Science.gov

Sample records for solar system topics

  1. Our Solar System. Our Solar System Topic Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Glen

    2006-01-01

    This book examines the planets and other objects in space that make up the solar system. It also shows how technology helps students learn about our neighbors in space. The suggested age range for this book is 3-8 with a guided reading level of Q-R. The Fry level is 3.2.

  2. Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction.

  3. Using Solar System Topics to Teach the Scientific Method in an Age of Science Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, M. C.

    2013-04-01

    A number of excellent opportunities to remind students of the scientific method and how the process of science works come about during coverage of common topics in a Solar System “unit” in an introductory college astronomy course. With the tremendous amount of misinformation about science that students are exposed to through the Internet and other forms of media, this is now more important than ever. If non-science majors can leave introductory astronomy, often the only science course they will take, with a decent appreciation of, or at least an exposure to, how science works, they will then be better able to judge the validity of what they hear about science in the media throughout their lives.

  4. Solar system and related topics study by the methods of the low-frequency radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.; Melnik, V. N.; Falkovich, I. S.; Litvinenko, G. V.; Kolyadin, V. L.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, Ph.; Reznik, A. P.

    2010-05-01

    In the present report the possibilities and some results of the high sensitive investigations of the Solar system objects at lowest frequencies have been reviewed. The Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, interplanetary medium, and other objects have been considered. Special attention has been paid to the space weather problem. The stellar-planetary relations have been also investigated, particularly a search of active stars and exo-planets radio emission. During the last years many observations have been performed with the largest decameter arrays UTR-2 (Kharkov, Ukraine) and URAN system (Ukraine) and new receiving equipment. These investigations provided the possibility to get the important information about the fine time-frequency structures of the weak sporadic radio emission. Very good perspectives come into existence in connection to the creation and implementation of the new generation of low-frequency radio telescopes, i.e. LOFAR (the Netherlands), E-LOFAR (European countries), LWA (USA), LSS (France), GURT (Ukraine), etc.

  5. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  6. NASA's Solar System Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, James

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is shown. The topics include: 1) Solar System Exploration with Highlights and Status of Programs; 2) Technology Drivers and Plans; and 3) Summary

  7. Solar-parabolic dish-Stirling-engine-system module. Task 1: Topical report, market assessment/conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-30

    The major activities reported are: a market study to identify an early market for a dish-Stirling module and assess its commercial potential; preparation of a conceptual system and subsystem design to address this market; and preparation of an early sales implementation plan. A study of the reliability of protection from the effects of walk-off, wherein the sun's image leaves the receiver if the dish is not tracking, is appended, along with an optical analysis and structural analysis. Also appended are the relationship between PURPA and solar thermal energy development and electric utility pricing rationale. (LEW)

  8. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  9. Classical Integrable Systems: Selected Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    In this paper two topics are considered: • Poisson structures and Hamiltonian systems. • Explicit integration of equations of motion for the Calogero-Sutherland and Toda systems. It must be said that a part of the material is well known to specialists in this field for a long time (see for example the book57). Even so, it may not always be easily accessible to nonspecialists. Within the limited space it was not possible to give a completely systematic exposition of these topics. Rather I tried to illustrate the main ideas on simple examples and in an as elementary and explicit way as possible. The examples considered here are therefore restricted to the systems related to the algebras An sun+1. For the case of arbitrary simple Lie algebra, we have only mentioned the results at best. Due to insufficient space many important results are omitted here. Nevertheless I hope that this paper may be useful and may serve as a guide, so that the interested reader may proceed to read original articles.

  10. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  11. Solar electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, G.

    1984-01-01

    Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

  12. Faraday rotation system. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.; Wang, W.

    1994-07-01

    The Faraday Rotation System (FRS) is one of the advanced laser-based diagnostics developed at DIAL to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the MHD channel, the system directly measures electron density through a measurement of the induced rotation in the polarization of a far infrared laser beam after passing through the MHD flow along the magnetic field lines. A measurement of the induced polarization ellipticity provides a measure of the electron collision frequency which together with the electron density gives the electron conductivity, a crucial parameter for MHD channel performance. The theory of the measurements, a description of the system, its capabilities, laboratory demonstration measurements on seeded flames with comparison to emission absorption measurements, and the current status of the system are presented in this final report.

  13. Coastal Modeling System Advanced Topics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-18

    is the CMS? Integrated wave, current, and morphology change model in the Surface-water Modeling System (SMS). Why CMS? Operational at 10...Coupled with spectral wave model (CMS-Wave)  Wave-current interactions  Inline sediment transport and morphology change  Non-equilibrium...Easy to setup  Telescoping grid: Efficient and flexible  Solver options  Implicit: Tidal flow, long-term morphology change. ~10 min

  14. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  15. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Gas lasers with solar excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordiets, B. F.; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya

    1986-07-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction 703 2. General requirements for laser media using solar excitation 704 3. Lasers with direct excitation by solar light 705 3.1. Basic characteristics of laser media. 3.2. Photodissociation Br2-CO2 lasers. 3.3. Interhalogen molecule lasers. 3.4. Iodine lasers. 3.5. Alkali metal vapor lasers. 4. Lasers with thermal conversion of solar pumping 709 4.1. General considerations. 4.2. CO2 laser with excitation in a black body cavity and with gas flow. 4.3. cw CO2 laser without gas flow. 5. Space laser media with solar excitation 713 5.1. Population inversion of molecular levels in the outer atmosphere of the Earth. 5.2. Laser effect in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 5.3. Terrestrial experimental technique for observing infrared emission in the atmospheres of planets. 5.4. Designs for laser systems in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 6. Conclusions 717 References 717

  16. Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorsa, Antonio; Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Françoise; Panteley, Elena

    Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory contains selected contributions written by lecturers at the third (annual) Formation d'Automatique de Paris (FAP) (Graduate Control School in Paris). Following on from the lecture notes from the second FAP (Volume 311 in the same series) it is addressed to graduate students and researchers in control theory with topics touching on a variety of areas of interest to the control community such as nonlinear optimal control, observer design, stability analysis and structural properties of linear systems.

  17. Galaxy and the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Smoluchowski, R.; Bahcall, J.M.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The solar-Galactic neighborhood, massive interstellar clouds and other Galactic features, the Oort cloud, perturbations of the solar system, and the existence and stability of a solar companion star are examined in chapters based on contributions to a conference held in Tucson, AZ during January 1985. The individual topics addressed include: the Galactic environment of the solar system; stars within 25 pc of the sun; the path of the sun in 100 million years; the local velocity field in the last billion years; interstellar clouds near the sun; and evidence for a local recent supernova. Also considered are: dynamic influence of Galactic tides and molecular clouds on the Oort cloud; cometary evidence for a solar companion; dynamical interactions between the Oort cloud and the Galaxy; geological periodicities and the Galaxy; giant comets and the Galaxy; dynamical evidence for Planet X; evolution of the solar system in the presence of a solar companion star; mass extinctions, crater ages, and comet showers; evidence for Nemesis, a solar companion star.

  18. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  19. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  20. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  1. Solar energy systems cost

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Five major areas of work currently being pursued in the United States in solar energy which will have a significant impact on the world's energy situation in the future are addressed. The five significant areas discussed include a technical description of several solar technologies, current and projected cost of the selected solar systems, and cost methodologies which are under development. In addition, sensitivity considerations which are unique to solar energy systems and end user applications are included. A total of six solar technologies - biomass, photovoltaics, wind, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), solar thermal, and industrial process heat (IPH) have been included in a brief technical description to present the variety of systems and their techncial status. System schematics have been included of systems which have been constructed, are currently in the detail design and test stage of development, or are of a conceptual nature.

  2. Current topical and systemic therapies for itch.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Tabi Anika; Greaves, Malcolm W; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Itch is a common distressing symptom which may be caused by multifactorial aetiologies including inflammatory skin diseases, systemic diseases, neuropathic conditions and psychogenic disorders. Itch is a term used synonymously with pruritus and is defined as acute if it lasts less than 6 weeks or chronic if it persists for more than 6 weeks. It can have the same impact on the quality of life as chronic pain and shares many of the same pathophysiological pathways. Depending on the aetiology of the itch, different pathogenic mechanisms have been postulated with a number of mediators identified. These include histamine, leukotrienes, proteases, neuropeptides, cytokines and opioids, which may activate peripheral itch-mediating C-fibres via receptors on the nerve terminals and central neuronal pathways. Therefore, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment available. First-line treatments for itch include topical therapies, such as emollients, mild cleansers (low pH), topical anaesthetics, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors and coolants (menthol). Treatment with systemic therapies can vary according to the aetiology of the chronic itch. Non-sedating antihistamines are helpful in conditions such as urticaria where the itch is primarily histamine mediated. Although the itch of eczema is not mediated by histamine, sedating antihistamines at night are helpful to break the itch-scratch cycle. Chronic itch may also be treated with other systemic therapies, such as anticonvulsants, antidepressants as well as mu-opioid antagonists, kappa-opioid agonists and phototherapy, depending on the cause of the itch. This article summarises the topical and systemic therapies available with our current understanding of the pathophysiology of itch.

  3. Solar System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Carl D.; Dermott, Stanley F.

    2000-02-01

    Preface; 1. Structure of the solar system; 2. The two-body problem; 3. The restricted three-body problem; 4. Tides, rotation and shape; 5. Spin-orbit coupling; 6. The disturbing function; 7. Secular perturbations; 8. Resonant perturbations; 9. Chaos and long-term evolution; 10. Planetary rings; Appendix A. Solar system data; Appendix B. Expansion of the disturbing function; Index.

  4. Homemade Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Through the use of NASA Tech Briefs, Peter Kask, was able to build a solarized domestic hot water system. Also by applying NASA's solar energy design information, he was able to build a swimming pool heating system with minimal outlay for materials.

  5. Solar photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy's photovoltaic program is outlined. The main objective of the program is the development of low cost reliable terrestrial photovoltaic systems. A second objective is to foster widespread use of the system in residential, industrial and commercial application. The system is reviewed by examining each component; silicon solar cell, silicon solar cell modules, advanced development modules and power systems. Cost and applications of the system are discussed.

  6. Parabolic solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, W. L., IV; Goetchius, W.

    The further development of parabolic solar collectors to increase their efficiency and simplify their operation was the prime objective of this research project. Three primary objectives were pursued. The first of these was to investigate the simplest and most efficient techniques to build and mass-produce parabolic solar collectors. The second objective was to further develop and simplify absorber tubes used to collect and transfer the solar energy. Absorber tubes represented a significant area of this research project. The third objective was to develop accurate, low cost, and durable tracking systems for solar collectors. Solar tracking systems are covered including several schematic representations of various systems and designs. The testing systems and associated mechanisms for the designs discussed in this report are described.

  7. Solar Electric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Heat Pipe Technology, Inc. undertook the development of a PV system that could bring solar electricity to the individual home at reasonable cost. His system employs high efficiency PV modules plus a set of polished reflectors that concentrate the solar energy and enhance the output of the modules. Dinh incorporated a sun tracking system derived from space tracking technology. It automatically follows the sun throughout the day and turns the modules so that they get maximum exposure to the solar radiation, further enhancing the system efficiency.

  8. Residential Solar Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  9. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  10. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  11. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  12. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  13. Topics in the structure of hadronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lebed, Richard Felix

    1994-04-01

    In this dissertation the author examines a variety of different problems in the physics of strongly-bound systems. Each is elucidated by a different standard method of analysis developed to probe the properties of such systems. He begins with an examination of the properties and consequences of the current algebra of weak currents in the limit of heavy quark spin-flavor symmetry. In particular, he examines the assumptions in the proof of the Ademollo-Gatto theorem in general and for spin-flavor symmetry, and exhibit the constraints imposed upon matrix elements by this theorem. Then he utilizes the renormalization-group method to create composite fermions in a three-generation electroweak model. Such a model is found to reproduce the same low energy behavior as the top-condensate electroweak model, although in general it may have strong constraints upon its Higgs sector. Next he uncovers subtleties in the nonrelativistic quark model that drastically alter the picture of the physical origins of meson electromagnetic and hyperfine mass splittings; in particular, the explicit contributions due to (md-mu) and electrostatic potentials may be overwhelmed by other effects. Such novel effects are used to explain the anomalous pattern of mass splittings recently measured in bottom mesons. Finally, he considers the topic of baryon masses in heavy fermion chiral perturbation theory, including both tree-level and loop effects.

  14. Fragmentary Solar System History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research is an improved understanding of the early solar system environment and of the processes involved in the nebula and in the evolution of solid bodies. We present results of our studies on the isotopic signatures in selected primitive solar system objects and on the evaluation of the cosmic ray records and of inferred collisional events. Furthermore, we report data of trapped martian atmospheric gases in meteorites and the inferred early evolution of Mars' atmosphere.

  15. The New Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, J. Kelly; Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Chaikin, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    As the definitive guide for the armchair astronomer, The New Solar System has established itself as the leading book on planetary science and solar system studies. Incorporating the latest knowledge of the solar system, a distinguished team of researchers, many of them Principal Investigators on NASA missions, explain the solar system with expert ease. The completely-revised text includes the most recent findings on asteroids, comets, the Sun, and our neighboring planets. The book examines the latest research and thinking about the solar system; looks at how the Sun and planets formed; and discusses our search for other planetary systems and the search for life in the solar system. In full-color and heavily-illustrated, the book contains more than 500 photographs, portrayals, and diagrams. An extensive set of tables with the latest characteristics of the planets, their moon and ring systems, comets, asteroids, meteorites, and interplanetary space missions complete the text. New to this edition are descriptions of collisions in the solar system, full scientific results from Galileo's mission to Jupiter and its moons, and the Mars Pathfinder mission. For the curious observer as well as the student of planetary science, this book will be an important library acquisition. J. Kelly Beatty is the senior editor of Sky & Telescope, where for more than twenty years he has reported the latest in planetary science. A renowned science writer, he was among the first journalists to gain access to the Soviet space program. Asteroid 2925 Beatty was named on the occasion of his marriage in 1983. Carolyn Collins Petersen is an award-winning science writer and co-author of Hubble Vision (Cambridge 1995). She has also written planetarium programs seen at hundreds of facilities around the world. Andrew L. Chaikin is a Boston-based science writer. He served as a research geologist at the Smithsonian Institution's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies. He is a contributing editor to

  16. Discovering the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barrie W.

    1999-04-01

    Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW The solar UV-x-ray spectrum from 1.5 to 2000 Å

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doschek, G. A.; Feldman, U.

    2010-12-01

    This review illustrates the potential of UV-x-ray spectroscopy for determining the physical conditions in the solar chromosphere, transition region and corona, and how spectroscopy can be used as a tool to understand the physical mechanisms governing the atmosphere. It also illustrates the potential for understanding transient events such as solar flares. This is a vast topic, and therefore the review is necessarily not complete, but we have tried to be as general as possible in showing in particular how solar spectra are currently being used to understand the solar upper atmosphere. The review is intended for non-solar physicists with an interest in spectroscopy as well as for solar physicists who are not specialists in spectroscopy.

  18. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  19. Supernovae and the origin of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of the astrophysical reasoning that links supernovae to the origin of the solar system. Topics examined concerning the supernova connections include the abundances of the nuclides at the time the solar system formed, the collapse of a solar cloud by supernova triggering, the origins of isotopic anomalies in solar system samples, and the sputtering of interstellar dust with the attendant chemical and isotopic evolution of the interstellar medium. The controversies surrounding each of these topics are critically examined, focusing on the issues arising from the discovery of the isotopic anomalies in meteorites.

  20. Solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes solar modular domestic-hot-water and space-heating system intended for use in small single family dwelling where roof-mounted collectors are not feasible. Contents include design, performance, and hardware specifications for assembly, installation, operation, and maintenance of system.

  1. Baby Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  2. Solar System Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisdom, Jack

    2002-01-01

    In these 18 years, the research has touched every major dynamical problem in the solar system, including: the effect of chaotic zones on the distribution of asteroids, the delivery of meteorites along chaotic pathways, the chaotic motion of Pluto, the chaotic motion of the outer planets and that of the whole solar system, the delivery of short period comets from the Kuiper belt, the tidal evolution of the Uranian arid Galilean satellites, the chaotic tumbling of Hyperion and other irregular satellites, the large chaotic variations of the obliquity of Mars, the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and the resonant core- mantle dynamics of Earth and Venus. It has introduced new analytical and numerical tools that are in widespread use. Today, nearly every long-term integration of our solar system, its subsystems, and other solar systems uses algorithms that was invented. This research has all been primarily Supported by this sequence of PGG NASA grants. During this period published major investigations of tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the passage of the Earth and Venus through non-linear core-mantle resonances were completed. It has published a major innovation in symplectic algorithms: the symplectic corrector. A paper was completed on non-perturbative hydrostatic equilibrium.

  3. The New Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2009-01-01

    Since 2006, the details of bodies making up our solar system have been revised. This was largely as a result of new discoveries of a number of planet-like objects beyond the orbit of Pluto. The International Astronomical Union redefined what constituted a planet and established two new classifications--dwarf planets and plutoids. As a result, the…

  4. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  5. Solar System Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  6. Future solar system missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's planetary exploration program is discussed, with emphasis on strategy, namely, exploration of all three main classes of solar system bodies (the terrestrial planets, the outer giants and their moons, and the primitive small bodies). Planning of an extensive search for other planetary systems is focused on the application of various approaches to ultra-high precision astrometry and the possible use of a space-based coronagraphic telescope. Program strategy and lunar and Mars outpost precursor missions are illustrated.

  7. Solar System Voyage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunier, Serge

    2002-11-01

    In the last few decades, the exploration of our solar system has revealed fascinating details about the worlds that lie beyond our Earth. This lavishly illustrated book invites the reader on a journey through the solar system. After locating our planetary system in the Universe, Brunier describes the Sun and its planets, the large satellites, asteroids, and comets. Photographs and information taken from the latest space missions allow readers to experience spectacular scenes: the lunar plains scarred by asteroid impacts, the frozen deserts of Mars and Europa, the continuously erupting volcanoes of Io and the giant geysers of Triton, the rings of Saturn and the clouds of Venus and Titan, and the powerful crash of the comet Shoemaker-Levy into Jupiter. Inspired by the extraordinary photographs and incisive text, readers of Solar System Voyage will gain a greater appreciation of the hospitable planet we call home. Serge Brunier is chief editor of the journal Ciel et Espace, a photojournalist, and the author of many nonfiction books aimed at both specialists and the general public. His previous books include Space Odyssey (Cambridge, 2002), Glorious Eclipses with Jean-Pierre Luminet (Cambridge, 2000), and Majestic Universe (Cambridge, 1999).

  8. Solar passive systems for buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-03-01

    A survey is provided of what is known about the design of solar passive buildings. A systematic presentation is given of proven concepts with suitable illustrations. It is intended as a general guide for architects, designers and other building practitioners. Topics include the various concepts of solar passive heating and cooling, design factors such as location, climate, microclimate, form; building metabolism, thermal and visual comfort; location and form of illumination; and natural cooling via wind towers and cisterns.

  9. On solar system nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1976-01-01

    Arguments in support of naming topographic features on other solar system objects after human beings other than astronomers are outlined. In particular, it is important to make sure that the end result will be a nonprovincial distribution of nationalities, epochs, and occupations, a distribution that future generations can be proud of. A more consistent scheme for Jovian satellite nomenclature is proposed which consistently maintains the tradition of naming Jovian satellites after prominent consorts.

  10. Fixed solar collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, H.R.

    1984-07-31

    A fixed solar energy collector system has facing panels of different size forming a Vee-shaped trough open at its base and supporting a plurality of highly reflective convex reflectors strategically disposed upon said panels in reflective relationship to a plurality of Fresnel lenses positioned at the base of the trough. A suitable reflector, disposed beneath the Fresnel lenses, directs the reflected energy to a heat-needy target.

  11. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

  12. Integrated voice and visual systems research topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Douglas H.; Simpson, Carol A.

    1986-01-01

    A series of studies was performed to investigate factors of helicopter speech and visual system design and measure the effects of these factors on human performance, both for pilots and non-pilots. The findings and conclusions of these studies were applied by the U.S. Army to the design of the Army's next generation threat warning system for helicopters and to the linguistic functional requirements for a joint Army/NASA flightworthy, experimental speech generation and recognition system.

  13. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  14. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Bergeron, David J., III

    2002-09-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  15. Terrestrial solar thermionic energy conversion systems concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

    1975-01-01

    Results obtained from studies of a (1) solar concentrator, (2) solar energy receiver - thermionic converter system, and (3) solar thermionic topping system are described. Peripheral subsystems, which are required for any solar energy conversion system, are also discussed.

  16. Solar system plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  17. Topic: Catchment system dynamics: Processes and feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia

    2015-04-01

    In this meeting we can talk about my main expertise: the focus of my research ocus revolves around understanding catchment system dynamics in a holistic way by incorporating both processes on hillslopes as well as in the river channel. Process knowledge enables explanation of the impact of natural and human drivers on the catchment systems and which consequences these drivers have for water and sediment connectivity. Improved understanding of the catchment sediment and water dynamics will empower sustainable land and river management and mitigate soil threats like erosion and off-side water and sediment accumulation with the help of nature's forces. To be able to understand the system dynamics of a catchment, you need to study the catchment system in a holistic way. In many studies only the hillslopes or even plots are studied; or only the channel. However, these systems are connected and should be evaluated together. When studying a catchment system any intervention to the system will create both on- as well as off sites effects, which should especially be taken into account when transferring science into policy regulations or management decisions.

  18. Early Solar System Chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeegan, K. D.; Davis, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Chondritic Meteorites as Probes of Early Solar System EvolutionThe evolutionary sequence involved in the formation of relatively low-mass stars, such as the Sun, has been delineated in recent years through impressive advances in astronomical observations at a variety of wavelengths, combined with improved numerical and theoretical models of the physical processes thought to occur during each stage. From the models and the observational statistics, it is possible to infer in a general way how our solar system ought to have evolved through the various stages from gravitational collapse of a fragment of a molecular cloud to the accretion of planetary-sized bodies (e.g., Cameron, 1995; Alexander et al., 2001; Shu et al., 1987; André et al., 2000; see Chapters 1.04, 1.17, and 1.20). However, the details of these processes remain obscured, literally from an astronomical perspective, and the dependence of such models on various parameters requires data to constrain the specific case of our solar system's origin.Fortunately, the chondritic meteorites sample aspects of this evolution. The term "chondrite" (or chondritic) was originally applied to meteorites bearing chondrules, which are approximately millimeter-sized solidified melt droplets consisting largely of mafic silicate minerals and glass commonly with included metal or sulfide. However, the meaning of chondritic has been expanded to encompass all extraterrestrial materials that are "primitive," i.e., are undifferentiated samples having nearly solar elemental composition. Thus, the chondrites represent a type of cosmic sediment, and to a first approximation can be thought of as "hand samples" of the condensable portion of the solar nebula. The latter is a general term referring to the phase(s) of solar system evolution intermediate between molecular cloud collapse and planet formation. During the nebular phase, the still-forming Sun was an embedded young-stellar object (YSO) enshrouded by gas and dust, which was

  19. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  20. Solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

  1. Advanced Turbine Systems Program. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-03-01

    The Allison Gas Turbine Division (Allison) of General Motors Corporation conducted the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program feasibility study (Phase I) in accordance with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) contract DE-AC21-86MC23165 A028. This feasibility study was to define and describe a natural gas-fired reference system which would meet the objective of {ge}60% overall efficiency, produce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions 10% less than the state-of-the-art without post combustion controls, and cost of electricity of the N{sup th} system to be approximately 10% below that of the current systems. In addition, the selected natural gas-fired reference system was expected to be adaptable to coal. The Allison proposed reference system feasibility study incorporated Allison`s long-term experience from advanced aerospace and military technology programs. This experience base is pertinent and crucial to the success of the ATS program. The existing aeroderivative technology base includes high temperature hot section design capability, single crystal technology, advanced cooling techniques, high temperature ceramics, ultrahigh turbomachinery components design, advanced cycles, and sophisticated computer codes.

  2. Solar thermal power system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Pu Chun; Qiao, Rui

    2007-09-01

    This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment.

  4. Solar heating system

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  5. Improved solar heating systems

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  6. Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

  7. The use of systemic and topical fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Bradley, John S; Jackson, Mary Anne

    2011-10-01

    Appropriate prescribing practices for fluoroquinolones are essential as evolving resistance patterns are considered, additional treatment indications are identified, and the toxicity profile of fluoroquinolones in children becomes better defined. Earlier recommendations for systemic therapy remain; expanded uses of fluoroquinolones for the treatment of certain infections are outlined in this report. Although fluoroquinolones are reasonably safe in children, clinicians should be aware of the specific adverse reactions. Use of fluoroquinolones in children should continue to be limited to treatment of infections for which no safe and effective alternative exists.

  8. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.

    1998-01-01

    The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is also a member of the IAU's Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) which is composed of the chairs of the several Task Groups plus the presidents of two IAU Commissions and several outside consultants. The WGPSN is presided over by its President, Professor Kaare Aksnes from the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway.

  9. Power Management System Design for Solar-Powered UAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    extreme aerodynamic efficiency in order to minimize the power required to maintain flight, and a recognition that every sub- system in this system of... systems into a lightweight module for particular mission sets. 14. SUBJECT TERMS solar efficiency , maximum power point tracker, solar array, unmanned...requirements. This ultimately contributes to the overall energy efficiency of the system . 3. Power Consumption Considering this research topic, perhaps

  10. Solar System Visualizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Alison M.

    2005-01-01

    Solar System Visualization products enable scientists to compare models and measurements in new ways that enhance the scientific discovery process, enhance the information content and understanding of the science results for both science colleagues and the public, and create.visually appealing and intellectually stimulating visualization products. Missions supported include MER, MRO, and Cassini. Image products produced include pan and zoom animations of large mosaics to reveal the details of surface features and topography, animations into registered multi-resolution mosaics to provide context for microscopic images, 3D anaglyphs from left and right stereo pairs, and screen captures from video footage. Specific products include a three-part context animation of the Cassini Enceladus encounter highlighting images from 350 to 4 meter per pixel resolution; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter screen captures illustrating various instruments during assembly and testing at the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at Kennedy Space Center; and an animation of Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' panorama where the rover was stuck in the deep fine sand for more than a month. This task creates new visualization products that enable new science results and enhance the public's understanding of the Solar System and NASA's missions of exploration.

  11. Our Solar System's Cousin?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates two planetary systems -- 55 Cancri (top) and our own. Blue lines show the orbits of planets, including the dwarf planet Pluto in our solar system. The 55 Cancri system is currently the closest known analogue to our solar system, yet there are some fundamental differences.

    The similarities begin with the stars themselves, which are about the same mass and age. Both stars also host big families of planets. Our solar system has eight planets, while 55 Cancri has five, making it the record-holder for having the most known exoplanets. In fact, 55 Cancri could have additional planets, possibly even rocky ones that are too small to be seen with current technologies. All of the planets in the two systems have nearly circular orbits.

    In addition, both planetary systems have giant planets in their outer regions. The giant located far away from 55 Cancri is four times the mass of our Jupiter, and completes one orbit every 14 years at a distance of five times that between Earth and the sun (about 868 million kilometers or 539 million miles). Our Jupiter completes one orbit around the sun every 11.9 years, also at about five times the Earth-sun distance (778 million kilometers or 483 million miles). Fifty-five Cancri is still the only known star besides ours with a planet in a distant Jupiter-like orbit. Both systems also contain inner planets that are less massive than their outer planets.

    The differences begin with the planets' masses. The planets orbiting 55 Cancri are all larger than Earth, and represent a 'souped-up' version of our own solar system. In fact, this is the first star that boasts more giant planets than our sun!

    The arrangement of the planetary systems is also different. The inner four planets of 55 Cancri are all closer to the star than Earth is to the sun. The closest, about the mass of Uranus, whips around the star in just under three days at a distance of approximately 5.6 million kilometers (3

  12. Solar system to scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwig López, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important successes in astronomical observations has been to determine the limit of the Solar System. It is said that the first man able to measure the distance Earth-Sun with only a very slight mistake, in the second century BC, was the wise Greek man Aristarco de Samos. Thanks to Newtońs law of universal gravitation, it was possible to measure, with a little margin of error, the distances between the Sun and the planets. Twelve-year old students are very interested in everything related to the universe. However, it seems too difficult to imagine and understand the real distances among the different celestial bodies. To learn the differences among the inner and outer planets and how far away the outer ones are, I have considered to make my pupils work on the sizes and the distances in our solar system constructing it to scale. The purpose is to reproduce our solar system to scale on a cardboard. The procedure is very easy and simple. Students of first year of ESO (12 year-old) receive the instructions in a sheet of paper (things they need: a black cardboard, a pair of scissors, colored pencils, a ruler, adhesive tape, glue, the photocopies of the planets and satellites, the measurements they have to use). In another photocopy they get the pictures of the edge of the sun, the planets, dwarf planets and some satellites, which they have to color, cut and stick on the cardboard. This activity is planned for both Spanish and bilingual learning students as a science project. Depending on the group, they will receive these instructions in Spanish or in English. When the time is over, the students bring their works on their cardboard to the class. They obtain a final mark: passing, good or excellent, depending on the accuracy of the measurements, the position of all the celestial bodies, the asteroids belts, personal contributions, etc. If any of the students has not followed the instructions they get the chance to remake it again properly, in order not

  13. Solar System Sleuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryden, Barbara

    2005-11-01

    One of the great astronomers of the last century, Gerhard Peter Kuiper, was born 100 years ago this year. He is considered the father of modern planetary science and an expert on binary and white dwarf stars. Kuiper was recruited by Otto Struve to the Yerkes Observatory and used the 82-inch Telescope at McDonald Observatory for groundbreaking studies of Mars and the giant moons in the outer solar system. Later, he became the founding director of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona. Kuiper predicted that a vast number of asteroid-like objects lie beyond the orbit of Pluto; this was later substantiated and called the Kuiper Belt. Late in life, Kuiper pioneered the use of infrared telescopes and instruments aboard aircraft and the NASA's original flying observatory was named the Kuiper Airborne Observatory in his honor.

  14. Wind in the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might…

  15. Exploration of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, A., Jr.; Grey, J.

    1974-01-01

    A sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology used for its exploration is presented. An outline of the potential achievements of solar system exploration is given along with a course of action which maximizes the rewards to mankind.

  16. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Task 3 -- System selection; Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.J.

    1994-07-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated has elected to pursue an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine system to exceed the goals of the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program, which are to develop and commercialize an industrial gas turbine system that operates at thermal efficiencies at least 15% higher than 1991 products, and with emissions not exceeding eight ppmv NOx and 20 ppmv CO and UHC. Solar`s goal is to develop a commercially viable industrial system (3--20 MW) driven by a gas turbine engine with a thermal efficiency of 50% (ATS50), with the flexibility to meet the differing operational requirements of various markets. Dispersed power generation is currently considered to be the primary future target market for the ICR in the 5--15 MW size class. The ICR integrated system approach provides an ideal candidate for the assumed dispersed power market, with its small footprint, easy transportability, and environmental friendliness. In comparison with other systems that use water or toxic chemicals such as ammonia for NOx control, the ICR has no consumables other than fuel and air. The low pressure ratio of the gas turbine engine also is favorable in that less parasitic power is needed to pump the natural gas into the combustor than for simple-cycle machines. Solar has narrowed the ICR configuration to two basic approaches, a 1-spool, and a 2-spool version of the ATS50. The 1-spool engine will have a lower first-cost but lower part-power efficiencies. The 2-spool ATS may not only have better part-power efficiency, its efficiency will also be less sensitive to reduced turbine rotor inlet temperature levels. Thus hot-end parts life can be increased with only small sacrifices in efficiency. The flexibility of the 2-spool arrangement in meeting customer needs is its major advantage over the 1-spool. This Task 3 Topical Report is intended to present Solar`s preliminary system selection based upon the initial trade-off studies performed to date.

  17. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  18. Economic Evaluation of Observatory Solar-Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Topics covered are system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization.

  19. Smaller solar system bodies and orbits; Proceedings of Symposium 3, Workshops II, III, and XXVI, and Topical Meetings of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runcorn, S. K. (Editor); Carr, M. H. (Editor); Moehlmann, D. (Editor); Stiller, H. (Editor); Matson, D. L. (Editor); Ambrosius, B. A. C. (Editor); Kessler, D. J. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include the reappraisal of the moon and Mars/Phobos/Deimos; the origin and evolution of planetary and satellite systems; asteroids, comets, and dust (a post-IRAS perspective); satellite dynamics; future planetary missions; and orbital debris. Papers are presented on a comparison of the chemistry of moon and Mars, the use of a mobile surface radar to study the atmosphere and ionosphere, and laser-ionization studies with the technical models of the LIMA-D/Phobos. Attention is given to planetogonic scenarios and the evolution of relatively mass-rich preplanetary disks, the kinetic behavior of planetesimals revolving around the sun, the planetary evolution of Mars, and pre- and post-IRAS asteroid taxonomies. Consideration is also given to ocean tides and tectonic plate motions in high-precision orbit determination, the satellite altimeter calibration techniques, a theory of the motion of an artificial satellite in the earth atmosphere, ESA plans for planetary exploration, and the detection of earth orbiting objects by IRAS.

