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Sample records for soma lignite turkey

  1. Organic facies characteristics of the Miocene Soma Formation (Lower Lignite Succession-KM2), Soma Coal Basin, western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokerek, Selin; Ozcelik, Orhan

    2015-04-01

    The Soma coal basin is one of the largest economic lignite-bearing alluvial basins of western Turkey. The Miocene succession (Soma Formation) of the coalfield contains two lignite seams successions; Lower Lignite, Middle Lignite .The Lower Lignite (KM2) is a seam 15 m thick and found in contact between siliciclastic and carbonate deposits (marlstones). Detailed data from thick Miocene sediments (Soma Formation) made it possible to construct an organic facies framework using different zonations. Organic matter is composed predominantly of woody material. Kerogen in the deposits is type III, as indicated by organic petrographic observations and Rock-Eval data. Total organic carbon (TOC) values are generally between 28.45 and 72.66 %, but reach 73.38 % in the formation. Tmax values vary between 403 and 429 °C, confirming maturation trends indicated by vitrinite reflectance data (between 0.35-0.48 Ro %). Organic facies type C and CD were identified in the investigated units. Organic facies C and CD are related to clayey coal and coal lithofacies. These facies are characterized by average values of HI around 126 mg HC/g TOC (equivalent to type III kerogen), TOC around 56.61 %, and an average of S2 of 72.4 mg HC/g of rock. The organic matter is partly oxidized/oxidized and reworked. Keywords: Western Turkey; Soma Formation; organic facies; organic geochemistry

  2. Thermal effects of a basaltic intrusion on the Soma lignite bed in West Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karayigit, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    A mineable lignite bed (k1) in the Soma Formation from the southern part of the Soma basin is of middle Miocene age and was deposited in a lacustrine environment. Its thickness reaches up to 24 m, and it is extensively mined by open-pit methods. The Soma Formation was invaded by an olivine basaltic intrusion during the Pliocene-Pleistocene. The intrusion has resulted in a local contact metamorphic influence at the top level of the k1. The coal bed, on the basis of proximate analyses and random reflectance measurement (%Ro, random) of huminite/vitrinite of coals or groundmass of cokes, can be divided into normal coal, transition zone, and natural coke, differing in their degree of coal metamorphism. Closer to the contact point with the intrusion, moisture and volatile matter contents rapidly decrease, while calorific value and the %Ro, random values increase.

  3. Emissions estimation for lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Nurten Vardar; Zehra Yumurtaci

    2010-01-15

    The major gaseous emissions (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide), some various organic emissions (e.g. benzene, toluene and xylenes) and some trace metals (e.g. arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese and nickel) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are estimated. The estimations are made separately for each one of the thirteen plants that produced electricity in 2007, because the lignite-fired thermal plants in Turkey are installed near the regions where the lignite is mined, and characteristics and composition of lignite used in each power plant are quite different from a region to another. Emission factors methodology is used for the estimations. The emission factors obtained from well-known literature are then modified depending on local moisture content of lignite. Emission rates and specific emissions (per MWh) of the pollutants from the plants without electrostatic precipitators and flue-gas desulfurization systems are found to be higher than emissions from the plants having electrostatic precipitators and flue -gas desulfurization systems. Finally a projection for the future emissions due to lignite-based power plants is given. Predicted demand for the increasing generation capacity based on the lignite-fired thermal power plant, from 2008 to 2017 is around 30%. 39 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Changing environment and urban identity following open-cast mining and thermic power plant in Turkey: case of Soma.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Arife

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a summary of a project changed into a book named by "Changing Environment, City and Identity in Soma with the Geographical Evaluations" issued on May 2005. In this research, Soma, which is one of the most remarkable districts in Manisa in the West Anatolia from the point of economical figures, is assessed with its physical environment potential, improving economical activities and changing socio-economical structure. Owing to the open coal basins in the northeast and southwest of the district where lignite is produced and the impact of the thermic power plant near the city centre, Soma has changed on a large scale. This change has introduced some environmental problems into the district such as the devastation of the forestry land; the infertility of farming land; and soil, water and air pollution. Even though the change under discussion has led to many problems to deal with, it has also influenced its socio-economical structure to a large extent and revealed new type of inhabitants having different life expectations and aims. In conclusion, in this article, changing environment and city structure after lignite processing and thermic station establishment in Soma are discussed through the effective geographical factors. The new city profile formed by the local dynamics in question is evaluated according to the data obtained by the studies made in the neighbourhood.

  5. An aftermath analysis of the 2014 coal mine accident in Soma, Turkey: Use of risk performance indicators based on historical experience.

    PubMed

    Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-02-01

    On the 13th of May 2014 a fire related incident in the Soma coal mine in Turkey caused 301 fatalities and more than 80 injuries. This has been the largest coal mine accident in Turkey, and in the OECD country group, so far. This study investigated if such a disastrous event should be expected, in a statistical sense, based on historical observations. For this purpose, PSI's ENSAD database is used to extract accident data for the period 1970-2014. Four different cases are analyzed, i.e., OECD, OECD w/o Turkey, Turkey and USA. Analysis of temporal trends for annual numbers of accidents and fatalities indicated a non-significant decreasing tendency for OECD and OECD w/o Turkey and a significant one for USA, whereas for Turkey both measures showed an increase over time. The expectation analysis revealed clearly that an event with the consequences of the Soma accident is rather unlikely for OECD, OECD w/o Turkey and USA. In contrast, such a severe accident has a substantially higher expectation for Turkey, i.e. it cannot be considered an extremely rare event, based on historical experience. This indicates a need for improved safety measures and stricter regulations in the Turkish coal mining sector in order to get closer to the rest of OECD.

  6. Characterization of the liquid phase obtained by copyrolysis of Mustafa Kemal Pasa (M.K.P.) Lignite (Turkey) with low density polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Ali Sinag; Melike Sungur; Mustafa Gullu; Muammer Canel

    2006-10-15

    This study describes the detailed hydrocarbon type characterization of the tar (liquid phase) obtained by copyrolysis of Mustafa Kemal Paa (M.K.P.) lignite (Turkey) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) and by pyrolysis of coal and LDPE individually. Various spectroscopic techniques (gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC)) are used for characterization, and the effect of the experimental conditions (temperature, lignite:low density polyethylene (LDPE) ratio, and catalyst) on the hydrocarbon distributions is discussed. The results show that the tars obtained by copyrolysis have similar properties with commercial gasoline (especially in the presence of Red mud). Red mud and bentonite used as catalysts make a positive effect on the production of olefins instead aromatics. Polyethylene acts as a hydrogenation medium for the coal product as revealed by FTIR results. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Pelletizing lignite

    DOEpatents

    Goksel, Mehmet A.

    1983-11-01

    Lignite is formed into high strength pellets having a calorific value of at least 9,500 Btu/lb by blending a sufficient amount of an aqueous base bituminous emulsion with finely-divided raw lignite containing its inherent moisture to form a moistened green mixture containing at least 3 weight % of the bituminous material, based on the total dry weight of the solids, pelletizing the green mixture into discrete green pellets of a predetermined average diameter and drying the green pellets to a predetermined moisture content, preferrably no less than about 5 weight %. Lignite char and mixture of raw lignite and lignite char can be formed into high strength pellets in the same general manner.

  8. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  9. Turkey.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  10. Morphometric evaluation of the Afşin-Elbistan lignite basin using kernel density estimation and Getis-Ord's statistics of DEM derived indices, SE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarp, Gulcan; Duzgun, Sebnem

    2015-11-01

    A morphometric analysis of river network, basins and relief using geomorphic indices and geostatistical analyses of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) are useful tools for discussing the morphometric evolution of the basin area. In this study, three different indices including valley floor width to height ratio (Vf), stream gradient (SL), and stream sinuosity were applied to Afşin-Elbistan lignite basin to test the imprints of tectonic activity. Perturbations of these indices are usually indicative of differences in the resistance of outcropping lithological units to erosion and active faulting. To map the clusters of high and low indices values, the Kernel density estimation (K) and the Getis-Ord Gi∗ statistics were applied to the DEM-derived indices. The K method and Gi∗ statistic highlighting hot spots and cold spots of the SL index, the stream sinuosity and the Vf index values helped to identify the relative tectonic activity of the basin area. The results indicated that the estimation by the K and Gi∗ including three conceptualization of spatial relationships (CSR) for hot spots (percent volume contours 50 and 95 categorized as high and low respectively) yielded almost similar results in regions of high tectonic activity and low tectonic activity. According to the K and Getis-Ord Gi∗ statistics, the northern, northwestern and southern parts of the basin indicates a high tectonic activity. On the other hand, low elevation plain in the central part of the basin area shows a relatively low tectonic activity.

  11. Turkey's energy demand and supply

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

  12. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed

  13. Lignite Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Fred

    Since it became known in l979 that the Arkansas Power and Light Company was going to build a large electricity generating plant near Hampton and that there would be a lignite mining operation established there to support the power plant, the Warren public schools have been preparing to meet the impact on the schools. Because it was assumed that…

  14. [Dust exposure levels and pneumoconiosis prevalence in a lignite coal miners].

    PubMed

    Cimrin, Arif H; Demiral, Yücel; Ergör, Alp; Uz Başaran, Seminur; Kömüs, Nuray; Ozbirsel, Cemal

    2005-01-01

    The effects of working conditions on health in lignite mines in Turkey have not been studied comprehensively. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coal miner pneumoconiosis among lignite miners and to evaluate the effects of working conditions. The study was carried out between 2001 and 2003. All workers in the lignite mine and maintenance workers were consisted in the study. A face to face questionnaire was used to obtain demographics and work life variables. Posterior-anterior chest radiograms were evaluated by an A reader chest physician, according to ILO 1980 standard guidelines. Profusion of densities related with pneumoconiosis as 1/0 and above regarded as the "suspected pneumoconiosis". Parenchyma degeneration and/or massive opacities have been accepted as complicated silicosis. Dust concentrations in the work environment obtained from the periodical examinations. Two thousand four hundred and sixty-four X-ray were evaluated and 333 (13.5%) pneumoconiosis compatible changes were found. Among the pneumoconiosis cases, 25 (7.5%) were assigned as complicated silicosis. There was significant and positive association between worked years and pneumoconiosis prevalence (p= 0.019). Our findings indicated that pneumoconiosis prevalence among lignite miners in Turkey comparable to the USA prevalence prior to implementation of effective dust control programmes. It has been suggested that dust exposure in the work environment were high enough to developed pneumoconiosis in lignite mines. Dust control systems and measures should be re-evaluated.

  15. Gasification of Gulf Coast Lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Smoller, R.K.

    1983-11-01

    Gulf Coast lignites are examined as a feedstock for a gasification facility making substitute natural gas (SNG). Advantages and disadvantages are explored in the areas of project development factors, gasification technology and physical and chemical characteristics of the lignite. The Texas Gasification Project currently under study at Phillips Coal is used to exemplify these factors. It has been found that the use of Gulf Coast lignite has several natural developmental advantages over fuels from other parts of the U.S. A project is relatively close to markets for all of its products including SNG, carbon dioxide and all by-products. The Gulf Coast has adequate supplies of basic commodities such as water. Most potential gasification plant locations have a good local infrastructure in existence. Labor can be drawn from one or more metropolitan areas within commuting distance. State regulatory agencies interact with energy development projects of all sizes on a regular basis providing a solid working knowledge of energy policies and accepted project development guidelines. Finally, a positive business climate exists at both the state and local levels providing support and encouragement to go forward with projects. The physical and chemical characteristics of the lignite are shown to have a major effect on the operability of the gasification process. Lignite properties examined include moisture content, friability, and ash content.

  16. SOMA AS ENERGIZER-CUM-EUPHORIANT, VERSUS SURA, AN INTOXICANT

    PubMed Central

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1984-01-01

    Specific features of Soma plant are implict from various references in Rigveda enabling its identity as ephedra. Its juice is an energizer – cum – euphoriant contrary to the intoxicant sura. Sura is beer prepared from barely malt. Soma is the juice of ephedra rich in ephedrine which is antisomnalent. At least one use of soma has never been substituted, as the drink of longevity for a newly born child. PMID:22557400

  17. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2005-10-03

    The Design Team continues to conference this quarter albeit not as often. Primary focus this quarter is the continued procurement of material, receiving, and construction/installation. Phase 1 extension recommendation, and subsequent new project estimate. Forms 424 and 4600 were submitted to Ms. Zysk. The NETL technology team subsequently agreed that the increase is justified and made their recommendation to DOE HQ. All major mechanical equipment was delivered this quarter. Three hot water in-bed coils are all that remains for delivery. Two of the five are installed above the dryer air distribution bed. The dryer, baghouse, bucket elevator, control room, exhaust fan, process ductwork, and piping have all been installed. The mezzanine level over the inlet ductwork for access to the dryer was installed. Instrumentation was delivered and locations were identified. Cable is being pulled and connections made from the Control Room to the Motor Control Center. ''Emergency Stop'' equipment logic conditions were discussed and finalized. The functional description was competed and reviewed with Honeywell Controls. Piping & Instrument diagrams are completed. Some electrical schematics have been delivered for equipment south of Q-line. Dry & Wet coal conveyors are not completed. The exhaust chimney was installed. An Open House and ribbon cutting took place on August 9th. GRE project manager gave a presentation of the technology. Joe Strakey, NETL, also spoke. The Open House was attended by Governor Hoevon and Senator Conrad who also spoke about Clean Coal and helped kick-off Blue Flint ethanol and a potential Liquefaction plant. The deign team met the following day to discuss test plan and progress update. Headwaters Energy Incorporated also attended the Open House. A meeting was conducted with them to begin planning for the marketing and finalize our memorandum of understanding. Headwaters still plans to contact all US lignite plants and all bituminous plants who have

  18. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2006-04-03

    This 7th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2006. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity, dryer/process construction, and testing. The Design Team began conferencing again as construction completed and the testing program began. Primary focus this quarter was construction/installation completion. Phase 1 extension recommendation, and subsequent new project estimate, Forms 424 and 4600 were accepted by DOE headquarters. DOE will complete the application and amended contract. All major mechanical equipment was run, checked out, and tested this quarter. All water, air, and coal flow loops were run and tested. The system was run on January 30th, shut down to adjust equipment timing in the control system on the 31st, and run to 75 ton//hour on February 1st. It ran for seven to eight hours per day until March 20th when ''pairs'' testing ( 24 hour running) began. ''Pairs'' involves comparative testing of unit performance with seven ''wet'' pulverizers versus six ''wet'' and one ''dry''. During the interim, more operators were brought up to speed on system operation and control was shifted to the main Unit No.2 Control Room. The system is run now from the Unit control board operator and an equipment operator checks the system during regular rounds or when an alarm needs verification. The flawless start-up is unprecedented in the industry and credit should be made to the diligence and tenacity of Coal Creek maintenance/checkout staff. Great River Energy and Headwaters did not meet to discuss the Commercialization Plan this quarter. The next meeting is pending data from the drying system. Discussions with Basin Electric, Otter Tail, and Dairyland continue and confidentiality secured as we promote dryers in their stations. Lighting and fire protection were completed in January. Invoices No.12 through No.20 are completed and forwarded following preliminary

  19. The washability of lignites for clay removal

    SciTech Connect

    Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U.

    2008-07-01

    In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

  20. Production of lignite from underground deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermaker, R.W.

    1982-05-11

    Lignite is removed from a seam or stratum containing the same in an underground formation by forming within the seam or stratum with aid of a production fluid, which can contain a dispersant or surfactant, a suspension of the lignite in said fluid whereupon the fluid is removed to the surface and the lignite recovered therefrom. The fluid thus recovered is re-used. The production fluid can be heated and/or pulsated and is injected and passed through the formation under conditions to promote the formation of the desired lignite suspension.

  1. Multiple-use marketing of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, C.L.

    1993-09-01

    Marketing of lignite faces difficulties due to moisture and sulfur contents, as well as the sodium content, of the ash. The purpose of this study is to determine the economic viability of multiple-use marketing of lignite as a method to increase the use of North Dakota lignite by recapturing lost niche markets. Multiple-use marketing means using lignite and sulfur-capturing additives to clean agricultural wastewater followed by either direct steam and power generation or briquetting to produce a higher-Btu compliance fuel. Cooperative ownership of the resulting business by a coal company and an agriculture processing company helps ensure that lignite remains the coal of choice, especially when the ``good`` attributes of lignites are maximized, while the agricultural company obtains cleaner wastewater and a long-term supply of coal at a set price. The economic viabilities of the following scenarios were investigated: (1) Agriprocessing wastewater treatment using lignite and an additive followed by (2) the production of compliance fuel for resale or on-site cogeneration of steam and electricity. Laboratory tests were performed utilizing potato-processing plant wastewater with lignite and lime sludge.

  2. Solubilization of Australian lignites by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J.; Cox, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Australia has substantial lignite deposits, particularly in the Latrobe Valley in Victoria where 4.10/sup 10/ tons are accessible with available technologies. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of these coal to solubilization by microorganisms, including species additional to those already identified as active on North American lignites. The data presented here show that acid oxidized lignites from the Latrobe Valley are solubilized by each of seven species of microorganisms previously found to be active on Leonardite and oxidized North American lignites. These are the wood rot fungi: Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the lignin degrading prokaryote Streptomyces viridosporus and three fungi isolated from lignite in Mississippi: Candida ML-13, Cunninghamelia YML-1 and Penicillium waksmanii.

  3. Lignite pellets and methods of agglomerating or pelletizing

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Albert F.; Blaustein, Eric W.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.; Garvin, John P.; McKeever, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    The specification discloses lignite pellets which are relatively hard, dust resistant, of generally uniform size and free from spontaneous ignition and general degradation. Also disclosed are methods for making such pellets which involve crushing as mined lignite, mixing said lignite with a binder such as asphalt, forming the lignite binder mixture into pellets, and drying the pellets.

  4. Inorganic constituents in American lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M. E.; Jenkins, R. G.; Walker, P. L.

    1980-04-01

    Both the discrete mineral phases and the ion-exchangeable inorganic components of lignites from Texas, North Dakota, and Montana have been studied. The ion-exchangeable cations and the carboxyl groups with which they are associated were characterized by ion exchange methods utilizing ammonium acetate and barium acetate, respectively. Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba were found to be present in all three coals. It was found that Ca and Mg were the most abundant cations and that 40 to 60% of the carboxyl groups in the raw coals were exchanged with cations. Also, significant variations in the relative and absolute concentrations of all the cations were observed. The discrete mineral phases in these lignites were studied by semiquantitative x-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The importance of the cations in this analysis was shown when the mineralogical analyses of the low temperature ash of the coals with the cations removed and the raw coals were compared. Results show that up to 50% of the low temperature ash of these raw coals can be attributed to the existence of metal cations and that fixation of sulfur, carbon, and oxygen to form sulfates and carbonates is the major reason for this contribution.

  5. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  6. Haoma-Soma in the world of ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Wohlberg, J

    1990-01-01

    Evidence of the worship of (nonalcoholic) Haoma-Soma in Iran and India (identified by Wasson as Amanita muscaria) can be found in Greece and its neighboring lands. While Iranian and India peoples preserved their original worship in their final settlements, Indo-European tribes, including the Thracians, the Phrygians, and the Greeks, after settling in Europe and Asia Minor, abandoned their ancestral worship of Soma (Sabazios) and substituted the Semitic (alcoholic) Dionysos. However, they retained traces of the original Soma worship in Dionysiac rituals. This modified Dionysiac worship spread throughout the Western world. Six formal criteria are used to establish the identify of Soma with Dionysos (Sabazios): (1) both cults had the same aim (to cause ecstatic behavior); (2) both cults required the attainment of the same spiritual state (purity); (3) both cults had an idiosyncratic myth in common; (4) both cults showed the identical word root in the name of the worshipped god; (5) both cults had identical zoological and botanical associations with their god; and (6) the alcoholic god (Dionysos) was depicted as having the same physical effects on human beings as that of the ancient nonalcoholic god (Soma).

  7. Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: focus on soma to germline information transfer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhay

    2013-12-01

    In trangenerational epigenetic inheritance, phenotypic information not encoded in DNA sequence is transmitted across generations. In germline-dependent mode, memory of environmental exposure in parental generation is transmitted through gametes, leading to appearance of phenotypes in the unexposed future generations. The memory is considered to be encoded in epigenetic factors like DNA methylation, histone modifications and regulatory RNAs. Environmental exposure may cause epigenetic modifications in the germline either directly or indirectly through primarily affecting the soma. The latter possibility is most intriguing because it contradicts the established dogma that hereditary information flows only from germline to soma, not in reverse. As such, identification of the factor(s) mediating soma to germline information transfer in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance would be pathbreaking. Regulatory RNAs and hormone have previously been implicated or proposed to play a role in soma to germline communication in epigenetic inheritance. This review examines the recent examples of gametogenic transgenerational inheritance in plants and animals in order to assess if evidence of regulatory RNAs and hormones as mediators of information transfer is supported. Overall, direct evidence for both mobile regulatory RNAs and hormones is found to exist in plants. In animals, although involvement of mobile RNAs seems imminent, direct evidence of RNA-mediated soma to germline information transfer in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is yet to be obtained. Direct evidence is also lacking for hormones in animals. However, detailed examination of recently reported examples of transgenerational inheritance reveals circumstantial evidence supporting a role of hormones in information transmission.

  8. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D.

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  10. Thunder among the pines: defining a pan-Asian soma.

    PubMed

    Dannaway, Frederick

    2009-03-01

    Many ancient cultures and religions engaged in various techniques and used various substances to instigate religious experience and to alter perception. These techniques of psycho-sexual drug yoga reached an unparalleled level of sophistication that arose and was often cloaked in practical terms of alchemy and metallurgy. The Vedic tradition describes this plant-based ritualism as soma, which has been identified by Gordon Wasson as the mushroom Amanita muscaria. This article traces these soma-influenced sects of esoteric Buddhism that exerted influences from India, China and Tibet to Japan. Some of the key components, practices and symbolism are retained despite numerous cultural filters. Japan's tradition of esoteric Buddhism can thus be seen to have preserved and incorporated the soma/amrita mushroom lore into its own traditions of mountain ascetic mystics.

  11. Swelling of lignites in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    R.G. Makitra; D.V. Bryk

    2008-10-15

    Data on the swelling of Turkish lignites can be summarized using linear multiparameter equations that take into account various properties of solvents. Factors responsible for the amounts of absorbed solvents are the basicity and cohesion energy density of the solvents.

  12. A review of lignite resources of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason C.; Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter; S.J. Law,; Nichols, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    This review of the lignite resources of Arkansas is a part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) of the Gulf Coastal Plain Coal Province, which also includes coal-bearing areas in the states of Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky (see Ruppert et al., 2002; Dennen, 2009; and other chapters of this publication). Lignite mining is not planned in Arkansas in the immediate future, and the lignite resources of the state were not assessed in detail as part of the NCRA. This chapter includes reviews of the geology of the lignite-bearing units, historical mining, previous investigations of lignite resources, and coal quality. Palynological data for lignite samples collected in Arkansas as part of this work are presented in Table 1.The lignite-bearing stratigraphic units of Arkansas are part of the Mississippi Embayment of the Gulf Coastal Plain, a trough of Cretaceous through Quaternary sedimentary strata that plunge gently southward along an axis that generally is coincident with the course of the Mississippi River (Figure 1) (Cushing et al., 1964). The sedimentary strata of the Gulf Coastal Plain of Arkansas are, in general, flat-lying or gently dipping southeastward to eastward toward the embayment axis. Coal and lignite occur in Cretaceous through Tertiary strata of Arkansas and previously have been investigated in two principal regions within the State where units of these ages crop out: south-central Arkansas (West Gulf Coastal Plain) and Crowley’s Ridge in the northeastern part of the State (Figure 2).

  13. Neocortical Maturation during Adolescence: Change in Neuronal Soma Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowicz, Theodore; Petetot, Jean MacDonald-Comber; Khoury, Jane C.; de Courten-Myers, Gabrielle M.

    2009-01-01

    During adolescence, cognitive abilities increase robustly. To search for possible related structural alterations of the cerebral cortex, we measured neuronal soma dimension (NSD = width times height), cortical thickness and neuronal densities in different types of neocortex in post-mortem brains of five 12-16 and five 17-24 year-olds (each 2F,…

  14. Bit-array alignment effect of perpendicular SOMA media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peiying; Yuan, Zhimin; Kuan Lee, Hwee; Guo, Guoxiao

    2006-08-01

    One effective way to overcome the superparamagnetic limit of magnetic recording system is to reduce the grain number per bit at given signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level by using uniformed media grains. The self organized magnetic array (SOMA) is designed to have uniform grains with perfect grain array structure. It is believed that high enough SNR with small number of grains per bit can be acheived. But in the engineering application, the recorded bit on SOMA media may align with the regular array at different locations and angles due to non-grain synchronized writing, skew angle, and circular track. This induces the bit-array alignment effect and degrades system performance of SOMA media. In this paper, the micromagnetic simulation results show that the bit array alignment effect causes large level SNR fluctuation on the same media. The SOMA media is not preferred to be used in the conventional recording configuration. It is only suitable for the configuration of patterned media.

  15. Radiological investigation of lignite ash. The case of the West Macedonia Lignite Center (Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsikritzis, L.I.; Fotakis, M.; Tzimkas, N.; Tsikritzi, R.; Trikoilidou, E.; Kolovos, N.

    2009-07-01

    This article investigates the natural radioactivity of 26 ash samples, laboratory produced from lignite samples collected in the West Macedonia Lignite Center in Northern Greece. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and 232Th were measured by spectroscopy and found four to five times higher than those in the original lignite samples. The radionuclides transfer factors depend on the characteristics of the combustion process and were found higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, and 40K, because of their closer affinity with the inorganic fraction of the lignite. Compared with other results found in the published literature, the studied ash has relatively high content in radioactivity, but the resulting radiation dose from the radionuclide emissions in the West Macedonia Lignite Center do not contribute significantly to the total effective dose.

  16. Low-cost metal adsorbents from lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, C.L.; Lafferty, C.J.; Deibel, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    Current technologies to remove heavy metals from acidic waters tend to use lime and/or caustic soda to create a highly basic solution which causes the metals to precipitate as a metal hydroxide rich sludge which must then be disposed of as a waste. The proposed process would treat streams containing low levels of metal contaminants in a simple lignite bed to remove cationic heavy metal ions. For more acidic streams, the acidity of the water could first be moderately reduced with landfill sludge (Ca-sludge) followed by lignite treatment to remove and immobilize metals. This type of processing would need a conventional mixing settling tank configuration. Tests have been performed which indicate minus 14 mesh lignite has the highest capacity to remove metal ions from solution. One wt% of lignite reduced the zinc content of a lab solution from 95 ppm to 7 ppm (5 wt% reduced it to 0.5 ppm). The combination of 1 wt% lignite and 0.1 wt% Ca-sludge reduced the zinc content of a mine water sample from 36 to 10 ppm (0.5 wt% of Ca-sludge gave 2 ppm of Zinc) while increasing the solution pH from 3.84 to 7.20. These results indicate that optimum treatment rates would be between 1--2 wt% of lignite and 0.1 to 0.5 wt% of Ca-sludge. A lignite to Ca-sludge ratio of about 10 to 1 should be a sulfur emission compliant combustion fuel.

  17. Selective oil agglomeration of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Halime Abakay Temel; Volkan Bozkurt; Arun Kumar Majumder

    2009-01-15

    In this study, desulfurization and deashing of Adiyaman-Glbai lignite by the agglomeration method were studied. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of solid concentration, bridging liquid type and dosage, pH, and screen size on the agglomeration after desliming were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water (the Mediterranean Sea water, the Aegean Sea water, and the Black Sea water) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of sea waters and soda lake water in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the reduction of total sulfur content of agglomerates. In addition, the usage of NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3} in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the ash content reduction of the agglomerates. 27 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Combustion testing of San Miguel lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.L.; Goblirsch, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Results from pilot plant testing of the San Miguel lignite are: (1) The ash fouling furnace is an empirical tool which provides good information on relative fouling potential of various fuels. In the case of San Miguel lignite tests suggest a severe fouling problem is conventional boiler designs are employed. (2) No effect in either deposition rate or deposit strength was seen when MgO and CaCO/sub 3/ were used at additives. For these tests a single addition rate was utilizing two different injection points in the system. (3) No bed agglomeration was noted under the varied run conditions used in testing of this lignite fuel. (4) The atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) NO/sub x/ level emitted in the flue gas were always less than the NSPS limit of 0.6 lbs NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu. (5) Utilization of inherent alkali was less than that observed for North Dakota lignites. It was possible to meet NSPS standards of 90 percent sulfur capture using limestone addition. (6) Pulverized-coal combustion of San Miguel lignite resulted in a larger portion of <1 ..mu..m size particulates than has been noted in similar tests with the Arapahoe subbituminous coal and the Ledbetter Texas lignite. (7) The composition of particulates from P-C combustion of San Miguel lignite has a more varied composition than has been seen in testing with other types of coal. Use of lower grade fuels such as the lignite from the San Miguel mine is inevitable if we are to meet the expanding needs for energy in the United States today. To make use of these different fuels extensive testing on laboratory and pilot scales will be beneficial in avoiding major problems due to the different characteristics these materials possess. The present successful operation of a full scale boiler using the San Miguel lignite is a good example of the value pilot scale studies can have on the road to successful operation.

