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Sample records for soluble decoy receptor

  1. Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Decoy Receptor FP3 Exerts Potent Antiangiogenic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yu, De-Chao; Lee, Jung-Sun; Yoo, Ji Young; Shin, Hyewon; Deng, Hongxin; Wei, Yuquan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2012-01-01

    The binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to its receptors stimulates tumor growth; therefore, modulation of VEGF would be a viable approach for antiangiogenic therapy. We constructed a series of soluble decoy receptors containing different VEGF receptor 1 (FLT1) and VEGF receptor 2 (KDR) extracellular domains fused with the Fc region of human immunoglobulin (Ig) and evaluated their antiangiogenic effects and antitumor effects. Results of in vitro binding and cell proliferation assays revealed that decoy receptor FP3 had the highest affinity to VEGF-A and -B. Compared with bevacizumab, FP3 more effectively inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and vessel sprouting from rat aortic rings. FP3 significantly reduced phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2, critical proteins in the VEGF-mediated survival pathway in endothelial cells. Moreover, FP3 inhibited tumor growth in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colorectal cancer (LoVo) tumor models, and reduced microvessel density in tumor tissues. The FP3-mediated inhibition of tumor growth was significantly higher than that of bevacizumab at the same dose. FP3 also demonstrated synergistic antitumor effects when combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Taken together, FP3 shows a high affinity for VEGF and produced antiangiogenic effects, suggesting its potential for treating angiogenesis-related diseases such as cancer. PMID:22273580

  2. Crystal structure of a soluble decoy receptor IL-22BP bound to interleukin-22.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Patricia Ribeiro; Watanabe, Leandra; Bleicher, Lucas; Colau, Didier; Dumoutier, Laure; Lemaire, Muriel M; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Polikarpov, Igor

    2009-04-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) plays an important role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in mammals. The IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP), a soluble receptor that specifically binds IL-22, prevents the IL-22/interleukin-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1)/interleukin-10 receptor 2 (IL-10R2) complex assembly and blocks IL-22 biological activity. Here we present the crystal structure of the IL-22/IL-22BP complex at 2.75 A resolution. The structure reveals IL-22BP residues critical for IL-22 binding, which were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and functional studies. Comparison of IL-22/IL-22BP and IL-22/IL-22R1 crystal structures shows that both receptors display an overlapping IL-22 binding surface, which is consistent with the inhibitory role played by IL-22 binding protein.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human IL-22 bound to its soluble decoy receptor IL-22BP.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Leandra; de Moura, Patricia Ribeiro; Nascimento, Alessandro Silva; Colau, Didier; Dumoutier, Laure; Renauld, Jean Christophe; Polikarpov, Igor

    2009-02-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is involved in inflammatory responses. Human IL-22 was incubated with its soluble decoy receptor IL-22BP (IL-22 binding protein) and the IL-22-IL-22BP complex was crystallized in hanging drops using the vapour-diffusion method. Suitable crystals were obtained from polyethylene glycol solutions and diffraction data were collected to 2.75 A resolution. The crystal belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(1), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 67.9, c = 172.5 A, and contained two IL-22-IL-22BP complexes per asymmetric unit.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human IL-22 bound to its soluble decoy receptor IL-22BP

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Leandra; de Moura, Patricia Ribeiro; Nascimento, Alessandro Silva; Colau, Didier; Dumoutier, Laure; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Polikarpov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is involved in inflammatory responses. Human IL-22 was incubated with its soluble decoy receptor IL-22BP (IL-22 binding protein) and the IL-22–IL-22BP complex was crystallized in hanging drops using the vapour-diffusion method. Suitable crystals were obtained from polyethylene glycol solutions and diffraction data were collected to 2.75 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the tetragonal space group P41, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 67.9, c = 172.5 Å, and contained two IL-22–IL-­22BP complexes per asymmetric unit. PMID:19193995

  5. Aberrant expression and function of death receptor-3 and death decoy receptor-3 in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    GE, ZHICHENG; SANDERS, ANDREW J.; YE, LIN; JIANG, WEN G.

    2011-01-01

    Death receptor-3 (DR3) and death decoy receptor-3 (DcR3) are both members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. The TNFR superfamily contains eight death domain-containing receptors, including TNFR1 (also called DR1), Fas (also called DR2), DR3, DR4, DR5, DR6, NGFR and EDAR. Upon the binding of these receptors with their corresponding ligands, the death domain recruits various proteins that mediate both the death and proliferation of cells. Receptor function is negatively regulated by decoy receptors (DcR1, DcR2, DcR3 and OPG). DR3/DcR3 are a pair of positive and negative players with which vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) interacts. VEGI has been suggested to be a potential tumour suppressor. The inhibitory effects of VEGI on cancer are manifested in three main areas: a direct effect on cancer cells, an anti-angiogenic effect on endothelial cells, and the stimulation of dendritic cell maturation. A recent study indicated that DR3 may be a new receptor for E-selectin, which has been reported to be associated with cancer metastasis. DcR3 is a soluble receptor, highly expressed in various tumours, which lacks an apparent transmembrane segment, prevents cytokine response through ligand binding and neutralization, and is an inhibitor of apoptosis. DcR3 serves as a decoy receptor for FasL, LIGHT and VEGI. The cytokine LIGHT activates various anti-tumour functions and is expected to be a promising candidate for cancer therapy. Certain tumours may escape FasL-dependent immune-cytotoxic attack by expressing DcR3, which blocks FasL function. DR3/DcR3 play profound roles in regulating cell death and proliferation in cancer. The present review briefly discusses DR3/DcR3 and attempts to elucidate the role of these negative and positive players in cancer. PMID:22977485

  6. Cytokine decoy and scavenger receptors as key regulators of immunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bonecchi, Raffaella; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto; Riva, Federica

    2016-11-01

    IL-1R2 was the first decoy receptor to be described. Subsequently receptors which act as pure decoys or scavengers or trigger dampening of cytokine signaling have been described for cytokines and chemokines. Here we review the current understanding of the mode of action and significance in pathology of the chemokine atypical receptor ACKR2, the IL-1 decoy receptor IL-1R2 and the atypical IL-1 receptor family IL-1R8. Decoy and scavenger receptors with no or atypical signaling have emerged as a general strategy conserved in evolution to tune the action of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. PMID:27498604

  7. A membrane-bound Fas decoy receptor expressed by human thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M; Keir, M; McCune, J M

    2000-03-17

    Human thymocytes at several stages of maturation express Fas, yet resist apoptosis induction through its ligation. A proximal step in apoptotic signaling through Fas is implicated in this resistance, as these cells undergo normal levels of apoptosis induction after exposure to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. We studied the Fas receptors expressed in human thymocytes to search for mechanisms of receptor-mediated inhibition of Fas signaling in these cells. We describe here a unique, membrane-bound form of Fas receptor that contained a complete extracellular domain of Fas but that lacked a death domain due to alternative splicing of exon 7. This Fas decoy receptor (FDR) was shown to have nearly wild-type ability to bind native human Fas ligand and was expressed predominantly at the plasma membrane. Unlike soluble forms of Fas receptor, FDR dominantly inhibited apoptosis induction by Fas ligand in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Titration of FDR in Fas-expressing cells suggests that FDR may operate through the formation of mixed receptor complexes. FDR also dominantly inhibited Fas-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells. In mixing experiments with wild-type Fas, FDR was capable of inhibiting death signaling at molar ratios less than 0.5, and this relative level of FDR:wild type message was observed in at least some thymocytes tested. The data suggest that Fas signal pathways in primary human cells may be regulated by expression of a membrane-bound decoy receptor, analogous to the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by decoy receptors.

  8. Subversion of cytokine networks by virally encoded decoy receptors

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, Megan L.; Lee, Chung A.; Fremont, Daved H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During the course of evolution, viruses have captured or created a diverse array of open reading frames that encode for proteins that serve to evade and sabotage the host innate and adaptive immune responses, which would otherwise lead to their elimination. These viral genomes are some of the best textbooks of immunology ever written. The established arsenal of immunomodulatory proteins encoded by viruses is large and growing and includes specificities for virtually all known inflammatory pathways and targets. The focus of this review is on herpes and poxvirus-encoded cytokine and chemokine binding proteins that serve to undermine the coordination of host immune surveillance. Structural and mechanistic studies of these decoy receptors have provided a wealth of information, not only about viral pathogenesis but also about the inner workings of cytokine signaling networks. PMID:23046131

  9. Decoy plasminogen receptor containing a selective Kunitz-inhibitory domain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yogesh; Vadivel, Kanagasabai; Schmidt, Amy E; Ogueli, Godwin I; Ponnuraj, Sathya M; Rannulu, Nalaka; Loo, Joseph A; Bajaj, Madhu S; Bajaj, S Paul

    2014-01-28

    Kunitz domain 1 (KD1) of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 in which P2' residue Leu17 (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor numbering) is mutated to Arg selectively inhibits the active site of plasmin with ∼5-fold improved affinity. Thrombin cleavage (24 h extended incubation at a 1:50 enzyme-to-substrate ratio) of the KD1 mutant (Leu17Arg) yielded a smaller molecule containing the intact Kunitz domain with no detectable change in the active-site inhibitory function. The N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF/ESI data revealed that the starting molecule has a C-terminal valine (KD1L17R-VT), whereas the smaller molecule has a C-terminal lysine (KD1L17R-KT). Because KD1L17R-KT has C-terminal lysine, we examined whether it could serve as a decoy receptor for plasminogen/plasmin. Such a molecule might inhibit plasminogen activation as well as the active site of generated plasmin. In surface plasmon resonance experiments, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and Glu-plasminogen bound to KD1L17R-KT (Kd ∼ 0.2 to 0.3 μM) but not to KD1L17R-VT. Furthermore, KD1L17R-KT inhibited tPA-induced plasma clot fibrinolysis more efficiently than KD1L17R-VT. Additionally, compared to ε-aminocaproic acid KD1L17R-KT was more effective in reducing blood loss in a mouse liver-laceration injury model, where the fibrinolytic system is activated. In further experiments, the micro(μ)-plasmin-KD1L17R-KT complex inhibited urokinase-induced plasminogen activation on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated U937 monocyte-like cells, whereas the μ-plasmin-KD1L17R-VT complex failed to inhibit this process. In conclusion, KD1L17R-KT inhibits the active site of plasmin as well as acts as a decoy receptor for the kringle domain(s) of plasminogen/plasmin; hence, it limits both plasmin generation and activity. With its dual function, KD1L17R-KT could serve as a preferred agent for controlling plasminogen activation in pathological processes. PMID:24383758

  10. An engineered Axl 'decoy receptor' effectively silences the Gas6-Axl signaling axis

    SciTech Connect

    Kariolis, Mihalis S.; Miao, Yu Rebecca; Jones, Douglas S.; Kapur, Shiven; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Giaccia, Amato J.; Cochran, Jennifer R.

    2014-09-21

    Aberrant signaling through the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase has been associated with a myriad of human diseases, most notably metastatic cancer, identifying Axl and its ligand Gas6 as important therapeutic targets. Using rational and combinatorial approaches, we engineered an Axl ‘decoy receptor’ that binds Gas6 with high affinity and inhibits its function, offering an alternative approach from drug discovery efforts that directly target Axl. Four mutations within this high affinity Axl variant caused structural alterations in side chains across the Gas6/Axl binding interface, stabilizing a conformational change on Gas6. When reformatted as an Fc-fusion, the engineered decoy receptor bound to Gas6 with femtomolar affinity, an 80-fold improvement compared to the wild-type Axl receptor, allowing effective sequestration of Gas6 and specific abrogation of Axl signaling. Additionally, increased Gas6 binding affinity was critical and correlative with the ability of decoy receptors to potently inhibit metastasis and disease progression in vivo.

  11. A myostatin and activin decoy receptor enhances bone formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Bialek, P; Parkington, J; Li, X; Gavin, D; Wallace, C; Zhang, J; Root, A; Yan, G; Warner, L; Seeherman, H J; Yaworsky, P J

    2014-03-01

    Myostatin is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-β (BMP/TGFβ) super-family of secreted differentiation factors. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass as shown by increased muscle mass in myostatin deficient mice. Interestingly, these mice also exhibit increased bone mass suggesting that myostatin may also play a role in regulating bone mass. To investigate the role of myostatin in bone, young adult mice were administered with either a myostatin neutralizing antibody (Mstn-mAb), a soluble myostatin decoy receptor (ActRIIB-Fc) or vehicle. While both myostatin inhibitors increased muscle mass, only ActRIIB-Fc increased bone mass. Bone volume fraction (BV/TV), as determined by microCT, was increased by 132% and 27% in the distal femur and lumbar vertebrae, respectively. Histological evaluation demonstrated that increased BV/TV in both locations was attributed to increased trabecular thickness, trabecular number and bone formation rate. Increased BV/TV resulted in enhanced vertebral maximum compressive force compared to untreated animals. The fact that ActRIIB-Fc, but not Mstn-mAb, increased bone volume suggested that this soluble decoy receptor may be binding a ligand other than myostatin, that plays a role in regulating bone mass. This was confirmed by the significant increase in BV/TV in myostatin deficient mice treated with ActRIIB-Fc. Of the other known ActRIIB-Fc ligands, BMP3 has been identified as a negative regulator of bone mass. However, BMP3 deficient mice treated with ActRIIB-Fc showed similar increases in BV/TV as wild type (WT) littermates treated with ActRIIB-Fc. This result suggests that BMP3 neutralization is not the mechanism responsible for increased bone mass. The results of this study demonstrate that ActRIIB-Fc increases both muscle and bone mass in mice. Therefore, a therapeutic that has this dual activity represents a potential approach for the treatment of frailty. PMID:24333131

  12. Human Milk Contains Novel Glycans That Are Potential Decoy Receptors for Neonatal Rotaviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mickum, Megan L.; Ashline, David J.; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Estes, Mary K.; Reinhold, Vernon N.; Cummings, Richard D.; Smith, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Human milk contains a rich set of soluble, reducing glycans whose functions and bioactivities are not well understood. Because human milk glycans (HMGs) have been implicated as receptors for various pathogens, we explored the functional glycome of human milk using shotgun glycomics. The free glycans from pooled milk samples of donors with mixed Lewis and Secretor phenotypes were labeled with a fluorescent tag and separated via multidimensional HPLC to generate a tagged glycan library containing 247 HMG targets that were printed to generate the HMG shotgun glycan microarray (SGM). To investigate the potential role of HMGs as decoy receptors for rotavirus (RV), a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children, we interrogated the HMG SGM with recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the RV outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]) and a bovine strain, B223(G10P[11]). Glycans that were bound by RV attachment proteins were selected for detailed structural analyses using metadata-assisted glycan sequencing, which compiles data on each glycan based on its binding by antibodies and lectins before and after exo- and endo-glycosidase digestion of the SGM, coupled with independent MSn analyses. These complementary structural approaches resulted in the identification of 32 glycans based on RV VP8* binding, many of which are novel HMGs, whose detailed structural assignments by MSn are described in a companion report. Although sialic acid has been thought to be important as a surface receptor for RVs, our studies indicated that sialic acid is not required for binding of glycans to individual VP8* domains. Remarkably, each VP8* recognized specific glycan determinants within a unique subset of related glycan structures where specificity differences arise from subtle differences in glycan structures. PMID:25048705

  13. Dual GPCR and GAG mimicry by the M3 chemokine decoy receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander-Brett, Jennifer M.; Fremont, Daved H.

    2008-09-23

    Viruses have evolved a myriad of evasion strategies focused on undermining chemokine-mediated immune surveillance, exemplified by the mouse {gamma}-herpesvirus 68 M3 decoy receptor. Crystal structures of M3 in complex with C chemokine ligand 1/lymphotactin and CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 reveal that invariant chemokine features associated with G protein-coupled receptor binding are primarily recognized by the decoy C-terminal domain, whereas the N-terminal domain (NTD) reconfigures to engage divergent basic residue clusters on the surface of chemokines. Favorable electrostatic forces dramatically enhance the association kinetics of chemokine binding by M3, with a primary role ascribed to acidic NTD regions that effectively mimic glycosaminoglycan interactions. Thus, M3 employs two distinct mechanisms of chemical imitation to potently sequester chemokines, thereby inhibiting chemokine receptor binding events as well as the formation of chemotactic gradients necessary for directed leukocyte trafficking.

  14. An engineered Axl 'decoy receptor' effectively silences the Gas6-Axl signaling axis

    DOE PAGES

    Kariolis, Mihalis S.; Miao, Yu Rebecca; Jones, Douglas S.; Kapur, Shiven; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Giaccia, Amato J.; Cochran, Jennifer R.

    2014-09-21

    Aberrant signaling through the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase has been associated with a myriad of human diseases, most notably metastatic cancer, identifying Axl and its ligand Gas6 as important therapeutic targets. Using rational and combinatorial approaches, we engineered an Axl ‘decoy receptor’ that binds Gas6 with high affinity and inhibits its function, offering an alternative approach from drug discovery efforts that directly target Axl. Four mutations within this high affinity Axl variant caused structural alterations in side chains across the Gas6/Axl binding interface, stabilizing a conformational change on Gas6. When reformatted as an Fc-fusion, the engineered decoy receptor bound tomore » Gas6 with femtomolar affinity, an 80-fold improvement compared to the wild-type Axl receptor, allowing effective sequestration of Gas6 and specific abrogation of Axl signaling. Additionally, increased Gas6 binding affinity was critical and correlative with the ability of decoy receptors to potently inhibit metastasis and disease progression in vivo.« less

  15. Integration of decoy domains derived from protein targets of pathogen effectors into plant immune receptors is widespread.

    PubMed

    Kroj, Thomas; Chanclud, Emilie; Michel-Romiti, Corinne; Grand, Xavier; Morel, Jean-Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Plant immune receptors of the class of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domain (NLR) proteins can contain additional domains besides canonical NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, R proteins, and CED-4 (NB-ARC)) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Recent research suggests that these additional domains act as integrated decoys recognizing effectors from pathogens. Proteins homologous to integrated decoys are suspected to be effector targets and involved in disease or resistance. Here, we scrutinized 31 entire plant genomes to identify putative integrated decoy domains in NLR proteins using the Interpro search. The involvement of the Zinc Finger-BED type (ZBED) protein containing a putative decoy domain, called BED, in rice (Oryza sativa) resistance was investigated by evaluating susceptibility to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in rice over-expression and knock-out mutants. This analysis showed that all plants tested had integrated various atypical protein domains into their NLR proteins (on average 3.5% of all NLR proteins). We also demonstrated that modifying the expression of the ZBED gene modified disease susceptibility. This study suggests that integration of decoy domains in NLR immune receptors is widespread and frequent in plants. The integrated decoy model is therefore a powerful concept to identify new proteins involved in disease resistance. Further in-depth examination of additional domains in NLR proteins promises to unravel many new proteins of the plant immune system. PMID:26848538

  16. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  17. Predictive value of decoy receptor 3 in postoperative nosocomial bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2014-11-03

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (p<0.001). A total of 48.75% of patients with bacterial meningitis received antibiotic>24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study.

  18. Expression of decoy receptor 3 in kidneys is associated with allograft survival after kidney transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shuo-Chun; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Ming-Ju; Wen, Mei-Chin; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Chen, Nien-Jung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression in kidneys has been shown to predict progression of chronic kidney disease. We prospectively investigated a cohort comprising 96 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) undergoing graft kidney biopsies. Computer-assisted quantitative immunohistochemical staining value of DcR3 in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) was used to determine the predictive role of DcR3 in kidney disease progression. The primary end point was doubling of serum creatinine and/or graft failure. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risk of DcR3 expression in rejected kidney grafts toward the renal end point. In total, RTRs with kidney allograft rejection were evaluated and the median follow-up was 30.9 months. The greater expression of DcR3 immunoreactivity in RTECs was correlated with a higher rate of the histopathological concordance of acute T cell-mediated rejection. Compared with 65 non-progressors, 31 progressors had higher DcR3 expression (HDE) regardless of the traditional risk factors. Cox regression analysis showed HDE was significantly associated with the risk of renal end point with a hazard ratio of 3.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 7.27; P = 0.006) after adjusting for other variables. In repetitive biopsies, HDE in tissue showed rapid kidney disease progression due to persistent inflammation. PMID:26335204

  19. Type I interferon mimetics bypass vaccinia virus decoy receptor virulence factor for protection of mice against lethal infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Chulbul M; Johnson, Howard M

    2014-08-01

    The canonical model of interferon (IFN) signaling focuses solely on the activation of STAT transcription factors which, according to the model, are initiated by the singular event of cross-linkage of the receptor extracellular domain by the IFN. The IFN has no further function beyond this. The model thus provides no approach to circumventing poxviruses decoy receptors that compete with the IFN receptors for IFNs. This simple event has allowed smallpox virus to decimate human populations throughout the ages. We have developed a noncanonical model of IFN signaling that has resulted in the development of small peptide mimetics to both types I and II IFNs. In this report, we focus on a type I IFN mimetic at positions 152 to 189, IFN-α1(152-189), which corresponds to the C terminus of human IFN-α1. This mimetic functions intracellularly and is thus not recognized by the B18R vaccinia virus decoy receptor. Mimetic synthesized with an attached palmitate (lipo-) for cell penetration protects mice from a lethal dose of vaccinia virus, while the parent IFN-α1 is ineffective. Unlike IFN-α1, the mimetic does not bind to the B18R decoy receptor. It further differs from the parent IFN in that it lacks the toxicity of weight loss and bone marrow suppression in mice while at the same time possessing a strong adjuvant effect on the immune system. The mimetic is thus an innate and adaptive immune regulator that is evidence of the dynamic nature of the noncanonical model of IFN signaling, in stark contrast to the canonical or classical model of signaling.

  20. TRAIL upregulates decoy receptor 1 and mediates resistance to apoptosis in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soojeong; Park, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2010-06-01

    TRAIL/Apo2L (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a multifunctional protein regulating the homeostasis of the immune system, infection, autoimmune diseases, and apoptosis. In particular, the potential role of TRAIL in type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been studied by several research groups. A previous study found that TRAIL did not have significant cytotoxic effects on the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cell line, INS-1. However, the mechanism was not clear. Here we demonstrate that INS-1 cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and show alteration in the expression of death and decoy receptors upon TRAIL treatment. To compare TRAIL-resistant INS-1 cells with TRAIL-sensitive cells, we utilized U87MG cells, which are known to be TRAIL-sensitive. TRAIL treatment showed NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus in TRAIL-resistant INS-1 cells, and TRAIL-induced NF-kappaB activation was preceded by IkappaBalpha degradation. A pharmacological inhibitor of NF-kappaB, Bay 11-7082, blocked TRAIL-induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus and IkappaBalpha degradation. Four related receptors bind TRAIL: two death receptors (DR4 and DR5) that promote apoptosis, and two decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2) that act as dominant-negative inhibitors of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, TRAIL treatment in INS-1 cells upregulated DcR1 and downregulated DR5 without altering the expression of DcR2 and DR4. The resistance to apoptosis in INS-1 cells might therefore, be a consequence of DcR1 upregulation and DR5 downregulation, and the transcription factor, NF-kappaB, could regulate the sensitivity of cells to TRAIL by controlling the ratio of decoy to death receptors. Thus, TRAIL may play an important role in the survival of pancreatic beta cells by regulating receptor expression in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner.

  1. Decoy receptors block TRAIL sensitivity at a supracellular level: the role of stromal cells in controlling tumour TRAIL sensitivity.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, L; van der Sloot, A M; Reis, C R; Deegan, S; Ryan, A E; Dhami, S P S; Murillo, L S; Cool, R H; Correa de Sampaio, P; Thompson, K; Murphy, G; Quax, W J; Serrano, L; Samali, A; Szegezdi, E

    2016-03-10

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand cytokine known for its cytotoxic activity against malignantly transformed cells. TRAIL induces cell death through binding to death receptors DR4 and DR5. The inhibitory decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2) co-expressed with death receptor 4 (DR4)/DR5 on the same cell can block the transmission of the apoptotic signal. Here, we show that DcRs also regulate TRAIL sensitivity at a supracellular level and thus represent a mechanism by which the microenvironment can diminish tumour TRAIL sensitivity. Mathematical modelling and layered or spheroid stroma-extracellular matrix-tumour cultures were used to model the tumour microenvironment. By engineering TRAIL to escape binding by DcRs, we found that DcRs do not only act in a cell-autonomous or cis-regulatory manner, but also exert trans-cellular regulation originating from stromal cells and affect tumour cells, highlighting the potent inhibitory effect of DcRs in the tumour tissue and the necessity of selective targeting of the two death-inducing TRAIL receptors to maximise efficacy. PMID:26050621

  2. β-Arrestin recruitment and G protein signaling by the atypical human chemokine decoy receptor CCX-CKR.

    PubMed

    Watts, Anne O; Verkaar, Folkert; van der Lee, Miranda M C; Timmerman, Claudia A W; Kuijer, Martien; van Offenbeek, Jody; van Lith, Lambertus H C J; Smit, Martine J; Leurs, Rob; Zaman, Guido J R; Vischer, Henry F

    2013-03-01

    Chemokine receptors form a large subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors that predominantly activate heterotrimeric Gi proteins and are involved in immune cell migration. CCX-CKR is an atypical chemokine receptor with high affinity for CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 chemokines, but is not known to activate intracellular signaling pathways. However, CCX-CKR acts as decoy receptor and efficiently internalizes these chemokines, thereby preventing their interaction with other chemokine receptors, like CCR7 and CCR9. Internalization of fluorescently labeled CCL19 correlated with β-arrestin2-GFP translocation. Moreover, recruitment of β-arrestins to CCX-CKR in response to CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 was demonstrated using enzyme-fragment complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer methods. To unravel why CCX-CKR is unable to activate Gi signaling, CCX-CKR chimeras were constructed by substituting its intracellular loops with the corresponding CCR7 or CCR9 domains. The signaling properties of chimeric CCX-CKR receptors were characterized using a cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-driven reporter gene assay. Unexpectedly, wild type CCX-CKR and a subset of the chimeras induced an increase in CRE activity in response to CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 in the presence of the Gi inhibitor pertussis toxin. CCX-CKR signaling to CRE required an intact DRY motif. These data suggest that inactive Gi proteins impair CCX-CKR signaling most likely by hindering the interaction of this receptor with pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins that transduce signaling to CRE. On the other hand, recruitment of the putative signaling scaffold β-arrestin to CCX-CKR in response to chemokines might allow activation of yet to be identified signal transduction pathways.

  3. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Bamias, Giorgos; Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Koutsounas, Ioannis; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L; Papatheodoridis, George V; Ladas, Spiros D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  4. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I.; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L.; Papatheodoridis, George V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  5. Cdon acts as a Hedgehog decoy receptor during proximal-distal patterning of the optic vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Marcos Julián; Sánchez-Arrones, Luisa; Sandonis, África; Sánchez-Camacho, Cristina; Gestri, Gaia; Wilson, Stephen W.; Guerrero, Isabel; Bovolenta, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Patterning of the vertebrate optic vesicle into proximal/optic stalk and distal/neural retina involves midline-derived Hedgehog (Hh) signalling, which promotes stalk specification. In the absence of Hh signalling, the stalks are not specified, causing cyclopia. Recent studies showed that the cell adhesion molecule Cdon forms a heteromeric complex with the Hh receptor Patched 1 (Ptc1). This receptor complex binds Hh and enhances signalling activation, indicating that Cdon positively regulates the pathway. Here we show that in the developing zebrafish and chick optic vesicle, in which cdon and ptc1 are expressed with a complementary pattern, Cdon acts as a negative Hh signalling regulator. Cdon predominantly localizes to the basolateral side of neuroepithelial cells, promotes the enlargement of the neuroepithelial basal end-foot and traps Hh protein, thereby limiting its dispersion. This Ptc-independent function protects the retinal primordium from Hh activity, defines the stalk/retina boundary and thus the correct proximo-distal patterning of the eye. PMID:25001599

  6. Decoy receptor 3 suppresses FasL-induced apoptosis via ERK1/2 activation in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Xin; Song, Shiduo; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhu, Dongming; Wang, Zhenxin; Chen, Xiaochen; Zhou, Jian

    2015-08-07

    Resistance to Fas Ligand (FasL) mediated apoptosis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is reported to interact with FasL and is overexpressed in some malignant tumors. We sought to investigate the role of DcR3 in resistance to FasL in pancreatic cancer. We compared expression of apoptosis related genes between FasL-resistant SW1990 and FasL-sensitive Patu8988 pancreatic cell lines by microarray analysis. We explored the impact of siRNA knockdown of, or exogenous supplementation with, DcR3 on FasL-induced cell growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cell lines and expression of proteins involved in apoptotic signaling. We assessed the level of DcR3 protein and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in tumor and non-tumor tissue samples of 66 patients with pancreatic carcinoma. RNAi knockdown of DcR3 expression in SW1990 cells reduced resistance to FasL-induced apoptosis, and supplementation of Patu8988 with rDcR3 had the opposite effect. RNAi knockdown of DcR3 in SW1990 cells elevated expression of caspase 3, 8 and 9, and reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), but did not alter phosphorylated-Akt expression. 47 tumor tissue specimens, but only 15 matched non-tumor specimens stained for DcR3 (χ{sup 2} = 31.1447, P < 0.001). The proliferation index of DcR3 positive specimens (14.26  ±  2.67%) was significantly higher than that of DcR3 negative specimens (43.58  ±  7.88%, P < 0.01). DcR3 expression positively correlated with p-ERK1/2 expression in pancreatic cancer tissues (r = 0.607, P < 0.001). DcR3 enhances ERK1/2 phosphorylation and opposes FasL signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. - Highlights: • We investigated the role of DcR3 in FasL resistance in pancreatic cancer. • Knockdown of DcR3 in SW1990 cells reduced resistance to FasL-induced apoptosis. • DcR3 knockdown also elevated caspase expression, and reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. • Tumor and non-tumor tissues were collected from 66 pancreatic carcinoma patients

  7. Importance of the pharmacological profile of the bound ligand in enrichment on nuclear receptors: toward the use of experimentally validated decoy ligands.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Nathalie; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

    2014-10-27

    The evaluation of virtual ligand screening methods is of major importance to ensure their reliability. Taking into account the agonist/antagonist pharmacological profile should improve the quality of the benchmarking data sets since ligand binding can induce conformational changes in the nuclear receptor structure and such changes may vary according to the agonist/antagonist ligand profile. We indeed found that splitting the agonist and antagonist ligands into two separate data sets for a given nuclear receptor target significantly enhances the quality of the evaluation. The pharmacological profile of the ligand bound in the binding site of the target structure was also found to be an additional critical parameter. We also illustrate that active compound data sets for a given pharmacological activity can be used as a set of experimentally validated decoy ligands for another pharmacological activity to ensure a reliable and challenging evaluation of virtual screening methods.

  8. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Candore, Giuseppina; Cigna, Diego; Colucci, Antonio Tobia; Modica, Maria Assunta

    1993-01-01

    A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC) activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R) is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting findings are

  9. Poliovirus Mutants Resistant to Neutralization with Soluble Cell Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Gerardo; Peters, David; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    1990-12-01

    Poliovirus mutants resistant to neutralization with soluble cellular receptor were isolated. Replication of soluble receptor-resistant (srr) mutants was blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell receptor for poliovirus, indicating that the mutants use this receptor to enter cells. The srr mutants showed reduced binding to HeLa cells and cell membranes. However, the reduced binding phenotype did not have a major impact on viral replication, as judged by plaque size and one-step growth curves. These results suggest that the use of soluble receptors as antiviral agents could lead to the selection of neutralization-resistant mutants that are able to bind cell surface receptors, replicate, and cause disease.

  10. Heparin octasaccharide decoy liposomes inhibit replication of multiple viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Gabriel L.; Velazquez, Lourdes; Pham, Serena; Qaisar, Natasha; Delaney, James C.; Viswanathan, Karthik; Albers, Leila; Comolli, James C.; Shriver, Zachary; Knipe, David M.; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A.; Fygenson, Deborah K.; Trevejo, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan that serves as a cellular attachment site for a number of significant human pathogens, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza virus 3 (hPIV3), and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Decoy receptors can target pathogens by binding to the receptor pocket on viral attachment proteins, acting as ‘molecular sinks’ and preventing the pathogen from binding to susceptible host cells. Decoy receptors functionalized with HS could bind to pathogens and prevent infection, so we generated decoy liposomes displaying HS-octasaccharide (HS-octa). These decoy liposomes significantly inhibited RSV, hPIV3, and HSV infectivity in vitro to a greater degree than the original HS-octa building block. The degree of inhibition correlated with the density of HS-octa displayed on the liposome surface. Decoy liposomes with HS-octa inhibited infection of viruses to a greater extent than either full-length heparin or HS-octa alone. Decoy liposomes were effective when added prior to infection or following the initial infection of cells in vitro. By targeting the well-conserved receptor-binding sites of HS-binding viruses, decoy liposomes functionalized with HS-octa are a promising therapeutic antiviral agent and illustrate the utility of the liposome delivery platform. PMID:25637710

  11. Deletion of Chromosomal Region 8p21 Confers Resistance to Bortezomib and Is Associated with Upregulated Decoy TRAIL Receptor Expression in Patients with Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Duru, Adil Doganay; Sutlu, Tolga; Wallblom, Ann; Uttervall, Katarina; Lund, Johan; Stellan, Birgitta; Gahrton, Gösta; Nahi, Hareth; Alici, Evren

    2015-01-01

    Loss of the chromosomal region 8p21 negatively effects survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) that undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). In this study, we aimed to identify the immunological and molecular consequences of del(8)(p21) with regards to treatment response and bortezomib resistance. In patients receiving bortezomib as a single first line agent without any high-dose therapy, we have observed that patients with del(8)(p21) responded poorly to bortezomib with 50% showing no response while patients without the deletion had a response rate of 90%. In vitro analysis revealed a higher resistance to bortezomib possibly due to an altered gene expression profile caused by del(8)(p21) including genes such as TRAIL-R4, CCDC25, RHOBTB2, PTK2B, SCARA3, MYC, BCL2 and TP53. Furthermore, while bortezomib sensitized MM cells without del(8)(p21) to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis, in cells with del(8)(p21) bortezomib failed to upregulate the pro-apoptotic death receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 which are located on the 8p21 region. Also expressing higher levels of the decoy death receptor TRAIL-R4, these cells were largely resistant to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis. Corroborating the clinical outcome of the patients, our data provides a potential explanation regarding the poor response of MM patients with del(8)(p21) to bortezomib treatment. Furthermore, our clinical analysis suggests that including immunomodulatory agents such as Lenalidomide in the treatment regimen may help to overcome this negative effect, providing an alternative consideration in treatment planning of MM patients with del(8)(p21). PMID:26378933

  12. Deletion of Chromosomal Region 8p21 Confers Resistance to Bortezomib and Is Associated with Upregulated Decoy TRAIL Receptor Expression in Patients with Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Duru, Adil Doganay; Sutlu, Tolga; Wallblom, Ann; Uttervall, Katarina; Lund, Johan; Stellan, Birgitta; Gahrton, Gösta; Nahi, Hareth; Alici, Evren

    2015-01-01

    Loss of the chromosomal region 8p21 negatively effects survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) that undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). In this study, we aimed to identify the immunological and molecular consequences of del(8)(p21) with regards to treatment response and bortezomib resistance. In patients receiving bortezomib as a single first line agent without any high-dose therapy, we have observed that patients with del(8)(p21) responded poorly to bortezomib with 50% showing no response while patients without the deletion had a response rate of 90%. In vitro analysis revealed a higher resistance to bortezomib possibly due to an altered gene expression profile caused by del(8)(p21) including genes such as TRAIL-R4, CCDC25, RHOBTB2, PTK2B, SCARA3, MYC, BCL2 and TP53. Furthermore, while bortezomib sensitized MM cells without del(8)(p21) to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis, in cells with del(8)(p21) bortezomib failed to upregulate the pro-apoptotic death receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 which are located on the 8p21 region. Also expressing higher levels of the decoy death receptor TRAIL-R4, these cells were largely resistant to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis. Corroborating the clinical outcome of the patients, our data provides a potential explanation regarding the poor response of MM patients with del(8)(p21) to bortezomib treatment. Furthermore, our clinical analysis suggests that including immunomodulatory agents such as Lenalidomide in the treatment regimen may help to overcome this negative effect, providing an alternative consideration in treatment planning of MM patients with del(8)(p21).

  13. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is

  14. Increased expression of cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors, soluble apoptosis ligand and apoptosis in dengue.

    PubMed

    Arias, Julia; Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Montiel, Milagros; Reyes, Eduardo; Larreal, Yraima; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have been performed to determine biomarkers that define the risk factors to developing severe forms of dengue. In this study, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1, IL-17, soluble interleukin-1 receptor like 1 protein (sST2), soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL), IL-12 and soluble receptors for TNF (sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII) were determined by ELISA in dengue patients and monocyte/macrophage cultures. Dengue was classified as dengue without warning symptoms (DNWS), with warning symptoms (DWWS) and severe dengue (SD). High values of IL-6, sTNFRI, sTNFRII and sST2 were observed in DWWS and/or SD and IL-12 and sTRAIL in DNWS. TNF-α and IL-17 were increased not associated to the disease severity. High production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, IL-17, sST2 and sTRAIL and apoptosis expression were observed in dengue monocyte/macrophage cultures. This study shows that beneficial or deleterious biomarkers can be present in dengue regardless the disease severity and that monocytes may be in part the source of studied molecules.

  15. Metalloproteinase-dependent TLR2 ectodomain shedding is involved in soluble toll-like receptor 2 (sTLR2) production.

    PubMed

    Langjahr, Patricia; Díaz-Jiménez, David; De la Fuente, Marjorie; Rubio, Estefhany; Golenbock, Douglas; Bronfman, Francisca C; Quera, Rodrigo; González, María-Julieta; Hermoso, Marcela A

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, a type I membrane receptor that plays a key role in innate immunity, recognizes conserved molecules in pathogens, and triggering an inflammatory response. It has been associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Soluble TLR2 (sTLR2) variants have been identified in human body fluids, and the TLR2 ectodomain can negatively regulate TLR2 activation by behaving as a decoy receptor. sTLR2 generation does not involve alternative splicing mechanisms, indicating that this process might involve a post-translational modification of the full-length receptor; however, the specific mechanism has not been studied. Using CD14+ peripheral human monocytes and the THP-1 monocytic leukemia-derived cell line, we confirm that sTLR2 generation increases upon treatment with pro-inflammatory agents and requires a post-translational mechanism. We also find that the constitutive and ligand-induced release of sTLR2 is sensitive to pharmacological metalloproteinase activator and inhibitors leading us to conclude that metalloproteinase TLR2 shedding contributes to soluble receptor production. By expressing human TLR2 in ADAM10- or ADAM17-deficient MEF cells, we find both enzymes to be implicated in TLR2 ectodomain shedding. Moreover, using a deletion mutant of the TLR2 juxtamembrane region, we demonstrate that this domain is required for sTLR2 generation. Functional analysis suggests that sTLR2 generated by metalloproteinase activation inhibitsTLR2-induced cytokine production by this monocytic leukemia-derived cell line. The identification of the mechanisms involved in regulating the availability of soluble TLR2 ectodomain and cell surface receptors may contribute further research on TLR2-mediated processes in innate immunity and inflammatory disorders. PMID:25531754

  16. Metalloproteinase-Dependent TLR2 Ectodomain Shedding is Involved in Soluble Toll-Like Receptor 2 (sTLR2) Production

    PubMed Central

    Langjahr, Patricia; Díaz-Jiménez, David; De la Fuente, Marjorie; Rubio, Estefhany; Golenbock, Douglas; Bronfman, Francisca C.; Quera, Rodrigo; González, María-Julieta; Hermoso, Marcela A.

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, a type I membrane receptor that plays a key role in innate immunity, recognizes conserved molecules in pathogens, and triggering an inflammatory response. It has been associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Soluble TLR2 (sTLR2) variants have been identified in human body fluids, and the TLR2 ectodomain can negatively regulate TLR2 activation by behaving as a decoy receptor. sTLR2 generation does not involve alternative splicing mechanisms, indicating that this process might involve a post-translational modification of the full-length receptor; however, the specific mechanism has not been studied. Using CD14+ peripheral human monocytes and the THP-1 monocytic leukemia-derived cell line, we confirm that sTLR2 generation increases upon treatment with pro-inflammatory agents and requires a post-translational mechanism. We also find that the constitutive and ligand-induced release of sTLR2 is sensitive to pharmacological metalloproteinase activator and inhibitors leading us to conclude that metalloproteinase TLR2 shedding contributes to soluble receptor production. By expressing human TLR2 in ADAM10- or ADAM17-deficient MEF cells, we find both enzymes to be implicated in TLR2 ectodomain shedding. Moreover, using a deletion mutant of the TLR2 juxtamembrane region, we demonstrate that this domain is required for sTLR2 generation. Functional analysis suggests that sTLR2 generated by metalloproteinase activation inhibitsTLR2-induced cytokine production by this monocytic leukemia-derived cell line. The identification of the mechanisms involved in regulating the availability of soluble TLR2 ectodomain and cell surface receptors may contribute further research on TLR2-mediated processes in innate immunity and inflammatory disorders. PMID:25531754

  17. Circulating soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) as a biomarker of emphysema and the RAGE axis in the lung.

    PubMed

    Yonchuk, John G; Silverman, Edwin K; Bowler, Russell P; Agustí, Alvar; Lomas, David A; Miller, Bruce E; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Mayer, Ruth J

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heterogeneous disease that has been traditionally characterized by incompletely reversible airflow limitation. Yet, the latter is poorly correlated with many other clinically relevant characteristics of the disease. Thus, the identification of biomarkers to more accurately assess this heterogeneity and disease severity may facilitate the discovery and development of new treatments and better management of patients with COPD. One molecule that has attracted attention as a potentially useful biomarker specifically for the emphysema subpopulation is the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE). As the soluble isoform of a key proinflammatory signaling receptor, sRAGE acts as a "decoy" for RAGE ligands and prevents their interaction with the receptor. Multiple reports have now linked sRAGE to COPD, and more specifically to emphysema, and evidence is accumulating that this link is likely mechanistic in nature. Here we review the current state of knowledge about sRAGE biology, the mechanistic links to COPD, and the evidence for using it as a biomarker for emphysema. We also discuss sRAGE as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in COPD.

  18. Corneal avascularity is due to soluble VEGF receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Balamurali K; Nozaki, Miho; Singh, Nirbhai; Takeda, Atsunobu; Jani, Pooja D; Suthar, Tushar; Albuquerque, Romulo J C; Richter, Elizabeth; Sakurai, Eiji; Newcomb, Michael T; Kleinman, Mark E; Caldwell, Ruth B; Lin, Qing; Ogura, Yuichiro; Orecchia, Angela; Samuelson, Don A; Agnew, Dalen W; St Leger, Judy; Green, W Richard; Mahasreshti, Parameshwar J; Curiel, David T; Kwan, Donna; Marsh, Helene; Ikeda, Sakae; Leiper, Lucy J; Collinson, J Martin; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Khurana, Tejvir S; Shibuya, Masabumi; Baldwin, Megan E; Ferrara, Napoleone; Gerber, Hans-Peter; De Falco, Sandro; Witta, Jassir; Baffi, Judit Z; Raisler, Brian J; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2006-10-26

    Corneal avascularity-the absence of blood vessels in the cornea-is required for optical clarity and optimal vision, and has led to the cornea being widely used for validating pro- and anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies for many disorders. But the molecular underpinnings of the avascular phenotype have until now remained obscure and are all the more remarkable given the presence in the cornea of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, a potent stimulator of angiogenesis, and the proximity of the cornea to vascularized tissues. Here we show that the cornea expresses soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1; also known as sflt-1) and that suppression of this endogenous VEGF-A trap by neutralizing antibodies, RNA interference or Cre-lox-mediated gene disruption abolishes corneal avascularity in mice. The spontaneously vascularized corneas of corn1 and Pax6+/- mice and Pax6+/- patients with aniridia are deficient in sflt-1, and recombinant sflt-1 administration restores corneal avascularity in corn1 and Pax6+/- mice. Manatees, the only known creatures uniformly to have vascularized corneas, do not express sflt-1, whereas the avascular corneas of dugongs, also members of the order Sirenia, elephants, the closest extant terrestrial phylogenetic relatives of manatees, and other marine mammals (dolphins and whales) contain sflt-1, indicating that it has a crucial, evolutionarily conserved role. The recognition that sflt-1 is essential for preserving the avascular ambit of the cornea can rationally guide its use as a platform for angiogenic modulators, supports its use in treating neovascular diseases, and might provide insight into the immunological privilege of the cornea.

  19. Inhibitory effect of soluble platelet-derived growth factor receptor β on intraosseous growth of breast cancer cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hongchao; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Bando, Yoshimi; Izumi, Keisuke; Uehara, Hisanori

    2011-10-01

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of advanced breast cancer. On the basis of functional and molecular evidence, signaling mediated by the binding of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and -DD to PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) is critical for the survival and growth of metastatic breast cancer cells within the bone microenvironment. In this study, we propose a new approach to blocking PDGFRβ signaling using soluble PDGFRβ (sPDGFRβ) as a decoy receptor for PDGF-BB and -DD secreted from tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells. A bone-seeking TNBCT/Bo cell line was established by in vivo selection from TNBCT human breast cancer cells, which are negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 protein expression. The TNBCT/Bo cells were transfected with a mammalian expression vector encoding the extracellular domain of PDGFRβ. A stable transfectant (TNBCT/Bo-sPDGFRβ) grew at a similar rate to that of control cells under normal culture conditions, although growth stimulation of human fibroblasts with PDGF-BB was neutralized by the culture medium from TNBCT/Bo-sPDGFRβ cells. Intratibial injection of TNBCT/Bo-sPDGFRβ cells into athymic nude mice resulted in a significant decrease in tumor incidence compared with control mice (P < 0.01). This attenuated growth correlated with decreased cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and recruitment of stromal cells, and with an increase in the number of apoptotic cells. These findings suggest that sPDGFRβ is useful for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis.

  20. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with glomerular diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H. S.; Wu, M. S.; Yen, T. S.; Chen, W. Y.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we measured the soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) level to evaluate the cellular immune status in 61 patients with different types of glomerular diseases; 40 healthy volunteers were used as control. All patients with glomerular diseases had levels of serum sIL-2R significantly higher than those of the controls (766 +/- 59 vs 280 +/- 23 U/ml; p < 0.05). Even patients with normal renal function still had higher serum sIL-2R levels than the controls, no matter to which subgroups they belonged (primary glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis or diabetic nephropathy). Serum sIL-2R levels were similar among the three subgroups. The serum levels of sIL-2R correlated well with age and were significantly higher in older patients, although this was not observed in the control group. Serum sIL-2R levels were significantly higher in patients with active urinary sediment and in patients with impaired renal function and showed a significant negative correlation with creatinine clearance (r = -0.56; p < 0.05). Although urinary and serum sIL-2R levels were quite well correlated, (r = 0.35; p < 0.05), the urinary levels of sIL-2R did not differ in patients with different disease activity or different renal functions although they had a significant correlation with 24-hour urinary protein (r = 0.39; p < 0.05). Patients with nephrotic syndrome also had higher urinary sIL-2R levels than other patients (529 +/- 106 vs 280 +/- 31 U/ml; p < 0.05). We conclude that greater T-cell activation might contribute to the pathogenesis of different glomerulonephritis entities, and serum levels of sIL-2R can serve as a useful clinical marker of glomerulonephritis activity. Renal function influenced the serum levels of sIL-2R significantly. This factor must be considered when we interpret the data. Urinary sIL-2R levels did not reflect the disease activity as well. This might be due to the secondary influence of the extent of the glomerular protein leak. Further investigation is

  1. Low levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in non-ST elevation myocardial infarction patients

    PubMed Central

    McNair, Erick D; Wells, Calvin R; Qureshi, A Mabood; Basran, Rashpal S; Pearce, Colin; Orvold, Jason; Devilliers, Jacobus; Prasad, Kailash

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interaction of the receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs) with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) results in expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α] and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1]), activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and induction of oxidative stress – all of which have been implicated in atherosclerosis. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) acts as a decoy for the RAGE ligand and is protective against atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether levels of serum sRAGE are lower, and whether levels of serum AGEs, TNF-α and sVCAM-1 are higher in non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients than in healthy control subjects; and whether sRAGE or the ratio of AGEs to sRAGE (AGEs/sRAGE) is a predictor/biomarker of NSTEMI. METHODS: Serum levels of sRAGE, AGEs, TNF-α and sVCAM-1 were measured in 46 men with NSTEMI and 28 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Angiography was performed in the NSTEMI patients. RESULTS: sRAGE levels were lower, and levels of AGEs, TNF-α, sVCAM-1 and AGEs/sRAGE were higher in NSTEMI patients than in control subjects. sRAGE levels were negatively correlated with the number of diseased coronary vessels, serum AGEs, AGEs/sRAGE, TNF-α and sVCAM-1. The sensitivity of the AGEs/sRAGE test is greater than that of the sRAGE test, while the specificity and predictive values of the sRAGE test are greater than those of the AGEs/sRAGE test for identifying NSTEMI patients. CONCLUSIONS: Serum levels of sRAGE were low in NSTEMI patients, and were negatively correlated with extent of lesion, inflammatory mediators, AGEs and AGEs/sRAGE. Both sRAGE and AGEs/sRAGE may serve as biomarkers/predictors for identifying NSTEMI patients. PMID:22477551

  2. Activin Decoy Receptor ActRIIB:Fc Lowers FSH and Therapeutically Restores Oocyte Yield, Prevents Oocyte Chromosome Misalignments and Spindle Aberrations, and Increases Fertility in Midlife Female SAMP8 Mice.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Lee, Se-Jin; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2016-03-01

    Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) (age ≥ 35) have increased rates of infertility, miscarriages, and trisomic pregnancies. Collectively these conditions are called "egg infertility." A root cause of egg infertility is increased rates of oocyte aneuploidy with age. AMA women often have elevated endogenous FSH. Female senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) has increased rates of oocyte spindle aberrations, diminished fertility, and rising endogenous FSH with age. We hypothesize that elevated FSH during the oocyte's FSH-responsive growth period is a cause of abnormalities in the meiotic spindle. We report that eggs from SAMP8 mice treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for the period of oocyte growth have increased chromosome and spindle misalignments. Activin is a molecule that raises FSH, and ActRIIB:Fc is an activin decoy receptor that binds and sequesters activin. We report that ActRIIB:Fc treatment of midlife SAMP8 mice for the duration of oocyte growth lowers FSH, prevents egg chromosome and spindle misalignments, and increases litter sizes. AMA patients can also have poor responsiveness to FSH stimulation. We report that although eCG lowers yields of viable oocytes, ActRIIB:Fc increases yields of viable oocytes. ActRIIB:Fc and eCG cotreatment markedly reduces yields of viable oocytes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated FSH contributes to egg aneuploidy, declining fertility, and poor ovarian response and that ActRIIB:Fc can prevent egg aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve ovarian response. Future studies will continue to examine whether ActRIIB:Fc works via FSH and/or other pathways and whether ActRIIB:Fc can prevent aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve stimulation responsiveness in AMA women. PMID:26713784

  3. Activin Decoy Receptor ActRIIB:Fc Lowers FSH and Therapeutically Restores Oocyte Yield, Prevents Oocyte Chromosome Misalignments and Spindle Aberrations, and Increases Fertility in Midlife Female SAMP8 Mice.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Lee, Se-Jin; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2016-03-01

    Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) (age ≥ 35) have increased rates of infertility, miscarriages, and trisomic pregnancies. Collectively these conditions are called "egg infertility." A root cause of egg infertility is increased rates of oocyte aneuploidy with age. AMA women often have elevated endogenous FSH. Female senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) has increased rates of oocyte spindle aberrations, diminished fertility, and rising endogenous FSH with age. We hypothesize that elevated FSH during the oocyte's FSH-responsive growth period is a cause of abnormalities in the meiotic spindle. We report that eggs from SAMP8 mice treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for the period of oocyte growth have increased chromosome and spindle misalignments. Activin is a molecule that raises FSH, and ActRIIB:Fc is an activin decoy receptor that binds and sequesters activin. We report that ActRIIB:Fc treatment of midlife SAMP8 mice for the duration of oocyte growth lowers FSH, prevents egg chromosome and spindle misalignments, and increases litter sizes. AMA patients can also have poor responsiveness to FSH stimulation. We report that although eCG lowers yields of viable oocytes, ActRIIB:Fc increases yields of viable oocytes. ActRIIB:Fc and eCG cotreatment markedly reduces yields of viable oocytes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated FSH contributes to egg aneuploidy, declining fertility, and poor ovarian response and that ActRIIB:Fc can prevent egg aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve ovarian response. Future studies will continue to examine whether ActRIIB:Fc works via FSH and/or other pathways and whether ActRIIB:Fc can prevent aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve stimulation responsiveness in AMA women.

  4. Soluble IgE receptors – elements of the IgE network

    PubMed Central

    Platzer, Barbara; Ruiter, Floortje; van der Mee, John; Fiebiger, Edda

    2011-01-01

    Soluble isoforms of three human IgE Fc receptors, namely FcεRI, FcεRII and galectin-3, can be found in serum. These soluble IgE receptors are a diverse family of proteins unified by the characteristic of interacting with IgE in the extracellular matrix. A truncated form of the alpha-chain of FcεRI, the high affinity IgE receptor, has recently been described as a soluble isoform (sFcεRI). Multiple soluble isoforms of CD23 (sCD23), the low affinity IgE receptor also known as FcεRII, are generated via different mechanisms of extracellular and intracellular proteolysis. The second low affinity IgE receptor, galectin-3, only exists as a secretory protein. We here discuss the physiological roles of these three soluble IgE receptors as elements of the human IgE network. Additionally, we review the potential and current use of sFcεRI, sCD23 and galectin-3 as biomarkers in human disease. PMID:21920387

  5. Detector decoy quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Curty, Marcos; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2009-04-01

    Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  6. The decoy Fcγ receptor encoded by the cytomegalovirus UL119-UL118 gene has differential affinity to IgG proteins expressing different GM allotypes.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Janardan P; Namboodiri, Aryan M; Radwan, Faisal F; Nietert, Paul J

    2015-08-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that has been implicated in many diseases. However, there is significant divergence between HCMV seroprevalence and the prevalence of HCMV-associated diseases, implying the presence of host genetic factors that might modulate immunity to this virus. HCMV deploys many sophisticated strategies to evade host immunosurveillance. One strategy involves encoding for proteins that have functional properties of the Fcγ receptor (FcγR). The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the UL119-UL118-encoded recombinant FcγR ectodomain binds differentially to genetically disparate IgG1 proteins. Results show that mean absorbance values for binding of HCMV UL119-UL118-encoded Fcγ receptor to the immunoglobulin GM (γ marker) 1,17-expressing IgG1 were significantly higher than to the IgG1 expressing the allelic GM 3 allotype (0.225 vs. 0.151; p=0.039). These findings suggest possible mechanisms underlying the maintenance of immunoglobulin GM gene polymorphism and its putative role in the etiology of HCMV-associated diseases.

  7. Improvement in Aqueous Solubility of Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Agonists by Bending the Molecular Structure.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Michiaki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Tomoshige, Shusuke; Makishima, Makoto; Muranaka, Atsuya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous solubility is a key requirement for many functional molecules, e. g., drug candidates. Decrease of the partition coefficient (log P) by chemical modification, i.e., introduction of hydrophilic group(s) into molecules, is a classical strategy for improving aqueous solubility. We have been investigating alternative strategies for improving the aqueous solubility of pharmaceutical compounds by disrupting intermolecular interactions. Here, we show that introducing a bend into the molecular structure of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists by changing the substitution pattern from para to meta or ortho dramatically enhances aqueous solubility by up to 890-fold. We found that meta analogs exhibit similar hydrophobicity to the parent para compound, and have lower melting points, supporting the idea that the increase of aqueous solubility was due to decreased intermolecular interactions in the solid state as a result of the structural changes.

  8. Improvement in Aqueous Solubility of Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Agonists by Bending the Molecular Structure.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Michiaki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Tomoshige, Shusuke; Makishima, Makoto; Muranaka, Atsuya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous solubility is a key requirement for many functional molecules, e. g., drug candidates. Decrease of the partition coefficient (log P) by chemical modification, i.e., introduction of hydrophilic group(s) into molecules, is a classical strategy for improving aqueous solubility. We have been investigating alternative strategies for improving the aqueous solubility of pharmaceutical compounds by disrupting intermolecular interactions. Here, we show that introducing a bend into the molecular structure of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists by changing the substitution pattern from para to meta or ortho dramatically enhances aqueous solubility by up to 890-fold. We found that meta analogs exhibit similar hydrophobicity to the parent para compound, and have lower melting points, supporting the idea that the increase of aqueous solubility was due to decreased intermolecular interactions in the solid state as a result of the structural changes. PMID:27378357

  9. Modulation of the NMDA Receptor Through Secreted Soluble Factors.

    PubMed

    Cerpa, Waldo; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic activity is a critical determinant in the formation and development of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system (CNS). The excitatory current is produced and regulated by several ionotropic receptors, including those that respond to glutamate. These channels are in turn regulated through several secreted factors that function as synaptic organizers. Specifically, Wnt, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) particularly regulate the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) glutamatergic channel. These factors likely regulate early embryonic development and directly control key proteins in the function of important glutamatergic channels. Here, we review the secreted molecules that participate in synaptic organization and discuss the cell signaling behind of this fine regulation. Additionally, we discuss how these factors are dysregulated in some neuropathologies associated with glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the CNS. PMID:25429903

  10. Kinetics, role and therapeutic implications of endogenous soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Nakamura, Kazuo

    2007-10-01

    Reducing sugars can react non-enzymatically with amino groups of protein to form Amadori products. These early glycation products undergo further complex reaction such as rearrangement, dehydration, and condensation to become irreversibly cross-linked, heterogeneous fluorescent derivatives, termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The formation and accumulation of AGEs have been known to progress at an accelerated rate in diabetes. There is a growing body of evidence that AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) axis is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Indeed, the engagement of RAGE with AGEs is shown to elicit oxidative stress generation and subsequently evoke inflammatory responses in various types of cells, thus playing an important role in the development and progression of diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy. Moreover, administration of a recombinant soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE), has been shown to suppress the development of accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic apolipoprotein E-null mice. These observations suggest that exogenously administered sRAGE may capture and eliminate circulating AGEs, thus protecting against the AGEs-elicited tissue damage by acting as a decoy receptor. Recently, endogenous sRAGE has been identified in humans. However, there is few comprehensive review about the regulation and role of endogenous sRAGE in diabetes. In the former part of this paper, we review the role of the AGE-RAGE system in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Then we summarize in the latter part of this review the kinetics and pathophysiological role of endogenous sRAGE in diabetes. We also discuss the possibility that endogenous sRAGE may be a therapeutic target for the prevention of diabetic vascular complications. PMID:17979674

  11. Experimental comparison between one-decoy and two-decoy implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum cryptography protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Youn-Chang; Kim, Yong-Su; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The decoy-state method allows the use of weak coherent pulses in quantum cryptography, and to date, various strategies for the decoy state have been proposed. Here, we experimentally compare the secret key generation rates between the one-decoy and two-decoy implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol through a 3.1-km optical fiber at 780 nm. Once the parameters of the experimental setup are optimized for the maximal secret key generation rate for each implementation, it is found that the two-decoy implementation outperforms the one-decoy implementation.

  12. Soluble interleukin 2 receptors are released from activated human lymphoid cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Kurman, C.C.; Fritz, M.E.; Biddison, W.E.; Boutin, B.; Yarchoan, R.; Nelson, D.L.

    1985-11-01

    With the use of an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay to measure soluble human interleukin 2 receptors (IL 2R), certain human T cell leukemia virus I (HTLV I)-positive T cell lines were found to spontaneously release large quantities of IL 2R into culture supernatants. This was not found with HTLV I-negative and IL 2 independent T cell lines, and only one of seven B cell-derived lines examined produced small amounts of IL 2R. In addition to this constitutive production of soluble IL 2R by certain cell lines, normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could be induced to release soluble IL 2R by plant lectins, the murine monoclonal antibody OKT3, tetanus toxoid, and allogeneic cells. Such activated cells also expressed cellular IL 2R measurable in detergent solubilized cell extracts. The generation of cellular and supernatant IL 2R was: dependent on cellular activation, rapid, radioresistant (3000 rad), and inhibited by cycloheximide treatment. NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of soluble IL 2R demonstrated molecules of apparent Mr = 35,000 to 40,000, and 45,000 to 50,000, respectively, somewhat smaller than the mature surface receptor on these cells. The release of soluble IL 2R appears to be a characteristic marker of T lymphocyte activation and might serve an immunoregulatory function during both normal and abnormal cell growth and differentiation.

  13. Baiting Inside Attackers Using Decoy Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Brian M.; Hershkop, Shlomo; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stolfo, Salvatore J.

    The insider threat remains one of the most vexing problems in computer security. A number of approaches have been proposed to detect nefarious insider actions including user modeling and profiling techniques, policy and access enforcement techniques, and misuse detection. In this work we propose trap-based defense mechanisms and a deployment platform for addressing the problem of insiders attempting to exfiltrate and use sensitive information. The goal is to confuse and confound an adversary requiring more effort to identify real information from bogus information and provide a means of detecting when an attempt to exploit sensitive information has occurred. “Decoy Documents” are automatically generated and stored on a file system by the D3 System with the aim of enticing a malicious user. We introduce and formalize a number of properties of decoys as a guide to design trap-based defenses to increase the likelihood of detecting an insider attack. The decoy documents contain several different types of bogus credentials that when used, trigger an alert. We also embed “stealthy beacons” inside the documents that cause a signal to be emitted to a server indicating when and where the particular decoy was opened. We evaluate decoy documents on honeypots penetrated by attackers demonstrating the feasibility of the method.

  14. Ig-like transcript 4 as a cellular receptor for soluble complement fragment C4d.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Johannes; Forster, Florian; Isenman, David E; Wahrmann, Markus; Leitner, Judith; Hölzl, Markus A; Kovarik, Johannes J; Stockinger, Hannes; Böhmig, Georg A; Steinberger, Peter; Zlabinger, Gerhard J

    2016-04-01

    Complement regulation leads to the generation of complement split products (CSPs) such as complement component (C)4d, a marker for disease activity in autoimmune syndromes or antibody-mediated allograft rejection. However, the physiologic role of C4d has been unknown. By screening murine thymoma BW5147 cells expressing a cDNA library generated from human monocyte-derived dendritic cells with recombinant human C4d, we identified Ig-like transcript (ILT)4 and ILT5v2 as cellular receptors for C4d. Both receptors, expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, also interacted with the CSPs C3d, C4b, C3b, and iC3b. However, C4d did not bind to classic complement receptors (CRs). Interaction between cell surface-resident ILT4 and soluble monomeric C4d resulted in endocytosis of C4d. Surprisingly, binding of soluble ILT4 to C4d covalently immobilized to a cellular surface following classic complement activation could not be detected. Remarkably, C4d immobilized to a solid phaseviaits intrinsic thioester conferred a dose-dependent inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6 secretion in monocytes activatedviaFc-cross-linking of up to 50% as compared to baseline. Similarly, C4d conferred an attenuation of intracellular Ca(2+)flux in monocytes activatedviaFc-cross-linking. In conclusion, ILT4 represents a scavenger-type endocytotic CR for soluble monomeric C4d, whereas attenuation of monocyte activation by physiologically oriented C4d on a surface appears to be dependent on a yet to be identified C4d receptor.-Hofer, J., Forster, F., Isenman, D. E., Wahrmann, M., Leitner, J., Hölzl, M. A., Kovarik, J. K., Stockinger, H., Böhmig, G. A., Steinberger, P., Zlabinger, G. J. Ig-like transcript 4 as a cellular receptor for soluble complement fragment C4d.

  15. Development of novel decoy oligonucleotides: advantages of circular dumb-bell decoy.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Naruya; Tomita, Tetsuya; Yuyama, Kazuhiko; Tougan, Takahiro; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Ogihara, Toshio; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2003-04-01

    The inhibition of specific transcription regulatory proteins is a novel approach to regulate gene expression. The transcriptional activities of DNA binding proteins can be inhibited by the use of double-stranded oligonucleotides (ODNs) that compete for binding to their specific target sequences in promoters and enhancers. Transfection of this cis-element double-stranded ODN, referred to as decoy ODN, has been reported to be a powerful tool that provides a new class of anti-gene strategies to gene therapy and permits examination of specific gene regulation. We have demonstrated the usefulness of this decoy ODN strategy in animal models of restenosis, myocardial infarction, glomerulonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, one of the major limitations of decoy ODN technology is the rapid degradation of phosphodiester ODNs by intracellular nucleases. To date, several different types of double-stranded decoy ODNs have been developed to overcome this issue. Circular dumb-bell (CD) double-stranded decoy ODNs that were developed to resolve this issue have attracted a high level of interest. In this review, the applications of decoy ODN strategy and the advantages of modified CD double-stranded decoy ODNs will be discussed. PMID:12772498

  16. Development of novel decoy oligonucleotides: advantages of circular dumb-bell decoy.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Naruya; Tomita, Tetsuya; Yuyama, Kazuhiko; Tougan, Takahiro; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Ogihara, Toshio; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2003-04-01

    The inhibition of specific transcription regulatory proteins is a novel approach to regulate gene expression. The transcriptional activities of DNA binding proteins can be inhibited by the use of double-stranded oligonucleotides (ODNs) that compete for binding to their specific target sequences in promoters and enhancers. Transfection of this cis-element double-stranded ODN, referred to as decoy ODN, has been reported to be a powerful tool that provides a new class of anti-gene strategies to gene therapy and permits examination of specific gene regulation. We have demonstrated the usefulness of this decoy ODN strategy in animal models of restenosis, myocardial infarction, glomerulonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, one of the major limitations of decoy ODN technology is the rapid degradation of phosphodiester ODNs by intracellular nucleases. To date, several different types of double-stranded decoy ODNs have been developed to overcome this issue. Circular dumb-bell (CD) double-stranded decoy ODNs that were developed to resolve this issue have attracted a high level of interest. In this review, the applications of decoy ODN strategy and the advantages of modified CD double-stranded decoy ODNs will be discussed.

  17. Regulation of cell surface transferrin receptor-2 by iron-dependent cleavage and release of a soluble form.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Alessia; Vieillevoye, Maud; Nai, Antonella; Rausa, Marco; Ladli, Meriem; Lacombe, Catherine; Mayeux, Patrick; Verdier, Frédérique; Camaschella, Clara; Silvestri, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Transferrin receptor-2 is a transmembrane protein whose expression is restricted to hepatocytes and erythroid cells. Transferrin receptor-2 has a regulatory function in iron homeostasis, since its inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Hepatic transferrin receptor-2 participates in iron sensing and is involved in hepcidin activation, although the mechanism remains unclear. Erythroid transferrin receptor-2 associates with and stabilizes erythropoietin receptors on the erythroblast surface and is essential to control erythrocyte production in iron deficiency. We identified a soluble form of transferrin receptor-2 in the media of transfected cells and showed that cultured human erythroid cells release an endogenous soluble form. Soluble transferrin receptor-2 originates from a cleavage of the cell surface protein, which is inhibited by diferric transferrin in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, the shedding of the transferrin receptor-2 variant G679A, mutated in the Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid motif and unable to bind diferric transferrin, is not modulated by the ligand. This observation links the process of transferrin receptor-2 removal from the plasma membrane to iron homeostasis. Soluble transferrin receptor-2 does not affect the binding of erythropoietin to erythropoietin receptor or the consequent signaling and partially inhibits hepcidin promoter activation only in vitro. Whether it is a component of the signals released by erythropoiesis in iron deficiency remains to be investigated. Our results indicate that membrane transferrin receptor-2, a sensor of circulating iron, is released from the cell membrane in iron deficiency. PMID:25637053

  18. Soluble androgen receptor oligomers underlie pathology in a mouse model of spinobulbar muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Chevalier-Larsen, Erica S; Merry, Diane E; Diamond, Marc I

    2007-02-01

    In polyglutamine diseases such as X-linked spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), it is unknown whether the toxic form of the protein is an insoluble or soluble aggregate or a monomer. We have addressed this question by studying a full-length androgen receptor (AR) mouse model of SBMA. We used biochemistry and atomic force microscopy to immunopurify oligomers soluble after ultracentrifugation that are comprised of a single approximately 50-kDa N-terminal polyglutamine-containing AR fragment. AR oligomers appeared several weeks prior to symptom onset, were distinct and temporally dissociated from intranuclear inclusions, and disappeared rapidly after castration, which halts disease. This is the first demonstration of soluble AR oligomers in vivo and suggests that they underlie neurodegeneration in SBMA. PMID:17121819

  19. Hyperinsulinemia is Associated with Increased Soluble Insulin Receptors Release from Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hiriart, Marcia; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; Castanares, Diana T.; Avitia, Morena; Velasco, Myrian; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Macias-Silva, Marina; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; Delgado-Coello, Blanca; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; Vidaltamayo, Román; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira

    2014-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that insulin circulates freely in blood. However it can also interact with plasma proteins. Insulin receptors are located in the membrane of target cells and consist of an alpha and beta subunits with a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain. The ectodomain, called soluble insulin receptor (SIR) has been found elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. We explored if insulin binds to SIRs in circulation under physiological conditions and hypothesize that this SIR may be released by hepatocytes in response to high insulin concentrations. The presence of SIR in rat and human plasmas and the culture medium of hepatocytes was explored using Western blot analysis. A purification protocol was performed to isolated SIR using affinity, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatographies. A modified reverse hemolytic plaque assay was used to measure SIR release from cultured hepatocytes. Incubation with 1 nmol l−1 insulin induces the release of the insulin receptor ectodomains from normal rat hepatocytes. This effect can be partially prevented by blocking protease activity. Furthermore, plasma levels of SIR were higher in a model of metabolic syndrome, where rats are hyperinsulinemic. We also found increased SIR levels in hyperinsulinemic humans. SIR may be an important regulator of the amount of free insulin in circulation. In hyperinsulinemia, the amount of this soluble receptor increases and this could lead to higher amounts of insulin bound to this receptor, rather than free insulin, which is the biologically active form of the hormone. This observation could enlighten the mechanisms of insulin resistance. PMID:24995000

  20. Soluble ligands and their receptors in human embryo development and implantation.

    PubMed

    Thouas, George A; Dominguez, Francisco; Green, Mark P; Vilella, Felipe; Simon, Carlos; Gardner, David K

    2015-02-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that soluble ligands and their receptors mediate human preimplantation embryo development and implantation. Progress in this complex area has been ongoing since the 1980s, with an ever-increasing list of candidates. This article specifically reviews evidence of soluble ligands and their receptors in the human preimplantation stage embryo and female reproductive tract. The focus will be on candidates produced by the human preimplantation embryo and those eliciting developmental responses in vitro, as well as endometrial factors related to implantation and receptivity. Pathways to clinical translation, including innovative diagnostics and other technologies, are also highlighted, drawing from this collective evidence toward facilitating joint improvements in embryo quality and endometrial receptivity. This strategy could not only benefit clinical outcomes in reproductive medicine but also provide broader insights into the peri-implantation period of human development to improve fetal and neonatal health.