  20. Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

  1. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

  2. A science based approach to topical drug classification system (TCS).

    PubMed

    Shah, Vinod P; Yacobi, Avraham; Rădulescu, Flavian Ştefan; Miron, Dalia Simona; Lane, Majella E

    2015-08-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) for oral immediate release solid drug products has been very successful; its implementation in drug industry and regulatory approval has shown significant progress. This has been the case primarily because BCS was developed using sound scientific judgment. Following the success of BCS, we have considered the topical drug products for similar classification system based on sound scientific principles. In USA, most of the generic topical drug products have qualitatively (Q1) and quantitatively (Q2) same excipients as the reference listed drug (RLD). The applications of in vitro release (IVR) and in vitro characterization are considered for a range of dosage forms (suspensions, creams, ointments and gels) of differing strengths. We advance a Topical Drug Classification System (TCS) based on a consideration of Q1, Q2 as well as the arrangement of matter and microstructure of topical formulations (Q3). Four distinct classes are presented for the various scenarios that may arise and depending on whether biowaiver can be granted or not.

  3. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.; Grant, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This grant has supported work by T. Owen and B. A. Smith on planetary and satellite nomenclature, carried out under the general auspices of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The IAU maintains a Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) whose current chair is Prof.Kaare Aksnes of the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway. Both Owen and Smith are members of the WGPSN; Owen as chair of the Outer Solar System Task Group, and Smith as chair of the Mars Task Group. The major activity during the last grant period (2002) was the approval of several new names for features on Mars by Smith's group and features on Jovian satellites plus new names for satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus by Owen's group. Much of this work was accomplished by e-mail exchanges, but the new nomenclature was formally discussed and approved at a meeting of the WGPSN held in conjunction with the Division for Planetary Sciences meeting in Birmingham, Alabama in October 2002.

  4. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  5. Space solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toliver, C.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were done on the feasibility of placing a solar power station called POwersat, in space. A general description of the engineering features are given as well as a brief discussion of the economic considerations.

  6. Microparticulate based topical delivery system of clobetasol propionate.

    PubMed

    Badıllı, Ulya; Sen, Tangül; Tarımcı, Nilüfer

    2011-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Clobetasol propionate which is a superpotent topical corticosteroid is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. Conventional dosage forms like creams and ointments are commonly prefered for the therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new topical delivery system in order to provide the prolonged release of clobetasol propionate and to reduce systemic absorption and side effects of the drug. Clobetasol propionate loaded-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Particle size analysis, morphological characterization, DSC and XRD analyses and in vitro drug release studies were performed on the microparticle formulations. Emulgel formulations were prepared as an alternative for topical delivery of clobetasol propionate. In vitro drug release studies were carried out from the emulgel formulations containing pure drug and drug-loaded microspheres. In addition, the same studies were performed to determine the drug release from the commercial cream product of clobetasol propionate. The release of clobetasol propionate from the emulgel formulations was significantly higher than the commercial product. In addition, the encapsulation of clobetasol propionate in the PLGA microspheres significantly delayed the drug release from the emulgel formulation. As a result, the decrease in the side effects of clobetasol propionate by the formulation containing PLGA microspheres is expected.

  7. Solar Radiation Alert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    the earth’s atmosphere at high geomagnetic latitudes were calculated for the solar proton event of 20 January 2005. The event started at 06:50...excluding them does not significantly affect the calculated dose rates. The data are available in near real-time from the file transfer protocol (ftp...form a com- plete spectrum used to calculate effective doses in Step 9. A piecewise-continuous spectrum is needed because during solar proton events

  8. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300∫C ñ 800∫C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at

  9. Web Page Retrieval System by Automatic Detection of Topic Words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochida, Hiroshi; Omachi, Shinichiro; Aso, Hirotomo

    In order to search out some documents on a specific topic from a huge amount of documents on the Internet, we sometimes use a Web site that is called a search engine and retrieve documents by using a keyword. However, since a lot of pages are obtained by a keyword, it is difficult to find out the page that we really want from the obtained pages. In this paper, we propose a system supporting to look for web pages on the Internet that a user desires to find. The system actively collects web pages of a topic that relates to a keyword specified by a user and presents them to the user. The experimental result shows the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  10. A recirculating cooling system for improved topical cardiac hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, F L; Fambiatos, A; Pastoriza-Pinol, J; Stirling, G R

    1981-10-01

    A simple system is described that recirculates cooling fluid for topical cardiac hypothermia. This disposable system can produce a flow of 1,500 ml/min at 2 degrees to 4 degrees C. The recirculating cooler produced significantly lower myocardial temperatures than a conventional fluid-discard system in 22 patients having coronary operation. This system has been used as part of the technique of hypothermic cardioplegia in more than 600 patients. During various cardiac procedures, septal temperatures were maintained well below 20 degrees C for 60 minutes or more without the need to reinfuse the cardioplegic solution.

  11. Solar System Observations with JWST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid- infrared, with sensitivity and spatial-spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

  12. Views of the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  13. Evolution of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the solar system are analyzed. Physical processes are first discussed, followed by experimental studies of plasma-solid reactions and chemical and mineralogical analyses of meteorites and lunar and terrestrial samples.

  14. Exobiology in Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, Glenn C. (Editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (Editor); Huntington, Judith L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A symposium, 'Exobiology in Solar System Exploration,' was held on 24-26 Aug. 1988. The symposium provided an in-depth investigation of the role of Exobiology in solar system exploration. It is expected that the symposium will provide direction for future participation of the Exobiology community in solar system exploration and alert the Planetary community to the continued importance of an Exobiology Flight Program. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily on Exobiology in solar system exploration missions, several ground based and Earth-orbital projects such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Gas Grain Facility, and Cosmic Dust Collection Facility represent upcoming research opportunities planned to accommodate the goals and objectives of the Exobiology community as well. This report contains papers for all but one of the presentations given at the symposium.

  15. Solar System binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.

    The discovery of binaries in each of the major populations of minor bodies in the solar system is propelling a rapid growth of heretofore unattainable physical information. The availability of mass and density constraints for minor bodies opens the door to studies of internal structure, comparisons with meteorite samples, and correlations between bulk-physical and surface-spectral properties. The number of known binaries is now more than 70 and is growing rapidly. A smaller number have had the extensive followup observations needed to derive mass and albedo information, but this list is growing as well. It will soon be the case that we will know more about the physical parameters of objects in the Kuiper Belt than has been known about asteroids in the Main Belt for the last 200 years. Another important aspect of binaries is understanding the mechanisms that lead to their formation and survival. The relative sizes and separations of binaries in the different minor body populations point to more than one mechanism for forming bound pairs. Collisions appear to play a major role in the Main Belt. Rotational and/or tidal fission may be important in the Near Earth population. For the Kuiper Belt, capture in multi-body interactions may be the preferred formation mechanism. However, all of these conclusions remain tentative and limited by observational and theoretical incompleteness. Observational techniques for identifying binaries are equally varied. High angular resolution observations from space and from the ground are critical for detection of the relatively distant binaries in the Main Belt and the Kuiper Belt. Radar has been the most productive method for detection of Near Earth binaries. Lightcurve analysis is an independent technique that is capable of exploring phase space inaccessible to direct observations. Finally, spacecraft flybys have played a crucial paradigm-changing role with discoveries that unlocked this now-burgeoning field.

  16. K2 & Solar System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2015-01-01

    All of the fields that K2 observes are near the ecliptic plane in order to minimize the spin-up of the spacecraft in response to the effects of solar irradiation. The fields observed by K2 are thus rich in Solar System objects including planets, asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). K2 has already performed observations of Neptune and its large moon Triton, 68 Trojan and Hilda asteroids, 5 TNOs (including Pluto) and Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Springs). About 10,000 main-belt asteroids that fell into the pixel masks of stars have been serendipitously observed. Observations of small bodies are especially useful for determining rotation periods. Uranus will be observed in a future campaign (C8), as will many more small Solar System bodies. The status of various K2 Solar System studies will be reviewed and placed within the context of our current knowledge of the objects being observed.

  17. Topical imiquimod yields systemic effects due to unintended oral uptake.

    PubMed

    Grine, Lynda; Steeland, Sophie; Van Ryckeghem, Sara; Ballegeer, Marlies; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Sanders, Niek N; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Libert, Claude

    2016-01-28

    Repetitive application of topical imiquimod is used as an experimental model for the induction of psoriasiform skin lesions in mice. The model is characterized by several inflammatory processes, including cytokine production both locally and systemically, cellular infiltration, and splenomegaly. To investigate the production of type I interferons in response to imiquimod-containing Aldara cream, IFNβ-luciferase reporter mice were imaged in vivo and ex vivo. Type I interferons were found to be produced in the skin, but also in the intestinal system caused by unintended ingestion of imiquimod by the mice. Through the use of Elizabethan collars to prevent ingestion, these effects, including psoriasiform lesions were nearly completely prevented. Our findings reveal that topical treatment with Aldara induces a psoriasiform skin inflammation, but that its mode of action depends on ingestion of the chemical, which leads to systemic responses and affects local inflammation. Therefore, potential ingestion of topical treatments during experimental procedures should be taken into account during assessment of cutaneous inflammatory parameters in skin disease models.

  18. Topical imiquimod yields systemic effects due to unintended oral uptake

    PubMed Central

    Grine, Lynda; Steeland, Sophie; Van Ryckeghem, Sara; Ballegeer, Marlies; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Sanders, Niek N.; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E.; Libert, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive application of topical imiquimod is used as an experimental model for the induction of psoriasiform skin lesions in mice. The model is characterized by several inflammatory processes, including cytokine production both locally and systemically, cellular infiltration, and splenomegaly. To investigate the production of type I interferons in response to imiquimod-containing Aldara cream, IFNβ-luciferase reporter mice were imaged in vivo and ex vivo. Type I interferons were found to be produced in the skin, but also in the intestinal system caused by unintended ingestion of imiquimod by the mice. Through the use of Elizabethan collars to prevent ingestion, these effects, including psoriasiform lesions were nearly completely prevented. Our findings reveal that topical treatment with Aldara induces a psoriasiform skin inflammation, but that its mode of action depends on ingestion of the chemical, which leads to systemic responses and affects local inflammation. Therefore, potential ingestion of topical treatments during experimental procedures should be taken into account during assessment of cutaneous inflammatory parameters in skin disease models. PMID:26818707

  19. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Early Solar System Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics were presented in this report: Iron Isotopic Fractionation During Vacuum Evaporation of Molten W?stite and Solar Compositions; Mg Isotope Ratio Zonation in CAIs - New Constraints on CAI Evolution; Sm-Nd Systematics of Chondrites; AMS Measurement of Mg-24(He-3,p)Al-26 Cross Section, Implications for the Al-26 Production in the Early Solar System; On Early Solar System Chronology: Implications of an Initially Heterogeneous Distribution of Short-lived Radionuclides; Revisiting Extraterrestrial U Isotope Ratios; Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities; High Spatial Resolution Ion Microprobe Measurements Refine Chronology of Orgueil Carbonate Formation; and Calibration of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux.

  20. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  1. Solar Radiation Alert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    th an effectve cutoff rgdty of ~0 MV (2)), the FAA’s Cvl Aerospace Medcal Insttute (CAMI) ssues a Solar Radaton Alert (SRA) to the Nat...fluences of other partcles are too small to be of sgnficance n dose calculatons (4, 11). Earth was modeled as a sphere of lqud water of rad

  2. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis, the…

  3. Experiences in solar cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Oberoi, H. S.

    Six of the nine solar cooling systems discussed in this paper had negative energy savings. In several cases the solar cooling system used substantially more energy than a conventional system could have been expected to use. Two systems, however, had significant energy savings. These systems (1 residential and 1 commercial) obtained system thermal efficiencies of 12.0 to 12.4 percent. Their system overall efficiences averaged 11.2 and 5.2 percent respectively. The residential-sized system achieved an annual energy savings of about 16.8 GJ/year, or approximately .34 GJ/year.m2 of collector. The commercial system had equivalent values of 137 GJ/year or about .22 GJ/year/sq m of collector. It should be noted that these efficiencies re much lower than those of well-designed and properly controlled cooling systems in commercial sizes. However, with realistic system modifications and subsequent improvements in performance these solar cooling systems can be expected to achieve savings in nonrenewable energy sources of approximately 1.2 GJ/year/sq m of collector. These savings can be compared to those associated with solar space and domestic hot water heating systems of 2.2 and 2.5 GJ/year/sq m of collector, respectively.

  4. Systemic vs. Topical Therapy for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    It is estimated that 75% of all women will experience at least 1 episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) during their lifetimes. Most patients with acute VVC can be treated with short-term regimens that optimize compliance. Since current topical and oral antifungals have shown comparably high efficacy rates, other issues should be considered in determining the most appropriate therapy. It is possible that the use of short-duration narrow-spectrum agents may increase selection of more resistant organisms which will result in an increase of recurrent VVC (RVVC). Women who are known or suspected to be pregnant and women of childbearing age who are not using a reliable means of contraception should receive topical therapy, as should those who are breast-feeding or receiving drugs that can interact with an oral azole and those who have previously experienced adverse effects during azole therapy. Because of the potential risks associated with systemic treatment, topical therapy with a broad-spectrum agent should be the method of choice for VVC, whereas systemic therapy should be reserved for either RVVC or cases where the benefits outweigh any possible adverse reactions. PMID:18475346

  5. Crusted (Norwegian) scabies following systemic and topical corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Binić, Ivana; Janković, Aleksandar; Jovanović, Dragan; Ljubenović, Milanka

    2010-01-01

    It is a case study of a 62-yr-old female with crusted (Norwegian) scabies, which appeared during her treatment with systemic and topical corticosteroid therapy, under the diagnosis of erythroderma. In the same time, the patient had been suffered from hypothyoidism, and her skin changes were misdiagnosed, because it was thought that they are associated with her endocrine disorder. Suddenly, beside the erythema, her skin became hyperkeratotic, with widespread scaling over the trunk and limbs, and crusted lesions appeared on her scalp and ears. The microscopic examination of the skin scales with potassium hydroxide demonstrated numerous scabies mites and eggs. Repeated topical treatments with lindan, benzoyl benzoat and 10% precipitated sulphur ointment led to the complete resolution of her skin condition.

  6. Universal solar energy desalination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, V. S.

    Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

  7. The database management system: A topic and a tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plummer, O. R.

    1984-01-01

    Data structures and data base management systems are common tools employed to deal with the administrative information of a university. An understanding of these topics is needed by a much wider audience, ranging from those interested in computer aided design and manufacturing to those using microcomputers. These tools are becoming increasingly valuable to academic programs as they develop comprehensive computer support systems. The wide use of these tools relies upon the relational data model as a foundation. Experience with the use of the IPAD RIM5.0 program is described.

  8. Exploring the Solar System? Let the Math Teachers Help!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Karen; Canales, J. D.; Smith, Angela; Zimmerman, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Scale measurement and ratio and proportion are topics that fall clearly in the middle-grades mathematics curriculum in Texas. So does the solar system. In their experience, the authors have found that students have trouble manipulating, much less comprehending, very large numbers and very small numbers. These concepts can be brought into students'…

  9. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

  10. Solar tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  11. Solar tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R.

    1981-04-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  12. The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    2003-10-01

    The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System provides a comprehensive, funamental, and up-to-date description of the solar system. It is written in a concise, light and uniform style, without being unnecessarily weighted down with specialized materials or the variable writing of multiple authors. It is filled with vital facts and information for astronomers of all types and for anyone with a scientific interest in the Earth, our Moon, all the other planets and their satellites, and related topics such as asteroids, comets, meteorites and meteors. The language, style, ideas and profuse illustrations will attract the general reader as well as professionals. A thorough report for general readers, it includes much compact reference data. Metaphors, similes and analogies will be of immense help to the lay person or non-science student, and they add to the enjoyment of the material. Vignettes containing historical, literary and even artistic material make this book unusual and interesting, and enhance its scientific content. Kenneth Lang is professor of astronomy in the Physics and Astronomy Department at Tufts University. He is the author of several astrophysics books, including The Sun from Space (Springer Verlag, 2000), Astrophysical Formulae: Radiation, Gas Processes, and High Energy Physics (Springer Verlag, 1999), Sun, Earth and Sky (Copernicus Books, 1997), Astrophysical Data: Planets and Stars (Springer Verlag, 1993), and Wanderers in Space: Exploration and Discovery in the Solar System (Cambridge, 1991),

  13. Modular passive solar heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, B.D.

    1985-03-19

    A modular passive solar energy storage system comprises a plurality of heat tubes which are arranged to form a flat plate solar collector and are releasably connected to a water reservoir by, and are part of, double-walled heat exchangers which penetrate to the water reservoir and enhance the heat transfer characteristics between the collector and the reservoir. The flat plate collector-heat exchanger disassembly, the collector housing, and the reservoir are integrated into a relatively light weight, unitary structural system in which the reservoir is a primary structural element. In addition to light weight, the system features high efficiency and ease of assembly and maintenance.

  14. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  15. Deoxycholate-hydrogels: novel drug carrier systems for topical use.

    PubMed

    Valenta, C; Nowack, E; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    1999-08-05

    Na-deoxycholate (Na-DOC) forms a viscous thixotropic gel when in contact with excess buffer systems. The resulting gels have been tested as novel drug carrier systems for topical use. The influence of differing amounts of mannitol, glycerol and xylitol on the viscous modulus (G"/Pa) was evaluated by oscillatory measurements. Na-DOC (0.5%) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with 5% mannitol was chosen as an optimised formulation, taking into account viscosity, distribution and appearance. The release rate of the model drug rutin through an artificial membrane was higher than those from hydroxyethylcellulose- (HEC) and sodium polyacrylate (NaC934)-gels; permeation through excised rat skin was also highest for the Na-DOC systems. The results indicate that Na-DOC significantly increases the membrane permeability. The microbial stability was in the same range as HEC- and NaC934-gels, making a preservation necessary. Na-DOC-gels are novel low molecular weight, multifunctional drug carriers, which also act as penetration enhancers. Their thixotropy is an additional advantage for better application to large skin areas, nasal, vaginal and buccal membranes. Therefore, Na-DOC-gels can be considered promising, alternative drug carrier systems for topical pharmaceutical as well as cosmetic use.

  16. The progress of exploring extra-solar planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Juan; Zhao, Gang

    2005-09-01

    With the advance of the space exploring, the study of the extra-solar planetary systems becomes an interesting topic since such system may exist the life or even the modern civilization. In this paper we give a brief introduction on the discovery of extra-solar planetary systems, and discuss the feasibility of detection techniques and methods developed in recent years. In particular, we present detailed interpretations of the results by the radial velocity method. With the launch of some specific small satellites, we can predict the discovery of a large number of candidates of the extra-solar planetary systems. We can expect that the exploring of extra-solar planetary systems will have a prospective era in the near future.

  17. Design data brochure for CSI series V solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Generalized information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout is presented to assist the architect or designer in preparing construction drawings and specifications for the installation of the CSI integrated solar heating systems. Efficiency in space utilization of a full length collector and the importance of proper sizing of the collector array are among the topics discussed. Details of storage and transport subsystems are provided along with drawings and specifications of all components of the CSI system.

  18. Solar-powered cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  19. Residential solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  20. Solar thermophotovoltaic system using nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ungaro, Craig; Gray, Stephen K; Gupta, Mool C

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents results on a highly efficient experimental solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system using simulated solar energy. An overall power conversion efficiency of 6.2% was recorded under solar simulation. This was matched with a thermodynamic model, and the losses within the system, as well as a path forward to mitigate these losses, have been investigated. The system consists of a planar, tungsten absorbing/emitting structure with an anti-reflection layer coated laser-microtextured absorbing surface and single-layer dielectric coated emitting surface. A GaSb PV cell was used to capture the emitted radiation and convert it into electrical energy. This simple structure is both easy to fabricate and temperature stable, and contains no moving parts or heat exchange fluids.

  1. Origin of Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  2. Experiences in solar cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.

    The results of performance evaluations for nine solar cooling systems are presented, and reasons fow low or high net energy balances are discussed. Six of the nine systems are noted to have performed unfavorably compared to standard cooling systems due to thermal storage losses, excessive system electrical demands, inappropriate control strategies, poor system-to-load matching, and poor chiller performance. A reduction in heat losses in one residential unit increased the total system efficiency by 2.5%, while eliminating heat losses to the building interior increased the efficiency by 3.3%. The best system incorporated a lithium bromide absorption chiller and a Rankine cycle compression unit for a commercial application. Improvements in the cooling tower and fan configurations to increase the solar cooling system efficiency are indicated. Best performances are expected to occur in climates inducing high annual cooling loads.

  3. Installation Guidelines for Solar DHW Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Peter; And Others

    Described are some of the better techniques for installing solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems. By using these guidelines, along with the manufacturer's manual, professional installation contractors and skilled homeowners should be able to install and fill a solar DHW system. Among the topics considered are system layouts, siting, mounting…

  4. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  5. Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dan S.

    1976-01-01

    Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

  6. Solar rocket system concept analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of solar energy to heat propellant for application to Earth orbital/planetary propulsion systems is of interest because of its performance capabilities. The achievable specific impulse values are approximately double those delivered by a chemical rocket system, and the thrust is at least an order of magnitude greater than that produced by a mercury bombardment ion propulsion thruster. The primary advantage the solar heater thruster has over a mercury ion bombardment system is that its significantly higher thrust permits a marked reduction in mission trip time. The development of the space transportation system, offers the opportunity to utilize the full performance potential of the solar rocket. The requirements for transfer from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) was examined as the return trip, GEO to LEO, both with and without payload. Payload weights considered ranged from 2000 to 100,000 pounds. The performance of the solar rocket was compared with that provided by LO2-LH2, N2O4-MMH, and mercury ion bombardment systems.

  7. Maximum collectible solar energy by different solar tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helwa, N.H.; Bahgat, A.B.G.; El Shafee, A.M.R.; El Shenawy, E.T.

    2000-01-01

    The output energy from any solar energy system depends on the solar energy input to that system. Using different ways to track the solar energy system to follow the sun can increase solar energy input according to the type of the tracker. A practical study was carried out on difference solar tract systems. The layout of these systems are a fixed system facing south and tilted 40{degree}, a vertical-axis tracker, a 6{degree} tilted-axis tracker, and a two-axis tracker. All the trackers are microprocessor controlled systems, and all systems have photovoltaic arrays for electric energy production. The evaluation of the different systems is based on a complete year of measurements for solar radiation input to the systems and the electric power output from them. The study also includes the effect of some operating parameters on the tracker operation. These studies showed that the collected solar energy as well as the electrical output energy of the tracking solar system are more than that of the stationary system. These gains are higher in the case of the two-axis tracker and decrease gradually from the vertical-axis tracker to the tilted-axis tracker.

  8. Surveying of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Some populations of objects in the solar system are poorly known, and the long range goal of this program is to improve that situation. For instance, the statistics of Trojan asteroids is being studied. A new technique is being developed for sky surveillance by scanning with CCD, particularly for the discovery of near Earth asteroids.

  9. Precipitation in the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

  10. Sizing up the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebke, Heidi; Rogers, Meredith Park; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

    2011-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS 1993) states that by the end of fifth grade, students should understand that a model, such as those depicting the solar system, is a smaller version of the real product, making it easier to physically work with and therefore learn from. However, for students and even adults,…

  11. Magnetospheres in the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Mcnutt, R.L.

    1984-11-01

    Intrinsic and induced magnetospheres of planets, moons, and comets in the solar system are described. Magnetospheric electric fields, the plasmasphere, rotational effects, and corotation and convection dominated intrinsic magnetospheres are considered. Supersonic and subsonic interactions in induced magnetospheres are discussed. (ESA)

  12. Exploration of the Solar System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Arthur, Jr., Ed.; Grey, Jerry, Ed.

    This review is one of a series of assessments and reviews prepared in the public interest by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The purpose of this review is to outline the potential achievements of solar system exploration and suggest a course of action which will maximize the rewards to mankind. A secondary purpose is…

  13. Solafern solar system design brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A complete residential solar space heating and hot water system is described. Low maintenance, durable, and efficient air heating collectors are used. The collectors have a selective absorber and a tempered glass cover nearly one-quarter of an inch thick with an aluminum frame. The solar energy can be delivered directly to the living area when there is a demand; otherwise, it is stored in the form of hot water. Hot water storage is accomplished through the use of an air-to-water exchanger. The hot water storage is used simultaneously to preheat the domestic hot water, as well as to store energy for space heating.

  14. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  15. Challenges in Solar System Ionospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, M.

    2001-12-01

    The solar system contains a robust set of ionospheres among its nine planets, many moons and comets. If one sets aside the transient atmospheres/ionospheres of comets, and those of larger bodies with tenuous surface-boundary-exospheres (e.g., Mercury, Moon, Europa, etc.), plus the under-sampled Pluto, then 10 case studies exist for detailed study and comparison (Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter & Io, Saturn & Titan, Uranus, and Neptune & Triton). The ionospheres of these bodies define the full range of natural processes that govern plasma environments in our solar system, and indeed for extra-solar-system planets: (a) photo-chemical mechanisms, (b) energetic (auroral) ionization sources, (c) mesospheric/thermospheric tides, winds and waves, (d) electrodynamics, and (e) solar wind impact and/or shielding by a magnetosphere. This brief review will summarize and compare the dominant production, loss and transport mechanisms thought to occur at each site. Major uncertainties are, surprisingly, not due entirely to remoteness of the bodies being studied.

  16. The distribution of mass and angular momentum in the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Marochnik, L.S.; Mukhin, L.M.; Sagdeev, R.Z. )

    1989-01-01

    This book describes the contribution of the comets in the Oort cloud to the angular momentum of the solar system. Topics covered include: Nuclear mass of the new comets observed, Mass of the Oort cloud, Mass distribution in the solar system, Zone of comet formation, Angular momentum of the Oort cloud, and Angular momentum of the Hills cloud.

  17. Elastic vesicles as topical/transdermal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, M J; Maibach, H I

    2005-08-01

    Skin acts a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical/transdermal drug delivery. Despite the many advantages of this system, the major obstacle is the low diffusion rate of drugs across the stratum corneum. Several methods have been assessed to increase the permeation rate of drugs temporarily. One simple and convenient approach is application of drugs in formulation with elastic vesicles or skin enhancers. Elastic vesicles are classified with phospholipid (Transfersomes((R)) and ethosomes) and detergent-based types. Elastic vesicles were more efficient at delivering a low and high molecular weight drug to the skin in terms of quantity and depth. Their effectiveness strongly depends on their physicochemical properties: composition, duration and application volume, and entrapment efficiency and application methods. This review focuses on the effect of elastic liposomes for enhancing the drug penetration and defines the action mechanism of penetration into deeper skin.

  18. Solar system: Interplanetary kidnap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2006-05-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, was probably part of a two-body object similar to the Pluto-Charon system. This tandem might have been ripped apart when it strayed too close to the planet that Triton is now orbiting.

  19. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  20. Technical use of solar energy: Conversion from solar to thermal energy, solar cooling and thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafa, A.; Fisch, N.; Hahne, E.; Kraus, K.; Seemann, D.; Seifert, B.; Sohns, J.; Schetter, G.; Schweigerer, W.

    1983-12-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies in the field of solar energy utilization are reviewed. Specific topics considered are: flat plate water collectors, solar absorbers, air collectors, solar absorption cooling, solar simulators, aquifiers, latent heat stores, and space heating systems.

  1. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Application surveys and performance studies were conducted to determine a solar heating and hot water configuration that could be used in a variety of applications, and to identify subsystem modules that could be utilized in a building block fashion to adapt hardware items to single and multi-family residential and commercial systems. Topics discussed include: subsystem development for the solar collectors, controls, other components, energy management module, and the heating system configuration test. Operational tests conducted at an Illinois farmhouse, and a YWCA in Spokane, Washington are discussed.

  2. Steamy Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This diagram illustrates the earliest journeys of water in a young, forming star system. Stars are born out of icy cocoons of gas and dust. As the cocoon collapses under its own weight in an inside-out fashion, a stellar embryo forms at the center surrounded by a dense, dusty disk. The stellar embryo 'feeds' from the disk for a few million years, while material in the disk begins to clump together to form planets.

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was able to probe a crucial phase of this stellar evolution - a time when the cocoon is vigorously falling onto the pre-planetary disk. The infrared telescope detected water vapor as it smacks down on a disk circling a forming star called NGC 1333-IRAS 4B. This vapor started out as ice in the outer envelope, but vaporized upon its arrival at the disk.

    By analyzing the water in the system, astronomers were also able learn about other characteristics of the disk, such as its size, density and temperature.

    How did Spitzer see the water vapor deep in the NGC 1333-IRAS 4B system? This is most likely because the system is oriented in just the right way, such that its thicker disk is seen face-on from our Earthly perspective. In this 'face-on' orientation, Spitzer can peer through a window carved by an outflow of material from the embryonic star. This system in this drawing is shown in the opposite 'edge-on' configuration.

  3. Solar-powered cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  4. Inhabiting the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2011-03-01

    The new field of space architecture is introduced. Defined as the "theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space," the field synthesizes human space flight systems engineering subjects with the long tradition of making environments that support human living, work, and aspiration. The scope of the field is outlined, and its three principal domains differentiated. The current state of the art is described in terms of executed projects. Foreseeable options for 21st century developments in human space flight provide a framework to tease out potential space architecture opportunities for the next century.

  5. Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Licciardello, Michael R.; Wood, Brian; Dozier, Warner; Braly, Mark; Yates, Alan

    1980-11-01

    As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

  6. THE TOPICAL AND SYSTEMIC USE OF CORTISONE IN DERMATOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Ben A.; Feldman, Fred F.

    1951-01-01

    Part I of this report deals with the topical use of cortisone in a variety of skin diseases. Fifteen patients with chronic discoid lupus erythematosus, four patients with necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, four with psoriasis, one with lichen planus and one with granuloma annulare were treated with cortisone ointment. All the patients with chronic discoid lupus erythematosus had some degree of improvement. In two patients with chronic lupus erythematosus, complete clearing of the eruption occurred. In four patients with necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum remarkable involution resulted. Patients with psoriasis, lichen planus and granuloma annulare were not benefited. Part II deals with the systemic use of cortisone. Eight patients with severe serum sickness-like penicillin reaction responded dramatically to parenterally administered cortisone. In two cases of pemphigus vulgaris and one case of Sulzberger-Garbe disease, the disease was kept in remission with cortisone administered intramuscularly as well as orally. Partial improvement resulted in a case of localized myxedema associated with malignant exophthalmus. Two patients with exfoliative dermatitis due to therapy with heavy metals responded dramatically to cortisone. No beneficial effects were noted in patients with chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis. The systemic use of ACTH and cortisone in dermatology at present should be confined to patients with known fatal or hopelessly incapacitating diseases and to patients with extreme hypersensitivity reactions which may be protracted or life-endangering, and which can be controlled or cured with a relatively small total dosage of the agents in a short time. PMID:14886729

  7. Small grains of truth. [solar system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joe

    1991-01-01

    The evidence concerning the formation of the solar nebula from preexisting clouds found in the chemical composition of solar system grains is discussed. Evidence for sequential star formation in the grains is examined. It is argued that there is no model for the origin of the solar system which can account for the increasing complexity of the evidence.

  8. Solar-powered hot-water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    Hot-water system requires no external power except solar energy. System is completely self-controlling. It includes solar-powered pump, solar-thermally and hydrothermally operated valves, and storage tank filled with open-celled foam, to maintain thermal stratification in stored water.

  9. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  10. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  11. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  12. Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, V.

    2000-06-18

    This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

  13. Jupiter: Giant of the solar system. [its solar orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Jupiter, its relationship to the other planets in the solar system, its twelve natural satellites, solar orbit and the appearance of Jupiter in the sky, and the sightings and motions of Jupiter in 1973 are discussed. Educational study projects for students are also included.

  14. Storage systems for solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    A major constraint to the evolution of solar thermal power systems is the need to provide continuous operation during periods of solar outage. A number of high temperature thermal energy storage technologies which have the potential to meet this need are currently under development. The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

  15. Preface for Special Topic: Perovskite solar cells—A research update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Herz, Laura M.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, tremendous progress has been made in the research field of perovskite solar cells. Not only are record power conversion efficiencies now exceeding 20%, but our understanding about the different mechanisms leading to this extraordinary performance has improved phenomenally. The aim of this special issue is to review the current state-of-the-art understanding of perovskite solar cells. Most of the presented articles are research updates giving a succinct overview over different aspects concerning perovskite solar cells.

  16. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure. and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  17. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  18. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Bergeron, David J., III

    2002-10-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  19. Comparative Effectiveness Topics from a Large, Integrated Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Kim N; Patnode, Carrie D; Kapka, Tanya J; Butler, Melissa G; Collins, Bernadette; Compton-Phillips, Amy; Baxter, Raymond J; Weissberg, Jed; McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Whitlock, Evelyn P

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify high-priority comparative effectiveness questions directly relevant to care delivery in a large, US integrated health care system. Methods: In 2010, a total of 792 clinical and operational leaders in Kaiser Permanente were sent an electronic survey requesting nominations of comparative effectiveness research questions; most recipients (83%) had direct clinical roles. Nominated questions were divided into 18 surveys of related topics that included 9 to 23 questions for prioritization. The next year, 648 recipients were electronically sent 1 of the 18 surveys to prioritize nominated questions. Surveys were assigned to recipients on the basis of their nominations or specialty. High-priority questions were identified by comparing the frequency a question was selected to an “expected” frequency, calculated to account for the varying number of questions and respondents across prioritization surveys. High-priority questions were those selected more frequently than expected. Results: More than 320 research questions were nominated from 181 individuals. Questions most frequently addressed cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease; obesity, diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic disorders; or service delivery and systems-level questions. Ninety-five high-priority research questions were identified, encompassing a wide range of health questions that ranged from prevention and screening to treatment and quality of life. Many were complex questions from a systems perspective regarding how to deliver the best care. Conclusions: The 95 questions identified and prioritized by leaders on the front lines of health care delivery may inform the national discussion regarding comparative effectiveness research. Additionally, our experience provides insight in engaging real-world stakeholders in setting a health care research agenda. PMID:24361013

  20. Solar system employing ground level heliostats and solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, F.A.; Northrup, L.L.