  19. Method to enhance the microbial liquefaction of lignite coals

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential use of microorganisms to liquefy low-ranked coals. Although a variety of fungal species are able to form liquid products from several types of lignite coals, only one naturally occurring lignite yet tested (a North Dakota lignite) has shown consistent susceptibility to rapid and extensive liquefaction. We have described a relatively simple method to enhance the susceptibility of more recalcitrant lignites and subbituminous coals to fungal liquefaction. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Removal of Gangue Minerals Containing Major Elements from Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl) Lignite Using a Reverse Flotation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Halime Abakay

    2015-12-01

    The removal of gangue minerals containing major elements was investigated using a reverse flotation method. Experiments were conducted on lignite samples, with high-ash and low-sulphur contents taken from a lignite field in Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl), Turkey. Predominant gangue minerals in the samples were found to be quartz, gypsum, feldspar minerals, mica minerals, and clays (smectite group). Preliminary flotation studies showed that gangue materials are more buoyant than the lignite sample. Some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of reverse flotation, such as grinding time, pH, collector type and volume, frother type and volume, and salt, were investigated. Quartz was found to cause a major problem in terms of reverse flotation. Flotation measurements showed that anionic collectors in an acidic medium result in the following element reduction order: sulphur trioxide > ferric oxide > magnesium oxide > calcium oxide > silicon dioxide > aluminium oxide.

  1. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-07-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types

  2. NAFTA opportunities: Bituminous coal and lignite mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) secures and improves market access in Mexico and Canada for the United States bituminous coal and lignite mining sector. Canada is one of the United States' largest export markets for bituminous coal and lignite, with exports of $486.7 million in 1992. Conversely, the Mexican market is one of the smallest export markets for U.S. producers with exports of $1.8 million in 1992. Together, however, Canada and Mexico represent approximately 15 percent of total U.S. coal exports. The report presents a sectoral analysis.

  3. Thermogravimetric investigation of hydrochar-lignite co-combustion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengang; Quek, Augustine; Kent Hoekman, S; Srinivasan, M P; Balasubramanian, R

    2012-11-01

    Co-combustion of hydrochar with lignite was investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis. Hydrochars were produced from coconut fibers and eucalyptus leaves under hydrothermal conditions at 250°C. The hydrochar was added in varying amounts to lignite for combustion. The results indicated that hydrothermal treatment decreased the volatile matter content and increased the fixed carbon content of the biomaterials. The elevated energy density and decreased ash content of the hydrochar improved its combustion behavior when co-fired with lignite for energy production. The hydrochars derived from coconut fiber and eucalyptus leaves had similar chemical compositions and showed similar influences on lignite combustion. Hydrochar addition increased the burnout and shortened the combustion range of the hydrochar-lignite blends. High combustion efficiency was observed due to the synergistic interactions between hydrochar and lignite during the co-combustion process. A kinetic study showed that the combustion process of hydrochar-lignite blends followed first-order reaction rates.

  4. Statistical tests for prediction of lignite quality

    SciTech Connect

    C.J. Kolovos

    2007-06-15

    Domestic lignite from large, bucket wheel excavators based open pit mines is the main fuel for electricity generation in Greece. Lignite from one or more mines may arrive at any power plant stockyard. The mixture obtained constitutes the lignite fuel fed to the power plant. The fuel is sampled in regular time intervals. These samples are considered as results of observations of values of spatial random variables. The aim was to form and statistically test many small sample populations. Statistical tests on the values of the humidity content, the ash-water free content, and the lower heating value of the lignite fuel indicated that the sample values form a normal population. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied for testing goodness-of-fit of sample distribution for a three year period and different power plants of the Kozani-Ptolemais area, western Macedonia, Greece. The normal distribution hypothesis can be widely accepted for forecasting the distribution of values of the basic quality characteristics even for a small number of samples.

  5. Comparative studies of Eocene silicified peat and lignite: transition between peat and lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, F.T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Silicified Eocene peats with excellent preserved cellular structures were found in lignite beds in western North Dakota and were comparatively studied. The well preserved plant tissues resemble that of modern Taxodium peat. The most striking difference between silicified peat and lignite is the disappearance of cell cavities when peat is transformed to lignite, a phenomenon caused primarily by compaction rather than cell wall swelling through humification or gelification. The differences between textinite and ulminite can be traced back to the differences between early wood and late wood of the secondary xylem. What appear to be cutinites in lignite are compressed cortex tissues of young plants. Silicified leaf and cortex tissues contain more visible fluorinite exhibiting brilliant fluorescence. Clustering phloem fibers or stone cells give rise to a material resembling resinite but are more akin to huminite A and/or suberinite. They converge to vitrinite when vitrinite reflectance exceeds 0.6%. Alternating banded phloem fibers and phloem parenchyma give rise to alternating layers of huminite A and huminite B. True micrinite does occur in lignite but in limited quantities.

  6. (Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms)

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) characterize selected aerobic bacterial strains for their abilities to depolymerize lignite coal polymers, and isolate and identify the extracellular enzymes responsible for depolymerization of the coal; (2) characterize selected strictly anaerobic bacteria, that were previously shown to reductively transform coal substructure model compounds, for the ability to similarly transform polymeric coal; and (3) isolate more strains of anaerobic bacteria by enrichment using additional coal substructure model compounds and coal as substrates.

  7. Method for increased mine recovery and upgrading of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.E.; Pearce, T.A.; Laird, D.C. III; Everitt, J.H.

    1986-10-28

    A process is described for upgrading lignite ores to remove a substantial proportion of the non-combustible ash content associated with the lignite which comprises: (1) sizing by crushing to a maximum top size of less than about 6 inches in two directions (axis's) (2) separating the clay and/or rock (gangue) which are discarded and lignite from each other in a float-sink gravity separator, (3) directing the float containing the lignite and some small particles of clay to a screen deck to size the float into at least three portions, (4) washing the first two screen proportions to free them of clays, (5) collecting the third portion consisting of fines and water as an underflow from the deck, (6) treating the underflow in a hydrocyclone to recover a substantial quantity of the lignite associated with some clays as the overflow and an aqueous stream containing the remainder of the clays and some lignite as the underflow and discarding. (7) treating overflow to effectuate a size separation of the lignite substantially free of clays as underflow and the clays with some fine lignites as the overflow. (8) seive bend dewatering and washing and drying the underflow and combining the resultant product with the +28 mesh lignite product, (9) flocculating (clarifier-thickener) the refuse from the seive bend and the overflow from (7) to about 35% solids, (10) further concentrating the refuse, as by filtration, to a discardable solid.

  8. Reconnaissance for uranium-bearing lignite in the Ekalaka Lignite Field, Carter County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, James R.

    1954-01-01

    Uranium-bearing lignite beds 1.5 to 8 feet thick occur in the Fort Union formation of the southern part of the Ekalaka Hills, Carter County, Mont. Data from surface outcrops indicate that an area of about 1,400 acres is underlain by 16,500,000 tons of uranium-bearing lignite containing 700 tons of uranium. The uranium content of the lignite beds ranges from 0.001 to 0.034 percent. Ironstone concretions in the massive coarse-grained sandstones in the upper part of the Fort Union formation contain 0.005 percent uranium in the northern and eastern parts of the area. These sandstones are good potential host rocks for uranium mineralization and are lithologically similar to the massive coarse-grained uranium-bearing sandstones of the Wasatch formation in the Pumpkin Buttes area of the Powder River Basin.

  9. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Depolymerization of lignite is being investigated. Research objectives include: isolate and characterize microbial strains that carry out chemical transformations of lignite coal that would cause its depolymerization, reduction, and/or liquefaction; characterize desirable reactions by growing selected of the microbial isolates on coal model compounds, and determine if the reactions occur when the microbial strains are growing on coal; and characterize several newly isolated coal-depolymerizing bacteria to determine their mechanisms of coal depolymerization, and utilize the depolymerized coal as a substrate for the isolation of additional strictly anaerobic bacteria that reductively transform the depolymerized coal. Since the last report we have made a significant breakthrough in our characterizations of the coal depolymerization mechanism. Not only have we characterized several additional bacterial strains that are superior to P. cepacia DLC-07 in their coal depolymerization abilities, but we have confirmed that depolymerization is catalyzed by a highly active extracellular enzymatic activity in several Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium strains. Our breakthrough discovery of a coal-depolymerizing enzyme system opens the way for elucidating the mechanism by which bacteria attack the macromolecular structure of lignite coals. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Migrating Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Swell Prior to Soma Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Happel, Patrick; Möller, Kerstin; Schwering, Nina K.; Dietzel, Irmgard D.

    2013-01-01

    The migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the white matter is an indispensable requirement for an intact brain function. The mechanism of cell migration in general is not yet completely understood. Nevertheless, evidence is accumulating that besides the coordinated rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, a finetuned interplay of ion and water fluxes across the cell membrane is essential for cell migration. One part of a general hypothesis is that a local volume increase towards the direction of movement triggers a mechano-activated calcium influx that regulates various procedures at the rear end of a migrating cell. Here, we investigated cell volume changes of migrating OPCs using scanning ion conductance microscopy. We found that during accelerated migration OPCs undergo an increase in the frontal cell body volume. These findings are supplemented with time lapse calcium imaging data that hint an increase in calcium content the frontal part of the cell soma. PMID:23657670

  11. Using PARSEL Modules to Contextualizing the States-of-Matter Approach (SOMA) to Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    SOMA (States-Of-Matter Approach) is an introductory chemistry program for all students in the tenth or eleventh grade (age 16-17), which introduces chemistry through the separate study of the three states of matter. SOMA is basically a formalistic approach. In this paper, we discuss the use of PARSEL modules in providing a teaching approach to…

  12. Depositional environments of some Tertiary lignites from Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzler, R.Q.

    1985-01-01

    Petrographic, chemical, stratigraphic, and palynologic methods were used to reconstruct the depositional environments of some Paleocene-Eocene lignites from the Nanafalia Formation (Wilcox Group) and Naheola Formation (Midway Group) of Alabama. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the thin lignite seams of the Naheola Formation were formed in deltaic settings; whereas,the thicker Nanafalia lignites were formed in stream channels and sinkholes developed on an eroded limestone surface. Lignites from both areas have high sulfur contents; however, the Naheola lignites have high levels of both organic and pyritic sulfur and the Nanafalia lignites have high levels or organic sulfur only. This suggests that iron was less available to the limestone-associated Nanafalia peat swamps than to the deltaic Naheola swamps. The Naheola lignites are composed primarily of banded lithotypes dominated by the huminite macerals gelinite, ulminite, and humodetrinite. Palynologic evidence suggests that the swamp flora that formed these coals contained Corylus, ferns, and palms with ferns being most common in the Naheola swamps and palms being most common in the Nanafalia. In general, differences in petrographic, chemical, and palynologic composition between the Naheola and Nanafalia lignites can readily be explained by differences in the original depositional conditions under which these deposits were formed.

  13. Cretaceous and Eocene lignite deposits, Jackson Purchase, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Rich, F.J.; Williams, D.A.; Bland, A.E.; Fiene, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    Lignites occur in the Cretaceous McNairy Formation and the Eocene Claiborne Formation in the Jackson Purchase region of western Kentucky. The lone Cretaceous lignite sample has over 18 percent inertodetrinite and 32 percent humodetrinite which, along with the abundant mineral matter, suggests a possible allochthonous origin for the deposit. The Claiborne Formation lignites have higher humic maceral contents than the Cretaceous lignites. Palynology suggests that there was considerable variation in the plant communities responsible for the Claiborne deposits. Differences in the preservation of the various plants is also seen in the variations between the humic types, particularly in the ulminite and humodetrinite contents. Potter and Dilcher (1980) suggested that the Claiborne lignites in the Jackson Purchase and west Tennessee developed in the abandoned oxbows of Eocene rivers. Significant short-distance changes in the peat thickness, flora, and other depositional elements should be expected in such an environment and could easily account for the observed variations in composition. ?? 1990.

  14. Characterization of microbes which polymerize and depolymerize lignite coals

    SciTech Connect

    Polman, J.K.; Breckenridge, C.R.; Quigley, D.R.

    1991-12-01

    Several bacteria were tested for their ability to modify the macromolecular structure of different coals. When grown in the presence of Mississippi Wilcox lignite, North Dakota Beulah Zap lignite, and North Dakota lenoardite, strain Con5-1L produces polymerization products that are derived from coal. This bacterium was characterized extensively with respect to physiology and morphology and may be a member of the genus Arthrobacter. Strain UPLCPS2-B, which was identified as Pseudomonas chlororaphis, may be capable of limited depolymerization of Mississippi Wilcox lignite and leonardite, but not Beulah Zap lignite. Fermentative strain Con5-5C, which may extensively depolymerize Mississippi Wilcox lignite, was characterized according to morphology and physiology. Other strains tested had little or no effect on coal macromolecular structure. These included Escherichia coli, Arthrobacter paraffineus, and strain BED1. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Characterization of microbes which polymerize and depolymerize lignite coals

    SciTech Connect

    Polman, J.K.; Breckenridge, C.R.; Quigley, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Several bacteria were tested for their ability to modify the macromolecular structure of different coals. When grown in the presence of Mississippi Wilcox lignite, North Dakota Beulah Zap lignite, and North Dakota lenoardite, strain Con5-1L produces polymerization products that are derived from coal. This bacterium was characterized extensively with respect to physiology and morphology and may be a member of the genus Arthrobacter. Strain UPLCPS2-B, which was identified as Pseudomonas chlororaphis, may be capable of limited depolymerization of Mississippi Wilcox lignite and leonardite, but not Beulah Zap lignite. Fermentative strain Con5-5C, which may extensively depolymerize Mississippi Wilcox lignite, was characterized according to morphology and physiology. Other strains tested had little or no effect on coal macromolecular structure. These included Escherichia coli, Arthrobacter paraffineus, and strain BED1. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Neocortical maturation during adolescence: change in neuronal soma dimension.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, Theodore; Petetot, Jean Macdonald-Comber; Khoury, Jane C; de Courten-Myers, Gabrielle M

    2009-03-01

    During adolescence, cognitive abilities increase robustly. To search for possible related structural alterations of the cerebral cortex, we measured neuronal soma dimension (NSD = width times height), cortical thickness and neuronal densities in different types of neocortex in post-mortem brains of five 12-16 and five 17-24 year-olds (each 2F, 3M). Using a generalized mixed model analysis, mean normalized NSD comparing the age groups shows layer-specific change for layer 2 (p < .0001) and age-related differences between categorized type of cortex: primary/primary association cortex (BA 1, 3, 4, and 44) shows a generalized increase; higher-order regions (BA 9, 21, 39, and 45) also show increase in layers 2 and 5 but decrease in layers 3, 4, and 6 while limbic/orbital cortex (BA 23, 24, and 47) undergoes minor decrease (BA 1, 3, 4, and 44 vs. BA 9, 21, 39, and 45: p = .036 and BA 1, 3, 4, and 44 vs. BA 23, 24, and 47: p = .004). These data imply the operation of cortical layer- and type-specific processes of growth and regression adding new evidence that the human brain matures during adolescence not only functionally but also structurally.

  17. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    A major goal of this project is to isolate unique microbial strains that catalyze a variety of biochemical transformations of low molecular weight coal substructure model compounds and then to determine if these strains will carry out similar reactions with coal. We have several enrichments underway using suitable model compounds such as pyrogallol (2,3-dihydroxyphenol) and gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) to isolate organisms that reductively dehydroxylate phenolic hydroxyl groups. We are also using various naphthoquinone and antrhaquinone dyes as substrates in isolation procedures. The most promising results so far are with hydroxynaphthoquinone. The purple non-sulfur bacteria belonging to the genus Rhodobacter are also of interest to us because some of them degrade numerous aromatic compounds by way of reductive pathways. In addition, Rhodobacter species are not sensitive to air. Thus far, enrichment cultures with benzoate have yielded two isolates. Lowering the carboxyl content of lignite coal has been suggested as one means of improving its fuel value. We have isolated a bacterium from soil, tentatively identified as a Bacillus species, that nonoxidatively decarboxylates vanillic acid to guaicol. This bacterium also decarboxylated p-hydroxycinnimates to p-hydroxystyrenes. We are now attempting to get measurable decarboxylation of base-solubilized Vermont lignite coal using this organism. 1 tab.

  18. Future of lignite resources: a life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingsong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xueliang; Zheng, Xiaoning; Zuo, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Lignite is a low-quality energy source which accounts for 13 % of China's coal reserves. It is imperative to improve the quality of lignite for large-scale utilization. To further explore and analyze the influence of various key processes on the environment and economic costs, a lignite drying and compression technology is evaluated using an integrated approach of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs. Results showed that lignite mining, direct air emissions, and electricity consumption have most significant impacts on the environment. An integrated evaluation of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs showed that the most significant contributor to the environmental impacts and economic costs was the lignite mining process. The impact of transportation and wastewater treatment process on the environment and economic costs was small enough to be ignored. Critical factors were identified for reducing the environmental and economic impacts of lignite drying and compression technology. These findings provide useful inputs for both industrial practice and policy making for exploitation, processing, and utilization of lignite resources.

  19. Nitrogen incorporation into lignite humic acids during microbial degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, L.H.; Yuan, H.L.

    2009-07-01

    Previous study showed that nitrogen content in lignite humic acids (HA) increased significantly during lignite biodegradation. In this paper we evaluated the factors responsible for the increased level of N in HA and the formation of new nitrogen compound following microbial degradation. When the ammonium sulfate concentration in lignite medium was 0.5%, the N-content in HA was higher than that in the crude lignite humic acid (cHA); when the ammonium sulfate concentration was epsilon 0.5%, both the biodegraded humic acid (bHA) N-content and the content of bHA in lignite increased significantly, but at 2.0% no increase was observed. This indicated that HA incorporated N existing in the lignite medium, and more HA can incorporate more N with the increase of bHA amount in lignite during microbial degradation. CP/MAS {sup 15}N NMR analysis showed that the N incorporated into HA during biotransformation was in the form of free or ionized NH{sub 2}-groups in amino acids and sugars, as well as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. We propose nitrogen can be incorporated into HA biotically and abiotically. The high N content bHA has a potential application in agriculture since N is essential for plant growth.

  20. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M.; Ljubicic, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  1. Briquettability of lignite and woody wastes composite fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Beker, U.G.

    2000-03-01

    Woody wastes have favorable burning characteristics compared to lignite, as well as low ash content and reduced smoke emission. The aim of this study was to blend lignite with woody wastes to obtain a solid fuel that retains the advantageous characteristics of woody materials. Blends with lignite were made up with 7, 9, 12, 15, and 20% of waste and then briquetted under pressures of 400, 550, 700, and 800 MPa. Sunflower shell, sawdust, and paper mill wastes were used in different amounts with molasses as binder. Studies were carried out on a laboratory scale to determine optimum parameters for briquetting, such as moisture content of lignite and pressure. Briquetting of lignite without waste materials produces products of low strength. The strongest briquettes were obtained with waste contents of 12--20% and lignite moisture contents of 10--12% at briquetting pressures of 550, 700, and 800 MPa. Briquettes with adequate mechanical strength are obtained from lignite-waste blends with the addition of 8% molasses.

  2. Appraising lignite quality parameters by linguistic fuzzy identification

    SciTech Connect

    Tutmez, B.

    2007-03-15

    Lignite quality parameters have had central importance for power plants. This article addresses a comparative study on fuzzy and regression modeling for estimating the calorific value of lignite, which is one of the quality parameters from the other parameters: moisture, ash, volatile matter, and sulphur content. For the estimations, data driven models were designed based on linguistic fuzzy modeling structures. In addition, estimations of the fuzzy models were compared with linear regression estimations. The great majority of performance evaluations showed that the fuzzy estimations are very satisfactory in estimating calorific value of lignite.

  3. Use of fuzzy logic in lignite inventory estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Tutmez, B.; Dag, A.

    2007-07-01

    Seam thickness is one of the most important parameters for reserve estimation of a lignite deposit. This paper addresses a case study on fuzzy estimation of lignite seam thickness from spatial coordinates. From the relationships between input (Cartesian coordinates) and output (thickness) parameters, fuzzy clustering and a fuzzy rule-based inference system were designed. Data-driven fuzzy model parameters were derived from numerical values directly. In addition, estimations of the fuzzy model were compared with kriging estimations. It was concluded that the performance ofthe fuzzy model was more satisfactory. The results indicated that the fuzzy modeling approach is very reliable for the estimation of lignite reserves.

  4. Yugoslavia looks to lignite gasification in the future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Lignite in Yugoslavia is used to produce electricity, city gas for use by steel works and other industrial plants, and dried coal. The Fleissner process is used to obtain dry lump lignite, but it does have thermal and technological shortcomings. The Lurgi process using a mixture of oxygen and steam is used to produce grid gas and ammonia. It is a costly process which research is attempting to improve. Research is also being carried out on semi-coke and briquette production, fluidized bed combustion, and more efficient gasification processes for lignite.

  5. Early evolution of the genetic basis for soma in the volvocaceae.

    PubMed

    Hanschen, Erik R; Ferris, Patrick J; Michod, Richard E

    2014-07-01

    To understand the hierarchy of life in evolutionary terms, we must explain why groups of one kind of individual, say cells, evolve into a new higher level individual, a multicellular organism. A fundamental step in this process is the division of labor into nonreproductive altruistic soma. The regA gene is critical for somatic differentiation in Volvox carteri, a multicellular species of volvocine algae. We report the sequence of regA-like genes and several syntenic markers from divergent species of Volvox. We show that regA evolved early in the volvocines and predict that lineages with and without soma descended from a regA-containing ancestor. We hypothesize an alternate evolutionary history of regA than the prevailing "proto-regA" hypothesis. The variation in presence of soma may be explained by multiple lineages independently evolving soma utilizing regA or alternate genetic pathways. Our prediction that the genetic basis for soma exists in species without somatic cells raises a number of questions, most fundamentally, under what conditions would species with the genetic potential for soma, and hence greater individuality, not evolve these traits. We conclude that the evolution of individuality in the volvocine algae is more complicated and labile than previously appreciated on theoretical grounds.

  6. Revisiting Wasson's Soma: exploring the effects of preparation on the chemistry of Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    In 1968 R. Gordon Wasson first proposed his groundbreaking theory identifying Soma, the hallucinogenic sacrament of the Vedas, as the Amanita muscaria mushroom. While Wasson's theory has garnered acclaim, it is not without its faults. One omission in Wasson's theory is his failure to explain how pressing and filtering Soma, as described in the Rig Veda, supports his theory of Soma's identity. Several critics have reasoned that such preparation should be unnecessary if equivalent results can be obtained by consuming the raw plant, as is done with other psychoactive mushrooms. In order to address these specific criticisms over 600 anecdotal accounts of Amanita muscaria inebriation were collected and analyzed to determine the impact of preparation on Amanita muscaria's effects. The findings of this study demonstrated that the effects of Amanita muscaria were related to the type of preparation employed, and that its toxic effects were considerably reduced by preparations that paralleled those described for Soma in the Rig Veda. While unlikely to end debate over the identity of Soma, this study's findings help to solidify the foundation of Wasson's theory, and also to demonstrate the importance of preparation in understanding and uncovering the true identity of Soma.

  7. Alternative strategies for the development of Texas lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, E.R.; Russell, J.E.

    1983-03-01

    Currently, the strip mining rate is about 35 million tons per year in Texas and essentially zero in the other Gulf Coast states. Estimates of future mining rates are as high as 310 million tons per year by the year 2000 with 240 being in Texas. In this paper, the authors examine the life cycle of the surface mineable lignite based on the most recent estimates of surface mine recoverable resources with two scenarios. The first indicates that a 310 million tpy rate could be sustained for only 15 years while the second scenario suggests that the 310 million tpy could be sustained for 25 to 30 years. If lignite resources are required beyond those that are surface mineable, the deep basin lignite will be developed. Five strategies for developing deep basin lignite are discussed.

  8. Effect of mechanical dispersion of lignite on its thermal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yusupov, T.S.; Shumskaya, L.G.; Burdukov, A.P.

    2007-09-15

    It is studied how the high-rate mechanical grinding affects thermal decomposition of lignite extracted from the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin. It has been shown that dispersion of lignite in the high energy intensive vibration-centrifugal and planetary mills causes formation of structures exhibiting lower thermal stability. That results in the shift of primary decomposition phenomena into the low-temperature region and, thus, in the higher reactivity of coals.

  9. An overview of lithotype associations of Miocene lignite seams exploited in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widera, Marek

    2016-09-01

    Currently, three stratigraphically distinct lignite seams of Early to Middle Miocene age are exploited in Poland, namely the third Ścinawa lignite seam (ŚLS-3), the second Lusatian lignite seam (LLS-2) and the first Mid-Polish lignite seam (MPLS-1). All of these are composed of numerous macroscopically distinguishable layers defined as lignite lithotypes. In the present paper, the lithotypes of Polish lignites are grouped into seven major lithotype associations that originated in various types of mire. Therefore, an approximate reconstruction of mire type can be based on lignite lithotypes. Within the Polish lignite seams examined, the commonest in order of importance are: xylodetritic (XDL), detroxylitic (DXL), detritic (DL) and xylitic (XL) lithotype associations, mostly with a massive (m) or horizontal (h) structure. They are particularly dominant in lignite opencasts belonging to the Konin and Adamów mines. However, in the lowermost seams at the Turów and Bełchatów mines, a substantial part of the seams comprises the bitumen-rich (BL) lithotype association. These seams also lignite lithotypes that in large quantities have a gelified (g) and/or nodular (n) structure. In contrast, lignites from the Sieniawa mine are characterised by an admixture of the best-developed lithotype associations of both fusitic (FL) and weathered (WL) lignites. Moreover, the vast majority of these lignites have a folded (fo) and/or faulted (fa) structure, because they were completely deformed by glaciotectonics.

  10. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  11. Study on Combustion Characteristics of Lignite in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, J.; Zou, T. S.; Wu, J. X.; Jiang, C.; Gao, J. L.; Wu, J.; Su, D.; Song, D. Y.

    The shortage of coal promotes the lignite utility in power plant because of the rapid economy development recently. However, lignite is high in moisture content as well as volatile content and low in calorific value. It is very difficult to burn in traditional pulverized coal fired boiler. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is an alternative with low pollutant emission. Some CFB boilers are built and put into commercial operation in Northeast China and East Inner Mongolia where lignite is abundant. The operation experiences of these boilers are introduced in this paper. The effect of coal particle size on bottom ash ratio, combustion efficiency, thermal efficiency, pollution emission, and ash deposits in convective heating surface were investigated. It was found that for the lignite fired CFB boiler, the largest coal particle size should be 20 to 40mm to maintain bed material balance. But the bottom ash only shares less than 10% of the total ash. Due to high volatile content in the lignite, the combustion efficiency could achieve more than 99%. Meanwhile, NOx emission was relative low and satisfied national environment protection requirement. It is suggested that flue gas velocity in convective heating surface should be ranged in a certain scope to prevent ash deposit and erosion.

  12. Stratigraphic framework and distribution of lignite on Crowleys Ridge, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meissner, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish a stratigraphic framework of lignite beds and associated strata of Crowleys Ridge, Arkansas. Drill hole data provided by the Arkansas Geological Commission is used in the synthesis and interpretation. Areas containing lignite of potential resource value are also delineated. To illustrate the regional stratigraphic framework of Crowleys Ridge, a cross section was constructed from logs of selected oil and gas test wells, along or adjacent to the north-south trending ridge over a distance of about 115 miles. This section reveals that lignite-bearing Tertiary formations dip gently southward along the ridge. The Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox Group forms the bedrock in the northern part of the ridge and successively younger bedrock of the Eocene Claiborne and Jackson Groups is identified in the central and southern part of the ridge. Crowleys Ridge is mantled with alluvium and loess of Quaternary age, and sand and gravel beds of the Lafayette Formation of Pliocene (?) age that unconformably overlie the Paleocene and Eocene rocks. The thickness of lignite-bearing sedimentary deposits ranges from 830 feet in the north to 2,480 feet in the south. The Wilcox, Claiborne, and Jackson Groups of Paleocene and Eocene age are believed to be fluvial-deltaic in origin. The detailed vertical and horizontal stratigraphic characteristics and distribution of lignite beds in the sediments were determined by constructing seven cross sections from lithologic and geophysical logs of the lignite investigations on Crowleys Ridge by the Arkansas Geological Commission and private companies. Correlation and interpretation of the lignite-bearing strata reveal ten lignite beds of resource potential. These lignite beds range from a few inches to 9.5 ft in thickness and are assigned to stratigraphic intervals that are designated as zone 1 through 7. Zone 1 is near the middle of the Wilcox Group and zone 7 is near the middle of the overlying Claiborne Group. Some

  13. Co-liquefaction Behaviour of Elbistan Lignite and Olive Bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karta, Mesut; Depci, Tolga; Karaca, Huseyin; Onal, Mehmet; Coskun, M. Ali

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, co-liquefaction potential of Elbistan lignite and Balikesir olive bagasse were investigated by direct coal liquefaction process. The olive bagasse is a cheap and abundant biomass, so it is used to decrease the cost of oil production from the lignite. The effect of blending ratio of the lignite and the olive bagasse on liquefaction conversion and oil yield were investigated. Characterization studies of the starting materials were done using XRD, FTIR, DTA/TG and elemental analysis. Elemental compositions of liquefaction products were also determined and the composition of the obtained oil was identified by GC/MS. DTA and TGA results indicated the synergistic effect of the lignite and the olive bagasse and maximum oil conversion (36 %) was obtained from 1:3 blending ratio of lignite: olive bagasse. The results showed that the obtained oil was paraffinic-low waxy oil with 22.5 MJ/kg of calorific value and 95 g/cm3 density.