  1. Covalent assembly of a soluble T cell receptor-peptide-major histocompatibility class I complex.

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, C; Lin, S Y; Mazza, G; Rebai, N; Luescher, I F; Malissen, B

    1996-01-01

    We used stepwise photochemical cross-linking for specifically assembling soluble and covalent complexes made of a T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and a class I molecule of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) bound to an antigenic peptide. For that purpose, we have produced in myeloma cells a single-chain Fv construct of a TCR specific for a photoreactive H-2Kd-peptide complex. Photochemical cross-linking of this TCR single-chain Fv with a soluble form of the photoreactive H-2Kd-peptide ligand resulted in the formation of a ternary covalent complex. We have characterized the soluble ternary complex and showed that it reacted with antibodies specific for epitopes located either on the native TCR or on the Kd molecules. By preventing the fast dissociation kinetics observed with most T cell receptors, this approach provides a means of preparing soluble TCR-peptide-MHC complexes on large-scale levels. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8692966

  2. Soluble forms of VEGF receptor-1 and -2 promote vascular maturation via mural cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lorquet, Sophie; Berndt, Sarah; Blacher, Silvia; Gengoux, Emily; Peulen, Olivier; Maquoi, Erik; Noël, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Munaut, Carine; Péqueux, Christel

    2010-10-01

    Two soluble forms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2, are physiologically released and overproduced in some pathologies. They are known to act as anti-VEGF agents. Here we report that these soluble receptors contribute to vessel maturation by mediating a dialogue between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells that leads to blood vessel stabilization. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we provide evidence that these soluble VEGF receptors promote mural cell migration through a paracrine mechanism involving interplay in ECs between VEGF/VEGFR-2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate type-1 (S1P)/S1P1 pathways that leads to endothelial nitric oxyde synthase (eNOS) activation. This new paradigm is supported by the finding that sVEGFR-1 and -2 perform the following actions: 1) induce an eNOS-dependent outgrowth of a mural cell network in an ex vivo model of angiogenesis, 2) increase the mural cell coverage of neovessels in vitro and in vivo, 3) promote mural cell migration toward ECs, and 4) stimulate endothelial S1P1 overproduction and eNOS activation that promote the migration and the recruitment of neighboring mural cells. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms regulating physiological and pathological angiogenesis and vessel stabilization.

  3. Production of soluble alphabeta T-cell receptor heterodimers suitable for biophysical analysis of ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Willcox, B E; Gao, G F; Wyer, J R; O'Callaghan, C A; Boulter, J M; Jones, E Y; van der Merwe, P A; Bell, J I; Jakobsen, B K

    1999-11-01

    A method to produce alphabeta T-cell receptors (TCRs) in a soluble form suitable for biophysical analysis was devised involving in vitro refolding of a TCR fusion protein. Polypeptides corresponding to the variable and constant domains of each chain of a human and a murine receptor, fused to a coiled coil heterodimerization motif from either c-Jun (alpha) or v-Fos (beta), were overexpressed separately in Escherichia coli. Following recovery from inclusion bodies, the two chains of each receptor were denatured, and then refolded together in the presence of denaturants. For the human receptor, which is specific for the immunodominant influenza A HLA-A2-restricted matrix epitope (M58-66), a heterodimeric protein was purified in milligram yields and found to be homogeneous, monomeric, antibody-reactive, and stable at concentrations lower than 1 microM. Using similar procedures, analogous results were obtained with a murine receptor specific for an influenza nucleoprotein epitope (366-374) restricted by H2-Db. Production of these receptors has facilitated a detailed analysis of viral peptide-Major Histocompatibility Complex (peptide-MHC) engagement by the TCR using both surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and, in the case of the human TCR, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) (Willcox et al., 1999). The recombinant methods described should enable a wide range of TCR-peptide-MHC interactions to be studied and may also have implications for the production of other heterodimeric receptor molecules.

  4. The soluble EP2 receptor FuEP2/Ex2 suppresses endometrial cancer cell growth in an orthotopic xenograft model in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Izumi, Keisuke; Uehara, Hisanori

    2011-07-01

    Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies and many factors influence in its growth and development. As in many other types of cancer, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is thought to be an accelerator of cell proliferation and endometrial cancer progression. In this study, we examined the effect of FuEP2/Ex2, a soluble decoy receptor for PGE(2) on growth of endometrial cancer cells. A stable transfectant expressing FuEP2/Ex2 was established from human endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells (Ish-FuEP2/Ex2). Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 cells expressed FuEP2/Ex2 mRNA and protein. Expression levels of E-prostanoid receptor 1 (EP1), EP2, EP3, EP4, and F-prostanoid receptor (FP) were almost the same in Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 and vector control cells. Growth rates of Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 under normal culture conditions were also similar to vector control cells, although PGE(2)-induced growth stimulation was completely inhibited in Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 or by Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 culture medium. Moreover, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclin D1, and c-fos mRNA by PGE(2) were not observed in Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 and Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 culture medium-treated vector control cells, although they were found when treated with prostaglandin F(2α). An orthotopic xenograft model in athymic nude mice revealed that Ish-FuEP2/Ex2-injected mice had significantly decreased mean tumor area. The proportion of Ki-67-positive cells in the tumor lesion was also significantly lower in Ish-FuEP2/Ex2-injected mice. These findings suggest that an EP-targeting strategy using FuEP2/Ex2 may be of use in the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  5. Free leptin, bound leptin, and soluble leptin receptor in normal and diabetic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, K; Horn, R; O'Callaghan, C J; Dunlop, D; Medley, G F; O'Hare, P; Brabant, G

    1999-01-01

    We measured serum levels of free leptin, bound leptin, and soluble leptin receptor by specific RIA methods in 20 normal and 19 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects at 20 and 30 weeks gestation and postpartum, and analyzed the data using hierarchical statistical models. Total leptin levels rise from 20-30 weeks gestation (688 +/- 58 to 785 +/- 62 pmol/L, mean +/- SEM; P = 0.009). There is a significant postpartum fall to 445 +/- 47 pmol/L (P < 0.001). This rise is caused by the rise in the bound leptin levels, as there is no significant change in free leptin levels between 20 and 30 weeks (P = 0.17). There is a significant postpartum fall in free leptin levels (P < 0.001). Insulin requirements rise in the third trimester, but despite this there was no significant difference in free or bound leptin levels between the normal and diabetic subjects at any stage [free leptin, 223 +/- 35 and 266 +/- 24, 237 +/- 45 and 223 +/- 27, and 109 +/- 16 and 104 +/- 24 (P = 0.34); bound leptin, 410 +/- 73 and 428 +/- 54, 501 +/- 78 and 562 +/- 71, and 330 +/- 47 and 271 +/- 46 (P = 0.84); for normals and diabetics at 20 and 30 weeks gestation and postpartum, respectively]. Diabetic subjects, however, had significantly higher soluble leptin receptor levels at all stages (P < 0.001), which rose further in the third trimester from 3742 +/- 268 (mean +/- SEM) to 4134 +/- 239 pmol/L, whereas in the normal group there was a fall from 3149 +/- 169 to 2712 +/- 123 (P = 0.05). There is a linear relationship between the soluble leptin receptor levels and the body mass index in the diabetic group only. We conclude that there is no significant difference in free or bound leptin levels between the normal and insulin-dependent diabetic subjects either during pregnancy or postpartum, but female insulin-dependent diabetic subjects have significantly higher soluble leptin receptor levels. We speculate that high soluble leptin receptor levels might be implicated in the development of the

  6. DecoyPyrat: Fast Non-redundant Hybrid Decoy Sequence Generation for Large Scale Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James C; Choudhary, Jyoti S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate statistical evaluation of sequence database peptide identifications from tandem mass spectra is essential in mass spectrometry based proteomics experiments. These statistics are dependent on accurately modelling random identifications. The target-decoy approach has risen to become the de facto approach to calculating FDR in proteomic datasets. The main principle of this approach is to search a set of decoy protein sequences that emulate the size and composition of the target protein sequences searched whilst not matching real proteins in the sample. To do this, it is commonplace to reverse or shuffle the proteins and peptides in the target database. However, these approaches have their drawbacks and limitations. A key confounding issue is the peptide redundancy between target and decoy databases leading to inaccurate FDR estimation. This inaccuracy is further amplified at the protein level and when searching large sequence databases such as those used for proteogenomics. Here, we present a unifying hybrid method to quickly and efficiently generate decoy sequences with minimal overlap between target and decoy peptides. We show that applying a reversed decoy approach can produce up to 5% peptide redundancy and many more additional peptides will have the exact same precursor mass as a target peptide. Our hybrid method addresses both these issues by first switching proteolytic cleavage sites with preceding amino acid, reversing the database and then shuffling any redundant sequences. This flexible hybrid method reduces the peptide overlap between target and decoy peptides to about 1% of peptides, making a more robust decoy model suitable for large search spaces. We also demonstrate the anti-conservative effect of redundant peptides on the calculation of q-values in mouse brain tissue data. PMID:27418748

  7. Directory of Useful Decoys, Enhanced (DUD-E): Better Ligands and Decoys for Better Benchmarking

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A key metric to assess molecular docking remains ligand enrichment against challenging decoys. Whereas the directory of useful decoys (DUD) has been widely used, clear areas for optimization have emerged. Here we describe an improved benchmarking set that includes more diverse targets such as GPCRs and ion channels, totaling 102 proteins with 22886 clustered ligands drawn from ChEMBL, each with 50 property-matched decoys drawn from ZINC. To ensure chemotype diversity, we cluster each target’s ligands by their Bemis–Murcko atomic frameworks. We add net charge to the matched physicochemical properties and include only the most dissimilar decoys, by topology, from the ligands. An online automated tool (http://decoys.docking.org) generates these improved matched decoys for user-supplied ligands. We test this data set by docking all 102 targets, using the results to improve the balance between ligand desolvation and electrostatics in DOCK 3.6. The complete DUD-E benchmarking set is freely available at http://dude.docking.org. PMID:22716043

  8. Aptamer-Mediated Codelivery of Doxorubicin and NF-κB Decoy Enhances Chemosensitivity of Pancreatic Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Porciani, David; Tedeschi, Lorena; Marchetti, Laura; Citti, Lorenzo; Piazza, Vincenzo; Beltram, Fabio; Signore, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers able to bind efficiently cell-surface receptors differentially expressed in tumor and in healthy cells are emerging as powerful tools to perform targeted anticancer therapy. Here, we present a novel oligonucleotide chimera, composed by an RNA aptamer and a DNA decoy. Our assembly is able to (i) target tumor cells via an antitransferrin receptor RNA aptamer and (ii) perform selective codelivery of a chemotherapeutic drug (Doxorubicin) and of an inhibitor of a cell-survival factor, the nuclear factor κB decoy oligonucleotide. Both payloads are released under conditions found in endolysosomal compartments (low pH and reductive environment). Targeting and cytotoxicity of the oligonucleotidic chimera were assessed by confocal microscopy, cell viability, and Western blot analysis. These data indicated that the nuclear factor κB decoy does inhibit nuclear factor κB activity and ultimately leads to an increased therapeutic efficacy of Doxorubicin selectively in tumor cells. PMID:25919089

  9. Mechanism of HSV infection through soluble adapter-mediated virus bridging to the EGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Tahara, Hideaki; Kuwano, Michihiko; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2011-04-25

    Herpes simplex virus entry into cells requires the binding of envelope glycoprotein D (gD) to an entry receptor. Depending on the cell, entry occurs by different mechanisms, including fusion at the cell surface or endocytosis. Here we examined the entry mechanism through a non-HSV receptor mediated by a soluble bi-specific adapter protein composed of recognition elements for gD and the EGF receptor (EGFR). Virus entered into endosomes using either EGF or an EGFR-specific single chain antibody (scFv) for receptor recognition. Infection was less efficient with the EGF adapter which could be attributed to its weaker binding to a viral gD. Infection mediated by the scFv adapter was pH sensitive, indicating that gD-EGFR bridging alone was insufficient for capsid release from endosomes. We also show that the scFv adapter enhanced infection of EGFR-expressing tumor tissue in vivo. Our results indicate that adapters may retarget HSV infection without drastically changing the entry mechanism.

  10. Computational Modeling of Interacting VEGF and Soluble VEGF Receptor Concentration Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Hashambhoy, Yasmin L.; Chappell, John C.; Peirce, Shayn M.; Bautch, Victoria L.; Mac Gabhann, Feilim

    2011-01-01

    Experimental data indicates that soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1) modulates the guidance cues provided to sprouting blood vessels by VEGF-A. To better delineate the role of sFlt-1 in VEGF signaling, we have developed an experimentally based computational model. This model describes dynamic spatial transport of VEGF, and its binding to receptors Flt-1 and Flk-1, in a mouse embryonic stem cell model of vessel morphogenesis. The model represents the local environment of a single blood vessel. Our simulations predict that blood vessel secretion of sFlt-1 and increased local sFlt-1 sequestration of VEGF results in decreased VEGF–Flk-1 levels on the sprout surface. In addition, the model predicts that sFlt-1 secretion increases the relative gradient of VEGF–Flk-1 along the sprout surface, which could alter endothelial cell perception of directionality cues. We also show that the proximity of neighboring sprouts may alter VEGF gradients, VEGF receptor binding, and the directionality of sprout growth. As sprout distances decrease, the probability that the sprouts will move in divergent directions increases. This model is a useful tool for determining how local sFlt-1 and VEGF gradients contribute to the spatial distribution of VEGF receptor binding, and can be used in conjunction with experimental data to explore how multi-cellular interactions and relationships between local growth factor gradients drive angiogenesis. PMID:22007175

  11. Detector-decoy high-dimensional quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Bao, Haize; Bao, Wansu; Wang, Yang; Chen, Ruike; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Musheng; Li, Hongwei

    2016-09-19

    The decoy-state high-dimensional quantum key distribution provides a practical secure way to share more private information with high photon-information efficiency. In this paper, based on detector-decoy method, we propose a detector-decoy high-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol. Employing threshold detectors and a variable attenuator, we can promise the security under Gsussian collective attacks with much simpler operations in practical implementation. By numerical evaluation, we show that without varying the source intensity, our protocol performs much better than one-decoy-state protocol and as well as the two-decoy-state protocol in the infinite-size regime. In the finite-size regime, our protocol can achieve better results. Specially, when the detector efficiency is lower, the advantage of the detector-decoy method becomes more prominent. PMID:27661950

  12. Soluble Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (sEGFRs) in Cancer: Biological Aspects and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Maramotti, Sally; Paci, Massimiliano; Manzotti, Gloria; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gugnoni, Mila; Galeone, Carla; Cesario, Alfredo; Lococo, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The identification of molecules that can reliably detect the presence of a tumor or predict its behavior is one of the biggest challenges of research in cancer biology. Biological fluids are intriguing mediums, containing many molecules that express the individual health status and, accordingly, may be useful in establishing the potential risk of cancer, defining differential diagnosis and prognosis, predicting the response to treatment, and monitoring the disease progression. The existence of circulating soluble growth factor receptors (sGFRs) deriving from their membrane counterparts has stimulated the interest of researchers to investigate the use of such molecules as potential cancer biomarkers. But what are the origins of circulating sGFRs? Are they naturally occurring molecules or tumor-derived products? Among these, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell-surface molecule significantly involved in cancer development and progression; it can be processed into biological active soluble isoforms (sEGFR). We have carried out an extensive review of the currently available literature on the sEGFRs and their mechanisms of regulation and biological function, with the intent to clarify the role of these molecules in cancer (and other pathological conditions) and, on the basis of the retrieved evidences, speculate about their potential use in the clinical setting. PMID:27104520

  13. The soluble interleukin-6 receptor is a mediator of hematopoietic and skeletal actions of parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun Wook; Pirih, Flavia Q; Koh, Amy J; Michalski, Megan; Eber, Matthew R; Ritchie, Kathryn; Sinder, Benjamin; Oh, Seojin; Al-Dujaili, Saja A; Lee, JoonHo; Kozloff, Ken; Danciu, Theodora; Wronski, Thomas J; McCauley, Laurie K

    2013-03-01

    Both PTH and IL-6 signaling play pivotal roles in hematopoiesis and skeletal biology, but their interdependence is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) on hematopoietic and skeletal actions of PTH. In the bone microenvironment, PTH stimulated sIL-6R protein levels in primary osteoblast cultures in vitro and bone marrow in vivo in both IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice. PTH-mediated hematopoietic cell expansion was attenuated in IL-6(-/-) compared with IL-6(+/+) bone marrow, whereas sIL-6R treatment amplified PTH actions in IL-6(-/-) earlier than IL-6(+/+) marrow cultures. Blocking sIL-6R signaling with sgp130 (soluble glycoprotein 130 receptor) inhibited PTH-dependent hematopoietic cell expansion in IL-6(-/-) marrow. In the skeletal system, although intermittent PTH administration to IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice resulted in similar anabolic actions, blocking sIL-6R significantly attenuated PTH anabolic actions. sIL-6R showed no direct effects on osteoblast proliferation or differentiation in vitro; however, it up-regulated myeloid cell expansion and production of the mesenchymal stem cell recruiting agent, TGF-β1 in the bone marrow microenvironment. Collectively, sIL-6R demonstrated orphan function and mediated PTH anabolic actions in bone in association with support of myeloid lineage cells in the hematopoietic system.

  14. Soluble (pro)renin receptor via β-catenin enhances urine concentration capability as a target of liver X receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaohan; Wang, Fei; Xu, Chuanming; Soodvilai, Sunny; Peng, Kexin; Su, Jiahui; Zhao, Long; Yang, Kevin T.; Feng, Yumei; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Yang, Tianxin

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is cleaved to produce a soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) that is detected in biological fluid and elevated under certain pathological conditions. The present study was performed to define the antidiuretic action of sPRR and its potential interaction with liver X receptors (LXRs), which are known regulators of urine-concentrating capability. Water deprivation consistently elevated urinary sPRR excretion in mice and humans. A template-based algorithm for protein–protein interaction predicted the interaction between sPRR and frizzled-8 (FZD8), which subsequently was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. A recombinant histidine-tagged sPRR (sPRR-His) in the nanomolar range induced a remarkable increase in the abundance of renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) protein in primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells. The AQP2 up-regulation relied on sequential activation of FZD8-dependent β-catenin signaling and cAMP–PKA pathways. Inhibition of FZD8 or tankyrase in rats induced polyuria, polydipsia, and hyperosmotic urine. Administration of sPRR-His alleviated the symptoms of diabetes insipidus induced in mice by vasopressin 2 receptor antagonism. Administration of the LXR agonist TO901317 to C57/BL6 mice induced polyuria and suppressed renal AQP2 expression associated with reduced renal PRR expression and urinary sPRR excretion. Administration of sPRR-His reversed most of the effects of TO901317. In cultured collecting duct cells, TO901317 suppressed PRR protein expression, sPRR release, and PRR transcriptional activity. Overall we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that sPRR exerts antidiuretic action via FZD8-dependent stimulation of AQP2 expression and that inhibition of this pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes insipidus induced by LXR agonism. PMID:26984496

  15. Soluble (pro)renin receptor via β-catenin enhances urine concentration capability as a target of liver X receptor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaohan; Wang, Fei; Xu, Chuanming; Soodvilai, Sunny; Peng, Kexin; Su, Jiahui; Zhao, Long; Yang, Kevin T; Feng, Yumei; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Yang, Tianxin

    2016-03-29

    The extracellular domain of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is cleaved to produce a soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) that is detected in biological fluid and elevated under certain pathological conditions. The present study was performed to define the antidiuretic action of sPRR and its potential interaction with liver X receptors (LXRs), which are known regulators of urine-concentrating capability. Water deprivation consistently elevated urinary sPRR excretion in mice and humans. A template-based algorithm for protein-protein interaction predicted the interaction between sPRR and frizzled-8 (FZD8), which subsequently was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. A recombinant histidine-tagged sPRR (sPRR-His) in the nanomolar range induced a remarkable increase in the abundance of renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) protein in primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells. The AQP2 up-regulation relied on sequential activation of FZD8-dependent β-catenin signaling and cAMP-PKA pathways. Inhibition of FZD8 or tankyrase in rats induced polyuria, polydipsia, and hyperosmotic urine. Administration of sPRR-His alleviated the symptoms of diabetes insipidus induced in mice by vasopressin 2 receptor antagonism. Administration of the LXR agonist TO901317 to C57/BL6 mice induced polyuria and suppressed renal AQP2 expression associated with reduced renal PRR expression and urinary sPRR excretion. Administration of sPRR-His reversed most of the effects of TO901317. In cultured collecting duct cells, TO901317 suppressed PRR protein expression, sPRR release, and PRR transcriptional activity. Overall we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that sPRR exerts antidiuretic action via FZD8-dependent stimulation of AQP2 expression and that inhibition of this pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes insipidus induced by LXR agonism. PMID:26984496

  16. Conformational Rearrangement Within the Soluble Domains of the CD4 Receptor is Ligand-Specific

    SciTech Connect

    Ashish,F.; Juncadella, I.; Garg, R.; Boone, C.; Anguita, J.; Krueger, J.

    2008-01-01

    Ligand binding induces shape changes within the four modular ectodomains (D1-D4) of the CD4 receptor, an important receptor in immune signaling. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) on both a two-domain and a four-domain construct of the soluble CD4 (sCD4) is consistent with known crystal structures demonstrating a bilobal and a semi-extended tetralobal Z conformation in solution, respectively. Detection of conformational changes within sCD4 as a result of ligand binding was followed by SAXS on sCD4 bound to two different glycoprotein ligands: the tick saliva immunosuppressor Salp15 and the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120. Ab initio modeling of these data showed that both Salp15 and gp120 bind to the D1 domain of sCD4 and yet induce drastically different structural rearrangements. Upon binding, Salp15 primarily distorts the characteristic lobal architecture of the sCD4 without significantly altering the semi-extended shape of the sCD4 receptor. In sharp contrast, the interaction of gp120 with sCD4 induces a shape change within sCD4 that can be described as a Z-to-U bi-fold closure of the four domains across its flexible D2-D3 linker. Placement of known crystal structures within the boundaries of the SAXS-derived models suggests that the ligand-induced shape changes could be a result of conformational changes within this D2-D3 linker. Functionally, the observed shape changes in CD4 receptor causes dissociation of lymphocyte kinase from the cytoplasmic domain of Salp15-bound CD4 and facilitates an interaction between the exposed V3 loops of CD4-bound gp120 molecule to the extracellular loops of its co-receptor, a step essential for HIV-1 viral entry.

  17. Generation of Soluble Interleukin-11 and Interleukin-6 Receptors: A Crucial Function for Proteases during Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lokau, Juliane; Agthe, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cytokines interleukin-11 (IL-11) and IL-6 are important proteins with well-defined pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. They activate intracellular signaling cascades through a homodimer of the ubiquitously expressed signal-transducing β-receptor glycoprotein 130 (gp130). Specificity is gained through the cell- and tissue-specific expression of the nonsignaling IL-11 and IL-6 α-receptors (IL-11R and IL-6R), which determine the responsiveness of the cell to these two cytokines. IL-6 is a rare example, where its soluble receptor (sIL-6R) has agonistic properties, so that the IL-6/sIL-6R complex is able to activate cells that are usually not responsive to IL-6 alone (trans-signaling). Recent evidence suggests that IL-11 can signal via a similar trans-signaling mechanism. In this review, we highlight similarities and differences in the functions of IL-11 and IL-6. We summarize current knowledge about the generation of the sIL-6R and sIL-11R by different proteases and discuss possible roles during inflammatory processes. Finally, we focus on the selective and/or combined inhibition of IL-6 and IL-11 signaling and how this might translate into the clinics. PMID:27493449

  18. Inhibition of Coxsackie B Virus Infection by Soluble Forms of Its Receptors: Binding Affinities, Altered Particle Formation, and Competition with Cellular Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Ian G.; Evans, David J.; Blom, Anna M.; Kerrigan, Dave; Miners, J. Scott; Morgan, B. Paul; Spiller, O. Brad

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that soluble decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) blocked coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis in mice, but only soluble CAR blocked CVB3-mediated pancreatitis. Here, we report that the in vitro mechanisms of viral inhibition by these soluble receptors also differ. Soluble DAF inhibited virus infection through the formation of reversible complexes with CVB3, while binding of soluble CAR to CVB induced the formation of altered (A) particles with a resultant irreversible loss of infectivity. A-particle formation was characterized by loss of VP4 from the virions and required incubation of CVB3-CAR complexes at 37°C. Dimeric soluble DAF (DAF-Fc) was found to be 125-fold-more effective at inhibiting CVB3 than monomeric DAF, which corresponded to a 100-fold increase in binding affinity as determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Soluble CAR and soluble dimeric CAR (CAR-Fc) bound to CVB3 with 5,000- and 10,000-fold-higher affinities than the equivalent forms of DAF. While DAF-Fc was 125-fold-more effective at inhibiting virus than monomeric DAF, complement regulation by DAF-Fc was decreased 4 fold. Therefore, while the virus binding was a cooperative event, complement regulation was hindered by the molecular orientation of DAF-Fc, indicating that the regions responsible for complement regulation and virus binding do not completely overlap. Relative contributions of CVB binding affinity, receptor binding footprint on the virus capsid, and induction of capsid conformation alterations for the ability of cellular DAF and CAR to act as receptors are discussed. PMID:16140777

  19. Primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and soluble factor urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor.

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-11-01

    Primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) may be due to genetic or acquired etiologies and is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome with high morbidity that often leads to end-stage renal failure. The different available therapeutic approaches are unsuccessful, in part due to partially deciphered heterogeneous and complex pathophysiological mechanisms. Moreover, the term FSGS, even in its primary form, comprises a histological description shared by a number of different causes with completely different molecular pathways of disease. This review focuses on the latest developments regarding the pathophysiology of primary acquired FSGS caused by soluble factor urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating permeability factor involved in proteinuria and edema formation, and describes recent advances with potential success in therapy.

  20. Anaemia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Based on Iron Studies and Soluble Transferrin Receptor Levels

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Preeti; Wakhlu, Anupam; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mehrotra, Raj; Mittal, Saumya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Haematological alterations such as anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia are frequent in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Ferritin being an acute phase reactant can be falsely elevated in lupus cases. Aim To evaluate the haematological alterations and to re-categorise the types of anemia by soluble transferrin receptor levels in diagnosed cases of SLE. Materials and Methods A sample of 30 newly diagnosed ANA positive SLE patients was taken. Complete blood counts, ESR, reticulocyte count, coagulation studies, diluted Russel Viper Venom Test (dRVVT), mixing studies, serological tests, high sensitivity CRP along with iron profile, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sol TFR) levels, anti-beta2 glycoprotein1, direct and indirect Coomb’s test were estimated in cases diagnosed as SLE. Clinical symptoms were co-related with and Systemic Lupus Erythaematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) was estimated. Results Anaemia was the most prevalent haematological alteration followed by thrombocytopenia. Further sub typing of anaemia was done by serum ferritin levels and using sol TFR assays. Ferritin is an acute phase reactant; it underestimated iron deficiency in patients of SLE. When sol TFR was used; patients with pure Anaemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) reduced from 68% to 26%, those with pure IDA reduced from 32% to 16% and a group with co-existing IDA & ACD (58%) was defined {Agreement=53%, p=0.09} by sol TFR which co-related with clinical response to Iron therapy in these patients. CRP was significantly raised in association with disease activity. Fever (p<0.0001), arthritis (p<0.03) were significantly related and CRP was elevated (p<0.04) in cases with high SLEDAI (severe flare). Conclusion Thus, in SLE, anaemia is the most frequent hematological alteration; iron deficiencies supercede in contrast to ACD and further autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Sol TFR emerged as a better parameter to detect iron deficiency in patients of non

  1. Soluble Urokinase Receptors in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: A Review on the Scientific Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Moin A.; Meijers, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the primary glomerular disorders in both children and adults which can progress to end-stage renal failure. Although there are genetic and secondary causes, circulating factors have also been regarded as an important factor in the pathogenesis of FSGS, because about 40% of the patients with FSGS have recurrence after renal transplantation. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a soluble form of uPAR, which is a membrane-bound protein linked to GPI in various immunologically active cells, including podocytes. It has recently been suggested as a potential circulating factor in FSGS by in vitro podocyte experiments, in vivo mice models, and human studies. However, there have also been controversies on this issue, because subsequent studies showed conflicting results. suPAR levels were also increased in patients with other glomerular diseases and were inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Nevertheless, there has been no balanced review on this issue. In this review, we compare the conflicting data on the involvement of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS and shed light on interpretation by taking into account many points and the potential variables and confounders influencing serum suPAR levels. PMID:27504461

  2. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against soluble human T cell receptor polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Devaux, B; Bjorkman, P J; Stevenson, C; Greif, W; Elliott, J F; Sagerström, C; Clayberger, C; Krensky, A M; Davis, M M

    1991-09-01

    One approach to the diagnosis and therapy of T cell-mediated diseases is to develop reagents specific for T cell receptor (TcR) variable (V) regions. To date, however, TcR expressed on the surface of antigen-specific T lymphocytes have proven to be poorly immunogenic. As a result, few monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing human variable regions are available. In this report, we have used the "phosphatidylinositol linkage" strategy to generate soluble forms of two human allogeneic TcR derived from human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) known to be specific for HLA-A2 and HLA-Aw68/HLA-Aw69, respectively. Monomeric TcR alpha and beta chains from the HLA-A2-specific CTL were purified in large quantities from CHO cells and each was used to immunize mice to generate mAb. In particular, the anti-beta chain mAb, denoted anti-V beta 13, stain a significant (approximately 5%) fraction of human peripheral blood alpha/beta T lymphocytes, immunoprecipitate native anti-A2 TcR molecules, and activate T cells transfected with the relevant alpha and beta chain cDNA. Anti-alpha chain mAb were also obtained against a constant region determinant which can immunoprecipitate detergent-solubilized polypeptides. In general, we find that immunizations with soluble protein are far superior to those with cells bearing TcR chimeras or in combination with the purified protein. PMID:1832385

  3. A comparison of the fibrinogen receptor distribution on adherent platelets using both soluble fibrinogen and fibrinogen immobilized on gold beads.

    PubMed

    Estry, D W; Mattson, J C; Mahoney, G J; Oesterle, J R

    1991-04-01

    The distribution of fibrinogen receptors was determined on the surface of adherent platelets using both direct labeling with the ligand fibrinogen which was immobilized on gold particles (Fg-Au) and indirect immunogold (Ig-Au) labeling of bound soluble fibrinogen identified with a rabbit polyclonal anti-fibrinogen antibody. Two distinctly different patterns of labeling were obtained and appeared to depend on whether solid phase fibrinogen (Fg-Au) or soluble phase released fibrinogen were bound to the membrane receptor. The membrane-bound Fg-Au reorganized in patterns that closely mimicked the organization of the underlying cytoskeleton. In approximately 18% of the adherent platelets, Fg-Au was seen in channels or vesicle-like structures lying deep to the platelet surface suggesting internalization into the open canalicular system and/or endocytosis. The labeling pattern obtained when identifying the location of membrane-bound soluble released fibrinogen by Ig-Au was diffuse and lacked the organizational patterns characteristic of Fg-Au. Unlike the Fg-Au probe, early dendritic platelets were heavily labeled by the soluble phase fibrinogen using the Ig-Au technique. Although the label covered the entire exposed platelet membrane in fully spread platelets, labeling over the peripheral web was more dense than that over the intermediate or granulomere zone. The diffuse organization and heavier peripheral distributional pattern of the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GP IIb-IIIa) receptor in fixed, adherent platelets, was also seen with the GP IIb-IIIa receptor-specific antibody AP-2. The binding of both the Fg-Au and Ig-Au were inhibited using the tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) (93% and 98% inhibition, respectively), AP-2 (98% and 97%, respectively) and platelets from patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) (99% and 98%, respectively). The data presented provides the first report that receptor reorganization, following binding of fibrinogen, appears to be related to

  4. Delay discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards with decoys.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Benjamin P; Faulkner, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The current research attempted to decrease individuals' rates of delay discounting by introducing decoys that are similar but inferior to delayed rewards. Two experiments in the current study compared patterns of delay discounting generated by repeated choices between two hypothetical monetary rewards in the absence or presence of a decoy. Binary questionnaires (i.e., decoy absent) included questions with two options: a smaller-sooner (SS) reward and a larger-later (LL) reward. Trinary questionnaires (i.e., decoy present) included questions with three options: an SS reward, an LL reward, and a decoy. If an option is at least as rewarding on every dimension of value as an alternative and the option is more rewarding than an alternative on at least one dimension, then the option is considered to dominate the alternative (Wedell, 1991). The first experiment assessed the influence of decoys dominated by LL rewards (LL(-) decoys), which were constructed to be similar (on the dimension of amount) but inferior (on the dimension of delay) to LL rewards. The second experiment examined the effects of counterbalancing the order of binary and trinary questionnaires. In the first experiment, participants discounted to a lesser degree when LL(-) decoys were present as compared to when they were absent. In the second experiment, participants only discounted to a lesser degree on trinary questionnaires with LL(-) decoys when they had not previously completed binary questionnaires. Patterns of discounting generated by binary questionnaires were similar to those generated by trinary questionnaires when decoys are present; however, the degree to which individuals discounted delayed rewards was affected by the number of and type of options that were available. The current results join previous evidence suggesting that rates of delay discounting are sensitive to a variety of contextual influences. PMID:26521171

  5. Delay discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards with decoys.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Benjamin P; Faulkner, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The current research attempted to decrease individuals' rates of delay discounting by introducing decoys that are similar but inferior to delayed rewards. Two experiments in the current study compared patterns of delay discounting generated by repeated choices between two hypothetical monetary rewards in the absence or presence of a decoy. Binary questionnaires (i.e., decoy absent) included questions with two options: a smaller-sooner (SS) reward and a larger-later (LL) reward. Trinary questionnaires (i.e., decoy present) included questions with three options: an SS reward, an LL reward, and a decoy. If an option is at least as rewarding on every dimension of value as an alternative and the option is more rewarding than an alternative on at least one dimension, then the option is considered to dominate the alternative (Wedell, 1991). The first experiment assessed the influence of decoys dominated by LL rewards (LL(-) decoys), which were constructed to be similar (on the dimension of amount) but inferior (on the dimension of delay) to LL rewards. The second experiment examined the effects of counterbalancing the order of binary and trinary questionnaires. In the first experiment, participants discounted to a lesser degree when LL(-) decoys were present as compared to when they were absent. In the second experiment, participants only discounted to a lesser degree on trinary questionnaires with LL(-) decoys when they had not previously completed binary questionnaires. Patterns of discounting generated by binary questionnaires were similar to those generated by trinary questionnaires when decoys are present; however, the degree to which individuals discounted delayed rewards was affected by the number of and type of options that were available. The current results join previous evidence suggesting that rates of delay discounting are sensitive to a variety of contextual influences.

  6. Soluble form of canine transferrin receptor inhibits canine parvovirus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products mitigates vascular dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Yu, Manli; Zhang, Le; Cao, Qingxin; Song, Ying; Liu, Yuxiu; Gong, Jianbin

    2016-08-01

    Vascular dysfunction including vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction in hypertension often results in poor clinical outcomes and increased risk of vascular accidents. We investigate the effect of treatment with soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) on vascular dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Firstly, the aortic AGE/RAGE pathway was investigated in SHR. Secondly, SHR received intraperitoneal injections of sRAGE daily for 4 weeks. Effect of sRAGE against vascular dysfunction in SHR and underlying mechanism was investigated. SHR aortas exhibited enhanced activity of aldose reductase, reduced activity of glyoxalase 1, accumulation of methylglyoxal and AGE, and upregulated expression of RAGE. Treatment of SHR with sRAGE had no significant effect on blood pressure, but alleviated aortic hypertrophy and endothelial dysfunction. In vitro, treatment with sRAGE reversed the effect of incubation with AGE on proliferation of smooth muscle cells and endothelial function. Treatment of SHR with sRAGE abated oxidative stress, suppressed inflammation and NF-κB activation, improved the balance between Ang II and Ang-(1-7) through reducing angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and enhancing ACE2 expression, and upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression in aortas. In conclusion, treatment with sRAGE alleviated vascular adverse remodeling in SHR, possibly via suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation, improvement in RAS balance, and activation of PPAR-γ pathway. PMID:27426491

  8. Soluble Interleukin 2 Receptor Levels, Temperament and Character in Formerly Depressed Suicide Attempters Compared with Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenhausler, Hans-Bernd; Stepan, Alexandra; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    An imbalance of the immune system and mixed personality profiles in suicide attempters have been reported. As suicidal behavior is common in patients with psychiatric disorders within the spectrum of depressive features, in this study we measured soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentrations in plasma (sIL-2R) and investigated temperament and…

  9. Interleukin 2 (IL 2) inhibitor in rheumatoid synovial fluid: Correlation with prognosis and soluble IL 2 receptor levels

    SciTech Connect

    Miossec, P.; Elhamiani, M.; Chichehian, B.; D'Angeac, A.D.; Sany, J.; Hirn, M. )

    1990-03-01

    A soluble activity inhibiting over 50% of the CTLL-2 cell line response to recombinant human interleukin 2 (IL 2) was found in 17 of 29 (59%) rheumatoid synovial fluids. To study the prognosis value of this activity, 16 rheumatoid synovial fluids were collected before a radiation synovectomy of the knee with 7 mCi of 90Y. Patients with a good clinical result after the synovectomy had a lower IL 2 inhibitory activity than those with a bad or incomplete result (P less than 0.01). Levels of inhibitory activity and of soluble IL 2 receptors were correlated with each other and with the response of the synovitis to the radiation synovectomy. These results extend the clinical usefulness of soluble IL 2 receptor measurements and indicate a correlation between the immune activation of the rheumatoid synovitis and its clinical activity.

  10. Persistently elevated soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist levels in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Rogy, M A; Coyle, S M; Oldenburg, H S; Rock, C S; Barie, P S; Van Zee, K J; Smith, C G; Moldawer, L L; Lowry, S F

    1994-02-01

    The appearance of endogenously produced inhibitors against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (soluble TNF-receptor type I, sTNFR-I) and interleukin-1 (IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-1ra) was evaluated acutely in five normal patients after experimental endotoxemia lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and prospectively during a one to 11 week period in 12 septic, critically ill patients. Increased levels of both factors remained detectable in the circulation for up to 24 hours after LPS (2 nanograms per kilogram body weight) administration in normal patients. Despite free TNF-a activity being detected only sporadically (3 percent of the samples) and that IL-1 beta was never detectable in the patients in the intensive care unit, IL-6 bioactivity was present in 90 percent of initial samples. Circulating sTNFR-I levels up to 62,000 picograms per milliliter and IL-1ra levels of 14,800 picograms per milliliter were noted in the critically ill patients and remained consistently detectable throughout the extended period of evaluation. While there was no difference in IL-1ra levels between patients who survived or ultimately died, sTNFR-I levels were significantly (p < 0.001) lower in survivors compared with nonsurvivors. A correlation between circulating sTNFR-I and concurrent cortisol levels (r = 0.64; p < 0.002) was also noted. Furthermore, a correlation between sTNFR-I and the severity of initial insult, as assessed by APACHE II scores (r = 0.54; p < 0.01) was demonstrable. These naturally occurring cytokine antagonists likely represent additional indicators of the presence of an infectious or other inflammatory process and seem to persist in the circulation even during conditions in which their respective proinflammatory cytokines are not demonstrable. PMID:8173722

  11. Binding of Soluble Natural Ligands to a Soluble Human T-Cell Receptor Fragment Produced in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilyard, Katherine L.; Reyburn, Hugh; Chung, Shan; Bell, John I.; Strominger, Jack L.

    1994-09-01

    An Escherichia coli expression system has been developed to produce milligram quantities of the variable domains of a human T-cell receptor from a cytotoxic T cell that recognizes the HLA-A2-influenza matrix peptide complex as a single polypeptide chain. The recombinant protein was purified by metal-chelate chromatography and then refolded in a redox buffer system. The refolded protein was shown to directly bind both Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B and the major histocompatibility complex protein-peptide complex using a BIAcore biosensor. Thus this preparation of a single-chain, variable-domain, T-cell receptor fragment can bind both of its natural ligands and some of it is therefore a functional fragment of the receptor molecule.

  12. Association of CD2 with fibrinogen in human plasma: depletion of the soluble E-receptor in blood clotting.

    PubMed

    Smorodin, Eugeniy P; Kurtenkov, O A; Shevchuk, I N

    2007-01-01

    The soluble E-receptor (SER) of lymphocytes that is related to CD2 was detected in human plasma and serum using immunoelectrophoresis with sheep antiserum. All plasma samples (n=18) demonstrated reactivity with antiserum, whereas the reactivity of the corresponding sera remained low or undetectable. The depletion of SER in clotting is associated with fibrinogen, as shown by crossed-affinity immunoelectrophoresis with antisera to plasma proteins. The SER-associated fibrinogen was purified and analysed by the SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. A band close to 66 kDa was detected with monoclonal antibodies to CD2. The association of CD2 and other soluble receptors with fibrinogen via domains is suggested. It is recommended that the fresh plasma, not serum, should be used to study circulating receptors because coagulation may appreciably diminish their physiological level in blood samples.

  13. Soluble Erythropoietin Receptor Contributes to Erythropoietin Resistance in End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tamez, Hector; Yuan, Hai-Tao; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin is a growth factor commonly used to manage anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. A significant clinical challenge is relative resistance to erythropoietin, which leads to use of successively higher erythropoietin doses, failure to achieve target hemoglobin levels, and increased risk of adverse outcomes. Erythropoietin acts through the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) present in erythroblasts. Alternative mRNA splicing produces a soluble form of EpoR (sEpoR) found in human blood, however its role in anemia is not known. Methods and Findings Using archived serum samples obtained from subjects with end stage kidney disease we show that sEpoR is detectable as a 27kDa protein in the serum of dialysis patients, and that higher serum sEpoR levels correlate with increased erythropoietin requirements. Soluble EpoR inhibits erythropoietin mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) phosphorylation in cell lines expressing EpoR. Importantly, we demonstrate that serum from patients with elevated sEpoR levels blocks this phosphorylation in ex vivo studies. Finally, we show that sEpoR is increased in the supernatant of a human erythroleukaemia cell line when stimulated by inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha implying a link between inflammation and erythropoietin resistance. Conclusions These observations suggest that sEpoR levels may contribute to erythropoietin resistance in end stage renal disease, and that sEpoR production may be mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:20169072

  14. Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Jim W; Rice, Patrick R

    2008-01-01

    Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

  15. Advanced Glycation End Products and its Soluble Receptors in the Pathogenesis of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Kailash; Sarkar, Abdullah; Zafar, Mohammad A.; Shoker, Ahmed; Moselhi, Hamdi EI; Tranquilli, Maryann; Ziganshin, Bulat A.; Elefteriades, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs). Cytokines [Interleukin (IL)-Iβ, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α)] increase the expression of MMP-2 and -3. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) interact with cell receptors to increase the release of cytokines. Circulating soluble receptors for AGEs (sRAGE) and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) compete with membrane bound RAGE for binding with AGEs and reduce the production of cytokines. It is hypothesized that low levels of serum sRAGE and esRAGE and high levels of AGEs, AGEs/sRAGE, and AGEs/esRAGE would increase the levels of cytokines that would increase the levels MMPs, thus contributing to the formation of TAAs. Methods The study population was composed of 17 control subjects and 20 patients with TAA. Blood samples were collected for measurement of serum sRAGE, esRAGE, AGEs, cytokines, and MMPs. AGEs, sRAGE, and esRAGE were measured using ELISA kits, whereas the remaining parameters were measured using the Luminex Multi-Analyte system. Results The levels of sRAGE were lower, while the levels of AGEs, AGEs/sRAGE, AGEs/esRAGE, cytokines and MMPs were higher in patients with TAA compared to controls. The levels of sRAGE were inversely correlated with cytokines and MMPs, while AGEs, AGEs/sRAGE and AGEs/esRAGE were positively correlated with cytokines and MMPs. Cytokines were positively correlated with MMPs. Conclusions The data suggest that the AGE-RAGE axis may be involved in the pathogenesis of TAA and that low levels of sRAGE and high levels of AGEs, AGEs/sRAGE, and AGEs/esRAGE are risk factors for TAA. PMID:27766267

  16. Soluble NSF attachment protein receptor molecular mimicry by a Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm effector.

    PubMed

    King, Nathan P; Newton, Patrice; Schuelein, Ralf; Brown, Darren L; Petru, Marketa; Zarsky, Vojtech; Dolezal, Pavel; Luo, Lin; Bugarcic, Andrea; Stanley, Amanda C; Murray, Rachael Z; Collins, Brett M; Teasdale, Rohan D; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Stow, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    Upon infection, Legionella pneumophila uses the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system to translocate effector proteins from the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) into the host cell cytoplasm. The effectors target a wide array of host cellular processes that aid LCV biogenesis, including the manipulation of membrane trafficking. In this study, we used a hidden Markov model screen to identify two novel, non-eukaryotic soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) homologs: the bacterial Legionella SNARE effector A (LseA) and viral SNARE homolog A proteins. We characterized LseA as a Dot/Icm effector of L. pneumophila, which has close homology to the Qc-SNARE subfamily. The lseA gene was present in multiple sequenced L. pneumophila strains including Corby and was well distributed among L. pneumophila clinical and environmental isolates. Employing a variety of biochemical, cell biological and microbiological techniques, we found that farnesylated LseA localized to membranes associated with the Golgi complex in mammalian cells and LseA interacted with a subset of Qa-, Qb- and R-SNAREs in host cells. Our results suggested that LseA acts as a SNARE protein and has the potential to regulate or mediate membrane fusion events in Golgi-associated pathways.

  17. A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIB Does Not Improve Blood Glucose in Streptozotocin-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  18. Full-length soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor down-modulates nephrin expression in podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Massimo; Cinque, Paola; Giusti, Guido; Proietti, Silvia; Nebuloni, Manuela; Danese, Silvio; D’Alessio, Silvia; Genua, Marco; Portale, Federica; Lo Porto, Manuela; Singhal, Pravin C.; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Saleem, Moin A.; Mavilio, Domenico; Mikulak, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Increased plasma level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was associated recently with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In addition, different clinical studies observed increased concentration of suPAR in various glomerular diseases and in other human pathologies with nephrotic syndromes such as HIV and Hantavirus infection, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we show that suPAR induces nephrin down-modulation in human podocytes. This phenomenon is mediated only by full-length suPAR, is time-and dose-dependent and is associated with the suppression of Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT-1) transcription factor expression. Moreover, an antagonist of αvβ3 integrin RGDfv blocked suPAR-induced suppression of nephrin. These in vitro data were confirmed in an in vivo uPAR knock out Plaur−/− mice model by demonstrating that the infusion of suPAR inhibits expression of nephrin and WT-1 in podocytes and induces proteinuria. This study unveiled that interaction of full-length suPAR with αvβ3 integrin expressed on podocytes results in down-modulation of nephrin that may affect kidney functionality in different human pathologies characterized by increased concentration of suPAR. PMID:26380915

  19. Full-length soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor down-modulates nephrin expression in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Massimo; Cinque, Paola; Giusti, Guido; Proietti, Silvia; Nebuloni, Manuela; Danese, Silvio; D'Alessio, Silvia; Genua, Marco; Portale, Federica; Lo Porto, Manuela; Singhal, Pravin C; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Saleem, Moin A; Mavilio, Domenico; Mikulak, Joanna

    2015-09-18

    Increased plasma level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was associated recently with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In addition, different clinical studies observed increased concentration of suPAR in various glomerular diseases and in other human pathologies with nephrotic syndromes such as HIV and Hantavirus infection, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we show that suPAR induces nephrin down-modulation in human podocytes. This phenomenon is mediated only by full-length suPAR, is time-and dose-dependent and is associated with the suppression of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT-1) transcription factor expression. Moreover, an antagonist of αvβ3 integrin RGDfv blocked suPAR-induced suppression of nephrin. These in vitro data were confirmed in an in vivo uPAR knock out Plaur(-/-) mice model by demonstrating that the infusion of suPAR inhibits expression of nephrin and WT-1 in podocytes and induces proteinuria. This study unveiled that interaction of full-length suPAR with αvβ3 integrin expressed on podocytes results in down-modulation of nephrin that may affect kidney functionality in different human pathologies characterized by increased concentration of suPAR.

  20. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor in Crohn's disease: relation of serum concentrations to disease activity.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, J E; Juby, L D; Heatley, R V; Lobo, A J; Bullimore, D W; Axon, A T

    1990-09-01

    Serum concentrations of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) were measured as a marker of immune activation in a group of 30 patients with Crohn's disease. sIL-2R concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay during periods of active and inactive disease and correlated with standard parameters of disease activity. Serum concentrations of sIL-2R were significantly raised in patients with active Crohn's disease compared with patients with inactive disease (p less than 0.001) and control subjects. There was a significant correlation between serum sIL-2R concentrations and disease activity as assessed by the Harvey-Bradshaw index (r = 0.42, p less than 0.01), platelet numbers (r = 0.49, p less than 0.01), and orosomucoid (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01), alpha 1 antitrypsin (r = 0.44, p less than 0.01), and C reactive protein concentrations (r = 0.48, p less than 0.001) but not with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Measurement of serum sIL-2R concentration is a simple and useful laboratory means of assessing disease activity. Raised concentrations in patients with active Crohn's disease is further evidence for in vivo immune activation occurring in this disease.

  1. Correlation of leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels with anthropometric parameters in mother-newborn pairs

    PubMed Central

    Marino-Ortega, Linda A; Molina-Bello, Adiel; Polanco-García, Julio C; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris P; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if anthropometric parameters are associated with both leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sLEPR) levels in newborns and their mothers. This cross-sectional study was performed in 118 mother-newborn pairs. The venous blood sample of mothers was taken before delivery and immediately after delivery an umbilical cord blood sample was collected. Levels of leptin and sLEPR in maternal and umbilical cord sera were assessed by ELISA. Maternal serum concentration of leptin and sLEPR (6.2 and 25.7 ng/ml, respectively) were higher than in umbilical cord blood (2.4 and 14.2 ng/ml, respectively). However, the newborns and their mothers had higher sLEPR levels than leptin levels. In mothers was observed that leptin levels increase with weight gain in pregnancy and decreased sLEPR levels. Cord leptin levels correlated with neonatal birth weight and length, the body circumferences, placental weight and maternal leptin levels. Cord sLEPR levels correlated with maternal sLEPR and leptin levels. Maternal serum concentration of leptin correlated with pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain, cord sLEPR and leptin levels. Maternal sLEPR concentration correlated with cord sLEPR levels. The leptin and sLEPR levels in mother-newborn pairs are related with anthropometric parameters and an inverse correlation between leptin levels and sLEPR was observed in pairs. PMID:26379933

  2. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor level as a prognostic indicator in gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, B.; Chung, K. H.; Kato, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Inui, A.; Arimoto, Y.; Maeda, K.; Onoda, N.; Sawada, T.; Sowa, M.

    1998-01-01

    T lymphocytes, activated by interleukin 2 during an anti-tumour response, release soluble interleukin 2 receptors (sIL-2R) into the bloodstream. We analysed the prognostic value of the serum sIL-2R level in gastric cancer. Serum concentration of sIL-2R in 96 gastric cancer patients and 100 healthy control subjects' was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All survivors were followed for more than 50 months. Serum sIL-2R level was considered with respect to prognosis, clinicopathological factors, other tumour markers and peripheral blood cell count. Stage III and IV patients had significantly higher sIL-2R levels than lower stage patients and control subjects. Stage III and IV gastric cancer patients were divided into 'high' and 'low' slL-2R groups based upon the control subjects' serum sIL-2R mean value plus one standard deviation. The high group had a significantly worse prognosis than the low group, although clinicopathological features and treatments were similar. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the serum sIL-2R level is an independent indicator. The sIL-2R level did not correlate with carbohydrate antigen 19-9, however it did correlate with carcinoembryonic antigen (r = 0.22) and with numbers of peripheral blood monocytes (r = 0.54). In conclusion, serum sIL-2R may predict the outcome of gastric cancer patients with stage III or IV disease. PMID:9667652

  3. The biological significance of soluble interleukin-2 receptors in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Lissoni, P; Barni, S; Rovelli, F; Viviani, S; Maestroni, G J; Conti, A; Tancini, G

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to further understand the biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptors (sIL-2R) in solid tumors, we have evaluated 160 cancer patients (breast: 40; lung: 66; colon: 18; stomach: 22; uterine cervix: 14) and 58 healthy subjects, as controls. Serum mean levels of sIL-2R, measured with an enzyme immunoassay, were significantly higher in cancer patients than in controls. Metastatic cancer patients showed significantly higher values than the non-metastatic ones; this difference was significant in all tumor histotypes, except small cell lung carcinoma. Moreover, in 15 patients in whom sIL-2R were evaluated either before or after radical surgery, a significant surgery-induced increase in sIL-R mean values was seen. Finally, the chemotherapy-induced rise in sIL-2R appeared to be associated with a lack of clinical response. These results seem to suggest that sIL-2R may be a marker of host biological response in patients with solid tumors, the significance of which needs further investigation.

  4. A reassessment of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in glomerular disease

    PubMed Central

    Spinale, Joann M.; Mariani, Laura H.; Kapoor, Shiv; Zhang, Jidong; Weyant, Robert; Song, Peter X.; Wong, Hetty N.; Troost, Jonathan P.; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kretzler, Matthias; Nihalani, Deepak; Holzman, Lawrence B.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) is a causative circulating factor for and a biomarker of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here we undertook validation of these assumptions in both mouse and human models. Injection of recombinant suPAR in wild-type mice did not induce proteinuria within 24 hours. Moreover, a disease phenotype was not seen in an inducible transgenic mouse model that maintained elevated suPAR concentrations for 6 weeks. Plasma and urine suPAR concentrations were evaluated as clinical biomarkers in 241 patients with glomerular disease from the prospective, longitudinal multi-center observational NEPTUNE cohort. The serum suPAR concentration at baseline inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the urine suPAR/creatinine ratio positively correlated with the urine protein/creatinine ratio. After adjusting for eGFR and urine protein, neither the serum nor urine suPAR level was an independent predictor of FSGS histopathology. A multivariable mixed-effects model of longitudinal data evaluated the association between the change in serum suPAR concentration from baseline with eGFR. After adjusting for baseline suPAR concentration, age, gender, proteinuria and time, the change in suPAR from baseline was associated with eGFR, but this association was not different for patients with FSGS as compared to other diagnoses. Thus, these results do not support a pathological role for suPAR in FSGS. PMID:25354239

  5. Decoy state quantum key distribution with modified coherent state

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Zhenqiang; Han Zhengfu; Sun Fangwen; Guo Guangcan

    2007-07-15

    To beat photon-number splitting attack, decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the coherent state has been studied widely. We present a decoy state QKD protocol with a modified coherent state (MCS). By destructive quantum interference, a MCS with fewer multiphoton events can be obtained, which may improve the key bit rate and security distance of QKD. Through numerical simulation, we show about a 2-dB increment on the security distance for Bennett-Brassard (1984) protocol.

  6. Production of biologically active IgG hinge-tag soluble epidermal growth factor receptors (ErbB).

    PubMed

    Otani, Takayuki; Hashizume, Toshihiro; Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Fukuda, Tomoko; Tang, Careen K; Salomon, David S; Seno, Masaharu

    2010-03-01

    The extracellular domains (ECD) of epidermal growth factor receptors, ErbB1, 2, 3 and 4, were designed as soluble dimeric forms. Each ECD was fused to a short hinge region derived from IgG, such that the stable dimer could be formed with disulfide bridges. This hinge-tagged design minimized the molecular weight to approximately 50% of the conventional Fc-fusion design without an Fc domain of IgG. The refolded dimers could be easily analyzed and characterized by SDS-PAGE. Hinge-tagged soluble ErbBs demonstrated significant affinity for betacellulin and heregulin. The IgG hinge-tag should be a simple method to design soluble dimers that would be useful for high throughput screening of ligands, antagonists or derivatives.

  7. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry; Viuff, Anne Grethe; Ullum, Henrik; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Werge, Thomas; Vang, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Background: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods: suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia were compared to healthy controls from the Danish Blood Donor Study. SuPAR levels were dichotomized at >4.0 ng/ml, which is considered the threshold for low grade inflammation. A multiple logistic regression model was used and adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. Results: In total we included 1009 subjects, 105 cases with schizophrenia (10.4%) and 904 controls (89.6%). The mean suPAR values were 4.01 ng/ml (SD = 1.43) for the cases vs 1.91 ng/ml (SD = 1.35) for the controls (P < .001). Multiple logistic regression with odds ratio (OR) for suPAR levels >4.0 ng/ml yielded: schizophrenia, OR: 46.15 95% CI 22.69–93.87, P < .001; age, OR: 1.02 95% CI 0.99–1.02, P = .15; male sex, OR: 0.70 95% CI 0.35–1.36, P = .29; and current smoking, OR: 3.51 95% CI 1.78–6.94, P < .001. Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher suPAR levels than healthy controls. Further studies are warranted to clarify if elevated suPAR levels are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and/or the increased mortality found in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25154621

  8. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor α and interleukin-2 serum levels in patients with basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Ewa; Zablotna, Monika; Sokolowska-Wojdylo, Malgorzata; Sikorska, Monika; Lange, Magdalena; Nowicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an immunogenic neoplasm and the imbalance in Th1/Th2 cytokines expression seems to play the major role in pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of the tumour. Aim To investigate the association of soluble interleukin 2α receptor (sIL-2Rα) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) serum concentrations with BCC. Material and methods The study involved 110 individuals with BCC and 60 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. Serum levels of sIL-2Rα and IL-2 were measured using ELISA test. Results We found significantly (p = 0.027) increased sIL-2Rα serum levels in BCC patients, in comparison to healthy controls. Statistically (p = 0.04) higher sIL-2Rα levels were observed in patients with more advanced tumours. Serum levels of sIL-2Rα showed a significant linear (r = 0.24, p = 0.018) correlation with tumour size. The average IL-2 serum levels in BCC patients were statistically (p = 0.039) decreased compared to controls. Significantly (p = 0.0454) lower median IL-2 levels were observed in patients with more advanced tumours. A negative correlation between sIL-2Rα and IL-2 serum concentrations was revealed (r = –0.22; p = 0.027). Conclusions Our results testify to the importance of the IL-2/sIL-2Rα signalling pathway in pathogenesis of BCC, suggesting that IL-2 and sIL-2Rα might be considered as potential markers of disease and targets for immunotherapy in BCC patients. PMID:27605896

  9. Insights into Soluble Toll-Like Receptor 2 as a Downregulator of Virally Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Henrick, Bethany M.; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Taha, Ameer Y.; German, J. Bruce; Rosenthal, Kenneth Lee

    2016-01-01

    The ability to distinguish pathogens from self-antigens is one of the most important functions of the immune system. However, this simple self versus non-self assignment belies the complexity of the immune response to threats. Immune responses vary widely and appropriately according to a spectrum of threats and only recently have the mechanisms for controlling this highly textured process emerged. A primary mechanism by which this controlled decision-making process is achieved is via Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and the subsequent activation of the immune response coincident with the presence of pathogenic organisms or antigens, including lipid mediators. While immune activation is important, the appropriate regulation of such responses is also critical. Recent findings indicate a parallel pathway by which responses to both viral and bacterial infections is controlled via the secretion of soluble TLR2 (sTLR2). sTLR2 is able to bind a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). sTLR2 has been detected in many bodily fluids and is thus ubiquitous in sites of pathogen appearance. Interestingly, growing evidence suggests that sTLR2 functions to sequester PAMPs and DAMPs to avoid immune activation via detection of cellular-expressed TLRs. This immune regulatory function would serve to reduce the expression of the molecules required for cellular entry, and the recruitment of target cells following infection with bacteria and viruses. This review provides an overview of sTLR2 and the research regarding the mechanisms of its immune regulatory properties. Furthermore, the role of this molecule in regulating immune activation in the context of HIV infection via sTLR2 in breast milk provides actionable insights into therapeutic targets across a variety of infectious and inflammatory states. PMID:27531999

  10. Decreased plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor in high-altitude excessive erythrocytosis and Chronic Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Macarlupú, José Luis; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Corrales-Melgar, Daniela; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Corante, Noemí; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a prevalent syndrome in high-altitude Andean populations. Although hypoxemia represents its underlying stimulus, why some individuals develop EE despite having altitude-normal blood erythropoietin (Epo) concentration is still unclear. A soluble form of the Epo receptor (sEpoR) has been identified in human blood and competes directly for Epo with its membrane counterpart (mEpoR). Thus, reduced levels of circulating sEpoR could lead to higher Epo availability and ultimately to EE. We characterized the relationship between Epo and sEpoR, with hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration in healthy highlanders and CMS patients at 4,340 m in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Our results show that EE patients show decreased plasma sEpoR levels and can be subdivided into two subgroups of normal and high plasma Epo concentration for the altitude of residence, with hemoglobin concentration rising exponentially with an increasing Epo-to-sEpoR ratio (Epo/sEpoR). Also, we showed that the latter varies as an inverse exponential function of arterial pulse O2 saturation. Our findings suggests that EE is strongly associated with higher Epo/sEpoR values, leading to elevated plasma Epo availability to bind mEpoR, and thereby a stronger stimulus for augmented erythropoiesis. Differences in the altitude normal and high Epo CMS patients with a progressively higher Epo/sEpoR supports the hypothesis of the existence of two genetically different subgroups suffering from EE and possibly different degrees of adaptation to chronic high-altitude hypoxia. PMID:25324511

  11. Decreased plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor in high-altitude excessive erythrocytosis and Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Macarlupú, José Luis; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Corrales-Melgar, Daniela; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Corante, Noemí; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-12-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a prevalent syndrome in high-altitude Andean populations. Although hypoxemia represents its underlying stimulus, why some individuals develop EE despite having altitude-normal blood erythropoietin (Epo) concentration is still unclear. A soluble form of the Epo receptor (sEpoR) has been identified in human blood and competes directly for Epo with its membrane counterpart (mEpoR). Thus, reduced levels of circulating sEpoR could lead to higher Epo availability and ultimately to EE. We characterized the relationship between Epo and sEpoR, with hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration in healthy highlanders and CMS patients at 4,340 m in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Our results show that EE patients show decreased plasma sEpoR levels and can be subdivided into two subgroups of normal and high plasma Epo concentration for the altitude of residence, with hemoglobin concentration rising exponentially with an increasing Epo-to-sEpoR ratio (Epo/sEpoR). Also, we showed that the latter varies as an inverse exponential function of arterial pulse O2 saturation. Our findings suggests that EE is strongly associated with higher Epo/sEpoR values, leading to elevated plasma Epo availability to bind mEpoR, and thereby a stronger stimulus for augmented erythropoiesis. Differences in the altitude normal and high Epo CMS patients with a progressively higher Epo/sEpoR supports the hypothesis of the existence of two genetically different subgroups suffering from EE and possibly different degrees of adaptation to chronic high-altitude hypoxia.

  12. PREVENTION OF COLITIS-ASSOCIATED CANCER: NATURAL COMPOUNDS THAT TARGET THE IL-6 SOLUBLE RECEPTOR

    PubMed Central

    Moriasi, Cate; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Awasthi, Shanjana; Anant, Shrikant; Ramalingam, Satish

    2014-01-01

    The risk of developing colorectal cancer increases in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a growing body of evidence shows the critical role of interleukin (IL-6) in this process. IL-6 is both a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine whose effects are mediated through activation of STAT3. Recent studies have also demonstrated that IL-6 trans-signaling through its soluble receptor occurs in IBD and cancer. IL-6 trans-signaling therefore is emerging as an attractive approach to diminish the inflammatory signals in conditions of chronic inflammation. The purpose of cancer chemoprevention is to either delay the onset or progression from precancerous lesions. Natural compounds because of their low toxicity render themselves excellent candidates that can be administered over the lifetime of an individual. With the focus of managing IBD over a long time and preventing onset of colitis-associated cancer, we believe that there should be increased research focus on identifying chemopreventive compounds that can render themselves to long term use possibly for the lifetime of predisposed individuals. Here, we review the role of IL-6 signaling in IBD and colitis-associated cancer and underscore the importance of searching for natural compounds that would target the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway as a way to diminish chronic inflammatory conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and possibly hamper the progression to colon cancer. We propose that effective screening and identification of natural chemopreventive compounds that target IL-6 trans-signaling has important implications for the development of optimal strategies against cancer development triggered by inflammation. PMID:22583410

  13. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor α and interleukin-2 serum levels in patients with basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Ewa; Zablotna, Monika; Sokolowska-Wojdylo, Malgorzata; Sikorska, Monika; Lange, Magdalena; Nowicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an immunogenic neoplasm and the imbalance in Th1/Th2 cytokines expression seems to play the major role in pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of the tumour. Aim To investigate the association of soluble interleukin 2α receptor (sIL-2Rα) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) serum concentrations with BCC. Material and methods The study involved 110 individuals with BCC and 60 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. Serum levels of sIL-2Rα and IL-2 were measured using ELISA test. Results We found significantly (p = 0.027) increased sIL-2Rα serum levels in BCC patients, in comparison to healthy controls. Statistically (p = 0.04) higher sIL-2Rα levels were observed in patients with more advanced tumours. Serum levels of sIL-2Rα showed a significant linear (r = 0.24, p = 0.018) correlation with tumour size. The average IL-2 serum levels in BCC patients were statistically (p = 0.039) decreased compared to controls. Significantly (p = 0.0454) lower median IL-2 levels were observed in patients with more advanced tumours. A negative correlation between sIL-2Rα and IL-2 serum concentrations was revealed (r = –0.22; p = 0.027). Conclusions Our results testify to the importance of the IL-2/sIL-2Rα signalling pathway in pathogenesis of BCC, suggesting that IL-2 and sIL-2Rα might be considered as potential markers of disease and targets for immunotherapy in BCC patients.

  14. Sleep Apnea Determines Soluble TNF-α Receptor 2 Response to Massive Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pallayova, Maria; Steele, Kimberley E.; Magnuson, Thomas H.; Schweitzer, Michael A.; Smith, Philip L.; Patil, Susheel P.; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of surgical weight loss (WL) on inflammatory biomarkers associated with sleep apnea remain unknown. We sought to determine if any bio-markers can predict amelioration of sleep apnea achieved by bariatric surgery. We hypothesized that surgical WL would substantially reduce severity of sleep apnea and levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Methods Twenty-three morbidly obese adults underwent anthropometric measurements, polysomnography, and serum biomarker profiling prior to and 1 year following bariatric surgery. We examined the effect of WL and amelioration of sleep apnea on metabolic and inflammatory markers. Results Surgical WL resulted in significant decreases in BMI (16.7±5.97 kg/m2/median 365 days), apnea–hypopnea index (AHI), CRP, IL-6, sTNFαR1, sTNFαR2, and leptin levels, while ghrelin, adiponectin, and soluble leptin receptor concentrations increased significantly. Utilizing an AHI cutoff of 15 events/h, we found significantly elevated levels of baseline sTNFαR2 and greater post-WL sTNFαR2 decreases in subjects with baseline AHI ≥15 events/h compared to those with AHI <15 events/h despite no significant differences in baseline BMI, age, and ΔBMI. In a multivariable linear regression model adjusting for sex, age, impaired glucose metabolism, ΔBMI, and follow-up period, the post-WL decreases in AHI were an independent predictor of the decreases in sTNFαR2 and altogether accounted for 46% of the variance of ΔsTNFαR2 (P=0.011) in the entire cohort. Conclusions Of all the biomarkers, the decrease in sTNFαR2 was independently determined by the amelioration of sleep apnea achieved by bariatric surgery. The results suggest that sTNFαR2 may be a specific sleep apnea biomarker across a wide range of body weight. PMID:21298510

  15. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia. PMID:27125843

  16. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-07-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia.

  17. Shedding of soluble platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β from human brain pericytes.

    PubMed

    Sagare, Abhay P; Sweeney, Melanie D; Makshanoff, Jacob; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2015-10-21

    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ) is expressed in the brain by vascular mural cells-brain capillary pericytes and arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Recent evidence shows that blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and increased permeability, especially in the hippocampus, positively correlates with elevated levels of soluble PDGFRβ (sPDGFRβ) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with mild dementia. To determine which vascular cell type(s) contributes to increased sPDGFRβ in CSF, we compared PDGFRβ expression and sPDGFRβ shedding in response to injury in early passage primary cultures of human brain pericytes, brain arterial VSMCs, and brain endothelial cells. PDGFRβ protein was undetectable in endothelial cells, but was found both in pericytes and VSMCs. PDGFRβ relative protein abundance was by 4.2-fold (p<0.05) higher in pericytes compared to VSMCs. Hypoxia (1% O2) or amyloid-β peptide (25 μM) compared to normoxia (21% O2) both increased over 48 h shedding of sPDGFRβ and its levels in the culture medium from pericytes cultures, but not from VSMCs cultures, by 4.3-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively, compared to the basal sPDGFRβ levels in the medium (1.43±0.15 ng/ml). This was associated with the corresponding loss of cell-associated PDGFRβ from pericytes and no change in cellular levels of PDGFRβ in VSMCs. Thus, sPDGFRβ is a biomarker of pericyte injury, and elevated sPDGFRβ levels in biofluids in patients with dementia and/or other neurodegenerative disorders likely reflects pericyte injury, which supports the potential for sPDGFRβ to be developed and validated as a biomarker of brain pericyte injury and BBB dysfunction.