    1981-07-07

    This specification discloses an improvement in a solar system having one or more collectors for receiving and using radiant energy from the sun and at least one and preferably a plurality of respective reflector means for reflecting the radiant energy onto the collectors. The improvement is characterized by having towerless collectors and towerless reflectors that are disposed at ground level or substantially the same level, to eliminate the major expense of a collector tower, which is inefficient and nonfunctional in a solar system. Also disclosed is a complete system, or combination, for generating power employing solar energy and the improvement delineated above; as well as structural details of preferred arrangements and equipment.

  1. Early Solar System Leftovers: Testing Solar System Formation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, Karen Jean; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Micheli, Marco; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Bhatt, Bhuwan; Sahu, Devendra; Hsieh, Henry; Veres, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Riesen, Timm-Emanuel; Kaluna, Heather

    2015-11-01

    One of the most intriguing predictions of the Grand Tack model is the presence of volatile poor objects in the Oort cloud that were swept from the region where the terrestrial planets formed. This volatile-poor material is represented today by ordinary chondrites, enstatite chondrites and differentiated planetesimals. These are the main constituents of the S-type asteroids that reside in the inner Solar system. According to the Grand Tack model, the fraction of S-type material in cometary orbits should be around 0.1-0.2%. Recent Pan-STARRS 1 discoveries of objects on long-period comet orbits that are minimally active while at small perihelia have suggested the intriguing possibility that these could potentially represent inner solar system material that was ejected into the outer solar system during planet migration, that is now making its way back in. The first object discovered, C/2013 P2 has a spectrum redder than D-type objects, but exhibits low-level activity throughout its perihelion passage. The second one, C/2014 S3, appears to have an S-type asteroid spectrum, and likewise exhibits low-level activity.Nearly 100 of these objects have now been identified, approximately half of which are still observable, and more are being discovered. We will report on observations made for a selection of these objects with several facilities including Gemini N 8 m, VLT 8 m, Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6 m, PS1 2 m, UH2.2 m, HCT 2 m, and the Lowell 1.8 m telescopes. We will discuss the implications of seeing volatile activity in these objects.

  2. Topical hydrocortisone, clobetasol propionate, and calcipotriol do not increase photocarcinogenesis induced by simulated solar irradiation in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2010-11-01

    Topical corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone-17-butyrate (HCB) and clobetasol-17-propionate (CP) and vitamin D(3) derivatives such as calcipotriol (CAL) are widely used to treat psoriasis. The immunosuppressive effects of corticosteroids make their topical use a concern for skin carcinogenicity. Few studies have assessed the effect of topical corticosteroids and topical vitamin D(3) derivatives on photocarcinogenesis induced by ultraviolet radiation. We investigated whether HCB, CP, or CAL can accelerate photocarcinogenesis using simulated solar radiation (SSR). HCB, CP, or CAL was applied topically to the backs of hairless, female, C3.Cg/TifBomTac-immunocompetent mice in 16 groups of 25 mice each. The drugs were applied three times weekly followed by 0, 2, 4, or 6 standard erythema doses (SED) of SSR for 365 days or until death. No change was observed in the time required for tumor development in mice treated with HCB and 2 SED (HCB-2SED) and HCB-6SED. However, the time required for tumor development increased with HCB-4SED treatment. Treatment with CP-2SED did not change the time to onset of the first and second tumor, but all other CP treatments in combination with SSR increased the time. CAL-2SED decreased the time to onset of the first tumor but not of the second and third tumor. CAL-4SED and CAL-6 SED did not change or increased the time to tumor development. Our data indicated that topical administration of HCB and CAL did not alter the photocarcinogenesis of SSR and that topical CP administration had a photoprotective effect. Thus, HCB, CP, and CAL do not increase photocarcinogenesis induced by SSR.

  3. The solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system

    PubMed

    Lyon

    2000-06-16

    The solar wind, magnetosphere, and ionosphere form a single system driven by the transfer of energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Variations in the solar wind can lead to disruptions of space- and ground-based systems caused by enhanced currents flowing into the ionosphere and increased radiation in the near-Earth environment. The coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere is mediated and controlled by the magnetic field in the solar wind through the process of magnetic reconnection. Understanding of the global behavior of this system has improved markedly in the recent past from coordinated observations with a constellation of satellite and ground instruments.

  4. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

  5. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

  6. Solar-gas systems impact analysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, C. P.; Hahn, E. F.; Loose, J. C.; Poe, T. E.; Hirshberg, A. S.; Haas, S.; Preble, B.; Halpin, J.

    1984-07-01

    The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities were measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the benefits or penalties of solar/gas systems on a combined basis for consumers sand distribution companies. It is shown that the combined benefits associated with solar/gas systems are generally greatest when the systems are purchased by customers who would have otherwise chosen high-efficiency electric systems (were solar/gas systems not available in the market place). The role of gas utilities in encouraging consumer acceptance of solar/gas systems was also examined ion a qualitative fashion. A decision framework for analyzing the type and level of utility involvement in solar/gas technologies was developed.

  7. Tracing Rays In A Solar Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, Kent; Gallo, Chris

    1989-01-01

    OFFSET is ray-tracing computer code for analysis of optics of solar collector. Code models distributions of solar flux within receiver cavity, produced by reflections from collector. Developed to model mathematically offset solar collector of solar dynamic electric power system being developed for Space Station Freedom. Used to develop revised collector-facet concept of four groups of toroidally contoured facets. Also used to develop methods for tailoring distribution of flux incident on receiver. Written in FORTRAN 77 (100 percent).

  8. Research topics on EO systems for maritime platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Judith; Bijl, Piet; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Eijk, Alenxander M. J.

    2014-10-01

    Our world is constantly changing, and this has its effect on worldwide military operations. For example, there is a change from conventional warfare into a domain that contains asymmetric threats as well. The availability of high-quality imaging information from Electro-Optical (EO) sensors is of high importance, for instance for timely detection and identification of small threatening vessels in an environment with a large amount of neutral vessels. Furthermore, Rules of Engagement often require a visual identification before action is allowed. The challenge in these operations is to detect, classify and identify a target at a reasonable range, while avoiding too many false alarms or missed detections. Current sensor technology is not able to cope with the performance requirements under all circumstances. For example, environmental conditions can reduce the sensor range in such a way that the operational task becomes challenging or even impossible. Further, limitations in automatic detection algorithms occur, e.g. due to the effects of sun glints and spray which are not yet well-modelled in the detection filters. For these reasons, Tactical Decision Aids will become an important factor in future operations to select the best moment to act. In this paper, we describe current research within The Netherlands on this topic. The Defence Research and Development Programme "Multifunctional Electro-Optical Sensor Suite (MEOSS)" aims at the development of knowledge necessary for optimal employment of Electro-Optical systems on board of current and future ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy, in order to carry out present and future maritime operations in various environments and weather conditions.

  9. The solar system beyond Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David C.; Luu, Jane X.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a deep optical survey for distant solar system objects. An area of 1.2 sq deg of the ecliptic has been imaged to apparent red magnitude 25, resulting in the detection of seven trans-Neptunian objects. These are the first detected members of a trans-Neptunian disk that compries about 35 000 objects larger than 100 km in the 30-50 AU heliocentric distance range. We interpret the new measurements using a set of Monte Carlo models in which the effects of observational bias in the data are taken into account.

  10. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  11. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  12. Solar thermal power systems. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

  13. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Byard Wood, Lance Seefeldt, Ronald Sims, Bradley Wahlen, and Dan Dye

    2012-06-29

    The solar energy available within the visible portion of the solar spectrum is about 300 W/m2 (43%) and that available in the UV and IR portion is about 400 W/m2 (57%). This provides opportunities for developing integrated energy systems that capture and use specific wavelengths of the solar spectrum for different purposes. For example: biofuels from photosynthetic microbes use only the visible light; solar cells use a narrow band of the solar spectrum that could be either mostly in the visible or in the IR regions of the solar spectrum, depending on the photovoltaic materials, e.g., gallium antimonide (GaSb) cells utilize predominately IR radiation; and finally, solar panels that heat water utilize a broad range of wavelengths (visible plus IR). The basic idea of this research is that sunlight has many possible end-use applications including both direct use and energy conversion schemes; it is technically feasible to develop multifunctional solar energy systems capable of addressing several end-use needs while increasing the overall solar energy utilization efficiency when compared to single-purpose solar technologies. Such a combination of technologies could lead to more cost-competitive ?multifunctional? systems that add value and broaden opportunities for integrated energy systems. The goal of this research is to increase the overall energy efficacy and cost competitiveness of solar systems. The specific objectives of this research were: 1) Evaluate the efficacy of a combined photobioreactor and electric power system; 2) Improve the reliability and cost effectiveness of hybrid solar lighting systems ? a technology in which sunlight is collected and distributed via optical fibers into the interior of a building; 3) Evaluate the efficacy of using filtered light to increase the production of biomass in photobioreactors and provide more solar energy for other uses; 4) Evaluates several concepts for wavelength shifting such that a greater percentage of the solar

  14. Small Solar Power Systems /SSPS/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasse, W.

    1981-05-01

    A detailed description is given of the project organization, hardware, and projected performance of the distributed collector and central receiver solar thermal research facilities comprising the Small Power Systems (SSPS) plants in Almeria, Spain. The Distributed Collector System (DCS) is rated at 500 kWe and employs two fields of line-focusing parabolic trough collectors. The Central Receiver System (CRS) has the same rating and uses liquid sodium as a heat-transfer medium to circulate the 530 C heat yielded by a concentration factor of 450 from 4000 sq m of reflective surface. The purpose of the plant's dual configuration is the comparison of the two concentration methods under identical environmental conditions and the responsibility of a single operator/evaluator.

  15. Storage systems for solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

  16. Solar System Exploration with LUVOIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Walter M.; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Schmidt, Britney E.

    2016-10-01

    The Large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor is one of four mission concepts under study as a next-generation space observatory in the post Webb Telescope era. LUVOIR is envisioned as a large, 10 m class, remotely serviceable observatory with a suite of advanced-technology instruments designed to leap beyond the current generation of space-based telescopes to explore fundamental astrophysical phenomena on all scales. A 24-member science and technology definition team (STDT) represents all sectors of the astronomy and technologist communities, and it is charged with identifying the observational challenges best addressed with LUVOIR and the instrumental innovations that are required to achieve them.This presentation describes the developing science case for LUVOIR as a Solar System observatory for the study of Sun-planet interactions, thick and sublimation based atmospheres, the small body populations in the inner and outer solar system, surface volatility, and planet/satellite surfaces. We will provide an overview of several key science and technical drivers for each scientific target and how they can be addressed with a LUVOIR facility. We also solicit community input to refine these individual programs and to identify additional areas of emphasis in the development of a final report to NASA.

  17. Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

  18. Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

  19. Biospheres and solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Thomas O.

    1990-01-01

    The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

  20. Solar thermal system engineering guidebook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Bluhm, S. A.

    1983-05-01

    This report presents a graphical methodology for the preliminary evaluation of solar thermal energy plants by Air Force base civil engineers. The report is organized as a Guidebook with worksheets and nomograms provided for rapid estimation of solar collector area, land area, energy output, and thermal power output of a solar thermal plant. Flat plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough, and parabolic dish solar thermal technologies are considered.

  1. Short review on solar energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herez, Amal; Ramadan, Mohamad; Abdulhay, Bakri; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Solar energy can be utilized mainly in heat generation and electricity production. International energy agency (IEA) shows, in a comparative study on the world energy consumption that in 2050 solar arrays installation will provide about 45% of world energy demand. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy source which plays a great role in providing energy solutions. As known there is wide variety of types of collectors and applications of solar energy. This paper aimed to make a short review on solar energy systems, according to types of collectors and applications used.

  2. Design of a Traditional Solar Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader; Vasant, Pandian

    2010-06-01

    Solar energy is rapidly advancing as an important means of renewable energy resource. More energy is produced by tracking the solar panel to remain aligned to the sun at a right angle to the rays of light. This paper describes in detail the design and construction of a prototype for solar tracking system with two degrees of freedom, which detects the sunlight using photocells. The control circuit for the solar tracker is based on a PIC16F84A microcontroller (MCU). This is programmed to detect the sunlight through the photocells and then actuate the motor to position the solar panel where it can receive maximum sunlight.

  3. Implementing slab solar water heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveendran, S. K.; Shen, C. Q.

    2015-08-01

    Water heating contributes a significant part of energy consumption in typical household. One of the most employed technologies today that helps in reducing the energy consumption of water heating would be conventional solar water heating system. However, this system is expensive and less affordable by most family. The main objective of this project is to design and implement an alternative type of solar water heating system that utilize only passive solar energy which is known as slab solar water heating system. Slab solar water heating system is a system that heat up cold water using the solar radiance from the sun. The unique part of this system is that it does not require any form of electricity in order to operate. Solar radiance is converted into heat energy through convection method and cold water will be heated up by using conduction method [1]. The design of this system is governed by the criteria of low implementation cost and energy saving. Selection of material in the construction of a slab solar water heating system is important as it will directly affect the efficiency and performance of the system. A prototype has been built to realize the idea and it had been proven that this system was able to provide sufficient hot water supply for typical household usage at any given time.

  4. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  5. Installation package for a solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Installation information is given for a solar heating system installed in Concho Indian School at El Reno, Oklahoma. This package includes a system Operation and Maintenance Manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes and drawings.

  6. Liposomal delivery system for topical anaesthesia of the palatal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Franz-Montan, M; de Paula, E; Groppo, F C; Silva, A L R; Ranali, J; Volpato, M C

    2012-01-01

    An effective topical agent to reduce pain during local anaesthesia of the palate is not yet available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of liposome-encapsulated ropivacaine in different concentrations for topical anaesthesia of the palatal mucosa. In this single-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study 40 (20 male) healthy volunteers were randomised to be given: liposome-encapsulated 2% ropivacaine, liposome-encapsulated 1% ropivacaine, a eutectic mixture of 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine (EMLA), and liposomal placebo gel, topically on to the palatal mucosa of the right canine region for 5 min each, at four different sessions. Pain associated with insertion of a 30G needle, and with injection of a local anaesthetic, was rated on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The effect of liposomal ropivacaine 1% and 2% did not differ from that of placebo (p=0.3 and p=0.1, respectively) in reducing pain during insertion of the needle. Lower VAS were obtained with EMLA. In this group VAS were lower in women than men (p=0.007). There was no difference in VAS among groups (p=0.3) as far as injection of the local anaesthetic was concerned. In conclusion, liposomal-encapsulated ropivacaine formulations did not reduce the pain of insertion of a needle into the palatal mucosa. None of the anaesthetic formulations tested, including the positive control (EMLA), were effective in reducing the pain of an injection of local anaesthetic compared with placebo.

  7. Methanogens in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Schleper, Christa; Firneis, Maria G.; Rittmann, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The last decade of space science revealed that potential habitats in the Solar System may not be limited to the classical habitable zone supporting life as we know it. These microorganisms were shown to thrive under extremophilic growth conditions. Here, we outline the main eco-physiological characteristics of methanogens like their response on temperature, pressure, or pH changes or their resistance against radiation or desiccation. They can withstand extreme environmental conditions which makes them intriguing organisms for astrobiological studies. On Earth, they are found for example in wetlands, in arctic and antarctic subglacial environments, in ruminants, and even in the environment surrounding the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. These obligate anaerobic chemolithoautotrophs or chemolithoheterotrophs are able to use e.g. hydrogen and C1 compounds like CO2, formate, or methanol as energy source and carbon source, respectively. We point out their capability to be able to habitat potential extraterrestrial biospheres all over the planetary system. We will give an overview about these possible environments on Mars, icy moons like Europa or Enceladus, and minor planets. We present an overview about studies of methanogens with an astrobiological relevance and we show our conclusions about the role of methanogens for the search for extraterrestrial life in the Solar System. We will present first results of our study about the possibility to cultivate methanogens under Enceladus-like conditions. For that, based on the observations obtained by the Cassini spacecraft concerning the plume compounds, we produce a medium with a composition similar to the ocean composition of this icy moon which is far more Enceladus-like than in any (published) experiment before. Eventually, we give an outlook on the feasibility and the necessity of future astrobiological studies with these microbes. We point out the importance of future in-situ or even sample and return missions to

  8. The Solar System Beyond Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David; Nava, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supported deep and wide-field optical imaging of the trans-Neptunian Solar System capitalizing on our broad access to state-of-the-art facilities on Mauna Kea. Key quantities determined include the size distribution of Kuiper Belt objects (a differential power law with an index -4), and the inclination and radial distance distributions. We identified an outer edge to the classical Kuiper Belt that has since been confirmed by independent workers. We also obtained an assessment of the population densities in the mean-motion resonances with Neptune and discovered the Scattered Kuiper Belt Object dynamical class. Scientific issues on which these measurements have direct bearing include the collisional environment of the Kuiper Belt, the origin of the short-period comets, and the origin by capture into resonance of Pluto and other Kuiper Belt objects.

  9. Solar System Visualization (SSV) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Jessida L.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar System Visualization (SSV) project aims at enhancing scientific and public understanding through visual representations and modeling procedures. The SSV project's objectives are to (1) create new visualization technologies, (2) organize science observations and models, and (3) visualize science results and mission Plans. The SSV project currently supports the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and Cassini. In support of the these missions, the SSV team has produced pan and zoom animations of large mosaics to reveal details of surface features and topography, created 3D animations of science instruments and procedures, formed 3-D anaglyphs from left and right stereo pairs, and animated registered multi-resolution mosaics to provide context for microscopic images.

  10. Performance evaluation of solar water sterilization system

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Takeo; El-Ghetany, H.H.

    1998-07-01

    In most countries, the contaminated water is the major cause of most of the water-born diseases. Solar energy can be used in this field because the inactivation of micro-organisms is done by the ultraviolet solar radiation. A pilot solar system for sterilizing the contaminated water is designed, constructed and tested. The experimental data showed good viability for using solar energy in the sterilization process. A mathematical model of the solar sterilizer is also presented. The governing equations are solved numerically using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of environmental conditions (ambient temperature, wind speed and solar radiation) on the solar sterilizer performance are examined. It is found that the system is affected by the ambient temperature, wind speed, ultraviolet solar radiation intensity, level of contamination of water, quantity of water being exposed, contact area between the transparent water container in the solar sterilizer and absorber plate and system geometrical parameters. It is pointed that, for a partial cloud condition, low ambient temperature and high wind speed the thermal efficiency of the solar sterilizer was minimum.

  11. Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

  12. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  13. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  14. The Solar System: An Introductory Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Surveys resources of astronomical information. Includes bibliographies of books and articles on the solar system in general as well as all of the bodies that occur in the solar system. Lists slide sets available from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. (CW)

  15. Distant Comets in the Early Solar System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-23

    the small outer solar system bodies in comparison with comets in the inner solar system and in the Kuiper Belt will give us infor- mation about the...Small Satellites This is the focus of the thesis work of G. Bauer. It is thought that the origin of the Centaurs is the L(Igeworth- Kuiper Belt , the

  16. Solar system radio astronomy at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1987-01-01

    The planetary radio-astronomy observations obtained with the two Voyager spacecraft since their launch in 1977 are briefly characterized and illustrated with graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra. Topics addressed include the spacecraft designs and trajectories, the wavelength coverage of the radio instruments, the Io-controlled LF emission of Jupiter, the solar-wind effect on the Saturn kilometric radiation, the Saturn electrostatic discharges, and the use of the clocklike feature of the Uranus emission to measure the planet's rotation period.

  17. Distant Comets in the Early Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meech, Karen J.

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of this project is to physically characterize the small outer solar system bodies. An understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of the outer solar system small bodies is currently one of planetary science's highest priorities. The measurement of the size distributions of these bodies will help constrain the early mass of the outer solar system as well as lead to an understanding of the collisional and accretional processes. A study of the physical properties of the small outer solar system bodies in comparison with comets in the inner solar system and in the Kuiper Belt will give us information about the nebular volatile distribution and small body surface processing. We will increase the database of comet nucleus sizes making it statistically meaningful (for both Short-Period and Centaur comets) to compare with those of the Trans-Neptunian Objects. In addition, we are proposing to do active ground-based observations in preparation for several upcoming space missions.

  18. Grid-connected distributed solar power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyle, R.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T.

    This paper discusses some important, though often ignored, technical and economic issues of distributed solar power systems: protection of the utility system and nonsolar customers requires suitable interfaced equipment. Purchase criteria must mirror reality; most analyses use life-cycle costing with low discount rates - most buyers use short payback periods. Distributing, installing, and marketing small, distributed solar systems is more costly than most analyses estimate. Results show that certain local conditions and uncommon purchase considerations can combine to make small, distributed solar power attractive, but lower interconnect costs (per kW), lower marketing and product distribution costs, and more favorable purchase criteria make large, centralized solar energy more attractive. Specifically, the value of dispersed solar systems to investors and utilities can be higher than $2000/kw. However, typical residential owners place a value of well under $1000 on the installed system.

  19. An image stabilization system for solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, R.; Raja Bayanna, A.; Louis, Rohan Eugene; Kumar, Brajesh; Mathew, Shibu K.; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2007-09-01

    An image stabilization system has been developed and demonstrated for solar observations in the visible wave-length at Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO) with a 15 cm Coudé-refractor. The softwa4re and hardware components of the system are similar to that of the low cost solar adaptive optics system developed for the 1.5 m McMath-Pierce solar telescope at Kitt Peak observatory for solar observations in the infrared. The first results presented. The system has a closed loop correction bandwidth in the range of 70 to 100 Hz. The root mean by a factor of 10 to 20. The software developes and key issues concerning optimum system performance have been addressed.

  20. Simulation of DKIST solar adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Jose; Carlisle, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Solar adaptive optics (AO) simulations are a valuable tool to guide the design and optimization process of current and future solar AO and multi-conjugate AO (MCAO) systems. Solar AO and MCAO systems rely on extended object cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to measure the wavefront. Accurate solar AO simulations require computationally intensive operations, which have until recently presented a prohibitive computational cost. We present an update on the status of a solar AO and MCAO simulation tool being developed at the National Solar Observatory. The simulation tool is a multi-threaded application written in the C++ language that takes advantage of current large multi-core CPU computer systems and fast ethernet connections to provide accurate full simulation of solar AO and MCAO systems. It interfaces with KAOS, a state of the art solar AO control software developed by the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, that provides reliable AO control. We report on the latest results produced by the solar AO simulation tool.

  1. Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

  2. Solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, M. T. B. F.

    2016-11-01

    The Philippines is surrounded by coastal areas and these areas can be a potential source for potable water. This study aims to design and construct a solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens. The experimental study was conducted using polluted salt water for the sample and desalination was carried out using the designed system. The desalination system was composed of the solar concentrator, solar still and the condenser system. The Fresnel lens was made of acrylic plastic and was an effective solar concentrator. Solar stills made of dark colored glass bottles were effective in absorbing the solar energy. The condenser system made of polybutylene and polystyrene were effective in condensing the vapor at ambient temperature. The shortest time of vaporization of the salt water was at 293 sec and the optimum angle of position of the lens was 36.42°. The amount of condensate collected was directly proportional to the amount of salt water in the solar still. The highest mean efficiency of the designed set-up was 34.82%. The water produced by the solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens passed the standards set by WHO (World Health Organization) for drinking water.

  3. The Solar System and Its Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormand, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a brief explanation of the solar system, including planets, asteroids, satellites, comets, planetary orbits, as well as, old and recent cosmogonic theories. Indicates that man is nearer a solution to the origin of the planetary system than ever before.

  4. Solar residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, D. E.; Humphries, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    System has been placed in operation to verify technical feasibility of using solar energy to provide residential heating and cooling. Complete system analysis was performed to provide design information.

  5. An overview: Component development for solar thermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, T. R.

    In this paper, I review the significant issues and the development of solar concentrators and thermal receivers for central-receiver power plants and dish/engine systems. Due to the breadth of the topic area, I have arbitrarily narrowed the content of this paper by choosing not to discuss line-focus (trough) systems and energy storage. I will focus my discussion on the development of heliostats, dishes, and receivers since the 1970s with an emphasis on describing the technologies and their evolution, identifying some key observations and lessons learned, and suggesting what the future in component development may be.

  6. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

  7. Focus Groups for Solar System Investigations with the JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Dean C.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John; Hammel, Heidi B.; Sonneborn, George; Lunine, Jonathan; Rivkin, Andrew; Woodward, Charles; Norwood, Jim; Villanueva, Geronimo; Thomas, Cristina; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Tiscareno, Matthew; Kestay, Laszlo; Nixon, Conor; Parker, Alex

    2014-11-01

    The unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will make it NASA’s premier space-based facility for infrared astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art instruments that include imaging, spectroscopy, and coronagraphy. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail. A new white paper (Norwood et al., 2014) provides a general overview of JWST observatory and instrument capabilities for Solar System science, and updates and expands upon an earlier study by Lunine et al. (2010). In order to fully realize the potential of JWST for Solar System observations, we have recently organized 10 focus groups to explore various science use cases in more detail on topics including: Asteroids, Comets, Giant Planets, Mars, Near Earth Objects, Occultations, Rings, Satellites, Titan, and Trans-Neptunian Objects. The findings from these groups will help guide the project as it develops and implements planning tools, observing templates, the data pipeline and archives so that they enable a broad range of Solar System Science investigations. The purpose of this presentation is to raise awareness of the JWST Solar System planning, and to invite participation of DPS members with our Focus Groups and other pre-launch activities.References:Lunine, J., Hammel, H., Schaller, E., Sonneborn, G., Orton, G., Rieke, G., and Rieke, M. 2010, JWST Planetary Observations within the Solar System, http://www.stsci.edu/jwst/doc-archive/white-papers.Norwood, J., Hammel, H., Milam, S.,Stansberry, J., Lunine, J., Chanover, N., Hines, D., Sonneborn, G., Tiscareno, M., Brown, M. and Ferruit, P., 2014, ArXiv e-prints, 1403.6845.

  8. High voltage solar cell power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E., Jr.; Opjorden, R. W.; Hoffman, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    A laboratory solar power system regulated by on-panel switches has been delivered for operating high power (3 kW), high voltage (15,000 volt) loads (communication tubes, ion thrusters). The modular system consists of 26 solar arrays, each with an integral light source and cooling system. A typical array contains 2,560 series-connected cells. Each light source consists of twenty 500-watt tungsten iodide lamps providing plus or minus 5 percent uniformity at one solar constant. An array temperature of less than 40 C is achieved using an infrared filter, a water-cooled plate, a vacuum hold-down system, and air flushing.

  9. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

  10. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  11. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  12. The Solar System primordial lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blichert-Toft, Janne; Zanda, Brigitte; Ebel, Denton S.; Albarède, Francis

    2010-11-01

    Knowledge of the primordial isotope composition of Pb in the Solar System is critical to the understanding of the early evolution of Earth and other planetary bodies. Here we present new Pb isotopic data on troilite (FeS) nodules from a number of different iron meteorites: Canyon Diablo, Mundrabilla, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Toluca (IAB-IIICD), Cape York (IIIA), Mt Edith (IIIB), and Seymchan (pallasite). Lead abundances and isotopic compositions typically vary from one troilite inclusion to another, even within the same meteorite. The most primitive Pb was found in three leach fractions of two exceptionally Pb-rich Nantan troilite nodules. Its 204Pb/ 206Pb is identical to that of Canyon Diablo troilite as measured by Tatsumoto et al. [M. Tatsumoto, R.J. Knight, C.J. Allègre, Time differences in the formation of meteorites as determined from the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206, Science 180(1973) 1279-1283]. However, our measurements of 207Pb/ 206Pb and 208Pb/ 206Pb are significantly higher than theirs, as well as other older literature data obtained by TIMS, while consistent with the recent data of Connelly et al. [J.N. Connelly, M. Bizzarro, K. Thrane, J.A. Baker, The Pb-Pb age of Angrite SAH99555 revisited, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72(2008) 4813-4824], a result we ascribe to instrumental mass fractionation having biased the older data. Our current best estimate of the Solar System primordial Pb is that of Nantan troilite, which has the following isotopic composition: 204Pb/ 206Pb = 0.107459(16), 207Pb/ 206Pb = 1.10759(10), and 208Pb/ 206Pb = 3.17347(28). This is slightly less radiogenic than the intercept of the bundle of isotopic arrays formed in 207Pb/ 206Pb- 204Pb/ 206Pb space by our measurements of Canyon Diablo, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Cape York, and Mundrabilla, as well as literature data, which, in spite of rather large uncertainties, suggests a common primordial Pb component for all of these meteorites. The radiogenic Pb present in most of these irons is dominantly

  13. The origin of the architecture of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perryman, Michael

    2012-05-01

    This article relates two topics of central importance in modern astronomy - the discovery some 15 years ago of the first planets around other stars (referred to as exoplanets), and the centuries-old problem of understanding the origin of our own solar system, with its planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, and comets. The surprising diversity of exoplanets, of which more than 500 have already been discovered, has required new models to explain their formation and evolution. In turn, these models explain, rather naturally, a number of important features of our own solar system, amongst them the masses and orbits of the "terrestrial" and "gas giant" planets, the presence and distribution of asteroids and comets, the origin and impact cratering of the Moon, and the existence of water on Earth.

  14. Solar-System Ephemeris Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) generates planetary and lunar ephemeris data and FORTRAN routines that allow users to obtain state data for the Sun, the moon, and the planets. The JPL Solar System Ephemeris Toolbox, developed at Kennedy Space Center, is a set of functions that provides the same functionality in the MATLAB computing environment along with some additional capabilities. The toolbox can be used interactively via a graphical user interface (GUI), or individual functions can be called from the MATLAB command prompt or other MATLAB scripts and functions. The toolbox also includes utility functions to define and perform coordinate transformation (e.g., mean-of-date, true-of-date, J2000) that are common in the use of these ephemerides. An attached README file guides the user through the process of constructing binary ephemeris files, verifying correct installation, and using functions to extract state data. This process also can be performed using the GUI. Help from each toolbox function is available through MATLAB s "help" function. Many of the functions in the toolbox are MATLAB equivalents of the JPL-written FORTRAN programs and subroutines used for the same purposes. A novice can use the GUI to extract state data, while a more experienced user can use the functions directly, as needed, in his/her applications. The toolbox has been tested using MATLAB Releases 13 an

  15. Communicating across the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. S.; Lyman, P. T.; Force, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    The exploration of the solar system by means of spacecraft would not be possible in its present form without the art and science of communications. Particularly exacting requirements arise in connection with the study of the planets and the interplanetary medium beyond the orbit of Jupiter. Developments in technology providing the required communication capability are partly based on the principle of the phase-locked loop as a narrow-band tracking filter. Mission objectives and performance are discussed for Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2 which at present are the only spacecraft beyond the orbit of Jupiter. A description is given of challenges related to communication in the case of the passage of Voyager 2 near Uranus in 1986 and near Neptune in 1989, taking into account the approaches employed to meet these challenges. Attention is given to requirements concerning international cooperation regarding the ground network, the development of interagency and intra-agency arraying, and the improvement of antenna efficiency.

  16. Optimal control studies of solar heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, C B

    1980-01-01

    In the past few years fuel prices have seen steady increases. Also, the supply of fuel has been on the decline. Because of these two problems there has been an increase in the number of solar heated buildings. Since conventional fuel prices are increasing and as a solar heating system represents a high capital cost it is desirable to obtain the maximum performance from a solar heating system. The control scheme that is used in a solar heated building has an effect on the performance of the solar system. The best control scheme possible would, of course, be desired. This report deals with the control problems of a solar heated building. The first of these problems is to control the inside temperature of the building and to minimize the fuel consumption. This problem applies to both solar and conventionally heated buildings. The second problem considered is to control the collector fluid flow to maximize the difference between the useful energy collected and the energy required to pump the fluid. The third problem is to control the enclosure temperature of a building which has two sources of heat, one solar and the other conventional.

  17. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkerim, A. I.; Sami Eusuf, M. M. R.; Salami, M. J. E.; Aibinu, A.; Eusuf, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors.

  18. Demonstration of portable solar adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Dong, Bing

    2012-10-01

    Solar-adaptive optics (AO) are more challenging than night-time AO, in some aspects. A portable solar adaptive optics (PSAO) system featuring compact physical size, low cost, and good performance has been proposed and developed. PSAO can serve as a visiting instrument for any existing ground-based solar telescope to improve solar image quality by replacing just a few optical components. High-level programming language, LabVIEW, is used to develop the wavefront sensing and control software, and general purpose computers are used to drive the whole system. During October 2011, the feasibility and good performance of PSAO was demonstrated with the 61-cm solar telescope at San Fernando Observatory. The image contrast and resolution are noticeably improved after AO correction.

  19. Studying the Solar System Can Be More Than Just "Stamp Collecting"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2017-04-01

    While teaching his first-ever introductory college astronomy course, I heard a graduate student make the comment that compared to other areas of astronomy, studying the solar system is just "stamp collecting." Coverage of the solar system in an introductory college astronomy course certainly could consist mostly of showing images and reporting facts, but by using observations that can be made from images and also data and other known facts about the objects, instruction on solar system topics can be more conceptual, involving just as much inquiry and discovery as any area of astronomy or physics.

  20. Climate Fundamentals for Solar Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The design of any solar heating system is influenced heavily by climate; in this bulletin, information on climate as related to solar heating is as related to solar heating is provided. Topics discussed include: (1) solar radiation; (2) degree days; (3) climate and calculations which make use of solar radiation and degree days; and (4)…

  1. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  2. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  3. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  4. Solar System Exploration -- What Comes Next?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Do you think we already know everything about our solar system? Think again. We've barely scratched the surface of what there is to learn. Join NASA as it sends missions to the far ends of the sola...

