Kloprogge, J T; Frost, R L
The Raman spectra at 300 and 77 K of beryl, columbite-tantalite and topaz single crystals from pegmatites in the Iveland-Evje area are described in detail. The beryl is shown to contain mainly water type I and less of type II in its channels, while CO2 is only a very minor channel constituent. Cooling to 77 K results in minor shifts towards higher wavenumbers for most bands. The Si-O vibrations at 1009 and 1066 cm(-1) show a doubling to four bands at 1015, 1072, 1087 and 1149 cm(-1) due to structural rearrangements in the hexameric rings forming the channels in the beryl crystal structure. In addition a new band becomes visible around 1155 cm(-1). The tantalite could not be analysed in detail due to strong fluorescence. The Raman spectrum of the yellow topaz from Solås is comparable to that of the colourless topaz from Topaz Mountain, Thomas Range, Utah. Upon cooling to 77 K, two OH-stretching bands become visible around 3644 and 3655 cm(-1), which were not observed at room temperature.
Pūraitė, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Norwegian moose Alces alces and to characterize the bacteria by sequencing of partial msp4 and 16S rRNA genes. Hunters collected spleen samples from 99 moose of different ages during 2013 and 2014 in two areas: Aust-Agder County (n = 70) where Ixodes ricinus ticks are abundant and Oppland County (n = 29) where ticks were either absent, or abundance very low. A. phagocytophilum was detected only in moose from the I. ricinus - abundant area. The overall prevalence of infection according to 16S rRNA and msp4 gene-based PCR was 41.4% and 31.4% respectively. Sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA and msp4 gene revealed two and eight different sequence types respectively. Four of eight msp4 sequence types determined in this study were unique, while others were identical to sequences derived from other ruminants and ticks. The present study indicates that moose could be a potential wildlife reservoir of A. phagocytophilum in Norway.
Kjelland, Vivian; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Vikørren, Turid; Stuen, Snorre; Skarpaas, Tone; Slettan, Audun
The mountain hare (Lepus timidus) population in southern Norway appears to be in decline. Necropsy and laboratory examinations of 36 hares found dead or diseased during 2007-2009 in Vest- and Aust-Agder counties showed that disease and deaths were attributed to multiple causes, with no specific etiology emerging as a cause for population decline. To investigate whether Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infection is associated with mortality in mountain hares, tissues and ticks collected from hares were investigated for infection with the spirochete. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA was not detected in samples from internal organs, whereas Borrelia afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), and the not-yet-defined Borrelia sp. SV1 were found in skin samples from hares and in adult and nymphal Ixodes ricinus feeding on hares. Only B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia sp. SV1 were detected in larvae feeding on hares. Our results indicate that disseminated Borrelia infection in hares rarely occurs and, presumably, does not play a central role in the suspected population decline. The results also suggest that the mountain hare to some degree functions as a transmission host for B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia sp. SV1.