  18. Additive inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection with the soluble sialoadhesin and CD163 receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Guo, Rui; He, Shan; Zhang, Xinyu; Xia, Xiaoli; Sun, Huaichang

    2014-01-22

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine disease to the swine industry worldwide. Current PRRS vaccines are only partially effective and new vaccine development faces great challenges. Sialoadhesin (Sn) and CD163 are the two essential receptors for PRRSV infection of porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM). To investigate the feasibility of the soluble viral receptors for PRRS control, in the present study we generated recombinant adenovirus (rAd) expressing the four N-terminal Ig-like domains of porcine Sn (Sn4D), the fifth SRCR domain (SRCR5) or domains 5-9 (SRCR59) of porcine CD163 as porcine Fc (pFc) fusion proteins. Efficient expression of the soluble viral receptors in the rAd-transduced cells was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. To detect their antiviral activities, the soluble viral receptors were purified from the media of rAd-transduced cells and identified by Western blotting. The viral binding assay showed that the soluble receptors Sn4D-Fc and SRCR59-Fc, but not SRCR5-Fc and the control pFc, were able to bind to PRRSV particles. The viral infection blocking assays showed that co-treatment of PRRSV with different concentrations of Sn4D-Fc and SRCR59-Fc proteins resulted in a much higher (72.1%-77.6%) reduction in PRRSV-positive cell number than the single protein treatment (45.1%-60.0% or 44.0%-56.2%). To investigate the feasibility of delivering the soluble viral receptors to PAM, two pig cell lines were transduced with rAd-Sn4D-Fc and/or rAd-SRCR59-Fc using a transwell culture system. PAM cells were infected with PRRSV and then co-cultured with the rAd-transduced cells. Viral titration assay showed that co-cultivation of the infected PAM with rAd-Sn4D-Fc- and rAd-SRCR59-Fc-transduced cells resulted in much higher (by ∼3.5 log) reduction in the viral titers (TCID50) than that of co-cultivation with the single vector-transduced cells (by ∼1.0 log). Further studies showed that the rAd co

  19. Potential use of fucose-appended dendrimer/α-cyclodextrin conjugates as NF-κB decoy carriers for the treatment of lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Akao, Chiho; Tanaka, Takahiro; Onodera, Risako; Ohyama, Ayumu; Sato, Nana; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2014-11-10

    The purpose of the present study is to treat lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatitis by NF-κB decoy complex with fucose-appended dendrimer (generation 2; G2) conjugate with α-cyclodextrin (Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2)). Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, average degree of substitution of fucose (DSF2))/NF-κB decoy complex significantly suppressed nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production from LPS-stimulated NR8383 cells, a rat alveolar macrophage cell line, by adequate physicochemical properties and fucose receptor-mediated cellular uptake. Intravenous injection of Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex extended the survival of LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis model mice. In addition, Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex administered intravenously highly accumulated in the liver, compared to naked NF-κB decoy alone. Furthermore, the liver accumulation of Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex was inhibited by the pretreatment with GdCl3, a specific inhibitor of Kupffer cell uptake. Also, the serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and TNF-α levels in LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis model mice were significantly attenuated by the treatment with Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex, compared with naked NF-κB decoy alone. Taken together, these results suggest that Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2) has the potential for a novel Kupffer cell-selective NF-κB decoy carrier for the treatment of LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice. PMID:25020038

  20. Potential use of fucose-appended dendrimer/α-cyclodextrin conjugates as NF-κB decoy carriers for the treatment of lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Akao, Chiho; Tanaka, Takahiro; Onodera, Risako; Ohyama, Ayumu; Sato, Nana; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2014-11-10

    The purpose of the present study is to treat lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatitis by NF-κB decoy complex with fucose-appended dendrimer (generation 2; G2) conjugate with α-cyclodextrin (Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2)). Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, average degree of substitution of fucose (DSF2))/NF-κB decoy complex significantly suppressed nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production from LPS-stimulated NR8383 cells, a rat alveolar macrophage cell line, by adequate physicochemical properties and fucose receptor-mediated cellular uptake. Intravenous injection of Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex extended the survival of LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis model mice. In addition, Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex administered intravenously highly accumulated in the liver, compared to naked NF-κB decoy alone. Furthermore, the liver accumulation of Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex was inhibited by the pretreatment with GdCl3, a specific inhibitor of Kupffer cell uptake. Also, the serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and TNF-α levels in LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis model mice were significantly attenuated by the treatment with Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex, compared with naked NF-κB decoy alone. Taken together, these results suggest that Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2) has the potential for a novel Kupffer cell-selective NF-κB decoy carrier for the treatment of LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice.

  1. Designing CXCL8-based decoy proteins with strong anti-inflammatory activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Falsone, Angelika; Wabitsch, Veronica; Geretti, Elena; Potzinger, Heide; Gerlza, Tanja; Robinson, James; Adage, Tiziana; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Kungl, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    IL (interleukin)-8 [CXCL8 (CXC chemokine ligand 8)] exerts its role in inflammation by triggering neutrophils via its specific GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors), CXCR1 (CXC chemokine receptor 1) and CXCR2, for which additional binding to endothelial HS-GAGs (heparan sulphate-glycosaminoglycans) is required. We present here a novel approach for blocking the CXCL8-related inflammatory cascade by generating dominant-negative CXCL8 mutants with improved GAG-binding affinity and knocked-out CXCR1/CXCR2 activity. These non-signalling CXCL8 decoy proteins are able to displace WT (wild-type) CXCL8 and to prevent CXCR1/CXCR2 signalling thereby interfering with the inflammatory response. We have designed 14 CXCL8 mutants that we subdivided into three classes according to number and site of mutations. The decoys were characterized by IFTs (isothermal fluorescence titrations) and SPR (surface plasmon resonance) to determine GAG affinity. Protein stability and structural changes were evaluated by far-UV CD spectroscopy and knocked-out GPCR response was shown by Boyden chamber and Ca2+ release assays. From these experiments, CXCL8(Δ6F17KF21KE70KN71K) emerged with the most promising in vitro characteristics. This mutant was therefore further investigated in a murine model of mBSA (methylated BSA)-induced arthritis in mice where it showed strong anti-inflammatory activity. Based on these results, we propose that dominant-negative CXCL8 decoy proteins are a promising class of novel biopharmaceuticals with high therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases. PMID:23919527

  2. Serum Soluble (Pro)Renin Receptor Levels in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Amari, Yoshifumi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Nakajima, Fumitaka; Ando, Takashi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is cleaved by furin to generate soluble (P)RR [s(P)RR], which reflects the status of the tissue renin-angiotensin system. Hemodialysis patients have advanced atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors, including indices of atherosclerosis, in hemodialysis patients. Serum s(P)RR levels were measured in hemodialysis patients and clearance of s(P)RR through the membrane of the dialyzer was examined. Furthermore, relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors were assessed. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients (30.4 ± 6.1 ng/ml, n = 258) than those in subjects with normal renal function (21.4 ± 6.2 ng/ml, n = 39, P < 0.0001). Clearance of s(P)RR and creatinine were 56.9 ± 33.5 and 147.6 ± 9.50 ml/min, respectively. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in those with ankle-brachial index (ABI) of < 0.9, an indicator of severe atherosclerosis, than those with ABI of ≥ 0.9 (32.2 ± 5.9 and 30.1 ± 6.2 ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.05). An association between low ABI and high serum s(P)RR levels was observed even after correction for age, history of smoking, HbA1c, and LDL-C. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients when compared with subjects with normal renal function, although s(P)RR is dialyzed to some extent, but to a lesser extent than creatinine. High serum s(P)RR levels may be associated with atherosclerosis independent of other risk factors, suggesting that serum s(P)RR could be used as a marker for atherosclerotic conditions in hemodialysis patients. PMID:27367528

  3. Structure of the mouse leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor gene: regulated expression of mRNA encoding a soluble receptor isoform from an alternative 5' untranslated region.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, I; Cozens, A; Broadbent, J; Robertson, M; Lee, M; Li, M; Smith, A

    1997-01-01

    The low-affinity leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIF-R) is a component of cell-surface receptor complexes for the multifunctional cytokines leukaemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, oncostatin M and cardiotrophin-1. Both soluble and transmembrane forms of the protein have been described and several LIF-R mRNAs have been reported previously. In order to determine the coding potential of LIF-R mRNAs we have isolated and characterized the mouse LIF-R gene. mRNA encoding soluble LIF-R (sLIF-R) is formed by inclusion of an exon in which polyadenylation signals are provided by a B2 repeat. This exon is located centrally within the LIF-R gene but is excluded from the transmembrane LIF-R mRNA by alternative splicing. The transmembrane receptor is encoded by 19 exons distributed over 38 kb. Two distinct 5' non-coding exons have been identified, indicating the existence of alternative promoters. One of these is G/C rich and possesses a consensus initiator sequence as well as potential Sp1 binding sites. Expression of exon 1 from this promoter occurs in a wide variety of tissues, whereas expression of the alternative 5' untranslated region (exon 1a) is normally restricted to liver, the principal source of sLIF-R. During pregnancy expression of exon 1a becomes detectable also in the uterus. Expression of exon 1a increases dramatically during gestation and is accompanied by a similar quantitative rise in expression of sLIF-R mRNA. These findings establish that expression of LIF-R is under complex transcriptional control and indicate that regulated expression of the soluble cytokine receptor isoform may be due principally to an increase in the activity of a dedicated promoter. PMID:9396734

  4. Plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor and its soluble receptors correlate with clinical features and outcome of Hodgkin's disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Warzocha, K.; Bienvenu, J.; Ribeiro, P.; Moullet, I.; Dumontet, C.; Neidhardt-Berard, E. M.; Coiffier, B.; Salles, G.

    1998-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to assess the use of plasma measurement of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin alpha (LT alpha) and their soluble receptors (p55 and p75) for prognostic risk assignment in 61 patients with Hodgkin's disease. Plasma levels of TNF, p55 and p75, but not of LT alpha, were higher in Hodgkin's disease patients than in healthy controls. Plasma levels of TNF, p55 and p75 were associated with several prognostic factors for Hodgkin's disease, including those related to the host (age, performance status) and to the tumour (disease stage, extranodal site involvement, bulky tumour, serum levels of LDH and beta2-microglobulin, histology). Elevated plasma levels of TNF, p55 and p75 were also associated with several parameters reflecting an immune activation, including the presence of B symptoms, elevated serum levels of gammaglobulins, alkaline phosphatase and fibrinogen, as well as peripheral monocytosis, anaemia and low serum albumin levels. Finally, elevated TNF ligand receptor plasma markers were associated with a lower incidence of complete response to therapy and predicted shorter free-from-progression survival and overall survival of the patients. These results indicate that the plasma levels of TNF and its soluble receptors correlate with clinical features and outcome of patients with Hodgkin's disease. PMID:9649158

  5. Study of infrared point source simulator for generating the multi-decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-e.; Yang, Di; Su, Jian-gang; Huang, Yan-jun; Wang, Zhi-sheng

    2013-08-01

    The hardware-in-loop test system for infrared point-type guide missile was introduced;The decoy irradiation and motion characteristics were analyzed; multi-decoy generation mode and principle were studied.

  6. Decoy-state quantum key distribution with biased basis choice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhengchao; Wang, Weilong; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2013-01-01

    We propose a quantum key distribution scheme that combines a biased basis choice with the decoy-state method. In this scheme, Alice sends all signal states in the Z basis and decoy states in the X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and Bob measures received pulses with optimal basis choice. This scheme simplifies the system and reduces the random number consumption. From the simulation result taking into account of statistical fluctuations, we find that in a typical experimental setup, the proposed scheme can increase the key rate by at least 45% comparing to the standard decoy-state scheme. In the postprocessing, we also apply a rigorous method to upper bound the phase error rate of the single-photon components of signal states. PMID:23948999

  7. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys varies among dabbling duck species and locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eadie, J.M.; Szymanski, M.L.; Caswell, J.H.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Checkett, J.M.; Afton, A.D.; Moore, T.G.; Caswell, F.D.; Walters, R.A.; Humburg, D.D.; Yee, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Spinning-wing decoys are strong attractants to ducks and inc rease kill rates over traditional decoying methods. However, it is unknown whether all duck species are attracted similarly to spinning-wing decoys and whether the effectiveness of these decoys changes with latitude. We examined the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys for 9 species of dabbling ducks during 545 experimental hunts in California (1999-2000), Minnesota (2002), Manitoba (2001-2002), Nebraska (2000-2002), Missouri (2000-2001), and Arkansas (2001-2003). During each experimental hunt, we systematically alternated between 2 paired decoy treatments every 15-30 min (depending on study site): traditional decoys only and traditional decoys with a spinning-wing decoy. Overall, 70.2% (n=1,925) of dabbling ducks were harvested (shot and retrieved) when spinning-wing decoys were turned on, ranging from 63.6% (n=187) in Missouri to 76.4% (n=356) in Minnesota. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys increased with latitude of study sites. Proportions of ducks shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on differed among species, from a low of 50.0% (n=8) for cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera) to a high of 79.0% (n=119) for American wigeon (A. americana). The probability of being shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on increased with annual survival rates among species; for example, spinning-wing decoys were more effective for American wigeon and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) than they were for cinnamon teal and American green-winged teal (A. crecca). Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys did not differ consistently by age or sex of harvested ducks. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys differs among duck species and changes with latitude; thus, consideration of these effects may be warranted when setting harvest regulations and methods of take.

  8. Soluble interleukin-1 receptor, a potential negative regulator of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides interleukin-1 system.

    PubMed

    Lu, D Q; Yao, M; Yi, S B; Li, Y W; Liu, X C; Zhang, Y; Lin, H R

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the cDNA sequence encoding interleukin-1 (Il-1) receptor-like protein of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides was obtained. The newly identified sequence was named soluble type I Il-1 receptor (sIl-1rI) owing to its structural composition, which had two Ig-like domains, lack of transmembrane region and the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain, similar to the brown rat Rattus norvegicus soluble Il-1rI. In addition, sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that E. coioides sequence had a closer relationship with Il-1rI than Il-1rII. Real-time PCR revealed that sil-1rI mRNA expression presented a process of decrease, restoration and increase in Cryptocaryon irritans-infected E. coioides. The negative correlation between Il-1β and sil-1rI mRNA in C. irritans-infected head-kidney implied the potential negative regulatory role of sil-1rI in E. coioides Il-1 system. The leucocytes incubated with lipopolysaccharide or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid exhibited different expression profiles of sil-1rI. Recombinant Il-1β (rIl-1β) protein was capable of inducing sil-1rI mRNA under the concentration of 100 ng ml(-1) , suggesting that high dosage or excess Il-1β would stimulate the expression of sil-1rI to maintain the homoeostasis of E. coioides Il-1 system. For the first time, the role of teleost Il-1rI in parasite infection has been identified, and soluble Il-1r was found in fish.

  9. Serum soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in male patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Genc, Abdullah; Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Karamustafalioglu, Nesrin; Tasdemir, Akif; Genc, Esra Sena; Akkus, Mustafa; Emul, Murat

    2016-02-28

    Inflammatory abnormalities have been shown in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that is measurable in the circulating blood and reflects the inflammation in the body. We aimed to investigate serum suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia who were in acute state and to compare with healthy controls. Forty five patients and 43 healthy controls were included in the study. We found no significant difference in suPAR levels between patients and controls, suggesting that suPAR as an inflammatory marker does not have a role in the inflammatory process of acute schizophrenia.

  10. Decoy-state quantum key distribution using homodyne detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams Mousavi, S. H.; Gallion, P.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we propose to use the decoy-state technique to improve the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems based on homodyne detection against the photon number splitting attack. The decoy-state technique is a powerful tool that can significantly boost the secure transmission range of the QKD systems. However, it has not yet been applied to the systems that use homodyne detection. After adapting this theory to the systems based on homodyne detection, we quantify the secure performance and transmission range of the resulting system.

  11. Urinary soluble urokinase receptor levels are elevated and pathogenic in patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have proposed that plasma soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) might be a causative circulating factor but this proposal has caused controversy. This study aimed to measure urinary suPAR levels in patients with primary FSGS and its significance in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Methods Sixty-two patients with primary FSGS, diagnosed between January 2006 and January 2012, with complete clinical and pathologic data were enrolled, together with disease and normal controls. Urinary suPAR levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits and were corrected by urinary creatinine (Cr). The associations between urinary suPAR levels and clinical data at presentation and during follow up were analyzed. Conditionally immortalized human podocytes were used to study the effect of urinary suPAR on activating β3 integrin detected by AP5 staining. Results The urinary suPAR level of patients with primary FSGS (500.56, IQR 262.78 to 1,059.44 pg/μmol Cr) was significantly higher than that of patients with minimal change disease (307.86, IQR 216.54 to 480.18 pg/μmol Cr, P = 0.033), membranous nephropathy (250.23, IQR 170.37 to 357.59 pg/μmol Cr, P <0.001), secondary FSGS (220.45, IQR 149.38 to 335.54 pg/μmol Cr, P <0.001) and normal subjects (183.59, IQR 103.92 to 228.78 pg/μmol Cr, P <0.001). The urinary suPAR level of patients with cellular variant was significantly higher than that of patients with tip variant. The urinary suPAR level in the patients with primary FSGS was positively correlated with 24-hour urine protein (r = 0.287, P = 0.024). During follow up, the urinary suPAR level of patients with complete remission decreased significantly (661.19, IQR 224.32 to 1,115.29 pg/μmol Cr versus 217.68, IQR 121.77 to 415.55 pg/μmol Cr, P = 0.017). The AP5 signal was strongly induced along the cell membrane when human differentiated podocytes were incubated

  12. Identification, cloning, and characterization of a novel soluble receptor that binds IL-22 and neutralizes its activity.

    PubMed

    Kotenko, S V; Izotova, L S; Mirochnitchenko, O V; Esterova, E; Dickensheets, H; Donnelly, R P; Pestka, S

    2001-06-15

    With the use of a partial sequence of the human genome, we identified a gene encoding a novel soluble receptor belonging to the class II cytokine receptor family. This gene is positioned on chromosome 6 in the vicinity of the IFNGR1 gene in a head-to-tail orientation. The gene consists of six exons and encodes a 231-aa protein with a 21-aa leader sequence. The secreted mature protein demonstrates 34% amino acid identity to the extracellular domain of the IL-22R1 chain. Cross-linking experiments demonstrate that the protein binds IL-22 and prevents binding of IL-22 to the functional cell surface IL-22R complex, which consists of two subunits, the IL-22R1 and the IL-10R2c chains. Moreover, this soluble receptor, designated IL-22-binding protein (BP), is capable of neutralizing IL-22 activity. In the presence of the IL-22BP, IL-22 is unable to induce Stat activation in IL-22-responsive human lung carcinoma A549 cells. IL-22BP also blocked induction of the suppressors of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) gene expression by IL-22 in HepG2 cells. To further evaluate IL-22BP action, we used hamster cells expressing a modified IL-22R complex consisting of the intact IL-10R2c and the chimeric IL-22R1/gammaR1 receptor in which the IL-22R1 intracellular domain was replaced with the IFN-gammaR1 intracellular domain. In these cells, IL-22 activates biological activities specific for IFN-gamma, such as up-regulation of MHC class I Ag expression. The addition of IL-22BP neutralizes the ability of IL-22 to induce Stat activation and MHC class I Ag expression in these cells. Thus, the soluble receptor designated IL-22BP inhibits IL-22 activity by binding IL-22 and blocking its interaction with the cell surface IL-22R complex.

  13. Recovery from Chronic Spinal Cord Contusion after Nogo Receptor Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingxing; Duffy, Philip; McGee, Aaron W.; Hasan, Omar; Gould, Grahame; Tu, Nathan; Harel, Noam Y.; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E.; Weinzimmer, David; Ropchan, Jim; Benowitz, Larry I.; Cafferty, William B. J.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Several interventions promote axonal growth and functional recovery when initiated shortly after CNS injury, including blockade of myelin-derived inhibitors with soluble Nogo Receptor (NgR1, RTN4R) ‘decoy’ protein. We examined the efficacy of this intervention in the much more prevalent and refractory condition of chronic spinal cord injury. Methods We eliminated the NgR1 pathway genetically in mice by conditional gene targeting starting 8 weeks after spinal hemisection injury and monitored locomotion in the open field and by video kinematics over the ensuing 4 months. In a separate pharmacological experiment, intrathecal NgR1 decoy protein administration was initiated 3 months after spinal cord contusion injury. Locomotion and raphespinal axon growth were assessed during 3 months of treatment between 4 and 6 months after contusion injury. Results Conditional deletion of NgR1 in the chronic state results in gradual improvement of motor function accompanied by increased density of raphespinal axons in the caudal spinal cord. In chronic rat spinal contusion, NgR1 decoy treatment from 4–6 months after injury results in 29% (10 of 35) of rats recovering weight-bearing status compared to 0% (0 of 29) of control rats (P<0.05). Open field BBB locomotor scores showed a significant improvement in the NgR-treated group relative to the control group (P<0.005, repeated measures ANOVA). An increase in raphespinal axon density caudal to the injury is detected in NgR1-decoy-treated animals by immunohistology and by positron emission tomography using a serotonin reuptake ligand. Interpretation Antagonizing myelin-derived inhibitors signaling with NgR1 decoy augments recovery from chronic spinal cord injury. PMID:22162062

  14. /sup 125/I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for /sup 125/I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for /sup 125/I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific /sup 125/I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors.

  15. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate the release of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and soluble IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor from MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Confort, C; Rochefort, H; Vignon, F

    1995-09-01

    The growth of hormone-responsive MCF7 human breast cancer cells is controlled by steroid hormones and growth factors. By metabolic labeling of cells grown in steroid- and growth factor-stripped serum conditions, we show that insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) increase by approximately 5-fold the release of several proteins including cathepsin D, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and soluble forms of the multifunctional IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor. Two soluble forms of IGF-II/M6P receptors were detected, one major (approximately 260 kilodaltons) and one minor (approximately 85 kilodaltons) that probably represents a proteolytic fragment of the larger soluble molecule. IGFs increased receptor release in a dose-dependent fashion with 50-60% of newly synthesized receptor released at 5-10 nM IGFs. The release of IGF-II/M6P receptors correlated with the levels of secreted cathepsin D in different human breast cancer cells or in rats stable transfectants that are constitutively expressing variable levels of human cathepsin D. IGFs had a stronger effect on IGF-II/M6P receptor release, whereas estradiol treatment preferentially enhanced the release of protease and antiprotease. We thus demonstrate that in human breast cancer cells, IGFs not only act as strong mitogens but also regulate release of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, IGF-II/M6P-soluble receptor, and cathepsin D; three proteins that potentially regulate cell proliferation and/or invasion.

  16. Alterations in detergent solubility of heterotrimeric G proteins after chronic activation of G(i/o)-coupled receptors: changes in detergent solubility are in correlation with onset of adenylyl cyclase superactivation.

    PubMed

    Bayewitch, M L; Nevo, I; Avidor-Reiss, T; Levy, R; Simonds, W F; Vogel, Z

    2000-04-01

    Prolonged G(i/o) protein-coupled receptor activation has been shown to lead to receptor internalization and receptor desensitization. In addition, it is well established that although acute activation of these receptors leads to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC), long-term activation results in increased AC activity (especially evident on removal of the inhibitory agonist), a phenomenon defined as AC superactivation or sensitization. Herein, we show that chronic exposure to agonists of G(i)-coupled receptors also leads to a decrease in cholate detergent solubility of G protein subunits, and that antagonist treatment after such chronic agonist exposure leads to a time-dependent reversal of the cholate insolubility. With Chinese hamster ovary and COS cells transfected with several G(i/o)-coupled receptors (i.e., mu- and kappa-opioid, and m(4)-muscarinic), we observed that although no overall change occurred in total content of G(alphai)- and beta(1)-subunits, chronic agonist treatment led to a marked reduction in the ability of 1% cholate to solubilize G(betagamma) as well as G(alphai). This solubility shift is exclusively observed with G(alphai), and was not seen with G(alphas). The disappearance and reappearance of G(alphai) and G(betagamma) subunits from and to the detergent-soluble fractions occur with similar time courses as observed for the onset and disappearance of AC superactivation. Lastly, pertussis toxin, which blocks acute and chronic agonist-induced AC inhibition and superactivation, also blocks the shift in detergent solubility. These results suggest a correlation between the solubility shift of the heterotrimeric G(i) protein and the generation of AC superactivation.

  17. Angiotensin receptor agonistic autoantibody-mediated TNF-α induction contributes to increased soluble endoglin production in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cissy Chenyi; Irani, Roxanna A.; Zhang, Yujin; Blackwell, Sean; Mi, Tiejuan; Wen, Jiaming; Shelat, Harnath; Geng, Yong-Jian; Ramin, Susan M.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is a prevalent life-threatening hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. The circulating antiangiogenic factor, soluble endoglin (sEng), is elevated in the blood circulation of women with PE and contributes to disease pathology. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for its induction in PE are unknown. Methods and Results Here we discovered that a circulating autoantibody, the angiotensin receptor agonistic autoantibody (AT1-AA), stimulates sang production via AT1 angiogenesis receptor activation in pregnant mice but not non-pregnant mice. Subsequently we demonstrate that the placenta is a major source contributing to sang induction in vivo and AT1-AA injected pregnant mice display the impaired placental angiogenesis. Using drug screening, we identified TNF-α as a circulating factor increased in the serum of autoantibody-injected pregnant mice contributing to AT1-AA-mediated sang induction in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Subsequently, among all the drugs screened we found that hemin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), functions as a break to control AT1-AA mediated sang induction by suppressing TNF-α signaling in Havocs. Finally, we demonstrated that AT1-AA-mediated decreased angiogenesis seen in human placenta villous explants was attenuated by TNF-α neutralizing antibodies, soluble TNF-α receptors and hemi, an inducer of home oxygenase, by abolishing both sang and sFlt-1 induction. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that AT1-AA-mediated TNF-α induction, by overcoming its negative regulator, HO-1, is a key underlying mechanism responsible for impaired placenta angiogenesis by inducing both sEng and sFlt-1 secretion from human villous explants and provide important new targets for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in the management of PE. PMID:20065159

  18. Monoclonal antibodies to the cell surface and a soluble form of the human nerve growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Clagett-Dame, M.; Chung, C.; Chao, M.V.; DiStefano, P.S. )

    1990-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (designated IIIG5, VIID1, VIIIC8, and XIF1) have been produced that bind to the human nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-R) as well as to a soluble, truncated form of the receptor (NGF-Rt). The antibodies were generated against partially purified NGF-Rt from the conditioned medium of E9b cells, a transfected mouse fibroblast cell line (Ltk-) that expresses large numbers of the low affinity form of the human NGF-R on its cell surface. Hybridomas were screened by radiometric immunosorbent assay (RISA) and by immunoprecipitation of solubilized cell surface receptor covalently cross-linked to {sup 125}I-NGF. Four positive lines were cloned by limiting dilution and were found to secrete monoclonal antibodies of the IgGl,k subclass. All monoclonal antibodies bound to both NGF-R and NGF-Rt. Two monoclonal antibodies (VIID1, XIF1) immunoblotted the NGF-R from E9b cell preparations resolved on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels. The antibodies immunoprecipitated NGF-R from both E9b cells and from SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The monoclonal antibodies bound to monkey (rhesis and cynomolgus) NGF-Rt, but did not cross-react with NGF-R from chick or rat. Results of antibody competition studies demonstrated that three antibodies bound to a similar or overlapping epitope on the NGF-Rt and one monoclonal antibody (IIIG5) recognized a distinct receptor epitope. Antibodies that bound to different sites on the receptor were used to develop a sensitive 2-site RISA. The 2-site RISA can be used to rapidly quantitate NGF-R and NGF-Rt in large numbers of biological samples in the absence of added {sup 125}I-labeled NGF.

  19. A soluble class II cytokine receptor, IL-22RA2, is a naturally occurring IL-22 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenfeng; Presnell, Scott R.; Parrish-Novak, Julia; Kindsvogel, Wayne; Jaspers, Steve; Chen, Zhi; Dillon, Stacey R.; Gao, Zeren; Gilbert, Teresa; Madden, Karen; Schlutsmeyer, Stacy; Yao, Lena; Whitmore, Theodore E.; Chandrasekher, Yasmin; Grant, Francis J.; Maurer, Mark; Jelinek, Laura; Storey, Harold; Brender, Ty; Hammond, Angie; Topouzis, Stavros; Clegg, Christopher H.; Foster, Donald C.

    2001-01-01

    IL-22 is an IL-10 homologue that binds to and signals through the class II cytokine receptor heterodimer IL-22RA1/CRF2–4. IL-22 is produced by T cells and induces the production of acute-phase reactants in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its involvement in inflammation. Here we report the identification of a class II cytokine receptor designated IL-22RA2 (IL-22 receptor-α 2) that appears to be a naturally expressed soluble receptor. IL-22RA2 shares amino acid sequence homology with IL-22RA1 (also known as IL-22R, zcytor11, and CRF2–9) and is physically adjacent to IL-20Rα and IFN-γR1 on chromosome 6q23.3–24.2. We demonstrate that IL-22RA2 binds specifically to IL-22 and neutralizes IL-22-induced proliferation of BaF3 cells expressing IL-22 receptor subunits. IL-22RA2 mRNA is highly expressed in placenta and spleen by Northern blotting. PCR analysis using RNA from various tissues and cell lines showed that IL-22RA2 was expressed in a range of tissues, including those in the digestive, female reproductive, and immune systems. In situ hybridization revealed the dominant cell types expressing IL-22RA2 were mononuclear cells and epithelium. Because IL-22 induces the expression of acute phase reactants, IL-22RA2 may play an important role as an IL-22 antagonist in the regulation of inflammatory responses. PMID:11481447

  20. The soluble pyocins S2 and S4 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bind to the same FpvAI receptor.

    PubMed

    Elfarash, Ameer; Wei, Qing; Cornelis, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Soluble (S-type) pyocins are Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriocins that kill nonimmune P. aeruginosa cells by gaining entry via a specific receptor, which, in the case of pyocin S2, is the siderophore pyoverdine receptor FpvAI, and in the case of pyocin S3, FpvAII. The nucleic acid sequence at the positions 4327697-4327359 of P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome was not annotated, but it was predicted to encode the immunity gene of the flanking pyocin S4 gene (PA3866) based on our analysis of the genome sequence. Using RT-PCR, the expression of the immunity gene was detected, confirming the existence of an immunity gene overlapping the S4 pyocin gene. The PA3866 coding for pyocin S4 and the downstream gene coding for the immunity protein were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the His-tagged S4 pyocin was obtained in pure form. Forty-three P. aeruginosa strains were typed via PCR to identify their ferripyoverdine receptor gene (fpvAI-III) and were tested for their sensitivity to pyocin S4. All S4-sensitive strains had the type I ferripyoverdine receptor fpvA gene. Some S4-resistant type I fpvA-positive strains were detected, but all of them had the S4 immunity gene, and, following the deletion of the immunity gene, became S4-sensitive. The fpvAI receptor gene was deleted in a S4-sensitive strain, and, as expected, the mutant became resistant to S4. The N-terminal receptor binding domain (RBD) of pyocin S2, which also uses the FpvAI receptor to enter the cell, was cloned in the pET-15b vector, and expressed in E. coli. When the purified RBD was mixed with pyocin S4 at different ratios, an inhibition of killing was observed, indicating that S2 RBD competes with the pyocin S4 for the binding to the FpvAI receptor. The S2 RBD was also shown to enhance the expression of the pvdA pyoverdine gene, suggesting that it, like pyoverdine, works via the known siderophore-mediated signalization pathway.

  1. Paracrine expression of a native soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibits tumor growth, metastasis, and mortality rate

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Corey K.; Kendall, Richard L.; Cabrera, Gustavo; Soroceanu, Liliana; Heike, Yuji; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Siegal, Gene P.; Mao, Xianzhi; Bett, Andrew J.; Huckle, William R.; Thomas, Kenneth A.; Curiel, David T.

    1998-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent and selective vascular endothelial cell mitogen and angiogenic factor. VEGF expression is elevated in a wide variety of solid tumors and is thought to support their growth by enhancing tumor neovascularization. To block VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, tumor cells were transfected with cDNA encoding the native soluble FLT-1 (sFLT-1) truncated VEGF receptor which can function both by sequestering VEGF and, in a dominant negative fashion, by forming inactive heterodimers with membrane-spanning VEGF receptors. Transient transfection of HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells with a gene encoding sFLT-1 significantly inhibited their implantation and growth in the lungs of nude mice following i.v. injection and their growth as nodules from cells injected s.c. High sFLT-1 expressing stably transfected HT-1080 clones grew even slower as s.c. tumors. Finally, survival was significantly prolonged in mice injected intracranially with human glioblastoma cells stably transfected with the sflt-1 gene. The ability of sFLT-1 protein to inhibit tumor growth is presumably attributable to its paracrine inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in vivo, since it did not affect tumor cell mitogenesis in vitro. These results not only support VEGF receptors as antiangiogenic targets but also demonstrate that sflt-1 gene therapy might be a feasible approach for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and growth. PMID:9671758

  2. Expression of an engineered soluble coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor by a dimeric AAV9 vector inhibits adenovirus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Röger, C; Pozzuto, T; Klopfleisch, R; Kurreck, J; Pinkert, S; Fechner, H

    2015-06-01

    Immunosuppressed (IS) patients, such as recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, occasionally develop severe and fatal adenovirus (Ad) infections. Here, we analyzed the potential of a virus receptor trap based on a soluble coxsackievirus and Ad receptor (sCAR) for inhibition of Ad infection. In vitro, a dimeric fusion protein, sCAR-Fc, consisting of the extracellular domain of CAR and the Fc portion of human IgG1 and a monomeric sCAR lacking the Fc domain, were expressed in cell culture. More sCAR was secreted into the cell culture supernatant than sCAR-Fc, but it had lower Ad neutralization activity than sCAR-Fc. Further investigations showed that sCAR-Fc reduced the Ad infection by a 100-fold and Ad-induced cytotoxicity by ~20-fold. Not only was Ad infection inhibited by sCAR-Fc applied prior to infection, it also inhibited infection when used to treat ongoing Ad infection. In vivo, sCAR-Fc was delivered to IS mice by an AAV9 vector, resulting in persistent and high (>40 μg ml(-1)) sCAR-Fc serum levels. The sCAR-Fc serum concentration was sufficient to significantly inhibit hepatic and cardiac wild-type Ad5 infection. Treatment with sCAR-Fc did not induce side effects. Thus, sCAR-Fc virus receptor trap may be a promising novel therapeutic for treatment of Ad infections.

  3. Expression of an engineered soluble coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor by a dimeric AAV9 vector inhibits adenovirus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Röger, C; Pozzuto, T; Klopfleisch, R; Kurreck, J; Pinkert, S; Fechner, H

    2015-06-01

    Immunosuppressed (IS) patients, such as recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, occasionally develop severe and fatal adenovirus (Ad) infections. Here, we analyzed the potential of a virus receptor trap based on a soluble coxsackievirus and Ad receptor (sCAR) for inhibition of Ad infection. In vitro, a dimeric fusion protein, sCAR-Fc, consisting of the extracellular domain of CAR and the Fc portion of human IgG1 and a monomeric sCAR lacking the Fc domain, were expressed in cell culture. More sCAR was secreted into the cell culture supernatant than sCAR-Fc, but it had lower Ad neutralization activity than sCAR-Fc. Further investigations showed that sCAR-Fc reduced the Ad infection by a 100-fold and Ad-induced cytotoxicity by ~20-fold. Not only was Ad infection inhibited by sCAR-Fc applied prior to infection, it also inhibited infection when used to treat ongoing Ad infection. In vivo, sCAR-Fc was delivered to IS mice by an AAV9 vector, resulting in persistent and high (>40 μg ml(-1)) sCAR-Fc serum levels. The sCAR-Fc serum concentration was sufficient to significantly inhibit hepatic and cardiac wild-type Ad5 infection. Treatment with sCAR-Fc did not induce side effects. Thus, sCAR-Fc virus receptor trap may be a promising novel therapeutic for treatment of Ad infections. PMID:25786873

  4. Soluble leptin receptor in serum of subjects with complete resistance to leptin: relation to fat mass.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, N; Clement, K; Carel, J C; Vaisse, C; Lotton, C; Le Bihan, Y; Basdevant, A; Lebouc, Y; Froguel, P; Roger, M; Guy-Grand, B

    2000-08-01

    Leptin resistance and obesity have been related to mutations of the leptin receptor gene in rodents and, recently, in a consanguineous family. The latter mutation results in a receptor lacking transmembrane and intracellular domains. Homozygous and heterozygous individuals with this mutation had serum leptin levels higher than expected, given their BMIs: 600, 670, and 526 ng/ml and 145, 362, 294, 240, and 212 ng/ml, respectively. Their serum leptin was fractionated by gel filtration: >80% was present as a high-molecular size complex vs. 7.5% in the nonmutated sister. Western blot analysis showed a band at 146 kDa reacting specifically with an antibody directed against the leptin receptor ectodomain. In 10 obese control subjects, as in the mutated patients, free leptin levels correlated with BMI (r = 0.70, P = 0.0011) and reflected fat mass, regardless of leptin receptor functioning. In the patients, bound leptin levels correlated with BMI (r = 0.99, P = 0.0002) and were related to the number of mutated alleles. These data demonstrate that the truncated receptor is secreted into blood and binds the majority of serum leptin, markedly increasing bound and total leptin. Free serum leptin was similarly correlated with BMI in the mutated and nonmutated obese individuals, providing evidence that the relationship between BMI and circulating free leptin is preserved in this family. This finding suggests that the leptin receptor itself may not be specifically involved in the control of leptin secretion, and it supports the concept of relative resistance to leptin in common obesity. PMID:10923636

  5. Mouse RAGE Variant 4 Is a Dominant Membrane Receptor that Does Not Shed to Generate Soluble RAGE

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yunqian; Horwitz, Naftali; Lakatta, Edward G.; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand, immunoglobulin-like receptor that has been implicated in aging-associated diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that both human and murine Ager genes undergo extensive alternative splicing that generates multiple putative transcripts encoding different receptor isoforms. Except for the soluble isoform (esRAGE), the majority of putative RAGE isoforms remain unstudied. Profiling of murine Ager transcripts showed that variant transcript 4 (mRAGE_v4), the second most abundant transcript in lungs and multiple other tissues, encodes a receptor that lacks nine residues located within the C2 extracellular section close to the trans-membrane domain. We therefore characterized mRAGEV4 isoreceptor in comparison with the full-length mRAGE (mRAGEFL). Although differing in only nine residues, mRAGEFL and mRAGEV4 display very different cellular behaviors. While mRAGEFL undergoes constitutive, extensive shedding in the cell to generate sRAGE, mRAGEV4 hardly sheds. In addition, we found that while mRAGEFL can localize to both the plasma membrane and the endosome, mRAGEV4 is exclusively localized to the plasma membrane. These very different cellular localization patterns suggest that, in addition to their roles in sRAGE production, mRAGEFL and mRAGEV4 may play distinct, spatiotemporal roles in signaling and innate immune responses. Compared to mice, humans do not have the v4 transcript. Although hRAGE, like mRAGEFL, also localizes to the plasma membrane and the endosome, its rate of constitutive shedding is significantly lower. These observations provide valuable information regarding RAGE biology, and serve as a reference by which to create mouse models relating to human diseases. PMID:27655067

  6. The significance of serum soluble IL-2 receptor as a marker for active visceral leishmaniasis in Sicilian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, G; Reina, G; Mansueto, S; Malta, R; Gambino, G; Mocciaro, C; D'Agostino, R; Dieli, M; Cillari, E

    1992-01-01

    Sera from nine Sicilian patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani infantum; VL), at the moment of the diagnosis, during the course of the disease and after clinical recovery, were analysed for the concentration of soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R). The results show that sIL-2R is a marker of disease activity, since it is in high concentration at the beginning of infection and returns to the normal range following successful chemotherapy. At the same time of serum analysis for sIL-2R, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of VL patients were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) or antigen and supernatant tested for IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production. Data demonstrate that there is an inverse relation between concentration of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in the supernatants and sIL-2R secretion in the sera. PMID:1424277

  7. Loss of α1β1 soluble guanylate cyclase, the major nitric oxide receptor, leads to moyamoya and achalasia.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Dominique; Philippi, Anne; Belbouab, Reda; Zerah, Michel; Chabrier, Stéphane; Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Bergametti, Francoise; Essongue, Aurore; Berrou, Eliane; Krivosic, Valérie; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Houdart, Emmanuel; Adam, Frédéric; Billiemaz, Kareen; Lebret, Marilyne; Roman, Sabine; Passemard, Sandrine; Boulday, Gwenola; Delaforge, Audrey; Guey, Stéphanie; Dray, Xavier; Chabriat, Hugues; Brouckaert, Peter; Bryckaert, Maryjke; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth

    2014-03-01

    Moyamoya is a cerebrovascular condition characterized by a progressive stenosis of the terminal part of the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and the compensatory development of abnormal "moyamoya" vessels. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this condition, which leads to ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, remain unknown. It can occur as an isolated cerebral angiopathy (so-called moyamoya disease) or in association with various conditions (moyamoya syndromes). Here, we describe an autosomal-recessive disease leading to severe moyamoya and early-onset achalasia in three unrelated families. This syndrome is associated in all three families with homozygous mutations in GUCY1A3, which encodes the α1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), the major receptor for nitric oxide (NO). Platelet analysis showed a complete loss of the soluble α1β1 guanylate cyclase and showed an unexpected stimulatory role of sGC within platelets. The NO-sGC-cGMP pathway is a major pathway controlling vascular smooth-muscle relaxation, vascular tone, and vascular remodeling. Our data suggest that alterations of this pathway might lead to an abnormal vascular-remodeling process in sensitive vascular areas such as ICA bifurcations. These data provide treatment options for affected individuals and strongly suggest that investigation of GUCY1A3 and other members of the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway is warranted in both isolated early-onset achalasia and nonsyndromic moyamoya. PMID:24581742

  8. Loss of α1β1 Soluble Guanylate Cyclase, the Major Nitric Oxide Receptor, Leads to Moyamoya and Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Hervé, Dominique; Philippi, Anne; Belbouab, Reda; Zerah, Michel; Chabrier, Stéphane; Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Bergametti, Francoise; Essongue, Aurore; Berrou, Eliane; Krivosic, Valérie; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Houdart, Emmanuel; Adam, Frédéric; Billiemaz, Kareen; Lebret, Marilyne; Roman, Sabine; Passemard, Sandrine; Boulday, Gwenola; Delaforge, Audrey; Guey, Stéphanie; Dray, Xavier; Chabriat, Hugues; Brouckaert, Peter; Bryckaert, Maryjke; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Moyamoya is a cerebrovascular condition characterized by a progressive stenosis of the terminal part of the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and the compensatory development of abnormal “moyamoya” vessels. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this condition, which leads to ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, remain unknown. It can occur as an isolated cerebral angiopathy (so-called moyamoya disease) or in association with various conditions (moyamoya syndromes). Here, we describe an autosomal-recessive disease leading to severe moyamoya and early-onset achalasia in three unrelated families. This syndrome is associated in all three families with homozygous mutations in GUCY1A3, which encodes the α1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), the major receptor for nitric oxide (NO). Platelet analysis showed a complete loss of the soluble α1β1 guanylate cyclase and showed an unexpected stimulatory role of sGC within platelets. The NO-sGC-cGMP pathway is a major pathway controlling vascular smooth-muscle relaxation, vascular tone, and vascular remodeling. Our data suggest that alterations of this pathway might lead to an abnormal vascular-remodeling process in sensitive vascular areas such as ICA bifurcations. These data provide treatment options for affected individuals and strongly suggest that investigation of GUCY1A3 and other members of the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway is warranted in both isolated early-onset achalasia and nonsyndromic moyamoya. PMID:24581742

  9. Plant targets for Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors: virulence targets or guarded decoys?

    PubMed

    Block, Anna; Alfano, James R

    2011-02-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae can suppress both pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) by the injection of type III effector (T3E) proteins into host cells. T3Es achieve immune suppression using a variety of strategies including interference with immune receptor signaling, blocking RNA pathways and vesicle trafficking, and altering organelle function. T3Es can be recognized indirectly by resistance proteins monitoring specific T3E targets resulting in ETI. It is presently unclear whether the monitored targets represent bona fide virulence targets or guarded decoys. Extensive overlap between PTI and ETI signaling suggests that T3Es may suppress both pathways through common targets and by possessing multiple activities. PMID:21227738

  10. Receptor-mediated sorting of soluble vacuolar proteins: myths, facts, and a new model.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David G; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc

    2016-08-01

    To prevent their being released to the cell exterior, acid hydrolases are recognized by receptors at some point in the secretory pathway and diverted towards the lytic compartment of the cell (lysosome or vacuole). In animal cells, the receptor is called the mannosyl 6-phosphate receptor (MPR) and it binds hydrolase ligands in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). These ligands are then sequestered into clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) because of motifs in the cytosolic tail of the MPR which interact first with monomeric adaptors (Golgi-localized, Gamma-ear-containing, ARF-binding proteins, GGAs) and then with tetrameric (adaptin) adaptor complexes. The CCVs then fuse with an early endosome, whose more acidic lumen causes the ligands to dissociate. The MPRs are then recycled back to the TGN via retromer-coated carriers. Plants have vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs) which were originally identified in CCVs isolated from pea (Pisum sativum L.) cotyledons. It was therefore assumed that VSRs would have an analogous function in plants to MPRs in animals. Although this dogma has enjoyed wide support over the last 20 years there are many inconsistencies. Recently, results have been published which are quite contrary to it. It now emerges that VSRs and their ligands can interact very early in the secretory pathway, and dissociate in the TGN, which, in contrast to its mammalian counterpart, has a pH of 5.5. Multivesicular endosomes in plants lack proton pump complexes and consequently have an almost neutral internal pH, which discounts them as organelles of pH-dependent receptor-ligand dissociation. These data force a critical re-evaluation of the role of CCVs at the TGN, especially considering that vacuolar cargo ligands have never been identified in them. We propose that one population of TGN-derived CCVs participate in retrograde transport of VSRs from the TGN. We also present a new model to explain how secretory and vacuolar cargo proteins are effectively separated after

  11. Improved efficacy of soluble human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) fusion protein by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Son, Young Jun; Han, Jihye; Lee, Jae Yeon; Kim, HaHyung; Chun, Taehoon

    2015-06-01

    Soluble human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B fusion immunoglobulin (hRANK-Ig) has been considered as one of the therapeutic agents to treat osteoporosis or diseases associated with bone destruction by blocking the interaction between RANK and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, no scientific record showing critical amino acid residues within the structural interface between the human RANKL and RANK complex is yet available. In this study, we produced several mutants of hRANK-Ig by replacement of amino acid residue(s) and tested whether the mutants had increased binding affinity to human RANKL. Based on the results from flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance analyses, the replacement of E(125) with D(125), or E(125) and C(127) with D(125) and F(127) within loop 3 of cysteine-rich domain 3 of hRANK-Ig increases binding affinity to human RANKL over the wild-type hRANK-Ig. This result may provide the first example of improvement in the efficacy of hRANK-Ig by protein engineering and may give additional information to understand a more defined structural interface between hRANK and RANKL.

  12. Soluble and nuclear oestrogen receptor status in human breast cancer in relation to prognosis.

    PubMed

    Leake, R E; Laing, L; McArdle, C; Smith, D C

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between oestrogen receptor (RE) content of primary breast cancer and subsequent prognosis was examined with regard to nodal status. It was found that, within a particular nodal group, patients with tumours containing fully functional RE experienced a longer disease-free interval than those with RE- disease. An earlier observation that RE- primary disease gave rise to distant metastases as first site of recurrence more frequently than did RE+ disease, was not sustained. However, patients with RE+ primary disease had a much reduced chance of dying from cancer within a 3-year period.

  13. A lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, p40, stimulates ligand release from intestinal epithelial cells to transactivate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis and preserves barrier function by activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which p40...

  14. Decoy activity through microRNAs: the therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Maria Ines; Reis, Rui Manuel; Calin, George Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, are deregulated in several diseases including cancer. miRNAs regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level by binding to 5′UTR, coding regions or 3′UTR of messenger RNAs (mRNA), inhibiting mRNA translation or causing mRNA degradation. The same miRNA can have multiple mRNA targets, and the same mRNA can be regulated by various miRNAs. Areas covered Recently, seminal contributions by several groups have implicated miRNAs as components of an RNA–RNA language that involves crosstalk between competing endogenous RNAs through a decoy mechanism. We review the studies that described miRNAs as players in a biological decoy activity. miRNAs can either be trapped by competing endogenous RNAs or interact with proteins that have binding sites for mRNAs. Expert opinion The miRNA decoy functions have implications for the design of therapeutic approaches in human diseases, including specific ways to overcome resistance to drug therapy and future miRNA-based clinical trials design. PMID:22650365

  15. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate the release of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and soluble IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor from MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Confort, C; Rochefort, H; Vignon, F

    1995-09-01

    The growth of hormone-responsive MCF7 human breast cancer cells is controlled by steroid hormones and growth factors. By metabolic labeling of cells grown in steroid- and growth factor-stripped serum conditions, we show that insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) increase by approximately 5-fold the release of several proteins including cathepsin D, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and soluble forms of the multifunctional IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor. Two soluble forms of IGF-II/M6P receptors were detected, one major (approximately 260 kilodaltons) and one minor (approximately 85 kilodaltons) that probably represents a proteolytic fragment of the larger soluble molecule. IGFs increased receptor release in a dose-dependent fashion with 50-60% of newly synthesized receptor released at 5-10 nM IGFs. The release of IGF-II/M6P receptors correlated with the levels of secreted cathepsin D in different human breast cancer cells or in rats stable transfectants that are constitutively expressing variable levels of human cathepsin D. IGFs had a stronger effect on IGF-II/M6P receptor release, whereas estradiol treatment preferentially enhanced the release of protease and antiprotease. We thus demonstrate that in human breast cancer cells, IGFs not only act as strong mitogens but also regulate release of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, IGF-II/M6P-soluble receptor, and cathepsin D; three proteins that potentially regulate cell proliferation and/or invasion. PMID:7649082

  16. Enhanced in vitro refolding of soluble human glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related ligand.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Erika; Szilágyi, László; Koncz, Gábor; Lányi, Szabolcs; Ábrahám, Beáta

    2013-06-01

    The glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. Attachment of GITR to its ligand (GITRL) regulates diverse biological functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In this study, the extracellular region of human GITRL (hGITRL) was cloned, expressed, and purified. The coding sequence of the extracellular region of hGITRL was isolated from human brain cDNA and inserted in pET20b vector. The hGITRL was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) Star at 37 and 25 °C. The majority of the protein was found in inclusion bodies. We identified three important factors for efficient refolding of hGITRL: a ratio of GSH/GSSG, pH, and addition of polyethylene glycol. The renaturated protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. The overall yield of the expression and refolding was higher than 50 mg/l E. coli culture grown at 37 °C. Size exclusion chromatography showed that hGITRL exists as mixture of various multimeric forms in solution. We tested the association of recombinant hGITRL with THP-1 and U937 cell lines and its activity to promote extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation. The results showed that the recombinant protein was biologically active.

  17. Nitric Oxide Receptor Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Undergoes Splicing Regulation in Differentiating Human Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharin, Vladislav G.; Mujoo, Kalpana; Kots, Alexander Y.; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an important mediator molecule in mammalian physiology, initiates a number of signaling mechanisms by activating the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Recently, a new role for NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling in embryonic development and cell differentiation has emerged. The changes in expression of NO synthase isoforms and various sGC subunits has been demonstrated during human and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiation. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that nascent α1 sGC transcript undergoes alternative splicing and that expression of α1 sGC splice forms directly affects sGC activity. Expression of sGC splice variants in the process of human ES (hES) cells differentiation has not been investigated. In this report, we demonstrate that α1 sGC undergoes alternative splicing during random hES differentiation for the first time. Our results indicate that C-α1 sGC splice form is expressed at high levels in differentiating cells and its intracellular distribution varies from canonical α1 sGC subunit. Together, our data suggest that alternative splicing of sGC subunits is associated with differentiation of hES cells. PMID:20964618

  18. A decoy trap for breeding-season mallards in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, D.E.; Lokemoen, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    A modified decoy trap was effective for capturing wild adult male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during the 1980-81 breeding seasons in North Dakota. Key features contributing to the trap's success included a central decoy cylinder, large capture compartments with spring-door openings, an adjustable trigger mechanism with a balanced door attachment that was resistant to trap movement, and the use of F1, wild-stock or game-farm female decoys.

  19. Spectrum-based method to generate good decoy libraries for spectral library searching in peptide identifications.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Chia-Feng; Chen, Yu-Ju; Sung, Ting-Yi; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2013-05-01

    As spectral library searching has received increasing attention for peptide identification, constructing good decoy spectra from the target spectra is the key to correctly estimating the false discovery rate in searching against the concatenated target-decoy spectral library. Several methods have been proposed to construct decoy spectral libraries. Most of them construct decoy peptide sequences and then generate theoretical spectra accordingly. In this paper, we propose a method, called precursor-swap, which directly constructs decoy spectral libraries directly at the "spectrum level" without generating decoy peptide sequences by swapping the precursors of two spectra selected according to a very simple rule. Our spectrum-based method does not require additional efforts to deal with ion types (e.g., a, b or c ions), fragment mechanism (e.g., CID, or ETD), or unannotated peaks, but preserves many spectral properties. The precursor-swap method is evaluated on different spectral libraries and the results of obtained decoy ratios show that it is comparable to other methods. Notably, it is efficient in time and memory usage for constructing decoy libraries. A software tool called Precursor-Swap-Decoy-Generation (PSDG) is publicly available for download at http://ms.iis.sinica.edu.tw/PSDG/.

  20. A Rapid Method for Refolding Cell Surface Receptors and Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lu; Wu, Ling; Li, Feng; Burnham, Robert S.; Pizarro, Juan C.; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Production of membrane-associated cell surface receptors and their ligands is often a cumbersome, expensive, and time-consuming process that limits detailed structural and functional characterization of this important class of proteins. Here we report a rapid method for refolding inclusion-body-based, recombinant cell surface receptors and ligands in one day, a speed equivalent to that of soluble protein production. This method efficiently couples modular on-column immobilized metal ion affinity purification and solid-phase protein refolding. We demonstrated the general utility of this method for producing multiple functionally active immunoreceptors, ligands, and viral decoys, including challenging cell surface proteins that cannot be produced using typical dialysis- or dilution-based refolding approaches. PMID:27215173

  1. Infliximab therapy balances regulatory T cells, tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) expression and soluble TNFR2 in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, A; Hijdra, D; Vorselaars, A D M; Crommelin, H A; van Moorsel, C H M; Grutters, J C; Claessen, A M E

    2016-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology that most commonly affects the lungs. Although elevated levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs ) have been reported, the extent to which they play a role in sarcoidosis pathogenesis remains unclear. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is thought to be one of the driving forces behind granuloma formation, illustrated by the efficacy of infliximab in severe sarcoidosis. Tregs express TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) highly. Here, we examined the influence of infliximab therapy on Tregs and (soluble) TNFR2 levels in sarcoidosis, and correlated these with response to therapy. We observed that relative frequencies of Tregs were significantly higher in patients (n = 54) compared to healthy controls (n = 26; median 6·73 versus 4·36%; P < 0·001) and decreased following therapy (4·95; P < 0·001). Baseline TNFR2 expression on Tregs was increased significantly in patients versus controls (99·4 versus 96·2%; P = 0·031), and also in responders to therapy versus non-responders (99·6 versus 97·3%; P = 0·012). Furthermore, baseline soluble TNFR2 (sTNFR2) was higher in responders than in non-responders (mean 174 versus 107 pg/ml; P = 0·015). After treatment, responders showed a significant reduction in sTNFR2 levels in peripheral blood (-44·7 pg/ml; P < 0·001), in contrast to non-responders (+3·59 pg/ml). Our results demonstrated that Treg frequencies and TNFR2 expression on Tregs are increased in sarcoidosis, followed by a decline during infliximab therapy, suggesting a pathophysiological role of this T cell subset. Interestingly, sTNFR2 levels at baseline differed significantly between responders and non-responders, making it a potential marker in predicting which patients might benefit from infliximab.

  2. Soluble Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Acute Hydrocephalus following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sokół, Bartosz; Jankowski, Roman; Hołysz, Marcin; Więckowska, Barbara; Jagodziński, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling begins early in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), and plays a key role in inflammation following cerebral aneurysm rupture. Available studies suggest significance of endogenous first-line blockers of a TLR pathway—soluble TLR2 and 4. Methods Eighteen patients with SAH and acute hydrocephalus underwent endovascular coiling and ventriculostomy; sTLR2 and 4 levels were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected on post-SAH days 0–3, 5, and 10–12. Release kinetics were defined. CSF levels of sTLR2 and 4 were compared with a control group and correlated with the clinical status on admission, the findings on imaging, the degree of systemic inflammation and the outcome following treatment. Results None of study group showed detectable levels of sTLR2 and 4 on post-SAH day 0–3. 13 patients showed increased levels in subsequent samples. In five SAH patients sTLR2 and 4 levels remained undetectable; no distinctive features of this group were found. On post-SAH day 5 the strongest correlation was found between sTLR2 level and haemoglobin level on admission (cc = -0.498, P = 0.037). On post-SAH day 10–12 the strongest correlation was revealed between sTLR2 and treatment outcome (cc = -0.501, P = 0.076). Remaining correlations with treatment outcome, status at admission, imaging findings and inflammatory markers on post-SAH day 5 and 10–12 were negligible or low (-0.5 ≤ cc ≤ 0.5). Conclusions In the majority of cases, rupture of a cerebral aneurysm leads to delayed release of soluble TLR forms into CSF. sTLR2 and 4 seem to have minor role in human post-SAH inflammation due to delayed release kinetics and low levels of these protein. PMID:27223696

  3. Receptor binding, fusion inhibition, and induction of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies by a soluble G glycoprotein of Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Katharine N; Crameri, Gary; Dimitrov, Antony S; Mungall, Bruce A; Feng, Yan-Ru; Patch, Jared R; Choudhary, Anil; Wang, Lin-Fa; Eaton, Bryan T; Broder, Christopher C

    2005-06-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are closely related emerging viruses comprising the Henipavirus genus of the Paramyxovirinae, which are distinguished by their ability to cause fatal disease in both animal and human hosts. These viruses infect cells by a pH-independent membrane fusion event mediated by their attachment (G) and fusion (F) glycoproteins. Previously, we reported on HeV- and NiV-mediated fusion activities and detailed their host-cell tropism characteristics. These studies also suggested that a common cell surface receptor, which could be destroyed by protease, was utilized by both viruses. To further characterize the G glycoprotein and its unknown receptor, soluble forms of HeV G (sG) were constructed by replacing its cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domains with an immunoglobulin kappa leader sequence coupled to either an S-peptide tag (sG(S-tag)) or myc-epitope tag (sG(myc-tag)) to facilitate purification and detection. Expression of sG was verified in cell lysates and culture supernatants by specific affinity precipitation. Analysis of sG by size exclusion chromatography and sucrose gradient centrifugation demonstrated tetrameric, dimeric, and monomeric species, with the majority of the sG released as a disulfide-linked dimer. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that sG specifically bound to HeV and NiV infection-permissive cells but not to a nonpermissive HeLa cell line clone, suggesting that it binds to virus receptor on host cells. Preincubation of host cells with sG resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of both HeV and NiV cell fusion as well as infection by live virus. Taken together, these data indicate that sG retains important native structural features, and we further demonstrate that administration of sG to rabbits can elicit a potent cross-reactive neutralizing antibody response against infectious HeV and NiV. This HeV sG glycoprotein will be exceedingly useful for structural studies, receptor identification strategies, and

  4. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor is a thyroid hormone-dependent early-response marker in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Smallridge, R C; Tsokos, G C; Burman, K D; Porter, L; Cranston, T; Sfikakis, P P; Solomon, B L

    1997-01-01

    Thyrotoxic patients exhibit increased levels of immune activation molecules (soluble interleukin-2 receptor [sIL-2R], intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 [ELAM-1]) in serum, although the clinical significance of these measurements remains unclear. In a randomized 4-week study, we have recently shown that in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, the combination of cholestyramine and methimazole (MMI) resulted in faster lowering of serum thyroid-hormone levels than did MMI alone. Stored serial serum samples from patients participating in this randomized treatment trial were analyzed for sIL-2R, soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble ELAM-1 (sELAM-1). The levels of all three molecules were elevated in patients with hyperthyroidism. Although the levels of sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 remained elevated through the 4-week follow-up period in both groups of patients, the sIL-2R levels (normal levels, 1.0 to 4.2 ng/ml) decreased significantly in the 10 patients who received cholestyramine in addition to MMI (week 0, 14.2 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; week 2, 10.8 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; week 4, 8.9 +/- 1.5 ng/ml). In eight patients who received MMI alone, sIL-2R decreased less rapidly (week 0, 12.3 +/- 1.4 ng/ml; week 2, 12.3 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; week 4, 10.9 +/- 1.3 ng/ml). sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 were elevated at baseline but did not decrease during therapy. In the former group, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine decreased faster. These data show that levels of sIL-2R in serum, but not those of sICAM-1 and sELAM-1, may be of clinical use in the early follow-up evaluation of medically treated patients. PMID:9302209

  5. Ligand affinity chromatography, an indispensable method for the purification of soluble cytokine receptors and binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Novick, Daniela; Rubinstein, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Ligand affinity chromatography separation is based on unique interaction between the target analyte and a ligand, which is coupled covalently to a resin. It is a simple, rapid, selective, and efficient purification procedure of proteins providing tens of thousands fold purification in one step. The biological activity of the isolated proteins is retained in most cases thus function is revealed concomitantly with the isolation. Prior to the completion of the genome project this method facilitated rapid and reliable cloning of the corresponding gene. Upon completion of this project, a partial protein sequence is enough for retrieving its complete mRNA and hence its complete protein sequence. This method is indispensable for the isolation of both expected (e.g. receptors) but mainly unexpected, unpredicted and very much surprising binding proteins. No other approach would yield the latter. This chapter provides examples for both the expected target proteins, isolated from rich sources of human proteins, as well as the unexpected binding proteins, found by serendipity. PMID:22131033

  6. Discriminant power of combined cerebrospinal fluid tau protein and of the soluble interleukin-6 receptor complex in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hampel, H; Teipel, S J; Padberg, F; Haslinger, A; Riemenschneider, M; Schwarz, M J; Kötter, H U; Scheloske, M; Buch, K; Stübner, S; Dukoff, R; Lasser, R; Müller, N; Sunderland, T; Rapoport, S I; Möller, H J

    1999-03-27

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) still can only be definitively diagnosed with certainty by examination of brain tissue. There is a great need for a noninvasive, sensitive and specific in vivo test for AD. We combined cerebrospinal fluid analyses of tau protein (levels were significantly increased in AD patients [p=0.0001]), a putative marker of neuronal degeneration, with components of the soluble interleukin-6 receptor complex (sIL-6RC: IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor and soluble gp130), putative markers of neuroregulatory and inflammatory processes in the brain. A stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis revealed that tau protein and soluble gp130 (levels were significantly reduced in AD subjects [p=0.007]), the affinity converting and signal-transducing receptor of neuropoietic cytokines, maximized separation between the investigated groups. The discriminant function predicted 23 of 25 clinically diagnosed AD patients (sensitivity 92%) with mild to moderate dementia correctly as having AD. Furthermore, 17 of 19 physically and cognitively healthy age-matched control subjects (specificity 90%) were accurately distinguished by this test. Later predicting with the jackknife procedure each case in turn through the remaining patient group, the discriminant function remained stable. Our data suggest that multivariate discriminant analysis of combined CSF tau protein and sIL-6RC components may add more certainty to the diagnosis of AD, however, the method will need to be extended to an independent group of patients, comparisons and control subjects to assess the true applicability.

  7. Recombinant soluble interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor acts as an antagonist of IL-4 in murine cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, A; Schröppel, K; Will, A; Enssle, K H; Lauffer, L; Röllinghoff, M

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the soluble interleukin-4 receptor (sIL-4R) as a potential antagonist of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in an infectious disease. It is shown that antigen-triggered proliferation and cytokine secretion of Leishmania major-specific, cloned Th2 cells in vitro can be inhibited dose dependently by recombinant murine, but not control human, sIL-4R. In vivo, we found that endogenous synthesis of IL-4 mRNA is upregulated during the first week of infection, while an increase of IL-4R mRNA occurred later after infection of BALB/c mice with L. major. To interfere successfully with the IL-4 ligand-receptor interaction, we therefore chose to treat infected BALB/c mice with recombinant sIL-4R during the onset (e.g., days 0 to 7) of the immune response. Treatment with murine, but not with human, sIL-4R during the first week of infection rendered BALB/c mice clinically resistant to L. major, led to a 7- to 12-fold reduction of the parasite load in spleen and lymph nodes at 7 weeks of infection, shifted the pattern of cytokines towards a Th1 type, and provided durable resistance against reinfection. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the balance among sIL-4R, membrane-bound IL-4R, and their ligand IL-4 can be modulated in vivo, thereby modifying the antiparasitic immune response. These results suggest a therapeutic value of sIL-4R in diseases in which neutralization of IL-4 is desirable. Images PMID:7927664

  8. High Levels of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors 1 and 2 and Their Association with Mortality in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Axel C.; Carrero, Juan-Jesús; Stenvinkel, Peter; Bottai, Matteo; Barany, Peter; Larsson, Anders; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Circulating soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in patients with CKD or diabetes, and with higher mortality. However, data in patients with end-stage renal disease are scarce. Therefore, we analyzed serum levels of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 and investigated their association with inflammatory markers and mortality in dialysis patients. Research Design and Methods This was a longitudinal cohort study of 207 prevalent patients (median age 66 years, 56% men) undergoing hemodialysis in Stockholm, Sweden. Demographics, clinical characteristics, including comorbidities and laboratory data, were obtained at baseline, together with prospective follow-up for mortality. Results The median sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels were 17,680 ng/l [95% confidence interval (CI) 17,023-18,337] and 24,450 ng/l (95% CI 23,721-25,179), respectively. During a follow-up of 31 months (interquartile range, 21-38), 77 patients died. There was no association between the levels of sTNFRs and mortality in Cox regression models, and no consistent trend towards higher or lower mortality was seen in Laplace regression models. sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels were highly associated with other inflammatory markers including interleukin-6, pentraxin 3 and TNF-α. Conclusions Prevalent hemodialysis patients have several-fold higher levels of sTNFRs compared to previous studies in CKD stage 4 patients. As no consistent association between TNFR and mortality was observed, clinical implications of measuring these receptors to predict outcome end-stage renal disease patients provide limited results. PMID:25999957

  9. A strategy to discover decoy chemokine ligands with an anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Dayana; Daubeuf, François; Do, Quoc Tuan; Utard, Valérie; Villa, Pascal; Haiech, Jacques; Bonnet, Dominique; Hibert, Marcel; Bernard, Philippe; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Frossard, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Excessive signaling by chemokines has been associated with chronic inflammation or cancer, thus attracting substantial attention as promising therapeutic targets. Inspired by chemokine-clearing molecules shaped by pathogens to escape the immune system, we designed a generic screening assay to discover chemokine neutralizing molecules (neutraligands) and unambiguously distinguish them from molecules that block the receptor (receptor antagonists). This assay, called TRIC-r, combines time-resolved intracellular calcium recordings with pre-incubation of bioactive compounds either with the chemokine or the receptor-expressing cells. We describe here the identification of high affinity neutraligands of CCL17 and CCL22, two chemokines involved in the Th2-type of lung inflammation. The decoy molecules inhibit in vitro CCL17- or CCL22-induced intracellular calcium responses, CCR4 endocytosis and human T cell migration. In vivo, they inhibit inflammation in a murine model of asthma, in particular the recruitment of eosinophils, dendritic cells and CD4+T cells. Altogether, we developed a successful strategy to discover as new class of pharmacological tools to potently control cell chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26442456

  10. Risk factors associated with serum levels of the inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in a general population.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen; Rasmussen, Line Jh; Thorball, Christian W; Andersen, Ove; Pisinger, Charlotta; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker of mortality risk in various patient populations. However, little is known about the implications of lifestyle for suPAR levels in the general population. Lifestyle, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor data were collected from 5,538 participants in the Danish population-based Inter99 study. Their suPAR levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the final adjusted model, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher suPAR levels (P < 0.001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum suPAR levels in this general population. Diet and alcohol consumption also seemed to impact suPAR levels. Lifestyle changes are likely to affect suPAR since ex-smokers had suPAR levels comparable to those of never-smokers. PMID:25574132

  11. Recombinant soluble IFN receptor (sIFNAR2) exhibits intrinsic therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Suardíaz, M; Clemente, D; Marin-Bañasco, C; Orpez, T; Hurtado-Guerrero, I; Pavía, J; Pinto-Medel, M J; De Castro, F; Leyva, L; Fernández, O; Oliver, B

    2016-11-01

    Endogenous interferon beta (IFNβ) is an important cytokine involved in several chronic inflammatory diseases, such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In spite of the numerous therapeutic approaches available for MS patients, the administration of recombinant IFNβ continues being one of the first line treatment to these patients. The soluble form of IFNβ receptor (sIFNAR2) could act as critical regulator of the endogenous and the systemically administered IFNβ, but whether it functions as an agonist or antagonist of its ligand is not completely elucidated. Morover, the possible role of sIFNAR2 in autoimmune diseases like MS is still unknown and so far overlooked. Here we evaluated the efficacy of the combined therapy of IFNβ and our recombinant protein analogous to human sIFNAR2 as a treatment in a chronic mice model of MS (CP-EAE). We also tested the effect of the sIFNAR2 administered as a monotherapy over these EAE-animals. The results showed that our recombinant sIFNAR2 protein potentiates the immunomodulatory effects of exogenous IFNβ in CP-EAE by increasing the reduction of the induced inflammation and the tissue damage. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that sIFNAR2 shows intrinsic properties by modulating the CP-EAE progression and the neuroinflammation processes related to this disease. Another intrinsic activity showed by sIFNAR2 is the inhibition of the T cells proliferation, which increase its potential as therapeutic molecule.