  5. Prototype solar heating and hot water systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress made in the development of a solar hot water and space heating system is described in four quarterly reports. The program schedules, technical status and other program activities from 6 October 1976 through 30 September 1977 are provided.

  6. Chasing shadows in the outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Federica

    The characteristics of the populations of objects that inhabit the outer solar system carry the fingerprint of the processes that governed the formation and evolution of the solar system. Occultation surveys push the limit of observation into the very small and distant outer solar system objects, allowing us to set constraints on the structure of the Kuiper belt, Scattered disk and Sedna populations. I collected, reduced, and analyzed vast datasets looking for occultations of stars by outer solar system objects, both working with the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS) collaboration and leading the MMT/Megacam occultation effort. Having found no such events in my data, I was able to place upper limits on the Kuiper belt, scattered disk and Sedna population. These limits and their derivation are described here.

  7. The Birth Environment of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael; Allen, Lori; Trilling, Davif

    2014-02-01

    In his comprehensive review on the birth environment of the solar system, Adams (2010) uses four primary dynamical, chemical, and radiation constraints to conclude that the solar system formed in a cluster with between 1000 and 10,000 members. The existence of the planetoid Sedna, on a highly elliptical orbit disconnected from the giant planets, is perhaps the weakest of these primary constraints. We propose a small Gemini imaging program to followup serendipitous discoveries of distant objets in the outer solar system from a 30 night Dark Energy Camera near earth asteroid survey. The Gemini observations will allow us to determine orbits of these distant objects which will allow us to (1) determine if Sedna was indeed emplaced by a birth cluster and (2) use full orbital population statistics to constrain the birth environment of the sun using this unique fossil record of the earliest history of our solar system.

  8. Cosmic ray hazards in the solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milford, S. N.

    1965-01-01

    Cosmic ray hazards in solar system considered from measurements of cosmic ray energy and charge spectra near Earth and in interplanetary space near Earth, together with interaction of cosmic rays with Moon surface

  9. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  10. The NASA atlas of the solar system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, Ronald; Batson, Raymond M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes every planet, moon, and body that has been the subject of a NASA mission, including images of 30 solar system objects and maps of 26 objects. The presentation includes geologic history, geologic and reference maps, and shaded relief maps.

  11. Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.

    1993-05-01

    The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

  12. Solar energy system with composite concentrating lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Genequand, P.; Stark, V.

    1980-12-09

    In order to improve the efficiency of a solar energy system utilizing a Fresnel lens for concentrating solar rays on a conduit system or the like, only the central portion of a Fresnel lens, otherwise of large width, is utilized and slide assemblies, each containing a plurality of slats with a reflective coating and disposed at an angle such as to reflect solar energy to the same focal point as the Fresnel lens, are disposed on each side of the lens thereby effectively increasing the aperture of the lens and increasing efficiency of concentration.

  13. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  14. Basics of a Solar Electric System: Better Buildings Series Solar Electric Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-07-01

    Today's solar technologies are more efficient and versatile than ever before, adding to the appeal of an already desirable energy source. This fact sheet provides information on the basics of a solar electric system, including components of a system, how to choose solar modules, and how to choose a solar system.

  15. The Solar System: Recent Exploration Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The solar system has been visited by space probes, ranging from the Mariner Mercury-Venus mission exploring inward toward the sun, and continuing through the Voyager probes out into interstellar space and (on its way now) the New Horizons probe to Pluto and the Kuiper belt. This talk examines what we know of the planets of the solar system from probes, and talks about where we will go from here.

  16. Meteoroids: The Smallest Solar System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, Danielle E. (Compiler); Hardin, B. F. (Compiler); Janches, Diego (Compiler)

    2011-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of articles reflecting the current state of knowledge on the physics, chemistry, astronomy, and aeronomy of small bodies in the solar system. The articles included here represent the most recent results in meteor, meteoroid, and related research fields and were presented May 24-28, 2010, in Breckenridge, Colorado, USA at Meteoroids 2010: An International Conference on Minor Bodies in the Solar System.

  17. Origin of Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Boyce, J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We feel that at the present moment the available theoretical models of the Kuiper belt are still in advance of the data, and thus our main task has been to conduct observational work guided by theoretical motivations. Our efforts over the past year can be divided into four categories: A) Wide-field Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; B) Pencil-beam Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; C) Wide-field Searches for Moons of the Outer Planets; D) Pencil-beam Searches for Faint Uranian and Neptunian Moons; E) Recovery Observations. As of April 2002, we have conducted several searches for Kuiper belt objects using large-format mosaic CCD camera on 4-meter class telescopes. In May 1999, we used the Kitt Peak 4-meter with the NOAO Mosaic camera we attempted a search for KBOs at a range of ecliptic latitudes. In addition to our wide-field searches, we have conducted three 'pencil-beam' searches in the past year. In a pencil-beam search we take repeated integrations of the same field throughout a night. After preprocessing the resulting images we shift and recombine them along a range of rates and directions consistent with the motion of KBOs. Stationary objects then smear out, while objects moving at near the shift rate appear as point sources. In addition to our searches for Kuiper belt objects, we are completing the inventory of the outer solar system by search for faint satellites of the outer planets. In August 2001 we conducted pencil beam searches for faint Uranian and Neptunian satellites at CFHT and CTIO. These searches resulted in the discover of two Neptunian and four Uranian satellite candidates. The discovery of Kuiper belt objects and outer planet satellites is of little use if the discoveries are not followed by systematic, repeated astrometric observations that permit reliable estimates of their orbits.

  18. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.

    2009-05-01

    There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  19. Topics in Complexity: From Physical to Life Science Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charry, Pedro David Manrique

    Complexity seeks to unwrap the mechanisms responsible for collective phenomena across the physical, biological, chemical, economic and social sciences. This thesis investigates real-world complex dynamical systems ranging from the quantum/natural domain to the social domain. The following novel understandings are developed concerning these systems' out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear behavior. Standard quantum techniques show divergent outcomes when a quantum system comprising more than one subunit is far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Abnormal photon inter-arrival times help fulfill the metabolic needs of a terrestrial photosynthetic bacterium. Spatial correlations within incident light can act as a driving mechanism for an organism's adaptation toward more ordered structures. The group dynamics of non-identical objects, whose assembly rules depend on mutual heterogeneity, yield rich transition dynamics between isolation and cohesion, with the cohesion regime reproducing a particular universal pattern commonly found in many real-world systems. Analyses of covert networks reveal collective gender superiority in the connectivity that provides benefits for system robustness and survival. Nodal migration in a network generates complex contagion profiles that lie beyond traditional approaches and yet resemble many modern-day outbreaks.

  20. Solar hydrogen energy system. Annual report, 1995--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Veziroglu, T.N.

    1996-12-31

    The paper reports progress on three tasks. Task A, System comparison of hydrogen with other alternative fuels in terms of EPACT requirements, investigates the feasibility of several alternative fuels, namely, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen and electricity, to replace 10% of gasoline by the year 2000. The analysis was divided into two parts: analysis of vehicle technologies and analysis of fuel production, storage and distribution. Task B, Photovoltaic hydrogen production, involves this fuel production method for the future. The process uses hybrid solar collectors to generate dc electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The third task, Hydrogen safety studies, covers two topics: a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels; and an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement.

  1. Parachute suspended solar pointing control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoda, G. T.; Fujimoto, R. J.; Shigemoto, J. M.; Windsor, R. M.

    A high altitude parachute suspended solar pointing control system has been developed and flight tested for use in the altitude range of 30 to 70 kilometers. This development provides an opportunity for extended solar observations at altitudes higher than that attainable by helium balloons. The new system utilizes the NASA high altitude cross parachute to slow the descent of a rocket launched payload allowing observations in the region of interest. Solar pointing is established by using solar sensors in conjunction with a servo controlled platform and cold gas thrusters for payload roll control. The inherent spin of the cross parachute is decoupled by a swivel joint attached to the parachute suspension lines. This paper describes the design, test and flight performance of the new system.

  2. Parachute-suspended solar pointing control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoda, G. T.; Fujimoto, R. J.; Shigemoto, J. M.; Windsor, R. M.

    1984-04-01

    A high altitude parachute suspended solar pointing control system has been developed and flight tested for use in the altitude range of 30 to 70 kilometers. This development provides an opportunity for extended solar observations at altitudes higher than that attainable by helium balloons. The new system utilizes the NASA high altitude cross parachute to slow the descent of a rocket launched payload allowing observations in the region of interest. Solar pointing is established by using solar sensors in conjunction with a servo controlled platform and cold gas thrusters for payload roll control. The inherent spin of the cross parachute is decoupled by a swivel joint attached to the parachute suspension lines. This paper describes the design, test and flight performance of the new system.

  3. Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    "Right now, solar electric propulsion is being looked at very seriously," says Michael Piszczor, chief of the photovoltaic and power technologies branch at Glen Research Center. The reason, he explains, originates with a unique NASA mission from the late 1990s. In 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft launched from Kennedy Space Center to test a dozen different space technologies, including SCARLET, or the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology. As a solar array that focused sunlight on a smaller solar cell to generate electric power, SCARLET not only powered Deep Space 1 s instruments but also powered its ion engine, which propelled the spacecraft throughout its journey. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft powered by a refractive concentrator design like SCARLET, and also utilized multi-junction solar cells, or cells made of multiple layers of different materials. For the duration of its 38-month mission, SCARLET performed flawlessly, even as Deep Space 1 flew by Comet Borrelly and Asteroid Braille. "Everyone remembers the ion engine on Deep Space 1, but they tend to forget that the SCARLET array powered it," says Piszczor. "Not only did both technologies work as designed, but the synergy between the two, solar power and propulsion together, is really the important aspect of this technology demonstration mission. It was the first successful use of solar electric propulsion for primary propulsion." More than a decade later, NASA is keenly interested in using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for future space missions. A key issue is cost, and SEP has the potential to substantially reduce cost compared to conventional chemical propulsion technology. "SEP allows you to use spacecraft that are smaller, lighter, and less costly," says Piszczor. "Even though it might take longer to get somewhere using SEP, if you are willing to trade time for cost and smaller vehicles, it s a good trade." Potentially, SEP could be used on future science missions

  4. Studies on system-level fault diagnosis and related topics

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, A.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation deals mainly with the diagnosis aspects of fault-tolerant computing. A number of system models are studied, and their diagnosability conditions established. Fault-diagnosis algorithms for some models are proposed and complexity of diagnosis problem analyzed for some other models. Finally, some fault-tolerant computer networks are studied, and efficient routing algorithms are proposed for these networks.

  5. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  6. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  7. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  8. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  9. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  10. Structural Complexity in Linguistic Systems Research Topic 3: Mathematical Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Kevin Taylor, “Extending Reinforcement Learning Methods with a Simple Robot”, Undergraduate Senior Thesis (June 2013), awarded Highest Honors by Physics...expressed in vocabulary and syntax) and entropy (the need to convey novelty and express meaning 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...evolves over time and to explore the tendency of language systems to develop in ways that balance structure (expressed in vocabulary and syntax) and

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Prosthetic interfaces with the visual system: biological issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ethan D.

    2007-06-01

    The design of effective visual prostheses for the blind represents a challenge for biomedical engineers and neuroscientists. Significant progress has been made in the miniaturization and processing power of prosthesis electronics; however development lags in the design and construction of effective machine brain interfaces with visual system neurons. This review summarizes what has been learned about stimulating neurons in the human and primate retina, lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex. Each level of the visual system presents unique challenges for neural interface design. Blind patients with the retinal degenerative disease retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are a common population in clinical trials of visual prostheses. The visual performance abilities of normals and RP patients are compared. To generate pattern vision in blind patients, the visual prosthetic interface must effectively stimulate the retinotopically organized neurons in the central visual field to elicit patterned visual percepts. The development of more biologically compatible methods of stimulating visual system neurons is critical to the development of finer spatial percepts. Prosthesis electrode arrays need to adapt to different optimal stimulus locations, stimulus patterns, and patient disease states.

  12. Photovoltaics: Solar electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-02-01

    The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida.

  13. Photovoltaics: solar electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida. (WHK)

  14. Topics in the mechanics of self-organizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambe, Dhananjay

    Self-organization, in one of its accepted definitions, is the appearance of non-random structures in a system without explicit constraints from forces outside the system. In this thesis two self-organizing systems are studied from the viewpoint of mechanics. In the first system---semiconductor crystal surfaces---the internal constraints that lead to self-assembly of nanoscale structures on silicon-germanium (SiGe) films are studied. In the second system---actin cytoskeleton---a consequence of dynamic self-organization of actin filaments in the form of motion of micron-sized beads through a cytoplasmic medium is studied. When Ge film is deposited on Si(001) substrate, nanoscale features form on the surface and self-organize by minimizing energy contributions from the surface and the strain resulting from difference in lattice constants of the film and the substrate. Clean Si(001) and Ge(001) surfaces are very similar, but experiments to date have shown that atomic scale defects such as dimer-vacancies self-organize into vacancy lines only on Si(001). Through atomic simulations, we show that the observed difference originate from the magnitude of compressive surface strain which reduces formation energy of the dimer-vacancies. During initial stages of the film deposition, the surface is composed of steps and vacancy lines organized in periodic patterns. Using theory of elasticity and atomic simulations we show that these line defects self-organize due to monopolar nature of steps and dipolar nature of the vacancy lines. This self-organized pattern further develops to form pyramidal islands bounded with (105) facets and high Ge content. Mismatch strain of the island is then reduced by incorporation of Si from the substrate surrounding the island leaving behind trenches whose depth is proportional to the basewidth of the island. Using finite element simulations we show that such a relationship is an outcome of competition between elastic energy and surface energy. Some

  15. Current concepts in systemic and topical therapy for superficial mycoses.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Larry E

    2010-03-04

    There presently exists a wide selection of choices in the treatment of superficial mycoses. The main categories of broad-spectrum agents are the allylamines and imidazoles, which have been tried and proven over more than 2 decades of usage with good safety. Nystatin and griseofulvin have even longer experience of about 5 decades but have niche usage for yeasts and dermatophytes, respectively. Although no new therapeutic groups have appeared, extensive development of vehicles and delivery systems has enhanced therapeutic results and increased patient compliance.

  16. Mineralogy of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    The coming decade will witnesses the first sample return missions from solar system bodies in 30 years. These samples will all be very small, some missions return only a few milligrams of total mass. Fortunately, the capability of modem methods to characterize ultra-small samples is well established from analysis of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), interstellar grains recovered from meteorites, and other materials requiring ultra-sensitive analytical capabilities. Powerful analytical techniques are available that require, under favorable circumstances, single particles of only a few nanograms for entire suites of fairly comprehensive characterizations. A returned sample of greater than 1,000 particles with total mass of just one microgram permits comprehensive quantitative geochemical measurements that are impractical to can-y out in situ by flight instruments. With the Galileo flybys of Gaspra and Ida, it is now recognized that even very small airless bodies have indeed developed a particulate regolith. Acquiring a sample of the bulk regolith, a simple sampling strategy, provides two critical pieces of information about the body. Regolith samples are excellent bulk samples since they normally contain all the key components of the local environment, albeit in particulate form. Furthermore, since this fine fraction dominates remote measurements, regolith samples also provide information about surface alteration processes and are a key link to remote sensing of other bodies. Studies indicate that a statistically significant number of nanogram-sized particles should be able to characterize the regolith of a primitive asteroid, although the presence of larger components within even primitive meteorites (e.g.. Murchison), e.g. chondrules, CAI, large crystal fragments, etc., points out the limitations of using data obtained from nanogram-sized samples to characterize entire primitive asteroids. However, most important asteroidal geological processes have left their

  17. Advanced worker protection system. Topical report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system, maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles.

  18. Exposure of Mice to Topical Bovine Thrombin Induces Systemic Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenecker, Jonathan G.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Lesher, Aaron P.; Day, Jarrod D.; Love, Stephanie D.; Hoffman, Maureane R.; Ortel, Thomas L.; Parker, William; Lawson, Jeffrey H.

    2001-01-01

    Bovine thrombin is used as an aid to hemostasis in medical and surgical procedures. At least 500,000 Americans are exposed to this therapeutic annually and reports suggest that exposure is associated with the development of autoreactive antibodies. To determine whether bovine thrombin can induce pathological autoimmunity we exposed nonautoimmune-prone galactose-α1-3-galactose-deficient mice to the two bovine thrombin preparations currently approved for use in the United States. We found that, like humans exposed to bovine thrombin, mice developed an immune response against the therapeutic and the xenogeneic carbohydrate galactose-α1-3-galactose, and some mice developed autoantibodies against clotting factors. Further, unexpectedly, a single exposure to this therapeutic also induced autoimmunity with features characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus including antibodies against nuclear antigens, native DNA, double-stranded DNA, and cardiolipin. High levels of these autoantibodies correlated with glomerulonephritis in all mice evaluated. This autoimmune syndrome was detected in mice 15 weeks after a secondary exposure to bovine thrombin and female mice were found to develop the syndrome at a significantly greater frequency than males. Thus, these studies indicate that exposure to bovine thrombin preparations can induce a pathological systemic autoimmune syndrome with lupus-like serology. PMID:11696457

  19. Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    "Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.

  20. Solar Thermal Power Systems parabolic dish project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    The status of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Project for FY 1980 is summarized. Included is: a discussion of the project's goals, program structure, and progress in parabolic dish technology. Analyses and test results of concentrators, receivers, and power converters are discussed. Progress toward the objectives of technology feasibility, technology readiness, system feasibility, and system readiness are covered.

  1. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A collection of monthly status reports on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3, 25, and 75 ton size units.

  2. Residential solar-heating system - design brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Design brochure for commercially-available solar-heating system is valuable to architects, engineers, and designers. It contains information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout. Drawings and specifications of all components and typical installation details are included in appendix.

  3. Prototype residential solar-energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Complete solar-energy domestic-hot-water system for single-family residences is described in brochure. It contains data on procurement, installation, operation, and maintainance of system in residential or light commercial buildings. Appendix includes vendor brochures for major system components. Drawings, tables, and graphs complement text.

  4. An orientable solar panel system for nanospacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Candini, Gian Paolo; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

    2014-08-01

    An orientable deployed solar array system for 1-5 kg weight nanospacecraft is described, enhancing the achievable performance of these typically power-limited systems. The system is based on a deployable solar panel system, previously developed with cooperation between Laboratorio di Sistemi Aerospaziali of University of Roma “la Sapienza” and the company IMT (Ingegneria Marketing Tecnologia). The system proposed is a modular one, and suitable in principle for the 1U, 2U and 3U standard Cubesat bus, even if the need for three axis attitude stabilization makes it typically preferred for 3U Cubesats. The size of each solar panel is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. A single degree of freedom maneuvering capability is given to the deployed solar array, in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun as close as possible, given the mission requirements on the spacecraft attitude. Considerable effort has been devoted to design the system compatible with the Cubesat standard, being mounted outside on the external spacecraft structure, without requiring modifications on the standard prescriptions. The small available volume is the major constraint, which forces to use miniaturized electric motor technology. The system design trade-off is discussed, leading to the selection of an architecture based on two independently steerable solar array wings.

  5. Multi-kilowatt solar power system concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kirpich, A.; Chung, A.

    1984-08-01

    As part of a feasibility study for large satellite communications, the conceptual design of a multi-kilowatt solar power system has been completed. The concept is based on using two flat-pack SEP solar arrays having a beginning-of-life output of 25 KW. The bulk of this power is supplied to the communication payload at 200 VDC. Further processing to various user voltage levels is performed within the communications subsystem. A limited amount of energy storage is used to maintain the payload during eclipse periods. The system has been designed for a geosynchronous orbit. Key technical issues of this concept are the use of a high distribution voltage (200 VDC) and the effects of electro-static discharge (ESD) associated with the large solar array area. Assessments of these issues are presented together with approaches for reducing deleterious effects to acceptable levels. Housekeeping loads, estimated at 1 KW, are supported by a small segment of the solar array along with a complement of batteries for operation through eclipse periods. This power is provided at 28 VDC. A unique feature of the design is the manner in which the solar array is mounted to the spacecraft. Instead of articulating the solar array with respect to the main spacecraft body, as implemented in many geosynchronous spacecraft, the solar array is fixed to the main body. Both the solar array and main body are then sun oriented. Key advantages of this approach are: elimination of high power slip rings; simple thermal control because sun-pointing results in constant thermal conditions; straightforward structural and mechanical integration resulting largely from elimination of view factor considerations associated with articulated solar arrays.

  6. An Automated Solar Synoptic Analysis Software System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S.; Lee, S.; Oh, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Moon, Y.; Lee, D.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed an automated software system of identifying solar active regions, filament channels, and coronal holes, those are three major solar sources causing the space weather. Space weather forecasters of NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center produce the solar synoptic drawings as a daily basis to predict solar activities, i.e., solar flares, filament eruptions, high speed solar wind streams, and co-rotating interaction regions as well as their possible effects to the Earth. As an attempt to emulate this process with a fully automated and consistent way, we developed a software system named ASSA(Automated Solar Synoptic Analysis). When identifying solar active regions, ASSA uses high-resolution SDO HMI intensitygram and magnetogram as inputs and providing McIntosh classification and Mt. Wilson magnetic classification of each active region by applying appropriate image processing techniques such as thresholding, morphology extraction, and region growing. At the same time, it also extracts morphological and physical properties of active regions in a quantitative way for the short-term prediction of flares and CMEs. When identifying filament channels and coronal holes, images of global H-alpha network and SDO AIA 193 are used for morphological identification and also SDO HMI magnetograms for quantitative verification. The output results of ASSA are routinely checked and validated against NOAA's daily SRS(Solar Region Summary) and UCOHO(URSIgram code for coronal hole information). A couple of preliminary scientific results are to be presented using available output results. ASSA will be deployed at the Korean Space Weather Center and serve its customers in an operational status by the end of 2012.

  7. Planetary magnetism in the outer solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.

    1973-01-01

    A brief review of the salient considerations which apply to the existence of magnetic fields in connection with planetary and subplanetary objects in the outer solar system is given. Consideration is given to internal dynamo fields, fields which might originate from interaction with the solar wind or magnetospheres (externally driven dynamos) and lastly fossil magnetic fields such as have been discovered on the moon. Where possible, connection is made between magnetism, means of detection, and internal body properties.

  8. Solar energy system with wind vane

    DOEpatents

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  9. Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

  10. Solar thermionic power systems for terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study which showed that a low-temperature, high-efficient thermionic power system can efficiently convert solar energy to electrical energy without heat transport, as required by most solar thermal systems are described. A 3-dimensional (2-axis tracking) 93 sq m parabolic solar concentrator, consisting of mirrors on a foam glass substrate and designed to a concentration ratio (mirror area/aperture area) of 2000 is considered for producing a design temperature of 1100 C at an efficiency of 74%. A tracking subsystem must track the sun at an accuracy of a nominal plus or minus 1.0 degree for maximum use of the sun's energy. Each complete solar thermionic power system unit rated at about 20 kWe peak can generate approximately 48,000 kWh/yr. In addition, a thermal energy conversion system can be cascaded within the thermionic power system so that the high quality waste heat can be further utilized to increase the net electrical output. Potential applications of a solar thermionic power generation system are remote sites, apartment house complexes, heating and cooling, hydrogen production and large power stations.

  11. Embedding Analogical Reasoning into 5E Learning Model: A Study of the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devecioglu-Kaymakci, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the 5E learning model affects learning about the Solar System when an analogical model is utilized in teaching. The data were gathered in an urban middle school 7th grade science course while teaching relevant astronomy topics. The analogical model developed by the researchers was administered to 20…

  12. Design and installation of solar heating and hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A no-nonsense explanation of information on the use of solar energy for heating, cooling, and producing hot water. The work is both scholarly and practical. Background of high school algebra is the only mathematics expected. Worked examples but no exercises. Contents: Solar radiation. Heating loads. Design and analysis of flat-place liquid-heating collectors. Flat-plate air-heating collectors. Evacuated solar collectors. Solar hot water systems. Solar ponds. Active solar heating and cooling systems.

  13. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringel, Robert F.

    Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

  14. Comparing the Document Representations of Two IR-Systems: CLARIT and TOPIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paijmans, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Compares two information retrieval systems, CLARIT and TOPIC, in terms of assigned versus derived and precoordinate versus postcoordinate indexing. Models of information retrieval systems are discussed, and a test of the systems using a demonstration database of full-text articles from the "Wall Street Journal" is described. (Contains 21…

  15. Geophysics and cosmogony of solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzjmenko, G. I.; Smirnov, V. A.

    2003-04-01

    The attention to primary importance of geophysics in formation of modern representations about planets of Solar system is inverted. [ Kuzjmenko G.I. Deep Processes in the Earth's Interior. Geophys. J. 2001. Vol. 20, pp 813 -831; Kuzjmenko G.I., Smirnov V.A. Minor Bodys and Cosmogony of a Solar System. CAMMAC 2002. Intern. Conf. September 23 - 29, Vinnitsia, 2002, pp 35 -36]. The analysis rocket given about electromagnetic properties of Solar system has helped utilization Generalized Statistical-Wavemechanical Equations (GSWE), which special case is the quantum equation of Schrödinger. From GSWE the decision not only old problems of Solar system, but also prediction of presence of a belt of small bodies of Kuiper's and features of absent-minded substance in Solar system follows. The modern geophysical data on properties of the Earth with use GSWE result not only in the description of the electromagnetic characteristics of planets, but open existence dark mattery, which properties now are actively studied [Kuzjmenko G.I., Zelinsky I.P. Generalized Statistical-Wavemechanical Equations (GSWE) and its Applications. Proc. of 16-th IMACS World Congress 2000. Lausanne, Switzerland, August 21-25, 2000. CD File 416 -1].

  16. Predicting Solar Disturbance Effects on Navigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, M.; Wild, M. N.; Stamper, R.; Davis, C. J.; Grande, M.

    A variety of operational systems are vulnerable to disruption by solar disturbances brought to the Earth by the solar wind. Of particular importance to navigation systems are energetic charged particles which can generate temporary malfunctions and permanent damage in satellites. Modern spacecraft technology may prove to be particularly at risk during the next maximum of the solar cycle. In addition, the associated ionospheric disturbances cause phase shifts of transionospheric and ionosphere-reflected signals, giving positioning errors and loss of signal for GPS and Loran-C positioning systems and for over-the-horizon radars. We now have sufficient understanding of the solar wind, and how it interacts with the Earth's magnetic field, to predict statistically the likely effects on operational systems over the next solar cycle. We also have a number of advanced ways of detecting and tracking these disturbances through space but we cannot, as yet, provide accurate forecasts of individual disturbances that could be used to protect satellites and to correct errors. In addition, we have recently discovered long-term changes in the Sun, which mean that the number and severity of the disturbances to operational systems are increasing.

  17. Solar dynamic space power system heat rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    A radiator system concept is described that meets the heat rejection requirements of the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. The heat pipe radiator is a high-reliability, high-performance approach that is capable of erection in space and is maintainable on orbit. Results are present of trade studies that compare the radiator system area and weight estimates for candidate advanced high performance heat pipes. The results indicate the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight-reduction potential over the range of temperatures to be encountered in the solar dynamic heat rejection systems.

  18. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianze, Li; Hengwei, Lu; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou; Xia, Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  19. Development and Testing of the Solar System Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornstein, Seth D.; Prather, E. E.; English, T. R.; Desch, S. M.; Keller, J. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    Trying to assess if our students really understand the ideas we present in class can be difficult. Concept inventories are research-validated assessment tools that can provide us with data to better understand whether we are successful in the classroom. The idea for the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was born after realizing that no concept inventory currently available covered details regarding the formation and evolution of our solar system. Topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system and interviewing students in order to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. Beginning in fall of 2008, a national multi-institutional field test began which would eventually involve nearly 2500 students and 17 instructors from 10 different institutions. After each round of testing, a group of instructors from multiple institutions around the country worked together to analyze the data and revise or eliminate underperforming questions. Each question was examined using a combination of point biserial, percent correct on the pre-test, and item difficulty to determine if the question was properly differentiating student understanding while also ensuring the question was not too easy or too hard. In this talk, I will present an overall outline of the development of the SSCI as well as the final testing results. The final version of the SSCI can be found at http://casa.colorado.edu/ hornstei/ssci/. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any findings expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

  20. Monitoring solar-thermal systems: An outline of methods and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.

    1994-04-01

    This manual discusses the technical issues associated with monitoring solar-thermal systems. It discusses some successful monitoring programs that have been implemented in the past. It gives the rationale for selecting a program of monitoring and gives guidelines for the design of new programs. In this report, solar thermal monitoring systems are classified into three levels. For each level, the report discusses the kinds of information obtained by monitoring, the effort needed to support the monitoring program, the hardware required, and the costs involved. Ultimately, all monitoring programs share one common requirement: the collection of accurate data that characterize some aspect or aspects of the system under study. This report addresses most of the issues involved with monitoring solar thermal systems. It does not address such topics as design fundamentals of thermal systems or the relative merits of the many different technologies employed for collection of solar energy.

  1. Pump efficiency in solar-energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data. Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented.

  2. Solar Hot-Air System --Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar collectors using air as collection medium provide space heating for four-building office complex in Memphis. 98 page report furnishes details on installation, including: description of system; system startup and acceptance-test results; technical data on collector; installation manuals for collectors, air handler and heat-storage unit.

  3. The Angular Momentum of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cang, Rongquin; Guo, Jianpo; Hu, Juanxiu; He, Chaoquiong

    2016-05-01

    The angular momentum of the Solar System is a very important physical quantity to the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Previously, the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets were only taken into consideration, when researchers calculated the angular momentum of the Solar System. Nowadays, it seems narrow and conservative. Using Eggleton's code, we calculate the rotational inertia of the Sun. Furthermore, we obtain that the spin angular momentum of the Sun is 1.8838 x 10^41 kg m^2 s^-1. Besides the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets, we also account for the orbital angular momentum of the Asteroid Belt, the Kuiper Belt, the Oort Cloud, the Ninth Giant Planet and the Solar Companion. We obtain that the angular momentum of the whole Solar System is 3.3212 x 10^45 kg m^2 s^-1.

  4. Origin of the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Matthew J. (Principal Investigator); Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; (2) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; (5) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  5. Volcanic processes in the Solar System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    This article stresses that terrestrial volcanism represents only part of the range of volcanism in the solar system. Earth processes of volcanicity are dominated by plate tectonics, which does not seem to operate on other planets, except possibly on Venus. Lunar volcanicity is dominated by lava effusion at enormous rates. Mars is similar, with the addition to huge shield volcanoes developed over fixed hotspots. Io, the moon closest to Jupiter, is the most active body in the Solar System and, for example, much sulphur and silicates are emitted. The eruptions of Io are generated by heating caused by tides induced by Jupiter. Europa nearby seems to emit water from fractures and Ganymede is similar. The satellites of Saturn and Uranus are also marked by volcanic craters, but they are of very low temperature melts, possibly of ammonia and water. The volcanism of the solar system is generally more exotic, the greater the distance from Earth. -A.Scarth

  6. Cryovolcanism in the outer solar system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Cryovolcanism is defined as the extrusion of liquids and vapors of materials that would be frozen solid at the planetary surface temperatures of the icy bodies of the outer solar system. Active cryovolcanism is now known to occur on Saturn's moon Enceladus and on Neptune's moon Triton and is suspected on Jupiter's moon Europa, while evidence for past cryovolcanic activity is widespread throughout the outer solar system. This chapter examines the mechanisms and manifestations of cryovolcanism, beginning with a review of the materials that make up these unusual ‘‘magmas’’ and the means by which they might erupt and concluding with a volcanologist's tour of the farthest reaches of the solar system.

  7. Star Formation and the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bally, John; Boss, Alan; Papanastassiou, Dimitri; Sandford, Scott; Sargent, Anneila

    1988-01-01

    We have seen that studies of nearby star-forming regions are beginning to reveal the first signs of protoplanetary disks. Studies of interstellar and interplanetary grains are starting to provide clues about the processing and incorporation of matter into the Solar System. Studies of meteorites have yielded isotopic anomalies which indicate that some of the grains and inclusions in these bodies are very primitive. Although we have not yet detected a true interstellar grain, some of these materials have not been extensively modified since their removal from the ISM. We are indeed close to seeing our interstellar heritage. The overlap between astronomical and Solar System studies is in its infancy. What future experiments, observations, and missions can be performed in the near future that will greatly enhance our understanding of star formation and the formation of the Solar System?

  8. Discovering the 50 Years of Solar System Exploration: Sharing Your Science with the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; Shupla, C.; Halligan, E.; Boonstra, D.; Wessen, A.; Baerg, G.; Davis, P.; Burdick, A.; Zimmerman Brachman, R.

    2012-10-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers ways for scientists to bring NASA’s science discoveries to their audiences! YSS and the continuing salute to the 50-year history of solar system exploration provide an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system for educators and the general public. During the last five decades, NASA has launched a variety of robotic spacecraft to study our solar system. Over that time, our understanding of planets has been revolutionized, as has the technology that has made these discoveries possible.Looking forward, the numerous ongoing and future robotic missions are returning new discoveries of our solar system at an unprecedented rate. YSS combines the discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of the ongoing missions and connects them to related topics based on the big questions of planetary science, including solar system formation, volcanism, ice, and possible life elsewhere. Planetary scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS in a variety of ways: - Give a talk at a local museum, planetarium, library, or school to share YSS and your research - Partner with a local educational institution to organize a night sky viewing or mission milestone community event - Work with a classroom teacher to explore one of the topics with students - Connect with a planetary science E/PO professional to identify ways to participate, like creating podcasts,vodcasts, or contributing to monthly topics - Share your ideas for events and activities with the planetaryE/PO community to identify partners and pathways for distribution - And more! Promotional and educational materials, updates, a calendar of activities, and a space to share experiences are available at NASA’s Solar System website: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. This is an exciting time in planetary sciences as we learn about New Worlds and make New Discoveries!

