura M.; Martini, Michael C.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) as a main propulsion system has been investigated as an option to support manned space missions to near-Earth destinations for the NASA Gateway spacecraft. High efficiency SEP systems are able to reduce the amount of propellant long duration chemical missions require, ultimately reducing the required mass delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by a launch vehicle. However, for long duration interplanetary Mars missions, using SEP as the sole propulsion source alone may not be feasible due to the long trip times to reach and insert into the destination orbit. By combining an SEP propulsion system with a chemical propulsion system the mission is able to utilize the high-efficiency SEP for sustained vehicle acceleration and deceleration in heliocentric space and the chemical system for orbit insertion maneuvers and trans-earth injection, eliminating the need for long duration spirals. By capturing chemically instead of with low-thrust SEP, Mars stay time increases by nearly 200 days. Additionally, the size the of chemical propulsion system can be significantly reduced from that of a standard Mars mission because the SEP system greatly decreases the Mars arrival and departure hyperbolic excess velocities (V(sub infinity)).

  10. Overview of the Development of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission 12.5-kW Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Chang, Li; Clayman, Lauren; Herman, Daniel; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Verhey, Timothy; Griffith, Christopher; Myers, James; Williams, George; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard; Polk, James; Goebel, Dan

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing mission concepts for a solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. A number of mission concepts are being evaluated including ambitious missions to near Earth objects. The demonstration of a high-power solar electric propulsion capability is one of the objectives of the candidate missions under consideration. In support of NASA's exploration goals, a number of projects are developing extensible technologies to support NASA's near and long term mission needs. Specifically, the Space Technology Mission Directorate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission project is funding the development of a 12.5-kilowatt magnetically shielded Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. This paper presents the design attributes of the thruster that was collaboratively developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The paper provides an overview of the magnetic, plasma, thermal, and structural modeling activities that were carried out in support of the thruster design. The paper also summarizes the results of the functional tests that have been carried out to date. The planned thruster performance, plasma diagnostics (internal and in the plume), thermal, wear, and mechanical tests are outlined.

  11. Overview of the Development of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission 12.5-kW Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Chang, Li; Clayman, Lauren; Herman, Daniel; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Verhey, Timothy; Griffith, Christopher; Myers, James; Williams, George; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard; Polk, James; Goebel, Dan

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing mission concepts for a solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. A number of mission concepts are being evaluated including ambitious missions to near Earth objects. The demonstration of a high-power solar electric propulsion capability is one of the objectives of the candidate missions under consideration. In support of NASAs exploration goals, a number of projects are developing extensible technologies to support NASAs near and long term mission needs. Specifically, the Space Technology Mission Directorate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission project is funding the development of a 12.5-kW magnetically shielded Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. This paper presents the design attributes of the thruster that was collaboratively developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The paper provides an overview of the magnetic, plasma, thermal, and structural modeling activities that were carried out in support of the thruster design. The paper also summarizes the results of the functional tests that have been carried out to date. The planned thruster performance, plasma diagnostics (internal and in the plume), thermal, wear, and mechanical tests are outlined.

  12. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  13. The GENESIS Mission: Solar Wind Isotopic and Elemental Compositions and Their Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Burnett, D. S.; McKeegan, K. D.; Kallio, A. P.; Mao, P. H.; Heber, V. S.; Wieler, R.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Mabry, J. C.; Gilmour, J.; Crowther, S. A.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Jurewicz, A.; Marty, B.; Pepin, R. O.; Barraclough, B. L.; Nordholt, J. E.; Olinger, C. T.; Steinberg, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The GENESIS mission was a novel NASA experiment to collect solar wind at the Earth's L1 point for two years and return it for analysis. The capsule crashed upon re-entry in 2004, but many of the solar-wind collectors were recovered, including separate samples of coronal hole, interstream, and CME material. Laboratory analyses of these materials have allowed higher isotopic precision than possible with current in-situ detectors. To date GENESIS results have been obtained on isotopes of O, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe on the order of 1% accuracy and precision, with poorer uncertainty on Xe isotopes and significantly better uncertainties on the lighter noble gases. Elemental abundances are available for the above elements as well as Mg, Si, and Fe. When elemental abundances are compared with other in situ solar wind measurements, agreement is generally quite good. One exception is the Ne elemental abundance, which agrees with Ulysses and Apollo SWC results, but not with ACE. Neon is of particular interest because of the uncertainty in the solar Ne abundance, which has significant implications for the standard solar model. Helium isotopic results of material from the different solar wind regimes collected by GENESIS is consistent with isotopic fractionation predictions of the Coulomb drag model, suggesting that isotopic fractionation corrections need to be applied to heavier elements as well when extrapolating solar wind to solar compositions. Noble gas isotopic compositions from GENESIS are consistent with those obtained for solar wind trapped in lunar grains, but have for the first time yielded a very precise Ar isotopic result. Most interesting for cosmochemistry is a preliminary oxygen isotopic result from GENESIS which indicates a solar enrichment of ~4% in 16O relative to the planets, consistent with a photolytic self-shielding phenomenon during solar system formation. Analyses of solar wind N and C isotopes may further elucidate this phenomenon. Preliminary results

  14. Solar Electric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Heat Pipe Technology, Inc. undertook the development of a PV system that could bring solar electricity to the individual home at reasonable cost. His system employs high efficiency PV modules plus a set of polished reflectors that concentrate the solar energy and enhance the output of the modules. Dinh incorporated a sun tracking system derived from space tracking technology. It automatically follows the sun throughout the day and turns the modules so that they get maximum exposure to the solar radiation, further enhancing the system efficiency.

  15. The HYDROS Mission: Requirements and Baseline System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; O'Neill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2003-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freezel/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications. HYDROS uses a unique active and passive L-band microwave system that optimizes measurement accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage. It provides measurements in nearly all weather conditions, regardless of solar illumination. The designs of the radar and radiometer electronics, antenna feedhorn and reflector, and science data system, are driven by specific mission and science objectives. These objectives impose requirements on the frequencies, polarizations, sampling, spatial resolution, and accuracy of the system. In this paper we describe the HYDROS mission requirements, baseline design, and measurement capabilities.

  16. Concept for A Mission to Titan, Saturn System and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Elliott, J.

    2008-09-01

    A mission to Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by the 2007 NASA Science Plan, the 2006 Solar System Exploration Roadmap, and the 2003 National Research Council of the National Academies Solar System report on New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (aka Decadal Survey). As anticipated by the 2003 Decadal Survey, recent Cassini-Huygens discoveries have further revolutionized our understanding of the Titan system and its potential for harbouring the "ingredients" necessary for life. These discoveries reveal that Titan is rich in organics, possibly contains a vast subsurface ocean and has energy sources to drive chemical evolution. With these recent discoveries, the interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer Solar System is strongly reinforced. Cassini's discovery of active geysers on Enceladus adds a second target in the Saturn system for such a mission, one that is synergistic with Titan in understanding planetary evolution and in adding a potential abode in the Saturn system for life as we know it. The baseline mission concept shown in Figures 1 and 2 would consist of a chemically propelled orbiter, with accommodations for ESA contributed in situ elements, and would launch on an Atlas 551 in 2016-2018 timeframe, traveling to Saturn on a Venus-Earth-Earth gravity assist (VEEGA) trajectory, and reaching Saturn approximately 10 years later. Prior to Saturn orbit insertion (SOI) the orbiter would target and release ESA provided in situ elements; possibly a low-latitude Montgolfiere balloon system and capable polar and/or mid-latitude lander. The main engine would then place the flight system into orbit around Saturn for a tour phase lasting 18 months. This tour phase would accomplish Saturn system and Enceladus science (4 Enceladus flybys with instrumentation for plume sampling well beyond Cassini capability) while executing leveraging Titan pump down manoeuvres to minimize the required amount of

  17. Effects of Gravity-Assist Timing on Outer-Planet Missions Using Solar-Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Byoungsam; Coverstone, Victoria L.; Cupples, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Missions to the outer planets for spacecraft with a solar-electric propulsion system (SEPS) and that utilize a single Venus gravity assist are investigated. The trajectories maximize the delivered mass to the target planet for a range of flight times. A comparison of the trajectory characteristics (delivered mass, launch energy and onboard propulsive energy) is made for various Venus gravity assist opportunities. Methods to estimate the delivered mass to the outer planets are developed.

  18. Distant Comets in the Early Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meech, Karen J.

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of this project is to physically characterize the small outer solar system bodies. An understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of the outer solar system small bodies is currently one of planetary science's highest priorities. The measurement of the size distributions of these bodies will help constrain the early mass of the outer solar system as well as lead to an understanding of the collisional and accretional processes. A study of the physical properties of the small outer solar system bodies in comparison with comets in the inner solar system and in the Kuiper Belt will give us information about the nebular volatile distribution and small body surface processing. We will increase the database of comet nucleus sizes making it statistically meaningful (for both Short-Period and Centaur comets) to compare with those of the Trans-Neptunian Objects. In addition, we are proposing to do active ground-based observations in preparation for several upcoming space missions.

  19. Residential Solar Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  20. Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    "Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.

  1. Solar-Powered Electric Propulsion Systems: Engineering and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, J. W.; Kerrisk, D. J.

    1966-01-01

    Lightweight, multikilowatt solar power arrays in conjunction with electric propulsion offer potential improvements to space exploration, extending the usefulness of existing launch vehicles to higher-energy missions. Characteristics of solar-powered electric propulsion missions are outlined, and preliminary performance estimates are shown. Spacecraft system engineering is discussed with respect to parametric trade-offs in power and propulsion system design. Relationships between mission performance and propulsion system performance are illustrated. The present state of the art of electric propulsion systems is reviewed and related to the mission requirements identified earlier. The propulsion system design and test requirements for a mission spacecraft are identified and discussed. Although only ion engine systems are currently available, certain plasma propulsion systems offer some advantages in over-all system design. These are identified, and goals are set for plasma-thrustor systems to make them competitive with ion-engine systems for mission applications.

  2. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  3. Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): Results of the Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are two large-scale structures that originate from the Sun and affect the heliosphere in general and Earth in particular. While CIRs are generally detected by in-situ plasma signatures, CMEs are remote-sensed when they are still close to the Sun. The current understanding of CMEs primarily come from the SOHO and STEREO missions. In spite of the enormous progress made, there are some serious deficiencies in these missions. For example, these missions did not carry all the necessary instruments (STEREO did not have a magnetograph; SOHO did not have in-situ magnetometer). From the Sun-Earth line, SOHO was not well-suited for observing Earth-directed CMEs because of the occulting disk. STEREO's angle with the Sun-Earth line is changing constantly, so only a limited number of Earth-directed CMEs were observed in profile. In order to overcome these difficulties, we proposed a news L5 mission concept known as the Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO). The mission concept was recently studied at the Mission Design Laboratory (MDL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The aim of the MDL study was to see how the scientific payload consisting of ten instruments can be accommodated in the spacecraft bus, what propulsion system can transfer the payload to the Sun-Earth L5, and what launch vehicles are appropriate. The study found that all the ten instruments can be readily accommodated and can be launched using an intermediate size vehicle such as Taurus II with enhanced faring. The study also found that a hybrid propulsion system consisting of an ion thruster (using approximately 55 kg of Xenon) and hydrazine (approximately 10 kg) is adequate to place the payload at L5. The transfer will take about 2 years and the science mission will last for 4 years around the next solar maximum in 2025. The mission can be readily extended for another solar cycle to get a solar-cycle worth of data on Earth

  4. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  5. Update of the ISTP Solar Maximum Mission: ISTP Project Scientist for Theory and Ground-Based Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Building upon the numerous successes of the pre-solar maximum International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) mission, the ISTP Solar Maximum Mission is expected to produce new insights into global flow of energy, momentum, and mass, from the Sun, through the heliosphere, into the magnetosphere and to their final deposition in the terrestrial upper atmosphere/ionosphere system. Of particular interest is the determination of the geo-effectiveness of solar events, principally Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Given the expected increased frequency and strength of CMEs during the Solar Maximum period, a major advance in our understanding of nature of the coupling of CMEs to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere system is expected. The roles during this time of the various ISTP assets will be discussed. These assets will include the SOHO, Wind, Polar, and Geotail spacecraft, the ground-based observing networks and the theory tools.

  6. A Summary fo Solar Sail Technology Developments and Proposed Demonstration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles; Diedrich, Benjamin; Leipold, Manfred

    1999-01-01

    NASA's drive to reduce mission costs and accept the risk of incorporating innovative, high payoff technologies into it's missions while simultaneously undertaking ever more difficult missions has sparked a greatly renewed interest in solar sails. From virtually no technology or flight mission studies activity three years ago solar sails are now included in NOAA, NASA, DOD, DLR, ESA and ESTEC technology development programs and technology roadmaps. NASA programs include activities at Langley Research Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, and the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts; NOAA has received funding for a proposed solar sail mission; DLR is designing and fabricating a 20-m laboratory model sail, there are four demonstration missions under study at industry, NASA, DOD and Europe, two new text books on solar sailing were recently published and one new test book is planned. This paper summarizes these on-going developments in solar sails.

  7. GMAS- GODDARD MISSION ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1994-01-01

    GMAS was designed as a general control framework to satisfy multiple applications in a core-limited and optionally interactive environment. During execution, the system uses and releases memory as needed to provide the user with a system that is only as large or small as the problem demands. Although GMAS was designed for trajectory-related spacecraft mission analysis specifications, the organization of the system software makes GMAS applicable to many computational functions. Any large computer program that can be separated into independent functional areas (load modules) can probably be implemented under GMAS. Because of the program's modular nature, the GMAS system offers software development time savings, core savings and efficiency, stability, and flexibility. The major components of GMAS are the executive module, the dynamic load modules, the dynamic arrays, and the automatic sequence. The GMAS executive module is primarily responsible for interpretation of user control directives and data management. The executive passes control to user-designated dynamic load modules after having prepared user-specified and default data for the utilities. The executive also controls the dynamic assignment and release of core-space for user-specified modules and data areas. The dynamic load modules contain the applications software to be used in specific problem solutions. These load modules may consist of the GMAS library of standard routines along with user developed libraries of routines. Each dynamic load module is a separate group of subroutines which, when loading during GMAS execution, can be executed to solve part of the user problem then deleted from core. Dynamic load module input and output can be transferred through out-of-core files or through user-specified dynamic arrays located in a core area separate from the executive and any dynamic load modules. The dynamic arrays are the primary communications link between load modules. The GMAS automatic sequence allows

  8. In-orbit assembly mission for the Space Solar Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, ZhengAi; Hou, Xinbin; Zhang, Xinghua; Zhou, Lu; Guo, Jifeng; Song, Chunlin

    2016-12-01

    The Space Solar Power Station (SSPS) is a large spacecraft that utilizes solar power in space to supply power to an electric grid on Earth. A large symmetrical integrated concept has been proposed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). Considering its large scale, the SSPS requires a modular design and unitized general interfaces that would be assembled in orbit. Facilities system supporting assembly procedures, which include a Reusable Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, orbital transfer and space robots, is introduced. An integrated assembly scheme utilizing space robots to realize this platform SSPS concept is presented. This paper tried to give a preliminary discussion about the minimized time and energy cost of the assembly mission under best sequence and route This optimized assembly mission planning allows the SSPS to be built in orbit rapidly, effectively and reliably.

  9. Probability Estimates of Solar Proton Doses During Periods of Low Sunspot Number for Short Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.; Rojdev, Kristina; Matzkind, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In an earlier paper presented at ICES in 2015, we investigated solar particle event (SPE) radiation exposures (absorbed dose) to small, thinly-shielded spacecraft during a period when the monthly smoothed sunspot number (SSN) was less than 30. Although such months are generally considered "solar-quiet", SPEs observed during these months even include Ground Level Events, the most energetic type of SPE. In this paper, we add to previous study those SPEs that occurred in 1973-2015 when the SSN was greater than 30 but less than 50. Based on the observable energy range of the solar protons, we classify the event as GLEs, sub-GLEs, and sub-sub-GLEs, all of which are potential contributors to the radiation hazard. We use the spectra of these events to construct a probabilistic model of the absorbed dose due to solar protons when SSN < 50 at various confidence levels for various depths of shielding and for various mission durations. We provide plots and tables of solar proton-induced absorbed dose as functions of confidence level, shielding thickness, and mission-duration that will be useful to system designers.

  10. A Computer System for Mission Managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolchin, Robert; Achar, Sathy; Yang, Tina; Lee, Tom

    1987-01-01

    Mission Managers' Workstation (MMW) is personal-computer-based system providing data management and reporting functions to assist Space Shuttle mission managers. Allows to relate events and stored data in timely and organized fashion. Using MMW, standard reports formatted, generated, edited, and electronically communicated with minimum clerical help. Written in PASCAL, BASIC, and assembler.

  11. Power Systems for Future Missions: Appendices A-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Selection of power system technology for space applications is typically based on mass, readiness of a particular technology to meet specific mission requirements, and life cycle costs (LCC). The LCC is typically used as a discriminator between competing technologies for a single mission application. All other future applications for a given technology are usually ignored. As a result, development cost of a technology becomes a dominant factor in the LCC comparison. Therefore, it is common for technologies such as DIPS and LMR-CBC to be potentially applicable to a wide range of missions and still lose out in the initial LCC comparison due to high development costs. This collection of appendices (A through L) contains the following power systems technology plans: CBC DIPS Technology Roadmap; PEM PFC Technology Roadmap; NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; PV/RFC Power System Technology Roadmap; PV/NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; Thermionic Reactor Power System Technology Roadmap; SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Dynamic SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Near-Term Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Stirling Cycle Dynamic Isotope Power System Technology Roadmap; and the ESPPRS (Evolutionary Space Power and Propulsion Requirements System) User's Guide.

  12. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  13. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  14. Comparative cost assessment of planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A study to explore the cost differences resulting from implementing a series of representative solar system exploration missions in either ballistic or low-thrust flight modes is presented. Cost comparisons of missions using a solar electric propulsion delivery systems with ballistic equivalent mission designs were made. The mission set, cost elements, and delivery modes are detailed. Objectives for each of the six mission sets including two asteroid missions, a comet mission, a Mercury mission, and two outer planet missions are given.

  15. Fragmentary Solar System History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research is an improved understanding of the early solar system environment and of the processes involved in the nebula and in the evolution of solid bodies. We present results of our studies on the isotopic signatures in selected primitive solar system objects and on the evaluation of the cosmic ray records and of inferred collisional events. Furthermore, we report data of trapped martian atmospheric gases in meteorites and the inferred early evolution of Mars' atmosphere.

  16. NASA's SPICE System Models the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles

    1996-01-01

    SPICE is NASA's multimission, multidiscipline information system for assembling, distributing, archiving, and accessing space science geometry and related data used by scientists and engineers for mission design and mission evaluation, detailed observation planning, mission operations, and science data analysis.

  17. Ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter (UVSP) software development and hardware tests for the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Haisch, B. M.

    1986-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer/Polarimeter Instrument (UVSP) for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) was based on the re-use of the engineering model of the high resolution ultraviolet spectrometer developed for the OSO-8 mission. Lockheed assumed four distinct responsibilities in the UVSP program: technical evaluation of the OSO-8 engineering model; technical consulting on the electronic, optical, and mechanical modifications to the OSO-8 engineering model hardware; design and development of the UVSP software system; and scientific participation in the operations and analysis phase of the mission. Lockheed also provided technical consulting and assistance with instrument hardware performance anomalies encountered during the post launch operation of the SMM observatory. An index to the quarterly reports delivered under the contract are contained, and serves as a useful capsule history of the program activity.

  18. The Global Solar System Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Jim

    1992-08-01

    A Global Solar System Exploration Program is proposed which is based on recent post-Cold War models involving collective actions of nations to achieve international burden sharing. Each participating space agency would provide complementary missions and capabilities incorporating traditional models of space cooperation. A new international coordination agency is proposed to facilitate the unprecedented degree of international cooperation necessary for the global program.