  14. Power laws from linear neuronal cable theory: power spectral densities of the soma potential, soma membrane current and single-neuron contribution to the EEG.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Klas H; Lindén, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Tom; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2014-11-01

    Power laws, that is, power spectral densities (PSDs) exhibiting 1/f(α) behavior for large frequencies f, have been observed both in microscopic (neural membrane potentials and currents) and macroscopic (electroencephalography; EEG) recordings. While complex network behavior has been suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general expressions for the PSD transfer functions for a set of measures of neuronal activity: the soma membrane current, the current-dipole moment (corresponding to the single-neuron EEG contribution), and the soma membrane potential. These PSD transfer functions relate the PSDs of the respective measurements to the PSDs of the noisy input currents. With homogeneously distributed input currents across the neuronal membrane we find that all PSD transfer functions express asymptotic high-frequency 1/f(α) power laws with power-law exponents analytically identified as α∞(I) = 1/2 for the soma membrane current, α∞(p) = 3/2 for the current-dipole moment, and α∞(V) = 2 for the soma membrane potential. Comparison with available data suggests that the apparent power laws observed in the high-frequency end of the PSD spectra may stem from uncorrelated current sources which are homogeneously distributed across the neural membranes and themselves exhibit pink (1/f) noise distributions. While the PSD noise spectra at low frequencies may be dominated by synaptic noise, our findings suggest that the high-frequency power laws may originate in noise from intrinsic ion channels. The significance of this finding goes beyond neuroscience as it demonstrates how 1/f(α) power laws with a wide range of values for the power-law exponent α may arise from a simple, linear partial differential equation.

  15. Power Laws from Linear Neuronal Cable Theory: Power Spectral Densities of the Soma Potential, Soma Membrane Current and Single-Neuron Contribution to the EEG

    PubMed Central

    Pettersen, Klas H.; Lindén, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Tom; Einevoll, Gaute T.

    2014-01-01

    Power laws, that is, power spectral densities (PSDs) exhibiting behavior for large frequencies f, have been observed both in microscopic (neural membrane potentials and currents) and macroscopic (electroencephalography; EEG) recordings. While complex network behavior has been suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general expressions for the PSD transfer functions for a set of measures of neuronal activity: the soma membrane current, the current-dipole moment (corresponding to the single-neuron EEG contribution), and the soma membrane potential. These PSD transfer functions relate the PSDs of the respective measurements to the PSDs of the noisy input currents. With homogeneously distributed input currents across the neuronal membrane we find that all PSD transfer functions express asymptotic high-frequency power laws with power-law exponents analytically identified as for the soma membrane current, for the current-dipole moment, and for the soma membrane potential. Comparison with available data suggests that the apparent power laws observed in the high-frequency end of the PSD spectra may stem from uncorrelated current sources which are homogeneously distributed across the neural membranes and themselves exhibit pink () noise distributions. While the PSD noise spectra at low frequencies may be dominated by synaptic noise, our findings suggest that the high-frequency power laws may originate in noise from intrinsic ion channels. The significance of this finding goes beyond neuroscience as it demonstrates how power laws with a wide range of values for the power-law exponent α may arise from a simple, linear partial differential equation. PMID:25393030

  16. Preventing ash agglomeration during gasification of high-sodium lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Dahlin; Johnny R. Dorminey; WanWang Peng; Roxann F. Leonard; Pannalal Vimalchand

    2009-01-15

    Various additives were evaluated to assess their ability to prevent ash agglomeration during the gasification of high-sodium lignite. Additives that showed promise in simple muffle furnace tests included meta-kaolin, vermiculite, two types of silica fume, and one type of bauxite. Additives that were tested and rejected included dolomite, calcite, sand flour, kaolinite, fine kaolin, and calcined bauxite. Based on the muffle furnace test results, the meta-kaolin was selected for a follow-on demonstration in a pilot-scale coal gasifier. Pilot-scale testing showed that the addition of coarse (minus 14-mesh, 920-{mu}m mean size) meta-kaolin at a feed rate roughly equivalent to the ash content of the lignite (10 wt %) successfully prevented agglomeration and deposition problems during gasification of high-sodium lignite at a maximum operating temperature of 927{sup o}C (1700{sup o}F). 13 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Luengo-Sanchez, Sergio; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by neuroanatomists to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons similarly to how a neuroanatomist does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species.

  18. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models

    PubMed Central

    Luengo-Sanchez, Sergio; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by neuroanatomists to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons similarly to how a neuroanatomist does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species. PMID:26578898

  19. Self-diffusion of lignite/water under different temperatures and pressure: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinjian; Jin, Yu; Huang, Congliang; He, Jingfeng; Rao, Zhonghao; Zhao, Yuemin

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and pressure have direct and remarkable implications for drying and dewatering effect of low rank coals such as lignite. To understand the microenergy change mechanism of lignite, the molecular dynamics simulation method was performed to study the self-diffusion of lignite/water under different temperatures and pressure. The results showed that high temperature and high pressure can promote the diffusion of lignite/water system, which facilitates the drying and dewatering of lignite. The volume and density of lignite/water system will increase and decrease with temperature increasing, respectively. Though the pressure within simulation range can make lignite density increase, the increasing pressure showed a weak impact on variation of density.

  20. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  1. Sulfate Reduction at a Lignite Seam: Microbial Abundance and Activity.

    PubMed

    Detmers, J.; Schulte, U.; Strauss, H.; Kuever, J.

    2001-10-01

    In a combined isotope geochemical and microbiological investigation, a setting of multiple aquifers was characterized. Biologically mediated redox processes were observed in the aquifers situated in marine sands of Tertiary age and overlying Quaternary gravel deposits. Intercalated lignite seams define the aquitards, which separate the aquifers. Bacterial oxidation of organic matter is evident from dissolved inorganic carbon characterized by average carbon isotope values between ?18.4 per thousand and ?15.7 per thousand (PDB). Strongly positive sulfur isotope values of up to +50 per thousand (CTD) for residual sulfate indicate sulfate reduction under closed system conditions with respect to sulfate availability. Both, hydrochemical and isotope data are thus consistent with the recent activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Microbiological investigations revealed the presence of an anaerobic food chain in the aquifers. Most-probable-number (MPN) determinations for SRB and fermenting microorganisms reached highest values at the interface between aquifer and lignite seam (1.5 x 103 cells/g sediment dry mass). Five strains of SRB were isolated from highest MPN dilutions. Spore-forming bacteria appeared to dominate the SRB population. Sulfate reduction rates were determined by the 35S-radiotracer method. A detailed assessment indicates an increase in the reduction rate in proximity to the lignite seam, with a maximum turnover of 8.4 mM sulfate/a, suggesting that lignite-drived compounds represent the substrate for sulfate reduction.

  2. Assessment of Lignite Quality Variables: A Practical Approach with Sequential Gaussian Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ersoy, A.; Yunsel, T.Y.

    2009-07-01

    Traditional mine planning methods based on block models built with interpolation techniques such as inverse distance and kriging are inadequate in assessing the uncertainty associated with the technological parameters of coal deposit variables, which are modeled for short-range mine planning because of smoothing effects. However, simulation methods aim at reproducing in situ quality variability and spatial continuity of the attributes of interest. This study outlines the spatial distribution and uncertainty of quality variables at the Tufanbeyli (Adana-Turkey) lignite deposit using a probabilistic approach. A practical approach was based on geostatistical sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) used to yield a series of conditional images characterized by equally probable spatial distributions of the quality parameters across the deposit. Post processing of many simulations allowed the mapping of maximum/minimum limits for quality values and provided a model for the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of the quality parameters. SGS was validated by a number of tests such as descriptive statistics, histogram, and variogram reproductions. The advantages of SGS were practically illustrated through the case study. The simulated models can be incorporated into mine planning and scheduling.

  3. The indissociable unity of psyche and soma: a view from the Paris Psychosomatic School.

    PubMed

    Aisenstein, Marilia

    2006-06-01

    Depending on whether or not psyche/soma is seen as singular or dual, one may construct different systems explaining man and the world, life and death. In the author's view, the discoveries of psychoanalysis offer a perfectly cogent and unique solution to the famous mind/body problem. In transferring the duality psyche/soma on to the duality of drives, psychoanalysis places the origin of the thought process in the body. In Beyond the pleasure principle, Freud discusses the drastic effect of a painful somatic illness on the distribution and modalities of the libido. He provides a starting point for the Paris Psychosomatic School's psychoanalytical approach to patients afflicted with somatic illnesses. To illustrate the technical implications of this theory the author relates two clinical cases.

  4. Succinate dehydrogenase activity and soma size of motoneurons innervating different portions of the rat tibialis anterior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, A.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution, soma size and oxidative enzyme activity of gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating muscle fibres in the deep (away from the surface of the muscle) and superficial (close to the surface of the muscle) portions of the tibialis anterior in normal rats were determined. The deep portion had a higher percentage of high oxidative fibres than the superficial portion of the muscle. Motoneurons were labelled by retrograde neuronal transport of fluorescent tracers: Fast Blue and Nuclear Yellow were injected into the deep portion and Nuclear Yellow into the superficial portion of the muscle. Therefore, motoneurons innervating the deep portion were identified by both a blue fluorescent cytoplasm and a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus, while motoneurons innervating the superficial portion were identified by only a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus. After staining for succinate dehydrogenase activity on the same section used for the identification of the motoneurons, soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the motoneurons were measured. The gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions were located primarily at L4 and were intermingled within the same region of the dorsolateral portion of the ventral horn in the spinal cord. Mean soma size was similar for either gamma or alpha motoneurons in the two portions of the muscle. The alpha motoneurons innervating the superficial portion had a lower mean succinate dehydrogenase activity than those innervating the deep portion of the muscle. An inverse relationship between soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of alpha, but not gamma, motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions was observed. Based on three-dimensional reconstructions within the spinal cord, there were no apparent differences in the spatial distribution of the motoneurons, either gamma or alpha, associated with the deep and superficial compartments of the muscle. The data

  5. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U

  6. Use of North Dakota lignite in advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Hurley, J.P.; Sharp, L.

    1992-12-01

    In order to develop critical data for Department of Energy (DOE) and private industry for advanced high-efficiency power systems using North Dakota lignite in pressurized gasification and combustion systems, tests were performed in bench-scale equipment at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The primary objectives were to (1) determine the conversion levels for Center ND lignite under pressurized fluid-bed gasification conditions with sorbent addition as a function of temperature, (2) determine the sulfur capture using limestone or dolomite under gasification conditions giving 90% or higher carbon conversion, (3) evaluate char/coal conversion and sulfur capture in a pressurized fluid-bed combustor, (4) assess the potential for bed agglomeration under the preferred operating conditions for both systems.

  7. Beneficiation of Turkish lignites by thermal treatment and magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, G.; Renda, D.; Mustafaev, I.; Dogan, Z.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the improvement of Turkish lignites by semi-coking and REMS magnetic separation, in two stages, is discussed. The oxidation and decomposition of pyrite through the thermal treatment result in the formation of iron oxide and pyrrhotite on the surface. In addition to pyrite, part of the organic sulfur is also removed. After thermal treatment of lignites at temperatures ranging from 370 to 650 C, the application of REMS magnetic separator produces a product higher in calorific value and lower in sulfur content. The product can be utilized after briquetting. The volatile gases can also be used after sulfur removal. This process appears to be feasible as a clean coal manufacture from the point of energy efficiency. A short economic analysis is also presented.

  8. Alkylation of lignites and peat in low-temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect

    L.I. Shchukin; S.I. Zherebtsov; M.V. Kornievich; O.A. Skutina

    2007-02-15

    The alkylation of lignites and peat was carried out at 50-270{sup o}C in different plasmas. The degree of conversion determined as the yield of the alcohol-benzene extract increases on passing from methane to alcohol plasma. The dependence of the extract yield on the plasma temperature, treatment time, and sample grinding degree was studied. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  10. A preliminary report on a zone containing thick lignite beds, Denver Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soister, Paul E.

    1973-01-01

    A zone of lignite beds of Paleocene age in the Denver Formation (Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene) lies about 800-1,500 feet above the well-known and extensively mined coal beds of the Laramie Formation (Upper Cretaceous). The zone is a few hundred to as much as 500 feet thick. Where lignite beds lie within 1,000 feet of the surface, this zone underlies an area about 30 miles wide by about 75 miles long, stretching from just northeast of Denver to several miles south of Calhan. Fifteen mines were operated at various periods between 1874 and 1940 and probably produced a total of less than 100,000 tons of lignite, mostly for local use. From 1874 to 1974, several geologists have reported on this lignite zone or the enclosing beds, but no detailed reports have been written except for one by this writer. Drill holes are the main source of geologic data, owing to poor exposure. There are generally about 3 to 6 lignite beds, and they are mostly about 15 or 20 to a few tens of feet apart. Most or all beds typically contain numerous non-coal partings from a fraction of an inch to several inches thick, so that thickness of lignite beds should be stated as gross thickness and as net lignite thickness; net lignite thickness is generally from 70 to 90 percent of gross thickness. Many partings are composed of kaolin, but others are composed of other clay minerals, siltstone, and sandstone. The lignite beds range generally from 1 or 2 to several feet thick, and some are as much as 10-25 feet thick; the thickest known bed has a maximum thickness of 54.5 feet, with a net lignite thickness of 40 feet. Most lignite beds seem to have fair lateral continuity, and at least some beds are several miles in extent. The thickest known lignite bed was traced for at least 18 miles, from northwest to southeast of Watkins. The lignite is brownish-black to black, weathers, checks, and disintegrates rapidly, and even in drill cores from a few hundred feet in depth the lignite is easily broken by

  11. The place of hard coal in energy supply pattern of Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, A.O.; Aydiner, K.

    2009-07-01

    Lignite and hard coal are the major sources of domestic energy sources of Turkey. Hard coal is produced at only one district in the country. Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin is the major power for development of the Turkish steel-making industry. It is the only hard coal basin in the country and it has, to date, supplied approximately 400 million tons of run-of-mine hard coal. This article investigates the potential of hard coal as an energy source and discusses the measures to activate the region for the future energy supply objectives of the country.

  12. Asymmetry in signal propagation between the soma and dendrites plays a key role in determining dendritic excitability in motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hojeong; Jones, Kelvin E; Heckman, C J

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that propagation of electrophysiological signals between the soma and dendrites of neurons differs depending on direction, i.e. it is asymmetric. How this asymmetry influences the activation of voltage-gated dendritic channels, and consequent neuronal behavior, remains unclear. Based on the analysis of asymmetry in several types of motoneurons, we extended our previous methodology for reducing a fully reconstructed motoneuron model to a two-compartment representation that preserved asymmetric signal propagation. The reduced models accurately replicated the dendritic excitability and the dynamics of the anatomical model involving a persistent inward current (PIC) dispersed over the dendrites. The relationship between asymmetric signal propagation and dendritic excitability was investigated using the reduced models while varying the asymmetry in signal propagation between the soma and the dendrite with PIC density constant. We found that increases in signal attenuation from soma to dendrites increased the activation threshold of a PIC (hypo-excitability), whereas increases in signal attenuation from dendrites to soma decreased the activation threshold of a PIC (hyper-excitability). These effects were so strong that reversing the asymmetry in the soma-to-dendrite vs. dendrite-to-soma attenuation, reversed the correlation between PIC threshold and distance of this current source from the soma. We propose the tight relation of the asymmetric signal propagation to the input resistance in the dendrites as a mechanism underlying the influence of the asymmetric signal propagation on the dendritic excitability. All these results emphasize the importance of maintaining the physiological asymmetry in dendritic signaling not only for normal function of the cells but also for biophysically realistic simulations of dendritic excitability.

  13. Asymmetry in Signal Propagation between the Soma and Dendrites Plays a Key Role in Determining Dendritic Excitability in Motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hojeong; Jones, Kelvin E.; Heckman, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that propagation of electrophysiological signals between the soma and dendrites of neurons differs depending on direction, i.e. it is asymmetric. How this asymmetry influences the activation of voltage-gated dendritic channels, and consequent neuronal behavior, remains unclear. Based on the analysis of asymmetry in several types of motoneurons, we extended our previous methodology for reducing a fully reconstructed motoneuron model to a two-compartment representation that preserved asymmetric signal propagation. The reduced models accurately replicated the dendritic excitability and the dynamics of the anatomical model involving a persistent inward current (PIC) dispersed over the dendrites. The relationship between asymmetric signal propagation and dendritic excitability was investigated using the reduced models while varying the asymmetry in signal propagation between the soma and the dendrite with PIC density constant. We found that increases in signal attenuation from soma to dendrites increased the activation threshold of a PIC (hypo-excitability), whereas increases in signal attenuation from dendrites to soma decreased the activation threshold of a PIC (hyper-excitability). These effects were so strong that reversing the asymmetry in the soma-to-dendrite vs. dendrite-to-soma attenuation, reversed the correlation between PIC threshold and distance of this current source from the soma. We propose the tight relation of the asymmetric signal propagation to the input resistance in the dendrites as a mechanism underlying the influence of the asymmetric signal propagation on the dendritic excitability. All these results emphasize the importance of maintaining the physiological asymmetry in dendritic signaling not only for normal function of the cells but also for biophysically realistic simulations of dendritic excitability. PMID:25083794

  14. SOMA: A Proposed Framework for Trend Mining in Large UK Diabetic Retinopathy Temporal Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somaraki, Vassiliki; Harding, Simon; Broadbent, Deborah; Coenen, Frans

    In this paper, we present SOMA, a new trend mining framework; and Aretaeus, the associated trend mining algorithm. The proposed framework is able to detect different kinds of trends within longitudinal datasets. The prototype trends are defined mathematically so that they can be mapped onto the temporal patterns. Trends are defined and generated in terms of the frequency of occurrence of pattern changes over time. To evaluate the proposed framework the process was applied to a large collection of medical records, forming part of the diabetic retinopathy screening programme at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital.

  15. Cellular resolution circuit mapping with temporal-focused excitation of soma-targeted channelrhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher A; Elyada, Yishai M; Parra, Andres; Bolton, M McLean

    2016-01-01

    We describe refinements in optogenetic methods for circuit mapping that enable measurements of functional synaptic connectivity with single-neuron resolution. By expanding a two-photon beam in the imaging plane using the temporal focusing method and restricting channelrhodopsin to the soma and proximal dendrites, we are able to reliably evoke action potentials in individual neurons, verify spike generation with GCaMP6s, and determine the presence or absence of synaptic connections with patch-clamp electrophysiological recording. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14193.001 PMID:27525487

  16. Compact electronic soma and synapse circuits fabricated using a low temperature approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Anand

    Digital circuits using the von Neumann architecture and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronic devices dominate large-scale processing systems today and are extremely efficient at performing well-defined operations. However, these systems are less efficient at tasks which involve processing large amounts of imprecise information originating from the surrounding environment, such as pattern recognition and outcome prediction. The human brain is the best processor of such information sets, and consists of a large number of primitive elements (1010 neurons and 1014 synapses). Neuromorphic systems are a class of circuits that draw inspiration from the extremely parallel architecture of the brain. A major goal is thus to develop neuromorphic circuits using a large-area, low-power, and highly dense approach. The major focus of this work is the fabrication of a compact circuit which can implement a biologically realistic synaptic learning rule using low-temperature materials. Ambipolar nanocrystalline-silicon (nc-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are selected as basic building blocks of spiking soma circuits. These TFTs are fabricated at the nanoscale using a CMOS-compatible fabrication process at a maximum temperature of 250 °C. High-κ gate dielectrics are incorporated to achieve lower subthreshold swings and threshold voltages. Soma circuits which consist of a few nc-Si TFTs and capacitors are fabricated and shown to display spiking behavior similar to biological neurons. Electronic synapses are fabricated using Au nanoparticle (NP) memory devices based on nc-Si TFTs and TiN/HfO2/TiN memristors. These are then integrated with the soma circuit to achieve an action potential pair-based learning rule, namely spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). The STDP rule is experimentally demonstrated for the first time using simple rectangular voltage pulses alone. The soma circuits are shown to be capable of driving a significant number of synapses in a large

  17. The potential of biomass and animal waste of Turkey and the possibilities of these as fuel in thermal generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Acaroglu, M.; Aksoy, A.S.; Oeguet, H.

    1999-05-01

    In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of Turkey were determined and the potential of these as a source of fuel in thermal generating stations to produce electricity was studied. The effects of biomass and lignite coal usage on the environment were reported comparatively. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50--65 million tons per year of biomass and 11,051 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 60% of biomass is seen as possible to use for energy. The primary energy of applicable biomass was evaluated as 467--623 Peta Joule (PJ) and the energy of animal residues as 50,172 PJ. This amount of energy is equal to 22--27% of Turkey`s annual primary energy consumption, (6,308 million tons of oil equivalent).

  18. The stabilization of a clay suspension with sulfonated humates of earth and compact lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Girina, L.V.; Sharanova, I.E.

    1995-12-31

    Lignite humates are used as chemical reagents for regulating the properties of dispersed systems, in particular for stabilizing clay and coal-water suspensions. We have performed a comparative analysis of the cation stability of modified humates obtained from earth and compact lignite and of the efficiency of stabilization of highly mineralized clay suspensions. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Water-resources appraisal of the Camp Swift lignite area, central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaylord, J.L.; Slade, R.M.; Ruiz, L.M.; Welborn, C.T.; Baker, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    Alithologic examination of 255 feet of cored section that represents the overburden and the included lignite showed cyclic layering of fine sand, silt, clay, and lignite. Chemical analyses of the core were performed to determine the contents of major inorganic and trace constituents. These analyses indicate that the content of pyritic sulfur generally is small but variable.

  20. Long term contracts, expansion, innovation and stability: North Dakota's lignite mines thrive

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-08-15

    North Dakota's lignite coal industry is mainly located in three countries in the central part of the state. Its large surface lignite mines are tied through long-term (20-40 years) contracts to power plants. The article talks about operations at three of the most productive mines - the Freedom mine, Falkirk mine and Center Mine. 4 figs.

  1. H-binding groups in lignite vs. soil humic acids: NICA-Donnan and spectroscopic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Drosos, M.; Jerzykiewicz, M.; Deligiannakis, Y.

    2009-04-15

    A comparative study has been carried out for two sets of humic acids isolated from lignites and soils. H-binding data were analyzed using the NICA-Donnan model, for three Greek lignite humic acids (HA) plus IHSS Leonardite reference HA, and five Greek soil HAs plus a commercial peat HA. {sup 13}C-CP-MAS NMR and H-binding data provide quantitative estimates for functional groups, showing that lignite HAs of diverse origin have strikingly homogeneous properties, while the H-binding structural units of soil HAs are characterized by a large degree of variability. Consistent differences between soil HA vs. lignite HA are revealed at the level of functional groups' concentrations. In the pH range 4 to 10, soil HA showed a charge variation < 3 (equiv kg{sup -1}) while lignite HAs showed a higher charge variation > 3.5 (equiv kg{sup -1}).

  2. Turkey: Thwarted Ambition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    policy makers were dramatic, challenging, and worrying. At a stroke, the strategic center of gravity moved from Germany to Turkey, but the extinction of...with Arab neighbors, and the Sevres- phobia of an assault on Turkey’s territorial integrity were all accusations thrown at the government as these

  3. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number

  4. Influence of spaceflight on succinate dehydrogenase activity and soma size of rat ventral horn neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, A.; Ohira, Y.; Roy, R. R.; Nagaoka, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Hinds, W. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1996-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities and soma cross-sectional areas (CSA) of neurons in the dorsolateral region of the ventral horn at the L5 segmental level of the spinal cord in the rat were determined after 14 days of spaceflight and after 9 days of recovery on earth. The results were compared to those in age-matched ground-based control rats. Spinal cords were quick-frozen, and the SDH activity and CSA of a sample of neurons with a visible nucleus were determined using a digitizer and a computer-assisted image analysis system. An inverse relationship between CSA and SDH activity of neurons was observed in all groups of rats. No change in mean CSA or mean SDH activity or in the size distribution of neurons was observed following spaceflight or recovery. However, there was a selective decrease in the SDH activity of neurons with soma CSA between 500 and 800 microns2 in the flight rats, and this effect persisted for at least 9 days following return to 1 g. It remains to be determined whether the selected population of motoneurons or the specific motor pools affected by spaceflight may be restricted to specific muscles.

  5. Reduction of quinquevalent vanadium solutions by wood and lignite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.

    1957-01-01

    To determine whether reduced vanadium ores could have been deposited by reduction from supergene quinquevalent vanadium solutions, the reducing capacity of fresh wood, wood degraded by long burial, and lignite was determined experimentally at temperatures of 120?? and 150?? in closed containers. A precipitate obtained by reduction of quinquevalent vanadium solutions with wood gave an X-ray pattern identical with a recently discovered low-valent vanadium mineral. The evidence indicated that deposition of reduced vanadium minerals by this mechanism is possible. ?? 1957.

  6. Respirable dust from lignite coal in the Victorian power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, R.

    1983-01-01

    The results from a 12-month program of static sampling for respirable dust in various work sites of the Victorian power industry are presented. Lignite coal is the major source of dust in this industry. The data appear to be nearly lognormal in distribution and are similar in magnitude to levels reported from North American surface mines and surface work sites. Average 8-hour, time-weighted-average dust concentrations of 0.3 mg/m/sup 3/ (SD = 0.3) were found in open areas. In enclosed coal handling areas, average concentrations of 0.7 mg/m/sup 3/ (SD = 0.6) were found.

  7. Respirable dust from lignite coal in the Victorian power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, R.

    1983-04-01

    The results of a 12-month programme of static sampling for respirable dust at various work sites of the Victorian power industry are presented. Lignite is the major source of dust. The data appear to be nearly lognormal in distribution and are similar in magnitude to levels reported from North American surface mines and surface work sites. Average 8-hour, time-weighted-average dust concentrations of 0.3 mg/m/sup 3/ were found in open areas. In enclosed coal-handling areas, average concentrations of 0.7 mg/m/sup 3/ were found.

  8. Radiation intensity of lignite-fired oxy-fuel flames

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Klas; Johansson, Robert; Hjaertstam, Stefan; Johnsson, Filip; Leckner, Bo

    2008-10-15

    The radiative heat transfer in oxy-fuel flames is compared to corresponding conditions in air-fuel flames during combustion of lignite in the Chalmers 100 kW oxy-fuel test facility. In the oxy-fuel cases the flue-gas recycle rate was varied, so that, in principle, the same stoichiometry was kept in all cases, whereas the oxygen fraction in the recycled flue-gas mixture ranged from 25 to 29 vol.%. Radial profiles of gas concentration, temperature and total radiation intensity were measured in the furnace. The temperature, and thereby the total radiation intensity of the oxy-fuel flames, increases with decreasing flue-gas recycle rate. The ratio of gas and total radiation intensities increases under oxy-fuel conditions compared to air-firing. However, when radiation overlap between gas and particles is considered the ratios for air-firing and oxy-fuel conditions become more similar, since the gas-particle overlap is increased in the CO{sub 2}-rich atmosphere. A large fraction of the radiation in these lignite flames is emitted by particles whose radiation was not significantly influenced by oxy-fuel operation. Therefore, an increment of gas radiation due to higher CO{sub 2} concentration is not evident because of the background of particle radiation, and, the total radiation intensities are similar during oxy-fuel and air-fuel operation as long as the temperature distributions are similar. (author)

  9. NO emission during oxy-fuel combustion of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, K.; Normann, F.; Johnsson, F.; Leckner, B.

    2008-03-15

    This work presents experimental results and modeling of the combustion chemistry of the oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} recycle) combustion process with a focus on the difference in NO formation between oxy-fired and air-fired conditions. Measurements were carried out in a 100 kW test unit, designed for oxy-fuel combustion with flue gas recycling. Gas concentration and temperature profiles in the furnace were measured during combustion of lignite. The tests comprise a reference test in air and three oxy-fuel cases with different oxygen fractions in the recycled feed gas. With the burner settings used, lignite oxy-combustion with a global oxygen fraction of 25 vol % in the feed gas results in flame temperatures close to those of air-firing. Similar to previous work, the NO emission (mg/MJ) during oxy-fuel operation is reduced to less than 30% of that of air-firing. Modeling shows that this reduction is caused by increased destruction of formed and recycled NO. The reverse Zeldovich mechanism was investigated by detailed modeling and was shown to significantly reduce NO at high temperature, given that the nitrogen content is low (low air leakage) and that the residence time is sufficient.

  10. The iron mineral changes occurring in lignite coal during gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, F. B.