  9. The chaotic "sculpting" of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiganis, K.

    2006-01-01

    The orbits of the large celestial bodies in our Solar System are stable for very long times, as can be shown by numerical simulation. This gives the erroneous impression of perpetual stability of the system. It is only when we study the orbital distribution of the numerous minor bodies in the Solar System that we discover the rich variety of complex dynamical processes that have in fact shaped our system. During the last decade, enormous progress has been made, in understanding the evolution of the system over the last ~3.9 Gy. However, it also became clear that, in order to unveil its behaviour during the first ~700 million years of its lifetime, we have to find convincing explanations for observations that appear as details of its dynamical architecture. In the following we are going to show how the two best known - and up to now unexplained - observations in the Solar System, namely (i) the heavily cratered surface of the Moon and (ii) the elliptic (and not circular) motion of the planets, lead us to the discovery of the chaotic sculpting of the Solar System [1]-[3].

  10. Solar system planets observed with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ohashi, Takaya; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Terada, Naoki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Futaana, Yoshifumi

    2011-02-01

    Recent results of solar system planets observed with the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite Suzaku are reviewed. Thanks to the low instrumental background and good energy resolution, X-ray CCDs onboard Suzaku are one of the best probes to study diffuse X-ray emission. An overview of the Suzaku data of Jupiter and Earth is presented, along with preliminary results of Mars. Firstly, diffuse hard X-ray emission is discovered in 1-5 keV at Jovian radiation belts. Its spectrum is represented by a power-law continuum with a photon index of ˜1.4. This emission could originate from inverse-Compton scattering of solar photons by tens MeV electrons. Secondly, variable diffuse soft X-rays are serendipitously found during observations in the directions of the north ecliptic pole and galactic ridge. Good time correlations with the solar wind and emission lines found in the X-ray spectra are firm evidences of a solar wind charge exchange emission with Earth’s exosphere. Thirdly, diffuse X-ray emission from Martian exosphere via the solar wind charge exchange is investigated for the first time at solar minimum. A stringent upper limit on the density of the Martian exosphere is placed from the Suzaku data.

  11. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2005-01-01

    We are engaged in testing gravitational theory, mainly using observations of objects in the solar system and mainly on the interplanetary scale. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements. In the past year, we have added to our data, primarily lunar laser ranging measurements, but also supplementary data concerning the physical properties of solar-system objects, such as the solar quadrupole moment, planetary masses, and asteroid radii. Because the solar quadrupole moment contributes to the classical precession of planetary perihelia, but with a dependence on distance from the Sun that differs from that of the relativistic precession, it is possible to estimate effects simultaneously. However, our interest is mainly in the relativistic effect, and we find that imposing a constraint on the quadrupole moment from helioseismology studies, gives us a dramatic (about ten-fold) decrease in the standard error of our estimate of the relativistic component of the perihelion advance.

  12. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2005-01-01

    This research is aimed at testing gravitational theory, primarily on an interplanetary scale and using mainly observations of objects in the solar system. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements.

  13. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2014-10-14

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  14. Testing relativity with solar system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellings, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A major breakthrough is described in the accuracy of Solar System dynamical tests of relativistic gravity. The breakthrough was achieved by factoring in ranging data from Viking Landers 1 and 2 from the surface of Mars. Other key data sources included optical transit circle observations, lunar laser ranging, planetary radar, and spacecraft (Mariner 9 to Mars and Mariner 10 to Mercury). The Solar System model which is used to fit the data and the process by which such fits are performed are explained and results are discussed. The results are fully consistent with the predictions of General Relativity.

  15. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  16. The Systems Analysis and Design Course: An Educators' Assessment of the Importance and Coverage of Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidry, Brandi N.; Stevens, David P.; Totaro, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines instructors' perceptions regarding the skills and topics that are most important in the teaching of a Systems Analysis and Design ("SAD") course and the class time devoted to each. A large number of Information Systems ("IS") educators at AACSB accredited schools across the United States were surveyed.…

  17. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  18. Solar-system abundances of the elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Ebihara, M.

    1982-01-01

    Elemental analyses of the Ogueil Cl meteorite and all previous Cl chondrite analyses were employed to develop a new solar system abundance table, including the standard deviation and number of analyses for each element. The table also comprises the abundances of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides at the present and 4.55 AE ago, as well as abundances by weight in a typical Cl chondrite. The new abundances were within 20% of those determined by Cameron (1982), except for 14 cases in the range 20-50%, and 5 over 50%. The solar abundances were compared with the Cl abundances, showing a total of only 7 disagreements. No significant discrepancies were detected in the major cosmochemical groups, and a smooth trend was found in the abundances of odd-A nuclides. The new set is interpreted as accurate to 10%, with the Cl chondrites matching the primordial solar system abundances to at most 10% deviation.

  19. Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    A profound question for scientists, philosophers and, indeed, all humans concerns how the solar system originated and subsequently evolved. To understand the solar system's formation, it is necessary to document fully the chemical and physical makeup of its components today, particularly those parts thought to retain clues about primordial conditions and processes.] In the past decade, our knowledge of the outermost, or trans-neptunian, region of the solar system has been transformed as a result of Earth-based observations of the Pluto-Charon system, Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune and its satellite Triton, and recent discoveries of dozens of bodies near to or beyond the orbit of Neptune. As a class, these newly detected objects, along with Pluto, Charon, and Triton, occupy the inner region of a hitherto unexplored component of the solar system, the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is believed to be a reservoir of primordial objects of the type that formed in the solar nebula and eventually accreted to form the major planets. The Kuiper Belt is also thought to be the source of short-period comets and a population of icy bodies, the Centaurs, with orbits among the giant planets. Additional components of the distant outer solar system, such as dust and the Oort comet cloud, as well as the planet Neptune itself, are not discussed in this report. Our increasing knowledge of the trans-neptunian solar system has been matched by a corresponding increase in our capabilities for remote and in situ observation of these distant regions. Over the next 10 to 15 years, a new generation of ground- and space-based instruments, including the Keck and Gemini telescopes and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, will greatly expand our ability to search for and conduct physical and chemical studies on these distant bodies. Over the same time span, a new generation of lightweight spacecraft should become available and enable the first missions designed specifically to explore the icy

  20. Solar heating system final design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  1. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The completed system was composed of three basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3,264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which included a 5,000 gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which included piping, pumping and heat transfer components as well as the solemoid activated valves and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and was, therefore, a retrofit system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  2. Solar dynamic power systems for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

  3. System integration issues of residential solar photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamayee, Z. A.; Peschon, J.

    1980-03-01

    The economic effects of residential solar PV systems on the utility's revenue, capacity, and energy requirements from the electric utility's perspective are evaluated. The price that it might pay for surplus energy and what it would charge for deficits are compared. The power and energy generated by the solar PV systems reduce the capital and operating costs that would otherwise be incurred by the utility. These avoided costs suggest what the utility might pay for surplus solar PV energy. The avoided costs are evaluated under three integration hypotheses, namely: (1) the utility has no system storage; (2) the utility has system storage; and (3) the solar PV systems are supported by dedicated storage devices, the purpose of which is to minimize sales to and purchases from the utility.

  4. Solar system installation at Louisville, Kentucky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of a solar space heating and domestic hot water system is described. The overall philosophy used was to install both a liquid and a hot air system retrofitted to existing office and combined warehouse building. The 1080 sq. ft. office space is heated first and excess heat is dumped into the warehouse. The two systems offer a unique opportunity to measure the performance and compare results of both air and liquid at one site.

  5. Passive vapor transport solar heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the systems under consideration, refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector and condensed in thermal storage for space or water heating located within the building at a level below that of the collector. Condensed liquid is lifted to an accumulator above the collector by the vapor pressure generated in the collector. Tests of two systems are described, and it is concluded that one of these systems offers distinct advantages.

  6. Epidermal reconstructs: a new tool to study topical and systemic photoprotective molecules.

    PubMed

    Cario-André, Muriel; Briganti, Stefania; Picardo, Mauro; Nikaido, Osamu; Gall, Yvon; Ginestar, José; Taïeb, Alain

    2002-11-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of sunscreens and antioxidants on reconstructed epidermis made with or without melanocytes 24 h after UVB, UVA or UVA+B irradiation. For this purpose, we studied sunburn cells and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation, protein and lipid oxidation, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and vitamin E levels. Topical sunscreens protected against direct cell death and thymine dimer formation whereas their protective effect against protein and lipid oxidation and antioxidant depletion was less marked partly due to the difficulty of spreading the cream. Antioxidant molecules protected against direct cell death and protein oxidation but not against thymine dimer formation. Since topical sunscreens and systemic antioxidant protected the skin differently, we speculate that their association might protect more efficiently against UV-induced damage. This model is relevant to study systemic molecules but is less practical, due to the technical limitations of studying topical molecules.

  7. The Dimensions of the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen E.; Davis, Kathleen S.

    2007-01-01

    A few new wrinkles have been added to the popular activity of building a scale model of the solar system. Students can learn about maps and scaling using easily accessible online resources that include satellite images. This is accomplished by taking advantage of some of the special features of Google Earth. This activity gives students a much…

  8. Assessment of a Solar System Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…

  9. Pit Crater Chains Across the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrick, D. Y.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Bleamaster, L. F.; Collins, G. C.

    2010-03-01

    Pit crater chains exist on a range of planetary bodies — from small asteroids to icy moons to large terrestrial planets — raising important questions about formation mechanisms and near-surface crustal properties of solid bodies in our solar system.

  10. Solar Energy Forecast System Development and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jascourt, S. D.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Cassidy, C.

    2012-12-01

    Forecast systems for predicting real-time solar energy generation are being developed along similar lines to those of more established wind forecast systems, but the challenges and constraints are different. Clouds and aerosols play a large role, and for tilted photovoltaic panels and solar concentrating plants, the direct beam irradiance, which typically has much larger forecast errors than global horizontal irradiance, must be utilized. At MDA Information Systems, we are developing a forecast system based on first principles, with the well-validated REST2 clear sky model (Gueymard, 2008) at its backbone. In tuning the model and addressing aerosol scattering and surface albedo, etc., we relied upon the wealth of public data sources including AERONET (aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths), Suominet (GPS integrated water vapor), NREL MIDC solar monitoring stations, SURFRAD (includes upwelling shortwave), and MODIS (albedo in different wavelength bands), among others. The forecast itself utilizes a blend of NWP model output, which must be brought down to finer time resolution based on the diurnal cycle rather than simple interpolation. Many models currently do not output the direct beam irradiance, and one that does appears to have a bias relative to its global horizontal irradiance, with equally good performance attained by utilizing REST2 and the model global radiation to estimate the direct component. We will present a detailed assessment of various NWP solar energy products, evaluating forecast skill at a range of photovoltaic installations.

  11. The Global Solar System Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Jim

    1992-08-01

    A Global Solar System Exploration Program is proposed which is based on recent post-Cold War models involving collective actions of nations to achieve international burden sharing. Each participating space agency would provide complementary missions and capabilities incorporating traditional models of space cooperation. A new international coordination agency is proposed to facilitate the unprecedented degree of international cooperation necessary for the global program.

  12. Embodying Earth's Place in the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Elementary students find it difficult to connect the apparent motion of objects in the sky with how celestial objects actually move in the solar system. As a university astronomy education researcher, the author has been investigating methods to help children learn astronomy through workshops and summer camps at science museums and planetariums.…

  13. Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1978-01-01

    The solar tracking control system, Sun Chaser, a method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions is described. The Sun Chaser follows the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and resets itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise.

  14. The chaotic history of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    I will provide a review of the models proposed to explain the structure of the Solar System, with emphasis on their predicitions regarding the origin of asteroids and comets and the build-up of the two major cometary reservoirs: the scattered disk and the Oort cloud

  15. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  16. Research on solar-blind UV optical imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baohua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Xiaoming; Ruan, Ningjuan

    2015-02-01

    Solar blind UV detecting system has many advantages such as strong environmental adaptability, low error rate, small volume and without refrigeration. To in-depth develop UV solar blind detection system research work has important significance for further improving solar blind UV detection technology. The working principle of solar blind UV detection system and the basic components were introduced firstly, and then the key technology of solar blind UV detection system was deeply analyzed. Finally, large coverage solar blind UV optical imaging system was designed according to the actual demand for greater coverage of the solar blind UV detection system. The result shows that the system has good imaging quality, simple and compact structure. This system can be used in various types of solar blind UV detection system, and is of high application value.

  17. Small Comet Abundance and Solar System Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. B.; Moore, J.; Zahnle, K.

    2001-12-01

    We present geological, historical, and observational evidence which implies that the proportion of small comets is related to where in the solar system the population is counted. A detailed count of craters in the 1-5 km size range on Jupiter's moon Europa yields a slope of -1.45 for the cumulative size-frequency crater distribution. This is strongly depleted in small objects relative to the far outer solar system. We compare the Europan distribution to crater counts on Neptune's moon Triton and extrapolated observational evidence of Kuiper Belt Objects. We find that small comets appear to be rarer at Triton than in the Kuiper Belt, and that small comets are five times rarer at Europa than they appear to be at Triton. We have extended our study into the inner solar system by considering the discovery histories of long and short period comets. We find that, while large comets have been discovered at ever-increasing rates over the last few centuries, small comets have not paralleled this increase. In one example, the known number of small Jupiter-family comets in Earth-crossing orbits has not changed significantly in the two and a half centuries since comet detection has been intensely pursued. In another example, we focus on the sungrazing comets as found by the SOHO satellite and otherwise. Many of the sungrazers are undoubtedly small comets. But 94 of the 95 known sungrazers follow the same orbit - i.e., they are fragments of one great comet disrupted by close passage to the Sun long ago. Thus SOHO could see unique small comets, if they were present, and so the number of unique small objects in the inner solar system is few to none. Small comets are therefore found relatively frequently in the outer solar system, but their numbers decrease by the orbit of Jupiter, and they are very rare in the inner solar system. One explanation for this decrease is the preferential sublimation and coupled sublimation-enhancing disaggregation of small icy bodies as they approach

  18. The First Rock in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. B.

    2002-10-01

    My colleagues Andrew Davis, Lawrence Grossman (both of University of Chicago), Kevin McKeegan (UCLA), and I have discovered an exceptionally refractory inclusion in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. It is an aggregate of corundum, hibonite, and perovskite, the three minerals expected to condense first in a hot, cooling gas of solar composition. This inclusion was one of the first rocks to form in the solar system 4.5 billion years ago. It was preserved by being sequestered rapidly from the gas and enclosed in a growing carbonaceous chondrite asteroid.

  19. How Normal is Our Solar System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    To date, weve discovered nearly 2000 confirmed exoplanets, as well as thousands of additional candidates. Amidst this vast sea of solar systems, how special is our own? A new study explores the answer to this question.Analyzing DistributionsKnowing whether our solar system is unique among exoplanetary systems can help us to better understand future observations of exoplanets. Furthermore, if our solar system is typical, this allows us to be optimistic about the possibility of life existing elsewhere in the universe.In a recent study, Rebecca Martin (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) and Mario Livio (Space Telescope Science Institute) examine how normal our solar system is, by comparing the properties of our planets to the averages obtained from known exoplanets.Comparing PropertiesSo how do we measure up?Densities of planets as a function of their mass. Exoplanets (N=287) are shown in blue, planets in our solar system are shown in red. [MartinLivio 2015]Planet masses and densitiesThose of the gas giants in our solar system are pretty typical. The terrestrial planets are on the low side for mass, but thats probably a selection effect: its very difficult to detect low-mass planets.Age of the solar systemRoughly half the stars in the disk of our galaxy are younger than the Sun, and half are older. Were definitely not special in age.Orbital locations of the planetsThis is actually a little strange: our solar system is lacking close-in planets. All of our planets, in fact, orbit at a distance that is larger than the mean distance observed in exoplanetary systems. Again, however, this might be a selection effect at work: its easier to detect large planets orbiting very close to their stars.Eccentricities of the planets orbitsOur planets are on very circular orbits and that actually makes us somewhat special too, compared to typical exoplanet systems. There is a possible explanation though: eccentricity of orbits tends to decrease with more planets in the system. Because

  20. The Texas Instruments Solar Energy System development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. L.

    The system is described, showing that energy conversion and storage functions are combined in a novel way. Here, small silicon solar cells are immersed in an electrolyte and the current generated by the cells is used directly to electrolyze a halogen acid, for example, HBr. The hydrogen and bromine produced can be stored separately until needed and then recombined in a fuel cell to give electrical energy on demand. The fuel cell HBr product is returned to the solar chemical convertor, thus completing the closed loop energy cycle. In summarizing the achievements to date, it is noted that feasibility demonstration of a 13% array electrical efficiency prepared by a laboratory process and 10% array efficiencies have been obtained from potentially scalable solar cell and array processes.

  1. Energy transfer in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelbring, H.

    2013-12-01

    Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

  2. Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Stephen L.; Peddieson, John; Garbe, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Future science missions will require solar sails on the order of 200 square meters (or larger). However, ground demonstrations and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller sizes, due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This paper will approach the problem of scaling in solar sail models by developing a set of scaling laws or similarity criteria that will provide constraints in the sail design process. These scaling laws establish functional relationships between design parameters of a prototype and model sail that are created at different geometric sizes. This work is applied to a specific solar sail configuration and results in three (four) similarity criteria for static (dynamic) sail models. Further, it is demonstrated that even in the context of unique sail material requirements and gravitational load of earth-bound experiments, it is possible to develop appropriate scaled sail experiments. In the longer term, these scaling laws can be used in the design of scaled experimental tests for solar sails and in analyzing the results from such tests.

  3. Solar System Parameters from the Gaia Small Solar System Object Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Pedro; Berthier, Jerome; Hestroffer, Daniel

    The Gaia mission will provide the planetary science community with an unprecedent number of observations of small Solar System bodies (a few hundred thousand objects), all obtained with the same telescope. These observations will allow the determination of some intrinsic parameters of the observed objects along with a number of fundamental quantities of interest for the Solar System and for physics in general to a higher precision than what can be done presently. Here we describe briefly why these parameters are important to our understanding of small Solar System objects, the dynamics of the Solar System, and the algorithms used to extract them from the extensive Gaia data. We hope to mine these data for unexpected patterns which could elucidate some unanswered questions pertaining to the planetary sciences, for example concerning unusual objects such as main belt comets or perhaps a signature of discrepancies in the theory of gravitation. What to look for, however, remains an open question.

  4. A Solar System Perspective on Laboratory Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2002-01-01

    Planetary science deals with a wide variety of natural materials in a wide variety of environments. These materials include metals, minerals, ices, gases, plasmas, and organic chemicals. In addition, the newly defined discipline of astrobiology introduces biological materials to planetary science. The environments range from the interiors of planets with megapascal pressures to planetary magnetospheres, encompassing planetary mantles, surfaces, atmospheres, and ionospheres. The interplanetary environment includes magnetic and electrical fields, plasma, and dust. In order to understand planetary processes over these vast ranges, the properties of materials must be known, and most of the necessary information comes from the laboratory. Observations of the bodies and materials in the Solar System are accomplished over the full range of the electromagnetic spectrum by remote sensing from Earth or spacecraft. Comets exemplify this; molecular and atomic identifications are made from the hard ultraviolet to radio wavelengths, while X-rays are emitted as comets interact with the solar wind. Gamma rays from the surfaces of the Moon and asteroids are diagnostic of the mineral and ice content of those bodies; eventually, gamma rays will also be observed by probes to comets. A number of planetary materials are available in the laboratory for extensive Study: rocks from the Moon, Mars, several asteroids, as well as dust from comets (and perhaps the Kuiper Belt) are closely studied at every level, including atomic (isotopic). Even pre-solar interstellar grains isolated from meteorites are scrutinized for composition and crystalline structure. Beyond the materials themselves, various agents and processes have altered them over the 4.6-Gy age of the Solar System. Solar radiation, solar wind particles, trapped magnetospheric particles, cosmic rays, and micrometeoroid impacts have produced chemical, physical, and morphological changes in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of all

  5. Receiver System: Lessons Learned From Solar Two

    SciTech Connect

    LITWIN, ROBERT Z.; PACHECO, JAMES E.

    2002-03-01

    The Boeing Company fabricated the Solar Two receiver as a subcontractor for the Solar Two project. The receiver absorbed sunlight reflected from the heliostat field. A molten-nitrate-salt heat transfer fluid was pumped from a storage tank at grade level, heated from 290 to 565 C by the receiver mounted on top of a tower, then flowed back down into another storage tank. To make electricity, the hot salt was pumped through a steam generator to produce steam that powered a conventional Rankine steam turbine/generator. This evaluation identifies the most significant Solar Two receiver system lessons learned from the Mechanical Design, Instrumentation and Control, Panel Fabrication, Site Construction, Receiver System Operation, and Management from the perspective of the receiver designer/manufacturer. The lessons learned on the receiver system described here consist of two parts: the Problem and one or more identified Solutions. The appendix summarizes an inspection of the advanced receiver panel developed by Boeing that was installed and operated in the Solar Two receiver.

  6. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  7. Receiver System: Lessons Learned from Solar Two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, R. Z.

    2002-03-01

    The Boeing Company fabricated the Solar Two receiver as a subcontractor for the Solar Two project. The receiver absorbed sunlight reflected from the heliostat field. A molten-nitrate-salt heat transfer fluid was pumped from a storage tank at grade level, heated from 290 to 565DGC by the receiver mounted on top of a tower, then flowed back down into another storage tank. To make electricity, the hot salt was pumped through a steam generator to produce steam that powered a conventional Rankine steam turbine/generator. This evaluation identifies the most significant Solar Two receiver system lessons learned from the Mechanical Design, Instrumentation and Control, Panel Fabrication, Site Construction, Receiver System Operation, and Management from the perspective of the receiver designer/manufacturer. The lessons learned on the receiver system described here consist of two parts: the Problem and one or more identified Solutions. The appendix summarizes an inspection of the advanced receiver panel developed by Boeing that was installed and operated in the Solar Two receiver.

  8. Streaming of interstellar grains in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, B. A. S.; Misconi, N. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a theoretical study of the interactions between interstellar grains streaming through the solar system and the solar wind are presented. It is shown that although elongated core-mantle interstellar particles of a characteristic radius of about 0.12 microns are subject to a greater force due to radiation pressure than to gravitational attraction, they are still able to penetrate deep inside the solar system. Calculations of particle trajectories within the solar system indicate substantial effects of the solar activity cycle as reflected in the interplanetary magnetic field on the distribution of 0.12- and 0.0005-micron interstellar grains streaming through the solar system, leading to a 50-fold increase in interstellar grain densities 3 to 4 AU ahead of the sun during years 8 to 17 of the solar cycle. It is noted that during the Solar Polar Mission, concentrations are expected which will offer the opportunity of detecting interstellar grains in the solar system.

  9. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Solar heating and heating/cooling systems were designed for single family, multifamily, and commercial applications. Subsystems considered included solar collectors, heat storage systems, auxiliary energy sources, working fluids, and supplementary controls, piping, and pumps.

  10. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines and assumptions used in the design of a system of geosynchronous satellites for transmitting solar power to earth were discussed as well as the design evolutions of the principle types of solar power satellites and space support systems.

  11. Topics on Test Methods for Space Systems and Operations Safety: Applicability of Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews topics on test methods for space systems and operations safety through experimentation and analysis. The contents include: 1) Perception of reality through experimentation and analysis; 2) Measurements, methods, and correlations with real life; and 3) Correlating laboratory aerospace materials flammability data with data in spacecraft environments.

  12. Beyond Topical Relevance: Document Selection Behavior of Real Users of IR Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peiling; Soergel, Dagobert

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of users' document selection behavior that was conducted to build a tentative cognitive model of document selection behavior to be used in designing intelligent information retrieval systems. Topics addressed include studies of relevance and of decision making; value judgments; and document information elements considered during…

  13. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  14. SIMS prototype system 1: Design data brochure. [solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The system, subsystem, and installation requirements are described. System operation and performance are discussed, and procedures for sizing the system to a specific site are presented.

  15. Solar Energy Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar…

  16. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  17. Chaotic evolution of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, Gerald J.; Wisdom, Jack

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of the entire planetary system has been numerically integrated for a time span of nearly 100 million years. This calculation confirms that the evolution of the solar system as a whole is chaotic, with a time scale of exponential divergence of about 4 million years. Additional numerical experiments indicate that the Jovian planet subsystem is chaotic, although some small variations in the model can yield quasi-periodic motion. The motion of Pluto is independently and robustly chaotic.

  18. EAO database of Solar System bodies observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Y.; Zabbarova, R.; Churkin, K.; Andreev, A.

    2013-09-01

    There is a large data bank of photographic observations of Solar System bodies at Engelhadt Astronomical Observatory (EAO). The brief description of the methods of observations and the accuracy of their reduction with the PPM and Tycho-2 catalogues is given. The photographic positions of the major planets, except Jupiter, are in the system of the Tycho-2 catalogue and their comparison with DE200 ephemeris coordinates are given.

  19. Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems

    SciTech Connect

    Terrado, E.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

  20. Solar-powered environmental data collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, H.W.

    1980-02-01

    A solar-powered system consisting of a multipurpose remote data collector, a radio data link, and a data receiving station has been designed to acquire data from various remote areas at the Savannah River Plant. A prototype system has been built to monitor gamma radiation at the plant perimeter. It is operating satisfactorily and will be installed to monitor gamma radiation or other environmental parameters at many remote locations on the plant.

  1. Solar energy system performance evaluation - final report for Honeywell OTS 45, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, A K

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 45) at Salt River Project in Phoenix, Arizona, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and March 31, 1982. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 45 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 8208 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 2500-gallon thermal storage tank; two 25-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted water chillers; a forced-draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 8 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 1143 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 3440 MMBtu and provided 241 MMBtu for cooling and 64 MMBtu for heating. The projected net annual electrical energy savings due to the solar system was approximately 40,000 kWh(e).

  2. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

  3. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  4. Systemic and Topical Use of Tranexamic Acid in Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Sebastian F.; Santaguida, Carlo; Wong, Jean; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Combination of narrative and systematic literature reviews. Objectives Massive perioperative blood loss in complex spinal surgery often requires blood transfusions and can negatively affect patient outcome. Systemic use of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA) has become widely used in the management of surgical bleeding. We review the clinical evidence for the use of intravenous TXA as a hemostatic agent in spinal surgery and discuss the emerging role for its complementary use as a topical agent to reduce perioperative blood loss from the surgical site. Through a systematic review of published and ongoing investigations on topical TXA for spinal surgery, we wish to make spine practitioners aware of this option and to suggest opportunities for further investigation in the field. Methods A narrative review of systemic TXA in spinal surgery and topical TXA in surgery was conducted. Furthermore, a systematic search (using PRISMA guidelines) of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases as well as World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov (National Institutes of Health), and International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number registries was conducted to identify both published literature and ongoing clinical trials on topical TXA in spinal surgery. Results Of 1,631 preliminary search results, 2 published studies were included in the systematic review. Out of 285 ongoing clinical trials matching the search criteria, a total of 4 relevant studies were included and reviewed. Conclusion Intravenous TXA is established as an efficacious hemostatic agent in spinal surgery. Use of topical TXA in surgery suggests similar hemostatic efficacy and potentially improved safety as compared with intravenous TXA. For spinal surgery, the literature on topical TXA is sparse but promising, warranting further clinical investigation and consideration as a clinical option in cases with

  5. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Lunine, J.; Sonneborn, G.; Rieke, G.; Rieke, M.; Stansberry, J.; Schaller, E.; Orton, G.; Isaacs, J.

    2010-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is a large infrared space telescope currently scheduled for launch in 2014. Webb will reside in a elliptical orbit about the semi-stable second Lagrange point (L2). Its 6.5-meter primary mirror is designed to work primarily in the infrared, with some capability in the visible (i.e., from 0.6 to 27 microns). Webb has four science instruments: the Near InfraRed Camera (NIRCam), the Near InfraRed Spectrograph (NIRSpec), the Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), and the Fine Guidance Sensor Tunable Filter Camera (FGS-TFI). One of Webb's science themes is "Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life" which includes observations of Solar System objects; the telescope will be able to track moving targets with rates up to 0.030 arcseconds per second. Its combination of broad wavelength range, high sensitivity, and near-diffraction limited imaging around 2 microns make it a superb facility for a variety of Solar System programs. In this poster, we present an overview of Webb's scientific capabilities and their relevance to current topics in planetary science.

  6. Solar powered engine and tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Chromie, E.

    1980-04-22

    A solar powered engine and tracking system comprises a piston working within a cylinder for turning a drive shaft for driving an electrical generator or performing other useful work, a solar concentrator comprising a plurality of mirrors, each reflecting sun light on a common focal point on the end of the cylinder for heating a flash boiler located thereon, preheated water from a source is injected into the flash boiler by a pump powered by the drive shaft timed according to piston movement after operating the piston, the steam is then vented from the boiler by valve means operated from the drive shaft. A starter motor is provided to initially start the engine operating by rotating the drive shaft until the piston movement is self sustaining. The entire device is enclosed in a solar energy collector panel for elevating the temperature of the system so as to maintain the water at a sufficient temperature with a minimum of external heating. The collector may also be utilized for separate external heating purposes. Sensor controlled motors track the relative movement of the sun and earth and continually position the collector for maximum solar energy concentration.

  7. Elementary Students' Mental Models of the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…

  8. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  9. The solar system in modern astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runcorn, S. K.

    1985-06-01

    Recent advances in the astronomy of the solar system are discussed in a lecture presented at the G. C. McVittie Eightieth Birthday Celebration Conference held in Canterbury, UK, in June 1984, with a focus on the application of paleomagnetism to the moon. A number of astrophysical insights based on extrapolation from solar-system astronomy are listed, and the importance of space exploration and sample collection on the moon and planets is stressed. Consideration is given to the discovery of lunar paleomagnetism in Apollo samples, the reasons for the lack of a present lunar dipole field, paleointensity measurements on lunar rocks, evidence for changes in the orientation of the former magnetic field, and the origin in the earth-moon system of the bodies which formed the large multiringed impact craters. Diagrams, graphs, and maps are provided.

  10. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  11. Interaction between Topically and Systemically Coadministered P-Glycoprotein Substrates/Inhibitors: Effect on Vitreal Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Hippalgaonkar, Ketan; Srirangam, Ramesh; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of topically coadministered P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates/inhibitors on the vitreal kinetics of a systemically administered P-gp substrate. Anesthetized male rabbits were used in these studies. The concentration-time profile of quinidine in the vitreous humor, after intravenous administration, was determined alone and in the presence of topically coadministered verapamil, prednisolone sodium phosphate (PP), and erythromycin. The vitreal pharmacokinetic parameters of quinidine in the presence of verapamil [apparent elimination rate constant (λz), 0.0027 ± 0.0002 min−1; clearance (CL_F), 131 ± 21 ml/min; area under the curve (AUC0–∞), 39 ± 7.0 μg · min/ml; and mean residence time, 435 ± 20 min] were significantly different from those of the control (0.0058 ± 0.0006 min−1, 296 ± 46 ml/min, 17 ± 3 μg · min/ml, and 232 ± 20 min, respectively). A 1.7-fold decrease in the vitreal λz and a 1.5-fold increase in the vitreal AUC of quinidine were observed in the presence of topical PP. Statistically significant differences between the vitreal profiles of the control and erythromycin-treated group were also observed. Plasma concentration-time profiles of quinidine, alone or in the presence of the topically instilled compounds, remained unchanged, indicating uniform systemic quinidine exposure across groups. This study demonstrates an interaction between topically and systemically coadministered P-gp substrates, probably through the modulation of P-gp on the basolateral membrane of the retinal pigmented epithelium, leading to changes in the vitreal kinetics of the systemically administered agent. PMID:20595378

  12. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  13. Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1993-01-01

    When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of

  14. Advanced turbine systems program: Conceptual design and product development. Topical report, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wilken, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared by Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar) in accordance with Task 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Contract. This report addresses only the work that will be performed under Task 8 (Design and Test of Critical Components) of the Contract. The discussion is divided into four general sections: Project Description; Potential Environmental Impacts; Required Permits and Licenses; and Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Agency Contact Information. As described in further detail herein, the activities to occur during the project (i.e., Task 8) consists primarily of short duration testing of laboratory-scale components (or portions of components) for the ATS program. The testing involved will fall in the following general categories: recuperator, combustor, and blade/airfoil cooling. All activities contemplated will occur at existing facilities. Solar believes that the information in this report supports the conclusion that no significant environmental impacts will be associated with the project.

  15. Economic Evaluation of Space Solar Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, L.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the value that the solar panels will be set on the orbit from the economic standpoint and consider the necessity of the Space Solar Power System (SSPS). In order to these evaluations, we compare the SSPS with the photovoltaic power system on the ground (PVPSG). Firstly, we examined the generation cost of the PVPSG. When the PVPSG do not have some storage system and can not supply the electricity for the base-load power, the cost of generating power calculated is about 8.1 yen/kWh in the minimum cost cases, the cost of the equipments around the solar cell is the predictive values. The SSPS is expensive slightly than it of the PVPSG in this future scenario. Secondary, we suppose the case that the PVPSG have to have some storage system in order that the PVPSG need to send the electricity stably. The pumped hydropower, the lead battery and the fuel cell are assumed as the storages in this paper. In these cases, the costs of generating power become expensive over 30 yen/kWh. It is possible that the SSPS is not expensive than it with some cost reductions about the transportation cost to the earth orbit.

