Kloprogge, J. Theo; Frost, Ray L.
The Raman spectra at 300 and 77 K of beryl, columbite-tantalite and topaz single crystals from pegmatites in the Iveland-Evje area are described in detail. The beryl is shown to contain mainly water type I and less of type II in its channels, while CO 2 is only a very minor channel constituent. Cooling to 77 K results in minor shifts towards higher wavenumbers for most bands. The SiO vibrations at 1009 and 1066 cm -1 show a doubling to four bands at 1015, 1072, 1087 and 1149 cm -1 due to structural rearrangements in the hexameric rings forming the channels in the beryl crystal structure. In addition a new band becomes visible around 1155 cm -1. The tantalite could not be analysed in detail due to strong fluorescence. The Raman spectrum of the yellow topaz from Solås is comparable to that of the colourless topaz from Topaz Mountain, Thomas Range, Utah. Upon cooling to 77 K, two OH-stretching bands become visible around 3644 and 3655 cm -1, which were not observed at room temperature.
Kloprogge, J T; Frost, R L
The Raman spectra at 300 and 77 K of beryl, columbite-tantalite and topaz single crystals from pegmatites in the Iveland-Evje area are described in detail. The beryl is shown to contain mainly water type I and less of type II in its channels, while CO2 is only a very minor channel constituent. Cooling to 77 K results in minor shifts towards higher wavenumbers for most bands. The Si-O vibrations at 1009 and 1066 cm(-1) show a doubling to four bands at 1015, 1072, 1087 and 1149 cm(-1) due to structural rearrangements in the hexameric rings forming the channels in the beryl crystal structure. In addition a new band becomes visible around 1155 cm(-1). The tantalite could not be analysed in detail due to strong fluorescence. The Raman spectrum of the yellow topaz from Solås is comparable to that of the colourless topaz from Topaz Mountain, Thomas Range, Utah. Upon cooling to 77 K, two OH-stretching bands become visible around 3644 and 3655 cm(-1), which were not observed at room temperature.
Werner, Erik L; Ihlebæk, Camilla
In 2001, we undertook a survey among general practitioners in Aust-Agder county to describe how patients with spinal problems were examined and treated by GPs. We have now conducted a new survey among the regular GPs in the same county. All regular GPs in Aust-Agder county received an invitation to participate in the study. The doctors were asked to continuously register over two weeks all patients who visited the doctor and gave spinal problems as their main reason, and to describe all measures that were implemented after the consultation. Of the 87 practising regular GPs, 53% responded. In total, the doctors had received 5,822 patients during the period of study, whereof 3% had reported spinal problems. The examination and treatment provided to these patients were on the whole unchanged since 2001. Only 41% of the doctors reported to cooperate regularly with a physiotherapist, and 11% with a chiropractor, a reduction from 73% and 35% respectively in 2001. The doctors reported co-morbidity in 37% of the patients. Patients were referred for diagnostic imaging with equal frequency as in 2001, although skeletal x-ray and CT had mainly been replaced by MRI. The doctors in this sample treat patients with spinal problems in approximately the same way as the doctors in the 2001 survey, but cooperate less frequently with physiotherapists and chiropractors, and MRI has become the primary alternative when diagnostic imaging is requisitioned.
Kjelland, Vivian; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Vikørren, Turid; Stuen, Snorre; Skarpaas, Tone; Slettan, Audun
The mountain hare (Lepus timidus) population in southern Norway appears to be in decline. Necropsy and laboratory examinations of 36 hares found dead or diseased during 2007-2009 in Vest- and Aust-Agder counties showed that disease and deaths were attributed to multiple causes, with no specific etiology emerging as a cause for population decline. To investigate whether Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infection is associated with mortality in mountain hares, tissues and ticks collected from hares were investigated for infection with the spirochete. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA was not detected in samples from internal organs, whereas Borrelia afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), and the not-yet-defined Borrelia sp. SV1 were found in skin samples from hares and in adult and nymphal Ixodes ricinus feeding on hares. Only B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia sp. SV1 were detected in larvae feeding on hares. Our results indicate that disseminated Borrelia infection in hares rarely occurs and, presumably, does not play a central role in the suspected population decline. The results also suggest that the mountain hare to some degree functions as a transmission host for B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia sp. SV1.