  19. A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickler, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

  20. Waste system implications for Mars missions.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, A E; Maxwell, S

    2003-01-01

    Waste technologies for Mars missions have been analyzed, considering equivalent system mass and interface loads. Storage or dumping seems most appropriate for early missions with low food closure. Composting or other treatment of inedible biomass in a bioreactor seems most attractive for moderate food closure (50-75%). Some form of physicochemical oxidation of the composted residue might be needed for increased food closure, but oxidation of all waste does not seem appropriate due to excess of production of carbon dioxide over demand. More comprehensive analysis considering interfaces with other mission systems is needed. In particular, in-situ resource utilization is not considered, and might provide resources more cheaply than waste processing.

  1. Study of solar array switching power management technology for space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinelli, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents work performed on the Solar Array Switching Power Management Study. Mission characteristics for three missions were defined to the depth necessary to determine their power management requirements. Solar array switching concepts were identified that could safisfy the mission requirements. These switching concepts were compared with a conventional buck regulator system on the basis of cost, weight and volume, reliability, efficiency and thermal control. For the missions reviewed, solar array switching provided significant advantages in all areas of comparison.

  2. Study of solar array switching power management technology for space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinelli, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents work performed on the Solar Array Switching Power Management Study. Mission characteristics for three missions were defined to the depth necessary to determine their power management requirements. Solar array switching concepts which could satisfy the mission requirements were identified. The switching concepts were compared with a conventional buck regulator system for cost, weight and volume, reliability, efficiency and thermal control. Solar array switching provided significant advantages in all areas of comparison for the reviewed missions.

  3. Discovering the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barrie W.

    1999-04-01

    Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

  4. Analysis of DRIRU bearings and lubricant from solar max repair mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Repair Mission (SMRM) by the shuttle astronauts in April 1984, returned to Earth the Delta Redundant Inertial Reference Unit 2 (DRIRU 2) from the Solar Maximum satellite. The DRIRU 2 included three gyroscopes. The gyroscope, S/N 094, in position 2 was disassembled by Teledyne Systems personnel of Northridge, California, and the bearings were returned to Goddard Space Flight Center for examination. The Solar Max Satellite was in orbit for 4 years with the bearings running continuously at 6000 rpm. The ball bearings, had sufficient remaining lubrication and had runs successfully for over the last 4 years. As a result of these findings, the bearings should have lasted their predicted life of 5 years with no problems.

  5. A Study of the Structure of the Source Region of the Solar Wind in Support of a Solar Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal , Shadia R.

    1998-01-01

    Despite the richness of the information about the physical properties and the structure of the solar wind provided by the Ulysses and SOHO observations, fundamental questions regarding the nature of the coronal heating mechanisms, their source, and the manifestations of the fast and slow solar wind, still remain unanswered. The last unexplored frontier to establish the connection between the structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere, its extension into interplanetary space, and the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of the solar wind, is the corona between 1 and 30 R(sub s). A Solar Probe mission offers an unprecedented opportunity to explore this frontier. The uniqueness of this mission stems from its trajectory in a plane perpendicular to the ecliptic which reaches within 9 R(sub s), of the solar surface over the poles and 3 - 9 R(sub s), at the equator. With a complement of simultaneous in situ and remote sensing observations, this mission is destined to have a significant impact on our understanding of the fundamental processes that heat the corona and drive the solar wind. The Solar Probe should be able to detect remnants and signatures of the processes which heat the corona and accelerate the solar wind. The primary objective of this proposal was to explore the structure of the different source regions of the solar wind through complementary observational and theoretical studies in support of a Solar Probe mission.

  6. Measurements of heavy solar wind and higher energy solar particles during the Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Maurette, M.

    1973-01-01

    The lunar surface cosmic ray experiment, consisting of sets of mica, glass, plastic, and metal foil detectors, was successfully deployed on the Apollo 17 mission. One set of detectors was exposed directly to sunlight and another set was placed in shade. Preliminary scanning of the mica detectors shows the expected registration of heavy solar wind ions in the sample exposed directly to the sun. The initial results indicate a depletion of very-heavy solar wind ions. The effect is probably not real but is caused by scanning inefficiencies. Despite the lack of any pronounced solar activity, energetic heavy particles with energies extending to 1 MeV/nucleon were observed. Equal track densities of approximately 6000 tracks/cm sq 0.5 microns in length were measured in mica samples exposed in both sunlight and shade.

  7. A Saturn Ring Observer Mission Using Multi-Mission Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Shirley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    Saturn remains one of the most fascinating planets within the solar system. To better understand the complex ring structure of this planet, a conceptual Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) mission is presented that would spend one year in close proximity to Saturn's A and B rings, and perform detailed observations and measurements of the ring particles and electric and magnetic fields. The primary objective of the mission would be to understand ring dynamics, including the microphysics of individual particles and small scale (meters to a few kilometers) phenomena such as particle agglomeration behavior. This would be accomplished by multispectral imaging of the rings at multiple key locations within the A and B rings, and by ring-particle imaging at an unprecedented resolution of 0.5 cm/pixel. The SRO spacecraft would use a Venus-Earth-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VEEJGA) and be aerocaptured into Saturn orbit using an advanced aeroshell design to minimize propellant mass. Once in orbit, the SRO would stand off from the ring plane 1 to 1.4 km using chemical thrusters to provide short propulsive maneuvers four times per revolution, effectively causing the SRO vehicle to ``hop'' above the ring plane. The conceptual SRO spacecraft would be enabled by the use of a new generation of multi-mission Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) currently being developed by NASA and DOE. These RPSs include the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). The RPSs would generate all necessary electrical power (>=330 We at beginning of life) during the 10-year cruise and 1-year science mission (~11 years total). The RPS heat would be used to maintain the vehicle's operating and survival temperatures, minimizing the need for electrical heaters. Such a mission could potentially launch in the 2015-2020 timeframe, with operations at Saturn commencing in approximately 2030.

  8. A Saturn Ring Observer Mission Using Multi-Mission Radioisotope Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, Robert D.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Shirley, James H.

    2006-01-20

    Saturn remains one of the most fascinating planets within the solar system. To better understand the complex ring structure of this planet, a conceptual Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) mission is presented that would spend one year in close proximity to Saturn's A and B rings, and perform detailed observations and measurements of the ring particles and electric and magnetic fields. The primary objective of the mission would be to understand ring dynamics, including the microphysics of individual particles and small scale (meters to a few kilometers) phenomena such as particle agglomeration behavior. This would be accomplished by multispectral imaging of the rings at multiple key locations within the A and B rings, and by ring-particle imaging at an unprecedented resolution of 0.5 cm/pixel. The SRO spacecraft would use a Venus-Earth-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VEEJGA) and be aerocaptured into Saturn orbit using an advanced aeroshell design to minimize propellant mass. Once in orbit, the SRO would stand off from the ring plane 1 to 1.4 km using chemical thrusters to provide short propulsive maneuvers four times per revolution, effectively causing the SRO vehicle to 'hop' above the ring plane. The conceptual SRO spacecraft would be enabled by the use of a new generation of multi-mission Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) currently being developed by NASA and DOE. These RPSs include the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). The RPSs would generate all necessary electrical power ({>=}330 We at beginning of life) during the 10-year cruise and 1-year science mission ({approx}11 years total). The RPS heat would be used to maintain the vehicle's operating and survival temperatures, minimizing the need for electrical heaters. Such a mission could potentially launch in the 2015-2020 timeframe, with operations at Saturn commencing in approximately 2030.

  9. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  10. Scanning Laser Radar Development for Solar System Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, D.; Menzies, R.; Bartman, R.; Hemmati, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has recently established an accelerated development initiative to enable high-resolution active optical ranging and terrain mapping capabilities for a series of upcoming Solar System exploration missions.

  11. Free Flyer Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) and Climate Services Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahalan, R.; Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T.

    2012-04-01

    NOAA's planned Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) mission will fly along with the NOAA user service payloads Advanced Data Collection System (ADCS) and Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT). In order to guarantee continuity in the 33-year solar irradiance climate data record, TSIS must be launched in time to overlap with current on-orbit solar irradiance instruments. Currently TSIS is moving towards a launch readiness date of January 2015. TSIS provides for continuation of the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) currently onboard NASA's Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) platform, launched in January 2003. The difficulty of ensuring continuity has increased due to the launch failure of NASA's Glory mission with its improved TIM. Achieving the needed overlap must now rely on extending SORCE, and maintaining the TSIS schedule. TSIS is one component of a NASA-NOAA joint program (JPSS) planned to transition certain climate observations to operational mode. We summarize issues of continuity, improvements being made to the TIM and SIM sensors, and plans to provide for traceability of total and spectral irradiance measurements to ground-based cryogenic standards.

  12. Free Flyer Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) and Climate Services Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R.; Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T.

    2012-01-01

    NOAA's planned Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) mission will fly along with the NOAA user service payloads Advanced Data Collection System (ADCS) and Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT). In ' order to guarantee continuity in the 33-year solar irradiance climate data record, TSIS must be launched in time to overlap with current on-orbit solar irradiance instruments. Currently TSIS is moving towards a launch rcadinss date of January 2015. TSIS provides for continuation of the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) ,currently onboard NASA's Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) platform, launched in January 2003. The difficulty of ensuring continuity has increased due to the launch failure of NASA's Glory mission with its improved TIM. Achieving the needed overlap must now rely on extending SORCE. and maintaining the TSIS schedule. TSIS is one component of a NASA-NOAA joint program (JPSS) planned to transition certain climate observations to operational mode. We summarize issues of continuity, improvements being made to the TIM and 81M sensors, and plans to provide for traceability of total and spectral irradiance measurements to ground-based cryogenic standards.

  13. The Genesis Mission: Solar Wind Conditions, and Implications for the FIP Fractionation of the Solar Wind.

    SciTech Connect

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Steinberg, J. T; Dekoning, C. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Genesis mission collected solar wind on ultrapure materials between November 30, 2001 and April 1, 2004. The samples were returned to Earth September 8, 2004. Despite the hard landing that resulted from a failure of the avionics to deploy the parachute, many samples were returned in a condition that will permit analyses. Sample analyses of these samples should give a far better understanding of the solar elemental and isotopic composition (Burnett et al. 2003). Further, the photospheric composition is thought to be representative of the solar nebula, so that the Genesis mission will provide a new baseline for the average solar nebula composition with which to compare present-day compositions of planets, meteorites, and asteroids. Sample analysis is currently underway. The Genesis samples must be placed in the context of the solar and solar wind conditions under which they were collected. Solar wind is fractionated from the photosphere by the forces that accelerate the ions off of the Sun. This fractionation appears to be ordered by the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements, with the tendency for low-FIP elements to be over-abundant in the solar wind relative to the photosphere, and high-FIP elements to be under-abundant (e.g. Geiss, 1982; von Steiger et al., 2000). In addition, the extent of elemental fractionation differs across different solarwind regimes. Therefore, Genesis collected solar wind samples sorted into three regimes: 'fast wind' or 'coronal hole' (CH), 'slow wind' or 'interstream' (IS), and 'coronal mass ejection' (CME). To carry this out, plasma ion and electron spectrometers (Barraclough et al., 2003) continuously monitored the solar wind proton density, velocity, temperature, the alpha/proton ratio, and angular distribution of suprathermal electrons, and those parameters were in turn used in a rule-based algorithm that assigned the most probable solar wind regime (Neugebauer et al., 2003). At any given time, only one of three

  14. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  15. Sampling the Solar System. A Critical Exploration Component for Future Planetary Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C. K.

    2017-02-01

    Sample return is a critical component for understanding our solar system (and other solar systems), and advancing human exploration activities. Here I will examine potential pathways for evolving sample return technologies needed to carry out increasingly complex missions.

  16. Lifetime predictions for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and San Marco spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. A.; Ward, D. T.; Schmitt, M. W.; Phenneger, M. C.; Vaughn, F. J.; Lupisella, M. L.

    1989-10-01

    Lifetime prediction techniques developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) are described. These techniques were developed to predict the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft orbit, which is decaying due to atmospheric drag, with reentry predicted to occur before the end of 1989. Lifetime predictions were also performed for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was deployed on the 1984 SMM repair mission and is scheduled for retrieval on another Space Transportation System (STS) mission later this year. Concepts used in the lifetime predictions were tested on the San Marco spacecraft, which reentered the Earth's atmosphere on December 6, 1988. Ephemerides predicting the orbit evolution of the San Marco spacecraft until reentry were generated over the final 90 days of the mission when the altitude was less than 380 kilometers. The errors in the predicted ephemerides are due to errors in the prediction of atmospheric density variations over the lifetime of the satellite. To model the time dependence of the atmospheric densities, predictions of the solar flux at the 10.7-centimeter wavelength were used in conjunction with Harris-Priester (HP) atmospheric density tables. Orbital state vectors, together with the spacecraft mass and area, are used as input to the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). Propagations proceed in monthly segments, with the nominal atmospheric drag model scaled for each month according to the predicted monthly average value of F10.7. Calibration propagations are performed over a period of known orbital decay to obtain the effective ballistic coefficient. Progagations using plus or minus 2 sigma solar flux predictions are also generated to estimate the despersion in expected reentry dates. Definitive orbits are compared with these predictions as time expases. As updated vectors are received, these are also propagated to reentryto continually update the lifetime predictions.

  17. Lifetime predictions for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and San Marco spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Ward, D. T.; Schmitt, M. W.; Phenneger, M. C.; Vaughn, F. J.; Lupisella, M. L.

    1989-01-01

    Lifetime prediction techniques developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) are described. These techniques were developed to predict the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft orbit, which is decaying due to atmospheric drag, with reentry predicted to occur before the end of 1989. Lifetime predictions were also performed for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was deployed on the 1984 SMM repair mission and is scheduled for retrieval on another Space Transportation System (STS) mission later this year. Concepts used in the lifetime predictions were tested on the San Marco spacecraft, which reentered the Earth's atmosphere on December 6, 1988. Ephemerides predicting the orbit evolution of the San Marco spacecraft until reentry were generated over the final 90 days of the mission when the altitude was less than 380 kilometers. The errors in the predicted ephemerides are due to errors in the prediction of atmospheric density variations over the lifetime of the satellite. To model the time dependence of the atmospheric densities, predictions of the solar flux at the 10.7-centimeter wavelength were used in conjunction with Harris-Priester (HP) atmospheric density tables. Orbital state vectors, together with the spacecraft mass and area, are used as input to the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). Propagations proceed in monthly segments, with the nominal atmospheric drag model scaled for each month according to the predicted monthly average value of F10.7. Calibration propagations are performed over a period of known orbital decay to obtain the effective ballistic coefficient. Progagations using plus or minus 2 sigma solar flux predictions are also generated to estimate the despersion in expected reentry dates. Definitive orbits are compared with these predictions as time expases. As updated vectors are received, these are also propagated to reentryto continually update the lifetime predictions.

  18. A Combined Solar Electric and Storable Chemical Propulsion Vehicle for Piloted Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Drake, Bret

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 explored a piloted Mars mission in the 2030 timeframe, focusing on architecture and technology choices. The DRA 5.0 focused on nuclear thermal and cryogenic chemical propulsion system options for the mission. Follow-on work explored both nuclear and solar electric options. One enticing option that was found in a NASA Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design study used a combination of a 1-MW-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) system combined with storable chemical systems derived from the planned Orion crew vehicle. It was found that by using each propulsion system at the appropriate phase of the mission, the entire SEP stage and habitat could be placed into orbit with just two planned Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift launch vehicles assuming the crew would meet up at the Earth-Moon (E-M) L2 point on a separate heavy-lift launch. These appropriate phases use high-thrust chemical propulsion only in gravity wells when the vehicle is piloted and solar electric propulsion for every other phase. Thus the SEP system performs the spiral of the unmanned vehicle from low Earth orbit (LEO) to E-M L2 where the vehicle meets up with the multi-purpose crew vehicle. From here SEP is used to place the vehicle on a trajectory to Mars. With SEP providing a large portion of the required capture and departure changes in velocity (delta V) at Mars, the delta V provided by the chemical propulsion is reduced by a factor of five from what would be needed with chemical propulsion alone at Mars. This trajectory also allows the SEP and habitat vehicle to arrive in the highly elliptic 1-sol parking orbit compatible with envisioned Mars landing concepts. This paper explores mission options using between SEP and chemical propulsion, the design of the SEP system including the solar array and electric propulsion systems, and packaging in the SLS shroud. Design trades of stay time, power level

  19. A Combined Solar Electric and Storable Chemical Propulsion Vehicle for Piloted Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Drake, Bret G.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 explored a piloted Mars mission in the 2030 timeframe, focusing on architecture and technology choices. The DRA 5.0 focused on nuclear thermal and cryogenic chemical propulsion system options for the mission. Follow-on work explored both nuclear and solar electric options. One enticing option that was found in a NASA Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design study used a combination of a 1-MW-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) system combined with storable chemical systems derived from the planned Orion crew vehicle. It was found that by using each propulsion system at the appropriate phase of the mission, the entire SEP stage and habitat could be placed into orbit with just two planned Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift launch vehicles assuming the crew would meet up at the Earth-Moon (E-M) L2 point on a separate heavy-lift launch. These appropriate phases use high-thrust chemical propulsion only in gravity wells when the vehicle is piloted and solar electric propulsion for every other phase. Thus the SEP system performs the spiral of the unmanned vehicle from low Earth orbit (LEO) to E-M L2 where the vehicle meets up with the multi-purpose crew vehicle. From here SEP is used to place the vehicle on a trajectory to Mars. With SEP providing a large portion of the required capture and departure changes in velocity (delta V) at Mars, the delta V provided by the chemical propulsion is reduced by a factor of five from what would be needed with chemical propulsion alone at Mars. This trajectory also allows the SEP and habitat vehicle to arrive in the highly elliptic 1-sol parking orbit compatible with envisioned Mars landing concepts. This paper explores mission options using between SEP and chemical propulsion, the design of the SEP system including the solar array and electric propulsion systems, and packaging in the SLS shroud. Design trades of stay time, power level

  20. Solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes solar modular domestic-hot-water and space-heating system intended for use in small single family dwelling where roof-mounted collectors are not feasible. Contents include design, performance, and hardware specifications for assembly, installation, operation, and maintenance of system.

  1. A comparison of solar sail and ion drive trajectories for a Halley's comet rendezvous mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, C. G., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    According to the propulsion concept of solar sail spacecraft the thrust force is produced by the specular reflection of sunlight from a large, essentially flat, reflecting surface. The magnitude of this force is approximately 9 newtons for a perfectly reflecting sail with an area of 1 square kilometer oriented normal to the sunline at a distance of one astronomical unit from the sun. There exists a restriction in the types of orbit transfer trajectories which can be considered with this propulsion system. In the case of the second propulsion system being considered for the Halley's comet rendezvous mission, thrust is produced by the acceleration of ionized mercury atoms by an electric field. Power to the ion thrusters is supplied by lightweight solar arrays which can provide up to 100 kW of electrical power at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. Because of differing thrust constraints for the two propulsion systems, trajectories for a Halley's comet rendezvous mission are significantly different for the Ion Drive and Solar Sail spacecraft. Details concerning the trajectory characteristics are shown with the aid of a number of graphs.

  2. German Data Center for the Solar Dynamics Observatory: A model for the PLATO mission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burston, R.; Gizon, L.; Saidi, Y.; Solanki, S. K.

    2008-12-01

    The German Data Center for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (GDC-SDO), hosted by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Germany, will provide access to SDO data for the German solar physics community. The GDC-SDO will make available all the relevant Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data for helioseismology and smaller se- lected Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data sets. This project commenced in August 2007 and is funded by the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt or DLR) until December 2012. An important component of the GDC-SDO is the Data Record Management System (DRMS), developed in collaboration with the Stan- ford/Lockheed Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC). The PEGASUS workflow manage- ment system will be used to implement GDC-SDO data analysis pipelines. This makes use of the CONDOR High Throughput Computing Project for optimal job scheduling and also the GLOBUS Toolkit to enable grid technologies. Additional information about the GDC-SDO can be found at http://www.mps.mpg.de/projects/seismo/GDC1/index.html. Here, we sug- gest a similar structure and philosophy should be ideal for the PLATO mission, which looks for planetary transits and stellar oscillations and is being studied by ESA for an M-Mission slot in Cosmic Vision.