  12. Recombinant soluble IFN receptor (sIFNAR2) exhibits intrinsic therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Suardíaz, M; Clemente, D; Marin-Bañasco, C; Orpez, T; Hurtado-Guerrero, I; Pavía, J; Pinto-Medel, M J; De Castro, F; Leyva, L; Fernández, O; Oliver, B

    2016-11-01

    Endogenous interferon beta (IFNβ) is an important cytokine involved in several chronic inflammatory diseases, such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In spite of the numerous therapeutic approaches available for MS patients, the administration of recombinant IFNβ continues being one of the first line treatment to these patients. The soluble form of IFNβ receptor (sIFNAR2) could act as critical regulator of the endogenous and the systemically administered IFNβ, but whether it functions as an agonist or antagonist of its ligand is not completely elucidated. Morover, the possible role of sIFNAR2 in autoimmune diseases like MS is still unknown and so far overlooked. Here we evaluated the efficacy of the combined therapy of IFNβ and our recombinant protein analogous to human sIFNAR2 as a treatment in a chronic mice model of MS (CP-EAE). We also tested the effect of the sIFNAR2 administered as a monotherapy over these EAE-animals. The results showed that our recombinant sIFNAR2 protein potentiates the immunomodulatory effects of exogenous IFNβ in CP-EAE by increasing the reduction of the induced inflammation and the tissue damage. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that sIFNAR2 shows intrinsic properties by modulating the CP-EAE progression and the neuroinflammation processes related to this disease. Another intrinsic activity showed by sIFNAR2 is the inhibition of the T cells proliferation, which increase its potential as therapeutic molecule. PMID:27452720

  13. The Clinical Value of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) Levels in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toldi, Gergely; Balog, Attila

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of the general inflammatory condition of patients with autoimmune connective tissue disorders (ACTD) is a major challenge. The use of traditional inflammatory markers including CRP-levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is limited by several preanalytical factors and their low specificities. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is one of the novel candidate markers that is increasingly used in immune mediated disorders. In our studies we compared suPAR levels of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and ankylosing spondylitis with those of healthy controls. suPAR provided valuable clinical information on disease activity in RA, SLE and SSc. We identified a subgroup of remitted RA patients, who presented still clinical symptoms of inflammatory activity which correlated to high plasma suPAR (while ESR and CRP were normal). In SLE we established specific suPAR cut-off values that support the discrimination between patients with high and those with moderate SLE activity. In patients with SSc suPAR correlated with objective measures of lung and other complications. In the majority of ACTDs including SLE, SSc or RA, suPAR is seemingly a good biomarker that would provide valuable clinical information. However, before the introduction of this novel parameter in laboratory repertoire important issues should be elucidated. These include the establishment of appropriate and disease specific cutoff values, clarification of interfering preanalytical values and underlying conditions and declaration of age- and gender-specific reference ranges. PMID:27683525

  14. Increased Soluble Leptin Receptor Levels in Morbidly Obese Patients With Insulin Resistance and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Ali, Mohamed R.; Seo, Suk; Aoki, Christopher A.; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Kim, Kyoungmi; Fuller, Will D.; Vidovszky, Tamas J.; Smith, William; Jiang, Joy X.; Maganti, Kalyani; Havel, Peter J.; Kamboj, Amit; Ramsamooj, Rajendra; Török, Natalie J.

    2016-01-01

    The adipocyte hormone, leptin has been demonstrated to have profibrogenic actions in vitro and in animal models. However, no correlation was found between plasma leptin levels and fibrosis stage in humans. Thus, our aim was to study whether soluble leptin receptor (SLR) or free leptin index (FLI; calculated as the ratio of leptin to SLR), may correlate better with the features of metabolic syndrome and with the histological grade and stage of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We studied a population (n = 104) of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Data including BMI, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia were obtained. Plasma fasting leptin and SLR, fasting glucose and insulin were measured, and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMAIR) index and FLI were calculated. All patients had intraoperative liver biopsies. Leptin levels correlated with the BMI. The multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing HOMA and decreasing FLI were predictors of steatosis in the liver (P < 0.0003). SLR levels were positively correlated with the presence of diabetes mellitus and the stage of fibrosis. In conclusion, increased SLR levels in morbidly obese patients with diabetes are correlated with the stage of liver fibrosis, and may reflect progressive liver disease. PMID:20448542

  15. Increased soluble leptin receptor levels in morbidly obese patients with insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Medici, Valentina; Ali, Mohamed R; Seo, Suk; Aoki, Christopher A; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Kim, Kyoungmi; Fuller, Will D; Vidovszky, Tamas J; Smith, William; Jiang, Joy X; Maganti, Kalyani; Havel, Peter J; Kamboj, Amit; Ramsamooj, Rajendra; Török, Natalie J

    2010-12-01

    The adipocyte hormone, leptin has been demonstrated to have profibrogenic actions in vitro and in animal models. However, no correlation was found between plasma leptin levels and fibrosis stage in humans. Thus, our aim was to study whether soluble leptin receptor (SLR) or free leptin index (FLI; calculated as the ratio of leptin to SLR), may correlate better with the features of metabolic syndrome and with the histological grade and stage of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We studied a population (n = 104) of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Data including BMI, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia were obtained. Plasma fasting leptin and SLR, fasting glucose and insulin were measured, and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index and FLI were calculated. All patients had intraoperative liver biopsies. Leptin levels correlated with the BMI. The multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing HOMA and decreasing FLI were predictors of steatosis in the liver (P < 0.0003). SLR levels were positively correlated with the presence of diabetes mellitus and the stage of fibrosis. In conclusion, increased SLR levels in morbidly obese patients with diabetes are correlated with the stage of liver fibrosis, and may reflect progressive liver disease. PMID:20448542

  16. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis using a soluble receptor establishes a role for Tie2 in pathologic vascular growth.

    PubMed

    Lin, P; Polverini, P; Dewhirst, M; Shan, S; Rao, P S; Peters, K

    1997-10-15

    Tie2 is a novel receptor tyrosine kinase that is expressed almost exclusively by vascular endothelium. Disruption of Tie2 function in transgenic mice resulted in embryonic lethality secondary to characteristic vascular defects; similar defects occurred after disruption of the Tie2 ligand. These findings indicate that the Tie2/Tie2 ligand pathway plays important roles during development of the embryonic vasculature. To determine whether the Tie2 pathway was involved in pathologic angiogenesis in adult tissues, a soluble form of the extracellular domain of murine Tie2 (ExTek.6His) was developed and used as a Tie2 inhibitor. After a single application of the ExTek.6His protein into a rat cutaneous window chamber, growth of a mammary tumor inside the chamber was reduced by > 75% (P < 0.005), and tumor vascular length density was reduced by 40% when compared with control-treated tumors (P < 0.01). In the rat cornea, ExTek.6His blocked angiogenesis stimulated by tumor cell conditioned media. ExTek.6His protein did not affect the viability of cultured tumor cells, indicating that the antitumor effect of ExTek.6His was due to the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. These data demonstrate a role for the Tie2 pathway in pathologic angiogenesis, suggesting that targeting this pathway may yield effective antiangiogenic agents for treatment of cancer and other angiogenic diseases.

  17. Receptor-mediated sorting of soluble vacuolar proteins ends at the trans-Golgi network/early endosome.

    PubMed

    Künzl, Fabian; Früholz, Simone; Fäßler, Florian; Li, Beibei; Pimpl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The sorting of soluble proteins for degradation in the vacuole is of vital importance in plant cells, and relies on the activity of vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs). In the plant endomembrane system, VSRs bind vacuole-targeted proteins and facilitate their transport to the vacuole. Where exactly these interactions take place has remained controversial, however. Here, we examine the potential for VSR-ligand interactions in all compartments of the vacuolar transport system in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts. To do this, we developed compartment-specific VSR sensors that assemble as a result of a nanobody-epitope interaction, and monitored the degree of ligand binding by analysing Förster resonance energy transfer using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FRET-FLIM). We show that VSRs bind ligands in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the Golgi, but not in the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) or multivesicular late endosomes, suggesting that the post-TGN/EE trafficking of ligands towards the vacuole is VSR independent. We verify this by showing that non-VSR-ligands are also delivered to the vacuole from the TGN/EE after endocytic uptake. We conclude that VSRs are required for the transport of ligands from the ER and the Golgi to the TGN/EE, and suggest that the onward transport to the vacuole occurs by default. PMID:27249560

  18. Interleukin-6 and Soluble Interleukin-6 Receptor Levels in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Associations with Lifetime Diagnostic Status and Psychological Context

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Tamara L.; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J.; Burns, Vicki Ellison

    2014-01-01

    This study correlated lifetime PTSD diagnostic status with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) levels, and tested whether these correlations are sensitive to psychological context. Midlife women attended two research visits where blood was drawn (beginning of visits) and saliva and oral mucosal transudate were collected (beginning and end of visits) to measure IL-6 and sIL-6R. Women were classified as PTSD−/− (past and current symptoms below subsyndromal levels), PTSD+/− (past symptoms at or above subsyndromal levels), or PTSD +/+ (past and current symptoms at or above subsyndromal levels). PTSD+/+ women, compared to the other women, showed more negative emotion at the beginning of the visits, higher salivary IL-6 levels at the beginning versus end of visits, and positive correlations between negative emotion, salivary IL-6, and plasma sIL-6R. Their plasma sIL-6R levels exceeded those of the PTSD+/− women. Overall, IL-6 sensitivity to anticipation and to negative emotions, and higher sIL-6R levels, differentiated persistent versus remitted PTSD. PMID:24695006

  19. Risk Factors Associated with Serum Levels of the Inflammatory Biomarker Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen; Rasmussen, Line JH; Thorball, Christian W; Andersen, Ove; Pisinger, Charlotta; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker of mortality risk in various patient populations. However, little is known about the implications of lifestyle for suPAR levels in the general population. Lifestyle, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor data were collected from 5,538 participants in the Danish population-based Inter99 study. Their suPAR levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the final adjusted model, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher suPAR levels (P < 0.001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum suPAR levels in this general population. Diet and alcohol consumption also seemed to impact suPAR levels. Lifestyle changes are likely to affect suPAR since ex-smokers had suPAR levels comparable to those of never-smokers. PMID:25574132

  20. Soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor levels in serum as markers of anti-viral host reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, C; Nansen, A; Marker, O; Thomsen, A R

    1999-01-01

    The role of soluble receptors for TNF-α (sTNF-Rs) as markers of virus-induced host responses was studied by the use of murine model infections. A marked elevation in serum levels of sTNF-R75, but not sTNF-R55, was found 1 day after infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). In mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), an early increase was also revealed, but peak levels of sTNF-R75 were observed later temporally related to maximal T cell-mediated anti-viral activity. Analysing different well characterized knockout mice, it was found that elevated release of sTNF-R75 into serum early after VSV infection was independent of T cells, whereas interferon (IFN)-α/β seemed to be a major mediator. In contrast, increased release of sTNF-R75 into serum 8 days post-LCMV infection was mediated via T cells but independently of both CD40 ligand and IFN-γ. A simple correlation between release of sTNF-Rs in vivo and macrophage activation in vitro was not present. These findings indicate that sTNF-R75 is indeed a sensitive marker of both innate and specific cell-mediated host reactivity during viral infection, but it is not correlated to a single immunological parameter. PMID:10337022

  1. The Clinical Value of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) Levels in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disorders.

    PubMed

    Vasarhelyi, Barna; Toldi, Gergely; Balog, Attila

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of the general inflammatory condition of patients with autoimmune connective tissue disorders (ACTD) is a major challenge. The use of traditional inflammatory markers including CRP-levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is limited by several preanalytical factors and their low specificities. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is one of the novel candidate markers that is increasingly used in immune mediated disorders. In our studies we compared suPAR levels of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and ankylosing spondylitis with those of healthy controls. suPAR provided valuable clinical information on disease activity in RA, SLE and SSc. We identified a subgroup of remitted RA patients, who presented still clinical symptoms of inflammatory activity which correlated to high plasma suPAR (while ESR and CRP were normal). In SLE we established specific suPAR cut-off values that support the discrimination between patients with high and those with moderate SLE activity. In patients with SSc suPAR correlated with objective measures of lung and other complications. In the majority of ACTDs including SLE, SSc or RA, suPAR is seemingly a good biomarker that would provide valuable clinical information. However, before the introduction of this novel parameter in laboratory repertoire important issues should be elucidated. These include the establishment of appropriate and disease specific cutoff values, clarification of interfering preanalytical values and underlying conditions and declaration of age- and gender-specific reference ranges. PMID:27683525

  2. Salivary soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio in periodontal disease and health

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, Zahra Alizadeh; Azadmehr, Abbas; Tabrizi, Mohammad Amir Alizadeh; Hamissi, Jalaloddin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a significant role in osteoclastogenesis, activation of osteoclasts, and regulation of bone resorption. This study aimed to evaluate the use of the salivary soluble RANKL (sRANKL)/OPG ratio as a diagnostic marker for periodontitis in nonsmokers. Methods Twenty-five patients with chronic periodontitis and 25 individuals with a healthy periodontium were enrolled in this study. Samples containing 5 mL of unstimulated saliva were obtained from each subject. Salivary sRANKL and OPG concentrations were determined using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 18.0. Results The levels of sRANKL and OPG were detectable in all of the samples. Positive relationships were found between the plaque index and clinical attachment level and both the salivary concentration of sRANKL and the salivary sRANKL/OPG ratio (P<0.05). The salivary concentration of sRANKL and the sRANKL/OPG ratio were significantly higher in the periodontitis group than in the healthy group (P=0.004 and P=0.001, respectively). In contrast, the OPG concentration showed no significant differences between the groups (P=0.455). Conclusions These findings suggest that the salivary sRANKL/OPG ratio may be helpful in the screening and diagnosis of periodontitis. However, longitudinal studies with larger populations are needed to confirm these results. PMID:24236245

  3. Administration of Recombinant Soluble Urokinase Receptor Per Se Is Not Sufficient to Induce Podocyte Alterations and Proteinuria in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cathelin, Dominique; Placier, Sandrine; Ploug, Michael; Verpont, Marie-Christine; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Luque, Yosu; Hertig, Alexandre; Rondeau, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Circulating levels of soluble forms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are generally elevated in sera from children and adults with FSGS compared with levels in healthy persons or those with other types of kidney disease. In mice lacking the gene encoding uPAR, forced increases in suPAR concentration result in FSGS-like glomerular lesions and proteinuria. However, whether overexpression of suPAR, per se, contributes to the pathogenesis of FSGS in humans remains controversial. We conducted an independent set of animal experiments in which two different and well characterized forms of recombinant suPAR produced by eukaryotic cells were administered over the short or long term to wild-type (WT) mice. In accordance with the previous study, the delivered suPARs are deposited in the glomeruli. However, such deposition of either form of suPAR in the kidney did not result in increased glomerular proteinuria or altered podocyte architecture. Our findings suggest that glomerular deposits of suPAR caused by elevated plasma levels are not sufficient to engender albuminuria. PMID:24790179

  4. Soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFLT1) induces non-apoptotic death in ovarian and colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Tatsuya; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Sato, Noriko; Takiuchi, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 (sVEGFR1/sFLT1) is an angiogenesis inhibitor that competes with angiogenic factors such as VEGF and Placental Growth Factor (PlGF). Imbalances of VEGF and sFLT1 levels can cause pathological conditions such as tumour growth or preeclampsia. We observed direct damage caused by sFLT1 in tumour cells. We exposed several kinds of cells derived from ovarian and colorectal cancers as well as HEK293T cells to sFLT1 in two ways, transfection and exogenous application. The cell morphology and an LDH assay revealed cytotoxicity. Additional experiments were performed to clarify how sFLT1 injured cells. In this study, non-apoptotic cell damage was found to be induced by sFLT1. Moreover, sFLT1 showed an anti-tumour effect in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. Our results suggest that sFLT1 has potential as a cancer therapeutic candidate. PMID:27103202

  5. Soluble recombinant CD69 receptors optimized to have an exceptional physical and chemical stability display prolonged circulation and remain intact in the blood of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Vaněk, Ondřej; Nálezková, Monika; Kavan, Daniel; Borovičková, Ivana; Pompach, Petr; Novák, Petr; Kumar, Vinay; Vannucci, Luca; Hudeček, Jiří; Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Kopecký, Jr., Vladimír; Brynda, Jiří; Kolenko, Petr; Dohnálek, Jan; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Chmelík, Josef; Gorčík, Lukáš; Žídek, Lukáš; Sklenář, Vladimír; Bezouška, Karel

    2009-08-14

    We investigated the soluble forms of the earliest activation antigen of human leukocyte CD69. This receptor is expressed at the cell surface as a type II homodimeric membrane protein. However, the elements necessary to prepare the soluble recombinant CD69 suitable for structural studies are a matter of controversy. We describe the physical, biochemical and in vivo characteristics of a highly stable soluble form of CD69 obtained by bacterial expression of an appropriate extracellular segment of this protein. Our construct has been derived from one used for CD69 crystallization by further optimization with regard to protein stability, solubility and easy crystallization under conditions promoting ligand binding. The resulting protein is stable at acidic pH and at temperatures of up to 65 C, as revealed by long-term stability tests and thermal denaturation experiments. Protein NMR and crystallography confirmed the expected protein fold, and revealed additional details of the protein characteristics in solution. The soluble CD69 refolded in a form of noncovalent dimers, as revealed by gel filtration, sedimentation velocity measurements, NMR and dynamic light scattering. The soluble CD69 proved to be remarkably stable in vivo when injected into the bloodstream of experimental mice. More than 70% of the most stable CD69 proteins is preserved intact in the blood 24 h after injection, whereas the less stable CD69 variants are rapidly taken up by the liver.

  6. Protein C system defects inflicted by the malaria parasite protein PfEMP1 can be overcome by a soluble EPCR variant.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jens E V; Bouwens, Eveline A M; Tamayo, Ibai; Turner, Louise; Wang, Christian W; Stins, Monique; Theander, Thor G; Hermida, José; Mosnier, Laurent O; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Endothelial Protein C receptor (EPCR) is essential for the anticoagulant and cytoprotective functions of the Protein C (PC) system. Selected variants of the malaria parasite protein, Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) associated with severe malaria, including cerebral malaria, specifically target EPCR on vascular endothelial cells. Here, we examine the cellular response to PfEMP1 engagement to elucidate its role in malaria pathogenesis. Binding of the CIDRα1.1 domain of PfEMP1 to EPCR obstructed activated PC (APC) binding to EPCR and induced a loss of cellular EPCR functions. CIDRα1.1 severely impaired endothelial PC activation and effectively blocked APC-mediated activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and associated barrier protective effects of APC on endothelial cells. A soluble EPCR variant (E86A-sEPCR) bound CIDRα1.1 with high affinity and did not interfere with (A)PC binding to cellular EPCR. E86A-sEPCR used as a decoy to capture PfEMP1, permitted normal PC activation on endothelial cells, normal barrier protective effects of APC, and greatly reduced cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to brain endothelial cells. These data imply important contributions of PfEMP1-induced protein C pathway defects in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. Furthermore, the E86A-sEPCR decoy provides a proof-of-principle strategy for the development of novel adjunct therapies for severe malaria.

  7. An improved scheme on decoy-state method for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Li, Mo; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Quantum key distribution involving decoy-states is a significant application of quantum information. By using three-intensity decoy-states of single-photon-added coherent sources, we propose a practically realizable scheme on quantum key distribution which approaches very closely the ideal asymptotic case of an infinite number of decoy-states. We make a comparative study between this scheme and two other existing ones, i.e., two-intensity decoy-states with single-photon-added coherent sources, and three-intensity decoy-states with weak coherent sources. Through numerical analysis, we demonstrate the advantages of our scheme in secure transmission distance and the final key generation rate. PMID:26463580

  8. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Mark V; Levitsky, Lev I; Gorshkov, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27349255

  9. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mark V.; Levitsky, Lev I.; Gorshkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-09-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms.

  10. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Mark V; Levitsky, Lev I; Gorshkov, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Soluble and Cell-Associated Insulin Receptor Dysfunction Correlates with Severity of HAND in HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Gerena, Yamil; Skolasky, Richard L.; Velez, Joyce M.; Toro-Nieves, Dianedis; Mayo, Raul; Nath, Avindra; Wojna, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Background Blood sugar metabolism abnormalities have been identified in HIV-infected individuals and associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These abnormalities may occur as a result of chronic HIV infection, long-term use of combined antiretroviral treatment (CART), aging, genetic predisposition, or a combination of these factors, and may increase morbidity and mortality in this population. Objective To determine if changes in soluble and cell-associated insulin receptor (IR) levels, IR substrate-1 (IRS-1) levels, and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation are associated with the presence and severity of HAND in a cohort of HIV-seropositive women. Methods and Results This is a retrospective cross-sectional study using patient database information and stored samples from 34 HIV-seropositive women and 10 controls without history of diabetes from the Hispanic-Latino Longitudinal Cohort of Women. Soluble IR subunits [sIR, ectodomain (α) and full-length or intact (αβ)] were assayed in plasma and CSF samples by ELISA. Membrane IR levels, IRS-1 levels, and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation were analyzed in CSF white cell pellets (WCP) using flow cytometry. HIV-seropositive women had significantly increased levels of intact or full-length sIR in plasma (p<0.001) and CSF (p<0.005) relative to controls. Stratified by HAND, increased levels of full-length sIR in plasma were associated with the presence (p<0.001) and severity (p<0.005) of HAND. A significant decrease in IRS-1 tyrosine-phosphorylation in the WCP was also associated with the presence (p<0.02) and severity (p<0.02) of HAND. Conclusions This study provides evidence that IR secretion is increased in HIV-seropositive women, and increased IR secretion is associated with cognitive impairment in these women. Thus, IR dysfunction may have a role in the progression of HAND and could represent a biomarker for the presence and severity of HAND. PMID:22629383

  12. Improving solubility of NR2B amino-terminal domain of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expressed in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, F.-M.; Soh Wanqin; Geballe, Matthew T.; Low, C.-M.

    2007-10-12

    The amino-terminal domains (ATDs) of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contain binding sites for modulators and may serve as potential drug targets in neurological diseases. Here, three fusion tags (6xHis-, GST-, and MBP-) were fused to the ATD of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit (ATD2B) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Each tag's ability to confer enhanced solubility to ATD2B was assessed. Soluble ATD2B was successfully obtained as a MBP fusion protein. Dynamic light scattering revealed the protein (1 mg/ml) exists as monodispersed species at 25 {sup o}C. Functional studies using circular dichroism showed that the soluble MBP-ATD2B bound ifenprodil in a dose-dependent manner. The dissociation constants obtained for ifenprodil were similar in the absence (64 nM) and presence (116 nM) of saturating concentration of maltose. Moreover, the yield of soluble MBP-ATD2B is 18 times higher than the refolded 6xHis-ATD2B. We have reported a systematic comparison of three different affinity tagging strategies and identified a rapid and efficient method to obtain large amount of ATD2B recombinant protein for biochemical and structural studies.

  13. Decrease in neuroimmune activation by HSV-mediated gene transfer of TNFα soluble receptor alleviates pain in rats with diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Kathryn L Maier; Chattopadhyay, Munmun

    2014-10-01

    The mechanisms of diabetic painful neuropathy are complicated and comprise of peripheral and central pathophysiological phenomena. A number of proinflammatory cytokines are involved in this process. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is considered to be one of the major contributors of neuropathic pain. In order to explore the potential role of inflammation in the peripheral nervous system of Type 1 diabetic animals with painful neuropathy, we investigated whether TNF-α is a key inflammatory mediator to the diabetic neuropathic pain and whether continuous delivery of TNFα soluble receptor from damaged axons achieved by HSV vector mediated transduction of DRG would block or alter the pain perception in animals with diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic animals exhibited changes in threshold of mechanical and thermal pain perception compared to control rats and also demonstrated increases in TNFα in the DRG, spinal cord dorsal horn, sciatic nerve and in the foot skin, 6 weeks after the onset of diabetes. Therapeutic approaches by HSV mediated expression of p55 TNF soluble receptor significantly attenuated the diabetes-induced hyperalgesia and decreased the expression of TNFα with reduction in the phosphorylation of p38MAPK in the spinal cord dorsal horn and DRG. The overall outcome of this study suggests that neuroinflammatory activation in the peripheral nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of painful neuropathy in Type 1 diabetes which can be alleviated by local expression of HSV vector expressing p55 TNF soluble receptor.

  14. Association between soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 levels and coronary slow flow phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Caglar, Ilker Murat; Ozde, Cem; Caglar, Fatma Nihan Turhan; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Ugurlucan, Murat; Karakaya, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) has been associated with myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, life-threatening arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death and increased cardiovascular mortality similar to coronary artery disease (CAD). Possible underlying mechanisms of CSFP are endothelial dysfunction, chronic inflammation, microvascular dysfunction and diffuse atherosclerosis. Soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that sLOX-1 might be associated with CSFP, and aimed to research the relationship between sLOX-1 and CSFP. Material and methods Forty patients with angiographically proven CSFP and 43 patients with a normal coronary flow pattern (NCFP) were included in this study. Coronary blood flow was measured according to the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count method. sLOX-1 levels were measured in all study subjects. Results Serum levels of sLOX-1 were significantly higher in the CSFP group than the NCFP group (1061.80 ±422.20 ng/ml vs. 500.043 ±282.97 ng/ml, p < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis including sLOX-1, MPV, GGT and uric acid levels revealed a significant association between sLOX-1 levels and CSFP (Exp (B)/OR: 1.006, 95% CI: 1.002–1.010, p = 0.001). Conclusions The present study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with CSFP and there was a strong association between high sLOX-1 levels and CSFP. High serum sLOX-1 levels may have an important role in the pathogenesis of CSFP. Future studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26925116

  15. Association of Serum Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells Levels in Malignant Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Bacteremia and Fungemia

    PubMed Central

    Arzanian, Mohammad-Taghi; Soltani, Babak; Fahimzad, Alireza; Shiva, Farideh; Shamshiri, Ahmad-Reza; Karimi, Abdollah

    2011-01-01

    Objective Infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in febrile neutropenic patients with malignancy. Rapid diagnostic tests are needed for prompt diagnosis and early treatment which is crucial for optimal management. We assessed the utility of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM-1) in the diagnosis of bacteremia and fungemia in febrile neutropenic patients. Methods Sixty-five febrile neutropenic children with malignancy hospitalized in Mofid Children's Hospital during a period of one year from January 2007 were recruited for this cross sectional study (mean age 66.2± 37 months; 35 females and 30 males). Thirty patients (46.2%) had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 2 (3.1%) acute myeloid leukemia, one (1.5%) lymphoma and 32 (49.2%) were under treatment for solid tumors. Simultaneous blood samples were collected for measurement of serum sTREM-1 levels and for blood cultures which were grown in BACTEC media. Gold standard for the presence of infection was a positive BACTEC culture as a more sensitive method compared to current blood culture techniques. Findings Blood cultures with BACTEC system were positive in 13(20%) patients (12 bacterial and one fungal culture). The mean serum sTREM-1 level in BACTEC positive patients was 948.2±592.9 pg/ml but in BACTEC negative cases it was 76.3±118.8 pg/ml (P<0.001). The optimal cut-off point of sTREM-1 for detecting patients with positive result of BACTEC was 525 pg/ml with sensitivity and specificity of 84.6% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion Our study revealed a significant association between serum sTREM-1 level and bacteremia and fungemia in febrile neutropenic patients suffering malignancy with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23056805

  16. Molecular interactions of a soluble gibberellin receptor, GID1, with a rice DELLA protein, SLR1, and gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Katoh, Etsuko; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Asano, Kenji; Saji, Shoko; Hongyu, Xiang; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kitano, Hidemi; Yamaguchi, Isomaro; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2007-07-01

    GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) encodes a soluble gibberellin (GA) receptor that shares sequence similarity with a hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Previously, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay revealed that the GID1-GA complex directly interacts with SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor protein in GA signaling. Here, we demonstrated, by pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments, that the GA-dependent GID1-SLR1 interaction also occurs in planta. GA(4) was found to have the highest affinity to GID1 in Y2H assays and is the most effective form of GA in planta. Domain analyses of SLR1 using Y2H, gel filtration, and BiFC methods revealed that the DELLA and TVHYNP domains of SLR1 are required for the GID1-SLR1 interaction. To identify the important regions of GID1 for GA and SLR1 interactions, we used many different mutant versions of GID1, such as the spontaneous mutant GID1s, N- and C-terminal truncated GID1s, and mutagenized GID1 proteins with conserved amino acids replaced with Ala. The amino acid residues important for SLR1 interaction completely overlapped the residues required for GA binding that were scattered throughout the GID1 molecule. When we plotted these residues on the GID1 structure predicted by analogy with HSL tertiary structure, many residues were located at regions corresponding to the substrate binding pocket and lid. Furthermore, the GA-GID1 interaction was stabilized by SLR1. Based on these observations, we proposed a molecular model for interaction between GA, GID1, and SLR1.

  17. Expression of soluble human Neonatal Fc-receptor (FcRn) in Escherichia coli through modification of growth environment.

    PubMed

    Ng, Woei Kean; Lim, Theam Soon; Lai, Ngit Shin

    2016-11-01

    Neonatal Fc-receptor (FcRn) with its affinity to immunoglobulin G (IgG) has been the subject of many pharmacokinetic studies in the past century. This protein is well known for its unique feature in maintaining the circulating IgG from degradation in blood plasma. FcRn is formed by non-covalent association between the α-chain with the β-2-microglobulin (β2m). Many studies have been conducted to produce FcRn in the laboratory, mainly using mammalian tissue culture as host for recombinant protein expression. In this study, we demonstrate a novel strategy to express the α-chain of FcRn using Escherichia coli as the expression host. The expression vector that carries the cDNA of the α-chain was transformed into expression host, Rosetta-gami 2 strain for inducible expression. The bacterial culture was grown in a modified growth medium which constitutes of terrific broth, sodium chloride (NaCl), glucose and betaine. A brief heat shock at 45 °C was carried out after induction, before the temperature for expression was reduced to 22 °C and grown for 16 h. The soluble form of the α-chain of FcRn expressed was tested in the ELISA and dot blot immunoassay to confirm its native functionality. The results implied that the α-chain of FcRn expressed using this method is functional and retains its pH-dependent affinity to IgG. Our study significantly suggests that the activity of human FcRn remain active and functional in the absence of β2m. PMID:27412717

  18. Soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio is increased in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have lower bone mineral density and increased fracture risk when compared with healthy individuals, due to distinct factors and mechanisms. Bone remodeling is a tightly orchestrated process dependent on several factors, including the balance between receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Our aim was to assess serum OPG and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) levels as well as sRANKL/OPG ratio in female SLE patients and compare it with female controls. Methods We have evaluated 103 SLE patients and 114 healthy controls, all Caucasian females. All participants underwent a clinical and laboratory evaluation. sRANKL and OPG were quantified in serum by ELISA based methods. sRANKL, OPG and sRANKL/OPG ratio levels were compared between SLE patients and age, sex and race matched healthy controls. For SLE patients, a multivariate analysis was performed, to find the possible predictors of the changes in sRANKL, OPG and sRANKL/OPG ratio levels. Results Although sRANKL levels did not differ between the two groups, serum OPG was lower in SLE patients (P < 0.001). This led to an increased sRANKL/OPG ratio (P = 0.010) in the patients' group. The multivariate analysis was performed considering age and other clinical and laboratorial potential confounders for these variations in the SLE patients group. We have showed that age (P = 0.001) and levels of anti-Sm antibodies (P = 0.016) were independent predictors of sRANKL/OPG ratio variations in SLE patients. No relationship with therapy or disease activity measured by SLEDAI2K was found. Conclusions These results are suggestive of increased osteoclastic stimuli driven by the SLE disease mechanisms. PMID:22027240

  19. Skin autofluorescence relates to soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products and albuminuria in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Skrha, J; Soupal, J; Loni Ekali, G; Prázný, M; Kalousová, M; Kvasnička, J; Landová, L; Zima, T; Skrha, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare skin autofluorescence caused by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) with biochemical markers of endothelial dysfunction and soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE) in patients with diabetes. Skin autofluorescence (AF) assessed by AGE-Reader was evaluated with sRAGE and other biochemical parameters in 88 patients with diabetes (47 Type 1/T1DM/ and 41 Type 2/T2DM/) and 20 controls. Skin AF was significantly higher in T1DM and T2DM in comparison to controls (2.39 ± 0.54, 2.63 ± 0.73 versus 1.96 ± 0.33 AU; P < 0.0001). Positive correlation of AF with sRAGE was detected in T1DM and T2DM (r = 0.37, P < 0.02 and r = 0.60, P < 0.0001), but not in controls. Significantly higher AF values were found in patients with positive albuminuria as compared to those with normal albuminuria. Similarly, higher AF was detected in patients with endothelial dysfunction expressed by vWF, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Multiple regression analysis revealed independent association of skin AF with age, sRAGE, and albumin-creatinine ratio in patients with diabetes (R (2) = 0.38). Our study confirms that AF is elevated in patients with diabetes, especially with positive albuminuria and endothelial dysfunction. The strong and independent relationship between AF and sRAGE supports the idea that AF may reflect AGEs/RAGE interactions. The exact mechanism remains to be established.

  20. Skin autofluorescence relates to soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products and albuminuria in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Skrha, J; Soupal, J; Loni Ekali, G; Prázný, M; Kalousová, M; Kvasnička, J; Landová, L; Zima, T; Skrha, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare skin autofluorescence caused by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) with biochemical markers of endothelial dysfunction and soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE) in patients with diabetes. Skin autofluorescence (AF) assessed by AGE-Reader was evaluated with sRAGE and other biochemical parameters in 88 patients with diabetes (47 Type 1/T1DM/ and 41 Type 2/T2DM/) and 20 controls. Skin AF was significantly higher in T1DM and T2DM in comparison to controls (2.39 ± 0.54, 2.63 ± 0.73 versus 1.96 ± 0.33 AU; P < 0.0001). Positive correlation of AF with sRAGE was detected in T1DM and T2DM (r = 0.37, P < 0.02 and r = 0.60, P < 0.0001), but not in controls. Significantly higher AF values were found in patients with positive albuminuria as compared to those with normal albuminuria. Similarly, higher AF was detected in patients with endothelial dysfunction expressed by vWF, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Multiple regression analysis revealed independent association of skin AF with age, sRAGE, and albumin-creatinine ratio in patients with diabetes (R (2) = 0.38). Our study confirms that AF is elevated in patients with diabetes, especially with positive albuminuria and endothelial dysfunction. The strong and independent relationship between AF and sRAGE supports the idea that AF may reflect AGEs/RAGE interactions. The exact mechanism remains to be established. PMID:23671885

  1. A Soluble Activin Receptor IIB Fails to Prevent Muscle Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Graham, Zachary A; Collier, Lauren; Peng, Yuanzhen; Saéz, Juan C; Bauman, William A; Qin, Weiping; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2016-06-15

    Myostatin (MST) is a potent regulator of muscle growth and size. Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in marked atrophy of muscle below the level of injury. Currently, there is no effective pharmaceutical treatment available to prevent sublesional muscle atrophy post-SCI. To determine whether inhibition of MST with a soluble activin IIB receptor (RAP-031) prevents sublesional SCI-induced muscle atrophy, mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: Sham-SCI; SCI+Vehicle group (SCI-VEH); and SCI+RAP-031 (SCI-RAP-031). SCI was induced by complete transection at thoracic level 10. Animals were euthanized at 56 days post-surgery. RAP-031 reduced, but did not prevent, body weight loss post-SCI. RAP-031 increased total lean tissue mass compared to SCI-VEH (14.8%). RAP-031 increased forelimb muscle mass post-SCI by 38% and 19% for biceps and triceps, respectively (p < 0.001). There were no differences in hindlimb muscle weights between the RAP-031 and SCI-VEH groups. In the gastrocnemius, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was elevated for interleukin (IL)-6 (8-fold), IL-1β (3-fold), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (8-fold) in the SCI-VEH, compared to the Sham group. Muscle RING finger protein 1 mRNA was 2-fold greater in the RAP-031 group, compared to Sham-SCI. RAP-031 did not influence cytokine expression. Bone mineral density of the distal femur and proximal tibia were decreased post-SCI (-26% and -28%, respectively) and were not altered by RAP-031. In conclusion, MST inhibition increased supralesional muscle mass, but did not prevent sublesional muscle or bone loss, or the inflammation in paralyzed muscle.

  2. Plasma Soluble Urokinase Receptor Level Is Correlated with Podocytes Damage in Patients with IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanfeng; Liu, Lijun; Huang, Jing; Shi, Sufang; Lv, Jicheng; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Minghui; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions are similar in characteristics to S lesions of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and may predict poor prognosis. In the present study, we aimed to explore the association between plasma soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) levels and S lesions and podocytes damage in IgAN patients. Methods We enrolled 569 IgAN patients with follow-up data and detected plasma suPAR levels at renal biopsy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Plasma suPAR levels in IgAN patients with or without S lesions did not differ significantly (P = 0.411). However, suPAR levels were positively correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.202, P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, r = –0.236, P < 0.001). In the partial correlation to adjust for eGFR, plasma suPAR levels remained positively correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.112, P = 0.023). In a Cox proportional hazards model, higher levels of plasma suPAR were not associated with poor renal outcome. Plasma suPAR levels of IgAN and primary FSGS patients with nephrotic syndrome were not significantly different (P = 0.306). Plasma suPAR levels in patients with extensive effacement of the epithelial cell foot processes of glomerular podocytes were significantly higher than those with segmental effacement on the basis of comparable eGFR (P = 0.036). Conclusions In IgAN patients, plasma suPAR levels were not associated with S lesions. However, they were positively associated with proteinuria and negatively associated with eGFR. In addition, plasma suPAR levels were positively associated with the effacement degree of the foot processes, which might partially contribute to the development of proteinuria in patients with IgAN. PMID:26167688

  3. Lectin-dependent enhancement of Ebola virus infection via soluble and transmembrane C-type lectin receptors.

    PubMed

    Brudner, Matthew; Karpel, Marshall; Lear, Calli; Chen, Li; Yantosca, L Michael; Scully, Corinne; Sarraju, Ashish; Sokolovska, Anna; Zariffard, M Reza; Eisen, Damon P; Mungall, Bruce A; Kotton, Darrell N; Omari, Amel; Huang, I-Chueh; Farzan, Michael; Takahashi, Kazue; Stuart, Lynda; Stahl, Gregory L; Ezekowitz, Alan B; Spear, Gregory T; Olinger, Gene G; Schmidt, Emmett V; Michelow, Ian C

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key soluble effector of the innate immune system that recognizes pathogen-specific surface glycans. Surprisingly, low-producing MBL genetic variants that may predispose children and immunocompromised individuals to infectious diseases are more common than would be expected in human populations. Since certain immune defense molecules, such as immunoglobulins, can be exploited by invasive pathogens, we hypothesized that MBL might also enhance infections in some circumstances. Consequently, the low and intermediate MBL levels commonly found in human populations might be the result of balancing selection. Using model infection systems with pseudotyped and authentic glycosylated viruses, we demonstrated that MBL indeed enhances infection of Ebola, Hendra, Nipah and West Nile viruses in low complement conditions. Mechanistic studies with Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviruses confirmed that MBL binds to N-linked glycan epitopes on viral surfaces in a specific manner via the MBL carbohydrate recognition domain, which is necessary for enhanced infection. MBL mediates lipid-raft-dependent macropinocytosis of EBOV via a pathway that appears to require less actin or early endosomal processing compared with the filovirus canonical endocytic pathway. Using a validated RNA interference screen, we identified C1QBP (gC1qR) as a candidate surface receptor that mediates MBL-dependent enhancement of EBOV infection. We also identified dectin-2 (CLEC6A) as a potentially novel candidate attachment factor for EBOV. Our findings support the concept of an innate immune haplotype that represents critical interactions between MBL and complement component C4 genes and that may modify susceptibility or resistance to certain glycosylated pathogens. Therefore, higher levels of native or exogenous MBL could be deleterious in the setting of relative hypocomplementemia which can occur genetically or because of immunodepletion during active

  4. The use of synthetic analogues of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor to prevent acute and chronic experimental liver injury.

    PubMed

    Bruck, R; Hershkoviz, R; Lider, O; Shirin, H; Aeed, H; Halpern, Z

    1997-01-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and some chronic cholestatic liver diseases, T-lymphocytes serve as effector cells of the immunostimulatory processes. Cellular interactions of immune cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) components are regulated primarily via the beta 1 subfamily of integrin receptors. The target epitope of several such integrin receptors is the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence, a cell adhesion motif shared by several matrix-associated adhesive glycoproteins. We review the use of synthetic nonpeptidic analogues of RGD and of soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in the prevention of immune-mediated, concanavalin A-induced liver damage in mice and of RGD analogues in inhibiting the development of liver cirrhosis in rats. The concanavalin A-induced elevation of serum transaminases and TNF-alpha, and the infiltration of liver tissue by inflammatory cells, were inhibited by pretreatment of the mice with the synthetic RGD mimetics and soluble TNF receptor. In rats, the progression of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis was markedly inhibited by the coadministration of the RGD mimetic SF-6,5. The compounds described here may be examined therapeutically for pathological conditions in the liver, manifested as necroinflammation, cholestasis and fibrosis. PMID:9626759

  5. Upregulation of contractile endothelin type B receptors by lipid-soluble cigarette smoking particles in rat cerebral arteries via activation of MAPK

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-11-15

    Cigarette smoke exposure increases the risk of stroke. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Endothelin system plays key roles in the pathogenesis of stroke. The present study was designed to examine if lipid-soluble (dimethyl sulfoxide-soluble) cigarette smoke particles (DSP) induces upregulation of contractile endothelin type B (ET{sub B}) receptors in rat cerebral arteries and if activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) mediate the upregulation of contractile endothelin receptors in the cerebral arteries. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum free medium for 24 h in the presence of DSP with or without specific inhibitors: MEK specific (U0126), p38 specific (SB202190), JNK specific (SP600125), NF-{kappa}B specific (BMS-345541) or (IMD-0354), transcription inhibitor (actinomycin D), or translation blocker (cycloheximide). Contractile responses to the ET{sub B} receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c were investigated by a sensitive myograph. The expression of the ET{sub B} receptors were studied at mRNA and protein levels using quantitative real time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results show that organ culture per se induced transcriptional upregulation of contractile ET{sub B} receptors in the cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. This upregulation was further increased at the translational level by addition of DSP to the organ culture, but this increase was not seen by addition of nicotine or water-soluble cigarette smoke particles to the organ culture. The increased upregulation of contractile ET{sub B} receptors by DSP was abrogated by U0126, SP600125, actinomycin D, and cycloheximide, suggesting that the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this process include activation of MEK and JNK MAPK-mediated transcription and translation of new contractile ET{sub B} receptors. Thus, the MAPK-mediated upregulation of contractile ET{sub B

  6. Constitutive secretion of soluble interleukin-2 receptor by human T cell lymphoma xenografted into SCID mice. Correlation of tumor volume with concentration of tumor-derived soluble interleukin-2 receptor in body fluids of the host mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, M. A.; Sioutos, N.; Tuttle, M.; Butmarc, J. R.; Kaplan, W. D.; Kadin, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Increased serum concentration of soluble alpha-chain receptor for interleukin-2 (sIL-2R) has been noted in patients with a variety of inflammatory conditions and lymphoid malignancies including T cell leukemia and lymphoma. Elevated sIL-2R serum levels seen in lymphoid malignancies appear to correlate with the clinical stage of disease. However, because sIL-2R is produced by normal activated lymphocytes, it has been uncertain whether serum sIL-2R in such conditions is derived from tumor cells or normal immune cells responding to the tumor. To address this question, we used a model of human (CD30+) anaplastic, large T cell lymphoma transplanted into immunodeficient SCID mice. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of tumor RNA showed that the tumor, designated mJB6, contains mRNA for alpha-chain of human IL-2R. Furthermore, 15 to 25% of tumor cells stained with anti-human IL-2R alpha-chain mAb. Solid phase ELISA analysis of serum samples from mice bearing mJB6 lymphoma showed high concentrations of human sIL-2R. None of the control mice without lymphoma or with human nonlymphoid tumors (prostatic carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and glioblastoma multiforme) showed detectable human sIL-2R. The sIL-2R serum titers of mJB6-bearing mice correlated strongly with tumor volume (P < 0.0001). Tumors as small as 0.4 to 0.8 mm3 could be detected by this method. The sensitivity of sIL-2R ELISA exceeded at least 150 times the sensitivity of conventional radioisotopic tumor detection. Total resection of mJB6 tumors resulted in complete clearance of sIL-2R from the murine serum within 48 hours with a half-life of 6 hours. Accordingly, partial resection led to a significant decrease in sIL-2R followed by gradual increase with tumor regrowth. sIL-2R was also detected in the urine of mJB6-transplanted mice. As in serum, urine concentrations of sIL-2R were proportional to tumor mass (P < 0.02). Based on these findings we postulate that malignant cells are a major source of serum

  7. Manipulating and understanding antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) with decoy oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Michael; Bibb, Mervyn J

    2008-01-22

    We have adapted and extended the decoy oligonucleotide technique for use in prokaryotes. To identify cis-acting regulatory elements within a promoter, we developed a DNase I/T7 exonuclease footprinting technique and applied it to actII-orf4 from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), which encodes the pathway-specific activator for production of the antibiotic actinorhodin. Our in vivo mapping data allowed us to create decoy oligonucleotides incorporating the identified regulatory elements and to test whether their introduction into S. coelicolor affected antibiotic production. We mapped the promoter region when in a transcriptionally inactive state before the onset of actinorhodin production with the aim of designing decoy oligonucleotides capable of interfering with potential repressor binding and so stimulate actinorhodin production. Mapping identified five candidates for decoy oligonucleotides, and these were tested in a plate-based assay to rapidly validate their activity. A transfection protocol was developed for liquid cultures that enabled efficient uptake of decoys, and quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated decoy persistence for >70 h. Measurement of the effects on growth, expression of actII-orf4, and antibiotic production demonstrated that one of the decoys, in concordance with the plate assay, was more efficacious than the others in increasing actinorhodin production. Two of the identified regulatory elements occurred upstream of gene SCO5812, deletion of which reduced actinorhodin production, confirming that experimental analysis of regulatory motifs can provide new insights into factors influencing antibiotic production in streptomycetes.

  8. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  9. Soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 and IL-6 plasma levels in humans subjected to the sleep deprivation model of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, W. T.; Reuben, J. M.; Mullington, J. M.; Price, N. J.; Lee, B. N.; Smith, E. O.; Szuba, M. P.; Van Dongen, H. P.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extent to which sleep loss may predispose astronauts to a state of altered immunity during extended space travel prompts evaluation with ground-based models. OBJECTIVE: We sought to measure plasma levels of selected cytokines and their receptors, including the putative sleep-regulation proteins soluble TNF-alpha receptor (sTNF-alpha R) I and IL-6, in human subjects undergoing 2 types of sleep deprivation during environmental confinement with performance demands. METHODS: Healthy adult men (n = 42) were randomized to schedules that varied in severity of sleep loss: 4 days (88 hours) of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) involving two 2-hour naps per day or 4 days of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Plasma samples were obtained every 6 hours across 5 days and analyzed by using enzyme-linked immunoassays for sTNF-alpha RI, sTNF-alpha RII, IL-6, soluble IL-2 receptor, IL-10, and TNF-alpha. RESULTS: Interactions between the effects of time and sleep deprivation level were detected for sTNF-alpha RI and IL-6 but not for sTNF-alpha RII, soluble IL-2 receptor, IL-10, and TNF-alpha. Relative to the PSD condition, subjects in the TSD condition had elevated plasma levels of sTNF-alpha RI on day 2 (P =.04), day 3 (P =.01), and across days 2 to 4 of sleep loss (P =.01) and elevated levels of IL-6 on day 4 (P =.04). CONCLUSIONS: Total sleep loss produced significant increases in plasma levels of sTNF-alpha RI and IL-6, messengers that connect the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. These changes appeared to reflect elevations of the homeostatic drive for sleep because they occurred in TSD but not PSD, suggesting that naps may serve as the basis for a countermeasures approach to prolonged spaceflight.

  10. Betaglycan has two independent domains required for high affinity TGF-β binding: proteolytic cleavage separates the domains and inactivates the neutralizing activity of the soluble receptor

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Valentín; Vilchis-Landeros, M. Magdalena; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Huang, Tao; Villarreal, Maria M.; Hinck, Andrew P.; López-Casillas, Fernando; Montiel, Jose-Luis

    2009-01-01

    Summary Betaglycan is a co-receptor for members of the TGF-β superfamily. Mutagenesis has identified two ligand binding regions, one at the membrane-distal and the other at the membrane-proximal half of the betaglycan ectodomain. Here we show that partial plasmin digestion of soluble betaglycan produces two proteolysis-resistant fragments of 45 and 55 kDa, consistent with the predicted secondary structure, which indicates an intervening non-structured linker region separating the highly structured N- and C-terminal domains. Amino terminal sequencing indicates that the 45 and 55 kDa fragments correspond, respectively, to the membrane-distal and -proximal regions. Plasmin treatment of membrane betaglycan results in the production of equivalent proteolysis-resistant fragments. The 45 and 55 kDa fragments, as well as their recombinant soluble counterparts, Sol Δ10 and Sol Δ11, bind TGF-β, nonetheless, compared to intact soluble betaglycan, have severely diminished ability to block TGF-β activity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis indicates that soluble betaglycan has Kds in the low nanomolar range for the three TGF-β isoforms, while those for Sol Δ10 and Sol Δ11 are 1 – 2 orders of magnitude higher. SPR analysis further shows that the Kds of Sol Δ11 are not changed in the presence of Sol Δ10, indicating that the high affinity of soluble betaglycan is a consequence of tethering of the domains together. Overall, these results, suggest that betaglycan ectodomain exhibits a bi-lobular structure in which each lobule folds independently, binds TGF-β through distinct non-overlapping interfaces, and that linker modification may be an approach to improve soluble betaglycan’s TGF-β neutralizing activity. PMID:19842711

  11. Alternatively spliced forms in the cytoplasmic domain of the human growth hormone (GH) receptor regulate its ability to generate a soluble GH-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Dastot, F; Sobrier, M L; Duquesnoy, P; Duriez, B; Goossens, M; Amselem, S

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the generation of soluble growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) probably differs among species. In rats and mice, it involves an alternatively spliced mRNA, whereas in rabbits, it involves limited proteolysis of the membrane-bound growth hormone receptor (GHR). In humans, this latter mechanism is favored, as no transcript coding for a soluble GHR has been detected so far. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed COS-7 cells transiently expressing the full-length human (h) GHR and observed specific GH-binding activity in the cell supernatants. Concomitantly, an alternatively spliced form in the cytoplasmic domain of GHR, hGHR-tr, was isolated from several human tissues. hGHR-tr is identical in sequence to hGHR, except for a 26-bp deletion leading to a stop codon at position 280, thereby truncating 97.5% of the intracellular domain of the receptor protein. When compared with hGHR, hGHR-tr showed a significantly increased capacity to generate a soluble GHBP. Interestingly, this alternative transcript is also expressed in liver from rabbits, mice, and rats, suggesting that, in these four species, proteolysis of the corresponding truncated transmembrane GHR is a common mechanism leading to GHBP generation. These findings support the hypothesis that GHBP may at least partly result from alternative splicing of the region encoding the intracellular domain and that the absence of a cytoplasmic domain may be involved in increased release of GHBP. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8855247

  12. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Plasma Concentration May Predict Susceptibility to High Altitude Pulmonary Edema.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Matthias Peter; Zügel, Stefanie; Schoeb, Michele; Auinger, Katja; Dehnert, Christoph; Maggiorini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Acute exposure to high altitude induces inflammation. However, the relationship between inflammation and high altitude related illness such as high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and acute mountain sickness (AMS) is poorly understood. We tested if soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) plasma concentration, a prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease and marker for low grade activation of leukocytes, will predict susceptibility to HAPE and AMS. Methods. 41 healthy mountaineers were examined at sea level (SL, 446 m) and 24 h after rapid ascent to 4559 m (HA). 24/41 subjects had a history of HAPE and were thus considered HAPE-susceptible (HAPE-s). Out of the latter, 10/24 HAPE-s subjects were randomly chosen to suppress the inflammatory cascade with dexamethasone 8 mg bid 24 h prior to ascent. Results. Acute hypoxic exposure led to an acute inflammatory reaction represented by an increase in suPAR (1.9 ± 0.4 at SL versus 2.3 ± 0.5 at HA, p < 0.01), CRP (0.7 ± 0.5 at SL versus 3.6 ± 4.6 at HA, p < 0.01), and IL-6 (0.8 ± 0.4 at SL versus 3.3 ± 4.9 at HA, p < 0.01) in all subjects except those receiving dexamethasone. The ascent associated decrease in PaO2 correlated with the increase in IL-6 (r = 0.46, p < 0.001), but not suPAR (r = 0.27, p = 0.08); the increase in IL-6 was not correlated with suPAR (r = 0.16, p = 0.24). Baseline suPAR plasma concentration was higher in the HAPE-s group (2.0 ± 0.4 versus 1.8 ± 0.4, p = 0.04); no difference was found for CRP and IL-6 and for subjects developing AMS. Conclusion. High altitude exposure leads to an increase in suPAR plasma concentration, with the missing correlation between suPAR and IL-6 suggesting a cytokine independent, leukocyte mediated mechanism of low grade inflammation. The correlation between IL-6 and PaO2 suggests a direct effect of hypoxia, which is not the case for suPAR. However, suPAR plasma concentration measured before hypoxic exposure may predict

  13. Longitudinal survey in an endemic region of plasma soluble interleukin-2 receptor and antibody levels in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Chumpitazi, B F; Peyron, F; Simon, J; Boudin, C; Sheick-Zakiuddin, I; Picot, S; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1990-01-01

    A survey involving 81 individuals living in Dafinso and Vallée du Kou no. 4 (near Bobo-Dioulasso), Burkina Faso, was performed in June 1987, August to September 1987, and January 1988, respectively, at the beginning of, during, and after the transmission season of malaria. The clinical longitudinal study during the transmission period allowed us to define three different groups in terms of both age and occurrence of malaria attack (5,000 Plasmodium falciparum per mm3 of blood and axillary fever of greater than 37.7 degrees C) as follows: group 1, persons less than or equal to 15 years old who had at least one malaria attack during the transmission period; group 2, individuals less than or equal to 15 years old who did not have any malaria attacks; and group 3, individuals considered to be protected (adults greater than 15 years old with no malaria attacks). Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were found to be significantly increased (P less than 0.001) in the first two groups (1,047 +/- 481 U/ml [mean +/- standard deviation]) as compared with the adult group (605 +/- 307 U/ml). Considering all the groups, no significant difference was observed between observation periods. Levels of sIL-2R were inversely correlated (r = -0.39, n = 237, P less than 0.01) with age (range, 4 to 67 years). Negative correlations were also noticed between the levels of sIL-2R and those of antibodies to somatic antigen of P. falciparum (immunoglobulin G [IgG] class [r = -0.33, n = 237, P less than 0.01] and IgM class [r = -0.20, n = 237, P less than 0.05]). IgG antibody levels to somatic antigen were correlated with age, but IgM antibody levels to somatic antigen were not. The possible role played by sIL-2R in effector mechanisms against malaria is discussed. PMID:2199518

  14. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Plasma Concentration May Predict Susceptibility to High Altitude Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Zügel, Stefanie; Schoeb, Michele; Auinger, Katja; Dehnert, Christoph; Maggiorini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Acute exposure to high altitude induces inflammation. However, the relationship between inflammation and high altitude related illness such as high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and acute mountain sickness (AMS) is poorly understood. We tested if soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) plasma concentration, a prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease and marker for low grade activation of leukocytes, will predict susceptibility to HAPE and AMS. Methods. 41 healthy mountaineers were examined at sea level (SL, 446 m) and 24 h after rapid ascent to 4559 m (HA). 24/41 subjects had a history of HAPE and were thus considered HAPE-susceptible (HAPE-s). Out of the latter, 10/24 HAPE-s subjects were randomly chosen to suppress the inflammatory cascade with dexamethasone 8 mg bid 24 h prior to ascent. Results. Acute hypoxic exposure led to an acute inflammatory reaction represented by an increase in suPAR (1.9 ± 0.4 at SL versus 2.3 ± 0.5 at HA, p < 0.01), CRP (0.7 ± 0.5 at SL versus 3.6 ± 4.6 at HA, p < 0.01), and IL-6 (0.8 ± 0.4 at SL versus 3.3 ± 4.9 at HA, p < 0.01) in all subjects except those receiving dexamethasone. The ascent associated decrease in PaO2 correlated with the increase in IL-6 (r = 0.46, p < 0.001), but not suPAR (r = 0.27, p = 0.08); the increase in IL-6 was not correlated with suPAR (r = 0.16, p = 0.24). Baseline suPAR plasma concentration was higher in the HAPE-s group (2.0 ± 0.4 versus 1.8 ± 0.4, p = 0.04); no difference was found for CRP and IL-6 and for subjects developing AMS. Conclusion. High altitude exposure leads to an increase in suPAR plasma concentration, with the missing correlation between suPAR and IL-6 suggesting a cytokine independent, leukocyte mediated mechanism of low grade inflammation. The correlation between IL-6 and PaO2 suggests a direct effect of hypoxia, which is not the case for suPAR. However, suPAR plasma concentration measured before hypoxic exposure may predict

  15. Effect of aerobic training on plasma cytokines and soluble receptors in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis, in response to acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Wellington Fabiano; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Arrieiro, Arthur Nascimento; Fonseca, Sueli Ferreira; Amorim, Mateus Ramos; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Miranda, Aline Silva; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Brito-Melo, Gustavo Eustáquio Alvim

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and soluble forms of the TNF-α receptor (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) from plasma taken from the peripheral blood of elderly individuals presenting with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. These patients underwent aerobic treatment through the use of physical exercises. The study consisted of a longitudinal analysis of older individuals presenting clinical and radiographic diagnosis of knee OA that were submitted to 12 weeks of aerobic treatment. The individuals were evaluated during acute exercise or after chronic exercise. During acute exercise (walking slowly on the mat), blood samples of the patients were collected before, immediately after, and 30 min following the end of training. After chronic exercise (aerobic walking training, three times/week for 12 weeks), patient blood samples were obtained for comparison. Additionally, clinical and functional assessments (WOMAC test and 6-min walk) were performed at the end of all physical exercises. Plasma concentrations of cytokines and soluble receptors were measured by ELISA. Aerobic training increased the plasma concentration of sTNR1; however, it decreased the plasma concentration of sTNFR2, when compared with levels of resting patients. Acute exercise differentially affects the levels of sTNFR1 dependent on when the samples were taken, before and after aerobic training. However, the levels of sTNFR2 were not affected by training. For the population studied, we observed differences in the levels of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 following acute and chronic exercise. Other additional factors, like the level of inactivity of the individual and the type of physical exercise that patients are exposed to, need to be considered as well. The variation in the levels of soluble receptors correlated with functional improvement; however, the inflammatory osteoarthritis markers (IL-6 and TNF-α) were unaffected by the walking exercises.

  16. Implementation of decoy states in a subcarrier wave quantum key distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidash, A.; Kozubov, A.; Egorov, V.; Gleim, A.

    2016-08-01

    Subcarrier wave quantum key distribution systems demonstrate promising capabilities for secure quantum networking. However for this class of devices no implementation of secure decoy states protocol was developed. It leaves them potentially vulnerable to photon-number splitting attacks on quantum channel and limiting the key distribution distance. We propose a practical solution to this problem by calculating the required parameters of light source and modulation indices for signal and decoy states in a subcarrier wave system and describing the corresponding experimental scheme.

  17. Identification of a soluble leptin receptor in crucian carp with different binding affinity to leptin-a and leptin-b.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feifei; Li, Xin; Huang, Saifan; Li, Jiyuan; Guo, Xiaopin; Cao, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Soluble leptin receptor (sLepR) is the main leptin-binding protein in plasma and contributes to activation of circulating leptin. In this study, we identified a sLepR in plasma of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) using a pull-down assay, and the interaction of sLepR with its ligand is confirmed by a cross-linking study. In addition, we found that leptin-a has higher affinity than leptin-b for sLepR. According to our knowledge, this is the first experimental report about the main ligand of sLepR in teleost.

  18. NFkappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides ameliorates osteoporosis through inhibition of activation and differentiation of osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Nakagami, H; Tsukamoto, I; Morita, S; Kunugiza, Y; Tomita, T; Yoshikawa, H; Kaneda, Y; Ogihara, T; Morishita, R

    2006-06-01

    The transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB), is believed to play a pivotal role in osteoclast formation. In this study, we focused on NFkappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) as a new therapeutic strategy to attenuate osteoporosis. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear osteoclasts formed in mononuclear cells including osteoclast precursors from neonatal rabbit bone marrow were increased in the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, whereas transfection of NFkappaB decoy ODN decreased the number of TRAP-positive cells and attenuated RANKL and M-CSF-induced osteoclast formation. NFkappaB decoy ODN also inhibited the activity of osteoclasts, as assessed by pit formation. In rat ovariectomized model of estrogen deficiency, continuous administration of NFkappaB decoy ODN attenuated the increase of TRAP activity, accompanied by a significant increase in calcium concentration in tibia and femur and decrease in urinary deoxypyridinoline. In additional osteoporosis model using vitamin C-deficient rat, inhibition of NFkappaB by decoy ODN dramatically improved the bone length, weight, density as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Overall, inhibition of NFkappaB by decoy strategy prevented osteoporosis through the inhibition of bone resorption. Targeting of NFkappaB might be potential therapy in various bone metabolic diseases.

  19. The development of the asymmetrically dominated decoy effect in young children

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    One classic example of context-independent violations is the asymmetrically dominated decoy effect, in which adding a decoy option (inferior option) to a set of original options often increases the individual’s preference for one option over the other original option. Despite the prevalence of this effect, little is known about its developmental origins. Moreover, it remains contentious whether the decoy effect is a result of biological evolution or is learned from social experience. Here, we investigated the decoy effect in 3- to 7-year-old children (n = 175) and young adults (n = 52) using a simple perceptual task. Results showed that older children (5-year-olds and 7-year-olds), but not younger children (3-year-olds), exhibited a decoy effect. Nevertheless, children as young as age 5 exhibited a decoy effect that was not significantly different from that shown by young adults. These findings suggest that humans start to appreciate the relative values of options at around age 5. PMID:26935899

  20. Artificial decoy spectral libraries for false discovery rate estimation in spectral library searching in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Lam, Henry; Deutsch, Eric W; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of estimating false discovery rates (FDR) in peptide identification from MS/MS spectra has received increased attention in proteomics. The simple approach of target-decoy searching has become popular with traditional sequence (database) searching methods, but has yet to be practiced in spectral (library) searching, an emerging alternative to sequence searching. We extended this target-decoy searching approach to spectral searching by developing and validating a robust method to generate realistic, but unnatural, decoy spectra. Our method involves randomly shuffling the peptide identification of each reference spectrum in the library, and repositioning each fragment ion peak along the m/z axis to match the fragment ions expected from the shuffled sequence. We show that this method produces decoy spectra that are sufficiently realistic, such that incorrect identifications are equally likely to match real and decoy spectra, a key assumption necessary for decoy counting. This approach has been implemented in the open-source library building software, SpectraST.

  1. Human NgR-Fc Decoy Protein via Lumbar Intrathecal Bolus Administration Enhances Recovery from Rat Spinal Cord Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingxing; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Sekine-Komo, Tomoko; Wirak, Dana; Frieden, Eric; Bhargava, Ajay; Maynard, George; Cafferty, William B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Axonal growth and neurological recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited by the presence of inhibitory proteins in myelin, several of which act via the NgR1 protein in neurons. A truncated soluble ligand-binding fragment of NgR1 serves as a decoy and promotes recovery in acute and chronic rodent SCI models. To develop the translational potential of these observations, we created a human sequence-derived NgR1(310)-Fc protein. This protein is active in vitro. When the human NgR1 decoy is administered by continuous intracerebroventricular infusion to rats with a spinal contusion injury at doses of 0.09–0.53 mg/kg/d, neurological recovery is improved. Effective doses double the percentage of rats able to bear weight on their hindlimbs. Next, we considered the half-life and distribution of NgR1(310)-Fc after bolus delivery to the lumbar intrathecal space. The protein is found throughout the neuraxis and has a tissue half-life of approximately 2 days in the rat, and 5 days in the nonhuman primate. At an intermittent, once every 4 day, lumbar bolus dosing schedule of 0.14 mg/kg/d, NgR1(310)-Fc promoted locomotor rat recovery from spinal cord contusion at least as effectively as continuous infusion in open field and grid walking tasks. Moreover, the intermittent lumbar NgR1(310)-Fc treatment increased the growth of raphespinal axons into the lumbar spinal cord after injury. Thus, human NgR1(310)-Fc provides effective treatment for recovery from traumatic SCI in this preclinical model with a simplified administration regimen that facilitates clinical testing. PMID:24964223

  2. Using decoy effects to influence an online brand choice: the role of price-quality trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Huei-Chen; Liu, Wen-Liang

    2011-04-01

    This research aims to investigate decoy effects on online brand choices. To assess the influence of decoys, we test decoy effects on three constructs-product involvement, judgment conditions, and decoy conditions-within an online experiment. A survey of 635 Internet users and a 2 × 2 × 3 ANOVA between-subjects experimental design is used to guide the research design and the systematic analysis procedure. A major finding of this study is that a standard decoy seems to have a significant effect on an advertised (target) brand for high-involvement products; from the survey, it is also apparent that competitors can also use inferior decoys to increase brand preference for low-involvement products.

  3. Involvement of H1 and H2 receptors and soluble guanylate cyclase in histamine-induced relaxation of rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Kristine H.; Moor, Andrea N.; Souza-Smith, Flavia M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the roles of the H1 and H2 histamine receptors, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, and soluble guanylate (sGC) cyclase in histamine-induced modulation of rat mesenteric collecting lymphatic pumping. Methods Isolated rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics were treated with 1–100 μM histamine. Histamine receptors were blocked with either the H1 antagonist mepyramine or the H2 antagonist cimetidine. The role of NO/sGC signaling was tested using the arginine analog L-NAME, the sGC inhibitor ODQ, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a positive control. Results Histamine applied at 100 μM decreased tone and contraction frequency (CF) of isolated rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics. Pharmacologic blockade of either H1 or H2 histamine receptors significantly inhibited the response to histamine. Pretreatment with ODQ, but not L-NAME, completely inhibited the histamine-induced decrease in tone. ODQ pretreatment also significantly inhibited SNP-induced lymphatic relaxation. Conclusions H1 and H2 histamine receptors are both involved in histamine-induced relaxation of rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics. NO synthesis does not appear to contribute to the histamine-induced response. However, sGC is critical for the histamine-induced decrease in tone and contributes to the drop in CF. PMID:24702851

  4. Free and total leptin serum levels and soluble leptin receptors levels in two models of genetic obesity: the Prader-Willi and the Down syndromes.

    PubMed

    Proto, Caterina; Romualdi, Daniela; Cento, Rosa Maria; Romano, Corrado; Campagna, Giuseppe; Lanzone, Antonio

    2007-08-01

    Alterations in energy balance and feeding behavior and the subsequent high frequency of obesity are hallmarks of 2 chromosomal diseases: the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and the Down syndrome (DS). Leptin, an important regulator of food intake and energy homeostasis, circulates in 2 forms: a free, therefore active, fraction and a fraction bound to the soluble leptin receptor, whose bioavailability consequently participates in the regulation of leptin action. To investigate the possible role of the free-bound leptin balance in the pathogenesis of obesity in PWS and DS, we enrolled 7 obese women with DS, 5 obese women with PWS, 7 obese women, and 7 normal-weight healthy control women. Basal hormonal concentrations, total and free leptin levels, and leptin receptors levels were measured in plasma samples obtained from the 4 groups. No significant differences were observed in the hormonal milieu. Women with DS exhibited lower total leptin concentrations (P<.01), comparable leptin receptor level and, therefore, lower free leptin values (P<.01) when compared with obese controls, then resembling the profile peculiar to normal-weight control women. At variance, subjects with PWS did not differ from obese controls regarding both leptin and leptin receptor levels. Our data suggest that, whereas subjects with PWS have a leptin assessment corresponding to their degree of obesity, subjects with DS may have a defect in the secretion of leptin that could at least partially account for this form of syndromal obesity.