    2013-04-01

    Representative lignite and gasified material samples were retrieved form a cooled down gasifier. The samples were taken at various heights in the gasifier that operated on lignite, under stable conditions. The proximate analyses, ash composition and temperature in the gasifier were determined according to standard procedures. The main minerals found in the present investigation were bassanite, illite, quartz, kaolinite, calcite and the only iron bearing mineral was found to be pyrite. The trend in the estimated particle surface temperature profile shows an increase in the drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion zones from about 300 °C to just over 900 °C. About 1/3 down the gasifier, an average particle temperature of about 400 °C and particle surface temperature of about 600 °C was measured where pyrite conversion started. About 2/3 down the gasifier, where an average temperature of about 700 °C and particle surface temperature of about 900 °C was measured, all the pyrite was converted and in the bottom part of the gasifier, oxidation of the iron started to play a role and hematite and an iron containing glass formed at an average temperature of > 800 °C and surface temperature of 900 °C.

  11. Petrographic composition of lignite from the Szczerców deposit, Polish Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelec, Sandra; Bielowicz, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Macroscopic and microscopic composition of lignite from the Szczerców deposit belonging to the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (Polish Lowlands) has been examined. The macroscopic composition was determined according to the newest lithological classification of humic coal. On this basis, it has been shown that the main lithotypes occurring in the Szczerców deposit are the detritic and xylodetritic lignites. The petrographic composition of the investigated lignite was determined microscopically for 11 samples. The examined lignite is predominantly composed of macerals from the huminite group. It is in the range from 75.2 to 86%, including atrinite (23.1-40.7%, averaging 28.9%) and densinite (18.2-41.4 %, averaging 24.9%). It also demonstrated that the statistical variability of the macerals content from the huminite group in the studied lignite is very weak in all samples. In addition, the random reflectance of ulminite was measured traditionally. The results, ranging from 0.247 to 0.282%, with the maximum permissible standard deviation < 0.07, were achieved for all analysed lignite samples.

  12. Appraisal of Hydrologic Information Needed in Anticipation of Lignite Mining in Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, William Scott

    1981-01-01

    Lignite in western Tennessee occurs as lenses or beds at various stratigraphic horizons in the Coastal Plain sediments of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The occurrence of this lignite has been known for many decades, but not until the energy crisis was it considered an important energy resource. In recent years, several energy companies have conducted extensive exploration programs in western Tennessee, and tremendous reserves of lignite have been found. From available information, Lauderdale County was selected as one of the counties where strip-mining of lignite will most likely occur. Lignite in this county occurs in the Jackson and Cockfield Formations, undivided, of Tertiary age. The hydrology of the county is known only from regional studies and the collection of some site-specific data. Therefore, in anticipation of the future mining of lignite, a plan is needed for obtaining hydrologic and geologic information to adequately define the hydrologic system before mining begins and to monitor the effects of strip-mining once it is begun. For this planning effort, available hydrologic, geologic, land use, and associated data were located and compiled; a summary description of the surface and shallow subsurface hydrologic system was prepared: the need for additional baseline hydrologic information was outlined; and plans to monitor the effects of strip-mining were proposed. This planning approach, although limited to a county area, has transferability to other Coastal Plain areas under consideration for strip-mining of lignite.

  13. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrabec, Mirijam; Markič, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Jaćimović, Radojko; Kanduč, Tjaša

    2014-05-01

    Lignite (organic rich) and calcified lignite (inorganic rich) samples from excavation field -50c mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia were investigated. During geological and structural mapping lignite and calcified lignite samples were systematically taken for determination of their petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics. Lignite is composed of fine detritical gelified matrix. At least five different types of calcified lignite were recognized forming laminations, calcifications after wood, petrified wood and complete replacements of lignite with carbonate. All measured parameters so far indicate geochemical processes during sedimentation of the Velenej Basin. After macroscopic description samples were split to organic and inorganic component (Ward, 1984) and powdered in an agate mortar for geochemical and isotopic analyses. Major and trace elements (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Th, U, Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using k-0 standardization method (Jaćimović et al, 2002). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined using a Europa 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. A 1 mg amount of a sample was weighed in a tin capsule for carbon and 10 mg for nitrogen analysis. Samples for carbon analyses were pretreated with 1 M HCl to remove carbonates. Carbonate samples from carbonate-rich strata and calcified xylite were first roasted at 450 deg C (Krantz et al., 1987). Three miligrams of carbonate sample was transformed into CO2 by reaction with anhydrous H3PO4 at 55 deg C under vacuum (McCrea, 1950) and measured with GV 2003 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measured isotopic composition of oxygen as VPDB values was recalculated to the VSMOW reference standard to enable the comparison with data from other coal basins. SEM/EDXS of carbonate rich sediments was performed with JEOL JSM 5800 electron microanalyzer scanning electron microscope

  14. MTOR-driven quasi-programmed aging as a disposable soma theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    If life were created by intelligent design, we would indeed age from accumulation of molecular damage. Repair is costly and limited by energetic resources, and we would allocate resources rationally. But, albeit elegant, this design is fictional. Instead, nature blindly selects for short-term benefits of robust developmental growth. “Quasi-programmed” by the blind watchmaker, aging is a wasteful and aimless continuation of developmental growth, driven by nutrient-sensing, growth-promoting signaling pathways such as MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin). A continuous post-developmental activity of such gerogenic pathways leads to hyperfunctions (aging), loss of homeostasis, age-related diseases, non-random organ damage and death. This model is consistent with a view that (1) soma is disposable, (2) aging and menopause are not programmed and (3) accumulation of random molecular damage is not a cause of aging as we know it. PMID:23708516

  15. [Pharmaceutical Service after the Fukushima Disaster: A Case Report of Soma General Hospital].

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Hisanori; Momonoi, Toshiyuki; Kumakawa, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

      Despite being damaged by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster, Soma General Hospital, located approximately 40 km north of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was able to fulfill its role as a key regional hospital in northeast Fukushima. To elucidate the pharmaceutical service in response to the disaster, we investigated the hospital's operations in 2011 according to the medical records and prescriptions. One of the difficulties that the department of pharmaceutical service faced at that time was the increase in emergency healthcare requests by evacuated patients from other hospitals and clinics. Herein, we propose the following countermeasures to be considered in future disaster preparations: (1) establishing a medical and pharmaceutical service coordinator for disaster relief; (2) sharing all local patients' medical information in emergencies (at least contraindicated drugs or allergy history); and (3) reviewing disaster stockpiles, especially pharmaceuticals (both at the hospital and in nearby locations).

  16. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  17. Modeling of air pollutant concentrations in an industrial region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tuygun, Gizem Tuna; Altuğ, Hicran; Elbir, Tolga; Gaga, Eftade E

    2017-02-03

    The hourly SO2 and PM10 concentrations in ambient air of the Kutahya city located at the western part of Turkey have exceeded the air quality limits in winter months since several years. The region has major industrial plants including lignite-fired power plants and open-cast mining activities, residential areas, and traffic sources. To obtain and quantify the sector-wise anthropogenic emissions and spatial distribution of the major pollutants including SO2, NO x , PM10, and CO, a comprehensive emission inventory with 1-km spatial resolution was prepared for the year of 2014, and the AERMOD dispersion model was used to predict ambient air concentrations in a domain of 140 km by 110 km. Validation of the model results was also done referring to in situ routine measurements at two monitoring stations located in the study area. Total emissions of SO2, PM10, NO x , and CO in the study area were calculated as 64,399, 9770, 24,627, and 29,198 tons/year, respectively. The results showed that industrial plants were the largest sources of SO2, NO x , and PM10 emissions, while residential heating and road traffic were the most contributing sectors for CO emissions. Three major power plants in the region with total annual lignite consumption of 10 million tons per year were main sources of high SO2 concentrations, while high PM10 concentrations mainly originated from two major open-cast lignite mines. Major contributors of high NO x and CO concentrations were traffic including highways and urban streets, and residential heating with high lignite consumption in urban areas. Results of the dispersion model run with the emission inventory resulted in partially high index of agreement (0.75) with SO2 measured in the urban station within the modeled area.

  18. Germ line versus soma in the transition from egg to embryo

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, S. Zachary; Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    With few exceptions, all animals acquire the ability to produce eggs or sperm at some point in their lifecycle. Despite this near universal requirement for sexual reproduction, there exists an incredible diversity in germ-line development. For example, animals exhibit a vast range of differences in the timing at which the germ line, which retains reproductive potential, separates from the soma, or terminally differentiated, non-reproductive cells. This separation may occur during embryonic development, after gastrulation, or even in adults, depending on the organism. The molecular mechanisms of germ line segregation are also highly diverse, and intimately intertwined with the overall transition from a fertilized egg to an embryo. The earliest embryonic stages of many species are largely controlled by maternally supplied factors. Later in development, patterning control shifts to the embryonic genome and, concomitantly with this transition, the maternally supplied factors are broadly degraded. This chapter attempts to integrate these processes – germ line segregation, and how the divergence of germ line and soma may utilize the egg to embryo transitions differently. In some embryos, this difference is subtle or maybe lacking altogether, whereas in other embryos, this difference in utilization may be a key step in the divergence of the two lineages. Here we will focus our discussion on the echinoderms, and in particular the sea urchins, in which recent studies have provided mechanistic understanding in germ line determination. We propose that the germ line in sea urchins requires an acquisition of maternal factors from the egg and, when compared to other members of the taxon, this appears to be a derived mechanism. The acquisition is early – at the 32 cell stage – and involves active protection of maternal mRNAs, which are instead degraded in somatic cells with the maternal to embryonic transition. We collectively refer to this model as the Time Capsule method

  19. SOMAS-URM: The Evolution of a Mentoring and Summer Research Program.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Julio J; Tonidandel, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The need to enhance recruitment and retention of students in the sciences to strengthen the economic and scientific foundation of the United States was recently underscored by the National Science Board. The SOMAS Program (Support Of Mentors And their Students) addresses this need using a two-pronged strategy: 1) Junior faculty receive mentoring and instruction in launching research programs that engage student collaborators; and 2) College students are introduced to discovery in the neurosciences by conducting original research with their professors. Junior faculty from predominantly undergraduate institutions are invited to submit applications to obtain summer research support for undergraduate students who will spend 10 weeks collaborating with the faculty member on projects of common interest. Awards cover a travel and a supply budget, summer student housing, as well as faculty and student stipends. The faculty mentors and their students are to use the travel support to attend the joint Annual Meetings of the Society for Neuroscience (SfN) and the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN). Faculty Awardees are required to participate in the Survival Skills and Ethics Workshop held at the SfN Meeting to prepare them to write grants aimed at supporting their research programs. Students are to present their summer research findings at the FUN Poster Session held jointly with the SfN Meeting. Students are also required to attend Survival Skills Workshop sessions that focus on ethics in research and that provide tips on applying to graduate school. The SOMAS-URM Program presently emphasizes recruitment and retention of underrepresented groups to enhance participation in scientific discovery by the full range of the American population.

  20. Germ Line Versus Soma in the Transition from Egg to Embryo.

    PubMed

    Swartz, S Zachary; Wessel, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    With few exceptions, all animals acquire the ability to produce eggs or sperm at some point in their life cycle. Despite this near-universal requirement for sexual reproduction, there exists an incredible diversity in germ line development. For example, animals exhibit a vast range of differences in the timing at which the germ line, which retains reproductive potential, separates from the soma, or terminally differentiated, nonreproductive cells. This separation may occur during embryonic development, after gastrulation, or even in adults, depending on the organism. The molecular mechanisms of germ line segregation are also highly diverse, and intimately intertwined with the overall transition from a fertilized egg to an embryo. The earliest embryonic stages of many species are largely controlled by maternally supplied factors. Later in development, patterning control shifts to the embryonic genome and, concomitantly with this transition, the maternally supplied factors are broadly degraded. This chapter attempts to integrate these processes--germ line segregation, and how the divergence of germ line and soma may utilize the egg to embryo transitions differently. In some embryos, this difference is subtle or maybe lacking altogether, whereas in other embryos, this difference in utilization may be a key step in the divergence of the two lineages. Here, we will focus our discussion on the echinoderms, and in particular the sea urchins, in which recent studies have provided mechanistic understanding in germ line determination. We propose that the germ line in sea urchins requires an acquisition of maternal factors from the egg and, when compared to other members of the taxon, this appears to be a derived mechanism. The acquisition is early--at the 32-cell stage--and involves active protection of maternal mRNAs, which are instead degraded in somatic cells with the maternal-to-embryonic transition. We collectively refer to this model as the Time Capsule method for germ

  1. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  2. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  3. Energy Security and Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc...Necdet Pamir. “Energy in Security and the Most Recent Lesson: The Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara...Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc (accessed May 21, 2008). 53

  4. Geochemistry and mineralogy of Greek lignites from the Ioannina Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Gentzis, T.; Goodarzi, F.; Foscolos, A.E.

    1997-02-01

    Mineralogical and elemental composition of 26 lignites/lignitic shales and their ashes from the Ioannina Basin were examined using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Mineralogy consists of quartz, 2:1 interstratified layer silicates, kaolinite, and gypsum. Illite, calcite, amphiboles, feldspars, and pyrite are the minor minerals in the samples. The major oxides SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, and K{sub 2}O show an enrichment in the upper lignite-bearing interval within the succession, CaO shows the exact reverse trend, and Na{sub 2}O and MgO do not show any trends. Arsenic in the samples ranges from 2 to 46 ppm, Br from 10 to 25 ppm, Cl from 61 to 278 ppm, and Se from 2 to 14 ppm. Vertically, As content decreases from the shallower interval II to the deeper interval I. Within interval II, Cr and Br show a decrease from top to bottom. The concentration of Br and Cl is higher in the samples of low mineral matter, while the opposite is true for As. Laterally, there is an increase in Br and Cl from the northern to the central part of the basin, an increase of As in an eastern direction, and a decrease of Se in the same direction. Epigenetic processes related to high water table and subsurface water flow from the nearby phosphorite deposits are probably responsible for the high concentration of U, Mo, Sb, and possibly, V. The enrichment of Se is due to leaching from gypsum and/or anhydrite beds in the area. The rare earth elements follow variations in the low-temperature ash, but more specifically, the light REEs tend to mimic variations in Th and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, and the heavy REEs follow the TiO{sub 2} variation.

  5. Pediatric oncology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kebudi, Rejin

    2012-03-01

    The survival of children with cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, as a result of advances in diagnosis, treatment and supportive care. Each year in Turkey, 2500-3000 new childhood cancer cases are expected. According to the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group and Turkish Pediatric Hematology Societies Registry, about 2000 new pediatric cancer cases are reported each year. The population in Turkey is relatively young. One fourth of the population is younger than 15 years of age. According to childhood mortality, cancer is the fourth cause of death (7.2%) after infections, cardiac deaths and accidents. The major cancers in children in Turkey are leukemia (31%), lymphoma (19%), central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms (13%), neuroblastomas (7%), bone tumors (6.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (6%), followed by renal tumors, germ cell tumors, retinoblastoma, carcinomas-epithelial neoplasms, hepatic tumors and others. Lymphomas rank second in frequency as in many developing countries in contrast to West Europe or USA, where CNS neoplasms rank second in frequency. The seven-year survival rate in children with malignancies in Turkey is 65.8%. The history of modern Pediatric Oncology in Turkey dates back to the 1970's. Pediatric Oncology has been accepted as a subspecialty in Turkey since 1983. Pediatric Oncologists are all well trained and dedicated. All costs for the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer is covered by the government. Education and infrastructure for palliative care needs improvement.

  6. MGluR-Mediated Calcium Waves that Invade the Soma Regulate Firing in Layer V Medial Prefrontal Cortical Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hagenston, Anna M.; Fitzpatrick, John S.; Yeckel, Mark F.

    2010-01-01

    Factors that influence the activity of prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons are likely to play an important role in working memory function. One such factor may be the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Here we investigate the hypothesis that metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs)-mediated waves of internally released Ca2+ can regulate the intrinsic excitability and firing patterns of PFC pyramidal neurons. Synaptic or focal pharmacological activation of mGluRs triggered Ca2+waves in the dendrites and somata of layer V medial PFC pyramidal neurons. These Ca2+ waves often evoked a transient SK-mediated hyperpolarization followed by a prolonged depolarization that respectively decreased and increased neuronal excitability. Generation of the hyperpolarization depended on whether the Ca2+wave invaded or came near to the soma. The depolarization also depended on the extent of Ca2+ wave propagation. We tested factors that influence the propagation of Ca2+ waves into the soma. Stimulating more synapses, increasing inositol trisphosphate concentration near the soma, and priming with physiological trains of action potentials all enhanced the amplitude and likelihood of evoking somatic Ca2+waves. These results suggest that mGluR-mediated Ca2+waves may regulate firing patterns of PFC pyramidal neurons engaged by working memory, particularly under conditions that favor the propagation of Ca2+ waves into the soma. PMID:17573372

  7. Experimental Study of Hydrogasification of Lignite and Subbituminous Coal Chars

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The experimental facility for pressure hydrogasification research was adapted to the pressure of 10 MPa and temperature of 1300 K, which ensured repeatability of results and hydrogen heating to the process temperature. A hydrogasification reaction of chars produced from two rank coals was investigated at temperatures up to 1173 K, pressures up to 8 MPa, and the gas flow rates of 0.5–5 dmn3/min. Reactivity of the “Szczerców” lignite char was found to be slightly higher than that of the subbituminous “Janina” coal char produced under the same conditions. A high value of the char reactivity was observed to a certain carbon conversion degree, above which a sharp drop took place. It was shown that, to achieve proper carbon conversion, the hydrogasification reaction must proceed at a temperature above 1200 K. PMID:26065028

  8. Discrimination of unique biological communities in the Mississippi lignite belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F. (Principal Investigator); Cutler, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Small scale hardcopy LANDSAT prints were manually interpreted and color infrared aerial photography was obtained in an effort to identify and map large contiguous areas of old growth hardwood stands within Mississippi's lignite belt which do not exhibit signs of recent disturbance by agriculture, grazing, timber harvesting, fire, or any natural catastrophe, and which may, therefore, contain unique or historical ecological habitat types. An information system using land cover classes derived from digital LANDSAT data and containing information on geology, hydrology, soils, and cultural activities was developed. Using computer-assisted land cover classifications, all hardwood remnants in the study area which are subject to possible disturbance from surface mining were determined. Twelve rare plants were also identified by botanists.

  9. Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content

    PubMed Central

    Pintana, Pakamon

    2013-01-01

    Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min−1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E) for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14%) and high (42%) CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal. PMID:24250259

  10. Reclamation planning and operation at the Mae Moh Lignite Mine, Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.D.; Teparat, C.

    1990-12-31

    The Mae Moh Mine is a large open cut lignite mine situated in Northern Thailand. The mine produces lignite for coal fired power stations located adjacent to the mine. Current mine production is approximately 9 Mtpa providing lignite to eight power stations with a total output of 1,125 MW. The power development plan for Mae Moh provides for 19 power stations by the year 1999 which will require lignite production to be increased to 30.5 Mtpa and overburden will be mined at a rate approaching 300 Mtpa. Environmental management and reclamation planning at Mae Moh are major issues due to water quality impact and land use conflicts. This paper presents the key elements of the reclamation master plan and works strategy for progressive reclamation and water pollution control.

  11. Evaluation of Drying Rates of Lignite Particles in Superheated Steam Using Single-Particle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyama, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Akira; Kaneko, Shozo; Maeda, Masafumi

    2016-12-01

    Drying rates of lignite particle groups in superheated steam are evaluated using a single-particle model developed for Australian lignite. Size distributions of the particles are assumed to obey the Rosin-Rammler equation with the maximum particle diameters defined as 100, 50, and 6 mm. The results show the drying rate of a lignite group depends strongly on the maximum particle size, and removal of large particles prior to drying is shown to be effective to reduce the drying time. The calculation model is available for simulations of drying behaviors of lignite in various dryers when an appropriate heat transfer coefficient is given. This study simulates the drying of particles smaller than 6 mm using a heat transfer coefficient in a fluidized bed dryer reported elsewhere. The required drying time estimated from the calculation is comparable to the processing time reported in an actual fluidized bed dryer, supporting the validity of the calculation model.

  12. Petrography and geochemistry of the San Miguel lignite, Jackson Group (Eocene), South Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.; Crowley, S.S.; Ruppert, L.F.; Pontolillo, J.

    1996-01-01

    The San Miguel lignite deposit (late Eocene, lower Jackson Group) of south Texas consists of four or more thin (generally < 1 m thick) lignite benches that are separated by claystone and mudstone partings. The partings are composed of altered volcanic air-fall ash that has been reworked by tidal or channel processes associated with a back-barrier depositional environment. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the ash yield and the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the San Miguel lignite as mined. Particular attention is given to 12 of the environmentally sensitive trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U) that have been identified as possible hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. A total of 29 rock and lignite samples were collected and characterized by geochemical and petrographic methods. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The distribution of Mn is inversely related to the ash yield of the lignite samples. This indicates an organic affinity, or an association with finely disseminated minerals in the lignite that contain this element. (2) On a whole-coal basis, the concentration of the HAPs' element Pb is positively related to ash yield in lignite samples. This indicates an inorganic affinity for Pb. (3) Average whole-coal concentrations of As, Be, Sb, and U in the San Miguel samples are greater than published averages for these elements in other U.S. lignites. (4) The upper and lower lignite benches of the San Miguel deposit are both ash- and algal-rich, indicating that these intervals were probably deposited in wetter conditions than those in which the middle intervals formed. (5) The dominance of the eugelinite maceral subgroup over the huminite subgroup indicates that the San Miguel lignites were subjected to peat-forming conditions (either biogenic or chemical) that enabled degradation of wood cellular material into matrix

  13. Effects of lignite application on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle pens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Shen, Jianlin; Griffith, David W T; Denmead, Owen T; Hill, Julian; Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin R; Chen, Deli

    2016-09-15

    Beef cattle feedlots are a major source of ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock industries. We investigated the effects of lignite surface applications on NH3 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot pens. Two rates of lignite, 3 and 6kgm(-2), were tested in the treatment pen. No lignite was applied in the control pen. Twenty-four Black Angus steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. We measured NH3 and N2O concentrations continuously from 4th Sep to 13th Nov 2014 using Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) NH3 analysers and a closed-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analyser (CP-FTIR) in conjunction with the integrated horizontal flux method to calculate NH3 and N2O fluxes. During the feeding period, 16 and 26% of the excreted nitrogen (N) (240gNhead(-1)day(-1)) was lost via NH3 volatilization from the control pen, while lignite application decreased NH3 volatilization to 12 and 18% of the excreted N, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Compared to the control pen, lignite application decreased NH3 emissions by approximately 30%. Nitrous oxide emissions from the cattle pens were small, 0.10 and 0.14gN2O-Nhead(-1)day(-1) (<0.1% of excreted N) for the control pen, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Lignite application increased direct N2O emissions by 40 and 57%, to 0.14 and 0.22gN2O-Nhead(-1)day(-1), for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. The increase in N2O emissions resulting from lignite application was counteracted by the lower indirect N2O emission due to decreased NH3 volatilization. Using 1% as a default emission factor of deposited NH3 for indirect N2O emissions, the application of lignite decreased total N2O emissions.

  14. Preliminary geologic investigation of the West Glendive lignite deposits, Dawson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banet, Arthur C.

    1979-01-01

    Four major lignite beds, all in the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), occur in the West Glendive area, Dawson County, Montana. The Newton Ranch and Poverty Flats beds are in the Lebo Member and the Peuse and Kolberg Ranch beds are in the Tongue River Member. Correlation of the lignite beds across the area shows that the Peuse bed is the thickest and most extensive. Field mapping and drill-hole data indicate that folding and faulting are more common than previously reported.

  15. Comparison of Copper Sorption on Lignite and on Soils of Different Types and Their Humic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pekar, M.; Klucakova, M.

    2008-10-15

    We compared the sorption of copper on South Moravian lignite with that on several soils from Slovakia, using batch adsorption at a laboratory temperature of 25{sup o}C followed by a two-step desorption procedure. The results confirmed that lignite has a copper-sorption capacity and copper-binding strength that is comparable to or better than that of the Slovakian soils that we investigated. We compared these results with previously obtained data for sorption on humic acids (HA) isolated from lignite and soils. Although soil constituents other than HA, such as fulvic acids and mineral particles, also control metal sorption, HA bind copper at higher capacity and with greater strength than do the whole matrices of the soils we tested, and lignite showed a greater binding strength for copper than any of these soils. Our results thus far indicate that natural lignite mined in the Czech Republic, or lignite-derived HA, are potential agents for in situ soil remediation.

  16. Changes in floral composition with depositional environment in Texas Eocene Manning Formation lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Gennett, J.A.; Raymond, A.L.

    1986-09-01

    The floral composition of palynomorph assemblages of Jacksonian Texas lignites is closely linked to depositional systems. Localities on the eastern Gulf coastal plain are included in the late Eocene Fayette delta system, and lignite formation is considered to have occurred in lower deltaic environments. Samples are commonly dominated by grains of Caprifoliipites/Salixpollenites, Momites, or Nyssa, indicating dicotyledonous tree-dominated swamps. Some samples contain abundant Cicatricosspories spores, suggesting marshy, fern-dominated areas. The San Miguel lignite deposit in McMullen County is located on the eastern margin of the south Texas strand-plain/barrier-bar system. Caprifoliipites/Salixpollenites pollen is rare in the San Miguel, and most of the levels are dominated by small tricolporates such as cupuliferoipollenites and Sapotaceae. Nyssa is locally important. The lignite is considered to have been deposited in a nondeltaic freshwater swamp behind a barrier island. The Miguel Alleman deposit, across the Mexican border in Tamaulipas, is thought to have developed in a lagoonal-estuarine environment. Dinoflagellates such as Wetzeliella are common at some levels, indicating marine conditions. As with San Miguel, small tricolporates and Momipites are common. These assemblages contrast with Sabinian floras. Wilcox Group east Texas lignites were formed in fluvial environments. Betulaceous pollen is common in these coals. Sabinian south Texas lignites formed in marine environments yield dinoflagellates and Chenopodium-type pollen. Chenopods are common in present-day Gulf Coast salt marshes but seem to have been absent from Jackson-age seacoasts.

  17. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry.

  18. Use of mobile equipment in open pit lignite mines Profen and Zwenkau

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.J.; Zengerle, M.W.

    1997-12-31

    MIBRAG is a lignite mining company located in former East Germany south of Leipzig which was privatized into the ownership of an Anglo-American Consortium in 1994. Bucketwheel and bucketchain excavators tied to conveyor belts have been the primary equipment used for overburden and lignite removal. In order to improve recovery and lignite quality, mobile equipment has been introduced to supplement large excavators. The primary uses to date have been the removal of a hard sandstone layer in overburden, the recovery of coal in a depression of a lower seam and the removal of interburden. The introduction of this equipment has presented challenges such as developing ways to transfer lignite from trucks to conveyor, the need for increased road construction and maintenance, the need for mobile service equipment, purchase of support equipment, managing increased traffic and modifying safety training. Mobile equipment has also provided advantages such as greater flexibility, increased responsiveness to changing conditions, increased opportunities for updating equipment, increased lignite recovery, improved lignite quality control and increased overall equipment availability.

  19. Transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The cornerstone events of transplantation history in Turkey are summarized herein. In 1975, we performed the first living-related renal transplant in Turkey. We followed this in 1978 with the first deceased donor kidney transplantation, using an organ supplied by Eurotransplant. In 1979, the law on harvesting, storage, grafting, and transplantation of organs and tissues was enacted; later that year, the first local deceased donor kidney transplantation was performed by our team. In 1988, another groundbreaking event in Turkey was successfully achieved: the first cadaveric liver transplantation. In 1990, the first pediatric living-related segmental liver transplantation in Turkey, the region, and Europe was performed by our team. One month later, an adult-to-adult living-related liver transplantation was successfully performed. In May 1992, we performed the first combined liver-kidney transplantation from a living-related donor, which was the first operation of its kind. To date, we have performed 2,084 kidney and, since 1988, 439 liver transplantations. During 29 years of solid organ transplantation history in Turkey, 20,794 kidney transplants have been performed nationwide in 62 different centers, as well as 6,565 liver, 621 heart, and 168 pancreas transplants. In 2001, the Ministry of Health established the National Coordination Center as an umbrella organization to promote transplantation activities, especially for deceased donor organ procurement. Transplantation activities are accelerating daily throughout the country, but deceased donors are still far below the desired rates.

  20. Amplitude normalization of dendritic EPSPs at the soma of binaural coincidence detector neurons of the medial superior olive.