  3. Aerocapture Systems Analysis for a Neptune Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Edquist, Karl T.; Starr, Brett R.; Hollis, Brian R.; Hrinda, Glenn A.; Bailey, Robert W.; Hall, Jeffery L.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Noca, Muriel A.; O'Kongo, N.

    2006-01-01

    A Systems Analysis was completed to determine the feasibility, benefit and risk of an aeroshell aerocapture system for Neptune and to identify technology gaps and technology performance goals. The systems analysis includes the following disciplines: science; mission design; aeroshell configuration; interplanetary navigation analyses; atmosphere modeling; computational fluid dynamics for aerodynamic performance and aeroheating environment; stability analyses; guidance development; atmospheric flight simulation; thermal protection system design; mass properties; structures; spacecraft design and packaging; and mass sensitivities. Results show that aerocapture is feasible and performance is adequate for the Neptune mission. Aerocapture can deliver 1.4 times more mass to Neptune orbit than an all-propulsive system for the same launch vehicle and results in a 3-4 year reduction in trip time compared to all-propulsive systems. Enabling technologies for this mission include TPS manufacturing; and aerothermodynamic methods for determining coupled 3-D convection, radiation and ablation aeroheating rates and loads.

  4. Baby Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  5. Streaming of interstellar grains in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, B. A. S.; Misconi, N. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a theoretical study of the interactions between interstellar grains streaming through the solar system and the solar wind are presented. It is shown that although elongated core-mantle interstellar particles of a characteristic radius of about 0.12 microns are subject to a greater force due to radiation pressure than to gravitational attraction, they are still able to penetrate deep inside the solar system. Calculations of particle trajectories within the solar system indicate substantial effects of the solar activity cycle as reflected in the interplanetary magnetic field on the distribution of 0.12- and 0.0005-micron interstellar grains streaming through the solar system, leading to a 50-fold increase in interstellar grain densities 3 to 4 AU ahead of the sun during years 8 to 17 of the solar cycle. It is noted that during the Solar Polar Mission, concentrations are expected which will offer the opportunity of detecting interstellar grains in the solar system.

  6. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-09

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.

  7. Human System Drivers for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of DRM4 in terms of the human system includes the ability to meet NASA standards, the inclusion of the human system in the design trade space, preparation for future missions and consideration of a robotic precursor mission. Ensuring both the safety and the performance capability of the human system depends upon satisfying NASA Space Flight Human System Standards.1 These standards in turn drive the development of program-specific requirements for Near-earth Object (NEO) missions. In evaluating DRM4 in terms of these human system standards, the currently existing risk models, technologies and biological countermeasures were used. A summary of this evaluation is provided below in a structure that supports a mission architecture planning activities. 1. Unacceptable Level of Risk The duration of the DRM4 mission leads to an unacceptable level of risk for two aspects of human system health: A. The permissible exposure limit for space flight radiation exposure (a human system standard) would be exceeded by DRM4. B. The risk of visual alterations and abnormally high intracranial pressure would be too high. 1

  8. Gravitational experiments on a solar probe mission: Scientific objectives and technology considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of a solar impact probe (either solar plunger or sun grazer) led to the initiation of a NASA study at JPL in 1978 on the engineering and scientific feasibility of a Solar Probe Mission, named Starprobe, in which a spacecraft is placed in a high eccentricity orbit with a perihelion near 4 solar radii. The Starprobe study showed that the concept was feasible and in fact preliminary mission and spacecraft designs were developed. In the early stages of the Solar Probe studies the emphasis was placed on gravitational science, but by the time of a workshop at Caltech in May 1978 (Neugebauer and Davies, 1978) there was about an equal division of interest between heliospheric physics and gravitation. The last of the gravitational studies for Solar Probe was conducted at JPL in 1983. Since that time, the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) of the National Academy of Sciences has recommended the pursuit of a focused mission, featuring fields and particles instrumentation and emphasizing studies of the solar wind source region. Such a solar probe mission is currently listed as the 1994 Major New Star candidate. In the remainder of this review, the unique gravitational science that can be accomplished with a solar probe mission is reviewed. In addition the technology issues that were identified in 1980 by the ad hoc working group for Gravity and Relativity Science are addressed.

  9. ROTATION PERIODS AND AGES OF SOLAR ANALOGS AND SOLAR TWINS REVEALED BY THE KEPLER MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Do Nascimento Jr, J.-D.; Meibom, S.; García, R. A.; Salabert, D.; Ceillier, T.; Anthony, F.; Da Costa, J. S.; Castro, M.; Barnes, S. A.

    2014-08-01

    A new sample of solar analogs and twin candidates has been constructed and studied, paying particular attention to their light curves from NASA's Kepler mission. This Letter aims to assess their evolutionary status, derive their rotation and ages, and identify those which are solar analogs or solar twin candidates. We separate out the subgiants that compose a large fraction of the asteroseismic sample, and which show an increase in the average rotation period as the stars ascend the subgiant branch. The rotation periods of the dwarfs, ranging from 6 to 30 days and averaging 19 days, allow us to assess their individual evolutionary states on the main sequence and to derive their ages using gyrochronology. These ages are found to be in agreement with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with independent asteroseismic ages, where available. As a result of this investigation, we are able to identify 34 stars as solar analogs and 22 of them as solar twin candidates.

  10. Knowledge systems support for mission operations automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David J.

    1990-10-01

    A knowledge system which utilizes artificial intelligence technology to automate a subset of real time mission operations functions is described. An overview of spacecraft telecommunications operations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) highlights requirements for automation. The knowledge system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), developed to explore methods for automated health and status analysis is outlined. The advantages of the system were demonstrated during the spacecraft's encounter with the planet Neptune. The design of the fault detection and diagnosis portions of SHARP is discussed. The performance of SHARP during the encounter is discussed along with issues and benefits arising from application of knowledge system to mission operations automation.

  11. Invited article: Electric solar wind sail: toward test missions.

    PubMed

    Janhunen, P; Toivanen, P K; Polkko, J; Merikallio, S; Salminen, P; Haeggström, E; Seppänen, H; Kurppa, R; Ukkonen, J; Kiprich, S; Thornell, G; Kratz, H; Richter, L; Krömer, O; Rosta, R; Noorma, M; Envall, J; Lätt, S; Mengali, G; Quarta, A A; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O; Kalvas, T; Kauppinen, J; Nuottajärvi, A; Obraztsov, A

    2010-11-01

    The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) is a space propulsion concept that uses the natural solar wind dynamic pressure for producing spacecraft thrust. In its baseline form, the E-sail consists of a number of long, thin, conducting, and centrifugally stretched tethers, which are kept in a high positive potential by an onboard electron gun. The concept gains its efficiency from the fact that the effective sail area, i.e., the potential structure of the tethers, can be millions of times larger than the physical area of the thin tethers wires, which offsets the fact that the dynamic pressure of the solar wind is very weak. Indeed, according to the most recent published estimates, an E-sail of 1 N thrust and 100 kg mass could be built in the rather near future, providing a revolutionary level of propulsive performance (specific acceleration) for travel in the solar system. Here we give a review of the ongoing technical development work of the E-sail, covering tether construction, overall mechanical design alternatives, guidance and navigation strategies, and dynamical and orbital simulations.

  12. Design and Analysis of RTGs for Solar and Martian Exploration Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1990-05-01

    The paper described the results of design, analysis and spacecraft integration studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for three unmanned space exploration missions. The three missions, consisting of the Mars Rover and Sample Return (MRSR) mission, the Solar Probe mission, and the Mars Global Net work (MGN) mission, are under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA/JPL mission studies are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA), which has commissioned Fairchild Space Company to carry out the required RTG design studies.

  13. Combining Solar Electric and Chemical Propulsion for Crewed Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percy, Tom; McGuire, Melissa; Polsgrove, Tara

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the results of an investigation of human Mars mission architectures that leverage near-term technology investments and infrastructures resulting from the planned Asteroid Redirect Mission, including high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) and a human presence in Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO). The architectures investigated use a combination of SEP and chemical propulsion elements. Through this combination of propulsion technologies, these architectures take advantage of the high efficiency SEP propulsion system to deliver cargo, while maintaining the faster trip times afforded by chemical propulsion for crew transport. Evolved configurations of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) are considered for cargo delivery. Sensitivities to SEP system design parameters, including power level and propellant quantity, are presented. For the crew delivery, liquid oxygen and methane stages were designed using engines common to future human Mars landers. Impacts of various Earth departure orbits, Mars loiter orbits, and Earth return strategies are presented. The use of the Space Launch System for delivery of the various architecture elements was also investigated and launch vehicle manifesting, launch scheduling and mission timelines are also discussed. The study results show that viable Mars architecture can be constructed using LDRO and SEP in order to take advantage of investments made in the ARM mission.

  14. Combining Solar Electric Propulsion and Chemical Propulsion for Crewed Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percy, Tom; McGuire, Melissa; Polsgrove, Tara

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the results of an investigation of human Mars mission architectures that leverage near-term technology investments and infrastructures resulting from the planned Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), including high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) and a human presence in Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO). The architectures investigated use a combination of SEP and chemical propulsion elements. Through this combination of propulsion technologies, these architectures take advantage of the high efficiency SEP propulsion system to deliver cargo, while maintaining the faster trip times afforded by chemical propulsion for crew transport. Evolved configurations of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) are considered for cargo delivery. Sensitivities to SEP system design parameters, including power level and propellant quantity, are presented. For the crew delivery, liquid oxygen and methane stages were designed using engines common to future human Mars landers. Impacts of various Earth departure orbits, Mars loiter orbits, and Earth return strategies are presented. The use of the Space Launch System for delivery of the various architecture elements was also investigated and launch vehicle manifesting, launch scheduling and mission timelines are also discussed. The study results show that viable Mars architecture can be constructed using LDRO and SEP in order to take advantage of investments made in the ARRM mission.

  15. Solar System Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisdom, Jack

    2002-01-01

    In these 18 years, the research has touched every major dynamical problem in the solar system, including: the effect of chaotic zones on the distribution of asteroids, the delivery of meteorites along chaotic pathways, the chaotic motion of Pluto, the chaotic motion of the outer planets and that of the whole solar system, the delivery of short period comets from the Kuiper belt, the tidal evolution of the Uranian arid Galilean satellites, the chaotic tumbling of Hyperion and other irregular satellites, the large chaotic variations of the obliquity of Mars, the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and the resonant core- mantle dynamics of Earth and Venus. It has introduced new analytical and numerical tools that are in widespread use. Today, nearly every long-term integration of our solar system, its subsystems, and other solar systems uses algorithms that was invented. This research has all been primarily Supported by this sequence of PGG NASA grants. During this period published major investigations of tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the passage of the Earth and Venus through non-linear core-mantle resonances were completed. It has published a major innovation in symplectic algorithms: the symplectic corrector. A paper was completed on non-perturbative hydrostatic equilibrium.

  16. Solar Corona Explorer: A mission for the physical diagnosis of the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mission objectives and spacecraft requirements for the Solar Corona Explorer (SCE), a proposed free flying, unmanned solar research craft to be tenatively launched in 1987, were defined. The SCE's purpose is to investigate structure, dynamics and evolution of the corona, globally and in the required physical detail, to study the close coupling between the inner corona and the heliosphere. Investigative objectives are: (1) to understand the corona as the source of varying interplanetary plasma and of varying solar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet fluxes; (2) to develop the capabilities to model the corona with sufficient precision to forecast the Earth's variable environment in space, on the scales from weeks to years; (3) to develop an understanding of the physical processes that determine the dynamics and physical state of the coronal plasma, particularly acceleration processes; and (4) to develop insight and test theory on the Sun applicable to stellar coronae and winds, and in particular, to understand why cool stars put such a large fraction of their energy into X-rays. Considered related factors are: (1) duration of the mission; (2) onboard measuring instrumentation; (3) ground support equipment and procedures; and (4) programs of interpretation and modeling.

  17. Design of a Solar Sail Mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastridge, Richard; Funston, Kerry; Okia, Aminat; Waldrop, Joan; Zimmerman, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of the design of the solar sail includes key areas such as structures, sail deployment, space environmental effects, materials, power systems, telemetry, communications, attitude control, thermal control, and trajectory analysis. Deployment and material constraints determine the basic structure of the sail, while the trajectory of the sail influences the choice of telemetry, communications, and attitude control systems. The thermal control system of the sail for the structures and electronics takes into account the effects of the space environment. Included also are a cost and weight estimate for the sail.

  18. Ares V: Application to Solar System Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John O.

    2008-01-01

    Ares V would revolutionize the way we accomplish solar system exploration -Shift to a better balance of field data acquisition and laboratory analysis -Greatly improve field data acquisition ?Better instruments, better instrument complements. Larger data volumes returned. Would require a new fiscal paradigm. "Ares V Solar System Science" workshop helped expand the set of possibly-enabled missions.

  19. Solar Occultation Constellation for Retrieving Aerosols and Trace Element Species (SOCRATES) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S. M.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Fish, C. S.; Gordley, L. L.; Fromm, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of SOCRATES is to quantify the critical role of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) in the climate system. The mission would provide, for the first time, the suite of measurements required to quantify stratosphere/troposphere exchange (STE) pathways and their contribution to UTLS composition, and to evaluate the radiative forcing implications of potential changes in STE pathways with climate change. The discrimination and quantification of STE pathways requires simultaneous measurement of several key trace gases and aerosols with high precision, accuracy, and vertical resolution. Furthermore, aerosol and clouds, often present in the UTLS, complicate the measurement of trace gases. The SOCRATES sensor is a 23-channel Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR), referred to as GLO (GFCR Limb solar Occultation), with heritage from HALOE on UARS, and SOFIE on AIM. GLO measures aerosol extinction from 0.45 to 3.88 μm, important radiatively active gases in the UTLS (H2O, O3, CH4, N2O), key tracers of STE (HCN, CO, HDO), gases important in stratospheric O3 chemistry (HCl and HF), and temperature from cloud top to 50 km at a vertical resolution of 1 km. Improved pointing knowledge will provide dramatically better retrieval precision in the UTLS, even in the presence of aerosols, than possible with HALOE. In addition, the GLO form factor is only a few percent of that of HALOE, and costs for a constellation of GLO sensors is within the cost cap of a NASA Venture mission. The SOCRATES mission concept is an 8-element constellation of autonomous CubeSats, each mated with a GLO sensor, deployed from a single launch vehicle. The SOCRATES/GLO approach reaps the advantages of solar occultation: high precision and accuracy; robust calibration; and high vertical resolution, while mitigating the sparse coverage of a single solar occultation sensor. We present the SOCRATES science case, and key elements of the SOCRATES mission and GLO instrument concepts.

  20. The NRL Solar Physics Sounding Rocket Program: Trailblazers for the Solar-C and Solar Orbiter Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, D. H.; Korendyke, C.; Vourlidas, A.; Moses, J.; Brown, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Space Science Division (SSD) sounding rocket program enables cutting-edge scientific research through the development of low-cost, short-schedule, highly advanced suborbital payloads. Each sounding rocket campaign provides a low-cost and accordingly low-risk test bed for the technology development of future flight projects. Our approach is to maintain a continuous hardware development program through a successful cycle of concept inception, competition in the NASA LCAS (Low-Cost Access to Space) program, instrument development, launch, and science analysis. Currently, SSD has three active sounding rocket programs. HERSCHEL (HElium Resonance Scattering in the Corona & HELio-sphere) was successfully flown in 2010 and measured the global helium absolute abundance in the solar corona for the first time, linking solar surface and in-situ abundance. The HERSCHEL experiment served as the pathfinder for the METIS coronagraph that will fly on Solar Orbiter. VERIS (VEry high Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) is scheduled for launch in August 2013 and will provide the first spectroscopic observations of the solar atmosphere at spatial scales not yet observed by previous EUV spectrographs. VERIS is the test bed for a flight hardware concept to be proposed to NASA for the upcoming JAXA Solar-C mission. VAULT (Very high Angular resolution Ultraviolet Telescope), scheduled for re-flight in Fall 2013, will provide ultra high-resolution images of the Lyman-alpha layer of the upper chromosphere where much of the energy required for explosive events is stored. Previous VAULT sounding rocket flights provided the first sub-arcsecond solar images from space and led to the development of a Lyman-alpha telescope for the Solar Orbiter mission. Through these next sounding rocket flights NRL SSD will provide scientific leadership in the budding field of upper chromospheric research.

  1. THERMAP: a mid-infrared spectro-imager based on an uncooled micro-bolometer for space missions to small bodies of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brageot, E.; Groussin, O.; Lamy, P.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Fargant, G.; Licandro, J.; Helbert, J.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the feasibility study of a mid-infrared (8-18 µm) spectro-imager called THERMAP, based on an uncooled micro-bolometer detector array. Due to the recent technological development of these detectors, which have undergone significant improvements in the last decade, we wanted to test their performances for the Marco Polo R ESA Cosmic Vision mission. In this study, we demonstrate that the new generation of uncooled micro-bolometer detectors has all the imaging and spectroscopic capabilities to fulfill the scientific objectives of this mission. In order to test the imaging capabilities of the detector, we set up an experiment based on a 640x480 ULIS micro-bolometer array, a germanium objective and a black body. Using the results of this experiment, we show that calibrated radiometric images can be obtained down to at least 255 K (lower limit of our experiment), and that two calibration points are sufficient to determine the absolute scene temperature with an accuracy better than 1.5 K. Adding flux attenuating neutral density mid-infrared filters (transmittance: 50%, 10%, 1%) to our experiment, we were able to evaluate the spectroscopic performances of the detector. Our results show that we can perform spectroscopic measurements in the wavelength range 8-16 µm with a spectral resolution of R~40-80 for a scene temperature <300 K, the typical surface temperature of a Near Earth Asteroid at 1 AU from the Sun. The mid-infrared spectro-imager THERMAP, based on the above detector, is therefore well suited for the Marco Polo R mission.

  2. THERMAP: a mid-infrared spectro-imager based on an uncooled micro-bolometer for space missions to small bodies of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brageot, E.; Groussin, O.; Lamy, P.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Fargant, G.

    2012-04-01

    We report on the feasibility study of a mid-infrared (8-18 μm) spectro-imager called THERMAP, based on an uncooled microbolometer detector array. Due to the recent technological developments of these detectors, which have undergone significant improvements in the last decade, we wanted to test their capabilities for the Marco Polo R ESA Cosmic Vision mission. In this study, we demonstrate that the new generation of uncooled microbolometer detectors has all the imaging and spectroscopic capabilities to fulfill the scientific objectives of this mission. To test the imaging capabilities of the detector, we built an experiment based on a 640x480 ULIS microbolometer array, a germanium lense and a black body. Using this experiment, we show that calibrated radiometric images can be obtained down to at least 258 K (lower limit of our experiment), and that two calibration points are sufficient to determine the absolute scene temperature with an accuracy better than 1 K. Extrapolation to lower temperature should allow to measure the temperature down to 180 K with an accuracy of ~5 K. Adding flux attenuating neutral density mid-infrared filters (transmittance : 50%, 10%, 1%) to our experiment, we were able to evaluate the spectroscopic performances of the detector. Our results show that we can perform spectroscopic measurements with a spectral resolution of R~100 at 350 K, the typical surface temperature of a Near Earth Asteroid at 1 AU from the Sun. The mid-infrared spectro-imager THERMAP, based on the above detector, is therefore well suited to the Marco Polo R mission.

  3. Studies of acceleration processes in the corona using ion measurements on the solar probe mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1978-01-01

    The energy spectra and composition of particles escaping from the Sun provide essential information on mechanisms responsible for their acceleration, and may also be used to characterize the regions where they are accelerated and confined and through which they propagate. The suprathermal energy range, which extends from solar wind energies (approximately 1 KeV) to about 1 MeV/nucleon, is of special interest to studies of nonthermal acceleration processes because a large fraction of particles is likely to be accelerated into this energy range. Data obtained from near earth observations of particles in the suprathermal energy range are reviewed. The necessary capabilities of an a ion composition experiment in the solar probe mission and the required ion measurements are discussed. A possible configuration of an instrument consisting of an electrostatic deflection system, modest post acceleration, and a time of flight versus energy system is described as well as its possible location on the spacecraft.