  5. [Research on Spectrum Radiation Characteristics of a New Type Infrared/ Ultraviolet Dual Color Decoy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-sheng; Dai, Meng-yan; Liu, Hai-feng; Xie, Chang-you; Zhang, Tong; Fang, Guo-feng

    2015-07-01

    The advantage of traditional MTV infrared decoys which are mainly consist of magnesium, Teflon and VITON is that it emits high radiant energy, so it is an effective countermeasure to traditional seekers which seek the target by heat source. The spectral radiant intensity which generated from high temperature combustion of MTV infrared decoys in near infrared region and ultraviolet band is very high, and that in Mid-IR region is relative lower, however the radiant intensity of real jet fighter in ultraviolet band is low and the infrared radiant intensity ratio of Mid-IR to near IR band is greater than 1. Thus, the traditional MTV infrared decoys are hardly able to counter the seekers equipped with dual color combined guidance system. Based on the spectral matching principle, we designed and prepared a new infrared/ultraviolet dual color decoy which is mainly consist of oxidant (wt% 45-75), fuel (wt% 10-25), energetic binder (wt% 25-50) and additives. We conducted theoretical calculations on combustion products of the reagent combinations using CEA (Chemic equilibrium & Application) software and initially determined the content of each component of the decoy formulation on the basis of the calculations results, then investigated the infrared radiation characteristics of decoys employing SR5000 spectrum radiometer and remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 and analyzed the possible reasons for test results difference of the two systems separately from the test principle and calculation method, the testing environment, stability of testing results and other aspects. We studied the ultraviolet radiation characteristics of decoys using S2000 fiber optical spectrometer and the test results were consistent with the fighter ultraviolet radiant intensity which gained from theoretical calculation. We researched on the temperature characteristics of decoys by Imager IR 8325 mid-infrared thermal imager and it turned out that the dual color decoy is similar to the

  6. [Research on Spectrum Radiation Characteristics of a New Type Infrared/ Ultraviolet Dual Color Decoy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-sheng; Dai, Meng-yan; Liu, Hai-feng; Xie, Chang-you; Zhang, Tong; Fang, Guo-feng

    2015-07-01

    The advantage of traditional MTV infrared decoys which are mainly consist of magnesium, Teflon and VITON is that it emits high radiant energy, so it is an effective countermeasure to traditional seekers which seek the target by heat source. The spectral radiant intensity which generated from high temperature combustion of MTV infrared decoys in near infrared region and ultraviolet band is very high, and that in Mid-IR region is relative lower, however the radiant intensity of real jet fighter in ultraviolet band is low and the infrared radiant intensity ratio of Mid-IR to near IR band is greater than 1. Thus, the traditional MTV infrared decoys are hardly able to counter the seekers equipped with dual color combined guidance system. Based on the spectral matching principle, we designed and prepared a new infrared/ultraviolet dual color decoy which is mainly consist of oxidant (wt% 45-75), fuel (wt% 10-25), energetic binder (wt% 25-50) and additives. We conducted theoretical calculations on combustion products of the reagent combinations using CEA (Chemic equilibrium & Application) software and initially determined the content of each component of the decoy formulation on the basis of the calculations results, then investigated the infrared radiation characteristics of decoys employing SR5000 spectrum radiometer and remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 and analyzed the possible reasons for test results difference of the two systems separately from the test principle and calculation method, the testing environment, stability of testing results and other aspects. We studied the ultraviolet radiation characteristics of decoys using S2000 fiber optical spectrometer and the test results were consistent with the fighter ultraviolet radiant intensity which gained from theoretical calculation. We researched on the temperature characteristics of decoys by Imager IR 8325 mid-infrared thermal imager and it turned out that the dual color decoy is similar to the

  7. Tumor necrosis factor soluble receptors circulate during experimental and clinical inflammation and can protect against excessive tumor necrosis factor alpha in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Van Zee, K J; Kohno, T; Fischer, E; Rock, C S; Moldawer, L L; Lowry, S F

    1992-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), a primary mediator of systemic responses to sepsis and infection, can be injurious to the organism when present in excessive quantities. Here we report that two types of naturally occurring soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II) circulate in human experimental endotoxemia and in critically ill patients and demonstrate that they neutralize TNF alpha-induced cytotoxicity and immunoreactivity in vitro. Utilizing immunoassays that discriminate between total sTNFR-I and sTNFR-I not bound to TNF alpha, we show that sTNFR-I-TNF alpha complexes may circulate even in the absence of detectable free TNF alpha. To investigate the therapeutic possibilities of sTNFR-I, recombinant protein was administered to nonhuman primates with lethal bacteremia and found to attenuate hemodynamic collapse and cytokine induction. We conclude that soluble receptors for TNF alpha are inducible in inflammation and circulate at levels sufficient to block the in vitro cytotoxicity associated with TNF alpha levels observed in nonlethal infection. Administration of sTNFR-I can prevent the adverse pathologic sequelae caused by the exaggerated TNF alpha production observed in lethal sepsis. Images PMID:1317575

  8. Diabetes enhances the efficacy of AAV2 vectors in the retina: therapeutic effect of AAV2 encoding vasoinhibin and soluble VEGF receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Lezama, Nundehui; Wu, Zhijian; Adán-Castro, Elva; Arnold, Edith; Vázquez-Membrillo, Miguel; Arredondo-Zamarripa, David; Ledesma-Colunga, Maria G; Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Martinez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Colosi, Peter; Clapp, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated delivery of inhibitors of blood-retinal barrier breakdown (BRBB) offers promise for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. Here, we demonstrated a reversal of blood-retinal barrier pathology mediated by AAV type 2 (AAV2) vectors encoding vasoinhibin or soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt-1) when administered intravitreally to diabetic rats. Efficacy and safety of the AAV2 vasoinhibin vector were tested by monitoring its effect on diabetes-induced changes in the retinal vascular bed and thickness, and in the electroretinogram (ERG). Also, the transduction of AAV2 vectors and expression of AAV2 receptors and co-receptors were compared between the diabetic and the non-diabetic rat retinas. AAV2 vasoinhibin or AAV2 sFlt-1 vectors were injected intravitreally before or after enhanced BRBB due to diabetes induced by streptozotocin. The BRBB was examined by the Evans blue method, the vascular bed by fluorescein angiography, expression of the AAV2 EGFP reporter vector by confocal microscopy, and the AAV2 genome, expression of transgenes, receptors, and co-receptors by quantitative PCR. AAV2 vasoinhibin and sFlt-1 vectors inhibited the diabetes-mediated increase in BRBB when injected after, but not before, diabetes was induced. The AAV2 vasoinhibin vector decreased retinal microvascular abnormalities and the diabetes-induced reduction of the B-wave of the ERG, but it had no effect in non-diabetic controls. Also, retinal thickness was not altered by diabetes or by the AAV2 vasoinhibin vector. The AAV2 genome, vasoinhibin and sFlt-1 transgenes, and EGFP levels were higher in the retinas from diabetic rats and were associated with an elevated expression of AAV2 receptors (syndecan, glypican, and perlecan) and co-receptors (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, αvβ5 integrin, and hepatocyte growth factor receptor). We conclude that retinal transduction and efficacy of AAV2 vectors are enhanced in diabetes, possibly due to their elevated

  9. Direct adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor α soluble receptors to rabbit knees with experimental arthritis has local and distal anti-arthritic effects

    PubMed Central

    Ghivizzani, Steven C.; Lechman, Eric R.; Kang, Richard; Tio, Caroline; Kolls, Jay; Evans, Christopher H.; Robbins, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors were used to deliver genes encoding a soluble interleukin 1 (IL-1)-type I receptor-IgG fusion protein and/or a soluble type I tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor-IgG fusion protein directly to the knees of rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis. When tested individually, knees receiving the soluble IL-1 receptor had significantly reduced cartilage matrix degradation and white blood cell infiltration into the joint space. Delivery of the soluble TNFα receptor was less effective, having only a moderate effect on white blood cell infiltration and no effect on cartilage breakdown. When both soluble receptors were used together, there was a greater inhibition of white blood cell infiltration and cartilage breakdown with a considerable reduction of synovitis. Interestingly, anti-arthritic effects were also seen in contralateral control knees receiving only a marker gene, suggesting that sustained local inhibition of disease activity in one joint may confer an anti-arthritic effect on other joints. These results suggest that local intra-articular gene transfer could be used to treat systemic polyarticular arthritides. PMID:9539786

  10. MANPADS protection for civil aircraft using an expendable decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, Roy H.; Friede, Johan; Millwood, Nicolas; Butters, Brian

    2009-09-01

    With the ever present threat of MANPADS throughout the world the protection of civil aircraft is a desirable capability that has special requirements in terms of certification, safety, logistics, affordability, environmental impact and exportability. The Civil Aircraft Missile Protection System (CAMPS), which includes the CIV-IR (infrared) leaf-based pyrophoric (not pyrotechnic) expendable countermeasure, is a system designed to meet these requirements. This paper presents the operating aspects of the decoy, including discussion of design features necessary to ensure safety both on the ground and in flight and assure successful deployment. The characteristics of the CIV-IR have been measured, both on static single leaves in the laboratory and on deployed packs in field tests and aircraft trials. These measured properties have been used in engagement modelling and simulation to assess the level of protection that can be afforded to commercial airliners against generation 1 and 2 MANPADS threats. Aircraft flight trials with ground based seekers have also been carried out to validate the modelling work. These combine to define the deployment patterns necessary for a successful seduction of the MANPAD.

  11. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-09-30

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  12. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Michael J.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Hall, Loyal P.; Badding, John V.; Bischof, Jesse L.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C.; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle’s wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  13. S100A12 and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products levels during human severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Achouiti, Ahmed; Föll, Dirk; Vogl, Thomas; van Till, Jan W O; Laterre, Pierre-François; Dugernier, Thierry; Wittebole, Xavier; Boermeester, Marja A; Roth, Johannes; van der Poll, Tom; van Zoelen, Marieke A D

    2013-09-01

    S100A12 is highly expressed, and serum levels correlate with individual disease activity in patients with inflammatory diseases. We here sought to determine the extent of S100A12 release and its soluble high-affinity receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in patients with severe sepsis stratified to the three most common infectious sources (lungs, abdomen, and urinary tract) and to determine S100A12 and sRAGE concentrations at the site of infection during peritonitis. Two patient populations were studied: (a) 51 patients with sepsis due to (i) peritonitis (n = 12), (ii) pneumonia (n = 29), or (iii) urinary tract infection (n = 10); and (b) 17 patients with peritonitis. In addition, eight healthy humans were studied after intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (4 ng/kg). Compared with healthy volunteers, patients with severe sepsis displayed increased circulating S100A12 concentrations at day 0 (591.2 ± 101.0 vs. 106.2 ± 15.6 ng/mL [control subjects], P < 0.0001) and at day 3 (637.2 ± 111.2 vs. 106.2 ± 15.6 ng/mL [control subjects], P < 0.0001). All three severe sepsis subgroups had elevated serum S100A12 concentrations at both time points (sepsis due to [i] peritonitis [393.5 ± 89.9 at day 0 and 337.9 ± 97.2 at day 3 vs. 106.2 ± 15.6 ng/mL, control subjects, P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively]; [ii] pneumonia [716.9 ± 167.0 at day 0 and 787.5 ± 164.7 at day 3 vs. 106.2 ± 15.6 ng/mL, control subjects, both P < 0.0001]; and [iii] urinary tract infection [464.2 ± 115.6 at day 0 and 545.6 ± 254.9 at day 3 vs. 106.2 ± 15.6 ng/mL, control subjects, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively]). Remarkably, patients with sepsis due to pneumonia had the highest S100A12 levels (716.9 ± 167.0 and 787.5 ± 164.7 ng/mL at days 0 and 3, respectively). S100A12 levels were not correlated to either Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (r = -0.185, P = 0.19) or Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment scores (r = -0.194, P = 0

  14. Cloning of Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor cDNA and Expression of Recombinant Soluble TNF-Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Patrick W.; Barrett, Kathy; Chantry, David; Turner, Martin; Feldmann, Marc

    1990-10-01

    The cDNA for one of the receptors for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated. This cDNA encodes a protein of 455 amino acids that is divided into an extracellular domain of 171 residues and a cytoplasmic domain of 221 residues. The extracellular domain has been engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and this recombinant derivative binds TNFα with high affinity and inhibits its cytotoxic activity in vitro. The TNF receptor exhibits similarity with a family of cell surface proteins that includes the nerve growth factor receptor, the human B-cell surface antigen CD40, and the rat T-cell surface antigen OX40. The TNF receptor contains four cysteine-rich subdomains in the extra-cellular portion. Mammalian cells transfected with the entire TNF receptor cDNA bind radiolabeled TNFα with an affinity of 2.5 x 10-9 M. This binding can be competitively inhibited with unlabeled TNFα or lymphotoxin (TNFβ).

  15. The role of protein kinase C in transmembrane signaling by the T cell antigen receptor complex. Effects of stimulation with soluble or immobilized CD3 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Manger, B; Weiss, A; Imboden, J; Laing, T; Stobo, J D

    1987-10-15

    Phorbol esters, such as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), are known to be potent co-stimulants with calcium ionophores for activation of T lymphocytes. The most extensively studied intracellular effect of PMA is its ability to activate the cytoplasmic enzyme protein kinase C (pkC). Herein, we examined the role of pkC activation during T cell activation. During physiologic activation, this enzyme is activated by diacylglycerol which is generated through the hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides. Therefore, we studied the activation of T lymphocytes induced by a synthetic diacylglycerol, dioctanoylglycerol. In contrast to PMA, this compound can be metabolized in T cells and presumably more closely mimics physiologic activation of pkC. Dioctanoylglycerol together with reagents that induce increases in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, Ca2+ ionophores, or anti-cluster designation (CD)3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were able to induce interleukin 2 receptor expression and proliferation of T lymphocytes. Previous studies have demonstrated that the stimulation of T cells via the CD3/T cell antigen receptor complex by mAb against CD3 leads to an increase in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ and to an activation of pkC. Paradoxically, however, soluble CD3 antibodies do not cause proliferation of resting purified T cells. Inasmuch as immobilization of CD3 mAb has been shown to influence the agonist properties of such antibodies, we compared the ability of soluble and immobilized CD3 mAb to activate pkC. We demonstrated herein that soluble CD3 mAb cause only a very transient activation of pkC in the T cell leukemic line Jurkat. This pkC activation is markedly prolonged when Jurkat cells are stimulated with immobilized rather than soluble CD3 antibodies. These studies suggest that activation of pkC plays a major role in T cell activation and that the activation of pkC is influenced by the form in which CD3 mAb is presented to T cells.

  16. Macrophage-related serum biomarkers soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble mannose receptor (sMR) to differentiate mild liver fibrosis from cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, E S; Rødgaard-Hansen, S; Moessner, B; Christensen, P B; Møller, H J; Weis, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages regulate the fibrotic process in chronic liver disease. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate two new macrophage-specific serum biomarkers [soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble mannose receptor (sMR, sCD206)] as potential fibrosis markers in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Forty patients with chronic hepatitis C were included from two hospital clinics. On the day of inclusion, transient elastography (TE) was performed to assess the fibrosis stage, and blood samples were collected for the measurement of sCD163 and sMR. The plasma concentrations of both biomarkers were significantly higher in patients infected with HCV and with cirrhosis compared to those with no/mild liver fibrosis (5.77 mg/l vs. 2.49 mg/l and 0.44 mg/l vs. 0.30 mg/l for sCD163 and sMR, respectively). The best separation between groups was obtained by sCD163 [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.89 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.99)] as compared to sMR [AUC 0.75 (95 % CI 0.61-0.90)]. sCD163 and sMR correlated significantly (r (2) = 0.53, p < 0.0001). Interestingly, sCD163 also correlated significantly with TNF-α (presented in a previous publication), which is shed to serum by the same mechanism as sCD163 (r (2) = 0.40, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the macrophage-related markers sCD163 and sMR are significantly higher in patients chronically infected with HCV and with cirrhosis than in those with no/mild fibrosis. sCD163 is a promising new fibrosis marker in patients infected with HCV.

  17. Structure and decoy-mediated inhibition of the SOX18/Prox1-DNA interaction

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Miriam; Prokoph, Nina; Girbig, Mathias; Wang, Xuecong; Huang, Yong-Heng; Srivastava, Yogesh; Hou, Linlin; Narasimhan, Kamesh; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.; Francois, Mathias; Jauch, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor (TF) SOX18 drives lymphatic vessel development in both embryogenesis and tumour-induced neo-lymphangiogenesis. Genetic disruption of Sox18 in a mouse model protects from tumour metastasis and established the SOX18 protein as a molecular target. Here, we report the crystal structure of the SOX18 DNA binding high-mobility group (HMG) box bound to a DNA element regulating Prox1 transcription. The crystals diffracted to 1.75Å presenting the highest resolution structure of a SOX/DNA complex presently available revealing water structure, structural adjustments at the DNA contact interface and non-canonical conformations of the DNA backbone. To explore alternatives to challenging small molecule approaches for targeting the DNA-binding activity of SOX18, we designed a set of five decoys based on modified Prox1-DNA. Four decoys potently inhibited DNA binding of SOX18 in vitro and did not interact with non-SOX TFs. Serum stability, nuclease resistance and thermal denaturation assays demonstrated that a decoy circularized with a hexaethylene glycol linker and terminal phosphorothioate modifications is most stable. This SOX decoy also interfered with the expression of a luciferase reporter under control of a SOX18-dependent VCAM1 promoter in COS7 cells. Collectively, we propose SOX decoys as potential strategy for inhibiting SOX18 activity to disrupt tumour-induced neo-lymphangiogenesis. PMID:26939885

  18. Experimental demonstration of passive-decoy-state quantum key distribution with two independent lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2016-09-01

    The decoy-state method could effectively enhance the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD) with a practical phase randomized weak coherent source. Although active modulation of the source intensity is effective and has been implemented in many experiments, passive preparation of decoy states is also an important addition to the family of decoy-state QKD protocols. In this paper, following the theory of Curty et al. [Phys. Rev. A 81, 022310 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.022310], we experimentally demonstrate the phase-encoding passive-decoy-state QKD with only linear optical setups and threshold single-photon detectors. In our experiment, two homemade independent pulsed lasers, with visibility of Hong-Ou-Mandel interference 0.53 (±0.003 ) , have been implemented and used to passively generate the different decoy states. Finally, a secret key rate of 1.5 ×10-5 /pulse is obtained with 10-km commercial fiber between Alice and Bob.

  19. CSAR Data Set Release 2012: Ligands, Affinities, Complexes, and Docking Decoys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A major goal in drug design is the improvement of computational methods for docking and scoring. The Community Structure Activity Resource (CSAR) has collected several data sets from industry and added in-house data sets that may be used for this purpose (www.csardock.org). CSAR has currently obtained data from Abbott, GlaxoSmithKline, and Vertex and is working on obtaining data from several others. Combined with our in-house projects, we are providing a data set consisting of 6 protein targets, 647 compounds with biological affinities, and 82 crystal structures. Multiple congeneric series are available for several targets with a few representative crystal structures of each of the series. These series generally contain a few inactive compounds, usually not available in the literature, to provide an upper bound to the affinity range. The affinity ranges are typically 3–4 orders of magnitude per series. For our in-house projects, we have had compounds synthesized for biological testing. Affinities were measured by Thermofluor, Octet RED, and isothermal titration calorimetry for the most soluble. This allows the direct comparison of the biological affinities for those compounds, providing a measure of the variance in the experimental affinity. It appears that there can be considerable variance in the absolute value of the affinity, making the prediction of the absolute value ill-defined. However, the relative rankings within the methods are much better, and this fits with the observation that predicting relative ranking is a more tractable problem computationally. For those in-house compounds, we also have measured the following physical properties: logD, logP, thermodynamic solubility, and pKa. This data set also provides a substantial decoy set for each target consisting of diverse conformations covering the entire active site for all of the 58 CSAR-quality crystal structures. The CSAR data sets (CSAR-NRC HiQ and the 2012 release) provide substantial, publically

  20. Soluble CD14 and toll-like receptor-2 are potential salivary biomarkers for oral lichen planus and burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Kodumudi, Krithika N; Zunt, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS) are chronic conditions affecting the oral mucosa characterized by pain and burning sensation. Saliva plays a significant role in the maintenance of physical and functional integrity of normal oral mucosa. Identification of potential "salivary biomarkers" for early diagnosis and/or monitoring of human diseases is being explored. We investigated the soluble forms of innate immune associated proteins CD14 and toll-like receptor-2 in unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) as potential biomarkers for OLP and BMS. Our results suggest that the levels of sCD14 and sTLR-2 in UWS were upregulated in OLP and BMS respectively. In addition, oral epithelial cells in the saliva of patients with OLP and BMS exhibited elevated levels of CD14 mRNA and decreased levels of TLR-2 mRNA. Interestingly, presence of co-existent oral candidiasis nullified these changes.

  1. Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Hoetzel, Isidro . E-mail: ihotzel@gene.com; Cheevers, William P.

    2005-09-01

    The caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna (MVV) viruses are resistant to antibody neutralization, a feature shared with all other lentiviruses. Whether the CAEV gp135 receptor binding site(s) (RBS) in the functional surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) is protected from antibody binding, allowing the virus to resist neutralization, is not known. Two CAEV gp135 regions were identified by extrapolating a gp135 structural model that could affect binding of antibodies to the RBS: the V1 region and a short sequence analogous in position to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 loop B postulated to be located between two major domains of CAEV gp135. Mutation of isoleucine-166 to alanine in the putative loop B of gp135 increased the affinity of soluble gp135 for the CAEV receptor(s) and goat monoclonal antibody (Mab) F7-299 which recognizes an epitope overlapping the gp135 RBS. The I166A mutation also stabilized or exposed the F7-299 epitope in anionic detergent buffers, indicating that the I166A mutation induces conformational changes and stabilizes the RBS of soluble gp135 and enhances Mab F7-299 binding. In contrast, the affinity of a V1 deletion mutant of gp135 for the receptor and Mab F7-299 and its structural stability did not differ from that of the wild-type gp135. However, both the I166A mutation and the V1 deletion of gp135 increased cell-to-cell fusion activity and binding of Mab F7-299 to the oligomeric Env. Therefore, the CAEV gp135 RBS is protected from antibody binding by mechanisms both dependent and independent of Env oligomerization which are disrupted by the V1 deletion and the I166A mutation, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between side-chain {beta}-branching at amino acid position 166 and binding of Mab F7-299 to oligomeric Env and cell-to-cell fusion, suggesting local secondary structure constraints in the region around isoleucine-166 as one determinant of gp135 RBS exposure and antibody binding.

  2. When target-decoy false discovery rate estimations are inaccurate and how to spot instances.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    To address problems with estimating the reliability of proteomic search engine results from mass spectrometry fragmentation data, the use of target-decoy database searching has become the de facto approach for estimating a false discovery rate. Several articles have been written about the effects of different ways of creating the decoy database, effects of the search engine scoring, or effects of search parameters on whether this approach provides an accurate estimate, not all agreeing with each other's conclusions. Hence, there may be some confusion about how effective this approach is and how broadly it can be applied. Although it is generally very effective, in this article I will try to emphasize some of the pitfalls and dangers of using the target-decoy approach and will indicate tell-tale signs that something may be amiss. This information will hopefully help researchers become more astute in their assessment of search results.

  3. Ecdysone receptor isoform-B mediates soluble trehalase expression to regulate growth and development in the mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür).

    PubMed

    Tan, Y-A; Xiao, L-B; Zhao, J; Xiao, Y-F; Sun, Y; Bai, L-X

    2015-12-01

    Ecdysone receptor (EcR) is the hormonal receptor of ecdysteroids and strictly regulates growth and development in insects. However, the action mechanism of EcR is not very clear. In this study, the cDNA of EcR isoform-B was cloned from Apolygus lucorum (AlEcR-B) and its expression profile was investigated. We reduced AlEcR-B mRNA expression using systemic RNA interference in vivo, and obtained knockdown specimens. Examination of these specimens indicated that AlEcR-B is required for nymphal survival, and that reduced expression is associated with longer development time and lower nymphal weight. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of the observed suppression effects, we selected trehalase for a detailed study. Transcript encoding soluble trehalase (AlTre-1) was up-regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone and in agreement with the mRNA expression of AlEcR-B. The expression profile of AlTre-1, soluble trehalase activity and translated protein level in the midgut of surviving nymphs were down-regulated, compared with controls, after the knockdown expression of AlEcR-B. By contrast, membrane-bound trehalase activity, the related gene expression and translated protein level remained at their initial levels. However, trehalose content significantly increased and the glucose content significantly decreased under the same conditions. We propose that AlEcR-B controls normal carbohydrate metabolism by mediating the expression of AlTre-1 to regulate the growth and development in A. lucorum, which provide an extended information into the functions of AlEcR-B.

  4. The mRNA expression of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor in human adipose tissue is positively correlated with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hien Fuh; Chin, Kin Fah; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-06-01

    suPLAUR is the transcript variant that encodes the soluble form of the urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (suPLAUR). This soluble protein has been shown to enhance leukocyte migration and adhesion, and its circulatory level is increased in inflammatory states. In this pilot study, we used RNA-Seq to examine the splicing pattern of PLAUR in omental adipose tissues from obese and lean individuals. Of the three transcript variants of the PLAUR gene, only the proportion of suPLAUR (transcript variant 2) increases in obesity. After removing the effects of gender and age, the expression of suPLAUR is positively correlated with body mass index. This observation was validated using RT-qPCR with an independent cohort of samples. Additionally, in our RNA-Seq differential expression analysis, we also observed, in obese adipose tissues, an up-regulation of genes encoding other proteins involved in the process of chemotaxis and leukocyte adhesion; of particular interest is the integrin beta 2 (ITGB2) that is known to interact with suPLAUR in leukocyte adhesion. These findings suggest an important role for suPLAUR in the recruitment of immune cells to obese adipose tissue, in the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:26284904

  5. Addition of interleukin 1 (IL1) and IL17 soluble receptors to a tumour necrosis factor α soluble receptor more effectively reduces the production of IL6 and macrophage inhibitory protein-3α and increases that of collagen in an in vitro model of rheumatoid synoviocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Chevrel, G; Garnero, P; Miossec, P

    2002-01-01

    Methods: A simplified model was set up to evaluate the effect of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) soluble receptors (sTNFR) used alone and in combination with soluble interleukin 1 receptor (sIL1R) and sIL17R on the production of markers of inflammation (IL6), of migration of dendritic cells (macrophage inhibitory protein-3α (MIP-3α)), and of matrix synthesis (C-propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1CP)). Synoviocytes were stimulated with supernatants of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Soluble receptors (sR) were preincubated at 1 γg/ml alone or in combination with the supernatants before addition to RA synoviocytes. IL6, MIP-3α, and P1CP production was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 48 hour synoviocyte supernatants. Results: IL6 production decreased by 16% with sTNFR alone compared with no sTNFR (p<0.001) and by 41% with the combination of the three sR (p<0.001). MIP-3α production decreased by 77% with sTNFR alone compared with no sTNFR (p<0.001) and by 98% with the combination of the three sR (p<0.001). In the presence of sTNFR alone, P1CP production increased by 25% compared with no sR (p<0.01). The combination of the three sR increased P1CP production by 48% (p<0.01). Conclusion: The effect of sTNFR on IL6, MIP-3α, and P1CP production by RA synoviocytes stimulated by activated PBMC supernatants was further enhanced when combined with sIL1R and sIL17R. PMID:12117682

  6. An enhanced proposal on decoy-state measurement device-independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Luo, Shunlong; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-09-01

    By employing pulses involving three-intensity, we propose a scheme for the measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon sources. We make a comparative study of this scheme with the standard three-intensity decoy-state scheme using weak coherent sources or heralded single-photon sources. The advantage of this scheme is illustrated through numerical simulations: It can approach very closely the asymptotic case of using an infinite number of decoy-states and exhibits excellent behavior in both the secure transmission distance and the final key generation rate.

  7. Expression and purification of the soluble isoform of human receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) from Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Ostendorp, Thorsten; Weibel, Mirjam; Leclerc, Estelle; Kleinert, Peter; Kroneck, Peter M H; Heizmann, Claus W; Fritz, Günter

    2006-08-18

    RAGE is a multi-ligand receptor involved in various human diseases including diabetes, cancer or Alzheimer's disease. Engagement of RAGE by its ligands triggers activation of key cellular signalling pathways such as the MAP kinase and NF-kappaB pathways. Whereas the main isoform of RAGE is a transmembrane receptor with both extra- and intracellular domains, a secreted soluble isoform (sRAGE), corresponding to the extracellular part only, has the ability to block RAGE signalling and suppress cellular activation. Administration of sRAGE to animal models of cancer or multiple sclerosis blocked successfully tumour growth and the course of the autoimmune disease. These findings demonstrate that sRAGE may have a potential as therapeutic. We present here a fast and simple purification protocol of sRAGE from the yeast Pichia pastoris. The identity of the protein was confirmed by mass spectrometry and Western blot. The protein was N-glycosylated and 95-98% pure as judged by SDS-PAGE. PMID:16806067

  8. The macrophage soluble receptor AIM/Api6/CD5L displays a broad pathogen recognition spectrum and is involved in early response to microbial aggression

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Vanesa G.; Escoda-Ferran, Cristina; Tadeu Simões, Inês; Arai, Satoko; Orta Mascaró, Marc; Carreras, Esther; Martínez-Florensa, Mario; Yelamos, José; Miyazaki, Toru; Lozano, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIMs), a homologue of human Spα, is a mouse soluble member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily (SRCR-SF). This family integrates a group of proteins expressed by innate and adaptive immune cells for which no unifying function has yet been described. Pleiotropic functions have been ascribed to AIM, from viability support in lymphocytes during thymic selection to lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory effects in autoimmune pathologies. In the present report, the pathogen binding properties of AIM have been explored. By using a recombinant form of AIM (rAIM) expressed in mammalian cells, it is shown that this protein is able to bind and aggregate Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as pathogenic and saprophytic fungal species. Importantly, endogenous AIM from mouse serum also binds to microorganisms and secretion of AIM was rapidly induced in mouse spleen macrophages following exposure to conserved microbial cell wall components. Cytokine release induced by well-known bacterial and fungal Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands on mouse splenocytes was also inhibited in the presence of rAIM. Furthermore, mouse models of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced septic shock of bacterial and fungal origin showed that serum AIM levels changed in a time-dependent manner. Altogether, these data suggest that AIM plays a general homeostatic role by supporting innate humoral defense during pathogen aggression. PMID:24583716

  9. A Compartment Model of VEGF Distribution in Humans in the Presence of Soluble VEGF Receptor-1 Acting as a Ligand Trap

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Florence T. H.; Stefanini, Marianne O.; Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), through its activation of cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases including VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, is a vital regulator of stimulatory and inhibitory processes that keep angiogenesis – new capillary growth from existing microvasculature – at a dynamic balance in normal physiology. Soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR1) – a naturally-occurring truncated version of VEGFR1 lacking the transmembrane and intracellular signaling domains – has been postulated to exert inhibitory effects on angiogenic signaling via two mechanisms: direct sequestration of angiogenic ligands such as VEGF; or dominant-negative heterodimerization with surface VEGFRs. In pre-clinical studies, sVEGFR1 gene and protein therapy have demonstrated efficacy in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis; while in clinical studies, sVEGFR1 has shown utility as a diagnostic or prognostic marker in a widening array of angiogenesis–dependent diseases. Here we developed a novel computational multi-tissue model for recapitulating the dynamic systemic distributions of VEGF and sVEGFR1. Model features included: physiologically-based multi-scale compartmentalization of the human body; inter-compartmental macromolecular biotransport processes (vascular permeability, lymphatic drainage); and molecularly-detailed binding interactions between the ligand isoforms VEGF121 and VEGF165, signaling receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, non-signaling co-receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP1), as well as sVEGFR1. The model was parameterized to represent a healthy human subject, whereupon we investigated the effects of sVEGFR1 on the distribution and activation of VEGF ligands and receptors. We assessed the healthy baseline stability of circulating VEGF and sVEGFR1 levels in plasma, as well as their reliability in indicating tissue-level angiogenic signaling potential. Unexpectedly, simulated results showed that sVEGFR1 – acting as a diffusible VEGF sink alone, i.e., without sVEGFR1-VEGFR heterodimerization

  10. Soluble Ligands for the NKG2D Receptor Are Released during Endometriosis and Correlate with Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    González-Foruria, Iñaki; Santulli, Pietro; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Carmona, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is a benign gynaecological disease. Abundant bulk of evidence suggests that patients with endometriosis have an immunity dysfunction that enables ectopic endometrial cells to implant and proliferate. Previous studies show that natural killer cells have a pivotal role in the immune control of endometriosis. Methods and Findings This is a prospective laboratory study conducted in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2011 and April 2013. We investigated non-pregnant, younger than 42-year-old patients (n= 202) during surgery for benign gynaecological conditions. After complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity, 121 women with histologically proven endometriosis and 81 endometriosis-free controls women were enrolled. Patients with endometriosis were classified according to a surgical classification in three different types of endometriosis: superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SUP), ovarian endometrioma (OMA) and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Peritoneal fluid samples were obtained from all study participants during the surgery in order to detect soluble NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB and ULBP-2). When samples with undetectable peritoneal fluid levels of MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 were excluded, MICA ratio levels were significantly higher in endometriosis patients than in controls (median, 1.1 pg/mg; range, 0.1–143.5 versus median, 0.6 pg/mg; range, 0.1–3.5; p=0.003). In a similar manner peritoneal fluid MICB levels were also increased in endometriosis-affected patients compared with disease-free women (median, 4.6 pg/mg; range, 1.2–4702 versus median, 3.4 pg/mg; range, 0.7–20.1; p=0.001). According to the surgical classification, peritoneal fluid soluble MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 ratio levels were significantly increased in DIE as compared to controls (p=0.015, p=0.003 and p=0.045 respectively). MICA ratio levels also correlated with dysmenorrhea (r=0.232; p=0.029), total rAFS score (r=0.221; p=0.031) and

  11. The problem with peptide presumption and the downfall of target-decoy false discovery rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In proteomics, peptide-tandem mass spectrum match scores and target-decoy database derived false discovery rates (FDR) are confidence indicators describing the quality of individual and sets of tandem mass spectrum matches. A user can impose a standard by prescribing a limit to these values, equival...

  12. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. PMID:27638115

  13. Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution with practical light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Curty, Marcos; Ma, Xiongfeng; Qi, Bing; Moroder, Tobias

    2010-02-15

    Decoy states have been proven to be a very useful method for significantly enhancing the performance of quantum key distribution systems with practical light sources. Although active modulation of the intensity of the laser pulses is an effective way of preparing decoy states in principle, in practice passive preparation might be desirable in some scenarios. Typical passive schemes involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized weak coherent pulses (WCP) can also be used for the same purpose [M. Curty et al., Opt. Lett. 34, 3238 (2009).] This proposal requires only linear optics together with a simple threshold photon detector, which shows the practical feasibility of the method. Most importantly, the resulting secret key rate is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state setup with an infinite number of decoy settings. In this article we extend these results, now showing specifically the analysis for other practical scenarios with different light sources and photodetectors. In particular, we consider sources emitting thermal states, phase-randomized WCP, and strong coherent light in combination with several types of photodetectors, like, for instance, threshold photon detectors, photon number resolving detectors, and classical photodetectors. Our analysis includes as well the effect that detection inefficiencies and noise in the form of dark counts shown by current threshold detectors might have on the final secret key rate. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects that statistical fluctuations due to a finite data size can have in practical implementations.

  14. Refining similarity scoring to enable decoy-free validation in spectral library searching.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenguang; Zhu, Kan; Lam, Henry

    2013-11-01

    Spectral library searching is a maturing approach for peptide identification from MS/MS, offering an alternative to traditional sequence database searching. Spectral library searching relies on direct spectrum-to-spectrum matching between the query data and the spectral library, which affords better discrimination of true and false matches, leading to improved sensitivity. However, due to the inherent diversity of the peak location and intensity profiles of real spectra, the resulting similarity score distributions often take on unpredictable shapes. This makes it difficult to model the scores of the false matches accurately, necessitating the use of decoy searching to sample the score distribution of the false matches. Here, we refined the similarity scoring in spectral library searching to enable the validation of spectral search results without the use of decoys. We rank-transformed the peak intensities to standardize all spectra, making it possible to fit a parametric distribution to the scores of the nontop-scoring spectral matches. The statistical significance of the top-scoring match can then be estimated in a rigorous manner according to Extreme Value Theory. The overall result is a more robust and interpretable measure of the quality of the spectral match, which can be obtained without decoys. We tested this refined similarity scoring function on real datasets and demonstrated its effectiveness. This approach reduces search time, increases sensitivity, and extends spectral library searching to situations where decoy spectra cannot be readily generated, such as in searching unidentified and nonpeptide spectral libraries.

  15. Decoy Methods for Assessing False Positives and False Discovery Rates in Shotgun Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanghui; Wu, Wells W.; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2008-01-01

    The potential of getting a significant number of false positives (FPs) in peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained by proteomic database search has been well-recognized. Among the attempts to assess FPs, the concomitant use of target and decoy databases is widely practiced. By adjusting filtering criteria, FPs and false discovery rate (FDR) can be controlled at a desired level. Although the target-decoy approach is gaining in popularity, subtle differences in decoy construction (e.g., reversing vs. stochastic methods), rate calculation (e.g., total vs. unique PSMs), or searching (separate vs. composite) do exist among various implementations. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of these differences on FP and FDR estimations using a rat kidney protein sample and the SEQUEST search engine as an example. On the effects of decoy construction, we found that, when a single scoring filter (XCorr) was used, stochastic methods generated a higher estimation of FPs and FDR than sequence reversing methods, likely due to an increase in unique peptides. This higher estimation could largely be attenuated by creating decoy databases similar in effective size, but not by a simple normalization with a unique-peptide coefficient. When multiple filters were applied, the differences seen between reversing and stochastic methods significantly diminished, suggesting multiple filterings reduce the dependency on how a decoy is constructed. For a fixed set of filtering criteria, FDR and FPs estimated by using unique PSMs were almost twice those using total PSMs. The higher estimation seemed to be dependent on data acquisition setup. As to the differences between performing separate or composite searches, in general, FDR estimated from separate search was about three times that from composite search. The degree of difference gradually decreased as the filtering criteria became more stringent. Paradoxically, the estimated true positives in separate search were higher when multiple

  16. Decoy methods for assessing false positives and false discovery rates in shotgun proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghui; Wu, Wells W; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2009-01-01

    The potential of getting a significant number of false positives (FPs) in peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained by proteomic database search has been well-recognized. Among the attempts to assess FPs, the concomitant use of target and decoy databases is widely practiced. By adjusting filtering criteria, FPs and false discovery rate (FDR) can be controlled at a desired level. Although the target-decoy approach is gaining in popularity, subtle differences in decoy construction (e.g., reversing vs stochastic methods), rate calculation (e.g., total vs unique PSMs), or searching (separate vs composite) do exist among various implementations. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of these differences on FP and FDR estimations using a rat kidney protein sample and the SEQUEST search engine as an example. On the effects of decoy construction, we found that, when a single scoring filter (XCorr) was used, stochastic methods generated a higher estimation of FPs and FDR than sequence reversing methods, likely due to an increase in unique peptides. This higher estimation could largely be attenuated by creating decoy databases similar in effective size but not by a simple normalization with a unique-peptide coefficient. When multiple filters were applied, the differences seen between reversing and stochastic methods significantly diminished, suggesting multiple filterings reduce the dependency on how a decoy is constructed. For a fixed set of filtering criteria, FDR and FPs estimated by using unique PSMs were almost twice those using total PSMs. The higher estimation seemed to be dependent on data acquisition setup. As to the differences between performing separate or composite searches, in general, FDR estimated from the separate search was about three times that from the composite search. The degree of difference gradually decreased as the filtering criteria became more stringent. Paradoxically, the estimated true positives in separate search were higher when

  17. Cilostazol attenuates the severity of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: the role of plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jhih-Syuan; Chuang, Tsung-Ju; Chen, Jui-Hung; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Lin, Tsung-Kun; Hsiao, Fone-Ching; Hung, Yi-Jen

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) play a major role in developing macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes, including peripheral arterial occlusion disease (PAOD). Cilostazol is an antiplatelet, antithrombotic agent, which has been used for the treatment of PAOD. We hypothesized that cilostazol attenuates the severity of PAOD in patients with type 2 diabetes through the augmentation of plasma sRAGE. Ninety type 2 diabetic patients with PAOD defined as intermittent claudication with ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≦0.9 were recruited for an open-labeled, placebo-controlled study for 52 weeks with oral cilostazol 100 mg twice daily (n = 45) or placebo (n = 45). Fasting plasma sRAGE, endothelial variables of E-selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and inflammatory markers of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined. After completely the 52-week treatment program, the ABI values were elevated in cilostazol group (P < 0.001). The plasma sRAGE was significantly increased (P = 0.007), and hsCRP, sVCAM, and E-selectin concentrations were significantly decreased (P = 0.028, <0.001 and <0.001, respectively) with cilostazol treatment. In a partial correlation analysis with adjustments for sex and age, the net change of sRAGE significantly correlated with the change of ABI in the cilostazol group (P = 0.043). In a stepwise multiple regression model, only the change with regards to sRAGE was significantly associated with the change of ABI (P = 0.046). Our results suggest that cilostazol may effectively attenuate the severity of PAOD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Plasma sRAGE plays a role as an independent predictor for improving the index of PAOD.

  18. A Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, p40, stimulates ligand release from intestinal epithelial cells to transactivate epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Liu, Liping; Dempsey, Peter J; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Raines, Elaine W; Wilson, Carole L; Cao, Hailong; Cao, Zheng; Liu, LinShu; Polk, D Brent

    2013-10-18

    p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis, and preserves barrier function by transactivation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanisms by which p40 transactivates the EGFR in intestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that p40-conditioned medium activates EGFR in young adult mouse colon epithelial cells and human colonic epithelial cell line, T84 cells. p40 up-regulates a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17) catalytic activity, and broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitors block EGFR transactivation by p40 in these two cell lines. In ADAM17-deficient mouse colonic epithelial (ADAM17(-/-) MCE) cells, p40 transactivation of EGFR is blocked, but can be rescued by re-expression with WT ADAM17. Furthermore, p40 stimulates release of heparin binding (HB)-EGF, but not transforming growth factor (TGF)α or amphiregulin, in young adult mouse colon cells and ADAM17(-/-) MCE cells overexpressing WT ADAM17. Knockdown of HB-EGF expression by siRNA suppresses p40 effects on transactivating EGFR and Akt, preventing apoptosis, and preserving tight junction function. The effects of p40 on HB-EGF release and ADAM17 activation in vivo are examined after administration of p40-containing pectin/zein hydrogel beads to mice. p40 stimulates ADAM17 activity and EGFR activation in colonic epithelial cells and increases HB-EGF levels in blood from WT mice, but not from mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific ADAM17 deletion. Thus, these data define a mechanism of a probiotic-derived soluble protein in modulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis through ADAM17-mediated HB-EGF release, leading to transactivation of EGFR.

  19. Cilostazol attenuates the severity of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: the role of plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jhih-Syuan; Chuang, Tsung-Ju; Chen, Jui-Hung; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Lin, Tsung-Kun; Hsiao, Fone-Ching; Hung, Yi-Jen

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) play a major role in developing macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes, including peripheral arterial occlusion disease (PAOD). Cilostazol is an antiplatelet, antithrombotic agent, which has been used for the treatment of PAOD. We hypothesized that cilostazol attenuates the severity of PAOD in patients with type 2 diabetes through the augmentation of plasma sRAGE. Ninety type 2 diabetic patients with PAOD defined as intermittent claudication with ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≦0.9 were recruited for an open-labeled, placebo-controlled study for 52 weeks with oral cilostazol 100 mg twice daily (n = 45) or placebo (n = 45). Fasting plasma sRAGE, endothelial variables of E-selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and inflammatory markers of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined. After completely the 52-week treatment program, the ABI values were elevated in cilostazol group (P < 0.001). The plasma sRAGE was significantly increased (P = 0.007), and hsCRP, sVCAM, and E-selectin concentrations were significantly decreased (P = 0.028, <0.001 and <0.001, respectively) with cilostazol treatment. In a partial correlation analysis with adjustments for sex and age, the net change of sRAGE significantly correlated with the change of ABI in the cilostazol group (P = 0.043). In a stepwise multiple regression model, only the change with regards to sRAGE was significantly associated with the change of ABI (P = 0.046). Our results suggest that cilostazol may effectively attenuate the severity of PAOD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Plasma sRAGE plays a role as an independent predictor for improving the index of PAOD. PMID:25666934

  20. A Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived Soluble Protein, p40, Stimulates Ligand Release from Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Transactivate Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fang; Liu, Liping; Dempsey, Peter J.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Raines, Elaine W.; Wilson, Carole L.; Cao, Hailong; Cao, Zheng; Liu, LinShu; Polk, D. Brent

    2013-01-01

    p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis, and preserves barrier function by transactivation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanisms by which p40 transactivates the EGFR in intestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that p40-conditioned medium activates EGFR in young adult mouse colon epithelial cells and human colonic epithelial cell line, T84 cells. p40 up-regulates a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17) catalytic activity, and broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitors block EGFR transactivation by p40 in these two cell lines. In ADAM17-deficient mouse colonic epithelial (ADAM17−/− MCE) cells, p40 transactivation of EGFR is blocked, but can be rescued by re-expression with WT ADAM17. Furthermore, p40 stimulates release of heparin binding (HB)-EGF, but not transforming growth factor (TGF)α or amphiregulin, in young adult mouse colon cells and ADAM17−/− MCE cells overexpressing WT ADAM17. Knockdown of HB-EGF expression by siRNA suppresses p40 effects on transactivating EGFR and Akt, preventing apoptosis, and preserving tight junction function. The effects of p40 on HB-EGF release and ADAM17 activation in vivo are examined after administration of p40-containing pectin/zein hydrogel beads to mice. p40 stimulates ADAM17 activity and EGFR activation in colonic epithelial cells and increases HB-EGF levels in blood from WT mice, but not from mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific ADAM17 deletion. Thus, these data define a mechanism of a probiotic-derived soluble protein in modulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis through ADAM17-mediated HB-EGF release, leading to transactivation of EGFR. PMID:24043629

  1. Detection of TNF inhibitors (soluble receptors) in the sera and tumor cyst fluid of patients with malignant astrocytomas of the brain.

    PubMed

    Ammirati, M; Rao, S; Granger, G

    2001-10-01

    Patients with malignant astrocytomas of the brain exhibit varying degrees of immunosuppression with only a few factors responsible for this immunosuppression having been characterized. The soluble forms of the 55 kDa and 75 kDa membrane receptors for tumor necrosis factor (sTNF-R's) have been shown to bind to and inhibit the activity of TNF. The present studies analyze levels of sTNF-R's in the sera and tumor cyst fluids of patients with malignant astrocytomas. Using sensitive ELISA techniques, serum levels of the 55 and 75 kDa sTNF-R's in 17 patients tested were found to be elevated (55 kDa of 2.29 ( 2.85 ng/ml and 75 kDa of 4.98 ( 4.03 ng/ml( as compared to 20 normal controls (55 kDa of of 1.21 ( 0.91 ng/ml and 75 kDa of 1.85 ( 0.40 ng/ml( although this was only statistically significant for the 75 kDa sTNF-R (P=0.006). Brain tymor cyst fluid samples obtained from eight patients were shown to have very high levels of both sTNF-R's ranging from 4.16 to 17.17 ng/ml for the 55 kDa receptor and 4.83 to 19.96 ng/ml for the 75 kDa receptor. Six of these cyst fluid samples were also tested for their ability to inhibit TNF cytolytic activity using an in vitro assay. All samples tested had TNF inhibitory activity. Immunohistochemical studies on patient tumor samples showed high levels of expression of these receptors both in the cytoplasm and the cell surface of astrocytoma cells. We propose that sTNF-R's may be shed by astrocytoma cells and may have a role in both local and systemic immunosuppression observed in astrocytoma patients. Finally, the potential role of serum level of sTNF-R's as tumor markers to follow the treatment and the progression of disease in these patients are discussed. PMID:11578951

  2. Soluble Leukocyte-Associated Ig-Like Receptor-1 in Amniotic Fluid Is of Fetal Origin and Positively Associates with Lung Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Michiel L.; Olde Nordkamp, Marloes J. M.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Meyaard, Linde; Bont, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1) is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that sLAIR-1 is present in amniotic fluid during term parturition and is related to fetal lung function development. sLAIR-1 was detectable in all amniotic fluid samples (n=355) collected during term spontaneous deliveries. First, potential intra-uterine origins of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 were explored. Although LAIR-1 was expressed on the surface of amniotic fluid neutrophils, LAIR-1 was not secreted upon ex vivo neutrophil stimulation with LPS, or PMA/ionomycin. Cord blood concentrations of sLAIR-1 were fourfold lower than and not related to amniotic fluid concentrations and placentas showed no or only sporadic LAIR-1 positive cells. Similarly, in post-mortem lung tissue of term neonates that died of non-pulmonary disorders LAIR-1 positive cells were absent or only sporadically present. In fetal urine samples, however, sLAIR-1 levels were even higher than in amniotic fluid and correlated with amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 concentrations. Second, the potential relevance of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 was studied. sLAIR-1 concentrations had low correlation to amniotic fluid cytokines. We measured neonatal lung function in a convenient subset of 152 infants, using the single occlusion technique, at a median age of 34 days (IQR 30-39). The amniotic fluid concentration of sLAIR-1 was independently correlated to airway compliance (ρ=0.29, P=.001). Taken together, we show the consistent presence of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid, which originates from fetal urine. Concentrations of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid during term deliveries are independent from levels of other soluble immune mediators. The positive association between concentrations of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 and neonatal lung compliance

  3. The soluble pattern recognition receptor PTX3 links humoral innate and adaptive immune responses by helping marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed

    Chorny, Alejo; Casas-Recasens, Sandra; Sintes, Jordi; Shan, Meimei; Polentarutti, Nadia; García-Escudero, Ramón; Walland, A Cooper; Yeiser, John R; Cassis, Linda; Carrillo, Jorge; Puga, Irene; Cunha, Cristina; Bastos, Hélder; Rodrigues, Fernando; Lacerda, João F; Morais, António; Dieguez-Gonzalez, Rebeca; Heeger, Peter S; Salvatori, Giovanni; Carvalho, Agostinho; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Blander, J Magarian; Mantovani, Alberto; Garlanda, Cecilia; Cerutti, Andrea

    2016-09-19

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a fluid-phase pattern recognition receptor of the humoral innate immune system with ancestral antibody-like properties but unknown antibody-inducing function. In this study, we found binding of PTX3 to splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells, an innate-like subset of antibody-producing lymphocytes strategically positioned at the interface between the circulation and the adaptive immune system. PTX3 was released by a subset of neutrophils that surrounded the splenic MZ and expressed an immune activation-related gene signature distinct from that of circulating neutrophils. Binding of PTX3 promoted homeostatic production of IgM and class-switched IgG antibodies to microbial capsular polysaccharides, which decreased in PTX3-deficient mice and humans. In addition, PTX3 increased IgM and IgG production after infection with blood-borne encapsulated bacteria or immunization with bacterial carbohydrates. This immunogenic effect stemmed from the activation of MZ B cells through a neutrophil-regulated pathway that elicited class switching and plasmablast expansion via a combination of T cell-independent and T cell-dependent signals. Thus, PTX3 may bridge the humoral arms of the innate and adaptive immune systems by serving as an endogenous adjuvant for MZ B cells. This property could be harnessed to develop more effective vaccines against encapsulated pathogens. PMID:27621420

  4. Soluble DPP4 induces inflammation and proliferation of human smooth muscle cells via protease-activated receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Wronkowitz, Nina; Görgens, Sven W; Romacho, Tania; Villalobos, Laura A; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F; Peiró, Concepción; Sell, Henrike; Eckel, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    DPP4 is an ubiquitously expressed cell-surface protease that is shedded to the circulation as soluble DPP4 (sDPP4). We recently identified sDPP4 as a novel adipokine potentially linking obesity to the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate direct effects of sDPP4 on human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) and to identify responsible signaling pathways. Using physiological concentrations of sDPP4, we could observe a concentration-dependent activation of ERK1/2 (3-fold) after 6h, which remained stable for up to 24h. Additionally, sDPP4 treatment induced a 1.5-fold phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunit p65. In accordance with sDPP4-induced stress and inflammatory signaling, sDPP4 also stimulates hVSMC proliferation. Furthermore we could observe an increased expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 (2.5-, 2.4- and 1.5-fold, respectively) by the sDPP4 treatment. All direct effects of sDPP4 on signaling, proliferation and inflammation could completely be prevented by DPP4 inhibition. Bioinformatic analysis and signaling signature induced by sDPP4 suggest that sDPP4 might be an agonist for PAR2. After the silencing of PAR2, the sDPP4-induced ERK activation as well as the proliferation was totally abolished. Additionally, the sDPP4-induced upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8 could completely be prevented by the PAR2 silencing. In conclusion, we show for the first time that sDPP4 directly activates the MAPK and NF-κB signaling cascade involving PAR2 and resulting in the induction of inflammation and proliferation of hVSMC. Thus, our in vitro data might extend the current view of sDPP4 action and shed light on cardiovascular effects of DPP4-inhibitors. PMID:24928308

  5. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) is decreased in lung cancer patients showing progression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yilmaztepe, A; Ulukaya, E; Zik, B; Yagci, A; Sevimli, A; Yilmaz, M; Erdogan, B Bahadir; Koc, M; Akgoz, S; Karadag, M; Tokullugil, A

    2007-08-01

    Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis, and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to be one of the most important angiogenic factors although the knowledge about its receptors is limited. We, therefore, investigated the treatment-related changes both in the level of the soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) in the serum by ELISA and the expression of VEGFR-1 in cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. The serum levels were studied in 38 lung cancer patients, and 55 control subjects (21 benign disease and 34 healthy subjects) before the chemotherapy. The treatment-related changes in serum sVEGFR-1 were evaluated in 15 patients 24 and 48 hours after treatment. In addition to serum analysis, the tissue expressions were evaluated in 32 patients before treatment. The treatment-related changes in tissue VEGFR-1 expressions were evaluated in only 12 patients 24 hours after treatment. We observed no significant difference in terms of serum sVEGFR-1 levels between malignant and nonmalignant groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in the levels of sVEGFR-1 before and after treatment (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant difference between sVEGFR-1 levels in the groups (regressive, stable, progressive) classified according to the response to therapy (p = 0.043). A significant difference also was present between the expression levels of tissue VEGFR-1 in the same groups (p = 0.037). As a conclusion, we suggest that prechemotherapy sVEGFR-1 can be helpful for prediction of long-term response to therapy, but it should be studied in larger groups to elucidate its benefit in clinics.

  6. Modulation of CRF signaling through receptor splicing in mouse pituitary cell line AtT-20 - Emerging role of soluble isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Żmijewski, M.A.; Slominski, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Previously, using cultured human epidermal keratinocytes we have demonstrated that the activity of CRF1 receptor can be modulated by the process of alternative splicing. This phenomenon has been further investigated in the mouse corticotroph AtT-20 cell line. In the cells, transiently transfected with the plasmids coding human CRF1 isoforms, only isoforms α and c have shown expression on the cell membrane. Other isoforms d, e, g and h had intracellular localization with the isoform e also found in the nucleus. Co-expression of the CRF1α (main form of the receptor) with isoforms d, f and g prevented its expression on the cell surface resulting in accumulation of CRF1α inside of the cell. As expected, CRF stimulated time and dose dependent activation of CRE, CARE, AP-1 transcription elements and POMC promoter in AtT-20 cells overexpressing human CRF1α, while having no effect on the AP-1 transcriptional activity in cells transfected with other isoforms (d, f, g and h). However, when cells were co-transfected with CRF1α and CRF1e or h the CRF stimulated transcriptional activity of CRE and AP-1 was amplified in comparison to the cells expressing solely CRF1α; the effect was more pronounced for CRF1h than for CRF1e. In contrast, the conditioned media from the cells overexpressing CRF1e and h inhibited the CRF induced transcriptional activity in cells overexpressing CRF1α. Media from cells expressing CRF1h were significantly more potent that from cells transfected with CRF1e. In summary, we have demonstrated that alternatively spliced CRF1 isoforms can regulate the cellular localization of CRF1α, and that soluble CRF1 isoforms can have a dual effect on CRF1α activity depending on the intracellular vs. extracellular localization. PMID:20083850

  7. Innate recognition of bacteria in human milk is mediated by a milk-derived highly expressed pattern recognition receptor, soluble CD14.

    PubMed

    Labéta, M O; Vidal, K; Nores, J E; Arias, M; Vita, N; Morgan, B P; Guillemot, J C; Loyaux, D; Ferrara, P; Schmid, D; Affolter, M; Borysiewicz, L K; Donnet-Hughes, A; Schiffrin, E J

    2000-05-15

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum sCD14 from nonpregnant, pregnant, or lactating women. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein was at very low levels. Mammary epithelial cells produced 48-kD sCD14. m-sCD14 mediated activation by LPS and whole bacteria of CD14 negative cells, including intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in release of innate immune response molecules. m-sCD14 was undetectable in the infant formulas and commercial (cows') milk tested, although it was present in bovine colostrum. These findings indicate a sentinel role for sCD14 in human milk during bacterial colonization of the gut, and suggest that m-sCD14 may be involved in modulating local innate and adaptive immune responses, thus controlling homeostasis in the neonatal intestine.

  8. The diagnostic value of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor compared with C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in children with febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Sirinoglu, Melis; Soysal, Ahmet; Karaaslan, Ayşe; Kepenekli Kadayifci, Eda; Cinel, Ismail; Koç, Ahmet; Tokuç, Gülnur; Yaman, Ali; Haklar, Goncagül; Şirikçi, Önder; Turan, Serap; Altınkanat Gelmez, Gülşen; Söyletir, Güner; Bakır, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic value of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia. A prospective case-control study was performed. Patients included 29 children with febrile neutropenia (FN) and 27 control subjects without any infection or immunosuppressive condition. Blood samples were obtained on the day of admission and on the 4th to 7th days of the hospital stay. The median (minimum-maximum) serum levels of suPAR obtained on the first day of the admission were 2.08 (0.93-9.42) and 2.22 (1.08-5.13) ng/mL for the FN group and the control group, respectively. The median serum levels of suPAR in the FN and control groups were not significantly different (P = .053). The mean serum suPAR level was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors in the FN group (P < .05). In the FN group, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUCROC) for suPAR was 0.546, but no optimum cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), or positive predictive value (PPV) was obtained. We conclude that suPAR is not useful as a diagnostic biomarker in children with febrile neutropenia; however, persistent high serum suPAR level may predict mortality in FN in children.

  9. Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Receptor 2 in Urine Is a Potential Biomarker for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Malaria During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Tassi Yunga, Samuel; Thévenon, Audrey Davidson; Leke, Rose Gana Fomban; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Background. During pregnancy, the placenta is inaccessible for diagnosis of placental malaria (PM), but soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors (sTNFR) are elevated in the plasma of women with PM. Methods. In this study, sTNFR-1 and sTNFR-2 were quantified in urine of pregnant and nonpregnant Cameroonian women who were positive or negative for malaria by blood-smear microscopy. Results. We found that levels of both sTNFR in urine were higher in pregnant compared with nonpregnant women, but malaria-positive pregnant women excreted substantially more sTNFR-1 (P = .005) and sTNFR-2 (P < .001) than malaria-negative pregnant women. The amount of sTNFR-1(rs = 0.784, P < .001) and sTNFR-2 (rs = 0.816, P < .001) in urine correlated with parasitemia, even in afebrile pregnant women. Urine sTNFR-2 predicted maternal malaria with an area under curve of 0.892 (95% confidence interval, .787–.898). At cutoff concentrations of 9.8 ng and 13.6 ng of sTNFR-2 per mL urine, the sensitivity/specificity were 82.6%/87.0% and 78.3%/95.7%, respectively. Conclusions. The sTNFR-2 in noninvasive urine samples may be useful for diagnosis of malaria during pregnancy. PMID:27419160

  10. Serum erythropoietin and its relation with soluble transferrin receptor in patients with different types of anaemia in a locally defined reference population.

    PubMed

    Roque, M E; Sandoval, M J; Aggio, M C

    2001-10-01

    Serum erythropoietin (Epo) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTR) were measured in a locally defined reference population (n=100): healthy volunteers (n=50); iron- deficiency anaemia (n=41) and haemolytic anaemia (n=9) (beta-thalassaemia, n = 4; autoimmune, n=5). Our data demonstrated an inverse relationship between erythroid activity and Epo levels. The regression line between Ln Epo and haemoglobin (Hb) was highly significant: P < 0.0001, r2=0.8275, Ln Epo=8.5346-0.04275 Hb, confidence limit 95%. The mean observed/predicted (O/P) ratio of Ln (Epo) was 1.01 +/- 0.11. We demonstrated that the serum Epo concentration in this particular population correlated consistently with clinical measures of erythropoietic activity. sTR, a new index of erythropoiesis, varied from 16.1 to 148 nmol/l, mean 62.0 nmol/l in the anaemic patients' group. The relationship between Ln Epo and Ln sTR was highly significant: P < 0.0001. We conclude that locally defined regression analyses are crucial for correct data interpretation and can indicate whether or not Epo production is appropriate or inappropriate. Serial determinations of sTR could help in the assessment of response to therapeutic doses of Epo. PMID:11703410

  11. Impact of Serum High Mobility Group Box 1 and Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products on Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Patients with Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Alexandre W. S.; de Leeuw, Karina; van Timmeren, Mirjan M.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Stegeman, Coen A.; Bijl, Marc; Westra, Johanna; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) patients are associated with carotid atherosclerosis, related to levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) and influenced by immunosuppressive or lipid-lowering therapy. Twenty-three GPA patients and 20 controls were evaluated for HMGB1- and sRAGE levels and for carotid atherosclerosis using ultrasound to determine intima-media thickness (IMT). In vitro the effect of atorvastatin on the production of HMGB1 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was assessed. Serum HMGB1 and sRAGE levels did not differ between patients and controls. A negative correlation was found between sRAGE and maximum IMT but HMGB1 and carotid IMT were not related. HMGB1 levels were reduced in GPA patients on statins and prednisolone. In vitro, atorvastatin reduced HMGB1 levels in supernatants of activated HUVEC. In conclusion, carotid IMT is inversely correlated with sRAGE levels but not with HMGB1 levels. Statins and prednisolone are associated with reduced serum HMGB1 levels and atorvastatin decreases HMGB1 release by activated HUVEC in vitro, indicating an additional anti-inflammatory effect of statins. PMID:24776932

  12. Evaluation and Validation of the Detection of soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 1 by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hasibeder, Astrid; Stein, Pamela; Brandwijk, Ricardo; Schild, Hansjörg; Radsak, Markus P.

    2015-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 plays an important role in innate immune responses and is upregulated under infectious as well as non-infectious conditions. In addition, a soluble TREM-1 variant (sTREM-1) is detectable in sera or bronchoalveolar-lavage fluids from patients. Currently, various studies are difficult to compare, since the methods of detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) vary among different research groups. In this study, we compared three different s-TREM-1 specific ELISAs and identified individual assay characteristics finding notable differences in sTREM-1 concentrations in part depending on the employed buffers. Investigating potential confounding factors for sTREM-1 detection, serum heat-inactivation (HI) showed improved recovery compared to non-HI (NHI) serum, reproducible by addition of complement and re-heat-inactivation. Hence we identified complement as a heat-sensitive confounder in some sTREM-1 ELISAs. We conclude that it is difficult to directly compare data of several studies, in particular if different ELISAs are engaged. Immunoassays for research use only are in general hampered by lack of standardization. Further standardization is needed until sTREM-1 ELISA is capable for better reproducibility of studies and clinical application. PMID:26480887

  13. Experimental pain ratings and reactivity of cortisol and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor II following a trial of hypnosis: Results of a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Burel R.; Quinn, Noel B.; Kronfli, Tarek; King, Christopher D.; Page, Gayle G.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert R.; Stapleton, Laura M.; McGuire, Lynanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective Current evidence supports the efficacy of hypnosis for reducing the pain associated with experimental stimulation and various acute and chronic conditions; however, the mechanisms explaining how hypnosis exerts its effects remain less clear. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines represent potential targets for investigation given their purported roles in the perpetuation of painful conditions; yet, no clinical trials have thus far examined the influence of hypnosis on these mechanisms. Design Healthy participants, highly susceptible to the effects of hypnosis, were randomized to either a hypnosis intervention or a no-intervention control. Using a cold pressor task, assessments of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were collected prior to the intervention (Pre) and following the intervention (Post) along with pain-provoked changes in salivary cortisol and the soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor-α (sTNFαRII). Results Compared to the no-intervention control, data analyses revealed that hypnosis significantly reduced pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. Hypnosis was not significantly associated with suppression of cortisol or sTNFαRII reactivity to acute pain from Pre to Post; however, the effect sizes for these associations were medium-sized. Conclusions Overall, the findings from this randomized controlled pilot study support the importance of a future large-scale study on the effects of hypnosis for modulating pain-related changes of the HPA axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:22233394

  14. Increased production of soluble vascular endothelial growth factors receptor-1 in CHO-cell line by using new combination of chitosan-protein lipid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Farnia, Poopak; Ghanavi, Jalaledin; Bahrami, Afshin; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Kazemi, Bahram; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) or sFLT-1 has important role in antiangiogenesis. In this study, the increase expression and production of sFLT-1 fragment by newly designed ChPL-NPs nanoparticles (chitosan-protein lipid) using Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHO) was evaluated. The assessment and purification of sFLT-1 were carried out by western blotting and fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Thereafter, the angiostatic effect of gene transfer of sFLT-1 in Human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC) was evaluated. Our results showed a significance rate of transfection with ChPL-NPs (80-85%) in comparison to standard lipofectamine2000 (65-70%) (P < 0.05). The anti-angiogenic action of sFLT-1 was observed by in-vitro culture of recombinant protein (sFLT-1; 50 ng/ml) with HUVEC cell lines (5 × 106). The ChPL-NPs nanoparticles can consider a potential carrier system for large scale production of sFLT-1, which ultimately may be use as therapeutic agent in targeting solid tumor tissues. PMID:25785168

  15. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 2 (sVEGFR-2) and 3 (sVEGFR-3) and breast cancer risk in the Swedish Mammography Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Holly; Wolk, Alicja; Larsson, Anders; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Basu, Samar

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signalling protein that has been established as a contributor to tumor angiogenesis, and expression of VEGF and its soluble receptors (sVEGFR2 and sVEGFR3) have been demonstrated in breast cancer cells. However, no prospective studies have examined the association between prediagnostic sVEGFR levels and breast cancer risk. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the Swedish Mammography Cohort examining the association between sVEGFR2 and 3 levels and breast cancer risk. The analysis included 69 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 719 controls. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After adjustment for breast cancer risk factors, sVEGFR2 levels were associated with breast cancer risk (OR=1.28; 95% CI=1.06-1.56 per 1000 ng/L increase in concentration) while sVEGFR3 levels were not related to such risk (OR=1.00; 95% CI=0.93-1.07). Our results suggest that sVEGFR2 levels may be positively associated with breast cancer risk, however future studies with larger case groups are necessary to confirm this association. PMID:27186332

  16. Serum erythropoietin and its relation with soluble transferrin receptor in patients with different types of anaemia in a locally defined reference population.

    PubMed

    Roque, M E; Sandoval, M J; Aggio, M C

    2001-10-01

    Serum erythropoietin (Epo) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTR) were measured in a locally defined reference population (n=100): healthy volunteers (n=50); iron- deficiency anaemia (n=41) and haemolytic anaemia (n=9) (beta-thalassaemia, n = 4; autoimmune, n=5). Our data demonstrated an inverse relationship between erythroid activity and Epo levels. The regression line between Ln Epo and haemoglobin (Hb) was highly significant: P < 0.0001, r2=0.8275, Ln Epo=8.5346-0.04275 Hb, confidence limit 95%. The mean observed/predicted (O/P) ratio of Ln (Epo) was 1.01 +/- 0.11. We demonstrated that the serum Epo concentration in this particular population correlated consistently with clinical measures of erythropoietic activity. sTR, a new index of erythropoiesis, varied from 16.1 to 148 nmol/l, mean 62.0 nmol/l in the anaemic patients' group. The relationship between Ln Epo and Ln sTR was highly significant: P < 0.0001. We conclude that locally defined regression analyses are crucial for correct data interpretation and can indicate whether or not Epo production is appropriate or inappropriate. Serial determinations of sTR could help in the assessment of response to therapeutic doses of Epo.

  17. Nuclear IL-33 regulates soluble ST2 receptor and IL-6 expression in primary human arterial endothelial cells and is decreased in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongmin; Perros, Frédéric; Caramori, Gaetano; Meng, Chao; Dormuller, Peter; Chou, Pai-Chien; Church, Colin; Papi, Alberto; Casolari, Paolo; Welsh, David; Peacock, Andrew; Humbert, Marc; Adcock, Ian M; Wort, Stephen J

    2014-08-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is an incurable condition leading to right ventricular failure and death and inflammation is postulated to be associated with vascular remodelling. Interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the "alarmin" family can either act on the membrane ST2 receptor or as a nuclear repressor, to regulate inflammation. We show, using immunohistochemistry, that IL-33 expression is nuclear in the vessels of healthy subjects whereas nuclear IL-33 is markedly diminished in the vessels of IPAH patients. This correlates with reduced IL-33 mRNA expression in their lung. In contrast, serum levels of IL-33 are unchanged in IPAH. However, the expression of the soluble form of ST2, sST2, is enhanced in the serum of IPAH patients. Knock-down of IL-33 in human endothelial cells (ECs) using siRNA is associated with selective modulation of inflammatory genes involved in vascular remodelling including IL-6. Additionally, IL-33 knock-down significantly increased sST2 release from ECs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that IL-33 bound multiple putative homeodomain protein binding motifs in the proximal and distal promoters of ST2 genes. IL-33 formed a complex with the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1, a transcriptional repressor. In conclusion, IL-33 regulates the expression of IL-6 and sST2, an endogenous IL-33 inhibitor, in primary human ECs and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PAH through recruitment of transcriptional repressor proteins. PMID:25003325

  18. Human breast milk and adipokines--A potential role for the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in the regulation of infant energy intake and development.