    PubMed

    Winters, Bradley D; Jin, Shan-Xue; Ledford, Kenneth R; Golding, Nace L

    2017-02-17

    The principal neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) encode cues for horizontal sound localization through comparisons of the relative timing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). To understand how the timing and amplitude of EPSPs is maintained during propagation in the dendrites, we made dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings from MSO principal neurons in brain slices from Mongolian gerbils. In somatic recordings, EPSP amplitudes were largely uniform following minimal stimulation of excitatory synapses at visualized locations along the dendrites. Similar results were obtained when excitatory synaptic transmission was eliminated in a low calcium solution and then restored at specific dendritic sites by pairing input stimulation and focal application of a higher calcium solution. We performed dual dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings to measure spontaneous EPSPs (sEPSPs) using a dual-channel template-matching algorithm and to separate out those events initiated at or distal to the dendritic recording location. Local dendritic sEPSP amplitudes increased sharply with distance from the soma (length constant, 53.6 μm), but their attenuation during propagation resulted in a uniform amplitude of ∼0.2 mV at the soma. The amplitude gradient of dendritic EPSPs was also apparent in responses to injections of identical simulated excitatory synaptic currents in the dendrites. Compartmental models support the view that these results extensively reflect the influence of dendritic cable properties. With relatively few excitatory axons innervating MSO neurons, the normalization of dendritic EPSPs at the soma would increase the importance of input timing vs. location during the processing of interaural time difference cues in vivoSIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe neurons of the medial superior olive analyze cues for sound localization by detecting the coincidence of binaural excitatory synaptic inputs distributed along the length of their dendrites. Previous

  1. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Denmead, Owen T.; Hill, Julian

    2015-01-01

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m−2 lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head−1 in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head−1 yr−1, based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots. PMID:26584639

  2. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Denmead, Owen T; Hill, Julian

    2015-11-20

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m(-2) lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head(-1) in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head(-1) yr(-1), based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots.

  3. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Denmead, Owen T.; Hill, Julian

    2015-11-01

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m-2 lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head-1 in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head-1 yr-1, based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots.

  4. The effect of lignite on nitrogen mobility in a low-fertility soil amended with biosolids and urea.

    PubMed

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Clough, Tim J; Carlton, Anna; Gough, Kelsi; Dickinson, Nicholas; Horswell, Jacqui; Sherlock, Robert R; Clucas, Lynne; Robinson, Brett H

    2016-02-01

    Lignite has been proposed as a soil amendment that reduces nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching from soil. Our objective was to determine the effect of lignite on nitrogen (N) fluxes from soil amended with biosolids or urea. The effect of lignite on plant yield and elemental composition was also determined. Batch sorption and column leaching experiments were followed by a lysimeter trial where a low fertility soil was amended with biosolids (400 kg N/ha equivalent) and urea (200 kg N/ha equivalent). Treatments were replicated three times, with and without lignite addition (20 t/ha equivalent). Lignite did not reduce NO3(-) leaching from soils amended with either biosolids or urea. While lignite decreased NO3(-) leaching from an unamended soil, the magnitude of this effect was not significant in an agricultural context. Furthermore, lignite increased cumulative N2O production from soils receiving urea by 90%. Lignite lessened the beneficial growth effects of adding biosolids or urea to soil. Further work could investigate whether coating urea granules with lignite may produce meaningful environmental benefits.

  5. Cell differentiation and germ-soma separation in Ediacaran animal embryo-like fossils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Xiao, Shuhai; Pang, Ke; Zhou, Chuanming; Yuan, Xunlai

    2014-12-11

    Phosphorites of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation (∼600 million years old) yield spheroidal microfossils with a palintomic cell cleavage pattern. These fossils have been variously interpreted as sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, unicellular protists, mesomycetozoean-like holozoans, green algae akin to Volvox, and blastula embryos of early metazoans or bilaterian animals. However, their complete life cycle is unknown and it is uncertain whether they had a cellularly differentiated ontogenetic stage, making it difficult to test their various phylogenetic interpretations. Here we describe new spheroidal fossils from black phosphorites of the Doushantuo Formation that have been overlooked in previous studies. These fossils represent later developmental stages of previously published blastula-like fossils, and they show evidence for cell differentiation, germ-soma separation, and programmed cell death. Their complex multicellularity is inconsistent with a phylogenetic affinity with bacteria, unicellular protists, or mesomycetozoean-like holozoans. Available evidence also indicates that the Doushantuo fossils are unlikely crown-group animals or volvocine green algae. We conclude that an affinity with cellularly differentiated multicellular eukaryotes, including stem-group animals or algae, is likely but more data are needed to constrain further the exact phylogenetic affinity of the Doushantuo fossils.

  6. Environmental stresses induce transgenerationally inheritable survival advantages via germline-to-soma communication in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Saya; Uno, Masaharu; Okabe, Emiko; Nono, Masanori; Nishida, Eisuke

    2017-01-09

    Hormesis is a biological phenomenon, whereby exposure to low levels of toxic agents or conditions increases organismal viability. It thus represents a beneficial aspect of adaptive responses to harmful environmental stimuli. Here we show that hormesis effects induced in the parental generation can be passed on to the descendants in Caenorhabditis elegans. Animals subjected to various stressors during developmental stages exhibit increased resistance to oxidative stress and proteotoxicity. The increased resistance is transmitted to the subsequent generations grown under unstressed conditions through epigenetic alterations. Our analysis reveal that the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling effector DAF-16/FOXO and the heat-shock factor HSF-1 in the parental somatic cells mediate the formation of epigenetic memory, which is maintained through the histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylase complex in the germline across generations. The elicitation of memory requires the transcription factor SKN-1/Nrf in somatic tissues. We propose that germ-to-soma communication across generations is an essential framework for the transgenerational inheritance of acquired traits, which provides the offspring with survival advantages to deal with environmental perturbation.

  7. Environmental stresses induce transgenerationally inheritable survival advantages via germline-to-soma communication in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Saya; Uno, Masaharu; Okabe, Emiko; Nono, Masanori; Nishida, Eisuke

    2017-01-01

    Hormesis is a biological phenomenon, whereby exposure to low levels of toxic agents or conditions increases organismal viability. It thus represents a beneficial aspect of adaptive responses to harmful environmental stimuli. Here we show that hormesis effects induced in the parental generation can be passed on to the descendants in Caenorhabditis elegans. Animals subjected to various stressors during developmental stages exhibit increased resistance to oxidative stress and proteotoxicity. The increased resistance is transmitted to the subsequent generations grown under unstressed conditions through epigenetic alterations. Our analysis reveal that the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling effector DAF-16/FOXO and the heat-shock factor HSF-1 in the parental somatic cells mediate the formation of epigenetic memory, which is maintained through the histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylase complex in the germline across generations. The elicitation of memory requires the transcription factor SKN-1/Nrf in somatic tissues. We propose that germ-to-soma communication across generations is an essential framework for the transgenerational inheritance of acquired traits, which provides the offspring with survival advantages to deal with environmental perturbation. PMID:28067237

  8. Cell differentiation and germ-soma separation in Ediacaran animal embryo-like fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Xiao, Shuhai; Pang, Ke; Zhou, Chuanming; Yuan, Xunlai

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorites of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation (~600 million years old) yield spheroidal microfossils with a palintomic cell cleavage pattern. These fossils have been variously interpreted as sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, unicellular protists, mesomycetozoean-like holozoans, green algae akin to Volvox, and blastula embryos of early metazoans or bilaterian animals. However, their complete life cycle is unknown and it is uncertain whether they had a cellularly differentiated ontogenetic stage, making it difficult to test their various phylogenetic interpretations. Here we describe new spheroidal fossils from black phosphorites of the Doushantuo Formation that have been overlooked in previous studies. These fossils represent later developmental stages of previously published blastula-like fossils, and they show evidence for cell differentiation, germ-soma separation, and programmed cell death. Their complex multicellularity is inconsistent with a phylogenetic affinity with bacteria, unicellular protists, or mesomycetozoean-like holozoans. Available evidence also indicates that the Doushantuo fossils are unlikely crown-group animals or volvocine green algae. We conclude that an affinity with cellularly differentiated multicellular eukaryotes, including stem-group animals or algae, is likely but more data are needed to constrain further the exact phylogenetic affinity of the Doushantuo fossils.

  9. Mutation of Gonadal soma-derived factor induces medaka XY gonads to undergo ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takuto; Saino, Kentaro; Matsuda, Masaru

    2015-11-06

    Gonochoristic species have a bipotential gonad that develops into a testis or an ovary. In species whose sex is determined by a genetic factor, the expression of a sex-determining gene is the first cue that directs the development of a bipotential gonad. Subsequent expression of downstream genes induces the gonad to develop into a testis or an ovary. The TGF-ß family member Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf) is thought to be an important gene for gonadal development in teleost fish, and it is expressed at higher levels in the testis than in the ovary from early to mature stages. However, there is little functional information about the gene. In this study, we targeted the Gsdf coding region in the medaka fish Oryzias latipes using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and studied the phenotypes of the Gsdf mutant medaka. Although normal and heterozygous XY gonads developed into a testis, all XY gonads with a homozygous mutation in Gsdf developed into an ovary at early developmental stages. However, two-thirds of Gsdf mutant XY gonads developed into testes in the adult stages. These results demonstrate that although a gonad can develop into a complete testis in the absence of Gsdf, Gsdf function is critical for directing the bipotential gonad at early developmental stages. Therefore, Gsdf is an endogenous inducer of testicular development similar to a master sex-determining gene.

  10. Conventional pulverized coal and fluidized bed combustion testing of San Miguel lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.L.; Goblirsch, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The information generated at GFETC can be summarized in the following way: (1) The ash fouling furnace is an empirical tool which provides good information on relative fouling potential of various fuels. In the case of San Miguel lignite, tests suggest a severe fouling problem if conventional boiler designs are employed. (2) No effect in either deposition rate or deposit strength was seen when MgO and CaCO/sub 3/ were used as additives. For these tests a single addition rate was utilized at two different injection points in the system. (3) Deposits from the combustion of San Miguel lignite are very different from those observed when burning a Northern Great Plains lignite, primarily because of the building of deposits from the refractory wall. (4) No bed agglomeration was noted under the varied run conditions used in AFBC testing of this lignite fuel. (5) The AFBC NO/sub chi/ level emitted in the flue gas were always less than the NSPS limit of 0.6 lbs NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu. (6) Utilization of inherent alkali was less than that observed for North Dakota lignites. It was possible to meet NSPS standards of 90% sulfur capture using limestone addition. Use of lower grade fuels such as the lignite from the San Miguel mine is inevitable if we are to meet the expanding needs for energy in the United States today. To make use of these different fuels extensive testing on laboratory and pilot scales will be beneficial in avoiding major problems due to the different characteristics these materials possess. The present successful operation of a full scale boiler using the San Miguel lignite is a good example of the value pilot scale studies can have on the road to successful operation.

  11. Reexamining the association between fertility and longevity: testing the disposable soma theory in a modern human sample of twins.

    PubMed

    Chereji, Elizabeth; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prescott, Carol A

    2013-05-01

    The disposable soma theory proposes a trade-off between fertility and longevity but existing findings on this association have been mixed. This study used data from 15,622 twins born between 1901 and 1925 ascertained from the population-based Swedish Twin Registry to test the child-longevity association and whether it is accounted for by individual-level factors or by genetic and environmental factors shared by family members. Based on survival analysis, both women and men with children had significantly longer survival relative to the childless, with a slightly higher relative advantage in men. Adjustments for demographic factors and cotwin fertility did not mediate the parenting-survival association, indicating that this association is attributable to individual-level factors associated with fertility rather than family-level environmental or genetic factors shared by cotwins. These results, derived from a large, population-based sample, are inconsistent with the disposable soma theory as applied to modern human populations.

  12. Spikelets in Pyramidal Neurons: Action Potentials Initiated in the Axon Initial Segment That Do Not Activate the Soma

    PubMed Central

    Michalikova, Martina; Kempter, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Spikelets are small spike-like depolarizations that can be measured in somatic intracellular recordings. Their origin in pyramidal neurons remains controversial. To explain spikelet generation, we propose a novel single-cell mechanism: somato-dendritic input generates action potentials at the axon initial segment that may fail to activate the soma and manifest as somatic spikelets. Using mathematical analysis and numerical simulations of compartmental neuron models, we identified four key factors controlling spikelet generation: (1) difference in firing threshold, (2) impedance mismatch, and (3) electrotonic separation between the soma and the axon initial segment, as well as (4) input amplitude. Because spikelets involve forward propagation of action potentials along the axon while they avoid full depolarization of the somato-dendritic compartments, we conjecture that this mode of operation saves energy and regulates dendritic plasticity while still allowing for a read-out of results of neuronal computations. PMID:28068338

  13. Self-administration of ethanol, cocaine, or nicotine does not decrease the soma size of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Mazei-Robison, Michelle S; Appasani, Raghu; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Taylor, Seth R; Picciotto, Marina R; Koob, George F; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Our previous observations show that chronic opiate administration, including self-administration, decrease the soma size of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rodents and humans, a morphological change correlated with increased firing rate and reward tolerance. Given that a general hallmark of drugs of abuse is to increase activity of the mesolimbic DA circuit, we sought to determine whether additional drug classes produced a similar morphological change. Sections containing VTA were obtained from rats that self-administered cocaine or ethanol and from mice that consumed nicotine. In contrast to opiates, we found no change in VTA DA soma size induced by any of these other drugs. These data suggest that VTA morphological changes are induced in a drug-specific manner and reinforce recent findings that some changes in mesolimbic signaling and neuroplasticity are drug-class dependent.

  14. Axonal action-potential initiation and Na+ channel densities in the soma and axon initial segment of subicular pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Colbert, C M; Johnston, D

    1996-11-01

    A long-standing hypothesis is that action potentials initiate first in the axon hillock/initial segment (AH-IS) region because of a locally high density of Na+ channels. We tested this idea in subicular pyramidal neurons by using patch-clamp recordings in hippocampal slices. Simultaneous recordings from the soma and IS confirmed that orthodromic action potentials initiated in the axon and then invaded the soma. However, blocking Na+ channels in the AH-IS with locally applied tetrodotoxin (TTX) did not raise the somatic threshold membrane potential for orthodromic spikes. TTX applied to the axon beyond the AH-IS (30-60 microm from the soma) raised the apparent somatic threshold by approximately 8 mV. We estimated the Na+ current density in the AH-IS and somatic membranes by using cell-attached patch-clamp recordings and found similar magnitudes (3-4 pA/microm2). Thus, the present results suggest that orthodromic action potentials initiate in the axon beyond the AH-IS and that the minimum threshold for spike initiation of the neuron is not determined by a high density of Na+ channels in the AH-IS region.

  15. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  16. On Turkey Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libbee, Kristin Sheridan; Libbee, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Human relations skills are more widely taught and used, and inevitably misused. This aritcle is intended as a brief self-defense course identifying those who undergo this usually temporary, metamorphosis into "turkeys." It provides a rough categorization of subspecies with their identifying characteristics and a proposal for return to personhood.…

  17. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  18. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  19. Educational Institutions: Terminology. Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    Prepared from interviews with personnel of the Turkish Ministry of National Education, and other educational administrators in that country, this publication provides a guide to the terminology used to name the types of public educational institutions found in Turkey. Private educational institutions, military schools, higher schools attached to…

  20. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  1. Educational Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksit, Necmi

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

  2. Workability and strength of lignite bottom ash geopolymer mortar.

    PubMed

    Sathonsaowaphak, Apha; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Pimraksa, Kedsarin

    2009-08-30

    In this paper, the waste lignite bottom ash from power station was used as a source material for making geopolymer. Sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were used as liquid for the mixture and heat curing was used to activate the geopolymerization. The fineness of bottom ash, the liquid alkaline/ash ratio, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratio and the NaOH concentration were studied. The effects of the additions of water, NaOH and napthalene-based superplasticizer on the workability and strength of the geopolymer mortar were also studied. Relatively high strength geopolymer mortars of 24.0-58.0 MPa were obtained with the use of ground bottom ash with 3% retained on sieve no. 325 and mean particle size of 15.7 microm, using liquid alkaline/ash ratios of 0.429-0.709, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratios of 0.67-1.5 and 7.5-12.5M NaOH. The incorporation of water improved the workability of geopolymer mortar more effectively than the use of napthalene-based superplasticizer with similar slight reduction in strengths. The addition of NaOH solution slightly improves the workability of the mix while maintaining the strength of the geopolymer mortars.

  3. Process Analysis of Lignite Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Coupled with Pyrolysis Topping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoqun; Dong, Li; Wang, Yin; Matsuzawa, Y.; Xu, Guangwen

    We developed a comprehensive process model in ASPEN Plus to simulate the energy and mass balances of a lignite-fueled atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler integrated with coal predrying and pyrolysis topping. In this model, it is assumed that the heat from exhausted flue gas was employed for coal predrying, and the sensible heat derived from circulated bed material was used for the pyrolysis topping (endothermic process). The simulation was conducted with respectto the Yunnan Kaiyuan CFB boiler, and two representative lignite coals from Xiao Long Tan (XLT) and Xin Shao (XS) were considered. The result shows that the predrying of coal with the sensible heat of above 363 K from flue gas, the amount of coal consumed in the boiler can be reduced by 3.5% and 5.3% for XLT lignite and XS lignite, respectively. It was also found that integration of pyrolysis topping with the boiler increased the coal consumption of the boiler, and the extent of consumption-increase varies with the yields of tar and gas in the pyrolysis topping process. For agas yield of 5.2% and a tar yield of 5-6%, the consumption of XS lignite increased by about 20% comparing to that in the case without topping.

  4. Tsunami deposits caused by the March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami in the Soma region, Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashizaki, R.; Shirai, M.

    2012-12-01

    The March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami is considered to be a recurrence of the Jogan Earthquake Tsunami (A.D. 869), and generated tsunamis that caused great damage to a wide range of the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. Tsunami deposits are useful to estimate recurrence intervals and scale of past tsunamis, and these estimations are helpful to prevent tsunami disasters. However, identifying tsunami deposits from onshore depositional succession and estimating scale of paleo-tsunami from the tsunami deposits are difficult. Investigation of modern tsunami deposits is necessary to test estimating more accurate scales of the tsunami from deposits themselves. We therefore attempt to find new characteristics of the tsunami deposits which are caused by the March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami, at the Soma region, Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Japan. We found evidences being consistent with previous studies on tsunami deposits in the area and also report characteristics which have not yet been well-documented. Identified characteristics of the tsunami deposits, which have been reported by previous studies, at the investigation area, as follows, (i) the tsunami deposits, which have normal or inverse grading, become generally thinner and finer with distance from the shoreline, (ii) these often intercalate organic-rich silt layers which are deposited during the stagnant phase, and (iii) display variations in thickness due to local surface relief. Although further verification is required, we found the high-angle landward dipping sedimentary structures influenced tsunami on the backshore deposits. We also found the dewatering structures influenced tsunami in the foreshore deposits at the coast in front of the Sendai airport, north of the Soma region. These results suggest tsunami deposits might be preserved in the coastal environment, even though erosion is the primary factor in the environment. The tide gauge records at the Soma port were missed after the first tsunami run-up, therefore

  5. 78 FR 63463 - Intent To Prepare a Regional Environmental Impact Statement for Surface Coal and Lignite Mining...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Coal and Lignite Mining in the State of Texas AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of... associated with a decision to develop and assess data and information with waters of the United States and... lignite mining activities may eventually require authorization from the USACE under Section 404 of...

  6. Design features of first of its kind AFBC high pressure boiler for Kutch lignite fuel in Gujarat, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mokashi, A.; Diwakar, K.W.

    1998-07-01

    Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Ltd. (GHCL) of Gujarat State in India is one of the largest manufacturers of Soda Ash with modern technology from Akzo of the Netherlands. GHCL with earlier experience in firing lignite on a travagrate boiler and with a converted fluidized bed boiler has very clearly identified the problem area for review, and with that rich experience awarded a contract to Thermax Babcock and Wilcox Ltd. (TBW), Pune, India. Accordingly, a boiler has been designed to suit Kutch Lignite and coal with AFBC technology. This paper discusses the complete design of the boiler, effects of Kutch Lignite, its composition, thermal efficiency on coal as well as lignite, various performance parameters and guarantees, sizing arrangements of pressure parts, feeding arrangement and specially designed fluidizing bed combustor, various instrumentation and control loops. This paper discusses all the above features of this high-pressure boiler which can be an ideal boiler for the Kutch lignite fuel.

  7. Comparison of artificial maturation of lignite in hydrous and nonhydrous conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behar, F.; Lewan, M.D.; Lorant, F.; Vandenbroucke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to compare product compositions and yields generated from lignite artificially matured by open nonhydrous pyrolysis, closed nonhydrous pyrolysis, and hydrous pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were fractionated into CO2, H2O, CH4, C2-C5, C8-C14, C14+ saturates, C14+ aromatics and NSOs (resins+asphaltenes). All three methods generated high and similar quantities of water during pyrolysis that ranged between 14.6 and 15.2 wt.% of the original lignite. As a result of this high water content generated by the lignite, the experiments with no added water are referred to as nonhydrous rather than anhydrous. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and elemental analyses were conducted on the recovered lignite after solvent extraction to determine their residual hydrocarbon generation potential and to plot their position in a van Krevelen diagram, respectively. Residual lignite from the closed nonhydrous and hydrous experiments showed relationships between vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) values and atomic H/C ratios that occurred within the fields observed for natural maturation of coal. Although no significant differences in the atomic H/C ratios were observed between closed nonhydrous and hydrous pyrolysis, the vitrinite reflectance values were on the average 0.2% Ro lower in the residual lignite from the nonhydrous experiments. The remaining hydrocarbon generation potential as determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis of the residual lignite showed that the nonhydrous residuals had on the average 16 mg more hydrocarbon potential per gram of original lignite than the hydrous residuals. This suggests there is a better release of the pyrolysis products from the lignite network in the hydrous experiments once generation occurs. For gas generation, at maximum yields, open nonhydrous pyrolysis generates the most hydrocarbon gas (21.0 mg/g original lignite), which is 20% more than closed nonhydrous pyrolysis and 29% more than hydrous pyrolysis. Closed nonhydrous pyrolysis

  8. Characterization of the components of lithologic layers of North Dakota lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Karner, F.R.; Kleesattel, D.R.; Olson, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Lignites of the northern Great Plains (USA) exhibit distinct lithologic layering. Current geochemical research is directed to characterization of the separable components of the lithologic layers - the lithotypes fusain, vitrain and attritus, and their constituent macerals. The lithotype compositions plotted on a ternary bond equivalence diagram (Battaerd and Evans, 1979) show a relationship between the medium dark, medium light, and dark lithotypes of Victorian brown coal (data from Johns and others, 1984) and attritus and fusain in the lignite. These five lithotypes seem to be related, in the order listed, by increasing loss of cellulose, lignin or both. Furthermore, a linear correlation (r = .85) exists between the percent carbon bond equivalence and aromaticity of the five lithotypes. Work currently in progress seeks to extend the understanding of the geochemical relationships among brown coal and lignite lithotypes. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass and their blends with lignite.

    PubMed

    Toptas, Asli; Yildirim, Yeliz; Duman, Gozde; Yanik, Jale

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass (lignocellulosic and animal wastes) and their blends with lignite was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric method under air atmosphere. For comparison, combustion characteristics of raw biomasses were also determined. Torrefaction process improved the reactivity of char combustion step of biomasses. Characteristic combustion parameters for blends showed non-additivity behavior. It was found that the mixture of torrefied biomasses and lignite at a ratio of 1:1 had a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Although no interactions were observed between the lignite and torrefied biomass at initial step of combustion, a certain degree of interaction between the components occurred at char combustion step. Kinetic parameters of combustion were calculated by using the Coats Redfern model. Overall, this study showed that poultry litters can be used as a substitute fuel in coal/biomass co-firing systems by blending with lignocellulosic biomass.

  10. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage.

  11. Sorption of metal ions on lignite and the derived humic substances.

    PubMed

    Havelcová, Martina; Mizera, Jirí; Sýkorová, Ivana; Pekar, Miloslav

    2009-01-15

    The study presents results of sorption of metal ions (Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+) onto lignite mined in South Moravia, Czech Republic, and solid humic substances (humin and humic acid) derived from it. The efficiency of these sorbents has been studied as a function of contact time, solution pH, and metal concentration. The sorption efficiencies were higher for humin and lower for humic acid samples than for the original lignite. With its high sorption capacities of several mmol/g, particularly for Pb2+ and Cd2+, the South Moravian lignite can provide a cheap source material for preparation of sorbents utilizable in removal of toxic metals from wastewaters.

  12. Determination of optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines - Strategy and tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines is defined as a strategic target. The tactics concerning the achievement of this target, includes estimation of optimal time lag between each lignite site (which is a segment of the whole lignite field) complete exploitation and its reclamation. Subsidizing of reclamation has been determined as a function of this time lag and relevant implementation is presented for parameter values valid for the Greek economy. We proved that the methodology we have developed gives reasonable quantitative results within the norms imposed by legislation. Moreover, the interconnection between strategy and tactics becomes evident, since the former causes the latter by deduction and the latter revises the former by induction in the time course of land reclamation.

  13. Possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and renal pelvic cancer in northwestern Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, J.E.; Tatu, C.A.; Bushon, R.N.; Stoeckel, D.M.; Brady, A.M.G.; Beck, M.; Lerch, H.E.; McGee, B.; Hanson, B.C.; Shi, R.; Orem, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    In May and September, 2002, 14 private residential drinking water wells, one dewatering well at a lignite mine, eight surface water sites, and lignite from an active coal mine were sampled in five Parishes of northwestern Louisiana, USA. Using a geographic information system (GIS), wells were selected that were likely to draw water that had been in contact with lignite; control wells were located in areas devoid of lignite deposits. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (cultures maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically) and for metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and presence of pathogenic leptospiral bacteria. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis (RPC) based on data obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry for the five Parishes included in the study. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the presence in drinking water of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO4 and NH3, and 13 chemical elements. Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was detected in four out of eight (50%) of the surface water sites sampled. The present study of a stable rural population examined possible linkages between aquifers containing chemically reactive lignite deposits, hydrologic conditions favorable to the leaching and transport of toxic organic compounds from the lignite into the groundwater, possible microbial contamination, and RPC risk. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  14. Comparative economics truck haulage vs. conveying for lignite mines

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, K.L.

    1983-11-01

    The traditional method of material transportation in open pit mines has been truck haulage. Principally, this is because trucks offer a high degree of flexibility which permits the operator to modify and redirect the mining plan in order to change production goals as variable factors dictate. In recent years, the trend in open pit mining has been to minimize truck haulage and substitute belt conveyor systems. Initially the crusher was placed at the pit perimeter, with the natural evolution to ''in-pit'' crushing, and finally, the relative recent development of portable in-pit crushers. Reduction of the ROM (run-off mine) material at the working face combined with belt conveyor haulage has long been recognized as an economically desirable method for transporting material from the mine to a location where it may be further processed. This method of mining and moving material was pioneered in Europe, and in particular, in the brown-coal fields of Germany. This was due to the fact that European countries are generally more dependent on imported oil, and truck haulage is extremely sensitive to escalating oil prices. In addition, in-pit crushing and conveying requires a significant capital expenditure. In the case of the open cast lignite mines of Germany, long term contracts were available to reduce the economic risk that this large capital expenditure would impose on the mining operation. This general world-wide trend to minimize truck haulage and maximize conveyor transport has slowly been implemented in the United States, and is now being fully recognized as a viable cost cutting measure. The reluctance to substitute conveyors for truck haulage may be attributed to the following factors: Natural resistance to change. The misconception that conveyors do not provide sufficient flexibility. Reluctance to apply ''state of the art'' technology when conservative, conventional methods are available.

  15. Family practice in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozsahin, Akatli Kursad

    2014-03-01

    The national project 'Transformation in Health' was started in 2005 to provide expert primary care by family physicians, and decrease expenses in Turkey. The number of family physicians was far below the need, so public physicians were promoted to family physician status after a 10-day intensive course. The government declared some satisfactory results, but privately paid family physicians were not accepted into the system. Furthermore, the government stopped paying for their services from private settings. Some family physicians became unemployed as the major payer for all forms of medical care in Turkey denied their services. The process showed it's value in time. Nevertheless, family physicians should be the core of this transformation as family medicine is an academic and a scientific discipline and a primary care-oriented specialty with its own specific educational content, research and base of evidence, which cannot be achieved through standard medical education.

  16. Gasification of lignite and wood in the Lurgi circulating fluidized-bed gasifier: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrling, P.; Vierrath, H.

    1989-06-01

    North Dakota lignite and wood chip residue (primarily Douglas fir from the US Pacific Northwest) has been gasified in Lurgi's 2 MW (thermal) CFB pilot plant at Frankfurt/M., W-Germany. Tests were carried out at various temperatures with air or oxygen as gasification agent for the production of fuel gas and synthesis gas, respectively. Further parameters varied included feedstock moisture, air preheat, in-situ desulfurization, etc. The tests showed that North Dakota lignite and wood chips represent suitable feedstocks for CFB gasification. Furthermore, data for the design of large scale commercial plants were obtained. 2 refs., 20 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S.