  4. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  5. The New Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2009-01-01

    Since 2006, the details of bodies making up our solar system have been revised. This was largely as a result of new discoveries of a number of planet-like objects beyond the orbit of Pluto. The International Astronomical Union redefined what constituted a planet and established two new classifications--dwarf planets and plutoids. As a result, the…

  6. Solar System Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  7. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and very large array observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The research deals mainly with Very Large Array and Solar Maximum Mission observations of the ubiquitous coronal loops that dominate the structure of the low corona. As illustrated, the observations of thermal cyclotron lines at microwave wavelengths provide a powerful new method of accurately specifying the coronal magnetic field strength. Processes are delineated that trigger solar eruptions from coronal loops, including preburst heating and the magnetic interaction of coronal loops. Evidence for coherent burst mechanisms is provided for both the Sun and nearby stars, while other observations suggest the presence of currents that may amplify the coronal magnetic field to unexpectedly high levels. The existence is reported of a new class of compact, variable moving sources in regions of apparently weak photospheric field.

  8. Life support systems for lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamponnet, C.

    Future Lunar missions envision three successive scenarios: (i) robotic preparatory missions, (ii) Lunar outpost (man-tended), and (iii) a permanently inhabited Lunar base. As soon as man appears as a key element (i.e. the second and third scenario), development and building of adequate Life Support Systems (LSS) become mandatory. Life Support covers basically all the techniques that enable the crew of the Lunar outpost or base to survive in this hostile environment. The internal structures of these LSS are highly dependent upon the type of missions. Indeed, there are three non-exclusive ways to ensure the autonomy of man on the Moon: (i) provide all the required consumables (oxygen, water, food) at the start of the mission or replenish them during the mission, (ii) regenerate these consumables from waste during the mission, or (iii) use Lunar resources. Man-tended Lunar missions will require Shuttle-like or International Space Station-like types of LSS although continuosly inhabited Lunar bases will require an autonomous (i.e. totally regenerative) type of LSS. Therefore, first manned Lunar missions will use non-regenerative LSS. These LSS will progressively evolve towards a total regeneration of materials using in a first step purely physico-chemical technologies, then using more and more biologically-based technologies and relying more and more on Lunar resources. Moreover, first Lunar outposts and Lunar bases will serve as testbed for the development of the LSS of respectively the future Lunar bases and the future Mars (or other planetary) bases.

  9. Surface Experiments on a Jupiter Trojan Asteroid in the Solar Powered Sail Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Tatsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: A new mission to a Jupiter Trojan asteroid is under study us-ing a solar-powered sail (SPS), and a science lander is being investigated in the joint study between Japan and Europe [1]. We present here the key sci-entific objectives and the strawman payloads of science experiments on the asteroid. Science Objectives: Jupiter Trojan asteroids are located around the Sun-Jupiter Lagrange points (L4 or L5) and most of them are classified as D- or P-type in asteroid taxonomy, but their origin still remains unknown. A classi-cal (static) model of solar system evolution indicates that they were formed around the Jupiter region and survived until now as the outer end members of asteroids. A new (dynamical) model such as Nice model suggests that they were formed at the far end of the solar system and transferred inward due to dynamical migration of giant planets [2]. Therefore physical, miner-alogical, and isotopic studies of surface materials and volatile compounds could solve their origin, and then the solar system formation [3]. Strawman Payloads: The SPS orbiter will be able to carry a 100 kg class lander with 20 kg mission payloads. Just after landing of the lander, geolog-ical, mineralogical, and geophysical observations will be performed to char-acterize the site using a panoramic optical camera, an infrared hyperspectral imager, a magnetometer, and a thermal radiometer. The surface and subsur-face materials of the asteroid will be collected into a carousel by the bullet-type and the pneumatic drill type samplers, respectively. Samples in the carousel will be investigated by a visible and an infrared microscope, and transferred for performing high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Mass resolution m/dm > 30,000 is expected to investigate isotopic ratios of D/H, 15N/14N, and 18O/16O, as well as molecules from organic matters. A set of strawman payloads are tentatively determined during the lander system study [4]. The constraints to select the strawman

  10. NASA's Solar System Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, James

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is shown. The topics include: 1) Solar System Exploration with Highlights and Status of Programs; 2) Technology Drivers and Plans; and 3) Summary

  11. Thermal Protection Materials Technology for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawerence, Timtohy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

    2005-01-01

    To fulfill the President s Vision for Space Exploration - successful human and robotic missions between the Earth and other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - NASA must reduce trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that payload and scientific experiment capabilities are maximized. As a collaboration among NASA Centers, this project will generate products that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in optimization of vehicle weights, and provide the material and process templates for development of human-rated qualification and certification Thermal Protection System (TPS) plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on technologies that reduce vehicle weight by minimizing the need for propellant. These missions use the destination planet s atmosphere to slow the spacecraft. Such mission profiles induce heating environments on the spacecraft that demand thermal protection heatshields. This program offers NASA essential advanced thermal management technologies needed to develop new lightweight nonmetallic TPS materials for critical thermal protection heatshields for future spacecraft. Discussion of this new program (a December 2004 new start) will include both initial progress made and a presentation of the work to be preformed over the four-year life of the program. Additionally, the relevant missions and environments expected for Exploration Systems vehicles will be presented, along with discussion of the candidate materials to be considered and of the types of testing to be performed (material property tests, space environmental effects tests, and Earth and Mars gases arc jet tests).

  12. Cost study of solar cell space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    Historical costs for solar cell space power systems were evaluated. The study covered thirteen missions that represented a broad cross section of flight projects over the past decade. Fully burdened costs in terms of 1971 dollars are presented for the system and the solar array. The costs correlate reasonably well with array area and do not increase in proportion to array area. The trends for array costs support the contention that solar cell and module standardization reduce costs.

  13. Solar System Exploration with LUVOIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Walter M.; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Schmidt, Britney E.

    2016-10-01

    The Large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor is one of four mission concepts under study as a next-generation space observatory in the post Webb Telescope era. LUVOIR is envisioned as a large, 10 m class, remotely serviceable observatory with a suite of advanced-technology instruments designed to leap beyond the current generation of space-based telescopes to explore fundamental astrophysical phenomena on all scales. A 24-member science and technology definition team (STDT) represents all sectors of the astronomy and technologist communities, and it is charged with identifying the observational challenges best addressed with LUVOIR and the instrumental innovations that are required to achieve them.This presentation describes the developing science case for LUVOIR as a Solar System observatory for the study of Sun-planet interactions, thick and sublimation based atmospheres, the small body populations in the inner and outer solar system, surface volatility, and planet/satellite surfaces. We will provide an overview of several key science and technical drivers for each scientific target and how they can be addressed with a LUVOIR facility. We also solicit community input to refine these individual programs and to identify additional areas of emphasis in the development of a final report to NASA.

  14. The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) solar array system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneiderman, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite) solar array system is described. It is an innovative approach to meet the missions requirements. The SWAS satellite provides a three axis stabilized platform to survey a variety of galactic cloud structures. This system includes highly reliable, lightweight launch latch, deployment, and lock mechanisms, and solar array panels that provide the maximum solar cell area. The design of the solar arrays are the result of system trades that included instrument and spacecraft thermal constraints, attitude control system maneuvering rates and pointing accuracies, the power system, and the spacecraft structure.

  15. Software Development Standard for Mission Critical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-17

    applied on contracts for mission critical systems . This report provides a full lifecycle software development process standard. This version includes an...integration and test environments. 5.3 Updated requirements for system requirements analysis . v Issue Date Sections Changes 5.4 Updated...requirements for system architectural design. 5.5 Updated requirements for software requirements analysis . 5.6 Major update to software

  16. NASA'S Space Launch System: Opening Opportunities for Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David

    2015-01-01

    Designed to meet the stringent requirements of human exploration missions into deep space and to Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a unique new launch capability opening new opportunities for mission design. While SLS's super-heavy launch vehicle predecessor, the Saturn V, was used for only two types of missions - launching Apollo spacecraft to the moon and lofting the Skylab space station into Earth orbit - NASA is working to identify new ways to use SLS to enable new missions or mission profiles. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of not only propelling the Orion crew vehicle into cislunar space, but also delivering small satellites to deep space destinations. With a 5-meter (m) fairing consistent with contemporary Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), the Block 1 configuration can also deliver science payloads to high-characteristic-energy (C3) trajectories to the outer solar system. With the addition of an upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a new class of secondary payloads, larger than today's cubesats. The evolved configurations of SLS, including both Block 1B and the 130 t Block 2, also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk and operational costs associated with shorter transit time to destination and reduced risk and complexity associated with launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. As this paper will

  17. Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    "Right now, solar electric propulsion is being looked at very seriously," says Michael Piszczor, chief of the photovoltaic and power technologies branch at Glen Research Center. The reason, he explains, originates with a unique NASA mission from the late 1990s. In 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft launched from Kennedy Space Center to test a dozen different space technologies, including SCARLET, or the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology. As a solar array that focused sunlight on a smaller solar cell to generate electric power, SCARLET not only powered Deep Space 1 s instruments but also powered its ion engine, which propelled the spacecraft throughout its journey. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft powered by a refractive concentrator design like SCARLET, and also utilized multi-junction solar cells, or cells made of multiple layers of different materials. For the duration of its 38-month mission, SCARLET performed flawlessly, even as Deep Space 1 flew by Comet Borrelly and Asteroid Braille. "Everyone remembers the ion engine on Deep Space 1, but they tend to forget that the SCARLET array powered it," says Piszczor. "Not only did both technologies work as designed, but the synergy between the two, solar power and propulsion together, is really the important aspect of this technology demonstration mission. It was the first successful use of solar electric propulsion for primary propulsion." More than a decade later, NASA is keenly interested in using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for future space missions. A key issue is cost, and SEP has the potential to substantially reduce cost compared to conventional chemical propulsion technology. "SEP allows you to use spacecraft that are smaller, lighter, and less costly," says Piszczor. "Even though it might take longer to get somewhere using SEP, if you are willing to trade time for cost and smaller vehicles, it s a good trade." Potentially, SEP could be used on future science missions

  18. Orbital transfer systems for lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Obersteiner, Michael

    For future Lunar mission operations basically two types of transfer systems can be conceived (a) the conventional direct-injection expendable vehicle approach, and (b) the re-usable orbit-to-orbit (LEO-LLO-LEO round-trip system. The second solution has been studied in Europe in the SPACE TUG Phase A Study in 1971/72 for NASA as a fully reusable system and this is compared to a more recent NASA-MSFC transfer vehicle concept with expendable propellant tanks and aerobraking. The results of an analysis on mission opportunities for LEO-LLO transfers is presented. A European option is also shown for mode (a), using the ARIANE 5 for lunar missions with an optimized cryogenic transfer vehicle, derived from the H.10 Stage (ARIANE 4) plus a lunar vehicle derived from the MMII-CRAF propulsion module using the 27.5 kN engine from the ARIANE L.9 Stage which could land a 3.4 ton vehicle on the lunar surface. Finally a completely new option (c) is discussed: the use of a ballistic SSTO vehicle for lunar landing missions after refuelling in LEO. This seems to be a highly effective single transportation element approach compared to the seven elements SATURN V-APOLLO-LM system of the 60ies.

  19. Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System (MOPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Terri; Hempel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    MOPSS is a generic framework that can be configured on the fly to support a wide range of planning and scheduling applications. It is currently used to support seven missions at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in roles that include science planning, mission planning, and real-time control. Prior to MOPSS, each spacecraft project built its own planning and scheduling capability to plan satellite activities and communications and to create the commands to be uplinked to the spacecraft. This approach required creating a data repository for storing planning and scheduling information, building user interfaces to display data, generating needed scheduling algorithms, and implementing customized external interfaces. Complex scheduling problems that involved reacting to multiple variable situations were analyzed manually. Operators then used the results to add commands to the schedule. Each architecture was unique to specific satellite requirements. MOPSS is an expert system that automates mission operations and frees the flight operations team to concentrate on critical activities. It is easily reconfigured by the flight operations team as the mission evolves. The heart of the system is a custom object-oriented data layer mapped onto an Oracle relational database. The combination of these two technologies allows a user or system engineer to capture any type of scheduling or planning data in the system's generic data storage via a GUI.

  20. Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software

  1. On solar system nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1976-01-01

    Arguments in support of naming topographic features on other solar system objects after human beings other than astronomers are outlined. In particular, it is important to make sure that the end result will be a nonprovincial distribution of nationalities, epochs, and occupations, a distribution that future generations can be proud of. A more consistent scheme for Jovian satellite nomenclature is proposed which consistently maintains the tradition of naming Jovian satellites after prominent consorts.

  2. Fixed solar collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, H.R.

    1984-07-31

    A fixed solar energy collector system has facing panels of different size forming a Vee-shaped trough open at its base and supporting a plurality of highly reflective convex reflectors strategically disposed upon said panels in reflective relationship to a plurality of Fresnel lenses positioned at the base of the trough. A suitable reflector, disposed beneath the Fresnel lenses, directs the reflected energy to a heat-needy target.

  3. Human and robotic repair of a solar array wing during ISS assembly mission 10A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oghenekevwe, Viano; Redmond, Scott; Hiltz, Michael; Rembala, Richard

    2009-12-01

    With the installation of a new module and the relocation of three other modules, including multiple hand-offs from the station arm (SSRMS) to the shuttle arm (SRMS), International Space Station (ISS) assembly mission 10A/STS-120 was anticipated to be one of the most complicated ISS assembly missions ever attempted. The assembly operations became even more complex when a solar array wing (SAW) on the relocated Port-6 (P6) truss segment ripped while being extended. Repairing the torn SAW became the single most important objective for the remainder of STS-120, with future ISS assembly missions threatened by reduced power generation capacity if the SAW could not be repaired. Precise coordination between the space shuttle and ISS robotics teams led to an operational concept that combined the capabilities of the SRMS and SSRMS robotic systems in ways far beyond their original design capacities. Benefits of consistent standards for ISS robotic interfaces have been previously identified, but the advantages of having two such versatile and compatible robotic systems have never been quite so spectacular. This paper describes the role of robotics in the emergency SAW repair and highlights how versatility within space robotics systems can allow operations far beyond the intended design scenarios.

  4. Involving Scientists in the NASA / JPL Solar System Educators Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, E.; Hill, J.

    2001-11-01

    The NASA / JPL Solar System Educators Program (SSEP) is a professional development program with the goal of inspiring America's students, creating learning opportunities, and enlightening inquisitive minds by engaging them in the Solar System exploration efforts conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). SSEP is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory program managed by Space Explorers, Inc. (Green Bay, WI) and the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (Hampton, VA). The heart of the program is a large nationwide network of highly motivated educators. These Solar System Educators, representing more than 40 states, lead workshops around the country that show teachers how to successfully incorporate NASA materials into their teaching. During FY2001, more than 9500 educators were impacted through nearly 300 workshops conducted in 43 states. Solar System Educators attend annual training institutes at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during their first two years in the program. All Solar System Educators receive additional online training, materials and support. The JPL missions and programs involved in SSEP include: Cassini Mission to Saturn, Galileo Mission to Jupiter, STARDUST Comet Sample Return Mission, Deep Impact Mission to a Comet, Mars Exploration Program, Outer Planets Program, Deep Space Network, JPL Space and Earth Science Directorate, and the NASA Office of Space Science Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach Forum. Scientists can get involved with this program by cooperatively presenting at workshops conducted in their area, acting as a content resource or by actively mentoring Solar System Educators. Additionally, SSEP will expand this year to include other missions and programs related to the Solar System and the Sun.

  5. Exploring our outer solar system - The Giant Planet System Observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Sturner, S. J.; Pitman, J. T.

    As space-faring peoples now work together to plan and implement future missions that robotically prepare for landing humans to explore the Moon, and later Mars, the time is right to develop evolutionary approaches for extending this next generation of exploration beyond Earth's terrestrial planet neighbors to the realm of the giant planets. And while initial fly-by missions have been hugely successful in providing exploratory surveys of what lies beyond Mars, we need to consider now what robotic precursor mission capabilities we need to emplace that prepare us properly, and comprehensively, for long-term robotic exploration, and eventual human habitation, beyond Mars to the outer reaches of our solar system. To develop practical strategies that can establish prioritized capabilities, and then develop a means for achieving those capabilities within realistic budget and technology considerations, and in reasonable timeframes, is our challenge. We suggest one component of such an approach to future outer planets exploration is a series of Giant Planets System Observer (GPSO) missions that provide for long- duration observations, monitoring, and relay functions to help advance our understanding of the outer planets and thereby enable a sound basis for planning their eventual exploration by humans. We envision these missions as being comparable to taking Hubble-class remote-sensing facilities, along with the space physics capabilities of long-lived geospace and heliospheric missions, to the giant planet systems and dedicating long observing lifetimes (HST, 16 yr.; Voyagers, 29 yr.) to the exhaustive study and characterization of those systems. GPSO missions could feature 20-yr+ extended mission lifetimes, direct inject trajectories to maximize useful lifetime on target, placement strategies that take advantage of natural environment shielding (e.g., Ganymede magnetic field) where possible, orbit designs having favorable planetary system viewing geometries, comprehensive

  6. Optics for future solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D. D.; Vescelus, F. E.; Wellman, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The optics technology necessary for future solar system exploration is discussed. To satisfy the various mission objectives, optical components need to be of low weight, provide adequate spatial resolution and mapping coverage, provide necessary spectral resolution, provide means to perform adaptable mapping spectrometry, operate under low light levels, provide color images of high fidelity and operate under high temperatures. Future near-infrared mapping spectrometers are examined, and the use of focal-plane detectors to improve their sensitivity is discussed.

  7. New Thematic Solar System Exploration Products for Scientists and Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, Lesile; Wessen, Alice; Davis, Phil; Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    The next several years are an exciting time in the exploration of the solar system. NASA and its international partners have a veritable armada of spaceships heading out to the far reaches of the solar system. We'll send the first spacecraft beyond our solar system into interstellar space. We'll launch our first mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt and just our second to Mercury (the first in 30 years). We'll continue our intensive exploration of Mars and begin our detailed study of Saturn and its moons. We'll visit asteroids and comets and bring home pieces of the Sun and a comet. This is truly an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery! To facilitate access to information and to provide the thematic context for these missions NASA s Solar System Exploration Program and Solar System Exploration Education Forum have developed several products.

  8. A small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J.-C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; Pinto, R.; Auchère, F.; Harrison, R. A.; Eyles, C.; Gan, W.; Lamy, P.; Xia, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kong, L.; Wang, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zhang, S.; Zong, Q.; Soucek, J.; An, J.; Prech, L.; Zhang, A.; Rochus, P.; Bothmer, V.; Janvier, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Escoubet, C. P.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Tappin, J.; Vainio, R.; Poedts, S.; Dunlop, M. W.; Savani, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Bale, S. D.; Li, G.; Howard, T.; DeForest, C.; Webb, D.; Lugaz, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; Dalmasse, K.; Tallineau, J.; Vranken, D.; Fernández, J. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  9. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  10. Electric Solar Wind Sail Kinetic Energy Impactor for Asteroid Deflection Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Kouhei; Yamakawa, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    An electric solar wind sail uses the natural solar wind stream to produce low but continuous thrust by interacting with a number of long thin charged tethers. It allows a spacecraft to generate a thrust without consuming any reaction mass. The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a spacecraft with such a propulsion system to deflect an asteroid with a high relative velocity away from an Earth collision trajectory. To this end, we formulate a simulation model for the electric solar wind sail. By summing thrust vectors exerted on each tether, a dynamic model which gives the relation between the thrust and sail attitude is proposed. Orbital maneuvering by fixing the sail's attitude and changing tether voltage is considered. A detailed study of the deflection of fictional asteroids, which are assumed to be identified 15 years before Earth impact, is also presented. Assuming a spacecraft characteristic acceleration of 0.5 mm/s 2, and a projectile mass of 1,000 kg, we show that the trajectory of asteroids with one million tons can be changed enough to avoid a collision with the Earth. Finally, the effectiveness of using this method of propulsion in an asteroid deflection mission is evaluated in comparison with using flat photonic solar sails.