  16. The clinical efficacy of topical and systemic therapy for the treatment of feline ocular chlamydiosis.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, A H; Caney, S M; Sturgess, C P; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    1999-03-01

    Twenty-four specific-pathogen-free-derived cats aged four to 11 months were challenged by ocular application of a field isolate of Chlamydia psittaci to evaluate the effect of topical and systemic therapy on the course of disease. The cats were monitored for 35 days post-challenge, with severity of clinical signs being measured using a scoring system, and ocular shedding of the organism monitored by culture of conjunctival swabs. All cats developed active C psittaci infection, and after 7 days the cats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: Group P (placebo) was given twice-daily ophthalmic tear-replacement ointment; group F was given twice-daily topical 1% fusidic acid ophthalmic viscous drops; group C was given twice-daily topical 1% chlortetracycline ophthalmic ointment; and group D was given doxycycline at 10 mg/kg daily per os in addition to twice-daily topical 1% fusidic acid ophthalmic ointment. Within 24 h of commencement of therapy, group D had significantly lower median clinical scores than group P, and with the exception of day 16, this trend was maintained throughout the observation period. Median clinical scores of cats in group F were not appreciably different to those in group P, whereas the median scores of cats in group C generally fell between those of groups P and D. The median duration of C psittaci shedding was 10 and 15 days for groups D and C respectively, but four of the six cats in groups F and P were still shedding organisms at the end of the study (day 35). In this study, systemic therapy with doxycycline proved superior to topical therapy in the treatment of feline chlamydiosis.

  17. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, A. K.; Pederson, S.

    1982-01-01

    The operation and technical performance of the solar operational test site (OTS 44) are described, based on data collected between April, 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 44 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 5040 square feet of liquid cooled flat plate collectors; a 4000 gallon thermal storage tank; one 25 ton capacity organic Rankine cycle engine assisted water chillers; a forced draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes for providing space conditioning and hot water to the building. Data monitored during the 4 months of the operational test period found that the solar system collected 285 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 1040 MMBtu and provided 210 MMBtu for cooling and 10 MMBtu for heating and hot water. The net electrical energy saving due to the solar system was approximately 2600 kWh(e), and fossil energy saving was about 20 million Btu (MMBtu).

  18. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, A. K.; Pederson, S.

    1982-08-01

    The operation and technical performance of the solar operational test site (OTS 44) are described, based on data collected between April, 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 44 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 5040 square feet of liquid cooled flat plate collectors; a 4000 gallon thermal storage tank; one 25 ton capacity organic Rankine cycle engine assisted water chillers; a forced draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes for providing space conditioning and hot water to the building. Data monitored during the 4 months of the operational test period found that the solar system collected 285 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 1040 MMBtu and provided 210 MMBtu for cooling and 10 MMBtu for heating and hot water. The net electrical energy saving due to the solar system was approximately 2600 kWh(e), and fossil energy saving was about 20 million Btu (MMBtu).

  19. In vivo studies of polyacrylate nanoparticle emulsions for topical and systemic applications.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Kerriann; Turos, Edward

    2009-03-01

    We have recently reported on a new nanomedicine containing antibiotic-conjugated polyacrylate nanoparticles, which has shown activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro and no cytotoxicity toward human dermal cells. The water-based nanoparticle emulsion is capable of solubilizing lipophilic antibiotics for systemic administration, and the nanoparticle drug delivery vehicle has shown protective properties for antibiotics from hydrolytic cleavage by bacterial penicillinases, thus rejuvenating the drug's activity against resistant microbes such as MRSA. Here we report the first in vivo study of this penicillin-conjugated nanoparticle emulsion in determining toxicological responses initiated upon systemic and topical application in a murine model. Favorable results were observed in vivo upon both routes of administration and, when topically applied to a dermal abrasion model, the emulsion enhanced wound healing by an average of 3 to 5 days. This study suggests that polyacrylate nanoparticle-containing emulsions may afford promising opportunities for treating both skin and systemic infections.

  20. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1997-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1 sec. The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have been using adaptive optics (AO) on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1 sec resolution images solar system objects at far red and near infrared wavelengths (0.7-2.5 micron) which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts has been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential, such as the mapping of Titan and of large asteroids, the dynamics and composition of Neptune stratospheric clouds, the infrared photometry of Pluto, Charon, and close satellites previously undetected from the ground.

  1. Solar system constraints on disformal gravity theories

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian; Sakstein, Jeremy E-mail: jeremy.sakstein@port.ac.uk

    2015-10-01

    Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to ℳ ∼> 100 eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology.

  2. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  3. Our Solar System Features Eight Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Our solar system features eight planets, seen in this artist's diagram. Although there is some debate within the science community as to whether Pluto should be classified as a Planet or a dwarf planet, the International Astronomical Union has decided on the term plutoid as a name for dwarf planets like Pluto.

    This representation is intentionally fanciful, as the planets are depicted far closer together than they really are. Similarly, the bodies' relative sizes are inaccurate. This is done for the purpose of being able to depict the solar system and still represent the bodies with some detail. (Otherwise the Sun would be a mere speck, and the planets even the majestic Jupiter would be far too small to be seen.)

  4. Solar system object observations with Gaia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, Maria; Tanga, Paolo; Mignard, Francois; CARRY, Benoit; Christophe, Ordenovic; DAVID, Pedro; Hestroffer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    After a commissioning period, the astrometric mission Gaia of the European Space Agency (ESA) started its survey in July 2014. Throughout passed two years the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been treating the data. The current schedule anticipates the first Gaia Data Release (Gaia-DR1) toward the end of summer 2016. Nevertheless, it is not planned to include Solar System Objects (SSO) into the first release. This is due to a special treatment required by solar system objects, as well as by other peculiar sources (multiple and extended ones). In this presentation, we address issues and recent achivements in SSO processing, in particular validation of SSO-short term data processing chain, GAIA-SSO alerts, as well as the first runs of SSO-long term pipeline.

  5. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  6. Life beyond the solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    Review of some of the highlights and more recent developments in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The first major problem is one of the generality of the formation of planetary systems. Observations of the nearest stars which are not members of binary or multiple stars indicates that fully half have companions of planetary mass. The presence of organic compounds in meteorites, probably in Jovian planets, in comets, in the interstellar medium, and in cool stars implies that the production of organic compounds essential for the origin of life should be pervasive throughout the universe. Possibilities of interstellar communication are discussed.

  7. Development of Experienced Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Models of the Solar System and the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Ineke; van Driel, Jan H.; Verloop, Nico

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced science teachers in their first few years of teaching a new science syllabus in the Dutch secondary education system. We aimed to identify the content and structure of the PCK for a specific topic in the new syllabus, "Models of the Solar System and…

  8. Topics in quantum transport of charge and heat in solid state systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yunjin

    In the thesis, we present a series of investigations for quantum transport of charge and heat in solid state systems. The first topic of the thesis focuses on the fundamental quantum problems which can be studied with electron transport along with the correlations of detectors to measure physical properties. We theoretically describe a generalized ``which-path'' measurement using a pair of coupled electronic Mach-Zehnder Interferometers. In the second topic of thesis, we investigate an operational approach to measure the tunneling time based on the Larmor clock. To handle the cases of indirect measurement from the first and second topics, we introduce the contextual values formalism. The form of the contextual values provides direct physical insight into the measurement being performed, providing information about the correlation strength between system and detector, the measurement inefficiency, the proper background removal, and the conditioned average value of the system operator. Additionally, the weak interaction limit of these conditioned averages produces weak values of the system operator and an additional detector dependent disturbance term for both cases. In our treatment of the third topic of the thesis, we propose a three terminal heat engine based on semiconductor superlattices for energy harvesting. The periodicity of the superlattice structure creates an energy miniband, giving an energy window to allow electron transport. We find that this device delivers a large amount of power, nearly twice that produced by the heat engine based on quantum wells, with a small reduction of efficiency. This engine also works as a refrigerator in a different regime of the system's parameters. The thermoelectric performance of the refrigerator is analyzed, including the cooling power and coefficient of performance in the optimized condition. We also calculate phonon heat current through the system and explore the reduction of phonon heat current compared to the bulk

  9. Ocean worlds in the outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2016-08-01

    Many outer solar system bodies are thought to harbor liquid water oceans beneath their ice shells. This article first reviews how such oceans are detected. We then discuss how they are maintained, when they formed, and what the oceans' likely characteristics are. We focus in particular on Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan, and Enceladus, bodies for which there is direct evidence of subsurface oceans. We also consider candidate ocean worlds such as Pluto and Triton.

  10. Radar Studies in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    1996-01-01

    We aid in a study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size, shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics.

  11. Chasing Shadows in the Outer Solar System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Aristotle. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 2 solar system objects. In this model the four giant planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus , and Neptune, originally formed from...planetesimals outward as well, wiping the region which they transited clean of icy bodies. Through these interactions, the orbits of Uranus and Neptune were...Kuiper belt and in resonance with Neptune, the asteroid belt, as a relic of the planetary nebula not affected by the migration of Uranus and Neptune. It

  12. Optics for future solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D. D.; Vescelus, F. E.; Wellman, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The optics technology necessary for future solar system exploration is discussed. To satisfy the various mission objectives, optical components need to be of low weight, provide adequate spatial resolution and mapping coverage, provide necessary spectral resolution, provide means to perform adaptable mapping spectrometry, operate under low light levels, provide color images of high fidelity and operate under high temperatures. Future near-infrared mapping spectrometers are examined, and the use of focal-plane detectors to improve their sensitivity is discussed.

  13. Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    The solar tracking control system (Sun Chaser) is believed to be an improved method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions. The Sun Chaser will follow the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and reset itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise. A description of the Sun Chaser hardware and its operation together with results is presented.

  14. Solar energy collector/storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  15. Multistep Methods for Integrating the Solar System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    Technical Report 1055 [Multistep Methods for Integrating the Solar System 0 Panayotis A. Skordos’ MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory DTIC S D g8...RMA ELEENT. PROECT. TASK Artific ial Inteligence Laboratory ARE1A G WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 IL. CONTROLLING...describes research done at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, supported by the Advanced Research Projects

  16. Overview: Exobiology in solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Schwartz, Deborah E.

    1992-01-01

    In Aug. 1988, the NASA Ames Research Center held a three-day symposium in Sunnyvale, California, to discuss the subject of exobiology in the context of exploration of the solar system. Leading authorities in exobiology presented invited papers and assisted in setting future goals. The goals they set were as follows: (1) review relevant knowledge learned from planetary exploration programs; (2) detail some of the information that is yet to be obtained; (3) describe future missions and how exobiologists, as well as other scientists, can participate; and (4) recommend specific ways exobiology questions can be addressed on future exploration missions. These goals are in agreement with those of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council. Formed in 1980 to respond to the planetary exploration strategies set forth by the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), the SSEC's main function is to review the entire planetary program. The committee formulated a long-term plan (within a constrained budget) that would ensure a vital, exciting, and scientifically valuable effort through the turn of the century. The SSEC's goals include the following: determining the origin, evolution, and present state of the solar system; understanding Earth through comparative planetology studies; and revealing the relationship between the chemical and physical evolution of the solar system and the appearance of life. The SSEC's goals are consistent with the over-arching goal of NASA's Exobiology Program, which provides the critical framework and support for basic research. The research is divided into the following four elements: (1) cosmic evolution of the biogenic compounds; (2) prebiotic evolution; (3) origin and early evolution of life; and (4) evolution of advanced life.

  17. Condensation and Evaporation of Solar System Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Richter, F. M.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that the materials making up the solar system were derived from a nebular gas and dust cloud that went through an early high-temperature stage during which virtually all of the material was in the gas phase. At one time, it was thought that the entire inner solar nebula was hot, but it is now believed that most material was processed through regions where high temperatures were achieved. Certainly some material, such as presolar grains (cf., Mendybaev et al., 2002a), has never been exposed to high temperatures. As the system cooled, solids and perhaps liquids began to condense, but at some point the partially condensed materials became isolated from the remaining gas. Various lines of evidence support this view. At the largest scale, there is the observation that the Earth, Moon, Mars, and all chondritic meteorites except for the CI chondrites are depleted to varying degrees in the abundances of moderately volatile elements relative to bulk solar system composition. The CI chondrites reflect the bulk composition of the solar system for all but hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and the rare gases, the most volatile elements (see Chapter 1.03; Palme et al., 1988; McDonough and Sun, 1995; Humayun and Cassen, 2000). The depletions in moderately volatile elements are, to a significant degree, correlated with condensation temperature, suggesting progressive removal of gas as condensation proceeded ( Cassen, 1996). Additional observations that can be explained by partial condensation are that various particularly primitive components of meteorites (e.g., calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions, and certain metal grains) have mineralogy and/or details of their chemical composition that are remarkably similar to what is calculated for equilibrium condensates from a solar composition gas. For example, the calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites have compositions very similar to that calculated for the first 5% of total

  18. Solar simulator for concentrator photovoltaic systems.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2008-09-15

    A solar simulator for measuring performance of large area concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules is presented. Its illumination system is based on a Xenon flash light and a large area collimator mirror, which simulates natural sun light. Quality requirements imposed by the CPV systems have been characterized: irradiance level and uniformity at the receiver, light collimation and spectral distribution. The simulator allows indoor fast and cost-effective performance characterization and classification of CPV systems at the production line as well as module rating carried out by laboratories.

  19. Solar System Test of Gravitational Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2003-01-01

    We are engaged in testing gravitational theory, mainly using observations of objects in the solar system and mainly on the interplanetary scale. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to place tighter bounds on such departures. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including primarily planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, but also including both pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements. In the past year, we have included new data in the analysis, primarily tracking data from the Mars Pathfinder mission. Although these data are relatively few in number, they extend the time span of high-precision tracking on the surface of Mars from six years to over 20. As a result, the statistical standard deviation of our estimate of Mars precession rate has nearly halved, and the rest of the parameters in our solar-system model have experienced a corresponding, albeit smaller, improvement (about 20% for t,he relevant asteroid masses, 10% for the semimajor axis of Mars orbit, and smaller amounts for most other parameters). In the coming year, we plan to continue adding data to our set, as available. Ne 2 expect to use these data and improved models to obtain estimates of the gravitational- theory parameters and to publish these results.

  20. A Distant Solar System (Artist's Concept Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation portrays an artist's concept of a distant hypothetical solar system, about the same age as our own. It begins close to the star, and then moves out past a number of planets. Though 'extrasolar' planets are too small to be seen with telescopes, astronomers have detected more than 100 gas giants like Jupiter via their gravitational tug on their parent stars.

    The view pulls back to reveal the outer fringes of the system and a ring of dusty debris that circles the star. This debris is all that remains of the planet-forming disk from which the planets evolved.

    Planets are formed when dusty material in a large disk surrounding a young star clumps together. Leftover material is eventually blown out by solar wind or pushed out by gravitational interactions with planets. Billions of years later, only an outer disk of debris remains.

    These outer debris disks are too faint to be imaged directly by visible-light telescopes. They are washed out by the glare of the Sun. However, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope can detect their heat, or excess thermal emission, in infrared light. This allows astronomers to study the aftermath of planet building in distant solar systems like our own.

  1. Spacewatch Survey of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Spacewatch project is to explore the various populations of small objects throughout the solar system. Statistics on all classes of small bodies are needed to infer their physical and dynamical evolution. More Earth Approachers need to be found to assess the impact hazard. (We have adopted the term "Earth Approacher", EA, to include all those asteroids, nuclei of extinct short period comets, and short period comets that can approach close to Earth. The adjective "near" carries potential confusion, as we have found in communicating with the media, that the objects are always near Earth, following it like a cloud.) Persistent and voluminous accumulation of astrometry of incidentally observed main belt asteroids MBAs will eventually permit the Minor Planet Center (MPQ to determine the orbits of large numbers (tens of thousands) of asteroids. Such a large body of information will ultimately allow better resolution of orbit classes and the determinations of luminosity functions of the various classes, Comet and asteroid recoveries are essential services to planetary astronomy. Statistics of objects in the outer solar system (Centaurs, scattered-disk objects, and Trans-Neptunian Objects; TNOs) ultimately will tell part of the story of solar system evolution. Spacewatch led the development of sky surveying by electronic means and has acted as a responsible interface to the media and general public on this discipline and on the issue of the hazard from impacts by asteroids and comets.

  2. Gravitational anomalies in the solar system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known matter-energy distributions have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in either cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century, and technology itself. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: (a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia. (b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab). (c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon. (d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox. (e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun. (f) The Flyby Anomaly. (g) The Pioneer Anomaly. (h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit.

  3. Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

  4. Solar atrium: A hybrid solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueland, M.

    1980-06-01

    The atrium is designed to be constructed of materials and equipment that are economical and readily available. Cost effectiveness of installation and operation is a primary design objective. The solar atrium is a further development of efforts begun in the 1930's and 1940's to design houses that would obtain a major portion of their heating from the Sun. The early solar house experiments proved the benefits of large glazed areas for trapping solar energy. However, they were not equipped to collect and store surplus solar energy, nor were they equipped to control heat losses through glass areas at night or during cloudy days. The solar atrium incorporates the large glass areas of the earlier houses and adds facilities for heat storage and control of heat losses through glass. Progress and plans are outlined.

  5. Laser and solar-photovoltaic space power systems comparison. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Stripling, J.; Enderson, T. M.; Humes, D. H.; Davis, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of total system cost is made between solar photovoltaic and laser/receiver systems. The laser systems assume either a solar-pumped CO2 blackbody transfer laser with MHD receiver or a solar pumped liquid neodymium laser with a photovoltaic receiver. Total system costs are less for the laser systems below 300 km where drag is significant. System costs are highly dependent on altitude.

  6. Rings in the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, J.B.; Cuzzi, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    Saturn, Jupiter, and Uranus have rings with different structure and composition. The rings consist of tiny masses in independent orbits. Photographs and data obtained by the Voyager project have aided in the understanding of Saturn's rings. Spokes have been found in B ring and boards, knots, and twist in F ring. Particles on the order of a micrometer in size are believed to occur in F, B, and A rings. The dominant component is water ice. The rings of Uranus are narrow and separated by broad empty regions. The technique used to study them has been stellar occulation. Nothing is known of particle size. The dominant component is believed to be silicates rich in compounds that absorb sunlight. Jupiter's rings consist of 3 main parts: a bright ring, a diffuse disk, and a halo. Use of Pioneer 10 data and other techniques have indicated particle sizes on the order of several micrometers and some at least a centimeter in diameter. The architecture of the ring system results from the interplay of a number of forces. These include gravitational forces due to moons outside the rings and moonlets embedded in them, electromagnetic forces due to the planet's rotating magnetic field, and even the gentle forces exerted by the dilute gaseous medium in which the rings rotate. Each of these forces is discussed. Several alternative explanations of how the rings arose are considered. The primary difference in these hypotheses is the account of the relationship between the ring particles of today and the primordial ring material. (SC)

  7. Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

  8. Whipple: Exploring the Solar System Beyond Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, Charles; Whipple Science Team

    2010-10-01

    Whipple is a Discovery-class mission that will explore the outer Solar System by searching for the occultations of bright (R<14) stars by small bodies. Whipple will test current theoretical models of the origin of our Solar System by studying directly the populations of small objects that lie beyond the orbit of Neptune, including the Kuiper Belt and scattered disk, the region surrounding Sedna, and the Oort Cloud. Whipple will measure size distributions as a function of (three dimensional) position for these populations. These data will help elucidate the process of formation of macroscopic bodies in the primitive solar system, the history of giant planet migration, and the interactions of planet scattering with the local stellar environment that led to the population of the Oort Cloud, and possibly during the first few million years, of the Sedna region. Whipple will employ a photometer comprising a Schmidt-Cassegrain optical design with a 77 cm aperture, imaging onto a focal plane subtending 37 square degrees. The focal plane will comprise nine CMOS devices that can be read out at high cadence. The spacecraft will be launched into an Earth-leading solar orbit, and will be able to stare at fields distributed over a wide range of ecliptic latitudes and longitudes. Whipple will image star fields and produce high signal-to-noise photometric light curves for stars at a variety of cadences: 10,000 stars at 40 Hz, 20,000 stars at 20 Hz, or 40,000 stars at 10 Hz. These light curves will be examined on the spacecraft for possible events of interest, which will then be transmitted to ground for further analysis.

  9. Cosmogenic nuclides in early solar system materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricker, Glynn Edward

    2009-09-01

    The overall goal of this research was to assess early solar system processes, particularly ancient proto-solar activity. This goal was addressed on two fronts. First, a model was developed to explain the provenance of now extinct radionuclides in early solar system materials, namely the refractory inclusions termed CAIs (Calcium-Aluminum-Inclusion) found in carbonaceous chondrites. As CAIs are believed to be the first solids to condense in the solar system and are also believed to have formed close to the proto-Sun, a model which explains the now extinct radionuclides found in CAIs constrains early solar system processes. Secondly, a series of measurements were performed on samples of the early solar system, namely chrondritic meteorites and the inclusions called chondrules, often contained within these meteorites. Chondrules, which are often a chief constituent of these meteorites, are believed to have originated close to the proto-Sun. As such, these materials should contain clues about solar processes at the beginning of the solar system. We propose a model for the incorporation of SLRs (short lived radionuclide) within CAIs in primitive carbonaceous meteorites. In this model SLRs are produced by energetic particle reactions in the proto-solar atmosphere of a more active proto-Sun characterized by proton fluxes higher than contemporary particle fluxes. These SLRs are entrained in the solar wind that is then implanted into CAI precursor material. This production mechanism is operational in the contemporary solar system and is responsible for implantation of 10 Be, 14 C and other nuclides in lunar materials. We utilize contemporary experimental solar wind production rates for 10Be and 14 C and theoretical ancient production rates for 7 Be, 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 41 Ca, and 53 Mn. Using a ~ 10 5 enhancement in SEPs (solar energetic particles) and hence production rates in conjunction with an accepted refractory mass inflow rates close to the proto-Sun, we model

  10. Suprathermal Chemistry in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shematovich, Valery

    Many celestial bodies in the Solar System are surrounded by gaseous envelopes. Chemical evolution of the gaseous envelopes of icy astrophysical objects of different masses and sizes (dust particles with icy mantles, icy planetesimals, comets and KBOs, icy satellites in the Jovian and Saturnian systems, and etc.) is determined by the complex influence of a large number of interrelated processes including: - photolysis by the solar XUV (soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet) radiation, - radiolysis by the solar wind/magnetospheric plasma, - catalysis on the icy surface, - chemical exchange between the surface and atmosphere, - chemical changes in the gas composition of the envelope. These physical and chemical processes are initiated by the solar forcing, and are characterized by strongly differing time scales and the degrees of non-equilibrium. Theoretical predictions of the composition and chemical evolution of near-surface atmospheres of the icy astrophysical objects are of great importance for assessing the biological potential of these objects (Herbst and van Dishoeck, 2009). The water vapour is usually the dominant parent species in such gaseous envelope because of the ejection from the object’s icy surface due to the thermal outgassing, non-thermal photolysis and radiolysis and other active processes at work on the surface (Shematovich 2008). The photochemistry of water vapour in the near-surface atmospheric layer (Shematovich, 2008, 2012) and the radiolysis of icy regolith result in the supply of the atmosphere by an admixture of H _{2}O, H _{2}, O _{2}, OH and O with thermal and suprathermal kinetic energies. Returning molecules have a species-dependent behaviour in the impact with icy surface and non-thermal energy distributions for the chemical radicals. The suprathermal radicals OH, H, and O entering the regolith can drive the radiolytic chemistry. Chemical complexity of the near-surface atmosphere of the icy astrophysical object arises due to both

  11. Solar cooling system performance, Frenchman's Reef Hotel, Virgin Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harber, H.

    1981-01-01

    The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems are described. The Solar Cooling System was installed in a hotel at St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The system consists of the evacuated glass tube collectors, two 2500 gallon tanks, pumps, computerized controller, a large solar optimized industrial sized lithium bromide absorption chiller, and associated plumbing. Solar heated water is pumped through the system to the designed public areas such as lobby, lounges, restaurant and hallways. Auxiliary heat is provided by steam and a heat exchanger to supplement the solar heat.

  12. Solar cooling system performance, Frenchman's Reef Hotel, Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harber, H.

    1981-09-01

    The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems are described. The Solar Cooling System was installed in a hotel at St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The system consists of the evacuated glass tube collectors, two 2500 gallon tanks, pumps, computerized controller, a large solar optimized industrial sized lithium bromide absorption chiller, and associated plumbing. Solar heated water is pumped through the system to the designed public areas such as lobby, lounges, restaurant and hallways. Auxiliary heat is provided by steam and a heat exchanger to supplement the solar heat.

  13. The Interstellar Cloud Surrounding the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Ultraviolet spectral data of nearby stars indicate that the cloud surrounding the solar system has an average neutral density n(HI)~0.1 cm-3, temperature ~6800 K, and turbulence ~1.7 km/s. Comparisons between the anomalous cosmic ray data and ultraviolet data suggest that the electron density is in the range n(e-)~0.22 to 0.44 cm-3. This cloud is flowing past the Sun from a position centered in the Norma-Lupis region. The cloud properties are consistent with interstellar gas which originated as material evaporated from the surfaces of embedded clouds in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, and which was then displaced towards the Sun by a supernova event about 4 Myrs ago. The Sun and surrounding cloud velocities are nearly perpendicular in space, and this cloud is sweeping past the Sun. The morphology of this cloud can be reconstructed by assuming that the cloud moves in a direction parallel to the surface normal. With this assumption, the Sun entered the surrounding cloud 2000 to 8000 years ago, and is now about 0.05 to 0.16 pc from the cloud surface. Prior to its recent entry into the surrounding cloud complex, the Sun was embedded in a region of space with average density lower than 0.0002 cm-3. If a denser cloud velocity component seen towards alpha Cen A,B is real, it will encounter the solar system within 50,000 yr. The nearby magnetic field seen upwind has a spatial orientation that is parallel to the cloud surface. The nearby star Sirius is viewed through the wake of the solar system, but this direction also samples the hypothetical cloud interface. Comparisons of anomalous cosmic ray and interstellar absorption line data suggest that trace elements in the surrounding cloud are in ionization equilibrium. Data towards nearby white dwarfs indicate partial helium ionization, N(N(HI)(/N(HeI)>~13.7, which is consistent with pickup ion data within the solar system if less than 40% hydrogen ionization occurs in the heliopause region. However, the white dwarfs may

  14. Astrometry of Solar System Objects with Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel J.; Arenou, Frederic; Desmars, Josselin; Robert, Vincent; Thuillot, William; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Carry, Benoit; David, Pedro; Eggl, Siegfried; Fabricius, Claus; Kudryashova, Maria; Lainey, Valery; Spoto, Federica; Tanga, Paolo; Gaia DPAC

    2016-10-01

    The Gaia ESA space mission will provide astrometric observations of a large number of celestial bodies, with unprecedented accuracy, and in an homogenous reference frame (to become the optical ICRF). The Gaia satellite is monitoring regularly the whole celestial sphere, with one complete scan in about 6month, down to approximately magnitude V≤20.7. It will provide after its nominal lifetime, (5 years, 2014-2019) about 70 astrometric points for several hundred thousands of solar system objects, asteroids from the Near-Earth region to Centaurs and bright TNOs, as well as planetary satellites and comets. The highly precise astrometric and photometric data is bound to lead to huge advances in the science of small Small Solar System Bodies (e.g. Tanga et al. 2016 P\\&SS, Hestroffer et al. 2014 COSPAR #40 ; Mignard et al. 2007 EMP).The first Gaia data release (GDR#1) is foreseen for Q3-2016 and will provide highly precise positions of selected stars down to mag V≈20. While solar system objets data is foreseen for the next data release (in 2017), science of Solar System will also highly benefit from the Gaia stellar catalogue. We will present the status of the satellite and Gaia mission, and details on the stellar data that will be published in this GDR#1. We discuss the catalogue content, number of stars, parameters and precisions, and the process of cross-matching and validation. We also touch upon the construction of combined Tycho-Gaia TGAS catalogue.A Gaia data daily processing is devoted to the identification of Solar System Objects. During this process the detection of new (or critical) objects arises and leads to the triggering of scientific alerts to be found on the web gaiafunsso.imcce.fr. We have also set up an international follow-up network called Gaia-FUN-SSO to validate the detection in space. For this goal, in case of detection the observational data must be sent to the MPC by the observers. Besides, Gaia should benefit for the classical astrometric

  15. Topical and systemic therapies for oral and perioral herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2013-04-01

    Oral and perioral herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in healthy individuals often present with signs and symptoms that are clearly recognized by oral health care providers (OHCPs). Management of these infections is dependent upon a variety of factors and several agents may be used for treatment to accelerate healing and decrease symptoms associated with lesions. This article will review the pertinent aspects of topical and systemic therapies of HSV infections for the OHCP.

  16. Continued Analysis of EUVE Solar System Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for this project. We proposed to continue our work on extracting important results from the EUVE (Extreme UltraViolet Explorer) archive of lunar and jovian system observations. In particular, we planned to: (1) produce several monochromatic images of the Moon at the wavelengths of the brightest solar EUV emission lines; (2) search for evidence of soft X-ray emissions from the Moon and/or X-ray fluorescence at specific EUV wavelengths; (3) search for localized EUV and soft X-ray emissions associated with each of the Galilean satellites; (4) search for correlations between localized Io Plasma Torus (IPT) brightness and volcanic activity on Io; (5) search for soft X-ray emissions from Jupiter; and (6) determine the long term variability of He 58.4 nm emissions from Jupiter, and relate these to solar variability. However, the ADP review panel suggested that the work concentrate on the Jupiter/IPT observations, and provided half the requested funding. Thus we have performed no work on the first two tasks, and instead concentrated on the last three. In addition we used funds from this project to support reduction and analysis of EUVE observations of Venus. While this was not part of the original statement of work, it is entirely in keeping with extracting important results from EUVE solar system observations.

  17. TPV Systems with Solar Powered Tungsten Emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasov, A. S.; Khvostikov, V. P.; Khvostikova, O. A.; Gazaryan, P. Y.; Sorokina, S. V.; Andreev, V. M.

    2007-02-22

    A solar TPV generator development and characterization are presented. A double stage sunlight concentrator ensures 4600x concentration ratio. TPV modules based on tungsten emitters and GaSb cells were designed, fabricated and tested at indoor and outdoor conditions. The performance of tungsten emitter under concentrated solar radiation was analyzed. Emitter temperatures in the range of 1400-2000 K were measured, depending on the emitter size. The light distribution in the module has been characterized, 1x1 cm GaSb TPV cells were fabricated with the use of the Zn-diffusion and LPE technologies. The cell efficiency of 19% under illumination by a tungsten emitter (27% under spectra cut-off at {lambda} > 1820 nm) heated up to 1900-2000 K had been derived from experimentally measured PV parameters. The series connection of PV cells was ensured by the use of BeO ceramics. The possibilities of system performance improvement are discussed.

  18. Solar dynamic systems for spacecraft power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschke, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of a parametric study of the potential for using solar dynamic (SD) power supply systems on deep space probes. The SD systems would consist of a parabolic concentrator to focus solar energy on a thermal receiver for conversion by Brayton, organic Rankine or Stirling engines. The net thermal power and efficiencies available from each of the types of conversion devices were analyzed for a power requirement of 0.5 kWe. Examinations were also carried out of the optical, thermodynamic, materials and size limitations of the devices. The subsystem drivers were found to be the quality of concentrator reflectance and the system temperature level. Lower temperature systems are preferred for farther distances from the sun, mainly due to the required concentrator area. The SD system could be used out to 6 A.U. in optimal conditions. It is concluded that Brayon and Stirling engines have the best chances for further development, and that Rankine systems have already been optimized. Further evaluations are dependent on the definition of specific mission requirements.

  19. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George

    2011-09-01

    objects like vectors and tensors, for example, the velocity, acceleration, force, electromagnetic field, and so on. Chapter 3 is devoted to general relativity. It explains the main ideas of the tensor calculus on curved manifolds, the theory of the affine connection and parallel transport, and the mathematical and physical foundations of Einstein's approach to gravity. Within this chapter, we have also included topics which are not well covered in standard books on general relativity: namely, the variational analysis on manifolds and the multipolar expansion of gravitational radiation. Chapter 4 introduces a detailed theory of relativistic reference frames and time scales in an N-body system comprised of massive, extended bodies - like our own solar system. Here, we go beyond general relativity and base our analysis on the scalar-tensor theory of gravity. This allows us to extend the domain of applicability of the IAU resolutions on relativistic reference frames, which in their original form were applicable only in the framework of general relativity. We explain the principles of construction of reference frames, and explore their relationship with the solutions of the gravitational field equations. We also discuss the post-Newtonian multipolemoments of the gravitational field from the viewpoint of global and local coordinates. Chapter 5 discusses the principles of derivation of transformations between reference frames in relativistic celestial mechanics. The standard parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism by K. Nordtevdt and C. Will operates with a single coordinate frame covering the entire N-body system, but it is insufficient for discussion of more subtle relativistic effects showing up in orbital and rotational motion of extended bodies. Consideration of such effects require, besides the global frame, the introduction of a set of local frames needed to properly treat each body and its internal structure and dynamics. The entire set of global and local frames

  20. Topical versus systemic diclofenac in the treatment of temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction symptoms.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo Businco, L; Di Rienzo Businco, A; D'Emilia, M; Lauriello, M; Coen Tirelli, G

    2004-10-01

    spontaneously. Our results demonstrate that topically applied diclofenac and oral diclofenac are equally effective in the treatment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction symptoms. Topical diclofenac has the advantage that it does not have adverse systemic effects, whereas oral diclofenac had untoward effects on the gastric apparatus. The efficacy of diclofenac topically applied on the temporomandibular joint region observed in group B is explained by the association of diclofenac with dimethyl-sulfoxide, which enables a rapid effective penetration into the joint tissues. It is noteworthy that dimethyl-sulfoxide favours transuctaneous absorption when used in a multi-dose regime as in our study with 4 doses a day. Thus, single, "as required", applications should be avoided because this practice results in scarce absorption of diclofenac.