    2005-07-01

    It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

  18. Subtractive-FTIR spectroscopy to characterize organic matter in lignite samples from different depths.

    PubMed

    Gezici, Orhan; Demir, Ibrahim; Demircan, Aydin; Unlü, Nuri; Karaarslan, Muhsin

    2012-10-01

    Organic matter present in lignite samples collected from different depths (i.e. top, mid and bottom) of lignite source, Ilgın, Konya province, was examined by using subtractive-FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra were recorded on (i) original samples, (ii) the samples dried at 105 °C and (iii) the samples acid-treated and dried. After a combustion process performed for each sample at 650 °C for 15 min, the spectra of samples were recorded and subtracted from the spectra of untreated samples. Hence, a software-based subtraction made it possible to acquire a representative spectra related with organic matter. As the contribution of the bands related with inorganic constituents in lignite samples were eliminated after spectrum-subtraction procedure, difference-spectra led analyzing the spectra related with organic matter in lignite samples, reasonably. Furthermore, the bands related with acidic functional groups, aromatic and aliphatic structures were analyzed on the basis of difference-spectra, easily. From the difference-spectra it was shown that an acid-treatment process under mild conditions caused shift in some specific bands related with carbonyl groups of carboxyls so that the band at around 1710 cm(-1) arisen, while the intensity of the band at around 1420 cm(-1) was diminished. Through the acid-treatment process, acidic groups in lignite samples from different depths were thought to be turned into similar forms by protonation and/or stripping of metal ions originally bonded. Difference-spectra acquired for acid-treated samples made it possible to evaluate the form of carboxylic acid groups present in the studied samples under specific environmental conditions. Hence, a facile and environmentally-friendly methodology was used to analyze organic matter in lignite by using FTIR spectra, and valuable information was acquired about the aliphatic, aromatic and acidic character of the studied lignite samples collected from different depths. The proposed

  19. Co-pyrolysis of Chinese lignite and biomass in a vacuum reactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Zhang, Weijiang

    2014-12-01

    A vacuum fixed bed reactor was applied to pyrolyze lignite, biomass (rice husk) and their blend with high temperature (900 °C) and low heating rate (10 °C/min). Pyrolytic products were kept in the vacuum reactor during the whole pyrolysis process, guaranteeing a long contact time (more than 2 h) for their interactions. Remarkable synergetic effects were observed. Addition of biomass obviously influenced the tar and char yields, gas volume yield, gas composition, char structure and tar composition during co-pyrolysis. It was highly possible that char gasification, gaseous phase interactions, and secondary tar cracking were facilitated when lignite and biomass were co-pyrolyzed.

  20. Subtractive-FTIR spectroscopy to characterize organic matter in lignite samples from different depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezici, Orhan; Demir, Ibrahim; Demircan, Aydin; Ünlü, Nuri; Karaarslan, Muhsin

    2012-10-01

    Organic matter present in lignite samples collected from different depths (i.e. top, mid and bottom) of lignite source, Ilgın, Konya province, was examined by using subtractive-FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra were recorded on (i) original samples, (ii) the samples dried at 105 °C and (iii) the samples acid-treated and dried. After a combustion process performed for each sample at 650 °C for 15 min, the spectra of samples were recorded and subtracted from the spectra of untreated samples. Hence, a software-based subtraction made it possible to acquire a representative spectra related with organic matter. As the contribution of the bands related with inorganic constituents in lignite samples were eliminated after spectrum-subtraction procedure, difference-spectra led analyzing the spectra related with organic matter in lignite samples, reasonably. Furthermore, the bands related with acidic functional groups, aromatic and aliphatic structures were analyzed on the basis of difference-spectra, easily. From the difference-spectra it was shown that an acid-treatment process under mild conditions caused shift in some specific bands related with carbonyl groups of carboxyls so that the band at around 1710 cm-1 arisen, while the intensity of the band at around 1420 cm-1 was diminished. Through the acid-treatment process, acidic groups in lignite samples from different depths were thought to be turned into similar forms by protonation and/or stripping of metal ions originally bonded. Difference-spectra acquired for acid-treated samples made it possible to evaluate the form of carboxylic acid groups present in the studied samples under specific environmental conditions. Hence, a facile and environmentally-friendly methodology was used to analyze organic matter in lignite by using FTIR spectra, and valuable information was acquired about the aliphatic, aromatic and acidic character of the studied lignite samples collected from different depths. The proposed methodology

  1. Nursing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  2. [Stranger in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dorhout Mees, E J

    1997-12-20

    The author, a professor of nephrology, reports some impressions of his 7-year stay in Turkey. He worked at the Ege University in Izmir, traditionally one of the most 'western' cities. He and his wife, who gave unpaid assistance to dialysis patients, attempted to integrate into Turkish society as fully as possible. They traversed the country in weekends and holidays and introduced as many Dutch guests as they could to the unique archeological treasures, the magnificent nature and the extremely friendly population. Work at the university focused increasingly on cultivating a critical attitude with regard to the self, society and the trends and commercialization of medicine in Turkey and in the rest of the world. Self-reliance, also, had to be strengthened. Although this contravened the authority-based Turkish educational system, the efforts were clearly appreciated and even stirred enthusiasm in many of the younger people. There is no doubt that a foreign worker is regarded much more favourable in Turkey than in the Netherlands.

  3. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  4. Action potential fidelity during normal and epileptiform activity in paired soma-axon recordings from rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Julian P; Jiang, Xiaoping; Mennerick, Steven

    2005-07-15

    Although action potential initiation and propagation are fundamental to nervous system function, there are few direct electrophysiological observations of propagating action potentials in small unmyelinated fibres, such as the axons within mammalian hippocampus. To circumvent limitations of previous studies that relied on extracellular stimulation, we performed dual recordings: whole-cell recordings from hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cell somas and extracellular recordings from their axons, up to 800 micro m away. During brief spike trains under normal conditions, axonal spikes were more resistant to amplitude reduction than somatic spikes. Axonal amplitude depression was greatest at the axon initial segment < 150 microm from the soma, and initiation occurred approximately 75 microm from the soma. Although prior studies, which failed to verify spike initiation, suggested substantial axonal depression during seizure-associated extracellular K+([K+]o) rises, we found that 8 mm [K+]o caused relatively small decreases in axonal spike amplitude during brief spike trains. However, during sustained, epileptiform spiking induced in 8 mm [K+]o, axonal waveforms decreased significantly in peak amplitude. During epileptiform spiking, bursts of two or more action potentials > 20 Hz failed to propagate in most cases. In normal [K+]o at 25 and 32 degrees C, spiking superimposed on sustained somatic depolarization, but not spiking alone, produced similar axonal changes as the epileptiform activity. These results highlight the likely importance of steady-state inactivation of axonal channels in maintaining action potential fidelity. Such changes in axonal propagation properties could encode information and/or serve as an endogenous brake on seizure propagation.

  5. An experimental verification of numerical model on superheated steam drying of Belchatow lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, M.; Sciazko, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Akiyama, T.; Hashimoto, A.; Kaneko, S.; Kimijima, S.; Szmyd, J. S.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Due to low production costs, lignite is an important component of energy mixes of countries in its possession. However, high moisture content undermines its applicability as fuel for power generation. Drying in superheated steam is a prospective method of upgrading quality of lignite. The study aimed to validate the drying model of lignite from Belchatow mine in Poland. The experimental investigation on superheated steam drying of lignite was previously conducted. Spheres of 10 mm in diameter were exposed to the drying medium at the temperature range of 110-170oC. The drying behaviour was described in the form of moisture content, drying rate and temperature profile curves against time. With the application of basic coal properties (e.g. density, water percentage, specific heat) as well as the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer in subsequent stages of the process, the numerical model of drying was constructed. It was tentatively verified with reference to experimental results both in terms of drying parameters and temperature. The model illustrated drying behaviour in the entire range of conditions. Nevertheless, further development of numerical model is desirable regarding accuracy of the process parameters.

  6. Hydrologic and geochemical data for the Big Brown lignite mine area, Freestone County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorsey, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Lignite mining in east and east-central Texas is increasing in response to increased energy needs throughout the State. Associated with the increase in mining activities is a greater need to know the effects of mining activities on the water quantity and quality of near-surface aquifers. The near-surface lignite beds mined at the Big Brown Lignite Mine are from the Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group of Eocene age, which is a minor aquifer generally having water suitable for all uses, in eastern Freestone County, Texas. One of the potential hydro!ogic effects of surface-coal mining is a change in the quality of ground water associated with replacement of aquifer materials by mine spoils. The purpose of this report is to compile and categorize geologic, mineralogic, geochemical, and hydrologic data for the Big Brown Lignite Mine and surrounding area in east-central Texas. Included are results of pasteextract analyses, constituent concentrations in water from batch-mixing experiments, sulfur analyses, and minerals or mineral groups detected by X-ray diffraction in 12 spoil material samples collected from 3 locations at the mine site. Also, common-constituent and trace-constituent concentrations in water from eight selected wells, located updip and downdip from the mine, are presented. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water from batch-mixing experiments vary from 12 to 908 milligrams per liter. Water from selected wells contain dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 75 to 510 milligrams per liter.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic generator of electrical energy using gasification products of lignite coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevianko, V. A.; Slavin, V. S.; Sokolov, V. S.

    1980-10-01

    An investigation is presented of an MHD generator of electrical energy fueled by gasification products of lignite coals using the T-layer effect which eliminates caustic additives. A quasi-one-dimensional theory of linear MHD processes is constructed on the basis of MHD equations; a design of an industrial generator is discussed.

  8. MHD generator of electrical energy working on the gasification products of lignites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevianko, V. A.; Slavin, V. S.; Sokolov, V. S.

    1981-03-01

    An investigation is presented of an MHD generator of electrical energy fueled by gasification products of lignite coals using the T-layer effect which eliminates caustic additives. A quasi-one-dimensional theory of linear MHD processes is constructed on the basis of MHD equations; a design of an industrial generator is discussed.

  9. Cofiring lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Zuhal Gogebakan; Nevin Selcuk

    2008-05-15

    In this study, cofiring of high ash and sulfur content lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue was investigated in 0.3 MWt METU Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig in terms of combustion and emission performance of different fuel blends. The results reveal that cofiring of hazelnut shell and cotton residue with lignite increases the combustion efficiency and freeboard temperatures compared to those of lignite firing with limestone addition only. CO{sub 2} emission is not found sensitive to increase in hazelnut shell and cotton residue share in fuel blend. Cofiring lowers SO{sub 2} emissions considerably. Cofiring of hazelnut shell reduces NO and N{sub 2}O emissions; on the contrary, cofiring cotton residue results in higher NO and N{sub 2}O emissions. Higher share of biomass in the fuel blend results in coarser cyclone ash particles. Hazelnut shell and cotton residue can be cofired with high ash and sulfur-containing lignite without operational problems. 32 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. The association of major, minor and trace inorganic elements with lignites. I. Experimental approach and study of a North Dakota lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Robert N.; Given, Peter H.

    1986-09-01

    Lignites resemble peats, the precursors of coals, in containing many carboxylic acid and other functional groups. Consequently much of the relatively small amount of inorganic matter in lignites is present as cations in carboxylates and in chelated coordination complexes, and not only as distinct mineral phases. Consequently the distribution of inorganic matter in lignites will be influenced by the structure of the organic matter, as well as by microbial processes in peats and the geochemical processes involving erosion of rocks and transport of mineral grains and cations in solution. The objective of this study was to seek information on the distribution of major, minor and trace elements in different forms of combination, and in particular to document organic/inorganic interactions in coal formation. Study of the first of five lignites is reported here. The coal (from the Hagel seam in North Dakota) was separated into five fractions by float/ sink methods, and the fractions were further separated into an ammonium acetate extract, an HCl extract and an insoluble residue. Analysis of the fractions (by atomic absorption, plasma arc emission, emission spectroscopy and neutron activation) was found to give much information on how elements were combined in the coals. Results of the fractionation indicate that Ca, Mg, Na, K, Sr, Ba and Mn were present largely or partly in ion-exchangeable form; appreciable amounts of K (illite), Ba (sulfate, carbonate) and Mn were also present in mineral phases. Some Al appeared to be present in organic association. Ti often occurs in sediments by substitution in clays, but we infer that substantial amounts are present here in both acidsoluble and acid-insoluble organic chelates. The considerable enrichment of a number of elements in the fractions of lowest specific gravity suggests that Be, Sc, Cr, Y, Yb, V, Ni, Cu and Zn are associated primarily or partly with the organic matter. The extent to which these elements are associated with

  11. “Spatial Mapping of the Neurite and Soma Proteomes Reveals a Functional Cdc42/Rac Regulatory Network”

    SciTech Connect

    Pertz, Olivier C.; Wang, Yingchun; Yang, Feng; Wang, Wei; gay, laurie J.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Clauss, Therese RW; Anderson, David J.; Liu, Tao; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Klemke, Richard L.

    2008-02-12

    Neurite extension and growth cone navigation are guided by extracellular cues that control cytoskeletal rearrangements. However, understanding the complex signaling mechanisms that mediate neuritogenesis has been limited by the inability to biochemically separate the neurite and soma for spatial proteomic and bioinformatic analyses. Here, we apply global proteome profiling in combination with a novel neurite purification methodology for comparative analysis of the soma and neurite proteomes of neuroblastoma cells. The spatial relationship of 4855 proteins were mapped revealing networks of signaling proteins that control integrins, the actin cytoskeleton, and axonal guidance in the extending neurite. Bioinformatics and functional analyses revealed a spatially compartmentalized Rac/Cdc42 signaling network that operates in conjunction with multiple GEFs and GAPs to control neurite formation. Interestingly, RNA interference experiments revealed that the different GEFs and GAPs regulate specialized functions during neurite formation including neurite growth and retraction kinetics, cytoskeletal organization, and cell polarity. Our findings provide insight into the spatial organization of signaling networks that enable neuritogenesis and provide a comprehensive system-wide profile of proteins that mediate this process including those that control Rac and Cdc42 signaling.

  12. Terrorism Effects on Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-05

    1980’ s many changes took place among these countries; however, there are many indications that the IsB still controls these countries’ intelligence ...for opm Zblkadom vote TERRORISM EFFECTS ON TURKEY BY COLONEL TURAN OLCAY Turkish Army ~Is~RI~~tO S EMHT A’: A~pproved for publ~c 03. RMYWARCOLLG...Distribution is unlimited. 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) S . MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) Ga. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b

  13. [Nuclear families in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and the majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest % of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean regions, and the lowest in the Black Sea region. Among all nuclear families, 87% of them consist of husband, wife and children, whereas 13% of them have only husband and wife. Nuclear families without children are common in urban areas and in the West while nuclear families with children are mostly found in rural areas and in the East and the Black Sea regions. Nuclear families with 3 or more children constitute 32% of all nuclear households in the West. On the other hand, the corresponding % is 73 for the Eastern region. As a result, it is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formation in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics.

  14. Co-liquefaction of the Elbistan Lignite and Poplar Sawdust. Part I: The Effect of the Liquefaction Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Karaca, H.; Acar, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Keklik, I.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, and the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust in an inert atmosphere and in non-catalytic conditions have been examined. Also, the effects of solvent/coal ratio and stirring speed on the total conversion derived as the result of the liquefaction process was attempted to be determined. Based on the results, although the effects of the solvent/coal ratio and the stirring speed on total conversion are similar for both the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust, it was also noted that, under similar conditions, the conversion for the poplar sawdust was higher, as compared to the conversion of the Elbistan lignite. As the result of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, the total conversion was increased partially, depending on both solvent/coal ratio and the speed of stirring. However, it was also noted that the total conversion did not change to a significant extent in high solvent/coal ratios and in stirring speed. As the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, total conversion was increased, based on the solvent/coal ratio. However, as in the case of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, it was noted that the high solvent/coal ratios (i.e., solvent/coal ratios of higher than 2/1) did not have a significant effect on the total conversion that was derived as the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust.

  15. Experimental and analytical evaluation of the drying kinetics of Belchatow lignite in relation to the size of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Y.; Sciazko, A.; Zakrzewski, M.; Fukuda, K.; Tanaka, K.; Hashimoto, A.; Kaneko, S.; Kimijima, S.; Szmyd, JS; Kobayashi, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Water removal is a key technology for enhancing efficient utilization of lignite in power generation. An inherent characteristic of lignite, attributed to the large amount of water kept within the fuel, is the factor decreasing the thermal efficiency of lignite-fired power plants. This paper presents the research results on investigating the drying kinetics of Belchatow lignite excavated in the Central Poland in prior to developing a water removal system. Lignite drying test was conducted in superheated steam atmosphere at the temperature range of 110-170 °C. Spherically shaped samples, of which the diameter is 2.5 mm, was used. The experimental results were then analysed with previously conducted measurements of 5, 10, 30 mm samples to investigate the influence of particle size. The presented analysis shows the agreement of the evaluated drying rate at the CDRP to the experimental data. The obtained experimental results were used to predict the drying behaviour of the group of particles. The proposed investigation clarifies the size dependence of the drying characteristics of the multisize group of lignite particles.

  16. Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis

    2007-08-15

    The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy {gamma}-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the bunker of Kardia mine, Ptolemais. According to the obtained results, the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not adequate and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The deterioration of the on-line measurements' accuracy, compared to previous applications in other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the lignite ash content and ash composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average atomic number of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of this method to low-grade lignites that exhibit large variation in ash content and composition. 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Identification of gonadal soma-derived factor involvement in Monopterus albus (protogynous rice field eel) sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yefei; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiaowu; Guan, Guijun

    2016-07-01

    We studied molecular events and potential mechanisms underlying the process of female-to-male sex transformation in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish in which the gonad is initially a female ovary and transforms into male testes. We cloned and identified a novel gonadal soma derived factor (GSDF), which encodes a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. gsdf expression was measured in gonads of female, intersex and male with reverse transcription-PCR and gsdf's role in sex transformation was studied with qPCR, histological analysis and dual-color in situ hybridization assays and compared to other sex-related genes. gsdf was correlated to Sertoli cell differentiation, indicating involvement in testicular differentiation and sex transformation from female to male in this species. A unique expression pattern reveals a potential role of gsdf essential for the sex transformation of rice field eels.

  18. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Gürel, Mehmet Salih; Yeşilova, Yavuz; Olgen, M Kirami; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania protozoon parasites is a disease which is characterized by long-term nodulo-ulcerative lesions healing spontaneously with scarring. The disease has been well-known in Anatolia for centuries and has different names such as; Urfa boil, Antep boil, year boil, Halep boil, oriental sore and beauty scar. The causative agents are Leishmania tropica and Leishmania tropica/Leishmania infantum in Southeastern Anatolia and East Mediterranean, respectively. CL is a notifiable disease in Turkey and, according to the Ministry of Health official records, 46.003 new cases were reported between 1990 and 2010. Among those cases, 96% of them were reported from the Şanlıurfa, Adana, Osmaniye, Hatay, Diyarbakır, İçel and Kahramanmaraş provinces. Although 45% of cases were notified from Şanlıurfa in the past 20 years, its ratio is currently decreasing while other regions' ratios have been showing an increasing trend. Easier transportation between cities, increased travel migration of the population from rural areas to the peripheral suburbs with inadequate infrastructure and unhealthy housing are thought to be the main factors for spreading the disease from Southeastern Anatolia to other regions of Turkey. Lack of treatment of patients as reservoir hosts because of different reasons and ineffective and inadequate use of insecticides against vector sand flies have also played an important role in spreading the disease. Neglect of this disease by patients and health institutions can also be considered as other factors for the spreading. We believe that, after the strategic plan for leishmaniasis prepared by the Turkish Ministry of Health with the contribution of scientists in 2011 is put into practice, the control of the disease will be more effective.

  19. Supercritical Water as Nanomedium for Gasification of Lignite-Water Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzh, Raisa; Bortyshevskyi, Valerii

    2016-05-01

    The gasification of an aqueous suspension of lignite from Alexandria coalfield (Ukraine) under the supercritical pressure was studied. The initial rates of the formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane were evaluated. The mutually stimulating interaction of the components of "brown coal-water-mineral matter" system was shown due to the influence of nanoscaled water medium on the formation of dipole-inductive, dispersive and ionic associates. In the temperature range of 300-450 °C, the oxygen source for gaseous products of the lignite supercritical gasification is mainly ion-associative nanoclustered water. The source of hydrogen at the subcritical temperature is the organic part of brown coal. For the supercritical water, the source of H is the nanoscale medium with ion associates. The last ones were responsible for the further transformation of coal.

  20. Moessbauer analysis of Lewisville, Texas, archaeological site lignite and hearth samples. Environmental geology notes

    SciTech Connect

    Shiley, R.H.; Hughes, R.E.; Cahill, R.A.; Konopka, K.L.; Hinckley, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Lewisville site, located in Denton County on the Trinity River north of Dallas, Texas, was thought to provide evidence of the earliest human activity in the western hemisphere. Radiocarbon dates of 37,000 to 38,000 B.P. determined for the site in the late 1950s conflicted with the presence of a Clovis point, which would fix the age of the site between 11,000 and 11,500 B.P. It was hypothesized (Johnson, 1982) that Clovis people were burning lignite from nearby outcrops: lignite in hearth residues would give older than actual ages by radiocarbon dating. X-ray diffraction and instrumental neutron-activation analysis proved inconclusive; however, Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated that hematite, a pyrite combustion product, was present in the ash. From this evidence the authors conclude that there is some support for the hypothesis.

  1. Long term results from the first US low NOx conversion of a tangential lignite fired unit

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.; Woldehanna, S.; Grusha, J.; Heinz, G.

    1999-07-01

    Lignite fueled tangential furnaces, when compared to those burning bituminous coal, have unique design and operating requirements which obligate careful assessment for successful low NOx retrofit. Recently, a Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation Tangential Low NOx (TLN) system was installed at Cooperative Power/United Power Association (CP/UPA) lignite fired Coal Creek Unit No. 2. The system has not only achieved the plant's annual NOx emission compliance requirements, but has also substantially improved furnace operating conditions. After nearly one year of operation, the systems performance has continued to support these results. A second unit is scheduled for retrofit in the Spring of 1999. These results are an important milestone for tangential low NOx technology and serve as a forerunner for future low NOx conversions involving low rank coals.

  2. Combustion Characteristics of Lignite Char in a Laboratory-scale Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yoshizo

    In a dual fluidized bed gasifier, the residual char after steam gasification is burnt in riser. The objectives of this work are to clarify the effect of parameters (temperature, pressure, and particle size of lignite char) of char combustion using a laboratory-scale pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC). As a result, the burnout time of lignite char can be improved with increasing operating pressure, and temperature. In addition, the decrease in the particle size of char enhanced the effect on burnout time. The initial combustion rate of the char can be increased with increasing operating pressure. The effect was decreased with increasing operating temperature. However, the effect of operating pressure was slightly changed in small particle size, such as 0.5-1.0 mm. It takes about 20 sec to burn 50% of char in the operating pressure of 0.5 MPa and the particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm.

  3. Estimation of spatial variability of lignite mine dumping ground soil properties using CPTu results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagińska, Irena; Kawa, Marek; Janecki, Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with application of CPTu test results for the probabilistic modeling of dumping grounds. The statistical measures use results from 42 CPT test points located in the lignite mine dumping ground from the region of Central Europe. Both the tip resistance qc as well as local friction fs are tested. Based on the mean values and standard deviations of measured quantities the specific zones in the dumping site profile are distinguished. For three main zones standard deviations of linearly de-trended functions, distributions of normalized de-trended values for qc and fs are examined. Also the vertical scales of fluctuation for both measured quantities are estimated. The obtained result shows that lignite mine dumping site can be successfully described with the Random Field Theory. Additional use of fs values introduces supplementary statistical information.

  4. Supercritical Water as Nanomedium for Gasification of Lignite-Water Suspension.

    PubMed

    Korzh, Raisa; Bortyshevskyi, Valerii

    2016-12-01

    The gasification of an aqueous suspension of lignite from Alexandria coalfield (Ukraine) under the supercritical pressure was studied. The initial rates of the formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane were evaluated. The mutually stimulating interaction of the components of "brown coal-water-mineral matter" system was shown due to the influence of nanoscaled water medium on the formation of dipole-inductive, dispersive and ionic associates. In the temperature range of 300-450 °C, the oxygen source for gaseous products of the lignite supercritical gasification is mainly ion-associative nanoclustered water. The source of hydrogen at the subcritical temperature is the organic part of brown coal. For the supercritical water, the source of H is the nanoscale medium with ion associates. The last ones were responsible for the further transformation of coal.

  5. Effect of various experimental parameters on the swelling and supercritical extraction properties of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Hacimehmetoglu, S.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Canel, M.

    2007-07-01

    The original lignite sample, the samples swollen in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), dimethylformamide (DMF), pyridine, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, ethylenediamine (EDA), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH), the samples impregnated by ZnCl{sub 2} as catalyst and the samples both swollen in the solvents and impregnated by ZnCl{sub 2} were subjected to the supercritical toluene extraction and the effects of temperature, pressure, pre-swelling procedure, hydrogen donor solvent (tetralin), and catalyst on the extract yields were investigated.

  6. Combustion characteristics of blends of lignite and bituminous coal with different binder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    2000-05-01

    In this study, the combustion characteristics of blends of a Turkish lignite and a Siberian bituminous coal with and without binder materials were investigated. Sunflower shell, sawdust, and molasses were used as binder materials. The combustion curves of the coal and binder material samples and of the blends were obtained using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The differences observed in the DTA curves of the samples are discussed in detail.

  7. Single, binary, and multicomponent sorption of iron and manganese on lignite.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Chander, Subhash

    2006-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has long been a significant environmental problem resulting from the microbial oxidation of iron pyrite in the presence of water and air, affording an acidic solution that contains toxic metal ions. The main objective of this study was to remove metal ions [Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Zn(II)] from AMD using lignite, a low-cost adsorbent. The lignite sorbent was utilized for the sorption of ferrous, ferric, manganese, zinc, and calcium ions in aqueous solutions. Studies were performed at different pH to find optimum pH. Equilibrium isotherms were determined to assess the maximum adsorption capacity of lignite for different metal ions. Sorption capacities were compared in single, binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems. The sorption data are correlated with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms in each system. Both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms fit the data reasonably well in terms of regression coefficients. Sorption studies were also performed at different temperatures to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of the process. The maximum lignite adsorption capacities at 25 degrees C were 34.22, 25.84, and 11.90 mg/g for Fe(II), Mn(II), and Fe(III), respectively. Adsorption of Fe(2+) (24.70 mg/g at 10 degrees C and 46.46 mg/g at 40 degrees C) increased with increased temperature, while Mn(2+) adsorption (28.11 mg/g at 10 degrees C and 7.70 mg/g at 40 degrees C) decreased with increased temperature.

  8. Soil stabilisation using AMD sludge, compost and lignite: TCLP leachability and continuous acid leaching.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A; Yip, Alex C K

    2013-11-01

    Utilising locally available industrial by-products for in situ metal stabilisation presents a low-cost remediation approach for contaminated soil. This study explored the potential use of inorganic (acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge and zero-valent iron) and carbonaceous materials (green waste compost, manure compost, and lignite) for minimising the environmental risks of As and Cu at a timber treatment site. After 9-month soil incubation, significant sequestration of As and Cu in soil solution was accomplished by AMD sludge, on which adsorption and co-precipitation could take place. The efficacy of AMD sludge was comparable to that of zero-valent iron. There was marginal benefit of adding carbonaceous materials. However, in a moderately aggressive environment (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), AMD sludge only suppressed the leachability of As but not Cu. Therefore, the provision of compost and lignite augmented the simultaneous reduction of Cu leachability, probably via surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups. Under continuous acid leaching in column experiments, combined application of AMD sludge with compost proved more effective than AMD sludge with lignite. This was possibly attributed to the larger amount of dissolved organic matter with aromatic moieties from lignite, which may enhance Cu and As mobility. Nevertheless, care should be taken to mitigate ecological impact associated with short-term substantial Ca release and continuous release of Al at a moderate level under acid leaching. This study also articulated the engineering implications and provided recommendations for field deployment, material processing, and assessment framework to ensure an environmentally sound application of reactive materials.

  9. Kinetics and mechanisms of hydroliquefaction and hydrogasification of lignite. [Cellulose, wood, manure, municipal waste, coal of various ranks, fuel oil and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.H.; Kranich, W.L.; Geureuz, K.

    1981-01-01

    A high pressure, continuous, stirred-tank reactor system has been constructed for the study of the catalytic liquefaction of North Dakota lignite slurried in anthracene oil. The conversion of lignite using a cobalt-molybdenum on alumina catalyst and the distribution of products as preasphaltenes, asphaltenes, oils and gases has been studied at the following conditions: temperature, 375 to 440/sup 0/C; pressure, 1000 to 1600 psig; agitator speed, 800 to 1500 rpm; catalyst concentration, 0 to 10% (based on lignite); initial lignite concentration, 5 to 30%; and space time, 16 to 52 minutes. At reactor pressures above 1500 psig and agitator speeds above 1000 rpm, reaction rate was essentially independent of pressure. At catalyst concentrations above 1% (based on lignite), the conversion of lignite was essentially independent of catalyst concentration. Experiments were conducted above these limits to find the effect on lignite conversion rate, of initial lignite concentration, and space time, or degree of conversion. The results at constant temperature were correlated by an equation which is given in the report. The relationship between the rate constant, K, and temperature, and between the maximum conversion and temperature was established. The effect of reaction conditions on the distribution of products was studied. In the presence of catalyst, the oil yield was increased, even under conditions where the catalyst did not affect overall lignite conversion. Under the most favorable conditions the oil yield was a little better than that obtained by Cronauer in the uncatalyzed hydroliquefaction of subbituminous coal at similar temperature and pressure.