  11. Star Formation and the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bally, John; Boss, Alan; Papanastassiou, Dimitri; Sandford, Scott; Sargent, Anneila

    1988-01-01

    We have seen that studies of nearby star-forming regions are beginning to reveal the first signs of protoplanetary disks. Studies of interstellar and interplanetary grains are starting to provide clues about the processing and incorporation of matter into the Solar System. Studies of meteorites have yielded isotopic anomalies which indicate that some of the grains and inclusions in these bodies are very primitive. Although we have not yet detected a true interstellar grain, some of these materials have not been extensively modified since their removal from the ISM. We are indeed close to seeing our interstellar heritage. The overlap between astronomical and Solar System studies is in its infancy. What future experiments, observations, and missions can be performed in the near future that will greatly enhance our understanding of star formation and the formation of the Solar System?

  12. ESA'S Biomass Mission System And Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcioni, M.; Bensi, P.; Fois, F.; Gabriele, A.; Heliere, F.; Lin, C. C.; Massotti, L.; Scipal, K.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Explorers are the backbone of the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, providing an important contribution to the understanding of the Earth system. Following the User Consultation Meeting held in Graz, Austria on 5-6 March 2013, the Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has recommended implementing Biomass as the 7th Earth Explorer Mission within the frame of the ESA Earth Observation Envelope Programme. This paper will give an overview of the satellite system and its payload. The system technical description presented here is based on the results of the work performed during parallel Phase A system studies by two industrial consortia led by EADS Astrium Ltd. and Thales Alenia Space Italy. Two implementation concepts (respectively A and B) are described and provide viable options capable of meeting the mission requirements.

  13. On the Trojan asteroid sample and return mission via solar-power sail -- an innovative engineering demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, J.; Mori, O.; Shirasawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2014-07-01

    The science and engineering communities in the world are seeking what comes next. Especially for asteroids and comets, as those objects lie in relatively far area in our solar system, and new engineering solutions are essential to explore them. JAXA has studied the next-step mission since 2000, a solar-power sail demonstrator combining the use of photon propulsion with electric propulsion, ion thruster, targeting the untrodden challenge for the sample return attempt from a Trojan asteroid around the libration points in the Sun-Jupiter system. The Ikaros spacecraft was literally developed and launched as a preliminary technology demonstration. The mission will perform in-situ measurement and on-site analysis of the samples in addition to the sample return to the Earth, and will also deploy a small lander on the surface for collecting surface samples and convey them to the mother spacecraft. From a scientific point of view, there is an enormous reward in the most primitive samples containing information about the ancient solar system and also about the origin of life in our solar system. JAXA presently looks for international partners to develop and build the lander. The presentation will elaborate the current mission scenario as well as what we think the international collaboration will be.

  14. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  15. The High Energy Solar Physics mission (HESP): Scientific objectives and technical description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, Carol; Dennis, Brian; Davis, John; Emslie, Gordon; Haerendel, Gerhard; Hudson, High; Hurford, Gordon; Lin, Robert; Ling, James; Pick, Monique

    1991-01-01

    The High Energy Solar Physics mission offers the opportunity for major breakthroughs in the understanding of the fundamental energy release and particle acceleration processes at the core of the solar flare problem. The following subject areas are covered: the scientific objectives of HESP; what we can expect from the HESP observations; the high energy imaging spectrometer (HEISPEC); the HESP spacecraft; and budget and schedule.

  16. Mission and system optimization of nuclear electric propulsion vehicles for lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed mission and system optimization of low thrust electric propulsion missions is a complex, iterative process involving interaction between orbital mechanics and system performance. Through the use of appropriate approximations, initial system optimization and analysis can be performed for a range of missions. The intent of these calculations is to provide system and mission designers with simple methods to assess system design without requiring access or detailed knowledge of numerical calculus of variations optimizations codes and methods. Approximations for the mission/system optimization of Earth orbital transfer and Mars mission have been derived. Analyses include the variation of thruster efficiency with specific impulse. Optimum specific impulse, payload fraction, and power/payload ratios are calculated. The accuracy of these methods is tested and found to be reasonable for initial scoping studies. Results of optimization for Space Exploration Initiative lunar cargo and Mars missions are presented for a range of power system and thruster options.

  17. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  18. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  19. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Bergeron, David J., III

    2002-09-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  20. Terrestrial solar thermionic energy conversion systems concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

    1975-01-01

    Results obtained from studies of a (1) solar concentrator, (2) solar energy receiver - thermionic converter system, and (3) solar thermionic topping system are described. Peripheral subsystems, which are required for any solar energy conversion system, are also discussed.

  1. Solar System Parameters from the Gaia Small Solar System Object Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Pedro; Berthier, Jerome; Hestroffer, Daniel

    The Gaia mission will provide the planetary science community with an unprecedent number of observations of small Solar System bodies (a few hundred thousand objects), all obtained with the same telescope. These observations will allow the determination of some intrinsic parameters of the observed objects along with a number of fundamental quantities of interest for the Solar System and for physics in general to a higher precision than what can be done presently. Here we describe briefly why these parameters are important to our understanding of small Solar System objects, the dynamics of the Solar System, and the algorithms used to extract them from the extensive Gaia data. We hope to mine these data for unexpected patterns which could elucidate some unanswered questions pertaining to the planetary sciences, for example concerning unusual objects such as main belt comets or perhaps a signature of discrepancies in the theory of gravitation. What to look for, however, remains an open question.

  2. Solar system plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  3. Early Solar System Chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeegan, K. D.; Davis, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Chondritic Meteorites as Probes of Early Solar System EvolutionThe evolutionary sequence involved in the formation of relatively low-mass stars, such as the Sun, has been delineated in recent years through impressive advances in astronomical observations at a variety of wavelengths, combined with improved numerical and theoretical models of the physical processes thought to occur during each stage. From the models and the observational statistics, it is possible to infer in a general way how our solar system ought to have evolved through the various stages from gravitational collapse of a fragment of a molecular cloud to the accretion of planetary-sized bodies (e.g., Cameron, 1995; Alexander et al., 2001; Shu et al., 1987; André et al., 2000; see Chapters 1.04, 1.17, and 1.20). However, the details of these processes remain obscured, literally from an astronomical perspective, and the dependence of such models on various parameters requires data to constrain the specific case of our solar system's origin.Fortunately, the chondritic meteorites sample aspects of this evolution. The term "chondrite" (or chondritic) was originally applied to meteorites bearing chondrules, which are approximately millimeter-sized solidified melt droplets consisting largely of mafic silicate minerals and glass commonly with included metal or sulfide. However, the meaning of chondritic has been expanded to encompass all extraterrestrial materials that are "primitive," i.e., are undifferentiated samples having nearly solar elemental composition. Thus, the chondrites represent a type of cosmic sediment, and to a first approximation can be thought of as "hand samples" of the condensable portion of the solar nebula. The latter is a general term referring to the phase(s) of solar system evolution intermediate between molecular cloud collapse and planet formation. During the nebular phase, the still-forming Sun was an embedded young-stellar object (YSO) enshrouded by gas and dust, which was

  4. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  5. An orientable solar panel system for nanospacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Candini, Gian Paolo; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

    2014-08-01

    An orientable deployed solar array system for 1-5 kg weight nanospacecraft is described, enhancing the achievable performance of these typically power-limited systems. The system is based on a deployable solar panel system, previously developed with cooperation between Laboratorio di Sistemi Aerospaziali of University of Roma “la Sapienza” and the company IMT (Ingegneria Marketing Tecnologia). The system proposed is a modular one, and suitable in principle for the 1U, 2U and 3U standard Cubesat bus, even if the need for three axis attitude stabilization makes it typically preferred for 3U Cubesats. The size of each solar panel is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. A single degree of freedom maneuvering capability is given to the deployed solar array, in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun as close as possible, given the mission requirements on the spacecraft attitude. Considerable effort has been devoted to design the system compatible with the Cubesat standard, being mounted outside on the external spacecraft structure, without requiring modifications on the standard prescriptions. The small available volume is the major constraint, which forces to use miniaturized electric motor technology. The system design trade-off is discussed, leading to the selection of an architecture based on two independently steerable solar array wings.

  6. Enabling Future Low-Cost Small Spacecraft Mission Concepts Using Small Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young H.; Bairstow, Brian; Amini, Rashied; Zakrajsek, June; Oleson, Steven R.; Cataldo, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    For more than five decades, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) have played a critical role in the exploration of space, enabling missions of scientific discovery to destinations across the solar system by providing electrical power to explore remote and challenging environments - some of the hardest to reach, darkest, and coldest locations in the solar system. In particular, RPS has met the demand of many long-duration mission concepts for continuous power to conduct science investigations independent of change in sunlight or variations in surface conditions like shadows, thick clouds, or dust.

  7. Japanese mission plan for Jupiter system: The Jupiter magnetospheric orbiter and the Trojan asteroid explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Yano, H.; Takashima, T.; Kasaba, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Kimura, J.; Funase, R.; Mori, O.; Tsuda, Y.; Campagnola, S.; Kawakatsu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    In the future Jupiter system study, Coordinated observation of Jovian magnetosphere is one of the important targets of the mission in addition to icy satellites, atmosphere, and interior of Jupiter. JAXA will take a role on the magnetosphere spinner JMO (Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter), in addition to JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) by ESA and JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) by NASA. We will combine JMO with a proposed solar sail mission of JAXA for Jupiter and one of Trojan asteroids. Since Trojan asteroids could be representing raw solid materials of Jupiter or at least outer solar system bodies, involvement of Trojan observation should enhance the quality of Jupiter system exploration.

  8. Risks from Solar Particle Events for Long Duration Space Missions Outside Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, S.; Myers, J.; Ford, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) simulates the medical occurrences and mission outcomes for various mission profiles using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. As part of the work with the Integrated Medical Model (IMM), this project focuses on radiation risks from acute events during extended human missions outside low Earth orbit (LEO). Of primary importance in acute risk assessment are solar particle events (SPEs), which are low probability, high consequence events that could adversely affect mission outcomes through acute radiation damage to astronauts. SPEs can be further classified into coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares/impulsive events (Fig. 1). CMEs are an eruption of solar material and have shock enhancements that contribute to make these types of events higher in total fluence than impulsive events.

  9. Power Management System Design for Solar-Powered UAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    extreme aerodynamic efficiency in order to minimize the power required to maintain flight, and a recognition that every sub- system in this system of... systems into a lightweight module for particular mission sets. 14. SUBJECT TERMS solar efficiency , maximum power point tracker, solar array, unmanned...requirements. This ultimately contributes to the overall energy efficiency of the system . 3. Power Consumption Considering this research topic, perhaps

  10. Solar thermal power system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  11. Solar heating system

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  12. Improved solar heating systems

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  13. Solar system log

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents this book published to coincide with the 30th anniversary of the first space launch. It features details of flights by over 100 spacecraft and includes physical appearance, missions and the results, each unmanned mission to the moon, Halley's Comet, and the planets. All are covered with text, pictures, and data. Appendices cover planned and proposed missions.

  14. Modeling Mission-Specific Worst-Case Solar Energetic Particle Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, James H., Jr.; Dietrich, William F.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    To plan and design safe and reliable space missions, it is necessary to take into account the effects of the space radiation environment. The environment during large solar energetic particle events poses the greatest challenge to missions. As a starting point for planning and design, a reference environment must be specified representing the most challenging environment to be encountered during the mission at some confidence level. The engineering challenge is then to find plans and mission design solutions that insure safe and reliable operations in this reference environment. This paper describes progress toward developing a model that provides such reference space radiation environments at user-specified confidence levels.

  15. MSFC Skylab corollary experiment systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of the performances of corollary experiment hardware developed by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and operated during the three manned Skylab missions. Also presented are assessments of the functional adequacy of the experiment hardware and its supporting systems, and indications are given as to the degrees by which experiment constraints and interfaces were met. It is shown that most of the corollary experiment hardware performed satisfactorily and within design specifications.

  16. Future Mission Data Environment: Virtualizing Access to Solar Physics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Several virtual observatory efforts, currently in development, have the potential to change the way we identify and access the data we use to solve problems in solar physics. The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) seeks to simplify the identification and access processes in as "light-weight" a way as possible, in order to provide such services to solar physicists, their data assimilation models, and their colleagues in related fields. We describe the design of the VSO, the data services currently available, and concepts of the solar-terrestrial data environment five years in the future.

  17. NASA'S Space Launch System Mission Capabilities for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventual landings on Mars, NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA’s future plans for exploration, along with the Orion crew vehicle and upgraded ground systems at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO), greater mass-to-orbit capability than any contemporary launch vehicle. The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO, greater even than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle’s potential range of utilization. This presentation will discuss the potential opportunities this vehicle poses for the planetary sciences community, relating the vehicle’s evolution to practical implications for mission capture. As this paper will explain, SLS will be a global launch infrastructure asset, employing sustainable solutions and technological innovations to deliver capabilities for space exploration to power human and robotic systems beyond our Moon and in to

  18. NASA's Space Launch System Mission Capabilities for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventual landings on Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA's future plans for exploration, along with the Orion crew vehicle and upgraded ground systems at the agency's Kennedy Space Center. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO), greater mass-to-orbit capability than any contemporary launch vehicle. The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO, greater even than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle's potential range of utilization. This presentation will discuss the potential opportunities this vehicle poses for the planetary sciences community, relating the vehicle's evolution to practical implications for mission capture. As this paper will explain, SLS will be a global launch infrastructure asset, employing sustainable solutions and technological innovations to deliver capabilities for space exploration to power human and robotic systems beyond our Moon and in to deep space.

  19. Methanogens in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Schleper, Christa; Firneis, Maria G.; Rittmann, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The last decade of space science revealed that potential habitats in the Solar System may not be limited to the classical habitable zone supporting life as we know it. These microorganisms were shown to thrive under extremophilic growth conditions. Here, we outline the main eco-physiological characteristics of methanogens like their response on temperature, pressure, or pH changes or their resistance against radiation or desiccation. They can withstand extreme environmental conditions which makes them intriguing organisms for astrobiological studies. On Earth, they are found for example in wetlands, in arctic and antarctic subglacial environments, in ruminants, and even in the environment surrounding the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. These obligate anaerobic chemolithoautotrophs or chemolithoheterotrophs are able to use e.g. hydrogen and C1 compounds like CO2, formate, or methanol as energy source and carbon source, respectively. We point out their capability to be able to habitat potential extraterrestrial biospheres all over the planetary system. We will give an overview about these possible environments on Mars, icy moons like Europa or Enceladus, and minor planets. We present an overview about studies of methanogens with an astrobiological relevance and we show our conclusions about the role of methanogens for the search for extraterrestrial life in the Solar System. We will present first results of our study about the possibility to cultivate methanogens under Enceladus-like conditions. For that, based on the observations obtained by the Cassini spacecraft concerning the plume compounds, we produce a medium with a composition similar to the ocean composition of this icy moon which is far more Enceladus-like than in any (published) experiment before. Eventually, we give an outlook on the feasibility and the necessity of future astrobiological studies with these microbes. We point out the importance of future in-situ or even sample and return missions to

  20. New Results from the Solar Maximum Mission/Bent Crystal Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapley, C. G.; Sylwester, J.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2017-04-01

    The Bent Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) onboard the NASA Solar Maximum Mission was part of the X-ray Polychromator, which observed numerous flares and bright active regions from February to November 1980, when operation was suspended as a result of the failure of the spacecraft fine-pointing system. Observations resumed following the Space Shuttle SMM Repair Mission in April 1984 and continued until November 1989. BCS spectra have been widely used in the past to obtain temperatures, emission measures, and turbulent and bulk flows during flares, as well as element abundances. Instrumental details including calibration factors not previously published are given here, and the in-orbit performance of the BCS is evaluated. Some significant changes during the mission are described, and recommendations for future instrumentation are made. Using improved estimates for the instrument parameters and operational limits, it is now possible to obtain de-convolved calibrated spectra that show finer detail than before, providing the means for improved interpretation of the physics of the emitting plasmas. The results indicate how historical archived data can be re-used to obtain enhanced and new, scientifically valuable results.

  1. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.

    1998-01-01

    The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is also a member of the IAU's Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) which is composed of the chairs of the several Task Groups plus the presidents of two IAU Commissions and several outside consultants. The WGPSN is presided over by its President, Professor Kaare Aksnes from the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway.

  2. Coronal abundances in solar active regions measured by the Solar Maximum Mission flat crystal spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.; Strong, Keith T.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution soft X-ray spectra acquired by the Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS) on solar Maximum Mission provide an excellent data base to study the relative abundances of O, Ne, Mg, and Fe in solar active regions. The FCS data show significant variability for all combinations of these elements. The largest variation occurs for Fe:Ne, which shows region to region changes of up to a factor of 7, and frequent factor of 2 variations in day to day samples of a given region. The atomic data and the ionization balance calculations used to interpret the line ratios affect the actual abundance values obtained, but have little effect on the magnitude of the total range of variation inferred. Resonance scattering of Fe XVII could cause a systematic offset in the abundances determined, but cannot be responsbile for the bulk of the observed variability. While abundance variability complicates the derivation of plasma parameters from spectroscopic measurements, it should offer exciting new clues to the processes which form and heat the corona.

  3. Earth Observation Missions at OHB System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobehn, C.; Penné, B.; Kassebom, M.; Ziegler, B.; Mahal, S.; Greinacher, R.; Holsten, S.; Borowy, C.

    2008-08-01

    This paper covers the current OHB-System AG activities in the field of Earth Observation with small satellites ranging from science and research towards commercial and security missions. Very highresolution, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, as well as very high resolution SAR mission concepts are presented including the following projects: The SAR-Lupe constellation generates very high resolution SAR images for military reconnaissance purposes. It is developed by OHB-System and reaches full in-orbit deployment in 2008. EnMAP - featuring an innovative hyperspectral sensor systems for the detailed and global analysis of eco-system parameters. Very high resolution SAR and Optical Constellations of 1m resolution are currently investigated for emergency response and disaster management, which require a fast system response-time. Data Relay from GEO relaxes the typical EO bottle-neck in downloading data. Therefore it enables an increase of LEO observation time and reduces image ageing as well as system response time by direct EO satellite tasking. Ocean-Colour from GEO shall be a sustainable source for intra-daily observations of coastal zones for environment monitoring, fishery management and coastal water pollution. Next Generation very high resolution missions below 1m resolution are proposed for reconnaissance and dual-use applications for commercial customers. New services and products are under development for a range of applications, including hyperspectral data exploitation, data fusion with in-situ systems for maritime environment, security as well as for air quality services. The realisation of an end-user oriented infrastructure - including space and ground segment - for commercial Earth observation is a key element of OHB-System's Earth observation activities.

  4. A Study of the Structure of the Source Region of the Solar Wind in Support of a Solar Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, Shadia R.; Forman, M. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Despite the richness of the information about the physical properties and the structure of the solar wind provided by the Ulysses and SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) observations, fundamental questions regarding the nature of the coronal heating mechanisms, their source, and the manifestations of the fast and slow solar wind, still remain unanswered. The last unexplored frontier to establish the connection between the structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere, its extension into interplanetary space, and the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of the solar wind, is the corona between 1 and 30 R(sub s). A Solar Probe mission offers an unprecedented opportunity to explore this frontier. Its uniqueness stems from its trajectory in a plane perpendicular to the ecliptic which reaches within 9 R(sub s) of the solar surface over the poles and 3 - 9 R(sub s) at the equator. With a complement of simultaneous in situ and remote sensing observations, this mission is destined to detect remnants and signatures of the processes which heat the corona and accelerate the solar wind. In support of this mission, we fulfilled the following two long-term projects: (1) Study of the evolution of waves and turbulence in the solar wind (2) Exploration of signatures of physical processes and structures in the corona. A summary of the tasks achieved in support of these projects are given below. In addition, funds were provided to support the Solar Wind 9 International Conference which was held in October 1998. A brief report on the conference is also described in what follows.

  5. Electric solar-wind sail for asteroid touring missions and planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janhunen, P.