Pūraitė, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Norwegian moose Alces alces and to characterize the bacteria by sequencing of partial msp4 and 16S rRNA genes. Hunters collected spleen samples from 99 moose of different ages during 2013 and 2014 in two areas: Aust-Agder County (n = 70) where Ixodes ricinus ticks are abundant and Oppland County (n = 29) where ticks were either absent, or abundance very low. A. phagocytophilum was detected only in moose from the I. ricinus - abundant area. The overall prevalence of infection according to 16S rRNA and msp4 gene-based PCR was 41.4% and 31.4% respectively. Sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA and msp4 gene revealed two and eight different sequence types respectively. Four of eight msp4 sequence types determined in this study were unique, while others were identical to sequences derived from other ruminants and ticks. The present study indicates that moose could be a potential wildlife reservoir of A. phagocytophilum in Norway.
Saeter, Thorstein; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Waaler, Gudmund; Servoll, Einar; Nesland, Jahn M; Axcrona, Karol; Axcrona, Ulrika
Previous studies suggest that lymphovascular invasion (LVI) has a weak and variable effect on prognosis. It is uncertain whether LVI, determined by diagnostic prostate biopsy, predicts prostate cancer death. Data from experimental studies have indicated that carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in the reactive stroma could promote LVI and progression to metastasis. Thus, combining LVI with reactive stromal grade may identify prostate cancer patients at high risk of an unfavorable outcome. The purpose of the present study was to examine if LVI, determined by diagnostic biopsy, alone and in combination with reactive stromal grade could predict prostate cancer death. This population-based study included 283 patients with prostate cancer diagnosed by needle biopsy in Aust-Agder County (Norway) from 1991 to 1999. Clinical data were obtained by medical charts review. Two uropathologists evaluated LVI and reactive stromal grade. The endpoint was prostate cancer death. Patients with LVI had marginally higher risk of prostate cancer death compared to patients without LVI (hazard ratio: 1.8, P-value = 0.04). LVI had a stronger effect on prostate cancer death risk when a high reactive stromal grade was present (hazard ratio: 16.0, P-value <0.001). Therefore, patients with concomitant LVI and high reactive stromal grade were at particularly high risk for prostate cancer death. Evaluating LVI together with reactive stromal grade on diagnostic biopsies could be used to identify patients at high risk of death from prostate cancer. Prostate 76:1088-1094, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
John S. Kush; J.C.G. Goelz; Richard A. Williams; Douglas R. Carter; Peter E. Linehan
Across the historical range of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), less than 10% of lands previously occupied by longleaf ecosystems are currently in public ownership (Johnson and Gjerstad 1999; Alavalapati et al., this volume). The remainder is owned by private entities ranging from the forest industry, to timberland investment organizations,...
Mark J. Hainds
This is an update of the activities following the September 1999 meeting concerning measures that were discussed to address the longleaf pine seed supply shortage. The people in attendance were Dr. Dean Gjerstad, Mark Haines, Robert Gandy, Larry Bishop, Dr. Ron Carey, Dr. Carey's graduate student Steve Oak, Dr. Jim Barnett, and Jill Barbour
Schmitt, A. K.; Zack, T.
In-situ geochronology of rutile can be applied to a large range of geological problems, from exhumation of lower crust to sedimentary provenance. Recent attempts to improve SIMS U-Pb rutile dating were stifled by crystal orientation dependent instrumental fractionation between Pb and U, leading to considerable uncertainty in the calibration , . Here, we demonstrate that injection of oxygen into the sputtered target region (O2 flooding) significantly reduces variation in the depth sputter rate for rutile. O2 flooding also correlates with increased homogeneity of the UO2+/U+ vs. Pb/U relative sensitivity calibration, resulting in higher precision for U-Pb ages. We also successfully tested an O2+ beam for rutile analysis. Natural and synthetic rutiles were found to efficiently dissipate local charges from positive ion bombardment, whereas charging largely prohibits the use of an O2+ primary beam for insulating silicates and phosphates that are common targets for in-situ geochronology. The advantage of the O2+ beam for rutile analysis is an ~10-times more intense beam current at a lateral resolution equivalent to conventionally used O- or O2- beams. The intense O2+ beam is also efficient in removing surficial Pb contamination. This leads to highly radiogenic Pb yields and combined with a 208Pb-based correction minimizes bias in the common Pb correction resulting from unresolved interferences on the conventionally used 204Pb. We compared three well-characterized rutiles where high-precision U-Pb ages are available: R10b (Gjerstad, Norway; 1090 Ma), R19 (Blumberg, Australia; 489.5 Ma), and JIMP-1B (Windmill Hills, Australia; 2625 Ma). O2+ -generated SIMS U-Pb and Pb-Pb age averages are accurate within <1% for Paleozoic to Archean rutile, the best accuracy reached so far for any in-situ rutile dating study. This underscores the potential of SIMS U-Th-Pb rutile geochronology at a precision and accuracy commensurate to zircon over a wide range of ages. Other potential