    PubMed

    Zepf, F D; Rao, P; Moore, J; Stewart, R; Ladino, Yuli Martinez; Hartmann, B T

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of different adipokines in human breast milk are thought to be able to affect energy intake of the infant. Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipose tissue and the human placenta and favors satiety. The availability of leptin in breast milk is influenced by epithelial cells of the mammary gland that are known to be able to produce leptin, as well as leptin from maternal circulation that is transported to the breast milk, and which can thus in turn reach neonatal blood after absorption. Research so far as mainly focused on leptin concentrations in breast milk. However, evidence suggests that in addition to leptin concentrations levels of the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), the main high-affinity binding protein for leptin in humans, are necessary in order to calculate the free leptin index (FLI) and to assess function of the leptin axis. FLI is calculated from the ratio of leptin to the sOb-R, and serves as the main parameter for assessing function of the leptin axis throughout maturation and development. Here we propose that assessing sOb-R levels in addition to leptin concentrations in breast milk could serve as a valuable tool to investigate effects of the leptin axis in breast milk because sOb-R concentrations can impact available leptin levels, and which in turn can have significant implications for infant energy intake and related development.

  19. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), TNF-α soluble receptor type 1 (sTNFR I) and IL-22 in human leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Nateghi Rostami, M; Seyyedan Jasbi, E; Khamesipour, A; Miramin Mohammadi, A

    2015-09-01

    The role of pro-inammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in human leishmaniasis is not fully understood. We analyzed the alterations in the plasma levels of TNF- α, soluble TNF receptor type 1 (sTNFR I), IL-17 and IL-22 in the volunteers with leishmaniasis. Blood samples were collected from patients with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the same CL patients after standard antimonial therapy as healed CL, active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and healed VL volunteers. Levels of the cytokines were titrated on plasma samples by sandwich ELISA method. The mean level of TNF-α was significantly higher in active CL patients than healthy controls (P<0.001) and significantly reduced after treatment in the same volunteers (P<0.001). The mean level of sTNFR I was significantly higher in active CL patients than healthy controls (P<0.05). The mean level of IL-22 in plasma of the AVL patients was significantly higher than that of healthy control group (P<0.05). There is a negative correlation between the levels of TNF-α and sTNFR I and healing of CL. Measurement of cytokines in plasma samples is more feasible than cell culture in evaluation of immune response in human leishmaniasis.

  20. The endothelial protein C receptor rs867186-GG genotype is associated with increased soluble EPCR and could mediate protection against severe malaria

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Estela; Opoka, Robert O.; Bangirana, Paul; Park, Gregory S.; Vercellotti, Gregory M.; Guan, Weihua; Hodges, James S.; Lavstsen, Thomas; John, Chandy C.

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) appears to play an important role in Plasmodium falciparum endothelial cell binding in severe malaria (SM). Despite consistent findings of elevated soluble EPCR (sEPCR) in other infectious diseases, field studies to date have provided conflicting data about the role of EPCR in SM. To better define this role, we performed genotyping for the rs867186-G variant, associated with increased sEPCR levels, and measured sEPCR levels in two prospective studies of Ugandan children designed to understand immunologic and genetic factors associated with neurocognitive deficits in SM including 551 SM children, 71 uncomplicated malaria (UM) and 172 healthy community children (CC). The rs867186-GG genotype was more frequent in CC (4.1%) than SM (0.6%, P = 0.002). The rs867186-G variant was associated with increased sEPCR levels and sEPCR was lower in children with SM than CC (P < 0.001). Among SM children, those who had a second SM episode showed a trend toward lower plasma sEPCR both at initial admission and at 6-month follow-up compared to those without repeated SM (P = 0.06 for both). The study findings support a role for sEPCR in severe malaria pathogenesis and emphasize a distinct role of sEPCR in malaria as compared to other infectious diseases. PMID:27255786

  1. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product Ameliorates Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induced Renal Injury, Inflammation, and Apoptosis via P38/JNK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu; Gu, Wenyu; Lu, Huan; Liu, Chengying; Yu, Biyun; Xu, Hui; Tang, Yaodong

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated chronic kidney disease is mainly caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) triggered tissue damage. Receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) and its ligand high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) are expressed on renal cells and mediate inflammatory responses in OSA-related diseases. To determine their roles in CIH-induced renal injury, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), the RAGE neutralizing antibody, was intravenously administered in a CIH model. We also evaluated the effect of sRAGE on inflammation and apoptosis. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) normal air (NA), (2) CIH, (3) CIH+sRAGE, and (4) NA+sRAGE. Our results showed that CIH accelerated renal histological injury and upregulated RAGE-HMGB1 levels involving inflammatory (NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-6), apoptotic (Bcl-2/Bax), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (phosphorylation of P38, ERK, and JNK) signal transduction pathways, which were abolished by sRAGE but p-ERK. Furthermore, sRAGE ameliorated renal dysfunction by attenuating tubular endothelial apoptosis determined by immunofluorescence staining of CD31 and TUNEL. These findings suggested that RAGE-HMGB1 activated chronic inflammatory transduction cascades that contributed to the pathogenesis of the CIH-induced renal injury. Inhibition of RAGE ligand interaction by sRAGE provided a therapeutic potential for CIH-induced renal injury, inflammation, and apoptosis through P38 and JNK pathways. PMID:27688824

  2. Erythropoiesis-driven regulation of hepcidin in human red cell disorders is better reflected through concentrations of soluble transferrin receptor rather than growth differentiation factor 15.

    PubMed

    Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Lanaro, Carolina; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda; de Albuquerque, Dulcinéia Martins; de Mello, Mariana Rezende Bandeira; Pallis, Flávia Rubia; Bezerra, Marcos André Cavalcanti; Hatzlhofer, Betania Lucena Domingues; Olbina, Gordana; Saad, Sara Terezinha Olalla; da Silva Araújo, Aderson; Westerman, Mark; Costa, Fernando Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a bone marrow-derived cytokine whose ability to suppress iron regulator hepcidin in vitro and increased concentrations found in patients with ineffective erythropoiesis (IE)suggest that hepcidin deficiency mediated by GDF-15 may be the pathophysiological explanation for nontransfusional iron overload. We aimed to compare GDF-15 production in anemic states with different types of erythropoietic dysfunction. Complete blood counts, biochemical markers of iron status, plasma hepcidin, GDF-15, and known hepcidin regulators [interleukin-6 and erythropoietin (EPO)] were measured in 87 patients with red cell disorders comprising IE and hemolytic states: thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and cobalamin deficiency. Healthy volunteers were also evaluated for comparison. Neither overall increased EPO,nor variable GDF-15 concentrations correlated with circulating hepcidin concentrations (P = 0.265 and P = 0.872). Relative hepcidin deficiency was found in disorders presenting with concurrent elevation of GDF-15 and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), a biomarker of erythropoiesis, and sTfR had the strongest correlation with hepcidin (r(s) = 0.584, P < 0.0001). Our data show that high concentrations of GDF-15 in vivo are not necessarily associated with pathological hepcidin reduction, and hepcidin deficiency was only found when associated with sTfR overproduction. sTfR elevation may be a necessary common denominator of erythropoiesis-driven mechanisms to favor iron absorption in anemic states and appears a suitable target for investigative approaches to iron disorders. PMID:24860871

  3. Syntaxin 7 and VAMP-7 are soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors required for late endosome-lysosome and homotypic lysosome fusion in alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ward, D M; Pevsner, J; Scullion, M A; Vaughn, M; Kaplan, J

    2000-07-01

    Endocytosis in alveolar macrophages can be reversibly inhibited, permitting the isolation of endocytic vesicles at defined stages of maturation. Using an in vitro fusion assay, we determined that each isolated endosome population was capable of homotypic fusion. All vesicle populations were also capable of heterotypic fusion in a temporally specific manner; early endosomes, isolated 4 min after internalization, could fuse with endosomes isolated 8 min after internalization but not with 12-min endosomes or lysosomes. Lysosomes fuse with 12-min endosomes but not with earlier endosomes. Using homogenous populations of endosomes, we have identified Syntaxin 7 as a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) required for late endosome-lysosome and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. A bacterially expressed human Syntaxin 7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited homotypic late endosome and lysosome fusion as well as heterotypic late endosome-lysosome fusion. Affinity-purified antibodies directed against Syntaxin 7 also inhibited lysosome fusion in vitro but had no affect on homotypic early endosome fusion. Previous work suggested that human VAMP-7 (vesicle-associated membrane protein-7) was a SNARE required for late endosome-lysosome fusion. A bacterially expressed human VAMP-7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited both late endosome-lysosome fusion and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. These studies indicate that: 1) fusion along the endocytic pathway is a highly regulated process, and 2) two SNARE molecules, Syntaxin 7 and human VAMP-7, are involved in fusion of vesicles in the late endocytic pathway in alveolar macrophages.

  4. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product Ameliorates Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induced Renal Injury, Inflammation, and Apoptosis via P38/JNK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu; Gu, Wenyu; Lu, Huan; Liu, Chengying; Yu, Biyun; Xu, Hui; Tang, Yaodong

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated chronic kidney disease is mainly caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) triggered tissue damage. Receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) and its ligand high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) are expressed on renal cells and mediate inflammatory responses in OSA-related diseases. To determine their roles in CIH-induced renal injury, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), the RAGE neutralizing antibody, was intravenously administered in a CIH model. We also evaluated the effect of sRAGE on inflammation and apoptosis. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) normal air (NA), (2) CIH, (3) CIH+sRAGE, and (4) NA+sRAGE. Our results showed that CIH accelerated renal histological injury and upregulated RAGE-HMGB1 levels involving inflammatory (NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-6), apoptotic (Bcl-2/Bax), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (phosphorylation of P38, ERK, and JNK) signal transduction pathways, which were abolished by sRAGE but p-ERK. Furthermore, sRAGE ameliorated renal dysfunction by attenuating tubular endothelial apoptosis determined by immunofluorescence staining of CD31 and TUNEL. These findings suggested that RAGE-HMGB1 activated chronic inflammatory transduction cascades that contributed to the pathogenesis of the CIH-induced renal injury. Inhibition of RAGE ligand interaction by sRAGE provided a therapeutic potential for CIH-induced renal injury, inflammation, and apoptosis through P38 and JNK pathways.

  5. Efficacy of an amphipathic oligopeptide to shuttle and release a cis-acting DNA decoy into human cells.

    PubMed

    Citti, L; Rovero, P; Colombo, M G; Mariani, L; Poliseno, L; Rainaldi, G

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the ability of an amphipathic oligopeptide to carry a synthetic dsDNA oligonucleotide inside human cells. The oligonucleotide was designed as a decoy binding site for the transcriptional activator of the methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene. The complex oligopeptide and decoy were administered to MCF10A exponentially growing cells, and the uptake was monitored by flow cytometry. After a 1-h exposure, almost all of the MCF10A cells were fluorescent, indicating that all of the cells had been transfected. By increasing the time, the fluorescence intensity per cell rapidly increased to a plateau at the 8-h time point. RT-PCR analysis of the MGMT gene was used as the molecular readout of the intracellular activity of the DNA decoy. MCF10A cells transfected with the oligopeptide/decoy complex showed a strong reduction in MGMT mRNA. Here, we discuss the advantages of using amphipathic oligopeptides as carriers of short DNA sequences.

  6. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  7. Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction-Mediated Delivery of a Transcription Factor Decoy Inhibits STAT3 Signaling and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kopechek, Jonathan A.; Carson, Andrew R.; McTiernan, Charles F.; Chen, Xucai; Hasjim, Bima; Lavery, Linda; Sen, Malabika; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in many cancers where it acts to promote tumor progression. A STAT3-specific transcription factor decoy has been developed to suppress STAT3 downstream signaling, but a delivery strategy is needed to improve clinical translation. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has been shown to enhance image-guided local delivery of molecular therapeutics to a target site. The objective of this study was to deliver STAT3 decoy to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tumors using UTMD to disrupt STAT3 signaling and inhibit tumor growth. Studies performed demonstrated that UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles inhibited STAT3 signaling in SCC cells in vitro. Studies performed in vivo demonstrated that UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles induced significant tumor growth inhibition (31-51% reduced tumor volume vs. controls, p < 0.05) in mice bearing SCC tumors. Furthermore, expression of STAT3 downstream target genes (Bcl-xL and cyclin D1) was significantly reduced (34-39%, p < 0.05) in tumors receiving UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles compared to controls. In addition, the quantity of radiolabeled STAT3 decoy detected in tumors eight hours after treatment was significantly higher with UTMD treatment compared to controls (70-150%, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that UTMD can increase delivery of a transcription factor decoy to tumors in vivo and that the decoy can inhibit STAT3 signaling and tumor growth. These results suggest that UTMD treatment holds potential for clinical use to increase the concentration of a transcription factor signaling inhibitor in the tumor. PMID:26681983

  8. Design and expression of human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor extracellular domain mutants with enhanced solubility and ligand-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Zouridakis, Marios; Zisimopoulou, Paraskevi; Eliopoulos, Elias; Poulas, Konstantinos; Tzartos, Socrates J

    2009-02-01

    In order to facilitate structural studies of the extracellular domain (ECD) of human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), we designed several mutants, since the wild-type-ECD forms large oligomers and microaggregates, and expressed them in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Mutant design was based on a 3D model of human alpha7-nAChR-ECD, constructed using as templates the X-ray crystal structure of the homologous acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and the electron microscopy structure of the Torpedo alpha-nAChR-ECD. At least one mutant, mut10, carrying six single-point mutations (Phe3Tyr, Val69Thr, Cys116Ser, Ile165Thr, Val177Thr, Phe187Tyr) and the replacement of its Cys-loop with the corresponding and more hydrophilic AChBP Cys-loop, was expressed with a 4-fold higher expression yield (1.2 mg/L) than the wild-type alpha7-ECD, existing exclusively as a soluble oligomeric, probably pentameric, form, at concentrations up to at least 10 mg/mL, as judged by gel filtration and dynamic light scattering. This mutant displayed a significantly improved (125)I-alpha-bungarotoxin-binding affinity (K(d)=24 nM) compared to the wild-type-ECD (K(d)=70 nM), the binding being inhibited by unlabelled alpha-bungarotoxin, d-tubocurarine or nicotine (K(i) of 21.5 nM, 127 microM and 17.5 mM, respectively). Circular dichroism studies of mut10 revealed (a) a similar secondary structure composition ( approximately 5% alpha-helix, approximately 45% beta-sheet) to that of the AChBP, Torpedo alpha-nAChR-ECD, and mouse alpha1-nAChR-ECD, (b) a well-defined tertiary structure and (c) binding of small cholinergic ligands at micromolar concentrations. Furthermore, electron microscopy showed well-assembled, probably pentameric, particles of mut10. Finally, since deglycosylation did not alter its solubility or ligand-binding properties, mut10, in either its glycosylated or deglycosylated form, is a promising alpha7-ECD mutant for structural studies, useful for the rational drug design to

  9. Mapping of the full length and the truncated interleukin-18 receptor alpha in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Alboni, Silvia; Cervia, Davide; Ross, Brendon; Montanari, Claudia; Gonzalez, Alejandro Sanchez; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi; De Vries, David; Sugama, Shuei; Brunello, Nicoletta; Blom, Joan; Tascedda, Fabio; Conti, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The cytokine IL-18 acts on the CNS both in physiological and pathological conditions. Its action occurs through the heterodimeric receptor IL-18Rα\\β. To better understand IL-18 central effects, we investigated in the mouse brain the distribution of two IL-18Rα transcripts, a full length and an isoform lacking the intracellular domain hypothesized to be a decoy receptor. Both isoforms were expressed in neurons throughout the brain primarily with overlapping distribution but also with some unique pattern. These data suggest that IL-18 may modulate neuronal functions and that its action may be regulated through expression of a decoy receptor. PMID:19640592

  10. Bdellovibrio predation in the presence of decoys: Three-way bacterial interactions revealed by mathematical and experimental analyses.

    PubMed

    Hobley, Laura; King, John R; Sockett, R Elizabeth

    2006-10-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small, gram-negative, motile bacterium that preys upon other gram-negative bacteria, including several known human pathogens. Its predation efficiency is usually studied in pure cultures containing solely B. bacteriovorus and a suitable prey. However, in natural environments, as well as in any possible biomedical uses as an antimicrobial, Bdellovibrio is predatory in the presence of diverse decoys, including live nonsusceptible bacteria, eukaryotic cells, and cell debris. Here we gathered and mathematically modeled data from three-member cultures containing predator, prey, and nonsusceptible bacterial decoys. Specifically, we studied the rate of predation of planktonic late-log-phase Escherichia coli S17-1 prey by B. bacteriovorus HD100, both in the presence and in the absence of Bacillus subtilis nonsporulating strain 671, which acted as a live bacterial decoy. Interestingly, we found that although addition of the live Bacillus decoy did decrease the rate of Bdellovibrio predation in liquid cultures, this addition also resulted in a partially compensatory enhancement of the availability of prey for predation. This effect resulted in a higher final yield of Bdellovibrio than would be predicted for a simple inert decoy. Our mathematical model accounts for both negative and positive effects of predator-prey-decoy interactions in the closed batch environment. In addition, it informs considerations for predator dosing in any future therapeutic applications and sheds some light on considerations for modeling the massively complex interactions of real mixed bacterial populations in nature.

  11. Role of osteoprotegerin and its ligands and competing receptors in atherosclerotic calcification.

    PubMed

    Tintut, Yin; Demer, Linda

    2006-11-01

    Vascular calcification significantly impairs cardiovascular physiology, and its mechanism is under investigation. Many of the same factors that modulate bone osteogenesis, including cytokines, hormones, and lipids, also modulate vascular calcification, acting through many of the same transcription factors. In some cases, such as for lipids and cytokines, the net effect on calcification is positive in the artery wall and negative in bone. The mechanism for this reciprocal relation is not established. A recent series of reports points to the possibility that two bone regulatory factors, receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and its soluble decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), govern vascular calcification and may explain the phenomenon. Both RANKL and OPG are widely accepted as the final common pathway for most factors and processes affecting bone resorption. Binding of RANKL to its cognate receptor RANK induces NF-kappaB signaling, which stimulates osteoclastic differentiation in preosteoclasts and induces bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) expression in chondrocytes. A role for RANKL and its receptors in vascular calcification is spported by several findings: a vascular calcification phenotype in mice genetically deficient in OPG; an increase in expression of RANKL, and a decrease in expression of OPG, in calcified arteries; clinical associations between coronary disease and serum OPG and RANKL levels; and RANKL induction of calcification and osteoblastic differentiation in valvular myofibroblasts. PMID:17169261

  12. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources.

    PubMed

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-01-01

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation. PMID:26471947

  13. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-01-01

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation. PMID:26471947

  14. Double-stranded RNA transcribed from vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide acts as transcription factor decoy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Gang, Yi; Wang, Honghong; Wang, Jiayin; Zhao, Lina; Xu, Li; Liu, Zhiguo

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we designed a short hairpin RNA vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide (VB-ODN) carrying transcription factor (TF) consensus sequence which could function as a decoy to block TF activity. Specifically, VB-ODN for Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) could inhibit cell viability and decrease downstream gene expression in HEK293 cells without affecting expression of NF-κB itself. The specific binding between VB-ODN produced double-stranded RNA and NF-κB was evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, similar VB-ODNs designed for three other TFs also inhibit their downstream gene expression but not that of themselves. Our study provides a new design of decoy for blocking TF activity.

  15. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources.

    PubMed

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-10-16

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation.

  16. Quantum secure direct communication network with superdense coding and decoy photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fu-Guo; Li, Xi-Han; Li, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Ping; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2007-07-01

    A quantum secure direct communication network scheme is proposed with quantum superdense coding and decoy photons. The servers on a passive optical network prepare and measure the quantum signal, i.e. a sequence of the d-dimensional Bell states. After confirming the security of the photons received from the receiver, the sender codes his secret message on them directly. For preventing a dishonest server from eavesdropping, some decoy photons prepared by measuring one photon in the Bell states are used to replace some original photons. One of the users on the network can communicate to any other one. This scheme has the advantage of high capacity, and it is more convenient than others as only a sequence of photons is transmitted in quantum line.

  17. Toward pest control via mass production of realistic decoys of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2012-04-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive species of beetles threatening the ash trees of North America. The species exhibits a mating behavior in which a flying male will first spot a stationary female at rest and then execute a pouncing maneuver to dive sharply onto her. The pouncing behavior appears to be cued by some visual signal from the top surface of the female's body. We have adopted bioreplication techniques to fabricate artificial visual decoys that could be used to detect, monitor, and slow the spread of EAB populations across North America. Using a negative die made of nickel and a positive die made of a hard polymer, we have stamped a polymer sheet to produce these decoys. Our bioreplication procedure is industrially scalable.

  18. Upper bounds of eavesdropper's performances in finite-length code with the decoy method

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masahito

    2007-07-15

    Security formulas of quantum key distribution (QKD) with imperfect resources are obtained for finite-length code when the decoy method is applied. This analysis is useful for guaranteeing the security of implemented QKD systems. Our formulas take into account the effect of the vacuum state and dark counts in the detector. We compare the asymptotic key generation rate in the presence of dark counts to that without the presence of dark counts.

  19. Surveillance of influenza viruses in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Tarifa, Estefanía; Napp, Sebastian; Gómez-Pacheco, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Morente, Manuel; Jaén-Téllez, Juan Antonio; Arenas, Antonio; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011-2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8-19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern.

  20. Surveillance of Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl Used As Decoys in Andalusia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Jurado-Tarifa, Estefanía; Napp, Sebastian; Gómez-Pacheco, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Morente, Manuel; Jaén-Téllez, Juan Antonio; Arenas, Antonio; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011–2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8–19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern. PMID:24901946

  1. Double-stranded RNA transcribed from vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide acts as transcription factor decoy

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Xiao; Gang, Yi; Wang, Honghong; Wang, Jiayin; Zhao, Lina; Xu, Li; Liu, Zhiguo

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • A shRNA vector based transcription factor decoy, VB-ODN, was designed. • VB-ODN for NF-κB inhibited cell viability in HEK293 cells. • VB-ODN inhibited expression of downstream genes of target transcription factors. • VB-ODN may enhance nuclear entry ratio for its feasibility of virus production. - Abstract: In this study, we designed a short hairpin RNA vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide (VB-ODN) carrying transcription factor (TF) consensus sequence which could function as a decoy to block TF activity. Specifically, VB-ODN for Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) could inhibit cell viability and decrease downstream gene expression in HEK293 cells without affecting expression of NF-κB itself. The specific binding between VB-ODN produced double-stranded RNA and NF-κB was evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, similar VB-ODNs designed for three other TFs also inhibit their downstream gene expression but not that of themselves. Our study provides a new design of decoy for blocking TF activity.

  2. Practical attacks on decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Yangyang; Gao, Ming; Wang, Weilong; Li, Chaobo; Ma, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    To the active-basis-choice decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch, we present a modified attack strategy, which is based on the faked states attack, with quantum nondemolition measurement ability to restress the threat of detector efficiency mismatch. Considering that perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability doesn't exist in real life, we also propose a practical attack strategy using photon number resolving detectors. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that, without changing the channel, our attack strategies are serious threats to decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems. The eavesdropper may get some information about the secret key without causing any alarms. Besides, the lower bound of detector efficiency mismatch to run our modified faked states attack successfully with perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability is also given out, which provides the producers of quantum-key-distribution systems with a reference and can be treated as the approximate secure bound of detector efficiency mismatch in decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems.

  3. Manipulating lek size and composition using decoys: an experimental investigation of lek evolution models.

    PubMed

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2006-12-01

    Four theoretical models have been proposed to account for the origin and maintenance of leks: hotspot, female preference, hotshot, and black hole models. Each has been validated in particular cases, and most are not mutually exclusive; therefore, it has been difficult to contrast and separate them, empirically and experimentally. By using decoys to mimic natural leks in the little bustard, artificial leks attracted wild birds. Then, by manipulating artificial lek size and structure (sex ratio, male phenotype), the study of responses of wild males and females allowed us to test specific predictions derived from the four classical models of lek evolution. The hotspot model was not supported because female decoys did not attract wild males. Conversely, hotshot males do exist in this species (attracting both wild females and males), as does a female preference for a particular lek size (four males). Finally, males aggressive toward decoys attracted fewer females, consistent with one of the mechanisms by which the black hole model may work. Therefore, three models of lek evolution were partly or fully supported by our experimental results: hotshot, female preference, and black hole models. We suggest that these models actually fit within each other, ensuring the evolution, functioning, and long-term maintenance of leks. PMID:17109318

  4. Enhanced Anti-tumor Reactivity of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Expressing PD-1 Decoy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Hun; Park, Hyung Bae; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-04-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a strong negative regulator of T lymphocytes in tumor-microenvironment. By engaging PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) on tumor cells, PD-1 on T cell surface inhibits anti-tumor reactivity of tumor-infiltrating T cells. Systemic blockade of PD-1 function using blocking antibodies has shown significant therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials. However, approximately 10 to 15% of treated patients exhibited serious autoimmune responses due to the activation of self-reactive lymphocytes. To achieve selective activation of tumor-specific T cells, we generated T cells expressing a dominant-negative deletion mutant of PD-1 (PD-1 decoy) via retroviral transduction. PD-1 decoy increased IFN-γ secretion of antigen-specific T cells in response to tumor cells expressing the cognate antigen. Adoptive transfer of PD-1 decoy-expressing T cells into tumor-bearing mice potentiated T cell-mediated tumor regression. Thus, T cell-specific blockade of PD-1 could be a useful strategy for enhancing both efficacy and safety of anti-tumor T cell therapy. PMID:27162530

  5. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated <1% were at risk for deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  6. Total Soluble and Endogenous Secretory Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products as Predictive Biomarkers of Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Colhoun, Helen M.; Betteridge, D. John; Durrington, Paul; Hitman, Graham; Neil, Andrew; Livingstone, Shona; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Bao, Weihang; DeMicco, David A.; Preston, Gregory M.; Deshmukh, Harshal; Tan, Kathryn; Fuller, John H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) likely comprise both a secreted isoform (esRAGE) and wild-type RAGE cleaved from the cell membrane. Both sRAGE and esRAGE have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but prospective data are limited. We examined the relationship of sRAGE and esRAGE to incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in type 2 diabetic patients followed for 3.9 years in a trial of atorvastatin: the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used a nested case-control design sampling all incident cases of CVD with available plasma and randomly selecting three control subjects, who were free of CVD throughout follow-up, per case. Analysis was by Cox regression with adjustment for treatment allocation and relevant covariates. RESULTS sRAGE and esRAGE were strongly correlated (ρ = 0.88) and were both higher in those with lower BMI (P < 0.001), higher adiponectin (P < 0.001), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.009), and white ethnicity (P < 0.001). Both sRAGE and esRAGE were associated with incident CHD events, independently of treatment allocation and the above factors; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.74 (95% CI 1.25–2.41; P = 0.002) for a doubling of the sRAGE level; HR = 1.45 (1.11–1.89; P = 0.006) for a doubling of the esRAGE level. There was no significant association with stroke; HR for sRAGE = 0.66 (0.38–1.14). Atorvastatin, 10 mg daily, did not alter sRAGE. CONCLUSIONS Higher levels of sRAGE and esRAGE are associated with incident CHD but not stroke in type 2 diabetes. PMID:21771973

  7. Effect of six-month lifestyle intervention on adiponectin, resistin and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fengyang; Del-Río-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Pérez-Ontiveros, José Alfredo; Ruiz-Bedolla, Eliseo; Saucedo-Ramírez, Omar Josué; Villafaña, Santiago; Bravo, Guadalupe; Mailloux-Salinas, Patrick; Hong, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a six-month lifestyle intervention on adiponectin, resistin, and two soluble forms of tumor necrosis factor-α receptor (sTNFR) in obese adolescents. A total of 54 obese adolescents aged 10 to 16 years completed the program. Twenty-four adolescents with normal weight at baseline were used as a control group. Our results demonstrated that obese adolescents had abnormal lipid profile, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, adiponectin level (5.6 ± 2.7 vs. 7.6 ± 2.9 μg/mL, p = 0.005) as well as resistin level (31.0 ± 9.0 vs. 24.3 ± 8.5 ng/mL, p = 0.003), whereas levels of both sTNFRs were similar to those in normal weight subjects. After the six-month lifestyle intervention, obese adolescents had a slight but significant drop in standard deviation score-body mass index (SDS-BMI), a significant decrease in waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HOMA index, as well as resistin, and a significant increase in adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In adolescents without decreased SDS-BMI, no change was observed in adipokines. Changes in adiponectin correlated negatively with changes in waist circumference (r = -0.275, p = 0.044). Changes in resistin correlated positively with changes in triglycerides (r = 0.302, p = 0.027). The study demonstrated the increase of resistin and the decrease of adiponectin in obese adolescents. Lifestyle intervention improved adipokine abnormalities in obese subjects. PMID:25029953

  8. Diagnostic Value of Serum Level of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor IIα in Egyptian Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Shawky A; Elsaaid, Nehal H; Mohamed, Nagwa A; Abutaleb, Osama M

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unfavorable and needs serum markers that could detect it early to start therapy at a potentially curable phase. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the value of serum soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-IIα (sTNFR-IIα) in diagnosis of HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Patients and Methods: The study was performed on 110 subjects who were classified into five groups. Group I included 20 patients with chronic noncirrhotic HCV infection and persistently normal transaminases for ≥6 months. Group II included 20 patients with chronic noncirrhotic HCV infection and elevated transaminases. Group III included 20 patients with Chronic HCV infection and liver cirrhosis. Group IV included 20 patients with chronic HCV infection with liver cirrhosis and HCC. Group V included 30 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Medical history was taken from all participants and they underwent clinical examination and abdominal ultrasonography. in addition, the following laboratory tests were requested: liver function tests, complete blood count, HBsAg, anti-HCVAb, HCV-RNA by qualitative PCR, and serum levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP) and sTNFR-IIα. Results: The serum level of sTNFR-IIα was significantly higher in patients with HCC in comparison to the other groups. A positive correlation was found between the serum levels of sTNFR-IIα and AST and ALT in patients of group-II. Diagnosis of HCC among patients with HCV infection and cirrhosis could be ascertained when sTNFR-IIα is assessed at a cutoff value of ≥ 250 pg/mL. Conclusions: Serum sTNFR-IIα could be used as a potential serum marker in diagnosing HCC among patients with HCV infection. PMID:25386197

  9. Enhanced sandwich immunoassay using antibody-functionalized magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles for extraction and detection of soluble transferrin receptor on a photonic crystal biosensor.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Ross D; Chen, Weili; Cunningham, Brian T; Andrade, Juan E

    2015-12-15

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has detrimental effects on individuals and societies worldwide. A standard sandwich assay (SA) for the detection of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), a biomarker of IDA, on a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor was established, but it was susceptible to non-specific signals from complex matrixes. In this study, iron-oxide nanoparticles (fAb-IONs) were used as magnetic immuno-probes to bind sTfR and minimize non-specific signals, while enhancing detection on the PC biosensor. This inverse sandwich assay (IA) method completely bound sTfR with low variability (<4% RSD) in buffer and allowed for its accurate and precise detection in sera (Liquichek™ control sera) on the PC biosensor using two certified ELISAs as reference methods. A linear dose-response curve was elicited at the fAb-IONs concentration in which the theoretical binding ratio (sTfR:fAb-IONs) was calculated to be <1 on the IA. The LoDs for sTfR in the SA and IA were similar (P>0.05) at 14 and 21 μg/mL, respectively. The inherent imprecision of the IA and reference ELISAs was σ(δ)=0.45 µg/mL and the mean biases for Liquichek™ 1, 2 and 3 were 0.18, 0.19 and -0.04 µg/mL, respectively. Whereas the inherent imprecision of the SA and reference ELISAs was σ(δ)=0.52 µg/mL and the biases for Liquichek™ 1, 2 and 3 were 0.66, 0.14 and -0.67 µg/mL, respectively. Thus, unlike the SA, the IA method measures sTfR with the same bias as the reference ELISAs. Combined magnetic separation and detection of nutrition biomarkers on PC biosensors represents a facile method for their accurate and reliable quantification in complex matrixes.

  10. Prospective Evaluation of Procalcitonin, Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 and C-Reactive Protein in Febrile Patients with Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chou-Han; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Keng, Li-Ta; Lee, Ho-Sheng; Chang, Hou-Tai; Liao, Wei-Yu; Ho, Chao-Chi; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background Both procalcitonin (PCT) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) have been investigated separately as indicators of infection in patients with autoimmune diseases. Our study simultaneously evaluated both PCT and sTREM-1 along with C-reactive protein (CRP) in febrile patients with autoimmune diseases. Methods Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were categorized into the infection group (n = 24) or the disease flare group (n = 35). sTREM-1, PCT and CRP concentrations at fever onset were compared between the two groups of patients. Results sTREM-1 and CRP did not differ between the two groups. PCT [median (range), ng/ml] was higher in the infection group than in the disease flare group [0.53 (0.02–12.85) vs. 0.12 (0.02–19.23), p = 0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) for diagnosis of infection was 0.75 for PCT (p = 0.001), 0.63 for CRP (p = 0.09) and 0.52 for sTREM-1 (p = 0.79). Using 0.2 ng/ml as the cutoff value for PCT, sensitivity was 0.75 and specificity was 0.77. Negative predictive values for PCT were 92%, 87% and 82% for a prevalence of infection of 20%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. Neither immunosuppressants nor biomodulators affected the level of the three biomarkers. However, in patients treated with corticosteroids, the levels of sTREM-1 and CRP were significantly decreased compared with the untreated patients. Conclusions Setting PCT at a lower cutoff value could provide useful information on excluding infection in febrile patients with autoimmune diseases. The possible effect of corticosteroids on the level of sTREM-1 as an infection marker deserves further study. PMID:27096761

  11. Altered serum glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end product (AGE) and soluble AGE receptor levels indicate carbonyl stress in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mayu; Ohnuma, Tohru; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Katsuta, Narimasa; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Takebayashi, Yuto; Higa, Motoyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nishimon, Shohei; Sannohe, Takahiro; Hotta, Yuri; Hanzawa, Ryo; Higashiyama, Ryoko; Shibata, Nobuto; Gohda, Tomohito; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Arai, Heii

    2015-04-23

    Recent cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicate that measurements of peripheral blood carbonyl stress markers such as the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine and the reactive carbonyl-detoxifying B6 vitamin pyridoxal could be used as therapeutic biological markers in subpopulations of schizophrenia patients. Glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGE) have strong neurotoxicity, and soluble receptors for AGEs (sRAGE) may ameliorate the effects of AGEs. In the present study, we measured Glycer-AGEs and sRAGE levels to determine their potential as diagnostic, therapeutic, or clinical biological markers in patients with schizophrenia. After enrollment of 61 admitted Japanese patients with acute schizophrenia and 39 healthy volunteers, 54 patients were followed up from the acute stage to remission. Serum biomarkers were measured in blood samples taken before breakfast using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and Glycer-AGEs were significantly higher and sRAGE levels were significantly lower in patients with acute schizophrenia than in healthy controls. Glycer-AGEs/sRAGE ratios were also higher in schizophrenia patients and were stable during the clinical course. Furthermore, discriminant analyses confirmed that Glycer-AGEs and Glycer-AGEs/sRAGE ratios are significant diagnostic markers for schizophrenia, and distinguished between patients and healthy controls in 70.0% of cases. However, these markers of carbonyl stress were not correlated with clinical features, including disease severity, or with daily chlorpromazine doses. These data indicate the potential of Glycer-AGEs, RAGEs, and their relative ratios as diagnostic markers for patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Nuclear IL-33 regulates soluble ST2 receptor and IL-6 expression in primary human arterial endothelial cells and is decreased in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Dongmin; Perros, Frédéric; Caramori, Gaetano; Meng, Chao; Dormuller, Peter; Chou, Pai-Chien; Church, Colin; Papi, Alberto; Casolari, Paolo; Welsh, David; Peacock, Andrew; Humbert, Marc; Adcock, Ian M.; Wort, Stephen J.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear IL-33 expression is reduced in vascular endothelial cells from PAH patients. • Knockdown of IL-33 leads to increased IL-6 and sST2 mRNA expression. • IL-33 binds homeobox motifs in target gene promoters and recruits repressor proteins. - Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is an incurable condition leading to right ventricular failure and death and inflammation is postulated to be associated with vascular remodelling. Interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the “alarmin” family can either act on the membrane ST2 receptor or as a nuclear repressor, to regulate inflammation. We show, using immunohistochemistry, that IL-33 expression is nuclear in the vessels of healthy subjects whereas nuclear IL-33 is markedly diminished in the vessels of IPAH patients. This correlates with reduced IL-33 mRNA expression in their lung. In contrast, serum levels of IL-33 are unchanged in IPAH. However, the expression of the soluble form of ST2, sST2, is enhanced in the serum of IPAH patients. Knock-down of IL-33 in human endothelial cells (ECs) using siRNA is associated with selective modulation of inflammatory genes involved in vascular remodelling including IL-6. Additionally, IL-33 knock-down significantly increased sST2 release from ECs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that IL-33 bound multiple putative homeodomain protein binding motifs in the proximal and distal promoters of ST2 genes. IL-33 formed a complex with the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1, a transcriptional repressor. In conclusion, IL-33 regulates the expression of IL-6 and sST2, an endogenous IL-33 inhibitor, in primary human ECs and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PAH through recruitment of transcriptional repressor proteins.

  13. Interleukin-6/Soluble Interleukin-6 Receptor Signaling Attenuates Proliferation and Invasion, and Induces Morphological Changes of a Newly Established Pleomorphic Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Hirofumi; Yoshioka, Kiyoko; Joyama, Susumu; Araki, Nobuhito; Myoui, Akira; Ishiguro, Shingo; Ueda, Takafumi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Itoh, Kazuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is occasionally associated with inflammatory paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS). Recently, we reported that interleukin (IL)-6, one of the candidate cytokines, which induces such systemic inflammatory reaction, may be a tumor-associated factor involved in the pathogenesis and its clinical manifestations of MFH. In the local microenvironment, tumor-induced inflammatory reaction may play a role favoring tumor progression. To clarify the biological relevance of IL-6 in MFH, we established a human MFH cell line, named MIPS-2, derived from a resected specimen of a patient presenting with PNS. In this patient, the serum IL-6 level ran parallel to the disease course: elevated serum IL-6 concentration normalized immediately after radical surgery, and re-elevation occurred on tumor recurrence. MIPS-2 presented pleomorphic appearance, severe nuclear abnormalities with prominent nucleoli, and tumorigenesis in nude mice. MIPS-2 expressed IL-6, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), and glycoprotein 130 (gp130) but lacked the soluble form of IL-6R (sIL-6R), as determined by flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Stimulation of MIPS-2 with IL-6 combined with exogenous sIL-6R induced phosphorylation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), decreased cell proliferation, attenuated invasion, and induced morphological changes. Collectively, these data suggested that the IL-6/sIL-6R signaling pathway plays a pivotal role for proliferation, invasion, and morphology of MFH via STAT3 and MAPK pathway as autocrine and/or paracrine manner, and proposed the therapeutic potential for the use of both anti-growth factor and proinflammatory cytokine-targeting strategies to combat devastating MFH. PMID:15277221

  14. Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 Released by Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Critical for Inhibiting Th17 Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fang; Zhang, Lingyun; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Yan, Sha; Xu, Zhenyao; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Huiyuan; Lou, Fangzhou; Cai, Wei; Sun, Yang; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hong; Wang, Honglin

    2016-03-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Th17 cell differentiation from naïve T cells can be induced in vitro by the cytokines transforming growth factor β1 and interleukin-6. However, it remains unclear whether other regulatory factors control the differentiation of Th17 cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising candidate for inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation and autoimmune diseases. Despite the fact that several molecules have been linked to the immunomodulatory function of MSCs, many other key MSC-secreted regulators that are involved in inhibiting Th17 cell polarization are ill-defined. In this study, we demonstrated that the intraperitoneal administration of skin-derived MSCs (S-MSCs) substantially ameliorated the development of EAE in mice. We found that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a key mediator in the pathophysiology of MS and EAE, was capable of promoting Th17 cell differentiation. Moreover, under inflammatory conditions, we demonstrated that S-MSCs produced high amounts of soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1), which binds TNF-α and antagonizes its function. Knockdown of sTNFR1 in S-MSCs decreased their inhibitory effect on Th17 cell differentiation ex vivo and in vivo. Thus, our data identified sTNFR1 and its target TNF-α as critical regulators for Th17 cell differentiation, suggesting a previously unrecognized mechanism for MSC therapy in Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  15. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ agonist improve vascular function and decrease renal injury in hypertensive obese rats.

    PubMed

    Imig, John D; Walsh, Katie A; Hye Khan, Md Abdul; Nagasawa, Tasuku; Cherian-Shaw, Mary; Shaw, Sean M; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-12-01

    Cardiometabolic syndrome occurs with obesity and consists of pathophysiological factors that increase the risk for cardiovascular events. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition (sEHi) is a novel therapeutic approach that exerts renal and cardiovascular protection. Although sEHi as a therapeutic approach is promising, it could be more effective for the treatment of cardiometabolic syndrome when combined with peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists. We hypothesized that the PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone in combination with a sEHi (tAUCB) will provide synergistic actions to decrease blood pressure, improve vascular function, decrease inflammation, and prevent renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive obese rats (SHROB). SHROB were treated with rosiglitazone, tAUCB or the combination of tAUCB and rosiglitazone for four-weeks and compared with spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Blood pressure increased in SHROB (164 ± 7 mmHg) and decreased 10 mmHg when treated with rosiglitazone, tAUCB, or tAUCB and rosiglitazone. Mesenteric artery dilation to the K(ATP) channel opener pinacidil was attenuated in SHROB (E(Max) = 77 ± 7%), compared with WKY (E(Max) = 115 ± 19) and SHR (E(Max) = 93 ± 12%). Vasodilation to pinacidil was improved by rosiglitazone (E(Max) = 92 ± 14%) but not tAUCB. Renal macrophage infiltration increased in SHROB and significantly decreased with rosiglitazone or tAUCB and rosiglitazone treatment. Albuminuria was increased in SHROB (90 ± 20 mg/d) and was significantly decreased by the combination of tAUCB and rosiglitazone (37 ± 9 mg/d). Glomerular injury in SHROB was also significantly decreased by tAUCB and rosiglitazone. These results indicate that even though sEHi or PPARγ agonist have benefits when used individually, the combination is more beneficial for the multidisease features in cardiometabolic syndrome.

  16. Dynamic macrophage polarization-specific miRNA patterns reveal increased soluble VEGF receptor 1 by miR-125a-5p inhibition.

    PubMed

    Melton, David W; Lei, XiuFen; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Shireman, Paula K

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic, epigenetic mechanisms can regulate macrophage phenotypes following exposure to different stimulating conditions and environments. However, temporal patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) across multiple macrophage polarization phenotypes have not been defined. We determined miRNA expression in bone marrow-derived murine macrophages over multiple time points (0.5, 1, 3, 24 h) following exposure to cytokines and/or LPS. We hypothesized that dynamic changes in miRNAs regulate macrophage phenotypes. Changes in macrophage polarization markers were detected as early as 0.5 and as late as 24 h; however, robust responses for most markers occurred within 3 h. In parallel, many polarization-specific miRNAs were also changed by 3 h and expressed divergent patterns between M1 and M2a conditions, with increased expression in M1 (miR-155, 199a-3p, 214-3p, 455-3p, and 125a) or M2a (miR-511 and 449a). Specifically, miR-125a-5p exhibited divergent patterns: increased at 12-24 h in M1 macrophages and decreasing trend in M2a. VEGF in the culture media of macrophages was dependent upon the polarization state, with greatly diminished VEGF in M2a compared with M1 macrophage culture media despite similar VEGF in cell lysates. Inhibition of miR-125a-5p in media-only controls (MO) and M1 macrophages greatly increased expression and secretion of soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR1) leading to diminished VEGF in the culture media, partially converting MO and M1 into an M2a phenotype. Thus, the divergent expression patterns of polarization-specific miRNAs led to the identification and demonstrated the regulation of a specific macrophage polarization phenotype, sVEGFR1 by inhibition of miR-125a-5p.

  17. Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 as a Predictive Factor for Progression of Illness in Chronic Liver Diseases and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ratnasari, Neneng; Nurdjanah, Siti; Sadewa, Ahmad Hamim; Hakimi, Mohammad; Yano, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is generally induced in the process of necro-inflammation and regeneration in chronic liver diseases (CLD). Whereas VEGF is a major humoral factor in relation to neo-vascularization, the receptor, VEGFR-2, is located in hepatocytes and sinusoid endothelial cells. The aim in this study is to investigate the significance of soluble form of VEGFR-2 (sVEGFR-2) in various CLDs. A cross sectional study was conducted from 2010 to 2013 at Dr. Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta, Indonesia. 149 patients with chronic hepatitis (CH), liver cirrhosis (LC) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were enrolled in this study. sVEGFR-2 serum was examined using Quantikine®HS kit human immunoassay. Data were analyses by STATA (P value <0.05). The median of sVEGFR-2 was decreased according to the disease progression (LC: 7014.95 pg/mL; CH: 8805.15 pg/mL; healthy subject: 9785.2 pg/mL). However, sVEGFR-2 in HCC (8043.73 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that in LC (P= 0.0059). Based on AUROC analyses, the clinical cut-off point of sVEGFR-2 with >80% sensitivity was used (CH-LC ≤7236.7, LC-HCC ≥7215). The odds ratio (OR) LC to HCC was 5.87 and CH to LC was 4.63. The significant correlations were showed significantly between sVEGFR-2 with MELD and ALT in LC, and with APRI and FIB-4 in CH. In conclusion, the serum sVEGFR-2 could be used as a predictive factor progressing CH to LC, but not HCC.

  18. Soluble Urokinase Receptor Levels Are Correlated with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Lesions in IgA Nephropathy: A Cohort Study from China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shui-Ming; Han, Min; Chen, Mei-Xue; Ning, Yong; Pei, Guang-Chang; Li, Yue-Qiang; Dai, Wei; Ge, Shu-Wang; Deng, Yuan-Jun; Guo, Yan-Yan; Li, Xiao-Qing; Haller, Hermann; Xu, Gang; Rong, Song

    2015-01-01

    Background Soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) may be involved in the pathological mechanisms of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) changes. However, it remains unclear whether suPAR is correlated with the FSGS-like lesions in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Methods We measured the plasma suPAR levels in 138 patients with IgAN, and then their clinical and pathological relationships were analyzed. Results We found that the plasma suPAR levels were significantly correlated with age and renal function by both univariate and multivariate analysis in our IgAN patient cohort. Female had higher plasma suPAR levels and no significant correlation was observed between plasma suPAR levels and 24-h urine protein and highly sensitive C-reaction protein with multivariate analysis. In our cohort, sixty of these IgAN patients could be diagnosed with a type of FSGS lesions. The plasma suPAR levels were higher in the IgAN patients with FSGS lesions than in the IgAN patients without FSGS lesions by univariate (P < 0.0001) and multivariate (P < 0.001) analysis adjusting for other predictor variables, which might be helpful to differentiate the pathological changes with and without FSGS lesions. And the optimal cutoff value was 1806 pg/ml in this study. The plasma suPAR concentrations were also associated with the degree of tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis in both univariate and multivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, the plasma suPAR levels were correlated with the percentage of crescents, not global sclerosis and arterial lesions. Conclusions Our study suggested that the plasma suPAR levels were associated with age, gender, renal function, the degree of tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis and the percentage of crescent formation. The plasma suPAR might be a potential predictor for the presence of FSGS pathological lesions in Chinese patients with IgAN. PMID:26380984

  19. Schistosoma mansoni Soluble Egg Antigens Induce Expression of the Negative Regulators SOCS1 and SHP1 in Human Dendritic Cells via Interaction with the Mannose Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Klaver, Elsenoor J.; Kuijk, Loes M.; Lindhorst, Thisbe K.; Cummings, Richard D.; van Die, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a common debilitating human parasitic disease in (sub)tropical areas, however, schistosome infections can also protect against a variety of inflammatory diseases. This has raised broad interest in the mechanisms by which Schistosoma modulate the immune system into an anti-inflammatory and regulatory state. Human dendritic cells (DCs) show many phenotypic changes upon contact with Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA). We here show that oxidation of SEA glycans, but not heat-denaturation, abrogates the capacity of SEA to suppress both LPS-induced cytokine secretion and DC proliferation, indicating an important role of SEA glycans in these processes. Remarkably, interaction of SEA glycans with DCs results in a strongly increased expression of Suppressor Of Cytokine Signalling1 (SOCS1) and SH2-containing protein tyrosine Phosphatase-1 (SHP1), important negative regulators of TLR4 signalling. In addition, SEA induces the secretion of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and the surface expression of the costimulatory molecules Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) and OX40 ligand (OX40L), which are known phenotypic markers for the capacity of DCs to polarize naïve T cells into Th2/Treg cell subsets. Inhibition of mannose receptor (MR)-mediated internalization of SEA into DCs by blocking with allyl α-D-mannoside or anti-MR antibodies, significantly reduced SOCS1 and SHP1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that SEA glycans are essential for induction of enhanced SOCS1 and SHP1 levels in DCs via the MR. Our data provide novel mechanistic evidence for the potential of S. mansoni SEA glycans to modulate human DCs, which may contribute to the capacity of SEA to down-regulate inflammatory responses. PMID:25897665

  20. A case of thyroid storm with a markedly elevated level of circulating soluble interleukin-2 receptor complicated by multiple organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoko; Satoh, Tetsurou; Takahashi, Hiroki; Katano-Toki, Akiko; Ozawa, Atsushi; Tomaru, Takuya; Horiguchi, Norio; Kaira, Kyoichi; Nishioka, Masaki; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Wakino, Shu; Mori, Masatomo; Yamada, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid storm (TS) is a life-threatening endocrine emergency. However, the pathogenesis of TS is poorly understood. A 40-year-old man was admitted to a nearby hospital with body weight loss and jaundice. Five days after a contrasted abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan, he exhibited high fever and disturbance of consciousness. He was diagnosed with TS originating from untreated Graves' disease and was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) of our hospital. The patient exhibited impaired consciousness (E4V1M4 in Glasgow coma scale), high fever (39.3°C), and atrial flutter with a pulse rate 162/min, and was complicated by heart failure, acute hepatic failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC). His circulating level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), a serum marker of an activated immune response, was highly elevated (7,416 U/mL, reference range: 135-483). Multiple organ failure (MOF) and DIC were successfully managed by multimodality treatments using inorganized iodide, glucocorticoids, anti-thyroid drugs, beta-blockers, and diuretics as well as an anticoagulant agent and the transfusion of platelet concentrate and fresh frozen plasma. sIL-2R levels gradually decreased during the initial treatment, but were still above the reference range even after thyroidectomy. Mild elevations in serum levels of sIL-2R have previously been correlated with thyroid hormone levels in non-storm Graves' disease. The present study demonstrated, for the first time, that circulating sIL-2R levels could be markedly elevated in TS. The marked increase in sIL-2R levels was speculated to represent an inappropriate generalized immune response that plays an unknown role in the pathogenesis of TS.

  1. Complementary Effects of Genetic Variations in LEPR on Body Composition and Soluble Leptin Receptor Concentration after 3-Month Lifestyle Intervention in Prepubertal Obese Children.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Joanna; Kuryłowicz, Alina; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Weker, Halina; Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In obese individuals, weight loss might be affected by variants of the adipokine-encoding genes. We verified whether selected functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ are associated with changes in serum levels of the respective adipokines and weight loss in 100 prepubertal obese (SDS-BMI > 2) Caucasian children undergoing lifestyle intervention. Frequencies of the -2548G > A LEP, Q223R LEPR, K656N LEPR, -11377C > G and -11426A > G ADIPOQ polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum adipokine and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) concentrations were measured using the ELISA method. Among the analyzed polymorphisms, only LEPR polymorphisms were associated with changes of SDS-BMI or sOB-R concentrations in children after therapy. Carriers of the wild-type K665N and at least one minor Q223R allele had the greatest likelihood of losing weight (OR = 5.09, p = 0.006), an increase in sOB-R (ptrend = 0.022) and decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with the decrease of fat mass (p < 0.001). In contrast, carrying of the wild-type Q223R and at least one minor K665N allele were associated with a decrease in sOB-R concentrations and a decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with a decrease in fat-free mass (p = 0.002). We suggest that the combination of different LEPR variants, not a single variant, might determine predisposition to weight loss in the prepubertal period. PMID:27240401

  2. Schistosoma mansoni Soluble Egg Antigens Induce Expression of the Negative Regulators SOCS1 and SHP1 in Human Dendritic Cells via Interaction with the Mannose Receptor.

    PubMed

    Klaver, Elsenoor J; Kuijk, Loes M; Lindhorst, Thisbe K; Cummings, Richard D; van Die, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a common debilitating human parasitic disease in (sub)tropical areas, however, schistosome infections can also protect against a variety of inflammatory diseases. This has raised broad interest in the mechanisms by which Schistosoma modulate the immune system into an anti-inflammatory and regulatory state. Human dendritic cells (DCs) show many phenotypic changes upon contact with Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA). We here show that oxidation of SEA glycans, but not heat-denaturation, abrogates the capacity of SEA to suppress both LPS-induced cytokine secretion and DC proliferation, indicating an important role of SEA glycans in these processes. Remarkably, interaction of SEA glycans with DCs results in a strongly increased expression of Suppressor Of Cytokine Signalling1 (SOCS1) and SH2-containing protein tyrosine Phosphatase-1 (SHP1), important negative regulators of TLR4 signalling. In addition, SEA induces the secretion of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and the surface expression of the costimulatory molecules Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) and OX40 ligand (OX40L), which are known phenotypic markers for the capacity of DCs to polarize naïve T cells into Th2/Treg cell subsets. Inhibition of mannose receptor (MR)-mediated internalization of SEA into DCs by blocking with allyl α-D-mannoside or anti-MR antibodies, significantly reduced SOCS1 and SHP1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that SEA glycans are essential for induction of enhanced SOCS1 and SHP1 levels in DCs via the MR. Our data provide novel mechanistic evidence for the potential of S. mansoni SEA glycans to modulate human DCs, which may contribute to the capacity of SEA to down-regulate inflammatory responses. PMID:25897665

  3. Diagnostic implications of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and abdominal diseases: a preliminary observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of acute or decompensated chronic abdominal disease and acute respiratory failure need to have the potential infection diagnosed as well as its site (pulmonary or abdominal). For this purpose, we measured soluble triggering receptor expression on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in alveolar and peritoneal fluid. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 21) with acute or decompensated chronic abdominal disease and acute respiratory failure were included. sTREM was measured in alveolar (A-sTREM) and peritoneal (P-sTREM) fluids. Results An infection was diagnosed in all patients. Nine patients had a lung infection (without abdominal infection), 5 had an abdominal infection (without lung infection) and seven had both infections. A-sTREM was higher in the patients with pneumonia compared to those without pneumonia (1963 ng/ml (1010-3129) vs. 862 ng/ml (333-1011); P 0.019). Patients with abdominal infection had an increase in the P-sTREM compared to patients without abdominal infection (1941 ng/ml (1088-3370) vs. 305 ng/ml (288-459); P < 0.001). A cut-off point of 900 pg/ml of A-sTREM-1 had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 80% (NPV 57%; PPV 93%, AUC 0.775) for the diagnosis of pneumonia. In abdominal infections, a cut-off point for P-sTREM of 900 pg/ml had the best results (sensitivity 92%; specificity 100%; NPV 90%, PPV 100%, AUC = 0.903). Conclusions sTREM-1 measured in alveolar and peritoneal fluids is useful in assessing pulmonary and peritoneal infection in critical-state patients-A-sTREM having the capacity to discriminate between a pulmonary and an extra-pulmonary infection in the context of acute respiratory failure. PMID:21294874

  4. Effects of complement inhibition with soluble complement receptor-1 on vascular injury and inflammation during renal allograft rejection in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, J. R.; Hibbs, M. J.; Laver, A. J.; Smith, R. A.; Sacks, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    Complement is both an effector of the humoral immune response and a stimulator of leukocyte activation. To examine the influence of complement on the allograft response, we inhibited complement using recombinant human soluble complement receptor-1 (sCR1; TP10), in an unsensitized model of rat renal allograft rejection. Lewis to DA renal transplant recipients were treated daily with 25 mg/kg sCR1 or saline and sacrificed on days 1 to 5 after transplant. Transplanted organs were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for leukocyte subset markers and for the third component of complement, C3, and membrane attack complex deposition. A second set of recipients was followed from day 5 to day 9 to assess graft survival. sCR1-treated recipients displayed > 90% inhibition of plasma complement activity and a marked reduction in tissue C3 and membrane attack complex deposition. Inactivation of complement reduced the vascular injury such that there was almost complete sparing of vascular damage in day 5 sCR1-treated rats. There was a significant reduction in infiltrating leukocytes by day 5 after transplant, and complement inhibition delayed the time to reach a histologically defined end point of graft survival from 5 days in controls to 9 days in the sCR1-treated group. These results imply that the vascular and cell-mediated injury arises, in part, from complement activation. The partial inhibition of these injuries by sCR1 may have functional implications for strategies to inhibit allograft rejection. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8952538

  5. Soluble Forms and Ligands of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: An Observational Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jabaudon, Matthieu; Blondonnet, Raiko; Roszyk, Laurence; Pereira, Bruno; Guérin, Renaud; Perbet, Sébastien; Cayot, Sophie; Bouvier, Damien; Blanchon, Loic; Sapin, Vincent; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background The main soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) is elevated during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However other RAGE isoforms and multiple ligands have been poorly reported in the clinical setting, and their respective contribution to RAGE activation during ARDS remains unclear. Our goal was therefore to describe main RAGE isoforms and ligands levels during ARDS. Methods 30 ARDS patients and 30 mechanically ventilated controls were prospectively included in this monocenter observational study. Arterial, superior vena cava and alveolar fluid levels of sRAGE, endogenous-secretory RAGE (esRAGE), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), S100A12 and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) were measured in duplicate ELISA on day 0, day 3 and day 6. In patients with ARDS, baseline lung morphology was assessed with computed tomography. Results ARDS patients had higher arterial, central venous and alveolar levels of sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, but lower levels of esRAGE and AGEs, than controls. Baseline arterial sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12 were correlated with nonfocal ARDS (AUC 0.79, 0.65 and 0.63, respectively). Baseline arterial sRAGE, esRAGE, S100A12 and AGEs were associated with severity as assessed by PaO2/FiO2. Conclusions This is the first kinetics study of levels of RAGE main isoforms and ligands during ARDS. Elevated sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, with decreased esRAGE and AGEs, were found to distinguish patients with ARDS from those without. Our findings should prompt future studies aimed at elucidating RAGE/HMGB1/S100A12 axis involvement in ARDS. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01270295. PMID:26274928

  6. Serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is independently associated with cigarette smoking in non-diabetic healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subrata K; Mudi, Sonchita R; Mollah, Forhadul H; Bierhaus, Angelika; Arslan, M Iqbal

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to explore the relationship between serum levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and cigarette smoking in non-diabetic healthy subjects. A total of 98 non-diabetic, otherwise healthy male subjects were recruited. A fasting blood sample and medical history including detail history of cigarette smoking was collected. The serum sRAGE levels were found significantly higher (p=0.002) in cigarette smokers (1475±422 pg/ml, n=45) compared with non-smokers (1165±350 pg/ml, n=53). Moreover, among the cigarette smokers, serum sRAGE levels were found significantly correlated with number of cigarettes smoked per day (r=0.60, p<0.001). In bivariate analysis in the total population, sRAGE positively correlated with smoking habit (r=0.37, p=0.002) and negatively correlated with systolic (r=-0.32, p=0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.36, p=0.003). However, in stepwise multivariate linear regression model, sRAGE showed a significant independent association with smoking habit (b=0.32, p=0.007, R2=0.23). In conclusion, this study for the first time shows a significant elevation of serum sRAGE in cigarette smokers compared with non-smokers, a strong correlation between sRAGE and number of cigarettes smoked per day and an independent association of sRAGE with smoking habit in non-diabetic healthy subjects.

  7. Syntaxin 7 and VAMP-7 are Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide–sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptors Required for Late Endosome–Lysosome and Homotypic Lysosome Fusion in Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Diane McVey; Pevsner, Jonathan; Scullion, Matthew A.; Vaughn, Michael; Kaplan, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    Endocytosis in alveolar macrophages can be reversibly inhibited, permitting the isolation of endocytic vesicles at defined stages of maturation. Using an in vitro fusion assay, we determined that each isolated endosome population was capable of homotypic fusion. All vesicle populations were also capable of heterotypic fusion in a temporally specific manner; early endosomes, isolated 4 min after internalization, could fuse with endosomes isolated 8 min after internalization but not with 12-min endosomes or lysosomes. Lysosomes fuse with 12-min endosomes but not with earlier endosomes. Using homogenous populations of endosomes, we have identified Syntaxin 7 as a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) required for late endosome–lysosome and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. A bacterially expressed human Syntaxin 7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited homotypic late endosome and lysosome fusion as well as heterotypic late endosome–lysosome fusion. Affinity-purified antibodies directed against Syntaxin 7 also inhibited lysosome fusion in vitro but had no affect on homotypic early endosome fusion. Previous work suggested that human VAMP-7 (vesicle-associated membrane protein-7) was a SNARE required for late endosome–lysosome fusion. A bacterially expressed human VAMP-7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited both late endosome–lysosome fusion and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. These studies indicate that: 1) fusion along the endocytic pathway is a highly regulated process, and 2) two SNARE molecules, Syntaxin 7 and human VAMP-7, are involved in fusion of vesicles in the late endocytic pathway in alveolar macrophages. PMID:10888671

  8. Soluble Tie2 overrides the heightened invasion induced by anti-angiogenesis therapies in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Santiago, Nahir; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Fan, Xuejun; Gumin, Joy; Marini, Frank C.; Alonso, Marta M.; Lang, Frederick; Yung, W.K.; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma recurrence after treatment with the anti–vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent bevacizumab is characterized by a highly infiltrative and malignant behavior that renders surgical excision and chemotherapy ineffective. Our group has previously reported that Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) are aberrantly present at the tumor/normal brain interface after anti-VEGF therapies and their significant role in the invasive outgrowth of these tumors. Here, we aimed to further understand the mechanisms leading to this pro-invasive tumor microenvironment. Examination of a U87MG xenogeneic glioma model and a GL261 murine syngeneic model showed increased tumor expression of angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), a natural ligand of Tie2, after anti-angiogenesis therapies targeting VEGF or VEGF receptor (VEGFR), as assessed by immunohistochemical analysis, immunofluorescence analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of tumor lysates. Migration and gelatinolytic assays showed that Ang2 acts as both a chemoattractant of TEMs and an enhancing signal for their tumor-remodeling properties. Accordingly, in vivo transduction of Ang2 into intracranial gliomas increased recruitment of TEMs into the tumor. To reduce invasive tumor outgrowth after anti-angiogenesis therapy, we targeted the Ang-Tie2 axis using a Tie2 decoy receptor. Using syngeneic models, we observed that overexpression of soluble Tie2 within the tumor prevented the recruitment of TEMs to the tumor and the development of invasion after anti-angiogenesis treatment. Taken together, these data indicate an active role for the Ang2-Tie2 pathway in invasive glioma recurrence after anti-angiogenesis treatment and provide a rationale for testing the combined targeting of VEGF and Ang-Tie2 pathways in patients with glioblastoma. PMID:26910374

  9. Are Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Bone Micro-Architecture Associated with Leptin and Soluble Leptin Receptor Levels in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis? – A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Elisa M. S.; Yu, Fiona W. P.; Hung, Vivian W. Y.; Liu, Zhen; Liu, King Lok; Ng, Bobby K. W.; Lee, Simon K. M.; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack C. Y.; Lam, Tsz-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). The underlying etiology and how it may relate to the development of osteopenia remains unknown. Leptin has been postulated as one of the etiologic factors of AIS because of its profound effects on bone metabolism and pubertal growth. Its modulator, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), may affect leptin bioavailability and signaling. This study aimed to investigate whether serum leptin and sOB-R levels may be associated with bone quality, and whether these relationships may differ between young adolescent girls with and without AIS. Methods This was a case-control study involving 94 newly diagnosed AIS girls (Cobb angle 12–48°) aged 12 to 14 years old and 87 age and gender-matched normal controls. Subjects with BMI>23.0 Kg/m2 were excluded. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height, arm span and sitting height were taken. Serum total leptin and sOB-R were assayed with ELISA. Non-dominant distal radius was scanned with High Resolution pQCT for assessing bone quality in terms of bone morphometry, volumetric BMD (vBMD) and trabecular bone micro-architecture. Results Compared with normal controls, AIS girls had numerically higher sOB-R (p = 0.006), lower average vBMD (p = 0.048), lower cortical vBMD (p = 0.029), higher cortical bone perimeter (p = 0.014) and higher trabecular area (p = 0.027), but none remained statistically significant after the Hochberg-Benjamini procedure. Correlation analysis on serum leptin level indicated that distinctive correlations with trabecular bone parameters occurred only in AIS. Conclusion This study showed that bone quality in AIS girls was deranged as compared with controls. In addition, the distinct differences in correlation pattern between leptin and trabecular bone parameters indicated possible abnormalities in bone metabolism and dysfunction of the leptin signaling pathway in AIS. PMID:24516571

  10. Milk Matters: Soluble Toll-Like Receptor 2 (sTLR2) in Breast Milk Significantly Inhibits HIV-1 Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Henrick, Bethany M.; Nag, Kakon; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Drannik, Anna G.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Rosenthal, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of infants who breastfeed from their HIV-positive mothers remain uninfected despite constant and repeated exposure to virus over weeks to years. This phenomenon is not fully understood but has been closely linked to innate factors in breast milk (BM). Most recently we have focused on one such innate factor, soluble Toll-like receptor 2 (sTLR2) for its significant contribution as an inhibitor of inflammation triggered by bacterial and viral antigens. We hypothesized that sTLR2 in BM inhibits immune activation/inflammation and HIV-1 infection. sTLR2 protein profiles were analyzed in HIV-uninfected BM and showed dramatic variability in expression concentration and predominant sTLR2 forms between women. sTLR2 immunodepleted BM, versus mock-depleted BM, incubated with Pam3CSK4 lead to significant increases in IL-8 production in a TLR2-dependant fashion in U937, HEK293-TLR2, and Caco-2. Importantly, TLR2-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibody addition to BM prior to cell-free R5 HIV-1 addition led to significantly (P<0.01, P<0.001, respectively) increased HIV-1 infection in TZM-bl reporter cells. To confirm these findings, sTLR2-depletion in BM led to significantly (P<0.001) increased HIV-1 infection in TZM-bl cells. Notably, immunodepletion does not allow for the complete removal of sTLR2 from BM, thus functional testing shown here may underestimate the total effect elicited by sTLR2 against HIV-1 and synthetic bacterial ligand. This study provides evidence for the first time that sTLR2 in BM may provide a dual protective role for infants breastfeeding from their HIV-infected mothers by; (1) immunomodulating pro-inflammatory responses to bacterial ligands, and (2) directly inhibiting cell-free HIV-1 infection. Thus, sTLR2 in BM may be critical to infant health and prove beneficial in decreasing vertical HIV-1 transmission to infants. PMID:22792230

  11. Dynamic changes of serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) reflect sepsis severity and can predict prognosis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined the utility of serum levels of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) for the diagnoses, severity assessments, and predicting the prognoses of patients with sepsis and compared sTREM-1 values with those of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Methods Fifty-two patients with sepsis were included: 15 sepsis cases and 37 severe sepsis cases (severe sepsis + septic shock). Serum levels of sTREM-1, CRP, and PCT were determined on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 after admission to an ICU. Results Serum sTREM-1 levels of patients with severe sepsis were significantly higher than for those with sepsis on day 1 (240.6 pg/ml vs. 118.3 pg/ml; P < 0.01), but CRP and PCT levels were not significantly different between the two groups. The area under an ROC curve for sTREM-1 for severe sepsis patients was 0.823 (95% confidence interval: 0.690-0.957). Using 222.5 pg/ml of sTREM-1 as the cut-off value, the sensitivity was 59.5%, the specificity was 93.3%, the positive predictive value was 95.6%, the negative predictive value was 48.3%, the positive likelihood ratio was 8.92, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.434. Based on 28-day survivals, sTREM-1 levels in the surviving group showed a tendency to decrease over time, while they tended to gradually increase in the non-surviving group. sTREM-1 levels in the non-surviving group were higher than those in the surviving group at all time points, whereas CRP and PCT levels showed a tendency to decrease over time in both groups. sTREM-1 levels and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were positively correlated (r = 0.443; P < 0.001), and this correlation coefficient was greater than the correlation coefficients for both CRP and PCT. Conclusions Serum sTREM-1 levels reflected the severity of sepsis more accurately than those of CRP and PCT and were more sensitive for dynamic evaluations of sepsis prognosis. Trial Registration Current controlled trials Chi

  12. The diagnostic utility and tendency of the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in exudative pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Yun Su; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) may have an inflammatory or homeostatic function in lung tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of sRAGE as a diagnostic marker for exudative pleural effusions, which are common manifestations of a variety of diseases. Methods Patients with an undiagnosed pleural effusion were prospectively enrolled between January 2013 and January 2015. Samples of blood and pleural fluid were centrifuged and the supernatant stored at −70 °C. The levels of sRAGE in serum and pleural fluid were determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results In total 47 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with a tuberculous effusion, and the groups diagnosed with parapneumonic or malignant effusions comprised 13 patients each. The serum sRAGE levels for tuberculosis were significantly elevated [median, 1,291 pg/mL; interquartile range (IQR), 948–1,711 pg/mL] when compared with those for both pneumonia (median, 794 pg/mL; IQR, 700–1,255 pg/mL) and lung cancer (median, 886 pg/mL; IQR, 722–1,285 pg/mL) (P=0.029). The pleural sRAGE levels for pneumonia (median, 1,763 pg/mL; IQR, 1,262–4,431 pg/mL) were lower than those for both tuberculosis (median, 5,081 pg/mL; IQR, 3,300–6,004 pg/mL) and lung cancer (median, 4,936 pg/mL; IQR, 3,282–7,018 pg/mL) (P=0.009) The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis selected 896 pg/mL as the best cutoff value in the sRAGE serum level for tuberculosis [sensitivity, 86%; specificity 58%; area under the curve (AUC) =0.727, P=0.008]. For the pleural effusion sRAGE level, the ROC curve analysis selected 2,231 pg/mL as the best cutoff value for pneumonia (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 62%, AUC =0.792, P=0.002). Conclusions Among patients with exudative effusion, pleural and serum sRAGE measurements may be useful supportive diagnostic tools in the evaluation of ambiguous pleural effusion. Furthermore

  13. Changes in Soluble Transferrin Receptor and Hemoglobin Concentrations in Malawian Mothers Are Associated with Those Values in their Exclusively Breastfed, HIV-Exposed Infants123

    PubMed Central

    Widen, Elizabeth M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Kayira, Dumbani; Chasela, Charles S.; Daza, Eric J.; Kacheche, Zebrone K.; Tegha, Gerald; Jamieson, Denise J.; Kourtis, Athena P.; van der Horst, Charles M.; Allen, Lindsay H.; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Infant iron status at birth is influenced by maternal iron status during pregnancy; however, there are limited data on the extent to which maternal iron status is associated with infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding. We evaluated how maternal and infant hemoglobin and iron status [soluble transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin] were related during exclusive breastfeeding in HIV-infected women and their infants. The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study was a randomized controlled trial in Lilongwe, Malawi, in which HIV-infected women were assigned with a 2 × 3 factorial design to a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS), or no LNS, and maternal, infant, or no antiretroviral drug, and followed for 24 wk. Longitudinal models were used to relate postpartum maternal hemoglobin (n = 1926) to concurrently measured infant hemoglobin, adjusting for initial infant hemoglobin values. In a subsample, change in infant iron status (hemoglobin, log ferritin, log TfR) between 2 (n = 352) or 6 wk (n = 167) and 24 wk (n = 519) was regressed on corresponding change in the maternal indicator, adjusting for 2 or 6 wk values. A 1 g/L higher maternal hemoglobin at 12, 18, and 24 wk was associated with a 0.06 g/L (P = 0.01), 0.10 g/L (P < 0.001), and 0.06 g/L (P = 0.01), respectively, higher infant hemoglobin. In the subsample, a reduction in maternal log TfR and an increase in hemoglobin from initial measurement to 24 wk were associated with the same pattern in infant values (log TfR β = −0.18 mg/L, P < 0.001; hemoglobin β = 0.13 g/L, P = 0.01). Given the observed influence of maternal and initial infant values, optimizing maternal iron status in pregnancy and postpartum is important to protect infant iron status. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00164736. PMID:24381222

  14. A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus.

    PubMed

    Alejo, Alí; Ruiz-Argüello, M Begoña; Ho, Yin; Smith, Vincent P; Saraiva, Margarida; Alcami, Antonio

    2006-04-11

    Variola virus (VaV) is the causative agent of smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases encountered by man, that was eradicated in 1980. The deliberate release of VaV would have catastrophic consequences on global public health. However, the mechanisms that contribute to smallpox pathogenesis are poorly understood at the molecular level. The ability of viruses to evade the host defense mechanisms is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Here we show that the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) homologue CrmB encoded by VaV functions not only as a soluble decoy TNFR but also as a highly specific binding protein for several chemokines that mediate recruitment of immune cells to mucosal surfaces and the skin, sites of virus entry and viral replication at late stages of smallpox. CrmB binds chemokines through its C-terminal domain, which is unrelated to TNFRs, was named smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor (SECRET) domain and uncovers a family of poxvirus chemokine inhibitors. An active SECRET domain was found in another viral TNFR (CrmD) and three secreted proteins encoded by orthopoxviruses. These findings identify a previously undescribed chemokine-binding and inhibitory domain unrelated to host chemokine receptors and a mechanism of immune modulation in VaV that may influence smallpox pathogenesis.