    2014-07-01

    The electric solar-wind sail (electric sail, E-sail [1,2]) is a relatively new concept for moving around in the solar system without consuming propellant and by using the thrust provided by the natural solar wind to produce propulsion. The E-sail is based on deploying, using the centrifugal force, a set of long, thin metallic tethers and charging them to high positive voltage by actively removing negative charge from the system by an electron gun. To make the tethers resistant towards inevitable wire cuts by micrometeoroids, they must be made by bonding from multiple (typically 4) thin (25--50 μ m) aluminium wires. Production of the tethers was a technical challenge which was recently overcome. According to present numerical estimates, the E-sail could produce up to 1 N of propellantless thrust out of less than 200 kg package which is enough to give characteristic acceleration of 1 mm/s^2 to a spacecraft weighing 1 tonne, thus producing 30 km/s of delta-v per year. The thrust scales as ˜ 1/r where r is the solar distance. There are ways to control and vector the thrust enough to enable inward and outward spiralling missions in the solar system. The E-sail working principle has been indirectly measured in a laboratory, and ESTCube-1 CubeSat experiment is underway in orbit (in late March 2014 it was waiting to be started) to measure the E-sail thrust acting on a short 10-m long tether. A full-scale mission requires ˜ 1000 km of tether altogether (weighing ˜10 kg). The production of a 1-km piece of tether has been demonstrated in laboratory [3]. If the E-sail holds up its present promise, it would be ideally suited for asteroid missions because it enables production of similar level of thrust than ion engines, but needs only a small fraction of the electric power and never runs out of propellant because it does not use any (the ''propellant'' being the natural solar-wind plasma flow). Here we consider especially a mission which would tour the asteroid belt for a

  6. CEO Sites Mission Management System (SMMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Late in fiscal year 2011, the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) team was tasked to upgrade its science site database management tool, which at the time was integrated with the Automated Mission Planning System (AMPS) originally developed for Earth Observations mission planning in the 1980s. Although AMPS had been adapted and was reliably used by CEO for International Space Station (ISS) payload operations support, the database structure was dated, and the compiler required for modifications would not be supported in the Windows 7 64-bit operating system scheduled for implementation the following year. The Sites Mission Management System (SMMS) is now the tool used by CEO to manage a heritage Structured Query Language (SQL) database of more than 2,000 records for Earth science sites. SMMS is a carefully designed and crafted in-house software package with complete and detailed help files available for the user and meticulous internal documentation for future modifications. It was delivered in February 2012 for test and evaluation. Following acceptance, it was implemented for CEO mission operations support in April 2012. The database spans the period from the earliest systematic requests for astronaut photography during the shuttle era to current ISS mission support of the CEO science payload. Besides logging basic image information (site names, locations, broad application categories, and mission requests), the upgraded database management tool now tracks dates of creation, modification, and activation; imagery acquired in response to requests; the status and location of ancillary site information; and affiliations with studies, their sponsors, and collaborators. SMMS was designed to facilitate overall mission planning in terms of site selection and activation and provide the necessary site parameters for the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE), which is used by CEO operations to perform daily ISS mission planning. The CEO team

  7. An approach for the control method's determination for an interplanetary mission with solar sail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, Irina; Starinova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This article is devoted to an interplanetary movement of the solar sail spacecraft. Authors propose to use locally-optimal control laws for the solar sail control model. We used previously obtained by the authors locally-optimal control laws for chosen interplanetary missions. The obtained laws can provide rapid change of Keplerian elements or stabilize its values. Authors offer an approach for combination of these laws. To confirm the result correctness authors simulated the heliocentric motion of the solar sail spacecraft to the selected planet. Model of solar sail spacecraft called Helios is designed by students of Samara State Aerospace University. We define heliocentric motion of the solar sail spacecraft via Keplerian elements. Authors used combination technique for locally-optimal control laws to obtained several trajectories for interplanetary missions. The distinctive feature of the proposed method that parameters of osculating elements are used as destination phase coordinates.

  8. Design of cycler trajectories and analysis of solar influences on radioactive decay rates during space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Blake A.

    This thesis investigates the design of interplanetary missions for the continual habitation of Mars via Earth-Mars cyclers and for the detection of variations in nuclear decay rates due to solar influences. Several cycler concepts have been proposed to provide safe and comfortable quarters for astronauts traveling between the Earth and Mars. However, no literature has appeared to show how these massive vehicles might be placed into their cycler trajectories. Trajectories are designed that use either Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust to establish cycler vehicles in their desired orbits. In the cycler trajectory cases considered, the use of Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust substantially reduces the total propellant needed to achieve the cycler orbit compared to direct orbit insertion. In the case of the classic Aldrin cycler, the propellant savings due to Vinfinity leveraging can be as large as a 24 metric ton reduction for a cycler vehicle with a dry mass of 75 metric tons, and an additional 111 metric ton reduction by instead using low thrust. The two-synodic period cyclers considered benefit less from Vinfinity leveraging, but have a smaller total propellant mass due to their lower approach velocities at Earth and Mars. It turns out that, for low-thrust establishment, the propellant required is approximately the same for each of the cycler trajectories. The Aldrin cycler has been proposed as a transportation system for human missions between Earth and Mars. However, the hyperbolic excess velocity values at the planetary encounters for these orbits are infeasibly large, especially at Mars. In a new version of the Aldrin cycler, low thrust is used in the interplanetary trajectories to reduce the encounter velocities. Reducing the encounter velocities at both planets reduces the propellant needed by the taxis (astronauts use these taxis to transfer between the planetary surfaces and the cycler vehicle) to perform hyperbolic rendezvous. While the propellant

  9. Future mission studies: Preliminary comparisons of solar flux models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashrafi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The results of comparisons of the solar flux models are presented. (The wavelength lambda = 10.7 cm radio flux is the best indicator of the strength of the ionizing radiations such as solar ultraviolet and x-ray emissions that directly affect the atmospheric density thereby changing the orbit lifetime of satellites. Thus, accurate forecasting of solar flux F sub 10.7 is crucial for orbit determination of spacecrafts.) The measured solar flux recorded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is compared against the forecasts made by Schatten, MSFC, and NOAA itself. The possibility of a combined linear, unbiased minimum-variance estimation that properly combines all three models into one that minimizes the variance is also discussed. All the physics inherent in each model are combined. This is considered to be the dead-end statistical approach to solar flux forecasting before any nonlinear chaotic approach.

  10. Our Solar System's Cousin?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates two planetary systems -- 55 Cancri (top) and our own. Blue lines show the orbits of planets, including the dwarf planet Pluto in our solar system. The 55 Cancri system is currently the closest known analogue to our solar system, yet there are some fundamental differences.

    The similarities begin with the stars themselves, which are about the same mass and age. Both stars also host big families of planets. Our solar system has eight planets, while 55 Cancri has five, making it the record-holder for having the most known exoplanets. In fact, 55 Cancri could have additional planets, possibly even rocky ones that are too small to be seen with current technologies. All of the planets in the two systems have nearly circular orbits.

    In addition, both planetary systems have giant planets in their outer regions. The giant located far away from 55 Cancri is four times the mass of our Jupiter, and completes one orbit every 14 years at a distance of five times that between Earth and the sun (about 868 million kilometers or 539 million miles). Our Jupiter completes one orbit around the sun every 11.9 years, also at about five times the Earth-sun distance (778 million kilometers or 483 million miles). Fifty-five Cancri is still the only known star besides ours with a planet in a distant Jupiter-like orbit. Both systems also contain inner planets that are less massive than their outer planets.

    The differences begin with the planets' masses. The planets orbiting 55 Cancri are all larger than Earth, and represent a 'souped-up' version of our own solar system. In fact, this is the first star that boasts more giant planets than our sun!

    The arrangement of the planetary systems is also different. The inner four planets of 55 Cancri are all closer to the star than Earth is to the sun. The closest, about the mass of Uranus, whips around the star in just under three days at a distance of approximately 5.6 million kilometers (3

  11. The Solar Probe Plus Mission: Humanity's First Visit to Our Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, N. J.; Velli, M. C.; Bale, S. D.; Decker, R.; Driesman, A.; Howard, R. A.; Kasper, J. C.; Kinnison, J.; Kusterer, M.; Lario, D.; Lockwood, M. K.; McComas, D. J.; Raouafi, N. E.; Szabo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Solar Probe Plus (SPP) will be the first spacecraft to fly into the low solar corona. SPP's main science goal is to determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun's coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what processes accelerate energetic particles. Understanding these fundamental phenomena has been a top-priority science goal for over five decades, dating back to the 1958 Simpson Committee Report. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. The mission design and the technology and engineering developments enable SPP to meet its science objectives to: (1) Trace the flow of energy that heats and accelerates the solar corona and solar wind; (2) Determine the structure and dynamics of the plasma and magnetic fields at the sources of the solar wind; and (3) Explore mechanisms that accelerate and transport energetic particles. The SPP mission was confirmed in March 2014 and is under development as a part of NASA's Living with a Star (LWS) Program. SPP is scheduled for launch in mid-2018, and will perform 24 orbits over a 7-year nominal mission duration. Seven Venus gravity assists gradually reduce SPP's perihelion from 35 solar radii (RS) for the first orbit to {<}10 RS for the final three orbits. In this paper we present the science, mission concept and the baseline vehicle for SPP, and examine how the mission will address the key science questions

  12. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic Missions in Near-Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2007-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science and robotic exploration, and planetary science. These missions span SEP power range from 10 kWe to about 100 kWe. A SEP design compatible with small inexpensive launch vehicles, and capable of lunar science missions, is presented. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  13. MSFC Skylab electrical power systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of the Skylab electrical power system are discussed. The electrical systems for the airlock module of the orbital workshop and the Apollo telescope mount are described. Skylab is considered an integral laboratory, however, both cluster and module hardware distinct sections are included. Significant concept and requirement evolution, testing, and modifications resulting from tests are briefly summarized to aid in understanding the launch configuration description and the procedures and performance discussed for in-orbit operation. Specific problems encountered during Skylab orbital missions are analyzed.

  14. The High Altitude Observatory Coronagraph/Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macqueen, R. M.; Csoeke-Poeckh, A.; Hildner, E.; House, L.; Reynolds, R.; Stanger, A.; Tepoel, H.; Wagner, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the High Altitude Observatory Coronagraph/Polarimeter designed to produce images of the solar corona in 7 wavelength bands in the visible spectral range, and to be flown on the NASA Solar Maximum Mission satellite. The spectral bands were chosen to exclude or include 'chromospheric' spectral lines, so as to allow discrimination between ejecta at coronal and chromospheric temperatures. The major goals of the instrument include: (1) observation of the corona in the flare process and of the ejecta from the flare site and the overlying corona, and (2) examination of the evolution of the solar corona near the period of solar maximum activity.

  15. Viking 75 project: Viking lander system primary mission performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Viking Lander hardware performance during launch, interplanetary cruise, Mars orbit insertion, preseparation, separation through landing, and the primary landed mission, with primary emphasis on Lander engineering and science hardware operations, the as-flown mission are described with respect to Lander system performance and anomalies during the various mission phases. The extended mission and predicted Lander performance is discussed along with a summary of Viking goals, mission plans, and description of the Lander, and its subsystem definitions.

  16. Neptune and Triton: Essential pieces of the Solar System puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, A.; Achilleos, N.; Agnor, C. B.; Campagnola, S.; Charnoz, S.; Christophe, B.; Coates, A. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Jones, G. H.; Lamy, L.; Marzari, F.; Nettelmann, N.; Ruiz, J.; Ambrosi, R.; Andre, N.; Bhardwaj, A.; Fortney, J. J.; Hansen, C. J.; Helled, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Orton, G.; Ray, L.; Reynaud, S.; Sergis, N.; Srama, R.; Volwerk, M.

    2014-12-01

    The planet Neptune and its largest moon Triton hold the keys to major advances across multiple fields of Solar System science. The ice giant Neptune played a unique and important role in the process of Solar System formation, has the most meteorologically active atmosphere in the Solar System (despite its great distance from the Sun), and may be the best Solar System analogue of the dominant class of exoplanets detected to date. Neptune's moon Triton is very likely a captured Kuiper Belt object, holding the answers to questions about the icy dwarf planets that formed in the outer Solar System. Triton is geologically active, has a tenuous nitrogen atmosphere, and is predicted to have a subsurface ocean. However, our exploration of the Neptune system remains limited to a single spacecraft flyby, made by Voyager 2 in 1989. Here, we present the high-level science case for further exploration of this outermost planetary system, based on a white paper submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) for the definition of the second and third large missions in the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme 2015-2025. We discuss all the major science themes that are relevant for further spacecraft exploration of the Neptune system, and identify key scientific questions in each area. We present an overview of the results of a European-led Neptune orbiter mission analysis. Such a mission has significant scope for international collaboration, and is essential to achieve our aim of understanding how the Solar System formed, and how it works today.

  17. Design of Photovoltaic Power System for a Precursor Mission for Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnatt, Jeremiah; Landis, Geoffrey; Fincannon, James

    2016-01-01

    This project analyzed the viability of a photovoltaic power source for technology demonstration mission to demonstrate Mars in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to produce propellant for a future human mission, based on technology available within the next ten years. For this assessment, we performed a power-system design study for a scaled ISRU demonstrator lander on the Mars surface based on existing solar array technologies.

  18. Human Missions to Mars Orbit, Phobos, and Mars Surface Using 100-kWe-Class Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Humphrey W.; Woolley, Ryan C.; Strange, Nathan J.; Baker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) tugs in the 100-kWe range, may be utilized to preposition cargo in the Mars system to enable more affordable human missions to Phobos and to the surface of Mars. The SEP tug, a high heritage follow-on to the 50-kWe SEP spacecraft proposed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), would have the same structure, tankage, electric propulsion components, and avionics as the ARRM version, But with double the number of solar arrays, Hall thrusters, and power processor units (PPUs) and would be accommodated within the same launch envelope defined for ARRM. As a feasibility study, a 950-day human mission to Phobos using a conjunction class trajectory, such as the 2033 opportunity, was developed using two 100-kWe SEP vehicles to preposition a habitat at Phobos and propulsion stages in high Mars orbit (HMO). An architecture concept for a crewed Mars surface lander mission was also developed as a reference to build on the Phobos mission architecture, adding a lander element that could be delivered using chemical propulsion and aerocapture.

  19. Saturn Probe: Revealing Solar System Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Comparative studies of the gas giant and ice giant planets are needed to reliably discriminate among competing theories of the origin and evolution of giant planets and the solar system, but we lack critical measurements. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission would fill a vital part of that gap, allowing comparative studies of Jupiter and Saturn, providing the basis for later comparisons with the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, and informing studies of extrasolar planetary systems now being characterized. The Galileo Probe mission provided the first in situ studies of Jupiter's atmosphere. Similar measurements at Saturn, Uranus and Neptune would provide an important comparative planetology context for the Galileo results. Cassini's "Proximal Orbits" in 2017 will reveal Saturn's internal structure to complement the Juno mission's similar measurements at Jupiter. A Saturn entry probe, complementing the Galileo Probe investigations at Jupiter, would complete a solid basis for improved understanding of both Jupiter and Saturn, an important stepping stone to understanding Uranus and Neptune and solar system formation and evolution. The 2012 Decadal Survey ("DS") added Saturn Probe science objectives to NASA's New Frontiers Program: highest-priority Tier 1 objectives any New Frontiers implementation must achieve, and Tier 2, high priority but lower than Tier 1. A DS mission concept study using extremely conservative assumptions concluded that a Saturn Probe project could fit within New Frontiers resource constraints, giving a PI confidence that they could pursue some Tier 2 objectives, customizing for the proper balance of science return, science team composition, procured or contributed instruments, etc. Contributed instruments could significantly enhance the payload and the science team for greater science return. They also provide international collaboration opportunities, with science benefits well demonstrated by missions such as Cassini-Huygens and Rosetta.

  20. INSTANT: a Small Mission Concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 Point for Innovative Solar, Heliospheric and Space Weather Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We present a small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather sciences. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission concept is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. The INSTANT concept would be the first to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space, and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would, in addition, uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile which fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  1. Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: About the roadmap. Summary of key elements. Science objectives. Mission roadmap. Technology. Research and analysis. Education and public outreach. Appendix - Road map framework.

  2. International solar polar mission: The vector helium magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The functional requirements for the vector helium magnetometer (VHM) on the Solar Polar spacecraft are presented. The VHM is one of the two magnetometers on board that will measure the vector magnetic field along the Earth to Jupiter transfer trajectory, as well as in the vicinity of Jupiter and along the solar polar orbit following the Jupiter encounter. The interconnection between these two magnetometers and their shared data processing unit is illustrated.

  3. Solar system to scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwig López, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important successes in astronomical observations has been to determine the limit of the Solar System. It is said that the first man able to measure the distance Earth-Sun with only a very slight mistake, in the second century BC, was the wise Greek man Aristarco de Samos. Thanks to Newtońs law of universal gravitation, it was possible to measure, with a little margin of error, the distances between the Sun and the planets. Twelve-year old students are very interested in everything related to the universe. However, it seems too difficult to imagine and understand the real distances among the different celestial bodies. To learn the differences among the inner and outer planets and how far away the outer ones are, I have considered to make my pupils work on the sizes and the distances in our solar system constructing it to scale. The purpose is to reproduce our solar system to scale on a cardboard. The procedure is very easy and simple. Students of first year of ESO (12 year-old) receive the instructions in a sheet of paper (things they need: a black cardboard, a pair of scissors, colored pencils, a ruler, adhesive tape, glue, the photocopies of the planets and satellites, the measurements they have to use). In another photocopy they get the pictures of the edge of the sun, the planets, dwarf planets and some satellites, which they have to color, cut and stick on the cardboard. This activity is planned for both Spanish and bilingual learning students as a science project. Depending on the group, they will receive these instructions in Spanish or in English. When the time is over, the students bring their works on their cardboard to the class. They obtain a final mark: passing, good or excellent, depending on the accuracy of the measurements, the position of all the celestial bodies, the asteroids belts, personal contributions, etc. If any of the students has not followed the instructions they get the chance to remake it again properly, in order not

  4. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  5. Post flight analysis of NASA standard star trackers recovered from the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.

    1985-01-01

    The flight hardware returned after the Solar Maximum Mission Repair Mission was analyzed to determine the effects of 4 years in space. The NASA Standard Star Tracker would be a good candidate for such analysis because it is moderately complex and had a very elaborate calibration during the acceptance procedure. However, the recovery process extensively damaged the cathode of the image dissector detector making proper operation of the tracker and a comparison with preflight characteristics impossible. Otherwise, the tracker functioned nominally during testing.

  6. Solar System Sleuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryden, Barbara

    2005-11-01

    One of the great astronomers of the last century, Gerhard Peter Kuiper, was born 100 years ago this year. He is considered the father of modern planetary science and an expert on binary and white dwarf stars. Kuiper was recruited by Otto Struve to the Yerkes Observatory and used the 82-inch Telescope at McDonald Observatory for groundbreaking studies of Mars and the giant moons in the outer solar system. Later, he became the founding director of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona. Kuiper predicted that a vast number of asteroid-like objects lie beyond the orbit of Pluto; this was later substantiated and called the Kuiper Belt. Late in life, Kuiper pioneered the use of infrared telescopes and instruments aboard aircraft and the NASA's original flying observatory was named the Kuiper Airborne Observatory in his honor.

  7. Wind in the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might…

  8. Exploration of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, A., Jr.; Grey, J.

    1974-01-01

    A sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology used for its exploration is presented. An outline of the potential achievements of solar system exploration is given along with a course of action which maximizes the rewards to mankind.

  9. Solar-Terrestrial Physics in the 1990s: Key Science Objectives for the IACG Mission Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program is an internationally coordinated multi-spacecraft mission that will study the production of the supersonic magnetized solar wind, its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere, and the resulting transport of plasma, momentum and energy through the magnetosphere and into the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. The mission will involve l4spacecraft to be launched between 1992 and 1996, along with complementary ground-based observations and theoretical programs. A list of the spacecraft, their nominal orbits, and responsible agencies is shown.