  1. Solar-energy-process-converter system

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, W.A.

    1981-01-20

    A solar-energy-process-converter system whereby the energy from the sun is accumulated and projected by a parabolic reflector so as to impinge upon a cluster of thermocouples to create electrical energy for activating an electrolysis unit through which hydrogen and oxygen are generated and stored. The system can also include a steam-turbine electrical-generator plant that is adapted to be operated by the burning of the hydrogen and oxygen, and the gases can further be used to establish heat to drive a thermocouple electrical-generator plant, wherein the stored hydrogen is further employed as a fuel for vehicle and other engines.

  2. Performance modeling of nonconcentrating solar detoxification systems

    SciTech Connect

    March, M.; Martin, A.; Saltiel, C.

    1995-03-01

    A detailed simulation model is developed for predicting the performance of solar detoxification systems. Concentration profiles are determined via a method of lines approach during sunlight hours for acquired and synthetic (simulating clear and cloudy days) ultraviolet radiation intensity data. Verification of the model is performed with comparison against indoor laboratory and outdoor field test results. Simulations are performed over a range of design parameters to examine system sensitivity. Discussions are focused on the determination of optimal sizing and operating conditions. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Solar System Science with Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, T. A.

    2012-04-01

    An increasing number of sky surveys is already on-line or soon will be, leading to a large boost in the detection of Solar System objects of all types. For Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) that could potentially hit the Earth, timely follow-up is essential. I describe the development of an automated system which responds to new detections of NEOs from Pan-STARRS and automatically observes them with the LCOGT telescopes. I present results from the first few months of operation, and plans for the future with the 6-site, 40-telescope global LCOGT Network.

  4. Beyond Sedna: Probing the Distant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.

    This thesis presents studies in observational planetary astronomy probing the structure of the Kuiper belt and beyond. The discovery of Sedna on a highly eccentric orbit beyond Neptune challenges our understanding of the solar system and suggests the presence of a population of icy bodies residing past the Kuiper belt. With a perihelion of 76 AU, Sedna is well beyond the reach of the gas-giants and could not be scattered onto its highly eccentric orbit from interactions with Neptune alone. Sedna's aphelion at ˜1000 AU is too far from the edge of the solar system to feel the perturbing effects of passing stars or galactic tides in the present-day solar neighborhood. Sedna must have been emplaced in its orbit at an earlier time when massive unknown bodies were present in or near the solar system. The orbits of distant Sedna-like bodies are dynamically frozen and serve as the relics of their formation process. We have performed two surveys to search for additional members of the Sedna population. In order to find the largest and brightest Sedna-like bodies we have searched ˜12,000 deg² within +/-30 degrees of the ecliptic to a limiting R magnitude of 21.3 using the QUEST camera on the 1.2m Samuel Oschin Telescope. To search for the fainter, more common members of this distant class of solar system bodies, we have performed an deep survey using the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the 8.2m Subaru telescope covering 43 deg² to a limiting R magnitude of 25.3. Searching over a two-night baseline, we were sensitive to motions out to distances of approximately 1000 AU. We present the results of these surveys. We discuss the implications for a distant Sedna-like population beyond the Kuiper belt and discuss future prospects for detecting and studying these distant bodies, focusing in particular on the constraints we can place on the embedded stellar cluster environment the early Sun may have been born in, where the location and distribution of Sedna-like orbits sculpted by

  5. Atmospheric Electrification in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric electrification is not a purely terrestrial phenomenon: all Solar System planetary atmospheres become slightly electrified by cosmic ray ionisation. There is evidence for lightning on Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and it is possible on Mars, Venus and Titan. Controversy surrounds the role of atmospheric electricity in physical climate processes on Earth; here, a comparative approach is employed to review the role of electrification in the atmospheres of other planets and their moons. This paper reviews the theory, and, where available, measurements, of planetary atmospheric electricity which is taken to include ion production and ion aerosol interactions. The conditions necessary for a planetary atmospheric electric circuit similar to Earth’s, and the likelihood of meeting these conditions in other planetary atmospheres, are briefly discussed. Atmospheric electrification could be important throughout the solar system, particularly at the outer planets which receive little solar radiation, increasing the relative significance of electrical forces. Nucleation onto atmospheric ions has been predicted to affect the evolution and lifetime of haze layers on Titan, Neptune and Triton. Atmospheric electrical processes on Titan, before the arrival of the Huygens probe, are summarised. For planets closer to Earth, heating from solar radiation dominates atmospheric circulations. However, Mars may have a global circuit analogous to the terrestrial model, but based on electrical discharges from dust storms. There is an increasing need for direct measurements of planetary atmospheric electrification, in particular on Mars, to assess the risk for future unmanned and manned missions. Theoretical understanding could be increased by cross-disciplinary work to modify and update models and parameterisations initially developed for a specific atmosphere, to make them more broadly applicable to other planetary atmospheres.

  6. YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM's FIFTH GIANT PLANET?

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David

    2011-12-15

    Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside {approx}15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

  7. Exploring Near to Home: Solar System Science with the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Thomas Allen; Palomar Transient Factory; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory

    2017-01-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is best known for its contributions to the science of extragalactic transients. However, the same large-area observations of the sky that yield detections of extragalactic transients can also be used to characterize, and discover, solar system objects. In this talk I will review the work of the PTF collaboration in the area of solar system science, in particular observations of asteroids and comets. Specific topics that will be covered include: characterization of asteroid rotation periods through observation of their synoptic light curves, transient activity of comets, and detection of small (less than 20 meter!) near-earth asteroids. Several of the investigations undertaken using PTF are prototypes of those that will be possible using the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) which will have 10-20 times more capability for observations of solar system objects. ZTF will become operational later in 2017.

  8. Walk Through Solar System Times: An Exhibit with an Astrobiology Emphasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this astrobiology outreach project, we attempt to present the research of the Goddard Center for Astrobiology (GCA) in the context of the history of the Solar System. GCA research emphasizes the origin and formation of complex pre-biotic organic materials in extraterrestrial environments and explores whether the delivery of these primordial materials and water to the early Earth enabled the emergence and evolution of life. The content expounds on areas that are usually not touched upon in a timeline of the Earth's formation. The exhibit addresses the questions: How did our solar system form? How is the formation of our solar systems similar or different from others? How did the organic molecules we observe in space get to the Earth? What conditions are most suitable for life? We will address the issues and challenges of designing the exhibit and of explaining advanced astrobiology research topics to the public.

  9. Beyond Earth's boundaries: Human exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This is an annual report describing work accomplished in developing the knowledge base that will permit informed recommendations and decisions concerning national space policy and the goal of human expansion into the solar system. The following topics are presented: (1) pathways to human exploration; (2) human exploration case studies; (3) case study results and assessment; (4) exploration program implementation strategy; (5) approach to international cooperation; (6) recommendations; and (7) future horizons.

  10. Publications of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Project, 1976 to 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, V. (Compiler); Marsh, C. (Compiler); Panda, P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The bibliographical listings in this publication are documentation products associated with the solar thermal power system project carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1976 to 1983. Documents listed are categorized as conference and journal papers, JPL external reports, JPL internal reports, or contractor reports. Alphabetical listings by title were used in the bibliography itself to facilitate location of the document by subject. Two indexes are included for ease of reference: one, an author index; the other, a topical index.

  11. Prototype solar heating and hot water systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Alternative approaches to solar heating and hot water system configurations were studied, parametrizing the number and location of the dampers, the number and location of the fans, the interface locations with the furnace, the size and type of subsystems, and operating modes. A two-pass air-heating collector was selected based on efficiency and ease of installation. Also, an energy transport module was designed to compactly contain all the mechanical and electrical control components. System performance calculations were carried out over a heating season for the tentative site location at Tunkhnana, Pa. Results illustrate the effect of collector size, storage capacity, and use of a reflector. Factors which affected system performance include site location, insulative quality of the house, and of the system components. A preliminary system performance specification is given.

  12. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  13. Solar Sailing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  14. Passive solar systems performance under conditions in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, A B; Balcomb, J D

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents energy performance of 12 passive solar systems for three climatically different zones of Bulgaria. The results are compared with a base-case residential house that has a design typical for these areas. The different passive solar systems are compared on the basis of the percentage of solar savings and the yield, which is the annual net benefit of adding the passive solar system. The analyses are provided based on monthly meteorological data, and the method used for calculations is the Solar Load Ratio. Recommendations for Bulgarian conditions are given. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. NASA's SPICE System Models the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles

    1996-01-01

    SPICE is NASA's multimission, multidiscipline information system for assembling, distributing, archiving, and accessing space science geometry and related data used by scientists and engineers for mission design and mission evaluation, detailed observation planning, mission operations, and science data analysis.

  16. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  17. Solar power satellite system sizing tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Monford, L. G.

    1981-01-01

    Technical and economic tradeoffs of smaller solar power satellite systems configured with larger antennas, reduced output power, and smaller rectennas, are considered. The differential costs in electricity for seven antenna/rectenna configurations operating at 2.45 GHz and five satellite systems operating at 5.8 GHz are calculated. Two 2.45 GHz configurations dependent upon the ionospheric power density limit are chosen as examples. If the ionospheric limit could be increased to 54 mW sq/cm from the present 23 mW sq/cm level, a 1.53 km antenna satellite operating at 2.45 GHz would provide 5.05 GW of output power from a 6.8 km diameter rectenna. This system gives a 54 percent reduction in rectenna area relative to the reference solar power satellite system at a modest 17 percent increase in electricity costs. At 5.8 GHz, an 0.75 km antenna providing 2.72 GW of power from a 5.8 km diameter rectenna is selected for analysis. This configuration would have a 67 percent reduction in rectenna area at a 36 percent increase in electricity costs. Ionospheric, atmospheric, and thermal limitations are discussed. Antenna patterns for three configurations to show the relative main beam and sidelobe characteristics are included.

  18. Young Solar System in the Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger annotated version

    This artist's diagram compares the Epsilon Eridani system to our own solar system. The two systems are structured similarly, and both host asteroids (brown), comets (blue) and planets (white dots).

    Epsilon Eridani is our closest known planetary system, located about 10 light-years away in the constellation Eridanus. Its central star is a younger, fainter version of our sun, and is about 800 million years old about the same age of our solar system when life first took root on Earth.

    Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope show that the system hosts two asteroid belts, in addition to previously identified candidate planets and an outer comet ring.

    Epsilon Eridani's inner asteroid belt is located at about the same position as ours, approximately three astronomical units from its star (an astronomical unit is the distance between Earth and the sun.). The system's second, denser belt lies at about the same place where Uranus orbits in our solar system, or 20 astronomical units from the star.

    In the same way that Jupiter lies just outside our asteroid belt, shepherding its rocky debris into a ring, Epsilon Eridani is thought to have planets orbiting near the rims of its two belts. The first of these planets was identified in 2000 via the radial velocity technique. Called Epsilon Eridani b, it orbits at an average distance of 3.4 astronomical units placing it just outside the system's inner asteroid belt.

    The second planet orbiting near the rim of the outer asteroid belt at 20 astronomical units was inferred when Spitzer discovered the belt.

    A third planet might orbit in Epsilon Eridani at the inner edge of its outermost comet ring, which lies between 35 and 90 astronomical units. This planet was first hinted at in 1998 due to observed lumpiness in the comet ring.

    The outer comet ring around Epsilon Eridani is denser than our

  19. Installation package for a Sunspot Cascade Solar Water Heating System

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Elcam, Incorporated of Santa Barbara, California, has developed two solar water heating systems. The systems have been installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed instalation plans and specifications. In addition, it provides instruction on operation, maintenance and installation of solar hot water systems.

  20. Test and evaluation of a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report documents results of evaluation tests performed on components of commerical solar heating and hot water system. Subsystems tested include flat plate solar collector, energy transport module, and control panel. Tests conducted include snow and wind loads, flame spread, and smoke classification as well as solar heating operation.

  1. Improving the efficiency of solar photovoltaic power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aribisala, Henry A.

    As the local and national clamor for foreign energy independent United States continues to grow unabated; renewable energy has been receiving increased focus and it's widely believed that it's not only the answer to ever increasing demand for energy in this country, but also the environmentally friendly means of meeting such demand. During the spring of 2010, I was involved with a 5KW solar power system design project; the project involved designing and building solar panels and associated accessories like the solar array mounts and Solar Inverter system. One of the key issues we ran into during the initial stage of the project was how to select efficient solar cells for panel building at a reasonable cost. While we were able to purchase good solar cells within our allocated budget, the issue of design for efficiency was not fully understood , not just in the contest of solar cells performance , but also in the overall system efficiency of the whole solar power system, hence the door was opened for this thesis. My thesis explored and expanded beyond the scope of the aforementioned project to research different avenues for improving the efficiency of solar photo-voltaic power system from the solar cell level to the solar array mounting, array tracking and DC-AC inversion system techniques.

  2. The LSST and Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K.; Craig, B.; Tyson, J. A.; Stubbs, C.; Bowell, E. L.; Harris, A.; Binzel, R.; LSST Collaboration

    2001-12-01

    The Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) was a highly ranked Major Initiative in Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millenium, the last decadal survey. The LSST's potential for exploring the Solar System was a major reason for this high ranking. The proposed design (see poster by Angel, this meeting) provides an effective aperture of 6.9-m and a 7 square degree field. This instrument will excel at time-domain surveys over wide fields, as well as allow extremely deep surveys. The LSST will be able to cover the whole available sky to 24th magnitude in three days or collect deep images to 28th magnitude over 1000 square degrees every 5 days. The LSST capabilities make it the best instrument for Solar System surveys. A proposed Near Earth Object (NEO) survey mode will cover about 15,000 square degrees in three weeks with 9 visits per field. This should allow an inventory of NEOs to 300-m in size to be 90&%slash complete in a decade if this survey is chosen as a priority. This survey mode will also yield a deep census of Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs), Main Belt Asteriods (MBAs) and comets. The LSST will provide its own follow up because it resurveys the sky on such a rapid schedule. The LSST will also collect deep multi-color photometry for its discoveries for classification and better understanding of compostion and evolution of these bodies. We will detail the LSST instrument and describe in detail the various surveys modes and how its moving body census will enable detailed study of the structure and evolution of the Solar System. More complete details of the design and science mission can be found at http://lssto.org. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  3. Design and Characterization of Silicone and Surfactant Based Systems for Topical Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Oyafuso, Márcia Helena; Carvalho, Flávia Chiva; Chiavacci, Leila Aparecida; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon; Chorilli, Marlus

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers advantages for new drug delivery design by providing drug targeting while minimizing the side effects. Polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl alcohol (CETETH-20) is a surfactant that may form nanostructured systems, such as liquid crystals, when in contact with water/oil, which are structurally similar to biological membranes and may improve skin interaction. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize CETETH 20-based nanostructured systems by combining CETETH-20 with water and different oily phases, including PEG-12-dimethicone for topical drug administration. The systems were characterized by polarized light microscopy (PLM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), rheology, texture profile analyses (TPA), in vitro cytotoxicity and histopathological analyses of rabbits' skin. Lamellar, hexagonal and cubic phases were identified and their viscoelastic moduli varied according to each phase. The stiffness of the cubic phase was 3-fold higher and twice more adhesive than the hexagonal phase. The formulations did not affect the normal macrophages cells, neither promoted skin irritation. They were spontaneously obtained by simply mixing the components, which corroborates for an ease scaled-up. These results suggest that systems composed of CETETH 20, PEG-12-dimethicone and water are a promising new approach for designing nanostructured topical drug delivery systems.

  4. An innovative deployable solar panel system for Cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Donati, Serena; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

    2014-02-01

    One of the main Cubesat bus limitations is the available on-board power. The maximum power obtained using body mounted solar panels and advanced triple junction solar cells on a triple unit Cubesat is typically less than 10 W. The Cubesat performance and the mission scenario opened to these small satellite systems could be greatly enhanced by an increase of the available power. This paper describes the design and realization of a modular deployable solar panel system for Cubesats, consisting of a modular hinge and spring system that can be potentially used on-board single (1U), double(2U), triple (3U) and six units (6U) Cubesats. The size of each solar panels is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. The system developed is the basis for a SADA (Solar Array Drive Assembly), in which a maneuvering capability is added to the deployed solar array in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun. The system design trade-off is discussed, comparing different deployment concepts and architectures, leading to the final selection for the modular design. A prototype of the system has been realized for a 3U Cubesat, consisting of two deployable solar panel systems, made of three solar panels each, for a total of six deployed solar panels. The deployment system is based on a plastic fiber wire and thermal cutters, guaranteeing a suitable level of reliability. A test-bed for the solar panel deployment testing has been developed, supporting the solar array during deployment reproducing the dynamical situation in orbit. The results of the deployment system testing are discussed, including the design and realization of the test-bed, the mechanical stress given to the solar cells by the deployment accelerations and the overall system performance. The maximum power delivered by the system is about 50.4 W BOL, greatly enhancing the present Cubesat solar array performance.

  5. SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS AS COSMIC RAYS DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Privitera, P.; Motloch, P.

    2014-08-10

    In a recent Letter, Jupiter is presented as an efficient detector for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), through measurement by an Earth-orbiting satellite of gamma rays from UHECRs showers produced in Jupiter's atmosphere. We show that this result is incorrect, due to erroneous assumptions on the angular distribution of shower particles. We evaluated other solar system objects as potential targets for UHECRs detection, and found that the proposed technique is either not viable or not competitive with traditional ground-based UHECRs detectors.

  6. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  7. SWIFT: A solar system integration software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, Harold F.; Duncan, Martin J.

    2013-03-01

    SWIFT follows the long-term dynamical evolution of a swarm of test particles in the solar system. The code efficiently and accurately handles close approaches between test particles and planets while retaining the powerful features of recently developed mixed variable symplectic integrators. Four integration techniques are included: Wisdom-Holman Mapping; Regularized Mixed Variable Symplectic (RMVS) method; fourth order T+U Symplectic (TU4) method; and Bulirsch-Stoer method. The package is designed so that the calls to each of these look identical so that it is trivial to replace one with another. Complex data manipulations and results can be analyzed with the graphics packace SwiftVis.

  8. The interstellar connection to solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. Mayo; Hage, Joniek

    1991-01-01

    Solar system bodies such as comets and meteorites are examined for interstellar signatures which may ultimately indicate what the protoplanetary nebula conditions were at the time the bodies formed. This involves retracing the sequence starting with a dense interstellar cloud, through the accretion disk phase of the protoplanetary nebula to the various steps in the aggregation process and finally to the physical and chemical metamorphic processes in the final body during the subsequent 4.55 billion years. Models of interstellar dust and comets which aid in such analysis are presented.

  9. Chemical evolution of primitive solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Mills, T.

    1989-01-01

    Observations on organic molecules and compounds containing biogenic elements in the interstellar medium and in the primitive bodies of the solar system are reviewed. The discovery of phosphorus molecular species in dense interstellar clouds, the existence of organic ions in the dust and gas phase of the comas of Comet Halley, and the presence of presolar, deuterium-hydrogen ratios in the amino acids of carbonaceous chondrites are discussed. The relationships between comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are examined. Also, consideration is given to the chemical evolution of Titan, the primitive earth, and early Mars.

  10. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of marketable solar heating and cooling systems for single family and commercial applications is described. The delivery, installation, and monitoring of the prototype systems are discussed. Seven operational test sites are discussed in terms of system performance. Problems encountered with equipment and installation were usually due to lack of skills required for solar system installation.

  11. Procedures for acceptance testing of solar energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Joncich, D. M.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes research on the use of simple, low-cost meters for measuring the performance of solar energy systems in Army buildings and for comparing the measured performance with the design specification requirements. The requirements of meters for measuring the performance of solar energy systems were defined. A BTU-Meter for measuring heat transfer was designed, and commercial meters for taking other measurements were obtained. The meters were installed in a solar system in the laboratory and a pilot test of the acceptance test was done. Suggested draft revisions to Corps of Engineers design documents were prepared; designers could use these revisions to include acceptance testing provisions in solar energy system design. It was found that in a short-duration test, simple, low-cost meters can be used to determine whether a newly installed solar energy system is operating as specified. The simplicity of the metering approach allows designers to routinely include metering in the solar system design. The contractor can easily install the meters with the other solar components. Since the meters are so versatile, they can be used continuously for long-term performance monitoring. This gives the designer performance data and allows maintenance personnel to detect and diagnose solar equipment malfunctions. Thus, solar energy system metering can provide a unified, low-cost approach for meeting the wide range of measurement needs of Army solar energy systems.

  12. Efficacy and safety of topical herbal medicine treatment on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a systemic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Lei; Huang, He-Long; Wang, Wan-Chun; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical treatment with natural herbal medicines on recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Nine electronic databases were searched to identify the randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials that reported the potential effect of natural herbal medicines on RAS published in Chinese or English. Ulcer size and duration, and remission of pain were assessed as main outcome measures. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Handbook for Systemic Review of Interventions and Rev Man software. Thirteen trials with a total of 1,515 patients were included in the present analysis, which showed that topical treatment with natural herbal medicines seemed to benefit RAS patients by reducing ulcer size, shortening ulcer duration, and relieving pain without severe side effects. In conclusion, there is some evidence of the efficacy of topically applied natural herbal medicines with regards to improved RAS outcome measures and fewer side effects. However, given the limitations of this study, the evidence remains insufficient. Well-designed and high-quality randomized controlled trials are required for further exploration.

  13. Ultraviolet Radiation in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M., Hanslmeier, A.

    UV radiation is an important part in the electromagnetic spectrum since the energy of the photons is great enough to produce important chemical reactions in the atmospheres of planets and satellites of our Solar System, thereby affecting the transmission of this radiation to the ground and its physical properties. Scientists have used different techniques (balloons and rockets) to access to the information contained in this radiation, but the pioneering of this new frontier has not been free of dangers. The Sun is our main source of UV radiation and its description occupies the first two chapters of the book. The Earth is the only known location where life exists in a planetary system and therefore where the interaction of living organism with UV radiation can be tested through different epochs and on distinct species. The development of the human technology has affected the natural shield of ozone that protects complex lifeforms against damaging UV irradiation. The formation of the ozone hole and its consequences are described, together with the possible contribution of UV radiation to recent climate changes. Finally, we will discuss the the potential role of ultraviolet light in the development of life on bodies such as Mars, Europa and Titan. The Solar System is not isolated; other external sources can contribute to the enhancement of the UV radiation in our environment. The influence of such events as nearby supernovae and gamma-ray bursts are described, together with the consequences to terrestrial life from such events.

  14. Topic Maps: Adopting User-Centred Indexing Technologies in Course Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesh, Vivek; Shaw, Steven; Dicks, Dennis; Lowerison, Gretchen; Zhang, Dai; Sanjakdar, Roukana

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an empirical evaluation of an indexing technology, topic maps (ISO 13250), in the context of an academic task in a higher education context. Topic maps are a form of indexing that define and display the interrelationships between various topics in a given domain, as well as anchor these topics to specific resources that help…

  15. Transition regions in solar system and astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Timothy E.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review is presented of basic particle and field characteristics of plasmas observed within the solar system, especially near transition regions, and their parameter ranges are compared with those inferred for stellar winds and the interstellar medium. Parameter ranges for solar system and astrophysical plasmas are found to have considerable overlap. In addition, astrophysics provides unique, global perspectives of large-scale systems, whereas solar-system space physics provides for direct quantitative testing of physical processes. Astrophysics and solar-system space physics studies thus have complementary and synergistic roles.

  16. The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) solar array system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneiderman, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite) solar array system is described. It is an innovative approach to meet the missions requirements. The SWAS satellite provides a three axis stabilized platform to survey a variety of galactic cloud structures. This system includes highly reliable, lightweight launch latch, deployment, and lock mechanisms, and solar array panels that provide the maximum solar cell area. The design of the solar arrays are the result of system trades that included instrument and spacecraft thermal constraints, attitude control system maneuvering rates and pointing accuracies, the power system, and the spacecraft structure.

  17. Solar energy. M.A.N. systems and their efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemer, J.

    Systems for the utilization of solar energy as thermal energy are presented. Solar systems to produce process heat are listed. Photothermal conversion of solar radiation by mirrors to obtain high temperature (140 to 250C) process heat whereby a heat transport medium (water, oil, gas) is heated is described. Solar farm concepts provide thermal powers up to a few MW. The Helioman 3/32 collector in Getafe (Spain), the Helioman 3/32 collector field of the IEA solar farm in Almeria (Spain), and the Helioman M480 prototype are outlined.

  18. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  19. Solar energy system performance evaluation: final report for Honeywell OTS 41, Shenandoah (Newnan), Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, A K; Pederson, S

    1982-08-01

    The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 41) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of data collected between January and August 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 41 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 702 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 1000-gallon thermal storage tank; a 3-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted air conditioner; a water-to-air heat exchanger for solar space heating; a finned-tube coil immersed in the storage tank to preheat water for a gas-fired hot water heater; and associated piping, pumps, valves, and controls. The solar system has six basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 7 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 53 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 219 MMBtu and provided 11.4 MMBtu for cooling, 8.6 MMBtu for heating, and 8.1 MMBtu for domestic hot water. The projected net annual energy savings due to the solar system were approximately 50 MMBtu of fossil energy (49,300 cubic feet of natural gas) and a loss of 280 kWh(e) of electrical energy.

  20. Proposed Solar Probe telecommunications system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, K.; Devereaux, A.; Vacchione, J.; Kapoor, V.; Crist, R.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed telecommunications system concept for NASA's Solar Probe mission is described. Key system requirements include 70 kbps data rate at perihelion and operation at X-band (uplink/downlink) and Ka-band (downlink). A design control table is presented to demonstrate design compliance with telecommunication needs. The Ka-band feed is to be a hexagonal array of 37 active elements, each containing 1/4W HEMT amplifiers. The array is located at the Cassegrain point of a 0.75-m reflector. When compared to the TWTA-based system, the Ka-band active array feed provides advantages of reduced mass, increased dc power efficiency, enhanced reliability, graceful degradation, and reduced volume requirements.

  1. Structural Features of a Solar TPV System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantsev, V. D.; Khvostikov, V. P.; Khvostikova, O. A.; Gazaryan, P. Y.; Sadchikov, N. A.; Vlasov, A. S.; Ionova, E. A.; Andreev, V. M.

    2004-11-01

    Developed solar TPV system consists of sunlight tracker, sunlight concentrator, absorber of concentrated sunlight, selective emitter of radiation, internal reflectors of radiation from the emitter, and PV cells cooled by water or forced air. The concentration ratio exceeding 8000 suns is ensured by the developed 300W dish mirror with secondary compound parabolic concentrator. The emitter is made of tungsten evacuated in a vacuum bulb. To decrease the losses of the photons emitted back to outside of TPV system, the area of the emitter surface exceeds up to 10 times the absorber aperture area. The developed PV cells based on Ge and GaSb have a back-surface mirror, which reflects the sub-bandgap photons to the emitter increasing its temperature and overall system efficiency.

  2. New passive solar cooking system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schlussler, L.

    1981-11-01

    The development of a solar cooking system which uses a phase change process to passively transfer heat from a collector to a cooker is presented. In the design of this cooking system steam is produced in the collector and then is used as the heat transfer fluid in the cooker. The most efficient use of the system is to heat food directly by condensing the steam onto the food, whereas a heat exchanger is necessary to heat an oven or a frying pan. A pressure cooker was successfully built and tested using the steam from the collector. Brief discussions on the collector design and performance, and heat storage phase change materials are provided. (BCS)

  3. Solar Dynamic Power System Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Dias, Lakshman G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to conduct various fault simulation studies for diagnosing the type and location of faults in the power distribution system. Different types of faults are simulated at different locations within the distribution system and the faulted waveforms are monitored at measurable nodes such as at the output of the DDCU's. These fault signatures are processed using feature extractors such as FFT and wavelet transforms. The extracted features are fed to a clustering based neural network for training and subsequent testing using previously unseen data. Different load models consisting of constant impedance and constant power are used for the loads. Open circuit faults and short circuit faults are studied. It is concluded from present studies that using features extracted from wavelet transforms give better success rates during ANN testing. The trained ANN's are capable of diagnosing fault types and approximate locations in the solar dynamic power distribution system.

  4. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  5. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.

    2002-01-01

    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  6. A regional comparison of solar, heat pump, and solar-heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, B. E.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-08-01

    A comparative study of the thermal and economic performance of the parallel and series solar heat pump systems, stand alone solar and stand alone heat pump systems for residential space and domestic hot water heating for the U.S. using FCHART 4.0 is presented. Results show that the parallel solar heat pump system yields the greatest energy savings in the south. Very low cost collectors (50-150 dollars/sq m) are required for a series solar heat pump system in order for it to compete economically with the better of the parallel or solar systems. Conventional oil or gas furnaces need to have a seasonal efficiency of at least 70-85% in order to save as much primary energy as the best primary system in the northeast. In addition, the implications of these results for current or proposed federal tax credit measures are discussed.

  7. Megawatt solar power systems for lunar surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, B.; Alhadeff, S.; Beard, S.; Carlile, D.; Cook, D.; Douglas, C.; Garcia, D.; Gillespie, D.; Golingo, R.; Gonzalez, D.

    1990-01-01

    The work presented here shows that a solar power system can provide power on the order of one megawatt to a lunar base with a fairly high specific power. The main drawback to using solar power is still the high mass, and therefore, cost of supplying energy storage through the solar night. The use of cryogenic reactant storage in a fuel cell system, however, greatly reduces the total system mass over conventional energy storage schemes.

  8. Development of liposomal systems of finasteride for topical applications: design, characterization, and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Bhupinder; Bakshi, Gautam; Katare, Om Prakash

    2007-01-01

    Finasteride (FNS) is a "drug of choice" for benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate cancer. The drug has also been reported to be useful orally in the treatment of some difficult-to-treat androgen-dependent skin disorders, such as seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. However, the ideal route for its administration (i.e., topical) remains unexplored. This has logically suggested the search for strategic formulation approaches to make the drug effective on topical applications, hitherto unexplored. The present study targets the encasement of drug molecules in the interiors of vesicular compartments (liposomes) made up of hydrogenated phospholipids, as an attempt toward the development of a trans-epidermal therapeutic system of FNS. Multilamellar drug-loaded liposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration with sonication method and optimized with respect to drug payload, entrapment efficiency, and size by formulating different vesicular compositions under different process conditions. The vesicular systems consisting of saturated phospholipid (100 mg), cholesterol (50 mg), and FNS (5 mg) showed highest drug payload (2.9 mg/100 mg of total lipids), and drug entrapment efficiency (88.6%). Mean (+/-SD) vesicle size of the prepared liposomes was found to be 3.66+/-1.6 microm. Significantly higher skin permeation of FNS through excised abdominal mice skin of FNS was achieved from the liposomal formulations vis-à-vis corresponding solution and conventional gels. Liposomal FNS formulations also showed more than fivefold higher deposition of drug in skin than the corresponding plain drug solution and conventional gel. Stability studies indicated that the liposomal formulations were quite stable in the refrigerated conditions for 2 months with negligible drug leakage or vesicle size alteration during the storage period. Results of the current studies with FNS-loaded vesicular systems project the high plausibility of a topical liposomal formulation for

  9. Conceptual design and system analysis study for a hybrid solar photovoltaic/solar thermal electric power system. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/solar thermal electric conversion systems were analyzed. Several types of hybrid systems, photovoltaic only systems, and solar thermal electric systems in terms of performance and cost were compared. The computer code used in the analyses and background information on heat engines, thermal efficiencies of photovoltaic thermal collectors, and optical considerations for central receiver plants is also described.

  10. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin

    1997-01-01

    We are engaged in testing gravitational theory by means of observations of objects in the solar system. These tests include an examination of the Principle Of Equivalence (POE), the Shapiro delay, the advances of planetary perihelia, the possibility of a secular variation G in the "gravitational constant" G, and the rate of the de Sitter (geodetic) precession of the Earth-Moon system. These results are consistent with our preliminary results focusing on the contribution of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), which were presented at the seventh Marcel Grossmann meeting on general relativity. The largest improvement over previous results comes in the uncertainty for (eta): a factor of five better than our previous value. This improvement reflects the increasing strength of the LLR data. A similar analysis presented at the same meeting by a group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a similar result for (eta). Our value for (beta) represents our first such result determined simultaneously with the solar quadrupole moment from the dynamical data set. These results are being prepared for publication. We have shown how positions determined from different planetary ephemerides can be compared and how the combination of VLBI and pulse timing information can yield a direct tie between planetary and radio frames. We have continued to include new data in our analysis as they became available. Finally, we have made improvement in our analysis software (PEP) and ported it to a network of modern workstations from its former home on a "mainframe" computer.

  11. Origins Space Telescope: Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.In the Solar System, OST will provide km/sec resolution on lines from planet, moons and comets. OST will measure molecular abundances and isotope ratios in planets and comets. OST will be able to do continuum surveys for faint moving sources such as Kuiper Belt Objects, enabling a census of smaller objects in the Kuiper Belt. If the putative Planet IX is massive enough to be self-luminous, then OST will be able to detect it out to thousands of AU from the Sun.