  15. Learning from decoys to improve the sensitivity and specificity of proteomics database search results.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Dhirendra; Dash, Debasis

    2012-01-01

    The statistical validation of database search results is a complex issue in bottom-up proteomics. The correct and incorrect peptide spectrum match (PSM) scores overlap significantly, making an accurate assessment of true peptide matches challenging. Since the complete separation between the true and false hits is practically never achieved, there is need for better methods and rescoring algorithms to improve upon the primary database search results. Here we describe the calibration and False Discovery Rate (FDR) estimation of database search scores through a dynamic FDR calculation method, FlexiFDR, which increases both the sensitivity and specificity of search results. Modelling a simple linear regression on the decoy hits for different charge states, the method maximized the number of true positives and reduced the number of false negatives in several standard datasets of varying complexity (18-mix, 49-mix, 200-mix) and few complex datasets (E. coli and Yeast) obtained from a wide variety of MS platforms. The net positive gain for correct spectral and peptide identifications was up to 14.81% and 6.2% respectively. The approach is applicable to different search methodologies--separate as well as concatenated database search, high mass accuracy, and semi-tryptic and modification searches. FlexiFDR was also applied to Mascot results and showed better performance than before. We have shown that appropriate threshold learnt from decoys, can be very effective in improving the database search results. FlexiFDR adapts itself to different instruments, data types and MS platforms. It learns from the decoy hits and sets a flexible threshold that automatically aligns itself to the underlying variables of data quality and size.

  16. Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Weier, Henning; Fürst, Martin; Ursin, Rupert; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Scheidl, Thomas; Perdigues, Josep; Sodnik, Zoran; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Rarity, John G.; Zeilinger, Anton; Weinfurter, Harald

    2007-01-01

    We report on the experimental implementation of a Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol type quantum key distribution over a 144 km free-space link using weak coherent laser pulses. Optimization of the link transmission was achieved with bidirectional active telescope tracking, and the security was ensured by employing decoy-state analysis. This enabled us to distribute a secure key at a rate of 12.8bit/s at an attenuation of about 35 dB. Utilizing a simple transmitter setup and an optical ground station capable of tracking a spacecraft in low earth orbit, this outdoor experiment demonstrates the feasibility of global key distribution via satellites.

  17. Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2009-04-13

    We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption.

  18. Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2009-04-13

    We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption. PMID:19365479

  19. Approach jamming effectiveness evaluation for surface-type infrared decoy in network centric warship formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Mingshan

    2015-10-01

    The passive and photoelectrical jamming to anti-ship missile in the condition of network centric warship formation is an important research issue of fleet EW operation. An approach jamming method of shipborne surface-type infrared decoy countering the infrared image guided anti-ship missile is put forward. By analyzing the countering process the jamming effectiveness evaluation model is constructed. By simulation the method is proved t reasonable and effective. This method breaks through the traditional restrict that the passive and photoelectricity jamming measure can only be used in the end self-defence and provides a new method for network centric worship formation to support each other.

  20. Oxidized ultrashort nanotubes as carbon scaffolds for the construction of cell-penetrating NF-kappaB decoy molecules.

    PubMed

    Crinelli, Rita; Carloni, Elisa; Menotta, Michele; Giacomini, Elisa; Bianchi, Marzia; Ambrosi, Gianluca; Giorgi, Luca; Magnani, Mauro

    2010-05-25

    Oligonucleotide (ODN) decoys are synthetic ODNs containing the DNA binding sequence of a transcription factor. When delivered to cells, these molecules can compete with endogenous sequences for binding the transcription factor, thus inhibiting its ability to activate the expression of target genes. Modulation of gene expression by decoy ODNs against nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor regulating many genes involved in immunity, has been achieved in a variety of immune/inflammatory disorders. However, the successful use of transcription factor decoys depends on an efficient means to bring the synthetic DNA to target cells. It is known that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), under certain conditions, are able to cross the cell membrane. Thus, we have evaluated the possibility to functionalize SWCNTs with decoy ODNs against NF-kappaB in order to improve their intracellular delivery. To couple ODNs to CNTs, we have exploited the carbodiimide chemistry which allows covalent binding of amino-modified ODNs to carboxyl groups introduced onto SWCNTs through oxidation. The effective binding of ODNs to nanotubes has been demonstrated by a combination of microscopic, spectroscopic, and electrophoretic techniques. The uptake and subcellular distribution of ODN decoys bound to SWCNTs was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. ODNs were internalized into macrophages and accumulated in the cytosol. Moreover, no cytotoxicity associated with SWCNT administration was observed. Finally, NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression was significantly reduced in cells receiving nanomolar concentrations of SWCNT-NF-kappaB decoys compared to cells receiving SWCNTs or SWCNTs functionalized with a nonspecific ODN sequence, demonstrating both efficacy and specificity of the approach. PMID:20411956

  1. Oxidized ultrashort nanotubes as carbon scaffolds for the construction of cell-penetrating NF-kappaB decoy molecules.

    PubMed

    Crinelli, Rita; Carloni, Elisa; Menotta, Michele; Giacomini, Elisa; Bianchi, Marzia; Ambrosi, Gianluca; Giorgi, Luca; Magnani, Mauro

    2010-05-25

    Oligonucleotide (ODN) decoys are synthetic ODNs containing the DNA binding sequence of a transcription factor. When delivered to cells, these molecules can compete with endogenous sequences for binding the transcription factor, thus inhibiting its ability to activate the expression of target genes. Modulation of gene expression by decoy ODNs against nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor regulating many genes involved in immunity, has been achieved in a variety of immune/inflammatory disorders. However, the successful use of transcription factor decoys depends on an efficient means to bring the synthetic DNA to target cells. It is known that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), under certain conditions, are able to cross the cell membrane. Thus, we have evaluated the possibility to functionalize SWCNTs with decoy ODNs against NF-kappaB in order to improve their intracellular delivery. To couple ODNs to CNTs, we have exploited the carbodiimide chemistry which allows covalent binding of amino-modified ODNs to carboxyl groups introduced onto SWCNTs through oxidation. The effective binding of ODNs to nanotubes has been demonstrated by a combination of microscopic, spectroscopic, and electrophoretic techniques. The uptake and subcellular distribution of ODN decoys bound to SWCNTs was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. ODNs were internalized into macrophages and accumulated in the cytosol. Moreover, no cytotoxicity associated with SWCNT administration was observed. Finally, NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression was significantly reduced in cells receiving nanomolar concentrations of SWCNT-NF-kappaB decoys compared to cells receiving SWCNTs or SWCNTs functionalized with a nonspecific ODN sequence, demonstrating both efficacy and specificity of the approach.

  2. DECOY: Documenting Experiences with Cigarettes and Other Tobacco in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Haardörfer, Regine; Lewis, Michael; Getachew, Betelihem; Lloyd, Steven A.; Thomas, Sarah Fretti; Lanier, Angela; Trepanier, Kelleigh; Johnston, Teresa; Grimsley, Linda; Foster, Bruce; Benson, Stephanie; Smith, Alicia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined psychographic characteristics associated with tobacco use among Project DECOY participants. Methods Project DECOY is a 2-year longitudinal mixed-methods study examining risk for tobacco use among 3418 young adults across 7 Georgia colleges/universities. Baseline measures included sociodemographics, tobacco use, and psychographics using the Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyle Scale. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of tobacco use. Results Past 30-day use prevalence was: 13.3% cigarettes; 11.3% little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs); 3.6% smokeless tobacco; 10.9% e-cigarettes; and 12.2% hookah. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of cigarette use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001) and intellectual curiosity (p = .010) and less interest in tangible creation (p = .002) and social conservatism (p < .001). Correlates of LCC use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001) and greater fashion orientation (p = .007). Correlates of smokeless tobacco use included greater novelty seeking (p = .006) and less intellectual curiosity (p < .001). Correlates of e-cigarette use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001) and less social conservatism (p = .002). Correlates of hookah use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001), fashion orientation (p = .044), and self-focused thinking (p = .002), and less social conservatism (p < .001). Conclusions Psychographic characteristics distinguish users of different tobacco products. PMID:27103410

  3. Can a pairwise contact potential stabilize native protein folds against decoys obtained by threading?

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, M; Najmanovich, R; Domany, E

    2000-02-01

    We present a method to derive contact energy parameters from large sets of proteins. The basic requirement on which our method is based is that for each protein in the database the native contact map has lower energy than all its decoy conformations that are obtained by threading. Only when this condition is satisfied one can use the proposed energy function for fold identification. Such a set of parameters can be found (by perceptron learning) if Mp, the number of proteins in the database, is not too large. Other aspects that influence the existence of such a solution are the exact definition of contact and the value of the critical distance Rc, below which two residues are considered to be in contact. Another important novel feature of our approach is its ability to determine whether an energy function of some suitable proposed form can or cannot be parameterized in a way that satisfies our basic requirement. As a demonstration of this, we determine the region in the (Rc, Mp) plane in which the problem is solvable, i.e., we can find a set of contact parameters that stabilize simultaneously all the native conformations. We show that for large enough databases the contact approximation to the energy cannot stabilize all the native folds even against the decoys obtained by gapless threading. PMID:10656261

  4. Diversity, decoys and the dilution effect: how ecological communities affect disease risk.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P T J; Thieltges, D W

    2010-03-15

    Growing interest in ecology has recently focused on the hypothesis that community diversity can mediate infection levels and disease ('dilution effect'). In turn, biodiversity loss--a widespread consequence of environmental change--can indirectly promote increases in disease, including those of medical and veterinary importance. While this work has focused primarily on correlational studies involving vector-borne microparasite diseases (e.g. Lyme disease, West Nile virus), we argue that parasites with complex life cycles (e.g. helminths, protists, myxosporeans and many fungi) offer an excellent additional model in which to experimentally address mechanistic questions underlying the dilution effect. Here, we unite recent ecological research on the dilution effect in microparasites with decades of parasitological research on the decoy effect in macroparasites to explore key questions surrounding the relationship between community structure and disease. We find consistent evidence that community diversity significantly alters parasite transmission and pathology under laboratory as well as natural conditions. Empirical examples and simple transmission models highlight the diversity of mechanisms through which such changes occur, typically involving predators, parasite decoys, low competency hosts or other parasites. However, the degree of transmission reduction varies among diluting species, parasite stage, and across spatial scales, challenging efforts to make quantitative, taxon-specific predictions about disease. Taken together, this synthesis highlights the broad link between community structure and disease while underscoring the importance of mitigating ongoing changes in biological communities owing to species introductions and extirpations.

  5. Managing MicroRNAs with Vector-Encoded Decoy-Type Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Rasmus O; Hollensen, Anne Kruse; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2013-01-01

    A rapidly growing understanding of the complex circuitry of microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation is attracting attention to miRNAs as new drug targets. Targeted miRNA suppression is achieved in a sequence-specific manner by antisense RNA “decoy” molecules. Such synthetic miRNA inhibitors have reached the clinic with remarkable pace and may soon appear as new therapeutic modalities in several diseases. Shortcomings, however, include high production costs, the requirement for repeated administration, and difficulty achieving tissue-specific delivery. With the many recent landmark achievements in clinical gene therapy, new and refined vector-encoded miRNA suppression technologies are attractive for many applications, not least as tools in innumerable daily studies of miRNA biology in laboratories worldwide. Here, we provide an overview of the strategies that have been used to adapt vector-encoded inhibitors for miRNA suppression and discuss advantages related to spatiotemporal and long-term miRNA attenuation. With the remarkable new discovery of miRNA management by naturally occurring circular RNAs, RNA circles generated by trans-splicing mechanisms may prove to be well-suited carriers of decoy-type miRNA inhibitors. The community will aspire to combine circles with high-affinity miRNA decoy methodologies, and such “vectorized” RNA circles may represent new solid ways to deliver miRNA inhibitors, perhaps even with therapeutic applications. PMID:23752312

  6. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB Ligand (RANKL)/Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Ratio Is Increased in Severe Osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Grimaud, Eva; Soubigou, Luc; Couillaud, Séverine; Coipeau, Patrick; Moreau, Anne; Passuti, Norbert; Gouin, François; Redini, Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    Pathological osteolyses are considered a consequence of a disturbance in the mechanisms that govern the bone remodeling, mainly the communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) are newly discovered molecules that play a key role in these communications. RANKL is essential for osteoclast differentiation via its receptor RANK located on the osteoclast membrane. OPG is a soluble decoy receptor that inhibits osteoclast differentiation through its binding to RANKL. The aim of this study is the analysis of the RANKL/OPG balance by complementary methods (semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in human osteolysis associated to various bone etiologies (n = 60), tumoral (primitive, secondary) or not, compared to healthy tissues (n = 16). Results demonstrated that RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly increased in patients suffering from severe osteolysis compared to the control group and that this imbalance is involved in bone resorption mechanisms. In this study, OPG expression appears to reflect a protective mechanism of the skeleton to compensate increased bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast formation and bone resorbing activity. Moreover, as revealed by immunohistochemistry, RANKL and OPG were colocalized in all of the tissues analyzed. To define the veracity of RANKL/OPG index in assessing and managing patients with severe osteolysis, an extended population of patients suffering from severe osteolysis must be now monitored. PMID:14578201

  7. Changes in soluble transferrin receptor and hemoglobin concentrations in Malawian mothers are associated with those values in their exclusively breastfed, HIV-exposed infants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infant iron status at birth is influenced bymaternal iron status during pregnancy; however, there are limited data on the extent to which maternal iron status is associated with infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding. We evaluated how maternal and infant hemoglobin and iron status [solubl...

  8. Expression and purification of soluble and stable ectodomain of natural killer cell receptor LLT1 through high-density transfection of suspension adapted HEK293S GnTI(-) cells.

    PubMed

    Bláha, Jan; Pachl, Petr; Novák, Petr; Vaněk, Ondřej

    2015-05-01

    Lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1, gene clec2d) was identified to be a ligand for the single human NKR-P1 receptor present on NK and NK-T lymphocytes. Naturally, LLT1 is expressed on the surface of NK cells, stimulating IFN-γ production, and is up-regulated upon activation of other immune cells, e.g. TLR-stimulated dendritic cells and B cells or T cell receptor-activated T cells. While in normal tissues LLT1:NKR-P1 interaction (representing an alternative "missing-self" recognition system) play an immunomodulatory role in regulation of crosstalk between NK and antigen presenting cells, LLT1 is upregulated in glioblastoma cells, one of the most lethal tumors, where it acts as a mediator of immune escape of glioma cells. Here we report transient expression and characterization of soluble His176Cys mutant of LLT1 ectodomain in an eukaryotic expression system of human suspension-adapted HEK293S GnTI(-) cell line with uniform N-glycans. The His176Cys mutation is critical for C-type lectin-like domain stability, leading to the reconstruction of third canonical disulfide bridge in LLT1, as shown by mass spectrometry. Purified soluble LLT1 is homogeneous, deglycosylatable and forms a non-covalent homodimer whose dimerization is not dependent on presence of its N-glycans. As a part of production of soluble LLT1, we have adapted HEK293S GnTI(-) cell line to growth in suspension in media facilitating transient transfection and optimized novel high cell density transfection protocol, greatly enhancing protein yields. This transfection protocol is generally applicable for protein production within this cell line, especially for protein crystallography. PMID:25623399

  9. Discriminating of ATP competitive Src kinase inhibitors and decoys using self-organizing map and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Aixia; Hu, Xiaoying; Wang, Kai; Sun, Jing

    2013-02-01

    A data set containing 686 Src kinase inhibitors and 1,941 Src kinase non-binding decoys was collected and used to build two classification models to distinguish inhibitors from decoys. The data set was randomly split into a training set (458 inhibitors and 972 decoys) and a test set (228 inhibitors and 969 decoys). Each molecule was represented by five global molecular descriptors and 18 2D property autocorrelation descriptors calculated using the program ADRIANA.Code. Two machine learning methods, a Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) and a support vector machine (SVM), were utilized for the training and classification. For the test set, classification accuracy (ACC) of 99.92% and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.98 were achieved for the SOM model; ACC of 99.33% and MCC of 0.98 were obtained for the SVM model. Some molecular properties, such as molecular weight, number of atoms in a molecule, hydrogen bond properties, polarizabilities, electronegativities, and hydrophobicities, were found to be important for the inhibition of Src kinase.

  10. Immunomodulation of cystic fibrosis epithelial cells via NF-κB decoy oligonucleotide-coated polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wardwell, Patricia R; Bader, Rebecca A

    2015-05-01

    Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway is associated with enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and is thought to play a critical role in diseases hallmarked by inflammation, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Small nucleic acids that interfere with gene expression have been proposed as promising therapeutics for a number of diseases. However, applications have been limited by low cellular penetration and a lack of stability. Nano-sized carrier systems have been suggested as a means of improving the effectiveness of nucleic acid-based treatments. In this study, we successfully coated polysialic acid-N-trimethyl chitosan (PSA-TMC) nanoparticles with NF-κΒ decoy oligonucleotides (ODNs). To demonstrate anti-inflammatory activity, the decoy ODN-coated PSA-TMC nanoparticles were administered to an in vitro model of CF generated via interleukin-1β or P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides stimulation of IB3-1 bronchial epithelial cells. While free ODN and PSA-TMC nanoparticles coated with scrambled ODNs did not have substantial impacts on the inflammatory response, the decoy ODN-coated PSA-TMC nanoparticles were able to reduce the secretion of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, pro-inflammatory mediators of CF, by the epithelial cells, particularly at longer time points. In general, the results suggest that NF-κB decoy ODN-coated TMC-PSA nanoparticles may serve as an effective method of altering the pro-inflammatory environment associated with CF.

  11. Carotid plaque and bone density and microarchitecture in psoriatic arthritis: the correlation with soluble ST2.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiayun; Shang, Qing; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Li, Edmund K; Kun, Emily W; Cheng, Isaac T; Li, Martin; Li, Tena K; Zhu, Tracy Y; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Qin, Ling; Tam, Lai-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients have increased risk of both atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. Previous studies revealed that IL-33/ST2 axis may be related to both conditions; however, these associations were never evaluated in a single patients' group. Here we explored the association among plasma levels of IL-33 and its decoy receptor soluble ST2 (sST2), carotid plaque determined by ultrasound, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD)/microstructure of distal radius measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in 80 PsA patients (55% male; 53.0 ± 10.1 years). Plasma sST2 levels were significantly higher in 33 (41%) patients with carotid plaques (11.2 ± 4.5 vs 7.7 ± 3.7 ng/ml, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, sST2 was an independent explanatory variable associated with carotid plaques (OR = 1.296, 95% CI: [1.091,1.540]; P = 0.003). After adjustment for the osteoporotic risk factors, sST2 was significantly associated with higher cortical porosity (β = 0.184, [0.042,0.325]; P = 0.012) and cortical pore volume (2.247, [0.434,4.060]; P = 0.016); and had a trend to be associated with lower cortical vBMD (-2.918, [-6.111,0.275]; P = 0.073). IL-33 was not associated with carotid plaque or vBMD/microstructure. In conclusion, plasma sST2 levels were independently correlated with both carotid plaque and compromised cortical vBMD/microstructure in PsA patients. IL-33/ST2 axis may be a link between accelerated atherosclerosis and osteoporosis in PsA. PMID:27554830

  12. New glycoproteomics software, GlycoPep Evaluator, generates decoy glycopeptides de novo and enables accurate false discovery rate analysis for small data sets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhikai; Su, Xiaomeng; Go, Eden P; Desaire, Heather

    2014-09-16

    Glycoproteins are biologically significant large molecules that participate in numerous cellular activities. In order to obtain site-specific protein glycosylation information, intact glycopeptides, with the glycan attached to the peptide sequence, are characterized by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods such as collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD). While several emerging automated tools are developed, no consensus is present in the field about the best way to determine the reliability of the tools and/or provide the false discovery rate (FDR). A common approach to calculate FDRs for glycopeptide analysis, adopted from the target-decoy strategy in proteomics, employs a decoy database that is created based on the target protein sequence database. Nonetheless, this approach is not optimal in measuring the confidence of N-linked glycopeptide matches, because the glycopeptide data set is considerably smaller compared to that of peptides, and the requirement of a consensus sequence for N-glycosylation further limits the number of possible decoy glycopeptides tested in a database search. To address the need to accurately determine FDRs for automated glycopeptide assignments, we developed GlycoPep Evaluator (GPE), a tool that helps to measure FDRs in identifying glycopeptides without using a decoy database. GPE generates decoy glycopeptides de novo for every target glycopeptide, in a 1:20 target-to-decoy ratio. The decoys, along with target glycopeptides, are scored against the ETD data, from which FDRs can be calculated accurately based on the number of decoy matches and the ratio of the number of targets to decoys, for small data sets. GPE is freely accessible for download and can work with any search engine that interprets ETD data of N-linked glycopeptides. The software is provided at https://desairegroup.ku.edu/research.

  13. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states. PMID:24755767

  14. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-23

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  15. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  16. Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km.

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Weier, Henning; Fürst, Martin; Ursin, Rupert; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Scheidl, Thomas; Perdigues, Josep; Sodnik, Zoran; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Rarity, John G; Zeilinger, Anton; Weinfurter, Harald

    2007-01-01

    We report on the experimental implementation of a Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol type quantum key distribution over a 144 km free-space link using weak coherent laser pulses. Optimization of the link transmission was achieved with bidirectional active telescope tracking, and the security was ensured by employing decoy-state analysis. This enabled us to distribute a secure key at a rate of 12.8 bit/s at an attenuation of about 35 dB. Utilizing a simple transmitter setup and an optical ground station capable of tracking a spacecraft in low earth orbit, this outdoor experiment demonstrates the feasibility of global key distribution via satellites. PMID:17358463

  17. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states. PMID:24755767

  18. Sharks shape the geometry of a selfish seal herd: experimental evidence from seal decoys.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Alta; O'Riain, M Justin

    2010-02-23

    Many animals respond to predation risk by forming groups. Evolutionary explanations for group formation in previously ungrouped, but loosely associated prey have typically evoked the selfish herd hypothesis. However, despite over 600 studies across a diverse array of taxa, the critical assumptions of this hypothesis have remained collectively untested, owing to several confounding problems in real predator-prey systems. To solve this, we manipulated the domains of danger of Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) decoys to provide evidence that a selfish reduction in a seals' domain of danger results in a proportional reduction in its predation risk from ambush shark attacks. This behaviour confers a survival advantage to individual seals within a group and explains the evolution of selfish herds in a prey species. These findings empirically elevate Hamilton's selfish herd hypothesis to more than a 'theoretical curiosity'.

  19. Sharks shape the geometry of a selfish seal herd: experimental evidence from seal decoys

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Alta; O'Riain, M. Justin

    2010-01-01

    Many animals respond to predation risk by forming groups. Evolutionary explanations for group formation in previously ungrouped, but loosely associated prey have typically evoked the selfish herd hypothesis. However, despite over 600 studies across a diverse array of taxa, the critical assumptions of this hypothesis have remained collectively untested, owing to several confounding problems in real predator–prey systems. To solve this, we manipulated the domains of danger of Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) decoys to provide evidence that a selfish reduction in a seals' domain of danger results in a proportional reduction in its predation risk from ambush shark attacks. This behaviour confers a survival advantage to individual seals within a group and explains the evolution of selfish herds in a prey species. These findings empirically elevate Hamilton's selfish herd hypothesis to more than a ‘theoretical curiosity’. PMID:19793737

  20. The enhanced measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with two-intensity decoy states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Feng; Zhou, Xing-Yu; Wang, Qin

    2016-09-01

    We put forward a new scheme for implementing the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) with weak coherent source, while using only two different intensities. In the new scheme, we insert a beam splitter and a local detector at both Alice's and Bob's side, and then all the triggering and non-triggering signals could be employed to process parameter estimations, resulting in very precise estimations for the two-single-photon contributions. Besides, we compare its behavior with two other often used methods, i.e., the conventional standard three-intensity decoy-state measurement-device-independent QKD and the passive measurement-device-independent QKD. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrate that our new approach can exhibit outstanding characteristics not only in the secure transmission distance, but also in the final key generation rate.

  1. The Central Polybasic Region of the Soluble SNARE (Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor) Vam7 Affects Binding to Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate by the PX (Phox Homology) Domain.

    PubMed

    Miner, Gregory E; Starr, Matthew L; Hurst, Logan R; Sparks, Robert P; Padolina, Mark; Fratti, Rutilio A

    2016-08-19

    The yeast vacuole requires four SNAREs to trigger membrane fusion including the soluble Qc-SNARE Vam7. The N-terminal PX domain of Vam7 binds to the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) and the tethering complex HOPS (homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting complex), whereas the C-terminal SNARE motif forms SNARE complexes. Vam7 also contains an uncharacterized middle domain that is predicted to be a coiled-coil domain with multiple helices. One helix contains a polybasic region (PBR) composed of Arg-164, Arg-168, Lys-172, Lys-175, Arg-179, and Lys-186. Polybasic regions are often associated with nonspecific binding to acidic phospholipids including phosphoinositides. Although the PX (phox homology) domain alone binds PI3P, we theorized that the Vam7 PBR could bind to additional acidic phospholipids enriched at fusion sites. Mutating each of the basic residues in the PBR to an alanine (Vam7-6A) led to attenuated vacuole fusion. The defective fusion of Vam7-6A was due in part to inefficient association with its cognate SNAREs and HOPS, yet the overall vacuole association of Vam7-6A was similar to wild type. Experiments testing the binding of Vam7 to specific signaling lipids showed that mutating the PBR to alanines augmented binding to PI3P. The increased binding to PI3P by Vam7-6A likely contributed to the observed wild type levels of vacuole association, whereas protein-protein interactions were diminished. PI3P binding was inhibited when the PX domain mutant Y42A was introduced into Vam7-6A to make Vam7-7A. Thus the Vam7 PBR affects PI3P binding by the PX domain and in turn affects binding to SNAREs and HOPS to support efficient fusion. PMID:27365394

  2. Serum-resistant CpG-STAT3 decoy for targeting survival and immune checkpoint signaling in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qifang; Hossain, Dewan Md Sakib; Duttagupta, Priyanka; Moreira, Dayson; Zhao, Xingli; Won, Haejung; Buettner, Ralf; Nechaev, Sergey; Majka, Marcin; Zhang, Bin; Cai, Qi; Swiderski, Piotr; Kuo, Ya-Huei; Forman, Stephen; Marcucci, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Targeting oncogenic transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can reduce blast survival and tumor immune evasion. Decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (dODNs), which comprise STAT3-specific DNA sequences are competitive inhibition of STAT3 transcriptional activity. To deliver STAT3dODN specifically to myeloid cells, we linked STAT3dODN to the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) ligand, cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG). The CpG-STAT3dODN conjugates are quickly internalized by human and mouse TLR9+ immune cells (dendritic cells, B cells) and the majority of patients’ derived AML blasts, including leukemia stem/progenitor cells. Following uptake, CpG-STAT3dODNs are released from endosomes, and bind and sequester cytoplasmic STAT3, thereby inhibiting downstream gene expression in target cells. STAT3 inhibition in patients’ AML cells limits their immunosuppressive potential by reduced arginase expression, thereby partly restoring T-cell proliferation. Partly chemically modified CpG-STAT3dODNs have >60 hours serum half-life which allows for IV administration to leukemia-bearing mice (50% effective dose ∼ 2.5 mg/kg). Repeated administration of CpG-STAT3dODN resulted in regression of human MV4-11 AML in mice. The antitumor efficacy of this strategy is further enhanced in immunocompetent mice by combining direct leukemia-specific cytotoxicity with immunogenic effects of STAT3 blocking/TLR9 triggering. CpG-STAT3dODN effectively reduced Cbfb/MYH11/Mpl AML burden in various organs and eliminated leukemia stem/progenitor cells, mainly through CD8/CD4 T-cell–mediated immune responses. In contrast, small-molecule Janus kinase 2/STAT3 inhibitor failed to reproduce therapeutic effects of cell-selective CpG-STAT3dODN strategy. These results demonstrate therapeutic potential of CpG-STAT3dODN inhibitors with broad implications for treatement of AML and potentially other hematologic malignancies. PMID:26796361

  3. Water soluble and efficient amino acid Schiff base receptor for reversible fluorescence turn-on detection of Zn2+ ions: Quantum chemical calculations and detection of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subha, L.; Balakrishnan, C.; Natarajan, Satheesh; Theetharappan, M.; Subramanian, Balanehru; Neelakantan, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    An amino acid Schiff base (R) capable of recognizing Zn2+ ions selectively and sensitively in an aqueous medium was prepared and characterized. Upon addition of Zn2+ ions, the receptor exhibits fluorescence intensity enhancements (~ 40 fold) at 460 nm (quantum yield, Φ = 0.05 for R and Φ = 0.18 for R-Zn2+) and can be detected by naked eye under UV light. The receptor can recognize the Zn2+ (1.04 × 10- 8 M) selectively for other metal ions in the pH range of 7.5-11. The Zn2+ chelation with R decreases the loss of energy through non-radiative transition and leads to fluorescence enhancement. The binding mode of the receptor with Zn2+ was investigated by 1H NMR titration and further validated by ESI-MS. The elemental color mapping and SEM/EDS analysis were also used to study the binding of R with Zn2+. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to understand the binding mechanism. The receptor was applied as a microbial sensor for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  4. Water-Soluble 8-Hydroxyquinoline Conjugate of Amino-Glucose As Receptor for La(3+) in HEPES Buffer, on Whatman Cellulose Paper and in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Areti, Sivaiah; Bandaru, Sateesh; Teotia, Rohit; Rao, Chebrolu P

    2015-12-15

    A water-soluble glucopyranosyl conjugate, L, has been synthesized and characterized by different analytical and spectral techniques. The L has been demonstrated to have switch-on fluorescence enhancement of ∼75 fold in the presence of La(3+) among the nine lanthanide ions studied in the HEPES buffer at pH 7.4. A minimum detection limit of 140 nM (16 ± 2 ppb) was shown by L for La(3+) in the buffer at physiological pH. The utility of L has been demonstrated by showing its sensitivity toward La(3+) on Whatman filter paper strips. The reversible and reusable action of L has been demonstrated by monitoring the fluorescence changes as a function of the addition of La(3+) followed by F(-) and HPO4(2-) ions. The complexation of L by La(3+) was shown by absorption spectra wherein isosbestic behavior was observed. The Job's plot suggests a 2:1 complex between L and La(3+), and the same was supported by ESI-MS. The control molecular study revealed the necessity of hydroxy quinoline and the amine group for La(3+) ion binding and the glyco-moiety to bring water solubility and biocompatibility. The structural features of the [2L+La(3+)] complex were established by DFT computational calculations. The chemo-ensemble, [2L+La(3+)], is shown responsible for providing intracellular fluorescence imaging in HepG2 cells.

  5. Soluble interleukin-15 receptor alpha (IL-15R alpha)-sushi as a selective and potent agonist of IL-15 action through IL-15R beta/gamma. Hyperagonist IL-15 x IL-15R alpha fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Erwan; Quéméner, Agnès; Vusio, Patricia; Lorenzen, Inken; Boublik, Yvan; Grötzinger, Joachim; Plet, Ariane; Jacques, Yannick

    2006-01-20

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is crucial for the generation of multiple lymphocyte subsets (natural killer (NK), NK-T cells, and memory CD8 T cells), and transpresentation of IL-15 by monocytes and dendritic cells has been suggested to be the dominant activating process of these lymphocytes. We have previously shown that a natural soluble form of IL-15R alpha chain corresponding to the entire extracellular domain of IL-15R alpha behaves as a high affinity IL-15 antagonist. In sharp contrast with this finding, we demonstrate in this report that a recombinant, soluble sushi domain of IL-15R alpha, which bears most of the binding affinity for IL-15, behaves as a potent IL-15 agonist by enhancing its binding and biological effects (proliferation and protection from apoptosis) through the IL-15R beta/gamma heterodimer, whereas it does not affect IL-15 binding and function of the tripartite IL-15R alpha/beta/gamma membrane receptor. Our results suggest that, if naturally produced, such soluble sushi domains might be involved in the IL-15 transpresentation mechanism. Fusion proteins (RLI and ILR), in which IL-15 and IL-15R alpha-sushi are attached by a flexible linker, are even more potent than the combination of IL-15 plus sIL-15R alpha-sushi. After binding to IL-15R beta/gamma, RLI is internalized and induces a biological response very similar to the IL-15 high affinity response. Such hyper-IL-15 fusion proteins appear to constitute potent adjuvants for the expansion of lymphocyte subsets.

  6. Lung-Derived Factors Mediate Breast Cancer Cell Migration through CD44 Receptor-Ligand Interactions in a Novel Ex Vivo System for Analysis of Organ-Specific Soluble Proteins12

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jenny E; Xia, Ying; Chin-Yee, Benjamin; Goodale, David; Croker, Alysha K; Allan, Alison L

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer preferentially metastasizes to lung, lymph node, liver, bone, and brain. However, it is unclear whether properties of cancer cells, properties of organ microenvironments, or a combination of both is responsible for this observed organ tropism. We hypothesized that breast cancer cells exhibit distinctive migration/growth patterns in organ microenvironments that mirror common clinical sites of breast cancer metastasis and that receptor-ligand interactions between breast cancer cells and soluble organ-derived factors mediate this behavior. Using an ex vivo model system composed of organ-conditioned media (CM), human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, SUM149, and SUM159) displayed cell line-specific and organ-specific patterns of migration/proliferation that corresponded to their in vivo metastatic behavior. Notably, exposure to lung-CM increased migration of all cell lines and increased proliferation in two of four lines (P < .05). Several cluster of differentiation (CD) 44 ligands including osteopontin (OPN) and L-selectin (SELL) were identified in lung-CM by protein arrays. Immunodepletion of SELL decreased migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas depletion of OPN decreased both migration and proliferation. Pretreatment of cells with a CD44-blocking antibody abrogated migration effects (P < .05). “Stemlike” breast cancer cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase and CD44 (ALDHhiCD44+) responded in a distinct chemotactic manner toward organ-CM, preferentially migrating toward lung-CM through CD44 receptor-ligand interactions (P < .05). In contrast, organ-specific changes in migration were not observed for ALDHlowCD44- cells. Our data suggest that interactions between CD44+ breast cancer cells and soluble factors present in the lung microenvironment may play an important role in determining organotropic metastatic behavior. PMID:24709425

  7. Lung-derived factors mediate breast cancer cell migration through CD44 receptor-ligand interactions in a novel ex vivo system for analysis of organ-specific soluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jenny E; Xia, Ying; Chin-Yee, Benjamin; Goodale, David; Croker, Alysha K; Allan, Alison L

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer preferentially metastasizes to lung, lymph node, liver, bone, and brain. However, it is unclear whether properties of cancer cells, properties of organ microenvironments, or a combination of both is responsible for this observed organ tropism. We hypothesized that breast cancer cells exhibit distinctive migration/growth patterns in organ microenvironments that mirror common clinical sites of breast cancer metastasis and that receptor-ligand interactions between breast cancer cells and soluble organ-derived factors mediate this behavior. Using an ex vivo model system composed of organ-conditioned media (CM), human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231,MDA-MB-468, SUM149, and SUM159) displayed cell line-specific and organ-specific patterns of migration/proliferation that corresponded to their in vivo metastatic behavior. Notably, exposure to lung-CM increased migration of all cell lines and increased proliferation in two of four lines (P < .05). Several cluster of differentiation (CD) 44 ligands including osteopontin (OPN) and L-selectin (SELL) were identified in lung-CM by protein arrays. Immunodepletion of SELL decreased migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas depletion of OPN decreased both migration and proliferation. Pretreatment of cells with a CD44-blocking antibody abrogated migration effects (P < .05). "Stemlike" breast cancer cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase and CD44 (ALDH(hi)CD44(+)) responded in a distinct chemotactic manner toward organ-CM, preferentially migrating toward lung-CM through CD44 receptor-ligand interactions (P < .05). In contrast, organ-specific changes in migration were not observed for ALDH(low)CD44(-) cells. Our data suggest that interactions between CD44(+) breast cancer cells and soluble factors present in the lung microenvironment may play an important role in determining organotropic metastatic behavior.

  8. Discriminating the native structure from decoys using scoring functions based on the residue packing in globular proteins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Setting the rules for the identification of a stable conformation of a protein is of utmost importance for the efficient generation of structures in computer simulation. For structure prediction, a considerable number of possible models are generated from which the best model has to be selected. Results Two scoring functions, Rs and Rp, based on the consideration of packing of residues, which indicate if the conformation of an amino acid sequence is native-like, are presented. These are defined using the solvent accessible surface area (ASA) and the partner number (PN) (other residues that are within 4.5 Å) of a particular residue. The two functions evaluate the deviation from the average packing properties (ASA or PN) of all residues in a polypeptide chain corresponding to a model of its three-dimensional structure. While simple in concept and computationally less intensive, both the functions are at least as efficient as any other energy functions in discriminating the native structure from decoys in a large number of standard decoy sets, as well as on models submitted for the targets of CASP7. Rs appears to be slightly more effective than Rp, as determined by the number of times the native structure possesses the minimum value for the function and its separation from the average value for the decoys. Conclusion Two parameters, Rs and Rp, are discussed that can very efficiently recognize the native fold for a sequence from an ensemble of decoy structures. Unlike many other algorithms that rely on the use of composite scoring function, these are based on a single parameter, viz., the accessible surface area (or the number of residues in contact), but still able to capture the essential attribute of the native fold. PMID:20038291

  9. G4-DNA Formation in the HRAS Promoter and Rational Design of Decoy Oligonucleotides for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Membrino, Alexandro; Cogoi, Susanna; Pedersen, Erik B.; Xodo, Luigi E.

    2011-01-01

    HRAS is a proto-oncogene involved in the tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer. In the HRAS promoter we identified two G-rich elements, hras-1 and hras-2, that fold, respectively, into an antiparallel and a parallel quadruplex (qhras-1, qhras-2). When we introduced in sequence hras-1 or hras-2 two point mutations that block quadruplex formation, transcription increased 5-fold, but when we stabilized the G-quadruplexes by guanidinium phthalocyanines, transcription decreased to 20% of control. By ChIP we found that sequence hras-1 is bound only by MAZ, while hras-2 is bound by MAZ and Sp1: two transcription factors recognizing guanine boxes. We also discovered by EMSA that recombinant MAZ-GST binds to both HRAS quadruplexes, while Sp1-GST only binds to qhras-1. The over-expression of MAZ and Sp1 synergistically activates HRAS transcription, while silencing each gene by RNAi results in a strong down-regulation of transcription. All these data indicate that the HRAS G-quadruplexes behave as transcription repressors. Finally, we designed decoy oligonucleotides mimicking the HRAS quadruplexes, bearing (R)-1-O-[4-(1-Pyrenylethynyl) phenylmethyl] glycerol and LNA modifications to increase their stability and nuclease resistance (G4-decoys). The G4-decoys repressed HRAS transcription and caused a strong antiproliferative effect, mediated by apoptosis, in T24 bladder cancer cells where HRAS is mutated. PMID:21931711

  10. Capacitative Ca2+ entry is involved in regulating soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) release mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Sinkyu; Jung, Ji-Eun; Roh, Eun-Jihn; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of phospholipase C-linked G-protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors, increases the release of the soluble form of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) by alpha-secretase cleavage. In this study, we examined the involvement of capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE) in the regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR)-dependent sAPPalpha release in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells expressing abundant M3 mAChRs. The sAPPalpha release stimulated by mAChR activation was abolished by EGTA, an extracellular Ca2+ chelator, which abolished mAChR-mediated Ca2+ influx without affecting Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. However, mAChR-mediated sAPPalpha release was not inhibited by thapsigargin, which increases basal [Ca2+]i by depletion of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. While these results indicate that the mAChR-mediated increase in sAPPalpha release is regulated largely by Ca2+ influx rather than by Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores, we further investigated the Ca2+ entry mechanisms regulating this phenomenon. CCE inhibitors such as Gd3+, SKF96365, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB), dose dependently reduced both Ca2+ influx and sAPPalpha release stimulated by mAChR activation, whereas inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, or Na+-pumps was without effect. These results indicate that CCE plays an important role in the mAChR-mediated release of sAPPalpha. PMID:16524374

  11. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  12. Novel, Soluble Isoform of the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Receptor Nectin1 (or PRR1-HIgR-HveC) Modulates Positively and Negatively Susceptibility to HSV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Marc; Cocchi, Francesca; Avitabile, Elisa; Leclerc, Annouck; Adelaide, Jose; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Dubreuil, Patrice

    2001-01-01

    A novel member of the nectin family, nectin1γ, was molecularly cloned. The cDNA has the same ectodomain as nectin1α and nectin1β, the two known transmembrane isoforms that serve as receptors for herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry into human cell lines (nectin1α and nectin1β, also called PRR1-HveC and HIgR, respectively). The 1.4-kb transcript, which originated by alternative splicing, is expressed in human cell lines, and appears to have a narrow distribution in human tissues. The sequence does not have a hydrophobic anchoring region, and the protein is secreted in the culture medium of cells transfected with the cDNA. Nectin1γ, purified from culture medium, can compete with membrane-bound nectin1β and reduce HSV infectivity. The expression of nectin1γ cDNA in cells resistant to HSV infection and lacking HSV receptors enables HSV to enter the cell, which implies that it is present at the cell surface. Thus, nectin1γ has the potential both to mediate and to reduce HSV entry into cells. PMID:11356977

  13. A retrievable, water-soluble and biocompatible fluorescent probe for recognition of Cu(II) and sulfide based on a peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuanqiang; Chen, Wansong; Wang, Liqiang; Zhu, Xu; Zhang, Yintang; Qu, Peng; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Binbin; Liu, You-Nian; Xu, Maotian

    2015-10-01

    A novel fluorescent probe C-GGH for recognition of Cu(2+) and S(2-) was designed and synthesized by incorporation a natural tripeptide GGH (Gly-Gly-His) moiety, which acts as a recognition unit for Cu(2+), to a coumarin fluorophore. C-GGH displayed ON-OFF type fluorescence response towards Cu(2+) with high selectivity in 100% aqueous solution. Furthermore, the in situ generated non-fluorescent C-GGH-Cu(2+) complex can serve as an effective OFF-ON type fluorescent probe for selective sensing sulfide anion. Due to the strong binding affinity of S(2-) to Cu(2+), sulfide anion can extract Cu(2+) from C-GGH-Cu(2+) complex, resulting the release of C-GGH and the revival of fluorescent emission of the system. Techniques of emission spectrometry, NMR, mass spectrometry, and HPLC were used to confirm the displacement mechanism of C-GGH-Cu(2+) for sensing sulfide anion. The probe C-GGH-Cu(2+) allowed detection of S(2-) in aqueous buffer solution with a LOD (limit of detection) of 0.44μM. By taking advantages of the natural tripeptide GGH, the sensor exhibits excellent biocompatibility and water solubility. Moreover, the cell imaging study demonstrated that the probe can be exploited to detect sulfur anion in biological systems. PMID:26078164

  14. A retrievable, water-soluble and biocompatible fluorescent probe for recognition of Cu(II) and sulfide based on a peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuanqiang; Chen, Wansong; Wang, Liqiang; Zhu, Xu; Zhang, Yintang; Qu, Peng; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Binbin; Liu, You-Nian; Xu, Maotian

    2015-10-01

    A novel fluorescent probe C-GGH for recognition of Cu(2+) and S(2-) was designed and synthesized by incorporation a natural tripeptide GGH (Gly-Gly-His) moiety, which acts as a recognition unit for Cu(2+), to a coumarin fluorophore. C-GGH displayed ON-OFF type fluorescence response towards Cu(2+) with high selectivity in 100% aqueous solution. Furthermore, the in situ generated non-fluorescent C-GGH-Cu(2+) complex can serve as an effective OFF-ON type fluorescent probe for selective sensing sulfide anion. Due to the strong binding affinity of S(2-) to Cu(2+), sulfide anion can extract Cu(2+) from C-GGH-Cu(2+) complex, resulting the release of C-GGH and the revival of fluorescent emission of the system. Techniques of emission spectrometry, NMR, mass spectrometry, and HPLC were used to confirm the displacement mechanism of C-GGH-Cu(2+) for sensing sulfide anion. The probe C-GGH-Cu(2+) allowed detection of S(2-) in aqueous buffer solution with a LOD (limit of detection) of 0.44μM. By taking advantages of the natural tripeptide GGH, the sensor exhibits excellent biocompatibility and water solubility. Moreover, the cell imaging study demonstrated that the probe can be exploited to detect sulfur anion in biological systems.

  15. The Autocrine Mitogenic Loop of the Ciliate Euplotes raikovi: The Pheromone Membrane-bound Forms Are the Cell Binding Sites and Potential Signaling Receptors of Soluble Pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Ortenzi, Claudio; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana; Di Pretoro, Barbara; Terza, Antonietta La; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2000-01-01

    Homologous proteins, denoted pheromones, promote cell mitotic proliferation and mating pair formation in the ciliate Euplotes raikovi, according to whether they bind to cells in an autocrine- or paracrine-like manner. The primary transcripts of the genes encoding these proteins undergo alternate splicing, which generates at least two distinct mRNAs. One is specific for the soluble pheromone, the other for a pheromone isoform that remains anchored to the cell surface as a type II protein, whose extracellular C-terminal region is structurally equivalent to the secreted form. The 15-kDa membrane-bound isoform of pheromone Er-1, denoted Er-1mem and synthesized by the same E. raikovi cells that secrete Er-1, has been purified from cell membranes by affinity chromatography prepared with matrix-bound Er-1, and its extracellular and cytoplasmic regions have been expressed as recombinant proteins. Using the purified material and these recombinant proteins, it has been shown that Er-1mem has the property of binding pheromones competitively through its extracellular pheromone-like domain and associating reversibly and specifically with a guanine nucleotide-binding protein through its intracellular domain. It has been concluded that the membrane-bound pheromone isoforms of E. raikovi represent the cell effective pheromone binding sites and are functionally equipped for transducing the signal generated by this binding. PMID:10749941

  16. Target-Decoy Approach and False Discovery Rate: When Things May Go Wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nitin; Bandeira, Nuno; Keich, Uri; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2011-07-01

    The target-decoy approach (TDA) has done the field of proteomics a great service by filling in the need to estimate the false discovery rates (FDR) of peptide identifications. While TDA is often viewed as a universal solution to the problem of FDR evaluation, we argue that the time has come to critically re-examine TDA and to acknowledge not only its merits but also its demerits. We demonstrate that some popular MS/MS search tools are not TDA-compliant and that it is easy to develop a non-TDA compliant tool that outperforms all TDA-compliant tools. Since the distinction between TDA-compliant and non-TDA compliant tools remains elusive, we are concerned about a possible proliferation of non-TDA-compliant tools in the future (developed with the best intentions). We are also concerned that estimation of the FDR by TDA awkwardly depends on a virtual coin toss and argue that it is important to take the coin toss factor out of our estimation of the FDR. Since computing FDR via TDA suffers from various restrictions, we argue that TDA is not needed when accurate p-values of individual Peptide-Spectrum Matches are available.

  17. Comparative evaluation of tandem MS search algorithms using a target-decoy search strategy.

    PubMed

    Balgley, Brian M; Laudeman, Tom; Yang, Li; Song, Tao; Lee, Cheng S

    2007-09-01

    Peptide identification of tandem mass spectra by a variety of available search algorithms forms the foundation for much of modern day mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Despite the critical importance of proper evaluation and interpretation of the results generated by these algorithms there is still little consistency in their application or understanding of their similarities and differences. A survey was conducted of four tandem mass spectrometry peptide identification search algorithms, including Mascot, Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm, Sequest, and X! Tandem. The same input data, search parameters, and sequence library were used for the searches. Comparisons were based on commonly used scoring methodologies for each algorithm and on the results of a target-decoy approach to sequence library searching. The results indicated that there is little difference in the output of the algorithms so long as consistent scoring procedures are applied. The results showed that some commonly used scoring procedures may lead to excessive false discovery rates. Finally an alternative method for the determination of an optimal cutoff threshold is proposed.

  18. The plasma levels of soluble ST2 as a marker of gut mucosal damage in early HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Mehraj, Vikram; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Ponte, Rosalie; Lebouché, Bertrand; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Thomas, Réjean; Baril, Jean-Guy; LeBlanc, Roger; Cox, Joseph; Tremblay, Cécile; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Following tissue barrier breaches, interleukin-33 (IL-33) is released as an ‘alarmin’ to induce inflammation. Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), as an IL-33 decoy receptor, contributes to limit inflammation. We assessed the relationship between the IL-33/ST2 axis and markers of gut mucosal damage in patients with early (EHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI) and elite controllers. Design: Analyses on patients with EHI and CHI were conducted to determine IL-33/sST2 changes over time. Methods: IL-33 and sST2 levels were measured in plasma. Correlations between sST2 levels and plasma viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, expression of T-cell activation/exhaustion markers, gut mucosal damage, microbial translocation and inflammation markers, as well as kynurenine/tryptophan ratio were assessed. Results: Plasma sST2 levels were elevated in EHI compared with untreated CHI and uninfected controls, whereas IL-33 levels were comparable in all groups. In EHI, sST2 levels were positively correlated with the CD8+ T-cell count and the percentage of T cells expressing activation and exhaustion markers, but not with viral load or CD4+ T-cell count. Plasma sST2 levels also correlated with plasma levels of gut mucosal damage, microbial translocation and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and for some markers of inflammation. Prospective analyses showed that early antiretroviral therapy had no impact on sST2 levels, whereas longer treatment duration initiated during CHI normalized sST2. Conclusion: As sST2 levels were elevated in EHI and were correlated with CD8+ T-cell count, immune activation, and microbial translocation, sST2 may serve as a marker of disease progression, gut damage and may directly contribute to HIV pathogenesis. PMID:27045377

  19. Soluble IL-6 Receptor and IL-27 Subunit p28 Protein Complex Mediate the Antiviral Response through the Type III IFN Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodan; Hao, Hua; Xia, Zhangchuan; Xu, Gang; Cao, Zhongying; Chen, Xueyuan; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Ying

    2016-09-15

    Previously, we demonstrated that the soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) plays an important role in the host antiviral response through induction of type I IFN and sIL-6R-mediated antiviral action via the IL-27 subunit p28; however, the mechanism that underlies sIL-6R and p28 antiviral action and whether type III IFN is involved remain unknown. In this study, we constructed a sIL-6R and p28 fusion protein (sIL-6R/p28 FP) and demonstrated that the fusion protein has stronger antiviral activity than sIL-6R alone. Consequently, knockout of sIL-6R inhibited virus-triggered IFN-λ1 expression. In addition, sIL-6R/p28 FP associated with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein and TNFR-associated factor 6, the retinoic acid-inducible gene I adapter complex, and the antiviral activity mediated by sIL-6R/p28 FP was dependent on mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein. Furthermore, significantly reduced binding of p50/p65 and IFN regulatory factor 3 to the IFN-λ1 promoter was observed in sIL-6R knockout cells compared with the control cells. Interestingly, a novel heterodimer of c-Fos and activating transcription factor 1 was identified as a crucial transcriptional activator of IFN-λ1 The sIL-6R/p28 FP upregulated IFN-λ1 expression by increasing the binding abilities of c-Fos and activating transcription factor 1 to the IFN-λ1 promoter via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the important role of sIL-6R/p28 FP in mediating virus-induced type III IFN production. PMID:27527594

  20. An Increase in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and VEGF Soluble Receptor-1 (sFlt-1) Are Associated with Early Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Lihong; Wei, Zhouling; Li, Ouyang; Huang, Rudian; Qin, Junzhen; Chen, Hongyan; Fan, Xiaojing; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a health problem that affects approximately 1% to 5% reproductive age woman. Yet, in around half of these patients, the mechanism for RSA is unexplained. Recent studies have indicated that placental ischemia/hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction are important factors in miscarriage. Other studies have indicated that the level and expression of soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) is increased under a hypoxic environment. However, decreased sFlt-1 in the maternal circulation during the first trimester has recently been proposed as a potential marker for identifying risk of pregnancy loss. In this prospective study clinical samples were obtained within a short time after the fetal death, protein expression and maternal serum levels of sFlt1 were assessed and compared to samples taken from those with normal pregnancies. Our results indicate that levels of VEGF and sFlt-1 are both increased in women during early pregnancy compared women that are not pregnant (p<0.05) indicating that VEGF and sFlt-1 are both associated with pregnancy. More importantly, we detected a significant (p<0.05) increase in sFlt1 and VEGF levels and expression in the RSA patients who suffered subsequent miscarriages compare to controls. These results demonstrate that there is likely a relationship between VEGF, sFlt-1 and RSA suggesting that the high levels and over expression of sFlt-1 and VEGF might be associated with the pathogenesis of RSA. PMID:24098721

  1. The Sushi domain of soluble IL-15 receptor alpha is essential for binding IL-15 and inhibiting inflammatory and allogenic responses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wei Xq; Orchardson, M; Gracie, J A; Leung, B P; Gao Bm; Guan, H; Niedbala, W; Paterson, G K; McInnes, I B; Liew, F Y

    2001-07-01

    IL-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. It is associated with a range of immunopathology, including rheumatoid arthritis and allograft rejection. IL-15 functions through the trimeric IL-15R complex, which consists of a high affinity binding alpha-chain and the common IL-2R beta- and gamma-chains. Characterization of IL-15/IL-15R interactions may facilitate the development of improved IL-15 antagonists for therapeutic interventions. We previously constructed soluble murine IL-15Ralpha (sIL-15Ralpha) by deleting the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains. To localize the functional domain of IL-15Ralpha, we have now constructed various truncated versions of sIL-15Ralpha. The shortest region retaining IL-15 binding activity is a 65-aa sequence spanning the Sushi domain of IL-15Ralpha. Sushi domains, common motifs in protein-protein interactions, contain four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds in a 1-3 and 2-4 pattern. Amino acid substitution of the first or fourth cysteine in sIL-15Ralpha completely abolished its IL-15 binding activity. This also abrogated the ability of sIL-15Ralpha to neutralize IL-15-induced proinflammatory cytokine production and anti-apoptotic response in vitro. Furthermore, the mutant sIL-15Ralpha lost its ability to inhibit carrageenan-induced local inflammation and allogenic cell-induced T cell proliferation and cytokine production in vivo. Thus, the Sushi domain is critical for the functional activity of sIL-15Ralpha.

  2. Anti-Drug Antibodies, Drug Levels, Interleukin-6 and Soluble TNF Receptors in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients during the First 6 Months of Treatment with Adalimumab or Infliximab: A Descriptive Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bouchelouche, Pierre; Bartels, Else Marie; Bliddal, Henning; Bendtzen, Klaus; Stoltenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives With the present study we wanted to explore the impact of treatment with a tumor necrosis factor-α -inhibitor (TNFi) on levels of soluble biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to identify predictors of impaired drug levels and development of anti-TNFi antibodies (anti-TNFi Abs). Methods Blood samples from 26 patients with established RA were taken at baseline and following 6 months of treatment with adalimumab or infliximab. Samples were analyzed for levels of TNFi, interleukin (IL)-6, and soluble TNF-receptors 1 and -2 (sTNF-R1 and -2) and for presence of anti-TNFi Abs. Clinical and demographic data were recorded as well. Results During the initial 6 months treatment, DAS28(CRP) (Disease activity score in 28 joints using C-reactive protein) and levels of IL-6 and sTNF-R2 decreased significantly in patients without anti-TNFi Abs and in patients retaining detectable drug levels. The levels of other tested cytokines (TNF-α, TNF-β, IL-1ra, IL-1b, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-33) were generally below detection limits. Higher baseline levels of IL-6 associated with undetectable levels of TNFi at follow-up. Anti-TNFi Abs were associated with decreased drug levels, but no predictors for anti-TNFi Ab development could be found. Conclusion The effect of treatment with TNFi on RA disease activity depends on levels of active drug, and by presence of anti-TNFi Abs. In patients who retain detectable drug levels, and in the absence of anti-TNFi Abs, clinical outcome is improved during treatment, and circulating levels of IL-6 and sTNF-R2 decrease. Baseline levels of IL-6 may predict depletion of TNFi and may identify patients at risk of treatment failure. PMID:27606615

  3. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors. 13. Structure-activity relationships for soluble 7-substituted 4-[(3-bromophenyl)amino]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines designed as inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A M; Murray, D K; Elliott, W L; Fry, D W; Nelson, J A; Showalter, H D; Roberts, B J; Vincent, P W; Denny, W A

    1997-11-21

    The general class of 4-(phenylamino)quinazolines are potent (some members with IC50 values < 1 nM) and selective inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), via competitive binding at the ATP site of the enzyme, but many of the early analogues had poor aqueous solubility (< 1 mM). A series of 7-substituted 4-[(3-bromophenyl)-amino]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines, together with selected (3-methylphenyl)amino analogues, were prepared by reaction of the analogous 7-fluoro derivatives with appropriate amine nucleophiles in 2-BuOH or aqueous 1-PrOH. All of the compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the tyrosine-phosphorylating action of EGF-stimulated full-length EGFR enzyme. Selected analogues were also evaluated for their inhibition of autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells in culture and against A431 tumor xenografts in mice. Analogues bearing a wide variety of polyol, cationic, and anionic solubilizing substituents retained activity, but the most effective in terms of both increased aqueous solubility (> 40 mM) and retention of overall inhibitory activity (IC50's of 0.5-10 nM against isolated enzyme and 8-40 nM for inhibition of EGFR autophosphorylation in A431 cells) were weakly basic amine derivatives. These results are broadly consistent with a proposed model for the binding of these compounds to EGFR, in which the 6- and 7-positions of the pyridopyrimidine ring are in a largely hydrophobic binding region of considerable steric freedom, at the entrance of the adenine binding cleft. The most active cationic analogues have a weakly basic side chain where the amine moiety is three or more carbon atoms away from the nucleus. Two of the compounds (bearing weakly basic morpholinopropyl and strongly basic (dimethylamino)butyl solubilizing groups) produced in vivo tumor growth delays of 13-21 days against advanced stage A431 epidermoid xenografts in nude mice, when

  4. Enhanced suppression of adenovirus replication by triple combination of anti-adenoviral siRNAs, soluble adenovirus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and cidofovir.

    PubMed

    Pozzuto, Tanja; Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Fechner, Henry

    2015-08-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) generally induce mild self-limiting respiratory or intestinal infections but can also cause serious disease with fatal outcomes in immunosuppressed patients. Antiviral drug therapy is an important treatment for adenoviral infections but its efficiency is limited. Recently, we have shown that gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new approach to inhibit adenoviral infection. In the present in vitro study, we examined whether the efficiency of an RNAi-based anti-adenoviral therapy can be further increased by combination with a virus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and with the antiviral drug cidofovir. Initially, three siRNAs, siE1A_4, siIVa2_2 and Pol-si2, targeting the adenoviral E1A, IVa2 and DNA polymerase mRNAs, respectively, were used for gene silencing. Replication of the Ad was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by each siRNA, but the efficiency of inhibition differed (Pol-si2>siIVa2_2>siE1A_4). Double or triple combinations of the siRNAs compared with single siRNAs did not result in a measurably higher suppression of Ad replication. Combination of the siRNAs (alone or mixes of two or three siRNAs) with sCAR-Fc markedly increased the suppression of adenoviral replication compared to the same siRNA treatment without sCAR-Fc. Moreover, the triple combination of a mix of all three siRNAs, sCAR-Fc and cidofovir was about 23-fold more efficient than the combination of siRNAs mix/sCAR-Fc and about 95-fold more efficient than the siRNA mix alone. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with sCAR-Fc and cidofovir is suitable to increase the efficiency of anti-adenoviral siRNAs.

  5. Enhanced suppression of adenovirus replication by triple combination of anti-adenoviral siRNAs, soluble adenovirus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and cidofovir.

    PubMed

    Pozzuto, Tanja; Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Fechner, Henry

    2015-08-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) generally induce mild self-limiting respiratory or intestinal infections but can also cause serious disease with fatal outcomes in immunosuppressed patients. Antiviral drug therapy is an important treatment for adenoviral infections but its efficiency is limited. Recently, we have shown that gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new approach to inhibit adenoviral infection. In the present in vitro study, we examined whether the efficiency of an RNAi-based anti-adenoviral therapy can be further increased by combination with a virus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and with the antiviral drug cidofovir. Initially, three siRNAs, siE1A_4, siIVa2_2 and Pol-si2, targeting the adenoviral E1A, IVa2 and DNA polymerase mRNAs, respectively, were used for gene silencing. Replication of the Ad was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by each siRNA, but the efficiency of inhibition differed (Pol-si2>siIVa2_2>siE1A_4). Double or triple combinations of the siRNAs compared with single siRNAs did not result in a measurably higher suppression of Ad replication. Combination of the siRNAs (alone or mixes of two or three siRNAs) with sCAR-Fc markedly increased the suppression of adenoviral replication compared to the same siRNA treatment without sCAR-Fc. Moreover, the triple combination of a mix of all three siRNAs, sCAR-Fc and cidofovir was about 23-fold more efficient than the combination of siRNAs mix/sCAR-Fc and about 95-fold more efficient than the siRNA mix alone. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with sCAR-Fc and cidofovir is suitable to increase the efficiency of anti-adenoviral siRNAs. PMID:26026665

  6. Assessment of semiempirical enthalpy of formation in solution as an effective energy function to discriminate native-like structures in protein decoy sets.

    PubMed

    Urquiza-Carvalho, Gabriel Aires; Fragoso, Wallace Duarte; Rocha, Gerd Bruno

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we tested the PM6, PM6-DH+, PM6-D3, and PM7 enthalpies of formation in aqueous solution as scoring functions across 33 decoy sets to discriminate native structures or good models in a decoy set. In each set these semiempirical quantum chemistry methods were compared according to enthalpic and geometric criteria. Enthalpically, we compared the methods according to how much lower was the enthalpy of each native, when compared with the mean enthalpy of its set. Geometrically, we compared the methods according to the fraction of native contacts (Q), which is a measure of geometric closeness between an arbitrary structure and the native. For each set and method, the Q of the best decoy was compared with the Q0 , which is the Q of the decoy closest to the native in the set. It was shown that the PM7 method is able to assign larger energy differences between the native structure and the decoys in a set, arguably because of a better description of dispersion interactions, however PM6-DH+ was slightly better than the rest at selecting geometrically good models in the absence of a native structure in the set. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Assessment of semiempirical enthalpy of formation in solution as an effective energy function to discriminate native-like structures in protein decoy sets.

    PubMed

    Urquiza-Carvalho, Gabriel Aires; Fragoso, Wallace Duarte; Rocha, Gerd Bruno

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we tested the PM6, PM6-DH+, PM6-D3, and PM7 enthalpies of formation in aqueous solution as scoring functions across 33 decoy sets to discriminate native structures or good models in a decoy set. In each set these semiempirical quantum chemistry methods were compared according to enthalpic and geometric criteria. Enthalpically, we compared the methods according to how much lower was the enthalpy of each native, when compared with the mean enthalpy of its set. Geometrically, we compared the methods according to the fraction of native contacts (Q), which is a measure of geometric closeness between an arbitrary structure and the native. For each set and method, the Q of the best decoy was compared with the Q0 , which is the Q of the decoy closest to the native in the set. It was shown that the PM7 method is able to assign larger energy differences between the native structure and the decoys in a set, arguably because of a better description of dispersion interactions, however PM6-DH+ was slightly better than the rest at selecting geometrically good models in the absence of a native structure in the set. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27249629

  8. The Presence of Conspecific Decoys Enhances the Attractiveness of an NaCl Resource to the Yellow-Spined Locust, Ceracris kiangsu

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Tian; Xiao, Kai; Shao, Lin; Li, Guo-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Adults of the yellow-spined bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu Tsai (Orthoptera: Oedipodidae), aggregate and gnaw at human urine-contaminated materials, a phenomenon termed puddling. Several urine-borne chemicals, including NaCl, are known to stimulate adult C. kiangsu to consume filter paper. Because in nature C. kiangsu adults may use cues to locate puddling resources, we tested the influence of conspecific decoys (dried C. kiangsu) on foraging and consumption of 3% NaCl—treated filter paper. In a two—choice test experiment in the laboratory, female adults showed no preference for filter papers (not treated with NaCL) with or without decoys. In contrast, C. kiangsu females consumed significantly more NaCl—treated filter paper on which conspecific decoys were attached than those without decoys in both the laboratory and in a bamboo forest. When the bait was changed to 3% NaCl plus the insecticide bisultap, significantly more C. kiangsu were killed in the bamboo forest when decoys were present, however the results were not significant when the experiment was done in the laboratory. Hence, moving towards conspecifics seems to facilitate NaCl resource foraging in C. kiangsu, suggesting that the presence of conspecifics promotes feeding on puddling resources. PMID:21539416

  9. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors. 11. Soluble analogues of pyrrolo- and pyrazoloquinazolines as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors: synthesis, biological evaluation, and modeling of the mode of binding.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B D; Trumpp-Kallmeyer, S; Fry, D W; Nelson, J M; Showalter, H D; Denny, W A

    1997-05-01

    A new route to N-1-substituted pyrazolo- and pyrroloquinazolines has been developed from the known quinazolones 19 and 23, via conversion to the corresponding thiones, S-methylation to the thioethers, N-1-alkylation, and coupling with 3-bromoaniline. C-3-Substituted pyrroloquinazolines were prepared by Mannich base chemistry. A series of compounds bearing solubilizing side chains at these positions has been prepared and evaluated for inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity of the isolated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and of its autophosphorylation in EGF-stimulated A431 cells. Several analogues, particularly C-3-substituted pyrroloquinazolines, retained high potency in both assays. A model for the binding of the general class of 4-anilinoquinazolines to the EGFR was constructed from structural information (particularly for the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase) and structure-activity relationships (SAR) in the series. In this model, the pyrrole ring in pyrroloquinazolines (and the 6- and 7-positions of quinazoline and related pyridopyrimidine inhibitors) occupies the entrance of the ATP binding pocket of the enzyme, with the pyrrole nitrogen located at the bottom of the cleft and the pyrrole C-3 position pointing toward a pocket corresponding to the ribose binding site of ATP. This allows considerable bulk tolerance for C-3 substituents and lesser but still significant bulk tolerance for N-1 substituents. The observed high selectivity of these compounds for binding to EGFR over other similar tyrosine kinases is attributed to the 4-anilino ring binding in an adjacent hydrophobic pocket which has an amino acid composition unique to the EGFR. The SAR seen for inhibition of the isolated enzyme by the pyrazolo- and pyrroloquinazolines discussed here is fully consistent with this binding model. For the N-1-substituted compounds, inhibition of autophosphorylation in A431 cells correlates well with inhibition of the isolated enzyme, as

  10. Xiang-qi-tang increases avian pathogenic Escherichia coli-induced survival rate and regulates serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 and soluble endothelial protein C receptor in chicken.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-Liang; Fu, Ben-Dong; Shen, Hai-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Chang-Shuai; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Zhu, Wei; Wei, Xu-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Xiang-qi-tang (XQT) is a Chinese herbal formula containing rhizoma Cyperi, Andrographis paniculata and Astragalus membranaceus. The present study investigated the effects of XQT on the mortality and inflammatory mediators in a chicken model challenged with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). To detect the effect of XQT, the chickens were pretreated with the formula 12 h before being challenged with 10(8) colony forming unit (CFU) of APEC. The results showed that 0.6 g/kg XQT significantly elevated the survival rate of infected chickens. To further investigate the mechanism of decreasing mortality of XQT, we examined plasma inflammatory mediator levels. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) were significantly increased in chickens challenged with APEC alone, whereas chickens pretreated with 0.6 g/kg XQT showed marked decrease of these inflammatory mediator levels during the death peak. Taken together, this study demonstrates that XQT has protective effects in APEC-treated chickens. The action mechanisms of XQT involve anti-inflammation and antithrombotic activity. These findings may contribute to future research on the action mechanisms of this formula, as well as prevention of or therapy for avian colibacillosis.