  10. Communicating across the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. S.; Lyman, P. T.; Force, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    The exploration of the solar system by means of spacecraft would not be possible in its present form without the art and science of communications. Particularly exacting requirements arise in connection with the study of the planets and the interplanetary medium beyond the orbit of Jupiter. Developments in technology providing the required communication capability are partly based on the principle of the phase-locked loop as a narrow-band tracking filter. Mission objectives and performance are discussed for Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2 which at present are the only spacecraft beyond the orbit of Jupiter. A description is given of challenges related to communication in the case of the passage of Voyager 2 near Uranus in 1986 and near Neptune in 1989, taking into account the approaches employed to meet these challenges. Attention is given to requirements concerning international cooperation regarding the ground network, the development of interagency and intra-agency arraying, and the improvement of antenna efficiency.

  11. Systems Engineering and Integration as a Foundation for Mission Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    requirements, and ultimately provide a context for definition of mission engineering. 14. SUBJECT TERMS mission engineering, systems engineering...requirements, and ultimately provide a context for definition of mission engineering. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF...of Defense (DOD) circles without formal definition or scope. However, the use of the term in systems engineering contexts implies a relationship that

  12. PICARD SOL mission, a ground-based facility for long-term solar radius measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Corbard, T.; Morand, F.; Thuillier, G.; Hauchecorne, A.; Ikhlef, R.; Rouze, M.; Renaud, C.; Djafer, D.; Abbaki, S.; Assus, P.; Chauvineau, B.; Cissé, E. M.; Dalaudier, F.; D'Almeida, Eric; Fodil, M.; Laclare, F.; Lesueur, P.; Lin, M.; Marcovici, J. P.; Poiet, G.

    2012-09-01

    For the last thirty years, ground time series of the solar radius have shown different variations according to different instruments. The origin of these variations may be found in the observer, the instrument, the atmosphere and the Sun. These time series show inconsistencies and conflicting results, which likely originate from instrumental effects and/or atmospheric effects. A survey of the solar radius was initiated in 1975 by F. Laclare, at the Calern site of the Observatoire de la Cˆote d'Azur (OCA). PICARD is an investigation dedicated to the simultaneous measurements of the absolute total and spectral solar irradiance, the solar radius and solar shape, and to the Sun's interior probing by the helioseismology method. The PICARD mission aims to the study of the origin of the solar variability and to the study of the relations between the Sun and the Earth's climate by using modeling. These studies will be based on measurements carried out from orbit and from the ground. PICARD SOL is the ground segment of the PICARD mission to allow a comparison of the solar radius measured in space and on ground. PICARD SOL will enable to understand the influence of the atmosphere on the measured solar radius. The PICARD Sol instrumentation consists of: SODISM II, a replica of SODISM (SOlar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper), a high resolution imaging telescope, and MISOLFA (Moniteur d'Images SOLaires Franco-Alǵerien), a seeing monitor. Additional instrumentation consists in a Sun photometer, which measures atmospheric aerosol properties, a pyranometer to measure the solar irradiance, a visible camera, and a weather station. PICARD SOL is operating since March 2011. First results from the PICARD SOL mission are briefly reported in this paper.

  13. Performance of Solar Electric Powered Deep Space Missions Using Hall Thruster Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzberger, Kevin E.; Manzella, David

    2006-01-01

    Power limited, low-thrust trajectories were assessed for missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune utilizing a single Venus Gravity Assist (VGA) and a primary propulsion system based on either a 3-kW high voltage Hall thruster, of the type being developed by the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program, or an 8-kW variant of this thruster. These Hall thrusters operate with specific impulses below 3,000 seconds. A trade study was conducted to examine mission parameters that include: net delivered mass (NDM), beginning-of-life (BOL) solar array power, heliocentric transfer time, required launch vehicle, number of operating thrusters, and throttle profile. The top performing spacecraft configuration was defined to be the one that delivered the highest mass for a range of transfer times. In order to evaluate the potential future benefit of using next generation Hall thrusters as the primary propulsion system, comparisons were made with the advanced state-of-the-art (ASOA), 7-kW, 4,100 second NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) for the same mission scenarios. For the BOL array powers considered in this study (less than 30 kW), the results show that the performance of the Hall thrusters, relative to NEXT, is largely dependant on the performance capability of the launch vehicle, and that at least a 10 percent performance gain, equating to at least an additional 200 kg dry mass at each target planet, is achieved over the higher specific impulse NEXT when launched on an Atlas 551.

  14. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic and Human Missions in Near-Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2006-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science, lunar exploration, lunar exploitation, planetary science, and planetary exploration. These missions span SEP power range from 10s of kWe to several MWe. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  15. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic and Human Missions in Near-Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2011-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science, lunar exploration, lunar exploitation, planetary science, and planetary exploration. These missions span SEP power range from 10s of kWe to several MWe. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  16. The MAP Autonomous Mission Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Juile; Coyle, Steven; Blahut, Kevin; Dent, Carolyn; Shendock, Robert; Rowe, Roger

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission is the second mission in NASA's Office of Space Science low-cost, Medium-class Explorers (MIDEX) program. The Explorers Program is designed to accomplish frequent, low cost, high quality space science investigations utilizing innovative, streamlined, efficient management, design and operations approaches. The MAP spacecraft will produce an accurate full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations with high sensitivity and angular resolution. The MAP spacecraft is planned for launch in early 2001, and will be staffed by only single-shift operations. During the rest of the time the spacecraft must be operated autonomously, with personnel available only on an on-call basis. Four (4) innovations will work cooperatively to enable a significant reduction in operations costs for the MAP spacecraft. First, the use of a common ground system for Spacecraft Integration and Test (I&T) as well as Operations. Second, the use of Finite State Modeling for intelligent autonomy. Third, the integration of a graphical planning engine to drive the autonomous systems without an intermediate manual step. And fourth, the ability for distributed operations via Web and pager access.

  17. The Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS): Energetic Particle Measurements for the Solar Probe Plus Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, D. J.; Christian, E. R.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; McNutt, R. L.; Cummings, A. C.; Desai, M. I.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M. E.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Krimigis, SA. M.; Livi, S. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Roelof, E. C.; Stone, E. C.; Schwardron, N. A.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major goals of NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission is to determine the mechanisms that accelerate and transport high-energy particles from the solar atmosphere out into the heliosphere. Processes such as coronal mass ejections and solar flares, which peak roughly every 11 years around solar maximum, release huge quantities of energized matter, magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation into space. The high-energy particles, known as solar energetic particles or SEPs, present a serious radiation threat to human explorers living and working outside low-Earth orbit and to technological assets such as communications and scientific satellites in space. This talk describes the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) - Energetic Particle Instrument suite. ISIS measures key properties such as intensities, energy spectra, composition, and angular distributions of the low-energy suprathermal source populations, as well as the more hazardous, higher energy particles ejected from the Sun. By making the first-ever direct measurements of the near-Sun regions where the acceleration takes place, ISIS will provide the critical measurements that, when integrated with other SPP instruments and with solar and interplanetary observations, will lead to a revolutionary new understanding of the Sun and major drivers of solar system space weather.

  18. Mission Applicability Assessment of Integrated Power Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, R. P.; Hepp, A. F.; Landis, G. A.; Hoffman, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    The need for smaller lightweight autonomous power systems has recently increased with the increasing focus on micro- and nanosatellites. Small area high-efficiency thin film batteries and solar cells are an attractive choice for such applications. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Lithium Power Technologies, MicroSat Systems, and others, have been working on the development of autonomous monolithic packages combining these elements or what are called integrated power supplies (IPS). These supplies can be combined with individual satellite components and are capable of providing continuous power even under intermittent illumination associated with a spinning or Earth orbiting satellite. This paper discusses the space mission applicability, benefits, and current development efforts associated with integrated power supply components and systems. The characteristics and several mission concepts for an IPS that combines thin-film photovoltaic power generation with thin-film lithium ion energy storage are described. Based on this preliminary assessment, it is concluded that the most likely and beneficial application of an IPS will be for small "nanosatellites" or in specialized applications serving as a decentralized or as a distributed power source or uninterruptible power supply.

  19. The Solar-B Mission: First Light, Future Plans and Community Participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John M.

    2006-01-01

    transmitted to ISAS where they are reformatted into FITS files and archived as Level 0 data on the ISAS DARTS system. Once the initial observation period is complete, approximately six months after launch, the mission data will be open and freely available to researchers shortly after receipt at the DARTS data archive hosted in Japan and at NASA s Solar Data Analysis Center at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific operations will be conducted from the ISAS facility in Sagamihara, Japan and the observatory will become available for performing joint operations with both ground and space based instruments and for conducting observing programs proposed by non-team members. This process will be described together with a status report from the initial operation of the observatory, showing examples of the first observations.

  20. A conceptual Saturn ring observer mission using standard radioisotope power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Spilker, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    Saturn remains of the most fascinating planets within the solar system. To better understand the complex ring structure of this planet, a conceptual Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) mission is presented that would spend one year in close proximity to Saturn's A and B rings, and perform detailed observations and measurements of the ring particles and electric and magnetic fields.

  1. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

  2. Concurrent engineering: Spacecraft and mission operations system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landshof, J. A.; Harvey, R. J.; Marshall, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Despite our awareness of the mission design process, spacecraft historically have been designed and developed by one team and then turned over as a system to the Mission Operations organization to operate on-orbit. By applying concurrent engineering techniques and envisioning operability as an essential characteristic of spacecraft design, tradeoffs can be made in the overall mission design to minimize mission lifetime cost. Lessons learned from previous spacecraft missions will be described, as well as the implementation of concurrent mission operations and spacecraft engineering for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) program.

  3. System for Contributing and Discovering Derived Mission and Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallick, Michael N.; Powell, Mark W.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Mickelson, Megan C.; Ohata, Darrick M.; Kurien, James A.; Abramyan, Luch

    2013-01-01

    A system was developed to provide a new mechanism for members of the mission community to create and contribute new science data to the rest of the community. Mission tools have allowed members of the mission community to share first order data (data that is created by the mission s process in command and control of the spacecraft or the data that is captured by the craft itself, like images, science results, etc.). However, second and higher order data (data that is created after the fact by scientists and other members of the mission) was previously not widely disseminated, nor did it make its way into the mission planning process.

  4. The Requirements Generation System: A tool for managing mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Sylvia B.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, NASA's cost for developing mission requirements has been a significant part of a mission's budget. Large amounts of time have been allocated in mission schedules for the development and review of requirements by the many groups who are associated with a mission. Additionally, tracing requirements from a current document to a parent document has been time-consuming and costly. The Requirements Generation System (RGS) is a computer-supported cooperative-work tool that assists mission developers in the online creation, review, editing, tracing, and approval of mission requirements as well as in the production of requirements documents. This paper describes the RGS and discusses some lessons learned during its development.

  5. The Solar System in the Age of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2011-06-01

    We are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik, which began the space age. Though the manned exploration of the solar system has been limited to the Moon, in NASA's Apollo Program that ended over 35 years ago, robotic exploration of the solar system continues to be very successful. This paper explores the latest space mission and other observations of each planet and of each type of solar-system object, including dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, as well as the sun.

  6. Electric Power System Technology Options for Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the President announced a 'Vision for Space Exploration' that is bold and forward-thinking, yet practical and responsible. The vision explores answers to longstanding questions of importance to science and society and will develop revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, while maintaining good stewardship of taxpayer dollars. One crucial technology area enabling all space exploration is electric power systems. In this paper, the author evaluates surface power technology options in order to identify leading candidate technologies that will accomplish lunar design reference mission three (LDRM-3). LDRM-3 mission consists of multiple, 90-day missions to the lunar South Pole with 4-person crews starting in the year 2020. Top-level power requirements included a nominal 50 kW continuous habitat power over a 5-year lifetime with back-up or redundant emergency power provisions and a nominal 2-kW, 2-person unpressurized rover. To help direct NASA's technology investment strategy, this lunar surface power technology evaluation assessed many figures of merit including: current technology readiness levels (TRLs), potential to advance to TRL 6 by 2014, effectiveness of the technology to meet the mission requirements in the specified time, mass, stowed volume, deployed area, complexity, required special ground facilities, safety, reliability/redundancy, strength of industrial base, applicability to other LDRM-3 elements, extensibility to Mars missions, costs, and risks. For the 50-kW habitat module, dozens of nuclear, radioisotope and solar power technologies were down-selected to a nuclear fission heat source with Brayton, Stirling or thermoelectric power conversion options. Preferred energy storage technologies included lithium-ion battery and Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). Several AC and DC power management and distribution architectures and component technologies were defined consistent with the preferred habitat

  7. Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Stephen L.; Peddieson, John; Garbe, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Future science missions will require solar sails on the order of 200 square meters (or larger). However, ground demonstrations and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller sizes, due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This paper will approach the problem of scaling in solar sail models by developing a set of scaling laws or similarity criteria that will provide constraints in the sail design process. These scaling laws establish functional relationships between design parameters of a prototype and model sail that are created at different geometric sizes. This work is applied to a specific solar sail configuration and results in three (four) similarity criteria for static (dynamic) sail models. Further, it is demonstrated that even in the context of unique sail material requirements and gravitational load of earth-bound experiments, it is possible to develop appropriate scaled sail experiments. In the longer term, these scaling laws can be used in the design of scaled experimental tests for solar sails and in analyzing the results from such tests.

  8. Overview: Exobiology in solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Schwartz, Deborah E.

    1992-01-01

    In Aug. 1988, the NASA Ames Research Center held a three-day symposium in Sunnyvale, California, to discuss the subject of exobiology in the context of exploration of the solar system. Leading authorities in exobiology presented invited papers and assisted in setting future goals. The goals they set were as follows: (1) review relevant knowledge learned from planetary exploration programs; (2) detail some of the information that is yet to be obtained; (3) describe future missions and how exobiologists, as well as other scientists, can participate; and (4) recommend specific ways exobiology questions can be addressed on future exploration missions. These goals are in agreement with those of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council. Formed in 1980 to respond to the planetary exploration strategies set forth by the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), the SSEC's main function is to review the entire planetary program. The committee formulated a long-term plan (within a constrained budget) that would ensure a vital, exciting, and scientifically valuable effort through the turn of the century. The SSEC's goals include the following: determining the origin, evolution, and present state of the solar system; understanding Earth through comparative planetology studies; and revealing the relationship between the chemical and physical evolution of the solar system and the appearance of life. The SSEC's goals are consistent with the over-arching goal of NASA's Exobiology Program, which provides the critical framework and support for basic research. The research is divided into the following four elements: (1) cosmic evolution of the biogenic compounds; (2) prebiotic evolution; (3) origin and early evolution of life; and (4) evolution of advanced life.

  9. Mission analysis and performance comparison for an Advanced Solar Photon Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachwald, Bernd; Wurm, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    The so-called "compound solar sail", also known as "Solar Photon Thruster" (SPT), is a design concept, for which the two basic functions of the solar sail, namely light collection and thrust direction, are uncoupled. In this paper, we introduce a novel SPT concept, termed the Advanced Solar Photon Thruster (ASPT), which does not suffer from the simplified assumptions that have been made for the analysis of compound solar sails in previous studies. After having presented the equations that describe the force on the ASPT and after having performed a detailed design analysis, the performance of the ASPT with respect to the conventional flat solar sail (FSS) is investigated for three interplanetary mission scenarios: an Earth-Venus rendezvous, where the solar sail has to spiral towards the Sun, an Earth-Mars rendezvous, where the solar sail has to spiral away from the Sun, and an Earth-NEA rendezvous (to near-Earth asteroid 1996FG3), where a large change in orbital eccentricity is required. The investigated solar sails have realistic near-term characteristic accelerations between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/s 2. Our results show that an SPT is not superior to the flat solar sail unless very idealistic assumptions are made.

  10. Re-Engineering the Mission Operations System (MOS) for the Prime and Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Joseph C., Jr.; Cheng, Leo Y.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in a space science mission is designing the Mission Operations System (MOS). Whereas the focus of the project is getting the spacecraft built and tested for launch, the mission operations engineers must build a system to carry out the science objectives. The completed MOS design is then formally assessed in the many reviews. Once a mission has completed the reviews, the Mission Operation System (MOS) design has been validated to the Functional Requirements and is ready for operations. The design was built based on heritage processes, new technology, and lessons learned from past experience. Furthermore, our operational concepts must be properly mapped to the mission design and science objectives. However, during the course of implementing the science objective in the operations phase after launch, the MOS experiences an evolutional change to adapt for actual performance characteristics. This drives the re-engineering of the MOS, because the MOS includes the flight and ground segments. Using the Spitzer mission as an example we demonstrate how the MOS design evolved for both the prime and extended mission to enhance the overall efficiency for science return. In our re-engineering process, we ensured that no requirements were violated or mission objectives compromised. In most cases, optimized performance across the MOS, including gains in science return as well as savings in the budget profile was achieved. Finally, we suggest a need to better categorize the Operations Phase (Phase E) in the NASA Life-Cycle Phases of Formulation and Implementation

  11. Mission Analysis Program for Solar Electric Propulsion (MAPSEP). Volume 3: Program manual for earth orbital MAPSEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A revised user's manual for the computer program MAPSEP is presented. Major changes from the interplanetary version of MAPSEP are summarized. The changes are intended to provide a basic capability to analyze anticipated solar electric missions, and a foundation for future more complex, modifications. For Vol. III, N75-16589.

  12. Benefits of advanced software techniques for mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern spacecraft, and the stringent requirement for maximizing their mission return, call for a new generation of Mission Planning Systems (MPS). In this paper, we discuss the requirements for the Space Mission Planning and the benefits which can be expected from Artificial Intelligence techniques through examples of applications developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  13. Mission Data System Java Edition Version 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinholtz, William K.; Wagner, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The Mission Data System framework defines closed-loop control system abstractions from State Analysis including interfaces for state variables, goals, estimators, and controllers that can be adapted to implement a goal-oriented control system. The framework further provides an execution environment that includes a goal scheduler, execution engine, and fault monitor that support the expression of goal network activity plans. Using these frameworks, adapters can build a goal-oriented control system where activity coordination is verified before execution begins (plan time), and continually during execution. Plan failures including violations of safety constraints expressed in the plan can be handled through automatic re-planning. This version optimizes a number of key interfaces and features to minimize dependencies, performance overhead, and improve reliability. Fault diagnosis and real-time projection capabilities are incorporated. This version enhances earlier versions primarily through optimizations and quality improvements that raise the technology readiness level. Goals explicitly constrain system states over explicit time intervals to eliminate ambiguity about intent, as compared to command-oriented control that only implies persistent intent until another command is sent. A goal network scheduling and verification process ensures that all goals in the plan are achievable before starting execution. Goal failures at runtime can be detected (including predicted failures) and handled by adapted response logic. Responses can include plan repairs (try an alternate tactic to achieve the same goal), goal shedding, ignoring the fault, cancelling the plan, or safing the system.

  14. An innovative deployable solar panel system for Cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Donati, Serena; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

    2014-02-01

    One of the main Cubesat bus limitations is the available on-board power. The maximum power obtained using body mounted solar panels and advanced triple junction solar cells on a triple unit Cubesat is typically less than 10 W. The Cubesat performance and the mission scenario opened to these small satellite systems could be greatly enhanced by an increase of the available power. This paper describes the design and realization of a modular deployable solar panel system for Cubesats, consisting of a modular hinge and spring system that can be potentially used on-board single (1U), double(2U), triple (3U) and six units (6U) Cubesats. The size of each solar panels is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. The system developed is the basis for a SADA (Solar Array Drive Assembly), in which a maneuvering capability is added to the deployed solar array in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun. The system design trade-off is discussed, comparing different deployment concepts and architectures, leading to the final selection for the modular design. A prototype of the system has been realized for a 3U Cubesat, consisting of two deployable solar panel systems, made of three solar panels each, for a total of six deployed solar panels. The deployment system is based on a plastic fiber wire and thermal cutters, guaranteeing a suitable level of reliability. A test-bed for the solar panel deployment testing has been developed, supporting the solar array during deployment reproducing the dynamical situation in orbit. The results of the deployment system testing are discussed, including the design and realization of the test-bed, the mechanical stress given to the solar cells by the deployment accelerations and the overall system performance. The maximum power delivered by the system is about 50.4 W BOL, greatly enhancing the present Cubesat solar array performance.