  12. OSSOS: The Outer Solar System Origins Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladman, Brett; Bannister, Michele; Kavelaars, Jj; Petit, Jean-Marc; Gwyn, Stephen; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2014-11-01

    We present the first detection set from the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) which is a mammoth 560-hour CFHT Large Program over 4 years (finishing January 2017). This is likely to be the largest Kuiper Belt survey before LSST comes on line (in terms of the number of precise transneptunian object (TNO) orbits it provides).OSSOS studies gradually-slewing 21-square degree blocks of sky that are repeatedly imaged in many dark runs over two semesters. This strategy is designed to detect and track TNOs in order to provide extremely high-quality orbits in a short amount of time; in 16-18 month arcs we are obtaining fractional semimajor axis uncertainties in the range 0.01-0.1% and accuracies in the libration amplitudes of resonant objects better than 10 degrees, due to mean astrometric residuals routinely being of order 50-100 milliarcseconds.This talk will present the survey design and full detection sample for objects observed in the first half of 2013 and 2014. We will report how adding these detections to those from the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) modifies conclusions about the orbital and size distribution of main classical Kuiper Belt, as well as other non-resonant sub-populations. In particular, because OSSOS is sensitive to, and has detected objects, from 8 AU to beyond 60 AU, we will report on how the combined distance and magnitude distribution impact dicsussions of the absolute magnitude distribution of outer Solar System objects.

  13. Solar System Test for Alternative Gravity Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Over the past year I've worked with Dr. Biswas and Dr.Brans from Loyola University, on different aspects of General relativity. More recently we have been focusing on particle and photon orbits in Schwarzschild-like metric which is relevant to understand observations such as photon deflection and perihelion precession of Mercury. These observations can be used to test alternative gravity theories, such as f(R) Theories. Such solar system tests have proved extremely useful to constrain alternative theories of gravity, such as f(R) theories that try to solve the dark energy problem. While so far most theorists have focused on the simplest f(R) type of modification of gravity to realize the phase of late time cosmic speed-up that we are observing, there are several other viable candidates. In particular, many ``effective'' approaches to gravity gives rise to f(R,G) type of modifications, where G is the Gauss Bonnet term. Accordingly, we are currently trying to understand how solar system tests can constrain this more general class of f(R,G) dark energy models. In my talk I will present our progress in this direction. NSF Grant

  14. Planet Formation in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.

    2002-03-01

    This paper reviews coagulation models for planet formation in the Kuiper belt, emphasizing links to recent observations of our and other solar systems. At heliocentric distances of 35-50 AU, single-annulus and multiannulus planetesimal accretion calculations produce several 1000 km or larger planets and many 50-500 km objects on timescales of 10-30 Myr in a minimum-mass solar nebula. Planets form more rapidly in more massive nebulae. All models yield two power-law cumulative size distributions, NC~r-q with q=3.0-3.5 for radii r>~10 km and NC~r-2.5 for radii r<~1 km. These size distributions are consistent with observations of Kuiper belt objects acquired during the past decade. Once large objects form at 35-50 AU, gravitational stirring leads to a collisional cascade where 0.1-10 km objects are ground to dust. The collisional cascade removes 80%-90% of the initial mass in the nebula in ~1 Gyr. This dust production rate is comparable to rates inferred for α Lyr, β Pic, and other extrasolar debris disk systems.

  15. A Ninth Planet in Our Solar System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery that the orbits of some Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) share properties has proved puzzling. A pair of scientists have now proposed a bold explanation: there may be a planet-sized object yet undetected in our solar system.Mysterious ClusteringKBOs, the population of mainly small objects beyond Neptune, have proven an especially interesting subject of study in the last decade as many small, distant bodies (such as Eris, the object that led to the demotion of Pluto to dwarf planet) have been discovered.Previous studies have recently discovered that some especially distant KBOs those that orbit with semimajor axes of a 150 AU, nearly four times that of Pluto all cross the ecliptic at a similar phase in their elliptical trajectories. This is unexpected, since gravitational tugs from the giant planets should have randomized this parameter over our solar systems multi-billion-year lifespan.Physical alignment of the orbits of Kuiper belt objects with a 250 AU (and two objects with a 150 AU that are dynamically stable). [Batygin Brown 2016]Two scientists at California Institute of Technology, Konstantin Batygin and Michael Brown (you might recognize Brown as the man who killed Pluto) have now increased the mystery. In a recently published a study, they demonstrate that for KBOs that have orbits with a 250 AU, the orbits are actually physically aligned.To explain this unexpected alignment which Batygin and Brown calculate has only a 0.007% probability of having occurred by chance the authors ask an exciting question: could this be caused by the presence of an unseen, large, perturbing body further out in the solar system?Simulating a Ninth PlanetThe authors test this hypothesis by carrying out both analytical calculations and numerical N-body simulations designed to determine if the gravitational influence of a distant, planetary-mass companion can explain the behavior we observe from the large-orbit KBOs.Simulation of the effect of a distant planet (M = 10

  16. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2001-01-01

    We are engaged in testing gravitational theory, primarily using observations of objects in the solar system and primarily on that scale. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to place tighter bounds on such departures. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including mostly planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, but also including both pulsar timing and pulsar very long base interferometry (VLBI) measurements. This year, we have extended our model of Earth nutation with adjustable correction terms at the principal frequencies. We also refined our model of tidal drag on the Moon's orbit. We believe these changes will make no substantial changes in the results, but we are now repeating the analysis of the whole set of data to verify that belief. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Rosacea: part II. Topical and systemic therapies in the treatment of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Two, Aimee M; Wu, Wiggin; Gallo, Richard L; Hata, Tissa R

    2015-05-01

    Although rosacea's impact on physical health is limited, it has profound effects on a person's psychological well-being. Therefore, treating rosacea can greatly affect a person's quality of life. Patient education regarding trigger avoidance and skin care techniques such as moisturizing and sun protection are important non-pharmacologic first steps in treating rosacea. Pharmacologic interventions range from topical to systemic medications, with the ideal medication choice dependent on the symptoms and severity of each individual patient. Despite this variety of therapeutic options, none of these therapies are completely curative, and therefore further research into the pathophysiology of rosacea is required in order to create more targeted and efficacious treatment options.

  18. Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A A; Neymark, J

    1994-11-01

    We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

  19. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are being developed. The effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  20. Solar cells: Operating principles, technology, and system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.

    Solar cell theory, materials, fabrication, design, modules, and systems are discussed. The solar source of light energy is described and quantified, along with a review of semiconductor properties and the generation, recombination, and the basic equations of photovoltaic device physics. Particular attention is given to p-n junction diodes, including efficiency limits, losses, and measurements. Si solar cell technology is described for the production of solar-quality crystals and wafers, and design, improvements, and device structures are examined. Consideration is given to alternate semiconductor materials and applications in concentrating systems, storage, and the design and construction of stand-alone systems and systems for residential and centralized power generation.

  1. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are considered. This effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  2. Experience with solar systems for heating swimming pools in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Croy, R.; Peuser, F.A. )

    1994-07-01

    The results of the demonstration programme [open quotes]Efficient Use of Energy in Swimming Pool Construction[close quotes] has had a positive effect on the dissipation of solar systems for swimming pools. Infrared measurements show how a homogeneous flow can be achieved in the absorber field. The fact that solar systems are acceptable can be clearly in evidence that the behaviour of visitors to purely solar-heated pools with variable water temperature does not differ in principle from conventionally-heated pools with constant temperature. Economic considerations of the operation show that swimming pool solar systems are competitive with conventional heating systems.

  3. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made in the manufacture, test, evaluation, installation, problem resolution, performance evaluation, and development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is described.

  4. Fluorescence photodetection of head and neck cancer following topical or systemic application of 5-aminolevulinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leunig, Andreas; Rick, Kai; Stepp, Herbert G.; Gutmann, Ralph; Goetz, Alwin E.; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Feyh, Jens

    1996-12-01

    The aim of photodynamic diagnosis is the complete visualization of all neoplastic lesions in a tumorous organ after topical or systemic application of a tumor selective photosensitizer. In this investigation we performed quantitative fluorescence measurements following topical and systemic application of 5-aminolevulinic acid to head and neck tumors. We investigated 15 patients with neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity and 5 patients with carcinoma of the larynx after rinsing a 0.4 percent-5-ALA solution or inhalation 5 percent-5-ALA. One patient was given 5-ALA systemically p.o. in a concentration of 10mg/kg b.w. Time course and type of porphyrin accumulation were analyzed in neoplastic and surrounding normal tissue by measuring emission spectra of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence at regular intervals for up to 3 hours following 15 minutes of continuous rinsing of a 0.4 percent- ALA-solution, 1 hour of continuous inhalation and 3 hours after p.o. application. After excitation with violet light of a high pressure xenon arc lamp, fluorescence images in the red spectral range from the tumor tissue and the corresponding macroscopic visible tumor were recorded with a CCD-camera. A quantitative analysis of the fluorescence contrast in neoplastic and surrounding tissue was performed using an optical multichannel analyzer.

  5. Advanced solar dynamic technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, James

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on Advanced Solar Dynamic Technology Program are presented. Topics covered include: advanced solar dynamic technology program; advanced concentrators; advanced heat receivers; power conversion systems; dished all metal honeycomb sandwich panels; Stirling cavity heat pipe receiver; Brayton solar receiver; and thermal energy storage technology.

  6. Heat-Transfer Fluids for Solar-Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    43-page report investigates noncorrosive heat-transport fluids compatible with both metallic and nonmetallic solar collectors and plumbing systems. Report includes tables and figures of X-ray inspections for corrosion and schematics of solar-heat transport systems and heat rejection systems.

  7. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  8. Inhibitor analysis for a solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabony, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A study of potential corrosion inhibitors for the NASA solar heating and cooling system which uses aluminum solar panels is provided. Research consisted of testing using a dynamic corrosion system, along with an economic analysis of proposed corrosion inhibitors. Very good progress was made in finding a suitable inhibitor for the system.

  9. Design data brochure for a pyramidal optics solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This Design Data Brochure provides information on a Pyramidal Optics Solar System for solar heating and domestic hot water. The system is made up of the collecting, storage, and distribution subsystems. Contained in the brochure are such items as system description, available accessories, installation arrangements, physical data, piping and wiring diagrams, and guide specifications.

  10. Interstellar material in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    All the substance of the Earth and other terrestrial planets once existed in the form of interstellar grains and gas. A major aspect of solar system formation (and undoubtedly of star formation generally) is the complex series of processes that converted infalling interstellar grains into planets. A cryptic record of these processes is preserved in certain samples of planetary materials, such as chondritic meteorites, that were preserved in a relatively unchanged form since the beginning. It is to be expected that some of these primitive materials might contain or even consist of preserved presolar interstellar grains. The identification and study of such grains, the ancestors of our planetary system, is a matter of intense interest. Types of primitive material accessible or potentially accessible, and component of or relationship to presolar interstellar grains are discussed.

  11. Organic Matter in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruiskshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many solid bodies in the outer Solar System are covered with ices of various compositions, including water, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and other molecules that are solid at the low temperatures that prevail there. These ices have all been detected by remote sensing observations made with telescopes on Earth, or more recently, spacecraft in orbit (notably Galileo at Jupiter). The data also reveal other solid materials that could be minerals or complex carbon-bearing organic molecules. A study in progress using large ground-based telescopes to acquire infrared spectroscopic data, and laboratory results on the optical properties of complex organic matter, seeks to identify the non-icy materials on several satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The work on the satellites of Saturn is in part preparatory to the Cassini spacecraft investigation of the Saturn system, which will begin in 2004 and extend for four years.

  12. Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-24

    The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

  13. Is the Outer Solar System Really Chaotic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Wayne B.

    2006-09-01

    The existence of chaos among the system of Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) is not yet firmly established. Although Laskar originally found no chaos in the outer Solar System, his "averaged" integrations did not account for the possibility of mean-motion resonances. Once full n-body integrations were performed, a dichotomy arose. On one hand, many investigators (Sussman, Wisdom, Murray, Holman, among many others) consistently measured a Lyapunov time of between 5 and 12 million years in the outer Solar System; the chaos can even be explained as the overlap of three-body resonances (Murray + Holman, Science 283, 1999). Furthermore, Murray + Holman's theory has been recently corroborated across a wide range of system parameters (Guzzo 2005), and the chaos does not disappear with decreasing timestep. On the other hand, some other investigators (Newman, Grazier, and Varadi, among several others) have compelling evidence against chaos. Namely, they have convincingly demonstrated that a sympletic integration using the famous Wisdom + Holman (1992) symplectic mapping with a 400-day timestep reproduces the chaos seen by others, but that the chaos disappears and the orbit converges to being regular as the timestep decreases. Their integration remains regular, showing beautiful convergence with decreasing timestep, down to a 2 day timestep. The resolution of this apparent paradox is simple. The orbital positions of the Jovian planets is known only to a few parts in 107, and it turns out that within that observational error ball, there exist both chaotic and regular solutions. I will demonstrate this fact using several initial conditions and several accurate integration algorithms. Thus, whether a particular investigator will see chaos or not depends (essentially randomly) upon the details of how that investigator draws their initial conditions. Thus, some investigators legitimately find chaos, while others legitimately find no chaos.

  14. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

    2014-10-01

    Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  15. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  16. A solar heating system with annual storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, F.; Raffellini, G.

    1981-07-01

    A solar heated house with long term storage capability, built in Trento, Italy, is described. The one story house was built from modular components and has a total heated volume of 1130 cu m. Flat plate solar collectors with a water-antifreeze medium are located beneath the lawn, and six cylindrical underground tanks holding 130 cu m of water heated by thermal energy from the collectors are situated under the garden. The house walls have an 8 cm cavity filled with 5 cm of formaldehyde foam, yielding a heat transmission (U) of 0.37 W/sq m/deg C. The roof and ceilings are insulated with fiberglass and concrete, producing U-values of 0.46 W/sq m/deg C and 0.57 W/sq m/deg C, respectively. Heat pumps using 6 kW move thermal energy between the house and the tanks. Direct hot water heating occurs in the summer, and direct home heating when the stored water temperature exceeds 32 C. A computer model was developed which traces the annual heat flow and it is shown that the system supplies all heating requirements for the house, with electrical requirements equal to 20 percent of the annual house needs.

  17. Mechanics in Early Solar System Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukai, Junichiro

    2008-10-01

    The generally accepted model for the early stage of the evolution of the solar system is the solar nebula, where a protostar, in this case our sun, at the origin is surrounded by a rotating material disk. The material in the disk collides, coalesces, and gradually forms aggregated objects. This coalescence of objects increases the total angular momentum of the resulting aggregate and the aggregating objects consequently experience an effective force of the form A/r^2 (where A is a constant) in the radial direction (Bacon 1959). Taking into account the gravitational force exerted by the sun, the force acting on such an aggregating object is A/r^2-- B/r^2, leading to logarithmic spiral orbits with a periodic feature of 2π in the azimuthal angle. This paper treats the interactions of these small spiraling objects with larger protoplanets as perturbations to the Kepler problem of the planets (Gryzinski 1980). When stability conditions are imposed, the periods of the planetary orbits are found to be discrete; Tn = (34)exp(0.815n) with n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . measured in days, which is in good agreement with observations (Graner and Dubrulle 1994). Reference Bacon, R.H. 1959. Am. J. Phys., 27, 164. Graner, E. and Dubrulle, B. 1994. A&A,282,262. Gryzinski, M. 1980, Phys. Letters, 76A, 28.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol nanoemulsion as a topical delivery system.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Fariba; Rajabnejhad, Saeid; Partoazar, Ali Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Syedmoradi, Leila; Rajabnejhad, Mohammad Reza; Amani, Amir

    2016-11-01

    Eugenol is the main constituent of clove oil with anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, for the first time, O/W nanoemulsion of eugenol was designed for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects as a topical delivery system. Topical formulations containing 1%, 2% and 4% of eugenol as well as a nanoemulsion system containing 4% eugenol and 0.5% piroxicam were prepared. Further to physicochemical examinations, such as determination of particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and physical stability, anti-inflammatory activity was examined in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The optimum formulation was found to contain 2% eugenol (oil phase), 14% Tween 20 (surfactant) and 14% isopropyl alcohol (co-surfactant) in water. Nanoemulsion with polydispersity index of 0.3 and median droplet diameter of 24.4 nm (d50) was obtained. Animal studies revealed that the nanoemulsions exhibited significantly improved anti-inflammatory activity after 1.5 h, compared with marketed piroxicam gel. Additionally, it was shown that increasing the concentration of eugenol did not show higher inhibition of inflammation. Also, the nanoemulsion having piroxicam showed less anti-inflammatory properties compared with the nanoemulsion without piroxicam.

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of topical and systemic antifungal drugs against Malassezia species.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso Javier; Rojas, Florencia; Tur-Tur, Cristina; de Los Ángeles Sosa, María; Diez, Gustavo Ortiz; Espada, Carmen Martín; Payá, María Jesús; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2013-09-01

    The strict nutritional requirements of Malassezia species make it difficult to test the antifungal susceptibility. Treatments of the chronic and recurrent infections associated with Malassezia spp. are usually ineffective. The objective of this study was to obtain in vitro susceptibility profile of 76 clinical isolates of Malassezia species against 16 antifungal drugs used for topical or systemic treatment. Isolates were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained by a modified microdilution method based on the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute reference document M27-A3. The modifications allowed a good growth of all tested species. High in vitro antifungal activity of most tested drugs was observed, especially triazole derivatives, except for fluconazole which presented the highest MICs and widest range of concentrations. Ketoconazole and itraconazole demonstrated a great activity. Higher MICs values were obtained with Malassezia furfur indicating a low susceptibility to most of the antifungal agents tested. Malassezia sympodialis and Malassezia pachydermatis were found to be more-susceptible species than M. furfur, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia slooffiae and Malassezia restricta. Topical substances were also active but provide higher MICs than the compounds for systemic use. The differences observed in the antifungals activity and interspecies variability demonstrated the importance to studying the susceptibility profile of each species to obtain reliable information for defining an effective treatment regimen.

  20. Immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction associated with topical application of Australian tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Mozelsio, Nancy B; Harris, Kathleen E; McGrath, Kris G; Grammer, Leslie C

    2003-01-01

    Australian tea tree oil has been used as a veterinary antiseptic for many years and, more recently, has been extended into human use. There have been many reports of allergic contact dermatitis and toxicity reactions, but it has never been implicated in immediate systemic hypersensitivity reactions. A 38-year-old man experienced immediate flushing, pruritus, throat constriction, and lightheadedness after topical application of tea tree oil. Our purpose was to determine whether this represented an immunoglobulin E (IgE)--mediated reaction. Skin-prick and intradermal testing was performed, as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for specific IgG and IgE against tea tree oil. The patient had a positive wheal and flare reaction on intradermal testing with tea tree oil. All five patient controls were negative on skin testing. No specific IgG or IgE was detected. We present the first reported case of an immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction occurring after topical application of Australian tea tree oil, confirmed by positive wheal and flare reaction on skin testing.

  1. Laser scribing system for amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youliang; Shi, Yaling; Su, Xiaorong; Yan, Shuming; Xu, Hong

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a laser scribing system for the fabrication of a-Si solar cells. Additionally, we provide a theoretical analysis of the system. The system was used to scribe the TCO and a-Si films.

  2. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  3. Prototype residential solar-energy system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Compilation includes documents and drawings for complete solar-heating system. It discussed system installed in residential building at Veterns' Administration Hospital in Togus, Maine. System can be adapted to other buildings without changing design.

  4. Classifications of central solar domestic hot water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. Y.; Hao, B.; Peng, C.; Wang, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there are many means by which to classify solar domestic hot water systems, which are often categorized according to their scope of supply, solar collector positions, and type of heat storage tank. However, the lack of systematic and scientific classification as well as the general disregard of the thermal performance of the auxiliary heat source is important to DHW systems. Thus, the primary focus of this paper is to determine a classification system for solar domestic hot water systems based on the positions of the solar collector and auxiliary heating device, both respectively and in combination. Field-testing data regarding many central solar DHW systems demonstrates that the position of the auxiliary heat source clearly reflects the operational energy consumption. The consumption of collective auxiliary heating hot water system is much higher than individual auxiliary heating hot water system. In addition, costs are significantly reduced by the separation of the heat storage tank and the auxiliary heating device.

  5. General theme report: Working session 2, solar thermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, D. J.; Kolb, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    Currently, over 90 percent of the world's large-scale solar electric energy is generated with concentrating solar thermal power plants. Such plants have the potential to meet many of the world's future energy needs. Research efforts are generally focused on generating electricity, though a variety of other applications are being pursued. Today, the technology for using solar thermal energy is well developed, cost competitive, and in many cases, ready for widespread application. The current state of each of the solar thermal technologies and their applications is reviewed, and recommendations for increasing their use are presented. The technologies reviewed in detail are: parabolic trough systems, central tower systems, and parabolic dish systems.

  6. Cost study of solar cell space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    Historical costs for solar cell space power systems were evaluated. The study covered thirteen missions that represented a broad cross section of flight projects over the past decade. Fully burdened costs in terms of 1971 dollars are presented for the system and the solar array. The costs correlate reasonably well with array area and do not increase in proportion to array area. The trends for array costs support the contention that solar cell and module standardization reduce costs.

  7. Chronology of the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieloff, M.

    2008-09-01

    Radioisotope chronologies from both long-lived nuclides (238,235U-206,207Pb, 40K-40Ar [1,2,3]) and shortlived radionuclides (129Xe from 129I; half-live T1/2=16 Myr [4,5], excess 26Mg from 26Al; T1/2=0.73 Myr [6], 53Cr from 53Mn; T1/2=3.7 Myr [7], 182Hf from 182W; T1/2=9 Myr [8,9]) provide a framework for the formation of solids in the early solar system. We present an early solar system chronology based on the calibration of short-lived isotope chronometries to several tie points (CAIs, H chondrites, Acapulco), and planetesimal heating in the early solar system [3,10]. Conditions of formation of the first solids in the solar nebula varied - most probably due to p,T differences imposed by the early sun - with radial distance and/or time, and caused the compositional variety of planetesimals concerning refractory and volatile elements, metals, Mg-rich silicates, and probably also oxygen isotopes [10,11,12]. Radiometric dating and chemical composition suggest that individual planetesimals grew rapidly in the asteroid belt (within < 1 Myr), but different planetesimals formed over a time interval of 4 million years [3,9,10], well within the lifetime of protoplanetary dust disks in extrasolar systems [13,14]. Early planetesimals were heated to varying degrees by decay heat of short-lived nuclides (primarily 26Al) [3]. This caused melting and differentiation in early (within < 2 Ma after CAIs) formed planetesimals and led to the formation of iron cores and basaltic rocks, while planetesimals that accreted later remained undifferentiated [3,9,10]. Chondritic parent bodies experienced severe thermal metamorphism in the case of ordinary chondrites, and aqueous alteration (further modifying the oxygen isotopic composition) in the case of carbonaceous chondrites. As most chondrules were immediately consumed in accreting planetesimals, they were only preserved in unmelted chondritic parent bodies and their age distribution is biased to the formation time interval of chondrites

  8. Saturn Probe: Revealing Solar System Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Comparative studies of the gas giant and ice giant planets are needed to reliably discriminate among competing theories of the origin and evolution of giant planets and the solar system, but we lack critical measurements. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission would fill a vital part of that gap, allowing comparative studies of Jupiter and Saturn, providing the basis for later comparisons with the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, and informing studies of extrasolar planetary systems now being characterized. The Galileo Probe mission provided the first in situ studies of Jupiter's atmosphere. Similar measurements at Saturn, Uranus and Neptune would provide an important comparative planetology context for the Galileo results. Cassini's "Proximal Orbits" in 2017 will reveal Saturn's internal structure to complement the Juno mission's similar measurements at Jupiter. A Saturn entry probe, complementing the Galileo Probe investigations at Jupiter, would complete a solid basis for improved understanding of both Jupiter and Saturn, an important stepping stone to understanding Uranus and Neptune and solar system formation and evolution. The 2012 Decadal Survey ("DS") added Saturn Probe science objectives to NASA's New Frontiers Program: highest-priority Tier 1 objectives any New Frontiers implementation must achieve, and Tier 2, high priority but lower than Tier 1. A DS mission concept study using extremely conservative assumptions concluded that a Saturn Probe project could fit within New Frontiers resource constraints, giving a PI confidence that they could pursue some Tier 2 objectives, customizing for the proper balance of science return, science team composition, procured or contributed instruments, etc. Contributed instruments could significantly enhance the payload and the science team for greater science return. They also provide international collaboration opportunities, with science benefits well demonstrated by missions such as Cassini-Huygens and Rosetta.

  9. The LSST and Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. H.; Tyson, J. A.; Stubbs, C.; Bowell, E. L.; Harris, A. W.; Binzel, R.; Craig, W.; LSST Collaboration

    2001-12-01

    The Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) was a highly ranked Major Initiative in Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millenium, the last decadal survey. The LSST's potential for exploring the Solar System was a major reason for this high ranking. The proposed design (see poster by Angel, this meeting) provides an effective aperture of 6.9-m and a 7 square degree field. This instrument will excel at time-domain surveys over wide fields, as well as allow extremely deep surveys. The LSST will be able to cover the whole available sky to 24th magnitude in three days or create ultra-deep images to 28th magnitude over 1000 square degrees every 5 days. The LSST capabilities make it a unique facility for Solar System surveys. LSST's unique capability of reaching 24th magnitude in only 20 seconds is critically important for faint moving object detection. A proposed Near Earth Object (NEO) survey mode will cover about 14,000 square degrees in three weeks with 9 visits per field. This should allow an inventory of NEOs to 300-m in size to be 90&%slash complete in a decade if this survey is chosen as a priority. This survey mode will also yield a deep census of Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs), Main Belt Asteriods (MBAs) and comets. The LSST will provide its own follow up because it resurveys the sky on such a rapid schedule. The LSST will also collect deep multi-color photometry for its discoveries for classification and better understanding of compostion and evolution of these bodies. We will detail the LSST instrument and describe in detail the various surveys modes and how its moving body census will enable detailed study of the structure and evolution of the Solar System. More complete details of the design and science mission can be found at http://lssto.org. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  10. High voltage solar cell power generating system for regulated solar array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E., Jr.; Hoffman, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    A laboratory solar power system regulated by on-panel switches has been delivered for operating high power (3 kw), high voltage (15,000 volt) loads (communication tubes, ion thrusters). The modular system consists of 26 solar arrays, each with an integral light source and cooling system. A typical array contains 2560 series-connected cells. Each light source consists of twenty 500 watt tungsten iodide lamps providing plus or minus 5 per cent uniformity at one solar constant. An array temperature of less than 40 C is achieved using an infrared filter, a water cooled plate, a vacuum hold-down system, and air flushing.

  11. What are we 'tweeting' about obesity? Mapping tweets with Topic Modeling and Geographic Information System.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debarchana Debs; Guha, Rajarshi

    2013-01-01

    Public health related tweets are difficult to identify in large conversational datasets like Twitter.com. Even more challenging is the visualization and analyses of the spatial patterns encoded in tweets. This study has the following objectives: How can topic modeling be used to identify relevant public health topics such as obesity on Twitter.com? What are the common obesity related themes? What is the spatial pattern of the themes? What are the research challenges of using large conversational datasets from social networking sites? Obesity is chosen as a test theme to demonstrate the effectiveness of topic modeling using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and spatial analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS). The dataset is constructed from tweets (originating from the United States) extracted from Twitter.com on obesity-related queries. Examples of such queries are 'food deserts', 'fast food', and 'childhood obesity'. The tweets are also georeferenced and time stamped. Three cohesive and meaningful themes such as 'childhood obesity and schools', 'obesity prevention', and 'obesity and food habits' are extracted from the LDA model. The GIS analysis of the extracted themes show distinct spatial pattern between rural and urban areas, northern and southern states, and between coasts and inland states. Further, relating the themes with ancillary datasets such as US census and locations of fast food restaurants based upon the location of the tweets in a GIS environment opened new avenues for spatial analyses and mapping. Therefore the techniques used in this study provide a possible toolset for computational social scientists in general and health researchers in specific to better understand health problems from large conversational datasets.

  12. Environments in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, N.; Khurana, K. K.; Iess, L.; Lainey, V.; Cassidy, T. A.; Burger, M.; Sotin, C.; Neubauer, F.

    2010-06-01

    The outer planets of our solar system Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are fascinating objects on their own. Their intrinsic magnetic fields form magnetic environments (so called magnetospheres) in which charged and neutral particles and dust are produced, lost or being transported through the system. These magnetic environments of the gas giants can be envisaged as huge plasma laboratories in space in which electromagnetic waves, current systems, particle transport mechanisms, acceleration processes and other phenomena act and interact with the large number of moons in orbit around those massive planets. In general it is necessary to describe and study the global environments (magnetospheres) of the gas giants, its global configuration with its large-scale transport processes; and, in combination, to study the local environments of the moons as well, e.g. the interaction processes between the magnetospheric plasma and the exosphere/atmosphere/magnetosphere of the moon acting on time scales of seconds to days. These local exchange processes include also the gravity, shape, rotation, astrometric observations and orbital parameters of the icy moons in those huge systems. It is the purpose of this chapter of the book to describe the variety of the magnetic environments of the outer planets in a broad overview, globally and locally, and to show that those exchange processes can dramatically influence the surfaces and exospheres/atmospheres of the moons and they can also be used as a tool to study the overall physics of systems as a whole.

  13. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 41, Shenandoah (Newman), Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, A. K.; Pederson, S.

    1982-08-01

    The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 41) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of the data collected between January and August 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 41 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 702 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 1000-gallon thermal storage tank; a 3-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted air conditioner; a water-to-are heat exchanger for solar space heating; a finned-tube coil immersed in the storage tank to preheat water for a gas-fired hot water heater; and associated piping, pumps, valves, and controls. The solar system has six basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics.

  14. Royal Society, Discussion on Rotation in the Solar System, London, England, March 8, 9, 1984, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hide, R.

    1984-11-01

    The classical mechanics of rotation (R) in the present solar system and during its evolution is examined in theoretical studies and reviews of observational data. Topics discussed include R in the early solar system, R/magnetic-field interactions, the R of the sun, long-term changes in the R of the earth, tidal friction in the earth-moon system, the R of the atmospheres of the earth and planets, R and internal structures of the major planets and their inner satellites, the R of the Uranian system, the R of Hyperion, asteroid R rates, R of cometary nuclei, and the R of the earth inner core. Graphs, diagrams, tables, and photographs are provided.

  15. A Comparison Of A Solar Power Satellite Concept To A Concentrating Solar Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a Solar Power Satellite concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the Solar Power Satellite concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, that the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground.

  16. Long Periodic Terms in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-01-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  17. Solar system events at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, K H; Gavel, D T; Getz, A M; Gibbartd, S G; MacIntosh, B; Max, C E; McKay, C P; Young, E F; de Pater, I

    1999-02-19

    Until relatively recent advances in technology, astronomical observations from the ground were limited in image resolution by the blurring effects of earth's atmosphere. The blur extent, ranging typically from 0.5 to 2 seconds of arc at the best astronomical sights, precluded ground-based observations of the details of the solar system's moons, asteroids, and outermost planets. With the maturing of a high resolution image processing technique called speckle imaging the resolution limitation of the atmosphere can now be largely overcome. Over the past three years they have used speckle imaging to observe Titan, a moon of Saturn with an atmospheric density comparable to Earth's, Io, the volcanically active innermost moon of Jupiter, and Neptune, a gas giant outer planet which has continually changing planet-encircling storms. These observations were made at the world's largest telescope, the Keck telescope in Hawaii and represent the highest resolution infrared images of these objects ever taken.

  18. Solar System tests in f (T ) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrugia, Gabriel; Said, Jackson Levi; Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the four solar system tests of gravity—perihelion precession, light bending, Shapiro time delay, gravitational redshift—in f (T ) gravity. In particular, we investigate the solution derived by Ruggiero and Radicella53 , Phys. Rev. D 91, 104014 (2015). for a nondiagonal vierbein field for a polynomial f (T )=T +α Tn , where α is a constant and |n |≠1 . In this paper, we derive the solutions for each test, in which Weinberg's, Bodenner and Will's, Cattani et al., and Rindler and Ishak's methods are applied55 , Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity (Wiley, New York, 1972); 56 Am. J. Phys. 71 (2003); 57 Phys. Rev. D 87, 047503 (2013); 58 Phys. Rev. D 76, 043006 (2007). We set a constraint on α for n =2 , 3 by using data available from literature.

  19. Chemical evolution of primitive solar system bodies.

    PubMed

    Oró, J; Mills, T

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we summarize some of the most salient observations made recently on the organic molecules and other compounds of the biogenic elements present in the interstellar medium and in the primitive bodies of the solar system. They include the discovery of the first phosphorus molecular species in dense interstellar clouds, the presence of complex organic ions in the dust and gas phase of Halley's coma, the finding of unusual, probably presolar, deuterium-hydrogen ratios in the amino acids of carbonaceous chondrites, and new developments on the chemical evolution of Titan, the primitive Earth, and early Mars. Some of the outstanding problems concerning the synthesis of organic molecules on different cosmic bodies are also discussed from an exobiological perspective.

  20. Operations Concept for a Solar System Internetwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Denis, Michel; Braatz, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Space communications to date has been largely managed at the link layer, with simple point-to-point links between a spacecraft at Earth. However, future space exploration scenarios involve much richer communications scenarios, with complex network scenarios involving space assets communicating back to Earth via multiple intermediate relay service providers. To support these more complex network scenarios, the Space Internetworking Strategy Group has developed an operations concept for a Solar System Internetwork (SSI). The operations concept draws on the successes of the terrestrial Internet while addressing unique aspects of space communications. Key elements of the operations concept include a standardized network layer across the end-to-end SSI and the underlying processes for development of a contact plan that captures the link layer connectivity among SSI network nodes.