  11. Using Soluble Transferrin Receptor and Taking Inflammation into Account When Defining Serum Ferritin Cutoffs Improved the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in a Group of Canadian Preschool Inuit Children from Nunavik

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon O'Brien, Huguette; Blanchet, Rosanne; Gagné, Doris; Vézina, Carole

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of iron depletion, iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was assessed in preschool Inuit children using soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and traditional indicators of iron status while disregarding or taking inflammation into account when defining SF cutoffs. Iron depletion was defined as follows: (1) SF < 15 μg/L regardless of the C-reactive protein (CRP) level and (2) SF < 15 or <50 μg/L with CRP ≤ 5 or >5 mg/L, respectively. IDE corresponded to iron depletion combined with total iron binding capacity > 72 μmol/L and/or transferrin saturation < 16%. Iron depletion and IDE affected almost half of the children when accounting for inflammation, compared to one-third when the SF cutoff was defined regardless of CRP level (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of IDE adjusted for inflammation (45.1%) was very similar to the prevalence observed when sTfR was used as a sole marker of IDE (47.4%). The prevalence of anemia was 15%. The prevalence of IDA (IDE + hemoglobin < 110 g/L) was higher when accounting for than when disregarding inflammation (8.0% versus 6.2%, P = 0.083). Using sTfR and different SF cutoffs for children with versus without inflammation improved the diagnosis of iron depletion and IDE. Our results confirm that Inuit children are at particularly high risk for iron deficiency. PMID:27382488

  12. In vitro activation of T lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive blood donors. I. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor (IL2R) production parallels cellular IL2R expression and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Prince, H E; Kleinman, S H; Maino, V C; Jackson, A L

    1988-03-01

    We investigated the relationship of soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL2R) production to cellular IL2R expression and DNA synthesis by mitogen-stimulated mononuclear cells from blood donors seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SIL2R was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which employed 2 anti-IL2R monoclonal antibodies recognizing distinct IL2R epitopes. Decreased phytohemagglutinin-induced DNA synthesis and cellular IL2R expression were accompanied by decreased levels of sIL2R in cell culture supernatants. Similar findings were observed for pokeweed mitogen-induced responses. There was no detectable spontaneous secretion of sIL2R into culture supernatants by unstimulated mononuclear cells from either HIV-seropositive or control seronegative donors. These findings indicate that the in vitro T-cell activation defects which characterize HIV infection include decreased sIL2R production, as well as decreased cellular IL2R expression and DNA synthesis. Further, they show that assessment of supernatant sIL2R levels can be used as a valid, reliable assay for T-cell activation.

  13. Using Soluble Transferrin Receptor and Taking Inflammation into Account When Defining Serum Ferritin Cutoffs Improved the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in a Group of Canadian Preschool Inuit Children from Nunavik.

    PubMed

    Turgeon O'Brien, Huguette; Blanchet, Rosanne; Gagné, Doris; Lauzière, Julie; Vézina, Carole

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of iron depletion, iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was assessed in preschool Inuit children using soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and traditional indicators of iron status while disregarding or taking inflammation into account when defining SF cutoffs. Iron depletion was defined as follows: (1) SF < 15 μg/L regardless of the C-reactive protein (CRP) level and (2) SF < 15 or <50 μg/L with CRP ≤ 5 or >5 mg/L, respectively. IDE corresponded to iron depletion combined with total iron binding capacity > 72 μmol/L and/or transferrin saturation < 16%. Iron depletion and IDE affected almost half of the children when accounting for inflammation, compared to one-third when the SF cutoff was defined regardless of CRP level (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of IDE adjusted for inflammation (45.1%) was very similar to the prevalence observed when sTfR was used as a sole marker of IDE (47.4%). The prevalence of anemia was 15%. The prevalence of IDA (IDE + hemoglobin < 110 g/L) was higher when accounting for than when disregarding inflammation (8.0% versus 6.2%, P = 0.083). Using sTfR and different SF cutoffs for children with versus without inflammation improved the diagnosis of iron depletion and IDE. Our results confirm that Inuit children are at particularly high risk for iron deficiency. PMID:27382488

  14. Elimination of soluble sup 123 I-labeled aggregates of IgG in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Effect of serum IgG and numbers of erythrocyte complement receptor type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Halma, C.; Breedveld, F.C.; Daha, M.R.; Blok, D.; Evers-Schouten, J.H.; Hermans, J.; Pauwels, E.K.; van Es, L.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Using soluble {sup 123}I-labeled aggregates of human IgG ({sup 123}I-AHIgG) as a probe, we examined the function of the mononuclear phagocyte system in 22 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 12 healthy controls. In SLE patients, a decreased number of erythrocyte complement receptor type 1 was associated with less binding of {sup 123}I-AHIgG to erythrocytes and a faster initial rate of elimination of {sup 123}I-AHIgG (mean +/- SEM half-maximal clearance time 5.23 +/- 0.2 minutes, versus 6.58 +/- 0.2 minutes in the controls), with possible spillover of the material outside the mononuclear phagocyte system of the liver and spleen. However, multiple regression analysis showed that serum concentrations of IgG were the most important factor predicting the rate of {sup 123}I-AHIgG elimination. IgG concentration may thus reflect immune complex clearance, which in turn, would influence the inflammatory reaction, in SLE.

  15. Associations between insulin-like growth factor I, vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptor 1 in umbilical serum and endothelial cells obtained from normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Olmos, Andrea; Díaz, Lorenza; Avila, Euclides; Barrera, David; López-Marure, Rebeca; Biruete, Benjamín; Larrea, Fernando; Halhali, Ali

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in umbilical serum and to study the effects of IGF-I upon sFlt-1 synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in normotensive (NT) and preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies. As compared with the NT group, umbilical serum IGF-I and VEGF levels were lower in the PE group, while sFlt-1 concentrations were higher. Levels of sFlt-1 correlated with IGF-I in the NT group and with VEGF in the PE group. Basal concentration of sFlt-1 in HUVEC culture media was higher in the PE group. IGF-I stimulated sFlt-1 synthesis only in the NT group. In summary, umbilical serum sFlt-1 is associated with IGF-I in normotensive pregnancy and with VEGF in preeclampsia. IGF-I stimulates sFlt-1 synthesis in endothelial cells in normotensive but not in PE pregnancies.

  16. Isolinderalactone inhibits proliferation of A549 human non‑small cell lung cancer cells by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and inducing a Fas receptor and soluble Fas ligand-mediated apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-An; Lin, En-Shyh; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2014-05-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. In Taiwan, lung cancer is also the type of malignancy that is the major cause of cancer-mortality. Investigating the mechanism of apoptosis of lung cancer cells is important in the treatment of lung cancer. In the present study, isolinderalactone was demonstrated to exhibit anticancer effects in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. The effect of isolinderalactone on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution p21 levels and the Fas receptor and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) were assayed in order to determine the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of isolinderalactone. It was demonstrated that isolinderalactone may induce p21 expression and then cause the cell cycle arrest of A549 cells. The data of the present study also revealed that the Fas/sFasL apoptotic system is significant in the mechanism of isolinderalactone‑induced apoptosis of A549 cells. These novel findings demonstrated that isolinderalactone may cause the cell cycle arrest of A549 cells by induction of p21, and induce apoptosis of A549 human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells through the Fas/sFasL apoptotic system. PMID:24604009

  17. Corynebacterium parvum- and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin-induced granuloma formation is inhibited in TNF receptor I (TNF-RI) knockout mice and by treatment with soluble TNF-RI.

    PubMed

    Senaldi, G; Yin, S; Shaklee, C L; Piguet, P F; Mak, T W; Ulich, T R

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of TNF receptor I (TNF-RI) in the pathogenesis of heat-killed Corynebacterium parvum- and live bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced granulomas. Granuloma formation was analyzed in TNF-RI knockout mice and after treatment with soluble TNF-RI (sTNF-RI). TNF-RI knockout mice injected with C. parvum or BCG developed fewer and smaller granulomas than wild-type control mice. Mice treated with sTNF-RI from days 7 to 13 after injection of C. parvum or BCG developed fewer and smaller granulomas than saline-treated control mice. Established granulomas regressed in rats treated with sTNF-RI from days 10 to 13 after injection of C. parvum. In conclusion, TNF signaling via TNF-RI contributes to the pathogenesis of C. parvum- and BCG-induced granulomas. sTNF-RI inhibits the development of granulomas and can cause the regression of established granulomas. PMID:8943410

  18. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, gut morphology, and gene expression of pattern recognition receptors and cytokines in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of yeast-derived products and distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and innate immune response in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age. Nine replicates of 5 birds each were assigned to dietary treatments consisting of a control diet without antibiotic (C), and diets containing 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, 0.25% of yeast cell wall (YCW), 0.2% of a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus, 0.025% of nucleotides, 0.05% of nucleotides, or a diet containing 10% of DDGS. On d 21, 5 birds per treatment were euthanized and approximately 5-cm long duodenum, jejunum, and ileum segments were collected for intestinal morphology measurements. Cecal tonsils and spleen were collected to measure the gene expression of toll-like receptors TLR2b, TLR4, and TLR21, macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), and cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-10, and IL-4. No significant difference was observed for growth performance parameters. However, diets containing 0.05% of nucleotides and YCW significantly increased (P < 0.05) villus height in the jejunum. Furthermore, the number of the goblet cells per unit area in the ileum was increased (P < 0.05) in diets supplemented with yeast-derived products. The expression of TLR2b in the spleen was down-regulated for diets supplemented with nucleotides and antibiotic. In addition, lower expression of TLR21 and MMR was observed in the spleen of birds receiving yeast-derived products and antibiotic. However, expression of TLR4 in the spleen was up-regulated in diets supplemented with YCW and nucleotides. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-12 was down-regulated in the spleen of birds fed diets supplemented with yeast-derived products. In addition, inclusion of YCW, Maxi-Gen Plus, or 0.05% of nucleotides down-regulated the expression of IL-10 and IL-4 in the cecal tonsils. In conclusion, down-regulation of receptors and cytokines in spleen and cecal tonsils of

  19. Molecular stripping, targets and decoys as modulators of oscillations in the NF-κB/IκBα/DNA genetic network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhipeng; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic transcription factors in the NF-κB family are central components of an extensive genetic network that activates cellular responses to inflammation and to a host of other external stressors. This network consists of feedback loops that involve the inhibitor IκBα, numerous downstream functional targets, and still more numerous binding sites that do not appear to be directly functional. Under steady stimulation, the regulatory network of NF-κB becomes oscillatory, and temporal patterns of NF-κB pulses appear to govern the patterns of downstream gene expression needed for immune response. Understanding how the information from external stress passes to oscillatory signals and is then ultimately relayed to gene expression is a general issue in systems biology. Recently, in vitro kinetic experiments as well as molecular simulations suggest that active stripping of NF-κB by IκBα from its binding sites can modify the traditional systems biology view of NF-κB/IκBα gene circuits. In this work, we revise the commonly adopted minimal model of the NF-κB regulatory network to account for the presence of the large number of binding sites for NF-κB along with dissociation from these sites that may proceed either by passive unbinding or by active molecular stripping. We identify regimes where the kinetics of target and decoy unbinding and molecular stripping enter a dynamic tug of war that may either compensate each other or amplify nuclear NF-κB activity, leading to distinct oscillatory patterns. Our finding that decoys and stripping play a key role in shaping the NF-κB oscillations suggests strategies to control NF-κB responses by introducing artificial decoys therapeutically. PMID:27683001

  20. Homology modeling of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Trayder; McLean, Kimberley C; McRobb, Fiona M; Manallack, David T; Chalmers, David K; Yuriev, Elizabeth

    2014-01-27

    We have developed homology models of the acetylcholine muscarinic receptors M₁R-M₅R, based on the β₂-adrenergic receptor crystal as the template. This is the first report of homology modeling of all five subtypes of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors with binding sites optimized for ligand binding. The models were evaluated for their ability to discriminate between muscarinic antagonists and decoy compounds using virtual screening using enrichment factors, area under the ROC curve (AUC), and an early enrichment measure, LogAUC. The models produce rational binding modes of docked ligands as well as good enrichment capacity when tested against property-matched decoy libraries, which demonstrates their unbiased predictive ability. To test the relative effects of homology model template selection and the binding site optimization procedure, we generated and evaluated a naïve M₂R model, using the M₃R crystal structure as a template. Our results confirm previous findings that binding site optimization using ligand(s) active at a particular receptor, i.e. including functional knowledge into the model building process, has a more pronounced effect on model quality than target-template sequence similarity. The optimized M₁R-M₅R homology models are made available as part of the Supporting Information to allow researchers to use these structures, compare them to their own results, and thus advance the development of better modeling approaches.

  1. Comparison and analysis on test methods of infrared radiant intensity of infrared decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chunsheng; Dai, Mengyan; Liu, Haifeng; Fang, Guofeng; Xie, Changyou; Zhang, Tong

    2014-11-01

    The research on infrared radiant characteristics of typical target is important for the detection and recognition of target, infrared simulation calculation and design of electro-optical countermeasures. Thus it is essential to select appropriate test method and optimal calculation method to improve the test accuracy and reliability of infrared radiant intensity. In this paper, three instruments including SR5000 spectroradiometer (CI, MigdalHaEmek, Israel), remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 (Bruker, Germany) and Image IR8325 (InfraTec Ltd, Germany) mid-infrared thermal imager were applied to test the infrared radiant (1μm-3μm - 3μm-5μm) intensity of decoy samples. Three methods were designed based on two operational principles including direct test and indirect test. The SR5000 spectroradiometer which is able to obtain the value of radian intensity immediately is regard as direct test. The other two instruments which deduce and calculate infrared radiant intensity according to Planck's law and Lambert's cosine law with some preliminary tested parameters such as the response voltage - the distribution of infrared radiant temperature of flaming samples and calibrated data by blackbody, however, are regard as indirect test. Reasons for the diversity of experiment results were provided through analysis on the concrete measurement theory and detailed calculation methods. Moreover, some rules and suggestions were put forward to improve the test accuracy and reliability of infrared radiant intensity when different methods were adopted. It is shown from experiment results that the average mid-infrared radiant intensity obtained from SR5000 was about 903W/Sr in near-infrared band - whereas Tensor 37 and Image IR8325 was about 834W/Sr and 547 W/Sr respectively. It was proved that maximum relative of calculated results from remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 and results measured with SR5000 spectroradiometer is below 13%, which meet the

  2. Effects of spinning-wing decoys on flock behavior and hunting vulnerability of mallards in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szymanski, M.L.; Afton, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Waterfowl managers in Minnesota and other states are concerned that increased kill rates associated with the use of spinning-wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breeding populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Accordingly, we conducted 219 experimental hunts to evaluate hunting vulnerability of mallards to SWDs during the 2002 duck season in Minnesota. During each hunt, we tested 2 SWD treatments: 1) SWDs turned OFF (control), and 2) SWDs turned ON (experimental) during alternate 15-minute sampling periods that were separated by 5-minute buffer periods. We found that mallard flocks (???1 duck) were 2.91 times more likely to respond (i.e., approach within 40 m of hunters), and sizes of responding mallard flocks were 1.25 times larger, on average, when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. Mallards killed/hour/hunter/hunt averaged 4.71 times higher (P < 0.001) when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. More hatch-year (HY) and after-hatch-year (AHY) mallards were killed when SWDs were turned ON than OFF; however, AHYs were relatively less likely than were HYs to be killed with SWDs turned ON. We found no evidence that SWDs reduced crippling or allowed hunters to harvest relatively more drakes than hens. Using a worst-case scenario model, we predicted that if 47% and 79% of Minnesota hunters had used SWDs in 2000 and 2002, respectively, Minnesota mallard harvests would have increased by a factor of 2. However, increasing use of SWDs by northern hunters may result in a partial redistribution of annual mallard harvests if nai??ve ducks are harvested upon initial exposures to SWDs, and those ducks that survive become habituated to SWDs, as suggested by our results. Our study was confined to a single hunting season in Minnesota and thus did not assess whether vulnerability of mallards to hunters using SWDs varied among years or geographically. A multi-year, flyway-wide study is needed to make stronger and more rigorous inferences regarding potential changes in harvest

  3. TRAM-Derived Decoy Peptides inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mastitis model in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Qu, Shihui; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2015-10-01

    It has been proved that TRAM-Derived Decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRAM-Derived decoy peptide (TM6), belongs to TRAM TIR domain, of which sequence is "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK, KENFLRDTWCNFQFY-"C" and evaluated the effects of TM6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, LPS-induced mice mastitis model was established by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. TM6 was injected 1h before or after LPS treatment. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells were used to investigate the effects of TM6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TM6 inhibited LPS-induced mammary gland histopathologic changes, MPO activity, and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production in mice. In vitro, TM6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production, as well as NF-κB and MAPKs activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that TM6 had protective effects on LPS-mastitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment.

  4. A PCR-Based Method to Construct Lentiviral Vector Expressing Double Tough Decoy for miRNA Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huiling; Zhong, Jiasheng; Luo, Lan; Liu, Nian; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Peng, Wenda; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    DNA vector-encoded Tough Decoy (TuD) miRNA inhibitor is attracting increased attention due to its high efficiency in miRNA suppression. The current methods used to construct TuD vectors are based on synthesizing long oligonucleotides (~90 mer), which have been costly and problematic because of mutations during synthesis. In this study, we report a PCR-based method for the generation of double Tough Decoy (dTuD) vector in which only two sets of shorter oligonucleotides (< 60 mer) were used. Different approaches were employed to test the inhibitory potency of dTuDs. We demonstrated that dTuD is the most efficient method in miRNA inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Using this method, a mini dTuD library against 88 human miRNAs was constructed and used for a high-throughput screening (HTS) of AP-1 pathway-related miRNAs. Seven miRNAs (miR-18b-5p, -101-3p, -148b-3p, -130b-3p, -186-3p, -187-3p and -1324) were identified as candidates involved in AP-1 pathway regulation. This novel method allows for an accurate and cost-effective generation of dTuD miRNA inhibitor, providing a powerful tool for efficient miRNA suppression in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26624995

  5. A PCR-Based Method to Construct Lentiviral Vector Expressing Double Tough Decoy for miRNA Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lan; Liu, Nian; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Peng, Wenda; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    DNA vector-encoded Tough Decoy (TuD) miRNA inhibitor is attracting increased attention due to its high efficiency in miRNA suppression. The current methods used to construct TuD vectors are based on synthesizing long oligonucleotides (~90 mer), which have been costly and problematic because of mutations during synthesis. In this study, we report a PCR-based method for the generation of double Tough Decoy (dTuD) vector in which only two sets of shorter oligonucleotides (< 60 mer) were used. Different approaches were employed to test the inhibitory potency of dTuDs. We demonstrated that dTuD is the most efficient method in miRNA inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Using this method, a mini dTuD library against 88 human miRNAs was constructed and used for a high-throughput screening (HTS) of AP-1 pathway-related miRNAs. Seven miRNAs (miR-18b-5p, -101-3p, -148b-3p, -130b-3p, -186-3p, -187-3p and -1324) were identified as candidates involved in AP-1 pathway regulation. This novel method allows for an accurate and cost-effective generation of dTuD miRNA inhibitor, providing a powerful tool for efficient miRNA suppression in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26624995

  6. Human serum transferrin: a tale of two lobes. Urea gel and steady state fluorescence analysis of recombinant transferrins as a function of pH, time, and the soluble portion of the transferrin receptor.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Shaina L; Mason, Anne B

    2009-06-01

    Iron release from human serum transferrin (hTF) has been studied extensively; however, the molecular details of the mechanism(s) remain incomplete. This is in part due to the complexity of this process, which is influenced by lobe-lobe interactions, the transferrin receptor (TFR), the salt effect, the presence of a chelator, and acidification within the endosome, resulting in iron release. The present work brings together many of the concepts and assertions derived from previous studies in a methodical, uniform, and visual manner. Examination of earlier work reveals some uncertainty due to sample and technical limitations. We have used a combination of steady-state fluorescence and urea gels to evaluate the effect of conformation, pH, time, and the soluble portion of the TFR (sTFR) on iron release from each lobe of hTF. The use of authentic recombinant monoferric and locked species removes any possibility of cross-contamination by acquisition of iron. Elimination of detergent by use of the sTFR provides a further technical advantage. We find that iron release from the N-lobe is very sensitive to the conformation of the C-lobe, but is insensitive to the presence of the sTFR or to changes in pH (between 5.6 and 6.4). Specifically, when the cleft of the C-lobe is locked, the urea gels indicate that only about half of the iron is completely removed from the cleft of the N-lobe. Iron release from the C-lobe is most affected by the presence of the sTFR and changes in pH, but is unaffected by the conformation of the N-lobe. A model for iron release from diferric hTF is provided to delineate our findings.

  7. Human serum transferrin: a tale of two lobes. Urea gel and steady state fluorescence analysis of recombinant transferrins as a function of pH, time, and the soluble portion of the transferrin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shaina L.

    2009-01-01

    Iron release from human serum transferrin (hTF) has been studied extensively; however, the molecular details of the mechanism(s) remain incomplete. This is in part due to the complexity of this process, which is influenced by lobe–lobe interactions, the transferrin receptor (TFR), the salt effect, the presence of a chelator, and acidification within the endosome, resulting in iron release. The present work brings together many of the concepts and assertions derived from previous studies in a methodical, uniform, and visual manner. Examination of earlier work reveals some uncertainty due to sample and technical limitations. We have used a combination of steady-state fluorescence and urea gels to evaluate the effect of conformation, pH, time, and the soluble portion of the TFR (sTFR) on iron release from each lobe of hTF. The use of authentic recombinant monoferric and locked species removes any possibility of cross-contamination by acquisition of iron. Elimination of detergent by use of the sTFR provides a further technical advantage. We find that iron release from the N-lobe is very sensitive to the conformation of the C-lobe, but is insensitive to the presence of the sTFR or to changes in pH (between 5.6 and 6.4). Specifically, when the cleft of the C-lobe is locked, the urea gels indicate that only about half of the iron is completely removed from the cleft of the N-lobe. Iron release from the C-lobe is most affected by the presence of the sTFR and changes in pH, but is unaffected by the conformation of the N-lobe. A model for iron release from diferric hTF is provided to delineate our findings. PMID:19290554

  8. Generation of Soluble Advanced Glycation End Products Receptor (sRAGE)-Binding Ligands during Extensive Heat Treatment of Whey Protein/Lactose Mixtures Is Dependent on Glycation and Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fahui; Teodorowicz, Małgorzata; Wichers, Harry J; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Hettinga, Kasper A

    2016-08-24

    Heating of protein- and sugar-containing materials is considered the primary factor affecting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This study aimed to investigate the influence of heating conditions, digestion, and aggregation on the binding capacity of AGEs to the soluble AGE receptor (sRAGE). Samples consisting of mixtures of whey protein and lactose were heated at 130 °C. An in vitro infant digestion model was used to study the influence of heat treatment on the digestibility of whey proteins. The amount of sRAGE-binding ligands before and after digestion was measured by an ELISA-based sRAGE-binding assay. Water activity did not significantly affect the extent of digestibility of whey proteins dry heated at pH 5 (ranging from 3.3 ± 0.2 to 3.6 ± 0.1% for gastric digestion and from 53.5 ± 1.5 to 64.7 ± 1.1% for duodenal digestion), but there were differences in cleavage patterns of peptides among the samples heated at different pH values. Formation of sRAGE-binding ligands depended on the formation of aggregates and was limited in the samples heated at pH 5. Moreover, the sRAGE-binding activity of digested sample was changed by protease degradation and correlated with the digestibility of samples. In conclusion, generation of sRAGE-binding ligands during extensive heat treatment of whey protein/lactose mixtures is limited in acidic heating condition and dependent on glycation and aggregation. PMID:27460534

  9. Effect of Circulating Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) and the Proinflammatory RAGE Ligand (EN-RAGE, S100A12) on Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Ayumu; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Miyamoto, Tetsu; Anderstam, Björn; Bárány, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) may exert anti-inflammatory protective roles on the vasculature. In contrast, the RAGE ligand S100A12 (also known as EN-RAGE) contributes to inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis in animal models. Whether alterations at this level contribute to the increased mortality observed in patients on dialysis is currently unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Prospective study including 184 prevalent hemodialysis patients and 50 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Plasma concentrations of S100A12 and sRAGE were studied in relation to risk profile and mortality after a median follow-up period of 41 months. Results: S100A12 and sRAGE levels were significantly elevated in hemodialysis patients compared with healthy controls. S100A12 had a strong positive correlation with C-reactive protein and IL-6, whereas sRAGE negatively associated with C-reactive protein. S100A12, but not sRAGE, was independently and positively associated with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). During follow-up, 85 (33 cardiovascular-related) deaths occurred. Whereas sRAGE did not predict mortality, S100A12 was associated with both all-cause (per log10 ng/ml hazard ratio [HR] 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18 to 3.15) and CVD-related (HR 3.23, 95% CI 1.48 to 7.01) mortality, even after adjustment for age, sex, vintage, and comorbidities. Further adjustment for inflammation made the predictive value of S100A12 disappear for all-cause mortality, but still persisted in CVD-related mortality. Conclusions: Circulating S100A12 and sRAGE are both elevated in hemodialysis patients. However, only S100A12 associates with mortality, partly explained by its links with inflammation. PMID:20847094

  10. Carotid plaque and bone density and microarchitecture in psoriatic arthritis: the correlation with soluble ST2

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jiayun; Shang, Qing; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Li, Edmund K.; Kun, Emily W.; Cheng, Isaac T.; Li, Martin; Li, Tena K.; Zhu, Tracy Y.; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Qin, Ling; Tam, Lai-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients have increased risk of both atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. Previous studies revealed that IL-33/ST2 axis may be related to both conditions; however, these associations were never evaluated in a single patients’ group. Here we explored the association among plasma levels of IL-33 and its decoy receptor soluble ST2 (sST2), carotid plaque determined by ultrasound, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD)/microstructure of distal radius measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in 80 PsA patients (55% male; 53.0 ± 10.1 years). Plasma sST2 levels were significantly higher in 33 (41%) patients with carotid plaques (11.2 ± 4.5 vs 7.7 ± 3.7 ng/ml, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, sST2 was an independent explanatory variable associated with carotid plaques (OR = 1.296, 95% CI: [1.091,1.540]; P = 0.003). After adjustment for the osteoporotic risk factors, sST2 was significantly associated with higher cortical porosity (β = 0.184, [0.042,0.325]; P = 0.012) and cortical pore volume (2.247, [0.434,4.060]; P = 0.016); and had a trend to be associated with lower cortical vBMD (−2.918, [−6.111,0.275]; P = 0.073). IL-33 was not associated with carotid plaque or vBMD/microstructure. In conclusion, plasma sST2 levels were independently correlated with both carotid plaque and compromised cortical vBMD/microstructure in PsA patients. IL-33/ST2 axis may be a link between accelerated atherosclerosis and osteoporosis in PsA. PMID:27554830

  11. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general. PMID:26496385

  12. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general.

  13. Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family Receptor Homologs in New World Monkey Cytomegaloviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Carmona, Natàlia; Farré, Domènec; Martínez-Vicente, Pablo; Terhorst, Cox; Engel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Throughout evolution, large DNA viruses have been usurping genes from their hosts to equip themselves with proteins that restrain host immune defenses. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family (SLAMF) receptors are involved in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity, which occurs upon engagement with their ligands via homotypic or heterotypic interactions. Here we report a total of seven SLAMF genes encoded by the genomes of two cytomegalovirus (CMV) species, squirrel monkey CMV (SMCMV) and owl monkey CMV (OMCMV), that infect New World monkeys. Our results indicate that host genes were captured by retrotranscription at different stages of the CMV-host coevolution. The most recent acquisition led to S1 in SMCMV. S1 is a SLAMF6 homolog with an amino acid sequence identity of 97% to SLAMF6 in its ligand-binding N-terminal Ig domain. We demonstrate that S1 is a cell surface glycoprotein capable of binding to host SLAMF6. Furthermore, the OMCMV genome encodes A33, an LY9 (SLAMF3) homolog, and A43, a CD48 (SLAMF2) homolog, two soluble glycoproteins which recognize their respective cellular counterreceptors and thus are likely to be viral SLAMF decoy receptors. In addition, distinct copies of further divergent CD48 homologs were found to be encoded by both CMV genomes. Remarkably, all these molecules display a number of unique features, including cytoplasmic tails lacking characteristic SLAMF signaling motifs. Taken together, our findings indicate a novel immune evasion mechanism in which incorporation of host SLAMF receptors that retain their ligand-binding properties enables viruses to interfere with SLAMF functions and to supply themselves with convenient structural molds for expanding their immunomodulatory repertoires. IMPORTANCE The way in which viruses shape their genomes under the continual selective pressure exerted by the host immune system is central for their survival. Here, we report that New World monkey cytomegaloviruses

  14. Structure-based receptor MIMICS targeted against bacterial superantigen toxins

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Goutam; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Shiflett, Patrick R.; Lehnert, Nancy M.

    2009-08-18

    The invention provides therapeutic compositions useful in the treatment of bacterial superantigen mediated conditions, such as Toxic Shock Syndrome. The compositions comprise genetically engineered bifunctional polypeptides containing a specific T-cell receptor binding domain and a specific MHC class II receptor binding domain, each targeting non-overlapping epitopes on a superantigen molecule against which they are designed. The anti-superantigen "receptor mimetics" or "chimeras" are rationally designed to recreate the modality of superantigen binding directly to both the TCR and the MHC-II receptor, and are capable of acting as decoys for superantigen binding, effectively out-competing the host T-cell and MHC-II receptors, the natural host receptors.

  15. A STAT3-decoy oligonucleotide induces cell death in a human colorectal carcinoma cell line by blocking nuclear transfer of STAT3 and STAT3-bound NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is frequently activated in tumor cells. Activated STAT3 forms homodimers, or heterodimers with other TFs such as NF-κB, which becomes activated. Cytoplasmic STAT3 dimers are activated by tyrosine phosphorylation; they interact with importins via a nuclear localization signal (NLS) one of which is located within the DNA-binding domain formed by the dimer. In the nucleus, STAT3 regulates target gene expression by binding a consensus sequence within the promoter. STAT3-specific decoy oligonucleotides (STAT3-decoy ODN) that contain this consensus sequence inhibit the transcriptional activity of STAT3, leading to cell death; however, their mechanism of action is unclear. Results The mechanism of action of a STAT3-decoy ODN was analyzed in the colon carcinoma cell line SW 480. These cells' dependence on activated STAT3 was verified by showing that cell death is induced by STAT3-specific siRNAs or Stattic. STAT3-decoy ODN was shown to bind activated STAT3 within the cytoplasm, and to prevent its translocation to the nucleus, as well as that of STAT3-associated NF-κB, but it did not prevent the nuclear transfer of STAT3 with mutations in its DNA-binding domain. The complex formed by STAT3 and the STAT3-decoy ODN did not associate with importin, while STAT3 alone was found to co-immunoprecipitate with importin. Leptomycin B and vanadate both trap STAT3 in the nucleus. They were found here to oppose the cytoplasmic trapping of STAT3 by the STAT3-decoy ODN. Control decoys consisting of either a mutated STAT3-decoy ODN or a NF-κB-specific decoy ODN had no effect on STAT3 nuclear translocation. Finally, blockage of STAT3 nuclear transfer correlated with the induction of SW 480 cell death. Conclusions The inhibition of STAT3 by a STAT3-decoy ODN, leading to cell death, involves the entrapment of activated STAT3 dimers in the cytoplasm. A mechanism is suggested whereby this

  16. [Changes of content of regulatory lymphocytes and concentration of soluble interleukine-2 receptor in blood of patients with ischemic heart disease after coronary artery angioplasty with implantation of stents with rapamycin covering].

    PubMed

    Potekhina, A V; Sokolov, V O; Pylaeva, E A; Provatorov, S I; Masenko, V P; Bosykh, E G; Noeva, E A; Krasnikova, T L; Aref'eva, T I

    2011-01-01

    We studied dynamics of content of subpopulation of lymphocytes including regulatory and effector T-lymphocytes as well as concentration of soluble form of interleukine-2 receptor (sCD25) in peripheral blood of patients after coronary stenting (CS) with implantation of stents with rapamycin covering (SRC). We included into the study 62 patients with stable effort II-III functional class angina. Coronary angiography (CA) was carried out in all, CS with implantation of 1 - 2 SRC - in 42 patients. Blood samples were taken before CA/CS, in 24, 48 hours, 7 days, 1 and 3 months after intervention. Content of T-, helper and cytotoxic T-cells, -, NK-, NKT-cells, activated effector T-lymphocytes (CD4+CD251owCD127high) and regulatory T-lymphocytes (CD4+CD25highCD1271ow) were measured by direct immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. CD4+ lymphocytes were isolated from mononuclear cell fraction of donor blood by magnetic separation. Content of regulatory T-lymphocytes in culture were determined by expression of a specific marker FOXP3+. Concentration of sCD25 was measured by chemiluminescent method. It was shown that content of main subpopulations of lymphocytes in blood changed after CS or CF. Blood content of regulatory T-lymphocytes and sCD25 significantly increased after 7 days and 1 month after CS but not after CA. Plasma sCD25 concentration correlated with content of regulatory T-lymphocytes in 1 month after SRC implantation. During cultivation of CD4+ lymphocytes in the presence of rapamycin we noted antiproliferative effect relative to FOXP3-cells and accumulation of regulatory +-lymphocytes. Thus implantation of SRC in coronary arteries leads to increase of number of circulating regulatory T-lymphocytes and blood concentration of sCD25. Changes of these parameters after CS can reflect peculiarities of local and systemic reaction arising in response to introduction of stent with drug covering and be significant for assessment of prognosis of the disease.

  17. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  18. Applications of Solubility Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  19. How Soluble GARP Enhances TGFβ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Fridrich, Sven; Hahn, Susanne A.; Linzmaier, Marion; Felten, Matthias; Zwarg, Jenny; Lennerz, Volker; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    GARP (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant) is a cell surface receptor on regulatory T-lymphocytes, platelets, hepatic stellate cells and certain cancer cells. Its described function is the binding and accommodation of latent TGFβ (transforming growth factor), before the activation and release of the mature cytokine. For regulatory T cells it was shown that a knockdown of GARP or a treatment with blocking antibodies dramatically decreases their immune suppressive capacity. This confirms a fundamental role of GARP in the basic function of regulatory T cells. Prerequisites postulated for physiological GARP function include membrane anchorage of GARP, disulfide bridges between the propeptide of TGFβ and GARP and connection of this propeptide to αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrins of target cells during mechanical TGFβ release. Other studies indicate the existence of soluble GARP complexes and a functionality of soluble GARP alone. In order to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we expressed and purified recombinant TGFβ and a soluble variant of GARP. Surprisingly, soluble GARP and TGFβ formed stable non-covalent complexes in addition to disulfide-coupled complexes, depending on the redox conditions of the microenvironment. We also show that soluble GARP alone and the two variants of complexes mediate different levels of TGFβ activity. TGFβ activation is enhanced by the non-covalent GARP-TGFβ complex already at low (nanomolar) concentrations, at which GARP alone does not show any effect. This supports the idea of soluble GARP acting as immune modulator in vivo. PMID:27054568

  20. How Soluble GARP Enhances TGFβ Activation.

    PubMed

    Fridrich, Sven; Hahn, Susanne A; Linzmaier, Marion; Felten, Matthias; Zwarg, Jenny; Lennerz, Volker; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    GARP (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant) is a cell surface receptor on regulatory T-lymphocytes, platelets, hepatic stellate cells and certain cancer cells. Its described function is the binding and accommodation of latent TGFβ (transforming growth factor), before the activation and release of the mature cytokine. For regulatory T cells it was shown that a knockdown of GARP or a treatment with blocking antibodies dramatically decreases their immune suppressive capacity. This confirms a fundamental role of GARP in the basic function of regulatory T cells. Prerequisites postulated for physiological GARP function include membrane anchorage of GARP, disulfide bridges between the propeptide of TGFβ and GARP and connection of this propeptide to αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrins of target cells during mechanical TGFβ release. Other studies indicate the existence of soluble GARP complexes and a functionality of soluble GARP alone. In order to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we expressed and purified recombinant TGFβ and a soluble variant of GARP. Surprisingly, soluble GARP and TGFβ formed stable non-covalent complexes in addition to disulfide-coupled complexes, depending on the redox conditions of the microenvironment. We also show that soluble GARP alone and the two variants of complexes mediate different levels of TGFβ activity. TGFβ activation is enhanced by the non-covalent GARP-TGFβ complex already at low (nanomolar) concentrations, at which GARP alone does not show any effect. This supports the idea of soluble GARP acting as immune modulator in vivo. PMID:27054568

  1. EphA4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Is a Modulator of Onset and Disease Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)

    PubMed Central

    Gresle, Melissa M.; Jonas, Anna; Kemper, Dennis; Doherty, William; Fabri, Louis J.; Owczarek, Catherine M.; Pearse, Martin; Boyd, Andrew W.; Kilpatrick, Trevor J.; Butzkueven, Helmut; Turnley, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is a major regulator of axonal growth and astrocyte reactivity and is a possible inflammatory mediator. Given that multiple sclerosis (MS) is primarily an inflammatory demyelinating disease and in mouse models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), axonal degeneration and reactive gliosis are prominent clinical features, we hypothesised that endogenous EphA4 could play a role in modulating EAE. EAE was induced in EphA4 knockout and wildtype mice using MOG peptide immunisation and clinical severity and histological features of the disease were then compared in lumbar spinal cord sections. EphA4 knockout mice exhibited a markedly less severe clinical course than wildtype mice, with a lower maximum disease grade and a slightly later onset of clinical symptoms. Numbers of infiltrating T cells and macrophages, the number and size of the lesions, and the extent of astrocytic gliosis were similar in both genotypes; however, EphA4 knockout mice appeared to have decreased axonal pathology. Blocking of EphA4 in wildtype mice by administration of soluble EphA4 (EphA4-Fc) as a decoy receptor following induction of EAE produced a delay in onset of clinical symptoms; however, most mice had clinical symptoms of similar severity by 22 days, indicating that EphA4 blocking treatment slowed early EAE disease evolution. Again there were no apparent differences in histopathology. To determine whether the role of EphA4 in modulating EAE was CNS mediated or due to an altered immune response, MOG primed T cells from wildtype and EphA4 knockout mice were passively transferred into naive recipient mice and both were shown to induce disease of equivalent severity. These results are consistent with a non-inflammatory, CNS specific, deleterious effect of EphA4 during neuroinflammation that results in axonal pathology. PMID:23390555

  2. Soluble proteins in insect chemical communication.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, P; Zhou, J-J; Ban, L P; Calvello, M

    2006-07-01

    Our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects has been greatly improved after the discovery of olfactory and taste receptor proteins. However, the presence of soluble polypeptides in high concentration around the dendrites of sensory neurons still poses unanswered questions. More than 2 decades after their discovery and despite the wealth of structural information available, the physiological function of odorant-binding proteins is not well understood. More recently, members of a second family of soluble polypeptides, the chemosensory proteins, were also discovered in the lymph of chemosensilla. Here we review the structural properties of both classes of soluble proteins, their affinity to small ligands, and their expression in the different parts of the insect body and subcellular localisation. Finally, we discuss current ideas and models of the role of such proteins in insect chemoreception.

  3. What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

  4. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and turns to gel during ... and nutrient absorption from the stomach and intestine. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oat ...

  5. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Solubility of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

  7. Learning about Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  8. Signal Peptide Cleavage from GP5 of PRRSV: A Minor Fraction of Molecules Retains the Decoy Epitope, a Presumed Molecular Cause for Viral Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Thaa, Bastian; Sinhadri, Balaji Chandrasekhar; Tielesch, Claudia; Krause, Eberhard; Veit, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the major pathogen in the pig industry. Variability of the antigens and persistence are the biggest challenges for successful control and elimination of the disease. GP5, the major glycoprotein of PRRSV, is considered an important target of neutralizing antibodies, which however appear only late in infection. This was attributed to the presence of a “decoy epitope” located near a hypervariable region of GP5. This region also harbors the predicted signal peptide cleavage sites and (dependent on the virus strain) a variable number of potential N-glycosylation sites. Molecular processing of GP5 has not been addressed experimentally so far: whether and where the signal peptide is cleaved and (as a consequence) whether the “decoy epitope” is present in virus particles. We show that the signal peptide of GP5 from the American type 2 reference strain VR-2332 is cleaved, both during in vitro translation in the presence of microsomes and in transfected cells. This was found to be independent of neighboring glycosylation sites and occurred in a variety of porcine cells for GP5 sequences derived from various type 2 strains. The exact signal peptide cleavage site was elucidated by mass spectrometry of virus-derived and recombinant GP5. The results revealed that the signal peptide of GP5 is cleaved at two sites. As a result, a mixture of GP5 proteins exists in virus particles, some of which still contain the “decoy epitope” sequence. Heterogeneity was also observed for the use of glycosylation sites in the hypervariable region. Lastly, GP5 mutants were engineered where one of the signal peptide cleavage sites was blocked. Wildtype GP5 exhibited exactly the same SDS-PAGE mobility as the mutant that is cleavable at site 2 only. This indicates that the overwhelming majority of all GP5 molecules does not contain the “decoy epitope”. PMID:23755249

  9. Free-space measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol using decoy states with orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Cheng, Wei-Wen

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271238 and 61475075), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20123223110003), the Natural Science Research Foundation for Universities of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. 11KJA510002), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NYKL2015011), and the

  10. How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Huebel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas

    2011-12-15

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.

  11. Similarity Mapplet: Interactive Visualization of the Directory of Useful Decoys and ChEMBL in High Dimensional Chemical Spaces.

    PubMed

    Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2015-08-24

    An Internet portal accessible at www.gdb.unibe.ch has been set up to automatically generate color-coded similarity maps of the ChEMBL database in relation to up to two sets of active compounds taken from the enhanced Directory of Useful Decoys (eDUD), a random set of molecules, or up to two sets of user-defined reference molecules. These maps visualize the relationships between the selected compounds and ChEMBL in six different high dimensional chemical spaces, namely MQN (42-D molecular quantum numbers), SMIfp (34-D SMILES fingerprint), APfp (20-D shape fingerprint), Xfp (55-D pharmacophore fingerprint), Sfp (1024-bit substructure fingerprint), and ECfp4 (1024-bit extended connectivity fingerprint). The maps are supplied in form of Java based desktop applications called "similarity mapplets" allowing interactive content browsing and linked to a "Multifingerprint Browser for ChEMBL" (also accessible directly at www.gdb.unibe.ch ) to perform nearest neighbor searches. One can obtain six similarity mapplets of ChEMBL relative to random reference compounds, 606 similarity mapplets relative to single eDUD active sets, 30,300 similarity mapplets relative to pairs of eDUD active sets, and any number of similarity mapplets relative to user-defined reference sets to help visualize the structural diversity of compound series in drug optimization projects and their relationship to other known bioactive compounds. PMID:26207526

  12. Size at birth and cord blood levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), IGFBP-3, and the soluble IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor in term human infants. The ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood.

    PubMed

    Ong, K; Kratzsch, J; Kiess, W; Costello, M; Scott, C; Dunger, D

    2000-11-01

    Experimental rodent studies demonstrate that insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) promotes fetal growth, whereas the nonsignaling IGF-II receptor (IGF2R) is inhibitory; in humans their influence is as yet unclear. A soluble, circulating form of IGF2R inhibits IGF-II mediated DNA synthesis and may therefore restrain fetal growth. We measured cord blood levels of IGF-II, soluble IGF2R, insulin, IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 and examined their relationships to weight, length, head circumference, ponderal index, and placental weight at birth in 199 normal term singletons. IGF-II levels correlated with levels of IGF-I (r = 0.29; P < 0.0005), IGFBP-3 (r = 0.45; P < 0.0005), and soluble IGF2R (r = 0.20; P < 0.005). Insulin and IGF-I were positively related to all parameters of size at birth. IGF-II was weakly related to ponderal index (r = 0.18; P < 0.05) and placental weight (r = 0.18; P < 0.05), and the molar ratio of IGF-II to IGF2R was also related to birth weight (r = 0.15; P < 0.05). Correlations between the IGFs and size at birth were stronger in nonprimiparous pregnancies; in these, IGF-I (r = 0.52; P < 0.0005), IGFBP-3 (r = 0.41; P < 0.0005), and the IGF-II to IGF2R ratio (r = 0.40; P < 0.0005) were most closely related to placental weight, together accounting for 39% of its variance. We demonstrate for the first time relationships between circulating IGF-II and soluble IGF2R levels and size at birth, supporting their putative opposing roles in human fetal growth. PMID:11095465

  13. Solubility and secretability.

    PubMed

    Schein, C H

    1993-08-01

    The solubility and secretability of proteins can often be affected by extremely small changes in their primary structure. Attempts to determine empirical rules for the alteration of protein structure to improve either of these characteristics have met with only partial success. Those (mostly serendipitous) improvements in solubility that have been obtained via mutagenesis cannot be considered to be 'protein engineering'. The most successful examples where directed mutagenesis has been used to alter protein solubility, hemoglobin and insulin, have relied on established crystal structures and a wealth of data about the relationship between sequence and structure of the targeted protein. Currently, optimizing culture growth conditions by trial and error remains the fastest way to improve expression.

  14. Solvent and lipid accessibility prediction as a basis for model quality assessment in soluble and membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Phatak, Mukta; Adamczak, Rafał; Cao, Baoqiang; Wagner, Michael; Meller, Jarosław

    2011-09-01

    On-going efforts to improve protein structure prediction stimulate the development of scoring functions and methods for model quality assessment (MQA) that can be used to rank and select the best protein models for further refinement. In this work, sequence-based prediction of relative solvent accessibility (RSA) is employed as a basis for a simple MQA method for soluble proteins, and subsequently extended to the much less explored case of (alpha-helical) membrane proteins. In analogy to soluble proteins, the level of exposure to the lipid of amino acid residues in transmembrane (TM) domains is captured in terms of the relative lipid accessibility (RLA), which is predicted from sequence using low-complexity Support Vector Regression models. On an independent set of 23 TM proteins, the new SVR-based predictor yields correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.56 between the predicted and observed RLA profiles, as opposed to CC of 0.13 for a baseline predictor that utilizes TMLIP2H empirical lipophilicity scale (with standard deviations of about 0.15). A simple MQA approach is then defined by ranking models of membrane proteins in terms of consistency between predicted and observed RLA profiles, as a measure of similarity to the native structure. The new method does not require a set of decoy models to optimize parameters, circumventing current limitations in this regard. Several different sets of models, including those generated by fragment based folding simulations, and decoys obtained by swapping TM helices to mimic errors in template based assignment, are used to assess the new approach. Predicted RLA profiles can be used to successfully discriminate near native models from non-native decoys in most cases, significantly improving the separation of correct and incorrectly folded models compared to a simple baseline approach that utilizes TMLIP2H. As suggested by the robust performance of a simple MQA method for soluble proteins that utilizes more accurate RSA predictions

  15. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Thallium (I), soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Thallium ( I ) , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  17. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  18. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  19. Use of a molecular decoy to segregate transport from antigenicity in the FrpB iron transporter from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Prince, Stephen M; Rigby, Stephen E J; Imran, Muhammad; Patel, Hema; Chan, Hannah; Sanders, Holly; Maiden, Martin C J; Feavers, Ian M; Derrick, Jeremy P

    2013-01-01

    FrpB is an outer membrane transporter from Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis. It is a member of the TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) family and is responsible for iron uptake into the periplasm. FrpB is subject to a high degree of antigenic variation, principally through a region of hypervariable sequence exposed at the cell surface. From the crystal structures of two FrpB antigenic variants, we identify a bound ferric ion within the structure which induces structural changes on binding which are consistent with it being the transported substrate. Binding experiments, followed by elemental analysis, verified that FrpB binds Fe(3+) with high affinity. EPR spectra of the bound Fe(3+) ion confirmed that its chemical environment was consistent with that observed in the crystal structure. Fe(3+) binding was reduced or abolished on mutation of the Fe(3+)-chelating residues. FrpB orthologs were identified in other Gram-negative bacteria which showed absolute conservation of the coordinating residues, suggesting the existence of a specific TBDT sub-family dedicated to the transport of Fe(3+). The region of antigenic hypervariability lies in a separate, external sub-domain, whose structure is conserved in both the F3-3 and F5-1 variants, despite their sequence divergence. We conclude that the antigenic sub-domain has arisen separately as a result of immune selection pressure to distract the immune response from the primary transport function. This would enable FrpB to function as a transporter independently of antibody binding, by using the antigenic sub-domain as a 'molecular decoy' to distract immune surveillance.

  20. ZP2 peptide beads select human sperm in vitro, decoy mouse sperm in vivo, and provide reversible contraception.

    PubMed

    Avella, Matteo A; Baibakov, Boris A; Jimenez-Movilla, Maria; Sadusky, Anna Burkart; Dean, Jurrien

    2016-04-27

    Gamete recognition in the female reproductive tract occurs at the surface of the zona pellucida surrounding ovulated eggs. The acellular zona matrix is composed of three (mouse) or four (human) proteins (ZP1 to ZP4), and the amino terminus of ZP2 is the primary sperm-binding ligand. Mouse and human sperm bind, respectively, to recombinant moZP2(35-149) and huZP2(39-154) peptides attached to agarose beads. Mouse ZP2 peptide beads markedly inhibited fertilization of ovulated mouse eggs inseminated in vitro and incubated overnight. Similarly, human ZP2 peptide beads prevented sperm binding and penetration of transgenic ZP2(Rescue) zonae pellucidae, in which human ZP2 replaced mouse ZP2. When mouse ZP2 peptide beads were transcervically deposited into the uterus, there was no change in mating behavior and copulatory plugs were present, but bound sperm did not progress into the oviduct and female mice were infertile. On average, contraception lasted >10 estrus cycles but was reversible with no detectable pathology in the reproductive tract. Despite the long-term contraceptive effect, initial sperm binding to the peptide beads was reversible in vitro. We exploited this observation to select human sperm that were better able to penetrate the zonae of human ZP2(Rescue) eggs, and the approach holds promise for identifying superior sperm for human assisted reproductive technologies (ART). We conclude that the amino-terminal ZP2 peptide supports sperm binding, which is initially reversible but, with time, becomes irreversible. Short-term, reversible binding may be useful in selecting sperm for ART, and long-term binding decoys sperm and results in effective contraception in mice.

  1. Water soluble and efficient amino acid Schiff base receptor for reversible fluorescence turn-on detection of Zn²⁺ ions: Quantum chemical calculations and detection of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Subha, L; Balakrishnan, C; Natarajan, Satheesh; Theetharappan, M; Subramanian, Balanehru; Neelakantan, M A

    2016-01-15

    An amino acid Schiff base (R) capable of recognizing Zn(2+) ions selectively and sensitively in an aqueous medium was prepared and characterized. Upon addition of Zn(2+) ions, the receptor exhibits fluorescence intensity enhancements (~40 fold) at 460 nm (quantum yield, Φ=0.05 for R and Φ=0.18 for R-Zn(2+)) and can be detected by naked eye under UV light. The receptor can recognize the Zn(2+) (1.04×10(-8) M) selectively for other metal ions in the pH range of 7.5-11. The Zn(2+) chelation with R decreases the loss of energy through non-radiative transition and leads to fluorescence enhancement. The binding mode of the receptor with Zn(2+) was investigated by (1)H NMR titration and further validated by ESI-MS. The elemental color mapping and SEM/EDS analysis were also used to study the binding of R with Zn(2+). Density functional theory calculations were carried out to understand the binding mechanism. The receptor was applied as a microbial sensor for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26318699

  2. Water soluble and efficient amino acid Schiff base receptor for reversible fluorescence turn-on detection of Zn²⁺ ions: Quantum chemical calculations and detection of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Subha, L; Balakrishnan, C; Natarajan, Satheesh; Theetharappan, M; Subramanian, Balanehru; Neelakantan, M A

    2016-01-15

    An amino acid Schiff base (R) capable of recognizing Zn(2+) ions selectively and sensitively in an aqueous medium was prepared and characterized. Upon addition of Zn(2+) ions, the receptor exhibits fluorescence intensity enhancements (~40 fold) at 460 nm (quantum yield, Φ=0.05 for R and Φ=0.18 for R-Zn(2+)) and can be detected by naked eye under UV light. The receptor can recognize the Zn(2+) (1.04×10(-8) M) selectively for other metal ions in the pH range of 7.5-11. The Zn(2+) chelation with R decreases the loss of energy through non-radiative transition and leads to fluorescence enhancement. The binding mode of the receptor with Zn(2+) was investigated by (1)H NMR titration and further validated by ESI-MS. The elemental color mapping and SEM/EDS analysis were also used to study the binding of R with Zn(2+). Density functional theory calculations were carried out to understand the binding mechanism. The receptor was applied as a microbial sensor for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. Modeling aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Butina, Darko; Gola, Joelle M R

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an aqueous solubility model based on solubility data from the Syracuse database, calculated octanol-water partition coefficient, and 51 2D molecular descriptors. Two different statistical packages, SIMCA and Cubist, were used and the results were compared. The Cubist model, which comprises a collection of rules, each of which has an associated Multiple Linear Regression model (MLR), gave better overall results on a test set of 640 compounds with an overall squared correlation coefficient of 0.74 and an absolute average error of 0.68 log units. Both training and independent test sets had similar distributions of structures in terms of the different functionalities present-60% neutral, 14% acidic, 8% phenolic, 11% monobasic, 4% polybasic, and 3% zwitterionic molecules. Sets were designed by random selection, with 2688 (81%) and 640 (19%) molecules, respectively, forming the training and the test sets.

  4. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  5. PGG-glucan, a soluble beta-(1,3)-glucan, enhances the oxidative burst response, microbicidal activity, and activates an NF-kappa B-like factor in human PMN: evidence for a glycosphingolipid beta-(1,3)-glucan receptor.

    PubMed

    Wakshull, E; Brunke-Reese, D; Lindermuth, J; Fisette, L; Nathans, R S; Crowley, J J; Tufts, J C; Zimmerman, J; Mackin, W; Adams, D S

    1999-02-01

    PGG-Glucan, a soluble beta-(1,6)-branched beta-(1,3)-linked glucose homopolymer derived from the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is an immunomodulator which enhances leukocyte anti-infective activity and enhances myeloid and megakaryocyte progenitor proliferation. Incubation of human whole blood with PGG-Glucan significantly enhanced the oxidative burst response of subsequently isolated blood leukocytes to both soluble and particulate activators in a dose-dependent manner, and increased leukocyte microbicidal activity. No evidence for inflammatory cytokine production was obtained under these conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that PGG-Glucan induced the activation of an NF-kappaB-like nuclear transcription factor in purified human neutrophils. The binding of 3H-PGG-Glucan to human leukocyte membranes was specific, concentration-dependent, saturable, and high affinity (Kd approximately 6 nM). A monoclonal antibody specific to the glycosphingolipid lactosylceramide was able to inhibit activation of the NF-kappaB-like factor by PGG-Glucan, and ligand binding data, including polysaccharide specificity, suggested that the PGG-Glucan binding moiety was lactosylceramide. These results indicate that PGG-Glucan enhances neutrophil anti-microbial functions and that interaction between this beta-glucan and human neutrophils is mediated by the glycosphingolipid lactosylceramide present at the cell surface.

  6. The Design and Discovery of Water Soluble 4-Substituted-2,6-dimethylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines as Multitargeted Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Microtubule Targeting Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Raghavan, Sudhir; Ihnat, Michael; Thorpe, Jessica E.; Disch, Bryan C.; Bastian, Anja; Bailey-Downs, Lora C.; Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F.; Rohena, Cristina C.; Hamel, Ernest; Mooberry, Susan L.; Gangjee, Aleem

    2014-01-01

    The design, synthesis and biological evaluations of fourteen 4-substituted 2,6-dimethylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines are reported. Four compounds (11–13, 15) inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β), and target tubulin leading to cytotoxicity. Compound 11 has nanomolar potency, comparable to sunitinib and semaxinib, against tumor cell lines overexpressing VEGFR-2 and PDGFR-β. Further, 11 binds at the colchicine site on tubulin, depolymerizes cellular microtubules and inhibits purified tubulin assembly and overcomes both βIII-tubulin and P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance, and initiates mitotic arrest leading to apoptosis. In vivo, its HCl salt, 21, reduced tumor size and vascularity in xenograft and allograft murine models and was superior to docetaxel and sunitinib, without overt toxicity. Thus 21 affords potential combination chemotherapy in a single agent. PMID:24890652

  7. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  8. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  9. Selection of Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Elements against Exotoxin A Using a Novel Decoy-SELEX Method and Sensitive Detection of Exotoxin A in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ka Lok; Yancey, Kailey; Battistella, Luisa; Williams, Ryan M.; Hickey, Katherine M.; Bostick, Chris D.; Gannett, Peter M.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2015-01-01

    Exotoxin A is one of the virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that can cause infections resulting in adverse health outcomes and increased burden to health care systems. Current methods of diagnosing P. aeruginosa infections are time consuming and can require significant preparation of patient samples. This study utilized a novel variation of the Systematic Evolution of Ligand by Exponential Enrichment, Decoy-SELEX, to identify an Exotoxin A specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecular recognition element (MRE). Its emphasis is on increasing stringency in directing binding toward free target of interest and at the same time decreasing binding toward negative targets. A ssDNA MRE with specificity and affinity was identified after fourteen rounds of Decoy-SELEX. Utilizing surface plasmon resonance measurements, the determined equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of the MRE is between 4.2 µM and 4.5 µM, and is highly selective for Exotoxin A over negative targets. A ssDNA MRE modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed and achieved sensitive detection of Exotoxin A at nanomolar concentrations in human serum. This study has demonstrated the proof-of-principle of using a ssDNA MRE as a clinical diagnostic tool. PMID:26636098

  10. Application of flow cytometry to molecular medicine: detection of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors in acute myeloid leukaemia blasts.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, Alessandra; Mantovani, Irina; Tazzari, Pier Luigi; Grafone, Tiziana; Martinelli, Giovanni; Cocco, Lucio; Martelli, Alberto M

    2005-12-01

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), a cytokine belonging to the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) family, is currently regarded as a potential anti-cancer agent. Nevertheless, several types of cancer cells display a low sensitivity to TRAIL or are completely resistant to this pro-apoptotic cytokine. TRAIL signalling is dependent on four receptors. Two of them, death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5), induce apoptosis, whereas decoy receptors 1 and 2 (DcR1 and DcR2) are unable to evoke cell death upon TRAIL binding. TRAIL resistance may be related to the expression of TRAIL decoy receptors. TRAIL has been proposed as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of haematological disorders, including acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Surprisingly, however, very limited information is available concerning the expression of TRAIL receptors in AML blasts. Here, we have evaluated, using flow cytometry, TRAIL receptor surface expression and sensitivity to TRAIL-dependent apoptosis of AML blasts from 30 patients. We observed frequent expression of TRAIL DcR1 and DcR2, while expression of DR4 and DR5 was less frequent. Nevertheless, the expression of DR4 or DR5 in leukaemic cells was always matched by a similar expression of one of the decoy receptors. Leukaemic blasts were invariably resistant, even to a high concentration (1000 ng/ml) of TRAIL. We suggest that AML blasts are resistant to TRAIL apoptosis in vitro. Therefore, it is unlikely that TRAIL alone might be used in the future as an innovative pharmacological agent for the treatment of AML.

  11. Advanced glycation end products accelerate ischemia/reperfusion injury through receptor of advanced end product/nitrative thioredoxin inactivation in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Ma, Yanzhuo; Wang, Rutao; Xia, Chenhai; Zhang, Rongqing; Lian, Kun; Luan, Ronghua; Sun, Lu; Yang, Lu; Lau, Wayne B; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling

    2011-10-01

    The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with increased cardiac endothelial injury. However, no causative link has been established between increased AGEs and enhanced endothelial injury after ischemia/reperfusion. More importantly, the molecular mechanisms by which AGEs may increase endothelial injury remain unknown. Adult rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) were isolated and incubated with AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) or BSA. After AGE-BSA or BSA preculture, CMECs were subjected to simulated ischemia (SI)/reperfusion (R). AGE-BSA increased SI/R injury as evidenced by enhanced lactate dehydrogenase release and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, AGE-BSA significantly increased SI/R-induced oxidative/nitrative stress in CMECs (as measured by increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, total nitric oxide production, superoxide generation, and peroxynitrite formation) and increased SI/R-induced nitrative inactivation of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), an essential cytoprotective molecule. Supplementation of EUK134 (peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst), human Trx-1, or soluble receptor of advanced end product (sRAGE) (a RAGE decoy) in AGE-BSA precultured cells attenuated SI/R-induced oxidative/nitrative stress, reduced SI/R-induced Trx-1 nitration, preserved Trx-1 activity, and reduced SI/R injury. Our results demonstrated that AGEs may increase SI/R-induced endothelial injury by increasing oxidative/nitrative injury and subsequent nitrative inactivation of Trx-1. Interventions blocking RAGE signaling or restoring Trx activity may be novel therapies to mitigate endothelial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the diabetic population.

  12. The Decoy Duck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Anna

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development processes of an instructional video for use in a course offered through the Extended Learning Institute of Northern Virginia Community College entitled Women Writers II. Characterizes the process of transforming this English course from a print-based to a distance-learning course as time-consuming, creative, and…

  13. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  14. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  15. Tumor-specific cell-cycle decoy by Salmonella typhimurium A1-R combined with tumor-selective cell-cycle trap by methioninase overcome tumor intrinsic chemoresistance as visualized by FUCCI imaging.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Zhao, Ming; Tan, Yuying; Han, Qinghong; Li, Shukuan; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-07-01

    We previously reported real-time monitoring of cell cycle dynamics of cancer cells throughout a live tumor intravitally using a fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (FUCCI). Approximately 90% of cancer cells in the center and 80% of total cells of an established tumor are in G0/G1 phase. Longitudinal real-time FUCCI imaging demonstrated that cytotoxic agents killed only proliferating cancer cells at the surface and, in contrast, and had little effect on the quiescent cancer cells. Resistant quiescent cancer cells restarted cycling after the cessation of chemotherapy. Thus cytotoxic chemotherapy which targets cells in S/G2/M, is mostly ineffective on solid tumors, but causes toxic side effects on tissues with high fractions of cycling cells, such as hair follicles, bone marrow and the intestinal lining. We have termed this phenomenon tumor intrinsic chemoresistance (TIC). We previously demonstrated that tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) decoyed quiescent cancer cells in tumors to cycle from G0/G1 to S/G2/M demonstrated by FUCCI imaging. We have also previously shown that when cancer cells were treated with recombinant methioninase (rMETase), the cancer cells were selectively trapped in S/G2, shown by cell sorting as well as by FUCCI. In the present study, we show that sequential treatment of FUCCI-expressing stomach cancer MKN45 in vivo with S. typhimurium A1-R to decoy quiescent cancer cells to cycle, with subsequent rMETase to selectively trap the decoyed cancer cells in S/G2 phase, followed by cisplatinum (CDDP) or paclitaxel (PTX) chemotherapy to kill the decoyed and trapped cancer cells completely prevented or regressed tumor growth. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the praradigm of "decoy, trap and shoot" chemotherapy. PMID:27152859

  16. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on antibody-mediated immune response and gene expression of pattern recognition receptors and cytokines in broiler chickens immunized with T-cell dependent antigens.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Echeverry, H; Crow, G H; Slominski, B A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of yeast-derived products on innate and antibody mediated immune response in broiler chickens following immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). One-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross-308) were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments of 9 replicate cages of 5 birds each per treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of a Control diet without antibiotic, and diets containing 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, 0.25% of yeast cell wall (YCW), 0.2% of a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus containing processed yeast and nucleotides, 0.05% of nucleotides, or a diet containing 10% of DDGS. On days 21 and 28 post-hatching, 5 birds per treatment were immunized intramuscularly with both SRBC and BSA. One week after each immunization, blood samples were collected. Serum samples were analyzed by hemagglutination test for antibody response to SRBC, and by ELISA for serum IgM and IgG response to BSA. On d 35, 5 birds per treatment were euthanized and the tissue samples from the cecal tonsils were collected to assess the gene expression of toll-like receptors TLR2b, TLR4, and TLR21, monocyte mannose receptor (MMR), and cytokines IL-10, IL-13, IL-4, IL-12p35, and IFN-γ. The results for gene expression analysis demonstrated that the diet supplemented with YCW increased the expression of TLR2b and T-helper type 2 cytokines IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 relative to the Control; and the expression of TLR4 and IL-13 was upregulated in the nucleotide-containing diet. However, the diets containing antibiotics or Maxi-Gen Plus downregulated the expression of IFN-γ compared to the control. The primary antibody response to SRBC was not affected by diets. However, the diet containing YCW increased the secondary antibody response to SRBC compared to the antibiotic treatment. Neither primary nor secondary IgG and IgM response against BSA were affected by diets. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet with YCW stimulated Th2 cell

  17. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in overweight/obese women.

    PubMed

    Makey, Kristina L; Patterson, Sharla G; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity and overweight/obesity. We have reported previously that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and endostatin and decreased unbound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in men. However, there are no data on women. The present study determines the following: (a) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers and (b) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound VEGF than lean women. A total of 72 African American and White adult women volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 44 years were enrolled in the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (55-59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) was quantified utilizing a metabolic cart. We obtained blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays showed that the plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 min), significantly higher than the basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P<0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase in the sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and White (P=0.533) women or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. The basal plasma levels of unbound VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than the basal levels of unbound VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P<0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise

  18. The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  19. Comparative Calculations of Solubility Equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.

    2000-07-25

    The uncertainties in calculated solubilities in the Na-F-PO{sub 4}-HPO{sub 4}-OH system. at 25 C for NaOH concentrations up to 5 mol/kg were assessed. These uncertainties were based on an evaluation of the range of values for the Gibbs energies of the solids. Comparative calculations using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) and SOLGASMIX indicated that the variation in activity coefficients with NaOH concentration is much greater in the ESP code than in SOLGASMIX. This resulted in ESP calculating a higher solubility in water and a lower solubility in NaOH concentrations above 1 mol/kg: There was a marked discrepancy in the solubilities of the pure components sodium fluoride and trisodium phosphate predicted by ESP and SOLGASMIX. In addition, different solubilities for these components were obtained using different options in ESP. Because of these observations, a Best Practices Guide for ESP will be assembled.

  20. Effect of nitrate and sulfate relative abundance in PM2.5 on liquid water content explored through half-hourly observations of inorganic soluble aerosols at a polluted receptor site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jian; Griffith, Stephen M.; Yu, Xin; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2014-12-01

    Liquid water content (LWC) is the amount of liquid water on aerosols. It contributes to visibility degradation, provides a surface for gas condensation, and acts as a medium for heterogeneous gas/particle reactions. In this study, 520 half-hourly measurements of ionic chemical composition in PM2.5 at a receptor site in Hong Kong are used to investigate the dependence of LWC on ionic chemical composition, particularly on the relative abundance of sulfate and nitrate. LWC was estimated using a thermodynamic model (AIM-III). Within this data set of PM2.5 ionic compositions, LWC was highly correlated with the multivariate combination of sulfate and nitrate concentrations and RH (R2 = 0.90). The empirical linear regression result indicates that LWC is more sensitive to nitrate mass than sulfate. During a nitrate episode, the highest LWC (80.6 ± 17.9 μg m-3) was observed and the level was 70% higher than that during a sulfate episode despite a similar ionic PM2.5 mass concentration. A series of sensitivity tests were conducted to study LWC change as a function of the relative nitrate and sulfate abundance, the trend of which is expected to shift to more nitrate in China as a result of SO2 reduction and increase in NOx emission. Starting from a base case that uses the average of measured PM2.5 ionic chemical composition (63% SO42-, 11% NO3-, 19% NH4+, and 7% other ions) and an ionic equivalence ratio, [NH4+]/(2[SO42-] + [NO3-]), set constant to 0.72, the results show LWC would increase by 204% at RH = 40% when 50% of the SO42- is replaced by NO3- mass concentration. This is largely due to inhibition of (NH4)3H(SO4)2 crystallization while PM2.5 ionic species persist in the aqueous phase. At RH = 90%, LWC would increase by 12% when 50% of the SO42- is replaced by NO3- mass concentration. The results of this study highlight the important implications to aerosol chemistry and visibility degradation associated with LWC as a result of a shift in PM2.5 ionic chemical

  1. Phenylated Polyimides With Greater Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    In experiments, 3,6-diphenylpyromellitic dianhydride monomer prepared and polymerized with several different diamines. Polyimides with pendent phenyl groups along polymer backbones considerably more soluble than PMDA-based materials. Increased solubility eases processing, providing increased potential use in variety of applications. Because most polymers soluble in organic solvents, usable in microelectronics applications. Excellent thermal stabilities and high transition t