  15. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.; Grant, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This grant has supported work by T. Owen and B. A. Smith on planetary and satellite nomenclature, carried out under the general auspices of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The IAU maintains a Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) whose current chair is Prof.Kaare Aksnes of the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway. Both Owen and Smith are members of the WGPSN; Owen as chair of the Outer Solar System Task Group, and Smith as chair of the Mars Task Group. The major activity during the last grant period (2002) was the approval of several new names for features on Mars by Smith's group and features on Jovian satellites plus new names for satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus by Owen's group. Much of this work was accomplished by e-mail exchanges, but the new nomenclature was formally discussed and approved at a meeting of the WGPSN held in conjunction with the Division for Planetary Sciences meeting in Birmingham, Alabama in October 2002.

  16. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  17. Galaxy and the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Smoluchowski, R.; Bahcall, J.M.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The solar-Galactic neighborhood, massive interstellar clouds and other Galactic features, the Oort cloud, perturbations of the solar system, and the existence and stability of a solar companion star are examined in chapters based on contributions to a conference held in Tucson, AZ during January 1985. The individual topics addressed include: the Galactic environment of the solar system; stars within 25 pc of the sun; the path of the sun in 100 million years; the local velocity field in the last billion years; interstellar clouds near the sun; and evidence for a local recent supernova. Also considered are: dynamic influence of Galactic tides and molecular clouds on the Oort cloud; cometary evidence for a solar companion; dynamical interactions between the Oort cloud and the Galaxy; geological periodicities and the Galaxy; giant comets and the Galaxy; dynamical evidence for Planet X; evolution of the solar system in the presence of a solar companion star; mass extinctions, crater ages, and comet showers; evidence for Nemesis, a solar companion star.

  18. Space solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toliver, C.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were done on the feasibility of placing a solar power station called POwersat, in space. A general description of the engineering features are given as well as a brief discussion of the economic considerations.

  19. Solar Radiation Alert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    the earth’s atmosphere at high geomagnetic latitudes were calculated for the solar proton event of 20 January 2005. The event started at 06:50...excluding them does not significantly affect the calculated dose rates. The data are available in near real-time from the file transfer protocol (ftp...form a com- plete spectrum used to calculate effective doses in Step 9. A piecewise-continuous spectrum is needed because during solar proton events

  20. The evolution of the Voyager mission sequence software and trends for future mission sequence software systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Robert N., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The historical background of the spacecraft sequence generation process as it is represented by the Voyager mission to the outer planets is discussed. Present plans for future sequencing methods are examined, including the emphasis on cutting costs and the contrast between the centralized and distributed systems for sequencing. The use of artificial intelligence in mission sequencing is addressed.

  1. [Medium-term forecast of solar cosmic rays radiation risk during a manned Mars mission].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M; Vlasov, A G

    2006-01-01

    Medium-term forecasting radiation hazard from solar cosmic rays will be vital in a manned Mars mission. Modern methods of space physics lack acceptable reliability in medium-term forecasting the SCR onset and parameters. The proposed estimation of average radiation risk from SCR during the manned Mars mission is made with the use of existing SCR fluence and spectrum models and correlation of solar particle event frequency with predicted Wolf number. Radiation risk is considered an additional death probability from acute radiation reactions (ergonomic component) or acute radial disease in flight. The algorithm for radiation risk calculation is described and resulted risk levels for various periods of the 23-th solar cycle are presented. Applicability of this method to advance forecasting and possible improvements are being investigated. Recommendations to the crew based on risk estimation are exemplified.

  2. Precision Subsampling System for Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Paulsen, G.; Mellerowicz, B.; ten Kate, I. L.; Conrad, P.; Corrigan, C. M.; Li, X.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to analyze heterogeneous rock samples at fine spatial scales would represent a powerful addition to our planetary in situ analytical toolbox. This is particularly true for Mars, where the signatures of past environments and, potentially, habitability are preserved in chemical and morphological variations across sedimentary layers and among mineral pr.ases in a given rock specimen. On Earth, microbial life often associates with surfaces at the interface of chemical nutrients, and ultimately retains sub-millimeter to millimeter-scale layer confinement in fossilization. On Mars, and possibly other bodies, trace chemical markers (elemental, organic/molecular, isotopic, chiral, etc.) and fine-scale morphological markers (e.g., micro-fossils) may he too subtle, degraded, or ambiguous to be detected, using miniaturized instrumentation, without some concentration or isolation. This is because (i) instrument sensitivity may not be high enough to detect trace markers in bulk averages; and (ii) instrument slectiviry may not be sufficient to distinguish such markers from interfering/counteracting signals from the bulk. Moreover from a fundamental chemostratigraphic perspective there would be a great benefit to assessing specific chemical and stable isotopic gradients, over millimeter-to-centimeter scales and beyond, with higher precision than currently possible in situ. We have developed a precision subsampling system (PSS) that addresses this need while remaining relatively flexible to a variety of instruments that may take advantage of the capability on future missions. The PSS is relevant to a number of possible lander/rover missions, especially Mars Sample Return. Our specific PSS prototype is undergoing testing under Mars ambient conditions, on a variety of natural analog rocks and rock drill cores, using a set of complementary flight-compatible measurement techniques. The system is available for testing with other contact instruments that may benefit from

  3. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300∫C ñ 800∫C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at

  4. Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Allen, Jaclyn; Tobola, Kay; Klug, Sheri; Harmon, Art

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is entering an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery. Its goal is to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and life within it. SSE missions are operating or in development to study the far reaches of our solar system and beyond. These missions proceed in sequence for each body from reconnaissance flybys through orbiters and landers or rovers to sample returns. SSE research programs develop new instruments, analyze mission data or returned samples, and provide experimental or theoretical models to aid in interpretation.

  5. Saturn/Titan Rendezvous: A Solar-Sail Aerocapture Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, Gregory L.; Taylor, Travis; Powell, Conley

    2004-01-01

    A low-mass Titan orbiter is proposed that uses conservative or optimistic solar sails for all post-Earth-escape propulsion. After accelerating the probe onto a trans-Saturn trajectory, the sail is used parachute style for Saturn capture during a pass through Saturn's outer atmosphere. If the apoapsis of the Saturn-capture orbit is appropriate, the aerocapture maneuver can later be repeated at Titan so that the spacecraft becomes a satellite of Titan. An isodensity-atmosphere model is applied to screen aerocapture trajectories. Huygens/Cassini should greatly reduce uncertainties regarding the upper atmospheres of Saturn and Titan.

  6. The Yohkoh mission for high-energy solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L.; Tsuneta, S.; Ogawara, Y.; Bentley, R.; Bruner, M.; Canfield, R.; Culhane, L.; Doschek, G.; Hiei, E.; Hirayama, T.

    1992-01-01

    Data on solar flare mechanisms and the sun's corona will be generated by Japan's Yohkoh satellite's X-ray imaging sensors and X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers. It is noted that the X-ray corona above active regions expands, in some cases almost continually, in contradiction of the widely accepted model of magnetohydrostatic equilibrium in such regions. Flaring X-ray bright points have been discovered to often involve ejecta into an adjacent, much larger and fainter magnetic loop, which brightens along its length at speeds up to 1000 km/sec.

  7. Mineralogy of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    The coming decade will witnesses the first sample return missions from solar system bodies in 30 years. These samples will all be very small, some missions return only a few milligrams of total mass. Fortunately, the capability of modem methods to characterize ultra-small samples is well established from analysis of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), interstellar grains recovered from meteorites, and other materials requiring ultra-sensitive analytical capabilities. Powerful analytical techniques are available that require, under favorable circumstances, single particles of only a few nanograms for entire suites of fairly comprehensive characterizations. A returned sample of greater than 1,000 particles with total mass of just one microgram permits comprehensive quantitative geochemical measurements that are impractical to can-y out in situ by flight instruments. With the Galileo flybys of Gaspra and Ida, it is now recognized that even very small airless bodies have indeed developed a particulate regolith. Acquiring a sample of the bulk regolith, a simple sampling strategy, provides two critical pieces of information about the body. Regolith samples are excellent bulk samples since they normally contain all the key components of the local environment, albeit in particulate form. Furthermore, since this fine fraction dominates remote measurements, regolith samples also provide information about surface alteration processes and are a key link to remote sensing of other bodies. Studies indicate that a statistically significant number of nanogram-sized particles should be able to characterize the regolith of a primitive asteroid, although the presence of larger components within even primitive meteorites (e.g.. Murchison), e.g. chondrules, CAI, large crystal fragments, etc., points out the limitations of using data obtained from nanogram-sized samples to characterize entire primitive asteroids. However, most important asteroidal geological processes have left their

  8. Manned orbital systems concepts study. Book 3: Configurations for extended duration missions. [mission planning and project planning for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mission planning, systems analysis, and design concepts for the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system for extended manned operations are described. Topics discussed are: (1) payloads, (2) spacecraft docking, (3) structural design criteria, (4) life support systems, (5) power supplies, and (6) the role of man in long duration orbital operations. Also discussed are the assembling of large structures in space. Engineering drawings are included.

  9. Cost study of solar cell space power systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A study of historical costs for solar cell space power systems was made by a NASA ad hoc study group. The study covered thirteen missions that represented a broad cross-section of flight projects over the past decade. Fully burdened costs in terms of 1971 dollars are presented for the system and the solar array. The costs correlate reasonably well with array area and do not increase in proportion to array area. The trends for array costs support the contention that solar cell and module standardization would reduce costs.

  10. Studying the Lunar-Solar Wind Interaction with the SARA Experiment aboard the Indian Lunar Mission Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Barabash, Stas; Dhanya, M. B.; Wieser, Martin; Yoshifumi, Futaana; Holmström, Mats; Sridharan, R.; Wurz, Peter; Schaufelberger, Audrey; Kazushi, Asamura

    2010-03-01

    The first Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 was launched on 22 October 2008. The Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) instrument onboard Chandrayaan-1 consists of an energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging mass analyzer called CENA (Chandrayaan-1 Energetic Neutrals Analyzer), and an ion-mass analyzer called SWIM (Solar wind Monitor). CENA performed the first ever experiment to study the solar wind-planetary surface interaction via detection of sputtered neutral atoms and neutralized backscattered solar wind protons in the energy range ~0.01-3.0 keV. SWIM measures solar wind ions, magnetosheath and magnetotail ions, as well as ions scattered from lunar surface in the ~0.01-15 keV energy range. The neutral atom sensor uses conversion of the incoming neutrals to positive ions, which are then analyzed via surface interaction technique. The ion mass analyzer is based on similar principle. This paper presents the SARA instrument and the first results obtained by the SWIM and CENA sensors. SARA observations suggest that about 20% of the incident solar wind protons are backscattered as neutral hydrogen and ~1% as protons from the lunar surface. These findings have important implications for other airless bodies in the solar system.

  11. Applicability of STEM-RTG and High-Power SRG Power Systems to the Discovery and Scout Mission Capabilities Expansion (DSMCE) Study of ASRG-Based Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Cataldo, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at the applicability of utilizing the Segmented Thermoelectric Modular Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (STEM-RTG) or a high-power radioisotope generator to replace the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which had been identified as the baseline power system for a number of planetary exploration mission studies. Nine different Discovery-Class missions were examined to determine the applicability of either the STEM-RTG or the high-power SRG power systems in replacing the ASRG. The nine missions covered exploration across the solar system and included orbiting spacecraft, landers and rovers. Based on the evaluation a ranking of the applicability of each alternate power system to the proposed missions was made.

  12. Solar System Observations with JWST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid- infrared, with sensitivity and spatial-spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

  13. Evolution of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the solar system are analyzed. Physical processes are first discussed, followed by experimental studies of plasma-solid reactions and chemical and mineralogical analyses of meteorites and lunar and terrestrial samples.

  14. Exploring the Inner Solar System During IPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, H. M.; Stockman, S. A.; Carter, B. L.; Bleacher, L. V.

    2008-12-01

    During 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, both the MESSENGER mission to Mercury and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to orbit the Moon will use key mission milestones to engage the public. For the MESSENGER mission key millstones will be the release to the public of data from the Oct 6th 2008, flyby and the Sept 29th 2009 third and last Mercury flyby before MESSENGER orbits Mercury in 2011. IYA activities will include participating in 365 Days of Astronomy podcasts, making the second flyby data publicly available and exciting the public with images from the third flyby. The data from the first flyby can be seen in a variety of locations across the country on Science on a Sphere. During IYA, the MESSENGER mission will also be reaching a wide variety of audiences through social media networking such as Facebook and Twitter. Informal education communities will be able to include Mercury data in their IYA programming through the distribution of MESSENGER data through the NASA Museum Alliance. The LRO mission will return the public's attention to our nearest neighbor, the Moon, in 2009. As a result, the public will see high resolution images of the Moon never seen before. LRO will also engage the public in the lunar observation program. Starting in early 2009, LRO and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) will be launched, and will continue their science missions throughout IYA. The public will be encouraged to make observations of the Moon during critical maneuvers for the LRO and LCROSS missions, including the LCROSS encounter, impacting the Moon which will occur in 2009. These events will help shift the public's attention to the Moon, and highlight the role our nearest neighbor plays in helping scientists learn about the early history of our Solar System. In addition to viewing LRO images and observing the Moon, the public can learn about the Moon, LRO, LCROSS, and past lunar missions virtually via the "Return to the Moon Hall

  15. The solar electric propulsion stage concept for high energy missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guttman, C. H.; Gilbert, J.; Horio, S. P.; Richardson, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Definition of multimission and engine performance requirements for candidate solar electric propulsion stage configurations, considering launch vehicle compatibility, electric propulsion integration, payload requirements, and the effects of environmental extremes. Electric propulsion power options include two solar array power levels (15/22 kW), up to twelve electric thrustors of 30 cm diameter and 2.7 kW each, five to eight power conditioning units, and a maximum mercury propellant capacity of 1530 kg. In performance, the stage with a dry weight of 700 to 900 kg can deliver a net mass of 756 kg into Saturn orbit, 329 kg into a tight Mercury orbit, and 334 kg within 0.1 AU of the sun. The stage can also deliver a round trip payload of 3350 kg to geosynchronous orbit and return from an intermediate elliptical orbit using the Shuttle/Tug. Thus, a versatile stage is developed which competes effectively in performance with existing integrated spacecraft and promises considerable savings in total program costs.

  16. Performance Evaluation of an Expanded Range XIPS Ion Thruster System for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David Y.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the benefit that a solar electric propulsion (SEP) system based on the 5 kW Xenon Ion Propulsion System (XIPS) could have for NASA's Discovery class deep space missions. The relative cost and performance of the commercial heritage XIPS system is compared to NSTAR ion thruster based systems on three Discovery class reference missions: 1) a Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return, 2) a Comet Rendezvous and 3) a Main Belt Asteroid Rendezvous. It is found that systems utilizing a single operating XIPS thruster provides significant performance advantages over a single operating NSTAR thruster. In fact, XIPS performs as well as systems utilizing two operating NSTAR thrusters, and still costs less than the NSTAR system with a single operating thruster. This makes XIPS based SEP a competitive and attractive candidate for Discovery class science missions.

  17. The Effect of Mission Location on Mission Costs and Equivalent System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Jones, Harry W.

    2003-01-01

    Equivalent System Mass (ESM) is used by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) community to quantify mission costs of technologies for space applications (Drysdale et al, 1999, Levri et al, 2000). Mass is used as a cost measure because the mass of an object determines propulsion (acceleration) cost (i.e. amount of fuel needed), and costs relating to propulsion dominate mission cost. Mission location drives mission cost because acceleration is typically required to initiate and complete a change in location. Total mission costs may be reduced by minimizing the mass of materials that must be propelled to each distinct location. In order to minimize fuel requirements for missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), the hardware and astronauts may not all go to the same location. For example, on a Lunar or Mars mission, some of the hardware or astronauts may stay in orbit while the rest of the hardware and astronauts descend to the planetary surface. In addition, there may be disposal of waste or used hardware at various mission locations to avoid propulsion of mass that is no longer needed in the mission. This paper demonstrates how using location factors in the calculation of ESM can account for the effects of various acceleration events and can improve the accuracy and value of the ESM metric to mission planners. Even a mission with one location can benefit from location factor analysis if the alternative technologies under consideration consume resources at different rates. For example, a mission that regenerates resources will have a relatively constant mass compared to one that uses consumables and vents/discards mass along the way. This paper shows examples of how location factors can affect ESM calculations and how the inclusion of location factors can change the relative value of technologies being considered for development.

  18. Solar System binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.

    The discovery of binaries in each of the major populations of minor bodies in the solar system is propelling a rapid growth of heretofore unattainable physical information. The availability of mass and density constraints for minor bodies opens the door to studies of internal structure, comparisons with meteorite samples, and correlations between bulk-physical and surface-spectral properties. The number of known binaries is now more than 70 and is growing rapidly. A smaller number have had the extensive followup observations needed to derive mass and albedo information, but this list is growing as well. It will soon be the case that we will know more about the physical parameters of objects in the Kuiper Belt than has been known about asteroids in the Main Belt for the last 200 years. Another important aspect of binaries is understanding the mechanisms that lead to their formation and survival. The relative sizes and separations of binaries in the different minor body populations point to more than one mechanism for forming bound pairs. Collisions appear to play a major role in the Main Belt. Rotational and/or tidal fission may be important in the Near Earth population. For the Kuiper Belt, capture in multi-body interactions may be the preferred formation mechanism. However, all of these conclusions remain tentative and limited by observational and theoretical incompleteness. Observational techniques for identifying binaries are equally varied. High angular resolution observations from space and from the ground are critical for detection of the relatively distant binaries in the Main Belt and the Kuiper Belt. Radar has been the most productive method for detection of Near Earth binaries. Lightcurve analysis is an independent technique that is capable of exploring phase space inaccessible to direct observations. Finally, spacecraft flybys have played a crucial paradigm-changing role with discoveries that unlocked this now-burgeoning field.

  19. Earth orbital assessment of solar electric and solar sail propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teeter, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    The earth orbital applications potential of Solar Electric (Ion Drive) and Solar Sail low-thrust propulsion systems are evaluated. Emphasis is placed on mission application in the 1980s. The two low-thrust systems are compared with each other and with two chemical propulsion Shuttle upper stages (the IUS and SSUS) expected to be available in the 1980s. The results indicate limited Earth orbital application potential for the low-thrust systems in the 1980s (primarily due to cost disadvantages). The longer term potential is viewed as more promising. Of the two systems, the Ion Drive exhibits better performance and appears to have better overall application potential.

  20. SUITS/SWUSV: a Solar-Terrestrial Space Weather & Climate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, Luc; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The SUITS/SWUSV (Solar Ultraviolet Influence on Troposphere/Stratosphere, a Space Weather & Ultraviolet Solar Variability mission) microsatellite mission is developed on one hand to determine the origins of the Sun's activity, understand the flaring process (high energy flare characterization) and onset (forecasting) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and, on the other hand, to determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's atmosphere and its response to solar variability (in particular UV) and terrestrial inputs. It therefore includes the prediction and detection of major eruptions and CMEs (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging 200-220 nm), the solar forcing on the climate through radiation, and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance 170-400 nm and ozone measurements). SUITS/SWUSV includes a 8 instruments model payload with, in particular for Space Weather and Climate, SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability), SOLSIM (Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor), a spectrometer with 0.65 nm spectral resolution from 170 to 340 nm, SUPR (Solar Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with UV filter radiometers at Lyman-Alpha, Herzberg, MgII, CN bandhead and UV bands coverage up to 400 nm, and ERBO (Earth Radiative Budget and Ozone), NADIR oriented to measure ozone (6 bands) and 0.1-100 μm ERB. Example of accommodation of the payload has been performed on a new PROBA type platform very nicely by Qinetic. Heritage is important both for instruments and platform leading to high TRL levels. SUITS/SWUSV is designed in view of ESA Small Mission Calls and other possible CNES/NASA opportunities in the near future (Heliophysics, Earth Observation, etc.).