  10. Calcium-activated potassium conductances contribute to action potential repolarization at the soma but not the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Poolos, N P; Johnston, D

    1999-07-01

    Evidence is accumulating that voltage-gated channels are distributed nonuniformly throughout neurons and that this nonuniformity underlies regional differences in excitability within the single neuron. Previous reports have shown that Ca2+, Na+, A-type K+, and hyperpolarization-activated, mixed cation conductances have varying distributions in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, with significantly different densities in the apical dendrites compared with the soma. Another important channel mediates the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current (IC), which is responsible in part for repolarization of the action potential (AP) and generation of the afterhyperpolarization that follows the AP recorded at the soma. We have investigated whether this current is activated by APs retrogradely propagating in the dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons using whole-cell dendritic patch-clamp recording techniques. We found no IC activation by back-propagating APs in distal dendritic recordings. Dendritic APs activated IC only in the proximal dendrites, and this activation decayed within the first 100-150 micrometer of distance from the soma. The decay of IC in the proximal dendrites occurred despite AP amplitude, plus presumably AP-induced Ca2+ influx, that was comparable with that at the soma. Thus we conclude that IC activation by action potentials is nonuniform in the hippocampal pyramidal neuron, which may represent a further example of regional differences in neuronal excitability that are determined by the nonuniform distribution of voltage-gated channels in dendrites.

  11. Limitations and plausibility of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in explaining the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, S V M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic, tubulointerstitial renal disease often accompanied by urothelial cancer that has a lethality of nearly 100%. Introduction: One of the many factors that have been proposed to play an etiological role in BEN is exposure to organic compounds from Pliocene lignite coal deposits via the drinking water in endemic areas. Objectives: The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the role of the tenets of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in the etiology of BEN in order to provide an improved understanding of the hypothesis for colleagues and patients alike. Methods: A comprehensive compilation of the possible limitations of the hypothesis, with each limitation addressed in turn is presented. Results: The Pliocene lignite hypothesis can best account for, is consistent with, or has the potential to explain the evidence associated with the myriad of factors related to BEN. Conclusions: Residents of endemic areas are exposed to complex mixtures containing hundreds of organic compounds at varying doses and their potentially more toxic (including nephrotoxic) and/or carcinogenic metabolites; however, a multifactorial etiology of BEN appears most likely. PMID:24075451

  12. A geochemical study of macerals from a Miocene lignite and an Eocene bituminous coal, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stankiewicz, B.A.; Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria

    1996-01-01

    Optical and chemical studies of maceral concentrates from a Miocene lignite and an Eocene high-volatile bituminous C coal from southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia were undertaken using pyro-Lysis, optical, electron microprobe and FTIR techniques Pyrolysis products of vitrinite from bituminous coal were dominated by straight-chain aliphatics and phenols. The huminite of the Miocene lignite produced mostly phenolic compounds upon pyrolysis. Differences in the pyrolysis products between the huminite and vitrinite samples reflect both maturation related and paleobotanical differences. An undefined aliphatic source and/or bacterial biomass were the likely contributors of n-alkyl moieties to the vitrinite. The resinite fraction in the lignite yielded dammar-derived pyrolysis products, as well as aliphatics and phenols as the products of admixed huminite and other liptinites. The optically defined resinite-rich fraction of the bituminous coal from Kalimantan produced abundant n-aliphatic moieties upon pyrolysis, but only two major resin markers (cadalene and 1,6-dimethylnaphthalene). This phenomenon is likely due to the fact that Eocene resins were not dammar-related. Data from the electron microprobe and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry strongly support the results obtained by Py GC MS and microscopy.

  13. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  14. Synthetic fuel production using Texas lignite and a very high temperature reactor for process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.A.; Klein, D.E.

    1982-03-01

    Two approaches for synthetic fuel production from coal are studied using Texas lignite as the feedstock. First, the gasification and liquefaction of coal are accomplished using Lurgi gasifiers and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A 50 000 barrel/day facility, consuming 13.7 million tonne/yr (15.1 million ton/yr) of lignite, is considered. Second, a nuclear-assisted coal conversion approach is studied using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor with a modified Lurgi gasifier and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The nuclear-assisted approach resulted in a 35% reduction in coal consumption. In addition, process steam consumption was reduced by one-half and the oxygen plants were eliminated in the nuclear assisted process. Both approaches resulted in a synthetic oil price higher than the March 1980 imported price of $29.65 per barrel: $36.15 for the lignite-only process and $35.16 for the nuclear-assisted process. No tax advantage was assumed for either process and the utility financing method was used for both economic calculations.

  15. Pyrolysis kinetics of blends of Yeni Celtek lignite and sugar beet pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Devrim, Y.G.

    2008-07-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of the Yeni Celtek lignite/sugar beet pulp blends prepared at different ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in the present study. All the experiments were carried out in nitrogen atmosphere under non-isothermal conditions with a heating rate range of 30 K/min in the pyrolysis temperature interval of 298-1,173 K. The Arrhenius model is applied to determine the kinetic parameters from TG/DTG curves. Apparent activation energies of the lignite and sugar beet pulp were calculated as 51.55 kJ/mol and 97.27 kJ/mol, respectively. Activation energies of the blends were also calculated and were found to vary between 54.87 and 74.83 kJ/mol. Effects of blending ratio of lignite to sugar beet pulp on kinetic parameters were investigated and the results were discussed.

  16. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of the Avoca lignite deposit area near Williston, northwestern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.; Crosby, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Avoca deposit in the Sentinel Butte member of Fort Union Formation consists of four potentially strippable lignite beds. Average bed thicknesses, in descending order, are 5, 5, 9, and 8 feet. In the area between Stony Creek and Crazy Man Coulee, the lignite beds are unsaturated, and between Stony Creek and Little Muddy River, only the two lowest beds are saturated. Aquifers in sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone and the Hell Creek Formation probably would yield as much as 50 gallons per minute of sodium bicarbonate type water. However, the aquifers are from 1,100 to 1,800 feet below land surface. Individual sand beds in the Tongue River and Sentinel Butte Members of the Fort Union Formation are the shallowest aquifers below the minable lignite beds. Properly constructed wells completed in these sand beds could yield as much as 40 gallons per minute. The water generally is a sodium bicarbonate type with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from about 500 to 4,200 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  17. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite Mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. R.; Sahni, Ashok; Rana, R. S.; Verma, Poonam

    2013-04-01

    Early Eocene sedimentary successions of south Asia, are marked by the development of extensive fossil-bearing, lignite-rich sediments prior to the collision of India with Asia and provide data on contemporary equatorial faunal and vegetational assemblages. One such productive locality in western India is the Vastan Lignite Mine representing approximately a 54-52 Ma sequence dated by the presence of benthic zone marker species, Nummulites burdigalensis burdigalensis. The present study on Vastan Lignite Mine succession is based on the spore-pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and documents contemporary vegetational changes. 86 genera and 105 species belonging to algal remains (including dinoflagellate cysts), fungal remains, pteridophytic spores and angiospermous pollen grains have been recorded. On the basis of first appearance, acme and decline of palynotaxa, three cenozones have been recognized and broadly reflect changing palaeodepositional environments. These are in ascending stratigraphic order (i) Proxapertites Spp. Cenozone, (ii) Operculodinium centrocarpum Cenozone and (iii) Spinizonocolpites Spp. Cenozone. The basal sequence is lagoonal, palm-dominated and overlain by more open marine conditions with dinoflagellate cysts and at the top, mangrove elements are dominant. The succession has also provided a unique record of fish, lizards, snakes, and mammals.

  18. Co-firing of olive residue with lignite in bubbling FBC

    SciTech Connect

    Gogebakan, Z.; Gogebakan, Y.; Selcuk, N.

    2008-07-01

    The effect of biomass share on gaseous pollutant emissions from fluidized bed co-firing of various biomass fuels with high calorific value coals have extensively been investigated to date. However, effect of co-firing of olive residues with low calorific value lignites having high ash and sulfur contents has not been studied in bubbling fluidized bed combustors. In this study, experimental results of various runs pertaining to gaseous emissions (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, NO, N{sub 2}O) from METU 0.3 MWt Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor (ABFBC) test rig co-firing olive residue with indigenous lignite at different biomass shares are presented. The results reveal that co-firing increases combustion efficiency irrespective of the biomass share and that increase in biomass share reduces N{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} emissions considerably while increasing CO emission. O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and NO emissions are not found sensitive to increase in biomass share. Olive residues are co-fired with high ash and sulfur containing lignite without any operational problems.

  19. Investigation of lignite and firewood co-combustion in a furnace for tobacco curing application

    SciTech Connect

    Nakorn Tippayawong; Chutchawan Tantakitti; Satis Thavornun

    2006-07-01

    Co-combustion of lignite and firewood was investigated for an application in tobacco curing industry in Northern Thailand. Extensive experiments have been carried out in a newly developed furnace suitable for small curing unit, in place of locally made furnace. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the performance of the combustion chamber in the required thermal output range for tobacco curing and to examine the influence of fuel feed rate, fuel mixture ratio and air staging on the combustion and emission characteristics of the furnace during steady state operation. Their effects are characterized in terms of the observed variations of temperature distributions, emissions of CO, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and combustion efficiency. Co-firing of firewood and lignite has been found to exhibit acceptable temperature distribution, high combustion efficiency and low emissions over a wide thermal output span. Stable operation at low (50 kW) and high (150 kW) thermal output was achieved with average CO and SO{sub 2} content in flue gas typically below 1400 and 100 ppm, respectively. Under the conditions considered, it was showed that the fuel feed rate had greater influence on combustion and emissions than firewood and lignite mixture ratio and air staging.

  20. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  1. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  2. Turkey Masquerade. An Idea Worth Trying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of planning for art projects by first producing sketches and then selecting the best sketch. Illustrates this by describing an activity used with fifth-grade students in which they make cut-paper collage turkeys and turkey disguises. Lists possible turkey disguises. (CMK)

  3. Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selim, Sibel

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given…

  4. Turkey energy and environmental review - Task 7 energy sector modeling : executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Since 1990, energy consumption has increased at an annual average rate of 4.3%. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have grown along with its energy consumption. Emissions in 2000 reached 211 million metric tons. With GDP projected to grow at over 6% per year over the next 25 years, both the energy sector and the pollution associated with it are expected to increase substantially. This is expected to occur even if assuming stricter controls on lignite and hard coal-fired power generation. All energy consuming sectors, that is, power, industrial, residential, and transportation, will contribute to this increased emissions burden. Turkish Government authorities charged with managing the fundamental problem of carrying on economic development while protecting the environment include the Ministry of Environment (MOE), the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR), and the Ministry of Health, as well as the Turkish Electricity Generation & Transmission Company (TEAS). The World Bank, working with these agencies, is planning to assess the costs and benefits of various energy policy alternatives under an Energy and Environment Review (EER). Eight individual studies have been conducted under this activity to analyze certain key energy technology issues and use this analysis to fill in the gaps in data and technical information. This will allow the World Bank and Turkish authorities to better understand the trade-offs in costs and impacts associated with specific policy decisions. The purpose of Task 7-Energy Sector Modeling, is to integrate information obtained in other EER tasks and provide Turkey's policy makers with an integrated systems analysis of the various options for

  5. The soma and neurites of primary afferent neurons in the guinea-pig intestine respond differentially to deformation

    PubMed Central

    Kunze, W A A; Clerc, N; Furness, J B; Gola, M

    2000-01-01

    Intrinsic primary afferent neurons in the small intestine are exposed to distortion of their processes and of their cell bodies. Recordings of mechanosensitivity have previously been made from these neurons using intracellular microelectrodes, but this form of recording has not permitted detection of generator potentials from the processes, or of responses to cell body distortion.We have developed a technique to record from enteric neurons in situ using patch electrodes. The mechanical stability of the patch recordings has allowed recording in cell-attached and whole cell configuration during imposed movement of the neurons.Pressing with a fine probe initiated generator potentials (14 ± 9 mV) from circumscribed regions of the neuron processes within the same myenteric ganglion, at distances from 100 to 500 μm from the cell body that was patched. Generator potentials persisted when synaptic transmission was blocked with high Mg2+, low Ca2+ solution.Soma distortion, by pressing down with the whole cell recording electrode, inhibited action potential firing. Consistent with this, moderate intra-electrode pressure (10 mbar; 1 kPa) increased the opening probability of large-conductance (BK) potassium channels, recorded in cell-attached mode, but suction was not effective. In outside-out patches, suction, but not pressure, increased channel opening probability. Mechanosensitive BK channels have not been identified on other neurons.The BK channels had conductances of 195 ± 25 pS. Open probability was increased by depolarization, with a half-maximum activation at a patch potential of 20 mV and a slope factor of 10 mV. Channel activity was blocked by charybdotoxin (20 nM).Stretch that increased membrane area under the electrode by 15 % was sufficient to double open probability. Similar changes in membrane area occur when the intestine changes diameter and wall tension under physiological conditions. Thus, the intestinal intrinsic primary afferent neurons are detectors of

  6. Contribution of potassium conductances to a time-dependent transition in electrical properties of a cockroach motoneuron soma.

    PubMed

    Mills, J D; Pitman, R M

    1999-05-01

    Contribution of potassium conductances to a time-dependent transition in electrical properties of a cockroach motoneuron soma. The cell body of the cockroach (Periplaneta americana) fast coxal depressor motoneuron (Df) displays a time-dependent change in excitability. Immediately after dissection, depolarization evokes plateau potentials, but after several hours all-or-none action potentials are evoked. Because K channel blockers have been shown to produce a similar transition in electrical properties, we have used current-clamp, voltage-clamp and action-potential-clamp recording to elucidate the contribution of different classes of K channel to the transition in electrical activity of the neuron. Apamin had no detectable effect on the neuron, but charybdotoxin (ChTX) caused a rapid transition from plateau potentials to spikes in the somatic response of Df to depolarization. In neurons that already produced spikes when depolarized, ChTX increased spike amplitude but did not increase their duration nor decrease the amplitude of their afterhyperpolarization. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) (which selectively blocks transient K currents) did not cause a transition from plateau potentials to spikes but did enhance oscillations superimposed on plateau potentials. When applied to neurons that already generated spikes when depolarized, 4-AP could augment spike amplitude, decrease the latency to the first spike, and prolong the afterhyperpolarization. Evidence suggests that the time-dependent transition in electrical properties of this motoneuron soma may result, at least in part, from a fall in calcium-dependent potassium current (IK,Ca), consequent on a gradual reduction in [Ca2+ ]i. Voltage-clamp experiments demonstrated directly that outward K currents in this neuron do fall with a time course that could be significant in the transition of electrical properties. Voltage-clamp experiments also confirmed the ineffectiveness of apamin and showed that ChTX blocked most of IK

  7. Removal of BTEX, MTBE and TAME from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto raw and thermally treated lignite.

    PubMed

    Aivalioti, Maria; Pothoulaki, Despina; Papoulias, Panagiotis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2012-03-15

    The removal of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and m-,p-,o-xylenes), MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) and TAME (tertiary amyl methyl ether) from aqueous solutions by raw (L(raw)) and thermally treated lignite at 250 C, 550 °C and 750 °C (L250, L550 and L750, respectively) was studied, through batch experiments. Selected physical characteristics of both raw and treated lignite such as surface area and pore volume distribution were determined. Competitive adsorption effects were also explored. It was proved that the examined lignite samples were quite effective in removing BTEX, MTBE and TAME from aqueous solutions, with sample treated at 750 °C being the most effective. Among the contaminants, BTEX appeared to have the strongest affinity, based on mass uptake by lignite samples. BTEX presence was found to significantly prevent MTBE and TAME adsorption on lignite (up to ∼55%). In all cases, equilibrium was achieved within 3h. The kinetics data proved a closer fit to the pseudo second order model, while the isotherm experimental data were a better fit to the Freundlich model, producing in some cases values of the isotherm constant 1/n less than one, indicating favorable adsorption. Respective batch experiments using commercial activated carbon (AC) were also conducted for comparison.

  8. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  9. Survey report: Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kent, M

    1987-06-01

    The 1983 Turkish Population and Health Survey, involving 5398 ever-married women under 50 years of age, revealed that the demand for family planning services in Turkey exceeds current availability. Although almost 3/4 of survey respondents indicated they wanted only 2-3 children, actual fertility rates in the 1978-83 period averaged 4.2 births/woman. The percent of currently married women under 50 years of age using birth control increased from 50% in 1978 to 62% in 1983, but half of this increase was attributable to a greater reliance on withdrawal. Withdrawal was the contraceptive method used by 49% of family planning acceptors in 1983; only 27% reported use of a modern method. Inadequate supplies was the main reason cited for the low use of modern methods, especially in the more rural eastern regions of the country. The prevalence of traditional methods, and an increasing abortion ratio (25.6/100 live births in 1983), indicates a high unmet need for family planning. 78% of the women surveyed in 1983 asserted that they did not want any more children. The 1983 survey also reported an infant mortality rate of 112/1000 live births. Most Turkish women breastfeed their infants for the 1st year of life, but other traditional practices such as reliance on untrained attendants for childbirth and packing earth into the swaddling cloth with the infant have been linked to higher infant mortality. The survey report concluded that improvements in the education and status of women would enhance their acceptance of family planning and contribute to life-styles more promotive of infant survival.

  10. Repression of the soma-specific transcriptome by Polycomb-repressive complex 2 promotes male germ cell development

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Weipeng; Starmer, Joshua; Fedoriw, Andrew M.; Yee, Della; Magnuson, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes the methylation of histone H3 Lys27 (H3K27) and functions as a critical epigenetic regulator of both stem cell pluripotency and somatic differentiation, but its role in male germ cell development is unknown. Using conditional mutagenesis to remove the core PRC2 subunits EED and SUZ12 during male germ cell development, we identified a requirement for PRC2 in both mitotic and meiotic germ cells. We observed a paucity of mutant spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which appears independent of repression of the known cell cycle inhibitors Ink4a/Ink4b/Arf. Moreover, mutant spermatocytes exhibited ectopic expression of somatic lamins and an abnormal distribution of SUN1 proteins on the nuclear envelope. These defects were coincident with abnormal chromosome dynamics, affecting homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis. We observed acquisition of H3K27me3 on stage-specific genes during meiotic progression, indicating a requirement for PRC2 in regulating the meiotic transcriptional program. Together, these data demonstrate that transcriptional repression of soma-specific genes by PRC2 facilitates homeostasis and differentiation during mammalian spermatogenesis. PMID:25228648

  11. Delayed Survey of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in the Former Exclusion Zone in Minami-Soma, Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shinji; Okayasu, Akio; Yeh, Harry; Fritz, Hermann M.; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Shimozono, Takenori

    2014-12-01

    Post-tsunami field surveys in the Minami-Soma exclusion zone in the Fukushima Prefecture were delayed for 15 months after the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. The area was subject to access restrictions until June 2012 due to high radiation levels caused by the meltdown at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The distribution of the measured tsunami heights is presented in combination with observed infrastructure damage. The enhanced tsunami heights in the areas along the shoreline are attributed to wave reflection, funneling and splash-up at cliffs and seawalls, as well as the increased flow resistance as the tsunami plowed through coastal pine-tree forests. Consequently, large tsunami heights exceeding 10 m were limited to areas within 500 m from the shoreline. Onshore profiles of the maximum inundation levels were dependent on inland topography: tsunami heights increased inland in steep V-shaped valleys, while decaying with inundation distance along flat coastal plains. Tsunami flood levels in the coastal plains are affected by the extent of seawall damage: coastal flood levels are higher behind completely destroyed seawalls than behind partially damaged coastal defenses. Remnant seawalls provided valuable lessons to be implemented in future designs of tenacious structures based on the Japanese concept of `nebari' representing resiliency to endure tsunami overflow as the original design height is exceeded.

  12. Using computer simulations to determine the limitations of dynamic clamp stimuli applied at the soma in mimicking distributed conductance sources

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Risa J.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies we used the technique of dynamic clamp to study how temporal modulation of inhibitory and excitatory inputs control the frequency and precise timing of spikes in neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). Although this technique is now widely used, it is limited to interpreting conductance inputs as being location independent; i.e., all inputs that are biologically distributed across the dendritic tree are applied to the soma. We used computer simulations of a morphologically realistic model of DCN neurons to compare the effects of purely somatic vs. distributed dendritic inputs in this cell type. We applied the same conductance stimuli used in our published experiments to the model. To simulate variability in neuronal responses to repeated stimuli, we added a somatic white current noise to reproduce subthreshold fluctuations in the membrane potential. We were able to replicate our dynamic clamp results with respect to spike rates and spike precision for different patterns of background synaptic activity. We found only minor differences in the spike pattern generation between focal or distributed input in this cell type even when strong inhibitory or excitatory bursts were applied. However, the location dependence of dynamic clamp stimuli is likely to be different for each cell type examined, and the simulation approach developed in the present study will allow a careful assessment of location dependence in all cell types. PMID:21325676

  13. Analysis of the combustion reaction of carbon and lignite char with ignition and extinction phenomena: Shrinking sphere model

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, P.; Sadhukhan, A.K.; Saha, R.K.

    2007-06-15

    Single-particle combustion of carbon and lignite char is analyzed in the present work using a generalized shrinking sphere model. Finite volume method (FVM), which was earlier employed by the authors in solving such moving boundary problems involving single particle analysis of general fluid-solid noncatalytic reactions, has been used in this work to solve the transient mass and energy balance equations. The computed results are compared with published experimental data of fluidized-bed combustion of lignite char. The effects of various parameters like bulk temperature, initial particle temperature, initial particle radius, etc. are examined on the dynamics of combustion of carbon and lignite char. The phenomena of ignition and extinction are also investigated. The importance of nonequimolar diffusion in the combustion reaction has also been analyzed.

  14. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  15. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  16. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  17. Rehabilitation of a lignite mine-disturbed area in the Indian Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, K.D.; Kumar, P.; Gough, L.P.; SanFilipo, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive lignite mining in the Indian (Thar) Desert commenced within the past decade. Accompanying extraction of this valuable resource there have been visible, important environmental impacts. The resultant land degradation has prompted concern from both public and regulatory bodies. This research assesses the success of rehabilitation plans implemented to revegetate a lignite mine-disturbed area, near the village of Giral in western Rajasthan State. Rehabilitation success was achieved within the environmental constraints of this northwest Indian hot-desert ecosystem using a combination of: (1) backfilling (abandoned pits) with minespoil and of covering the backfilled-surfaces with fresh topsoil to a thickness of about 0??30 m; (2) use of micro-catchment rainwater harvesting (MCWH) technique; (3) soil profile modification approaches; (4) plant establishment methodologies; and (5) the selection of appropriate germplasm material (trees, shrubs and grasses). Preliminary results indicate that the resulting vegetative cover will be capable of self-perpetuation under natural conditions while at the same time meeting the land-use requirements of the local people. The minespoil is alkaline in nature and has high electrical conductance. The average content of organic carbon, N, P and K is lower than in the regional topsoil. However, the concentration of Ca, Mg, Na and total S in the minespoil is much higher than in the topsoil. Further, the spoil material has no biological activity. Enhanced plant growth was achieved in MCWH plots, compared to control plots, where minespoil moisture storage was improved by 18-43 per cent. The rehabilitation protocol used at the site appears to have been successful because, in addition to the planted species, desirable native invasive species have become established. This study developed methods for the rehabilitation of lignite mine-disturbed areas and has also resulted in an understanding of rehabilitation processes in arid regions with

  18. Forest ecosystem development in post-mining landscapes: a case study of the Lusatian lignite district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüttl, Reinhard F.; Weber, Edwin

    2001-08-01

    The restoration of surface mining landscapes requires the (re)creation of ecosystems. In Lusatia (eastern Germany), large-scale open-cast lignite mining operations generated spoil dumps widely consisting of acidified, phytotoxic substrates. Amelioration and rehabilitation measures have been developed and applied to these substrates since the 1950s. However, it is still not clear whether these approaches are sustainable. This paper reports on collaborative research work into the ecological potential of forest ecosystem development on typical minesites in the Lusatian lignite district. At first sight, pine stands on minesites along a chronosequence comprising about 35 years did not show differences when compared with stands on non-mined sites of the general region. Furthermore, with some modification, conceptual models for flora and fauna succession in forest stands on non-mined sites seem to be applicable, at least for the early stages of forest ecosystem development. For example, soil organism abundance and activity at minesites had already reached levels typical of non-mined sites after about 20-30 years. In contrast, mine soils are very different from non-mined soils of the test region. Chemically, mine soil development is dominated by processes originating from pyrite oxidation. Geogenic, i.e. lignitic, soil organic carbon was shown to substitute for some functions of pedogenic soil organic matter. Rooting was hampered but not completely impeded in strongly acidified soil compartments. Roots and mycorrhizae are apparently able to make use of the characteristic heterogeneity of young mine soils. Considering these recent results and the knowledge accumulated during more than 30 years of research on minesite rehabilitation internationally, it can be stated that minesite restoration might be used as an ideal case study for forest ecosystem development starting at "point zero" on " terra nova".

  19. Diagnostic measurements on the great machines conditions of lignite surface mines

    SciTech Connect

    Helebrant, F.; Jurman, J.; Fries, J.

    2005-07-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis of loading and service dependability of a rail-mounted excavator used in surface lignite mining is described. Wheel power vibrations in electric motor bearings and electric motor input bearings to the gearbox were measured in situ, in horizontal, vertical, and axial directions. The data were analyzed using a mathematical relationship. The results are presented in a loading diagram that shows the deterioration and the acceptable lower bound of machine conditions over time. Work is continuing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Computational Chemistry Approach to Interpret the Crystal Violet Adsorption on Golbasi Lignite Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Prisbrey, Keith A.; Yucel, Aysegul

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, adsorption mechanism of Crystal Violet (CV) dye from the aqueous solution on the activated carbon prepared from Golbasi lignite was explained and interpreted by a computational chemistry approach and experimental studies. Molecular dynamic simulations and Ab initio frontier orbital analysis indicated relatively high energy and electron transfer processes during adsorption, and molecular dynamics simulations showed CV dye molecules moving around on the activated carbon surface after adsorption, facilitating penetration into cracks and pores. The experimental results supported to molecular dynamic simulation and showed that the monolayer coverage occurred on the activated carbon surface and each CV dye ion had equal sorption activation energy.

  1. Soma influences GSC progeny differentiation via the cell adhesion-mediated steroid-let-7-Wingless signaling cascade that regulates chromatin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    König, Annekatrin; Shcherbata, Halyna R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is known that signaling from the germline stem cell niche is required to maintain germline stem cell identity in Drosophila. However, it is not clear whether the germline stem-cell daughters differentiate by default (because they are physically distant from the niche) or whether additional signaling is necessary to initiate the differentiation program. Previously, we showed that ecdysteroid signaling cell non-autonomously regulates early germline differentiation via its soma-specific co-activator and co-repressor, Taiman and Abrupt. Now, we demonstrate that this regulation is modulated by the miRNA let-7, which acts in a positive feedback loop to confer ecdysone signaling robustness via targeting its repressor, the transcription factor Abrupt. This feedback loop adjusts ecdysteroid signaling in response to some stressful alterations in the external and internal conditions, which include temperature stress and aging, but not nutritional deprivation. Upon let-7 deficit, escort cells fail to properly differentiate: their shape, division, and cell adhesive characteristics are perturbed. These cells have confused cellular identity and form columnar-like rather than squamous epithelium and fail to send protrusions in between differentiating germline cysts, affecting soma-germline communication. Particularly, levels of the homophilic cell adhesion protein Cadherin, which recruits Wg signaling transducer β-catenin, are increased in mutant escort cells and, correspondingly, in the adjacent germline cells. Readjustment of heterotypic (soma-germline) cell adhesion modulates Wg signaling intensity in the germline, which in turn regulates histone modifications that promote expression of the genes necessary to trigger early germline differentiation. Thus, our data first show the intrinsic role for Wg signaling in the germline and support a model where the soma influences the tempo of germline differentiation in response to external conditions. PMID:25661868

  2. Behavior study of trace elements in pulverized lignite, bottom ash, and fly ash of Amyntaio power station, Greece.

    PubMed

    Megalovasilis, Pavlos; Papastergios, Georgios; Filippidis, Anestis

    2013-07-01

    The Kozani-Ptolemais-Amyntaio basin constitutes the principal coal field of Greece. Approximately 50% of the total power production of Greece is generated by five power stations operating in the area. Lignite samples, together with the corresponding fly ash and bottom ash were collected, over a period of 3 months, from the power plant of Amyntaio and analyzed for their content in 16 trace elements. The results indicate that Y, Nb, U, Rb, Zr, Ni, Pb, Ba, Zn, Sr, Cu, and Th demonstrate an organic affinity during the combustion of lignite, while V has an inorganic affinity. Three elements (Co, Cr, and Sc) show an intermediate affinity.

  3. Impact of proposed lignite mining in west Tennessee. Open file report 23 Jan 80-30 Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, R.G.; Wilson, J.M.; Reesman, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    Extensive thick lignite apparently lies within 250 feet of the land surface in Dyer, Lake, Lauderdale, Obion, and Tipton Counties, Tenn. Information on geology, land use, soils, ground water, and instability is compiled along with a bibliography. A test and monitoring site was investigated at Fort Pillow Prison in Lauderdale County. Analyses were made of lignite, overburden, associated water, and leachate. The main potential environmental problems are quality of surface water and possibly shallow ground water. Low transmissibility of shallow aquifers will minimize lowering water levels of wells.

  4. Carbonate and lignite cycles in the Ptolemais Basin: Orbital control and suborbital variability (Late Neogene, northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Tougiannidis, N.; Ricken, W.; Rolf, C.; Kleineder, M.; Bertram, N.; Antoniadis, P.

    2009-04-01

    We recently commenced a project to investigate deep drillings as well as outcrops in the Ptolemais Basin, northern Greece, for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate change. Specific attention is paid to mining sites Achlada, Vevi, Vegora, Amynteon, North Field, South Field, and Lava. The sediment archive comprises Upper Miocene to Quaternary continental lake deposits (up to 800 m thick) with an extended Lower Pliocene section. The Upper Miocene sections are composed of diatomaceous mud and gray marls. Pliocene lake sediments commence with the Kyrio member (lignite/grey marl), followed by the Theodoxus member (beige marl/lignite), and the Notio member (marl with intercalated sand /lignite). The limnic deposits show striking rhythmic bedding of (mostly) carbonates and lignites, reflecting orbital-induced humidity and temperature changes in this small NW-SE elongated continental basin. First, we retrieved chronometric information by determining magnetic polarity changes on three sites as independent stratigraphic ground-truth in combination with palynological evidence and published data. Then we conducted a number of high-resolution (1 - 6 cm increment), non-destructive measurements to obtain paleoclimate proxies: photospectrometry (colors L, a, b), magnetic susceptibility, and natural gamma. Accordingly, we achieved a multi-proxy insight into paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental evolution at unprecedented temporal resolution (up to a few decades!) over long time series and at a number of key sites. Using the newly-developed ESALab software, we conducted spectral and evolutionary spectral analysis to evaluate the cyclo-stratigraphic development. As for orbital variability, spectral power is concentrated on precession, hemi-precession, and eccentricity, with only minor impact of orbital tilt. We used this information to increase the temporal resolution of our age models by tuning as many precession (insolation) maxima as possible to carbonate minima (lignite maxima

  5. Impacts of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident on emergency medical service times in Soma District, Japan: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Tomohiro; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Shuhei; Leppold, Claire; Takahara, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Yuki; Fujioka, Sho; Kami, Masahiro; Kato, Shigeaki; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of the 3.11 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident) on the emergency medical service (EMS) system in Fukushima. Methods Total EMS time (from EMS call to arrival at a hospital) was assessed in the EMS system of Soma district, located 10–40 km north of the nuclear plant, from 11 March to 31 December 2011. We defined the affected period as when total EMS time was significantly extended after the disasters compared with the historical control data from 1 January 2009 to 10 March 2011. To identify risk factors associated with the extension of total EMS time after the disasters, we investigated trends in 3 time segments of total EMS time; response time, defined as time from an EMS call to arrival at the location, on-scene time, defined as time from arrival at the location to departure, and transport time, defined as time from departure from the location to arrival at a hospital. Results For the affected period from week 0 to week 11, the median total EMS time was 36 (IQR 27–52) minutes, while that in the predisaster control period was 31 (IQR 24–40) min. The percentage of transports exceeding 60 min in total EMS time increased from 8.2% (584/7087) in the control period to 22.2% (151/679) in the affected period. Among the 3 time segments, there was the most change in transport time (standardised mean difference: 0.41 vs 0.13–0.17). Conclusions EMS transport was significantly delayed for ∼3 months, from week 1 to 11 after the 3.11 triple disaster. This delay may be attributed to malfunctioning emergency hospitals after the triple disaster. PMID:27683521

  6. Exocytosis of serotonin from the neuronal soma is sustained by a serotonin and calcium-dependent feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Pinzon, Carolina; Cercós, Montserrat G.; Noguez, Paula; Trueta, Citlali; De-Miguel, Francisco F.

    2014-01-01

    The soma of many neurons releases large amounts of transmitter molecules through an exocytosis process that continues for hundreds of seconds after the end of the triggering stimulus. Transmitters released in this way modulate the activity of neurons, glia and blood vessels over vast volumes of the nervous system. Here we studied how somatic exocytosis is maintained for such long periods in the absence of electrical stimulation and transmembrane Ca2+ entry. Somatic exocytosis of serotonin from dense core vesicles could be triggered by a train of 10 action potentials at 20 Hz in Retzius neurons of the leech. However, the same number of action potentials produced at 1 Hz failed to evoke any exocytosis. The 20-Hz train evoked exocytosis through a sequence of intracellular Ca2+ transients, with each transient having a different origin, timing and intracellular distribution. Upon electrical stimulation, transmembrane Ca2+ entry through L-type channels activated Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. A resulting fast Ca2+ transient evoked an early exocytosis of serotonin from sparse vesicles resting close to the plasma membrane. This Ca2+ transient also triggered the transport of distant clusters of vesicles toward the plasma membrane. Upon exocytosis, the released serotonin activated autoreceptors coupled to phospholipase C, which in turn produced an intracellular Ca2+ increase in the submembrane shell. This localized Ca2+ increase evoked new exocytosis as the vesicles in the clusters arrived gradually at the plasma membrane. In this way, the extracellular serotonin elevated the intracellular Ca2+ and this Ca2+ evoked more exocytosis. The resulting positive feedback loop maintained exocytosis for the following hundreds of seconds until the last vesicles in the clusters fused. Since somatic exocytosis displays similar kinetics in neurons releasing different types of transmitters, the data presented here contributes to understand the cellular basis of paracrine neurotransmission

  7. Extracellular Molecular Markers and Soma Size of Inhibitory Neurons: Evidence for Four Subtypes of GABAergic Cells in the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Nichole L.; Young, Jesse W.; Mellott, Jeffrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition plays an important role in shaping responses to stimuli throughout the CNS, including in the inferior colliculus (IC), a major hub in both ascending and descending auditory pathways. Subdividing GABAergic cells has furthered the understanding of inhibition in many brain areas, most notably in the cerebral cortex. Here, we seek the same understanding of subcortical inhibitory cell types by combining staining for two types of extracellular markers—perineuronal nets (PNs) and perisomatic rings of terminals expressing vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) —to subdivide IC GABAergic cells in adult guinea pigs. We found four distinct groups of GABAergic cells in the IC: (1) those with both a PN and a VGLUT2 ring; (2) those with only a PN; (3) those with only a VGLUT2 ring; and (4) those with neither marker. In addition, these four GABAergic subtypes differ in their soma size and distribution among IC subdivisions. Functionally, the presence or absence of VGLUT2 rings indicates differences in inputs, whereas the presence or absence of PNs indicates different potential for plasticity and temporal processing. We conclude that these markers distinguish four GABAergic subtypes that almost certainly serve different roles in the processing of auditory stimuli within the IC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABAergic inhibition plays a critical role throughout the brain. Identification of subclasses of GABAergic cells (up to 15 in the cerebral cortex) has furthered the understanding of GABAergic roles in circuit modulation. Inhibition is also prominent in the inferior colliculus, a subcortical hub in auditory pathways. Here, we use two extracellular markers to identify four distinct groups of GABAergic cells. Perineuronal nets and perisomatic rings of glutamatergic boutons are present in many subcortical areas and often are associated with inhibitory cells, but they have rarely been used to identify inhibitory subtypes. Our results further the understanding of

  8. In Utero Exposure to Benzo[a]Pyrene Increases Mutation Burden in the Soma and Sperm of Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Matthew J.; O’Brien, Jason M.; Beal, Marc A.; Allan, Beverly; Yauk, Carole L.; Marchetti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mosaicism, the presence of genetically distinct cell populations within an organism, has emerged as an important contributor to disease. Mutational events occurring during embryonic development can cause mosaicism in any tissue, but the influence of environmental factors on levels of mosaicism is unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether in utero exposure to the widespread environmental mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) has an impact on the burden and distribution of mutations in adult mice. Methods: We used the Muta™Mouse transgenic rodent model to quantify and characterize mutations in the offspring of pregnant mice exposed to BaP during postconception days 7 through 16, covering the major period of organogenesis in mice. Next-generation DNA sequencing was then used to determine the spectrum of mutations induced in adult mice that were exposed to BaP during fetal development. Results: Mutation frequency was significantly increased in the bone marrow, liver, brain, and sperm of first filial generation (F1) males. Developing embryos accumulated more mutations and exhibited higher proportions of mosaicism than exposed adults, particularly in the brain. Decreased sperm count and motility revealed additional negative impacts on the reproductive function of F1 males. Conclusion: In utero exposure to environmental mutagens contributes to somatic and germline mosaicism, permanently affecting both the genetic health of the F1 and the population gene pool. Citation: Meier MJ, O’Brien JM, Beal MA, Allan B, Yauk CL, Marchetti F. 2017. In utero exposure to benzo[a]pyrene increases mutation burden in the soma and sperm of adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:82–88; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP211 PMID:27448386

  9. Soma-to-germline transmission of RNA in mice xenografted with human tumour cells: possible transport by exosomes.

    PubMed

    Cossetti, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Astrologo, Letizia; Saggio, Isabella; Fais, Stefano; Spadafora, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Mendelian laws provide the universal founding paradigm for the mechanism of genetic inheritance through which characters are segregated and assorted. In recent years, however, parallel with the rapid growth of epigenetic studies, cases of inheritance deviating from Mendelian patterns have emerged. Growing studies underscore phenotypic variations and increased risk of pathologies that are transgenerationally inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion in the absence of any classically identifiable mutation or predisposing genetic lesion in the genome of individuals who develop the disease. Non-Mendelian inheritance is most often transmitted through the germline in consequence of primary events occurring in somatic cells, implying soma-to-germline transmission of information. While studies of sperm cells suggest that epigenetic variations can potentially underlie phenotypic alterations across generations, no instance of transmission of DNA- or RNA-mediated information from somatic to germ cells has been reported as yet. To address these issues, we have now generated a mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells stably expressing EGFP-encoding plasmid. We find that EGFP RNA is released from the xenografted human cells into the bloodstream and eventually in spermatozoa of the mice. Tumor-released EGFP RNA is associated with an extracellular fraction processed for exosome purification and expressing exosomal markers, in all steps of the process, from the xenografted cancer cells to the spermatozoa of the recipient animals, strongly suggesting that exosomes are the carriers of a flow of information from somatic cells to gametes. Together, these results indicate that somatic RNA is transferred to sperm cells, which can therefore act as the final recipients of somatic cell-derived information.

  10. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps.

  11. Turkey knockdown in successive flocks.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D; Edson, R K; Watkins, K L; Robertson, J L; Meldrum, J B; Novilla, M N

    2000-01-01

    Turkey knockdown was diagnosed in three of five flocks of hen turkeys on a single farm within a 12-mo period. The age of birds in the flocks affected ranged from 6 wk 2 days to 7 wk 4 days. The attack rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.30% with a case fatality rate in affected birds ranging from 0 to 74%. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and histopathologic lesions associated with knockdown. The feed in all flocks contained bacitracin methylene disalicylate and monensin (Coban). Affected birds were recumbent, demonstrated paresis, and were unable to vocalize. Postmortem examination revealed few significant lesions although pallor of the adductor muscles and petechiation in adductor and gastrocnemius muscles were noted. Birds that had been recumbent for extended periods were severely dehydrated. Consistent microscopic lesions included degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration of adductor, gastrocnemius, and abdominal muscles. No lesion in cardiac tissue was noted. Results of our investigation indicated that changes in water consumption, vitamin E status, and brooder to finisher movement correlated with the occurrence of knockdown. Turkey knockdown was defined in 1993 as any condition identified in a turkey flock that has affected the neuromuscular system to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand. This definition was later modified to...neuromuscular or skeletal systems to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand properly. Knockdown may be associated with numerous feed, management, or disease factors alone or in combination. Dosage of monensin, feed restriction/gorging, water restriction, heat stress, copper, mycotoxins, sodium chloride in feed, and sulfa drugs have all been suggested as contributing factors; however, laboratory studies to duplicate this have not been successful. This report presents observations from a single farm at which three of five hen flocks in a single year experienced knockdown. When a flock was reported as

  12. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu.

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  13. Effects on groundwater of an ash disposal operation at an east Texas lignite mine

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, K.A.; Mills, S.; Rouse, J.V.

    1994-09-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects on groundwater of a proposed in-pit ash disposal operation at an east Texas lignite mine. An estimated 8 million tons of fly ash were to be deposited in a mined-out part of an active lignite mine during a five-year period. A constructed bottom liner was not planned for the operation because of the low permeability of spoils material in which the fly ash would be encapsulated and the abundance of low-permeability native sediments surrounding the mined-out area. The disposal site, according to state regulations, would be classified as a class II nonhazardous landfill. An intensive investigation was initiated to characterize the geologic, geotechnical, hydrogeologic, and geochemical features within and surrounding the identified disposal area. The data were used in a three-dimensional numerical flow and transport Computer model (SWIFT) to simulate the movement of fly-ash leachate from the landfill. The computer simulations indicate that the plume of leachate will travel 200 to less than 500 ft from the perimeter of the disposal area in 100 yr. Movement will not begin until after resaturation of the spoils material, which will likely take several decades to occur. A buffer zone of mine spoils without ash will surround the disposal area. The study was reviewed by technical staffs at state agencies, and regulatory approval for the proposed landfill operations was obtained. Fly ash is currently being disposed of at the permitted class II nonhazardous landfill.

  14. Effects on groundwater of an ash-disposal operation at an East Texas lignite mine

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, K.A.; Mills, S.; Rouse, J.V.

    1994-12-31

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects on groundwater of a proposed in-pit ash disposal operation at an East Texas lignite mine. An estimated 8 million tons of fly ash was to be deposited in a mined-out part of an active lignite mine during a 5-year period. A constructed bottom liner was not planned for the operation because of the low permeability of spoil materials in which the fly ash would be encapsulated and the abundance of low-permeability native sediments surrounding the mined-out area. The disposal site, according to state regulations, would be classified as a class II nonhazardous landfill. An intensive investigation was initiated to characterize the geologic, geotechnical, hydrogeologic, and geochemical features within and surrounding the identified disposal area. The data were used in a three-dimensional numerical flow and transport computer model (SWIFT) to simulate the movement of fly-ash leachate from the landfill. The computer simulations indicate that the plume of leachate will travel 200 to less than 500 ft from the perimeter of the disposal area in 100 yr. Movement will not begin until after resaturation of the spoil materials, which will likely take several decades to occur. A buffer zone of mine spoils without ash will surround the disposal area. The study was reviewed by technical staffs at state agencies, and regulatory approval for the proposed landfill operations was obtained. Fly ash is currently being disposed of at the permitted class II nonhazardous landfill.

  15. The physico-chemical properties and biostimulative activities of humic substances regenerated from lignite.

    PubMed

    David, Jan; Smejkalová, Daniela; Hudecová, Sárka; Zmeškal, Oldřich; von Wandruszka, Ray; Gregor, Tomáš; Kučerík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The positive effect of humic acids on the growth of plant roots is well known, however, the mechanisms and role of their physical structure in these processes have not been fully explained yet. In this work, South-Moravian lignite was oxidized by means of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to produce a set of regenerated humic acids. The elemental composition, solid state stability and solution characteristics were determined and correlated in vitro with their biological activity. A modified hydroponic method was applied to determine the effects of their potassium salts on Zea mays seedlings roots with respect to the plant weight, root length, root division, and starch and protein content. The relations between the determined parameters were evaluated through Principal Component Analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicated that the most important factor determining the biological activity of South-Moravian lignite potassium humates is related to the nature of self-assemblies, while the chemical composition had no direct connection with the root growth of Zea mays seedlings. It was demonstrated a controlled processing that provided humic substances with different chemical and physicochemical properties and variable biological activity.

  16. Structural degradation of Thar lignite using MW1 fungal isolate: optimization studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; SanFilipo, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological degradation of low-rank coals, particularly degradation mediated by fungi, can play an important role in helping us to utilize neglected lignite resources for both fuel and non-fuel applications. Fungal degradation of low-rank coals has already been investigated for the extraction of soil-conditioning agents and the substrates, which could be subjected to subsequent processing for the generation of alternative fuel options, like methane. However, to achieve an efficient degradation process, the fungal isolates must originate from an appropriate coal environment and the degradation process must be optimized. With this in mind, a representative sample from the Thar coalfield (the largest lignite resource of Pakistan) was treated with a fungal strain, MW1, which was previously isolated from a drilled core coal sample. The treatment caused the liberation of organic fractions from the structural matrix of coal. Fungal degradation was optimized, and it showed significant release of organics, with 0.1% glucose concentration and 1% coal loading ratio after an incubation time of 7 days. Analytical investigations revealed the release of complex organic moieties, pertaining to polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and it also helped in predicting structural units present within structure of coal. Such isolates, with enhanced degradation capabilities, can definitely help in exploiting the chemical-feedstock-status of coal.

  17. Factors affecting the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi Ulucayir lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, I.; Gorgun Ersan, M.

    2007-07-01

    In the coal industry, the coal particles need to be decreased to a very fine size because of the need of removing inorganic materials from coal. Oil agglomeration is a kind of coal cleaning technique that is used for separation of organic and inorganic parts of fine sized coal. In this study, the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi (S-D) Ulucayir lignite was carried out by using kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, poppy oil, and sunflower oil. The amount of bridging oil was varied from 5% to 25% of the amount of lignite. The effect of oil amount, oil type, solid content, agitation rate and time, pH on agglomeration performance was investigated. Maximum recovery value of 98.18% was observed by using poppy oil. In order to investigate the effect of pH on agglomeration NaOH and HCl is added to the slurry in various amounts. It is decided that the best agglomeration condition is obtained at low pH values. The effect of nonionic surface active agent (Igepal-CA 630) on agglomeration is investigated by adding to the slurry and it is observed that the grade is increased with the amount of surface active agent.

  18. Characterization of microorganisms isolated from lignite excavated from the Záhorie coal mine (southwestern Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Pokorný, Richard; Olejníková, Petra; Balog, Miroslav; Zifcák, Peter; Hölker, Udo; Janssen, Martina; Bend, Jutta; Höfer, Milan; Holiencin, Rudolf; Hudecová, Daniela; Varecka, L'udovít

    2005-11-01

    Microorganisms were isolated from lignite freshly excavated in the Záhorie coal mine (southwestern Slovakia) under conditions excluding contamination with either soil or air-borne microorganisms. The isolates represented both Prokarya and Eukarya (fungi). All were able to grow on standard media, although some microorganisms were unstable and became extinct during storage of coal samples. Bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Rhodococcus, according to both morphological criteria and ITS sequences. Several bacterial isolates were resistant to antibiotics. The presence of anaerobic bacteria was also documented, although they have not yet been identified. Fungal isolates were typified by using their ITS sequences. They belonged to the genera Trichoderma (Hypocrea), Penicillium, Epicoccum, Metarhizium (Cordyceps), and Cladosporium. Several fungi produced compounds with antibiotic action against standard bacterial strains. The evidence for the presence of microorganisms in native lignite was obtained by means of fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. Results demonstrated that microorganisms were able to survive in the low-rank coal over a long time period.

  19. Petrographical, palynological, and sedimentological aspects regarding the genesis of Palaeogene lignites near Alexandroupolis, Thrace, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniadis, P.; Kaouras, G.; Khanaqa, P.; Riegel, W.; Gentzis, T.

    2006-01-21

    Several minor lignite deposits of Palaeogene (Eocene to Oligocene) age occur in the vicinity of Alexandroupolis, Thrace, northern Greece. A few, rather thin seams were mined in the past by small private operations for local use. Coal samples have been collected from old mine dumps and outcrops around abandoned mine posts to be studied by means of maceral analysis at high magnification. The groundwater and vegetation index are calculated from the maceral composition and used to draw conclusions concerning the environment of deposition. In addition, block samples of coal cut perpendicular to bedding were studied at intermediate magnification and underfluorescence, thus revealing some interesting bedding features as well as well-preserved plant organisms. The coals are characteristically finely laminated and highly gelified. Palynological preparations have thus far yielded only poorly preserved palynomorph assemblages, rather low in diversity and dominated by fern spores. This fern dominance is rather unusual: however, it is compatible with the occurrence of fertile fern fronds observed in petrographic coal sections. Accompanying clastic sediments exhibit cyclic fining-upward sequences at a scale averaging about 1 m in vertical extent. Grain sizes range from small gravel to clay and silt. In some cases, siltstones in the roof of coal seams include abundant plant fragments showing parallel venation. The evidence presented from various sources suggests a rather unstable fluvial environment and a generally high water table on the flood plain for the formation of these lignites.

  20. Land movement monitoring at the Mavropigi lignite mine using spaceborne D-InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadaki, Eirini; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Mertikas, Stelios; Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Schilizzi, Pavlos

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines the capability of remote sensing radar interferometry to monitor land movements, as it varies with time, in areas close to open pit lignite mines. The study area is the "Mavropigi" lignite mine in Ptolemais, Northern Greece; whose continuous operation is of vital importance to the electric power supply of Greece. The mine is presently 100-120m deep while horizontal and vertical movements have been measured in the vicinity of the pit. Within the mine, ground geodetic monitoring has revealed an average rate of movement amounting to 10-20mm/day at the southeast slopes. In this work, differential interferometry (DInSAR), using 19 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of ALOS satellite, has been applied to monitor progression of land movement caused my mining within the greater area of "Mavropigi" region. The results of this work show that DInSAR can be used effectively to capture ground movement information, well before signs of movements can be observed visually in the form of imminent fissures and tension cracks. The advantage of remote sensing interferometry is that it can be applied even in inaccessible areas where monitoring with ground equipment is either impossible or of high-cost (large areas).

  1. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    SciTech Connect

    Gennett, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  2. Combustion characteristics and air pollutant formation during oxy-fuel co-combustion of microalgae and lignite.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Dou, Jinxiao; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels is seen as one of the key technologies for carbon capture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The combustion characteristics of lignite coal, Chlorella vulgaris microalgae, and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 conditions were studied using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Mass Spectroscopy (TG-MS). During co-combustion of blends, three distinct peaks were observed and were attributed to C. vulgaris volatiles combustion, combustion of lignite, and combustion of microalgae char. Activation energy during combustion was calculated using iso-conventional method. Increasing the microalgae content in the blend resulted in an increase in activation energy for the blends combustion. The emissions of S- and N-species during blend fuel combustion were also investigated. The addition of microalgae to lignite during air combustion resulted in lower CO2, CO, and NO2 yields but enhanced NO, COS, and SO2 formation. During oxy-fuel co-combustion, the addition of microalgae to lignite enhanced the formation of gaseous species.

  3. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  4. Results of core drilling for uranium-bearing lignites in the Bar H area, Slim Buttes, Harding County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeller, Howard D.

    1953-01-01

    Core drilling in the Car H area, Slim Buttes, Harding County, South Dakota, under a contract with the B. H. Mott Drilling Co., Huntington, West Virginia, was resumed June 12, 1952 after a 6-month recess during the winter and was completed July 18, 1952. The drilling was undertaken to obtain information on the distribution and extent of the uranium-bearing lignite beds along the southeast edge of the Bar H area. Eight holes totalling 885 feet were drilled and 52 feet of lignite core submitted for study and analysis. The report includes detailed lithographic descriptions of the lignite cores, Bureau of Mines coal analyses, and the results of 100 chemical analyses for uranium. The drilling showed that the thicker, more persistent lignite beds exposed in the northern part of the Bar H area were removed by erosion prior to the deposition of the overlaying White River formation in the south-eastern part of the area. The beds penetrated by drilling were not of sufficient thickness or uranium content to add to the previously known reserves.

  5. Origin and significance of high nickel and chromium concentrations in pliocene lignite of the Kosovo Basin, Serbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.; Finkelman, R.; Boti, E.; Milosavljevic, M.; Tewalt, S.; Simon, N.; Dulong, F.

    1996-01-01

    Trace element data from 59 Pliocene lignite cores from the lignite field in the Kosovo Basin, southern Serbia, show localized enrichment of Ni and Cr (33-304 ppm and 8-176 ppm, respectively, whole-coal basis). Concentrations of both elements decrease from the western and southern boundaries of the lignite field. Low-temperature ash and polished coal pellets of selected bench and whole-coal samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyses. These analyses show that most of the Ni and Cr are incorporated in detrital and, to a lesser degree, in authigenic minerals. The Ni- and Cr-bearing detrital minerals include oxides, chromites, serpentine-group minerals and rare mixed-layer clays. Possible authigenic minerals include Ni-Fe sulfates and sulfides. Analyses of three lignite samples by a supercritical fluid extraction technique indicate that some (1-11%) of the Ni is organically bound. Ni- and Cr-bearing oxides, mixed-layer clays, chromites and serpentine-group minerals were also identified in weathered and fresh samples of laterite developed on serpentinized Paleozoic peridotite at the nearby Glavica and C??ikatovo Ni mines. These mines are located along the western and northwestern rim, respectively, of the Kosovo Basin, where Ni contents are highest. The detrital Ni- and Cr-bearing minerals identified in lignite samples from the western part of the Kosovo Basin may have been transported into the paleoswamp by rivers that drained the two Paleocene laterites. Some Ni may have been transported directly into the paleoswamp in solution or, alternatively, Ni may have been leached from detrital minerals by acidic peat water and adsorbed onto organic matter and included into authigenic mineral phases. No minable source of Ni and Cr is known in the southern part of the lignite field; however, the mineral and chemical data from the lignite and associated rocks suggest that such a source area may exist.

  6. LARGE-SCALE MECURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR LIGNITE-FIRED UTILITIES-OXIDATION SYSTEMS FOR WET FGD

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Jeffrey S. Thompson

    2004-03-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a consortium-based effort directed toward resolving the mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. Specifically, the EERC team--the EERC, EPRI, URS, ADA-ES, Babcock & Wilcox, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, SaskPower, and the Mercury Task Force, which includes Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Otter Tail Power Company, Great River Energy, Texas Utilities (TXU), Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., Minnkota Power Cooperative, BNI Coal Ltd., Dakota Westmoreland Corporation, and the North American Coal Company--has undertaken a project to significantly and cost-effectively oxidize elemental mercury in lignite combustion gases, followed by capture in a wet scrubber. This approach will be applicable to virtually every lignite utility in the United States and Canada and potentially impact subbituminous utilities. The oxidation process is proven at the pilot-scale and in short-term full-scale tests. Additional optimization is continuing on oxidation technologies, and this project focuses on longer-term full-scale testing. The lignite industry has been proactive in advancing the understanding of and identifying control options for Hg in lignite combustion flue gases. Approximately 1 year ago, the EERC and EPRI began a series of Hg-related discussions with the Mercury Task Force as well as utilities firing Texas and Saskatchewan lignites. This project is one of three being undertaken by the consortium to perform large-scale Hg control technology testing to address the specific needs and challenges to be met in controlling Hg from lignite-fired power plants. This project involves Hg oxidation upstream of a system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The team involved in conducting the technical aspects of the project includes the EERC, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and ADA-ES. The host sites include Minnkota Power Cooperative Milton R. Young

  7. Women and leprosy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakiner, T; Yüksel, A; Soydan, M; Saylan, T; Bahçeci, E

    1993-01-01

    Women in Turkey have many social, cultural and economical problems. Women with leprosy have problems in common with other women as well as those related to physical and social consequences of leprosy. There are 2,414 patients with leprosy in Turkey, registered to Istanbul Leprosy Hospital and 829 of them are females. The mean age and duration of disease of our female leprosy patients are high. Most women with leprosy were born in eastern part of Turkey where prevalence of leprosy is higher and most have moved to western regions. The proportion of women who have some kind of social security is very low. Their economic status is also not good and 79% of patients had stigma about their disease. Three fourths of these cases have been hospitalized some time, for different reasons. Most of them (97.2%) have inactive disease at present. Disability degrees of patients are high. Patients with disability degrees over one constitute 54% of total for eyes, 55% for hands and 51% for feet. High percentage of multibacillary form and long duration of disease, delayed diagnosis, insufficient self-care of patients due to low socio-economic and cultural status and failure of health personnel to control patients periodically may be among the reasons for such high ratios of moderate and severe disabilities. In the light of the data obtained in our study, some measures to alleviate the problems of patients resulting from their socio-economic, cultural and social status have been suggested.

  8. Radiological characteristics and investigation of the radioactive equilibrium in the ashes produced in lignite-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Karangelos, D J; Petropoulos, N P; Anagnostakis, M J; Hinis, E P; Simopoulos, S E

    2004-01-01

    Coal- and lignite-fired power plants produce significant amounts of ashes, which are quite often being used as additives in cement and other building materials. In many cases, coal and lignite present high concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th and 40K. During the combustion process, the produced ashes are enriched in the above radionuclides. The different enrichment of the various radionuclides within a radioactive series, such as that of 238U, results in the disturbance of radioactive secular equilibrium. An extensive research project for the determination of the natural radioactivity of lignite and ashes from Greek lignite-fired power plants is in progress in the Nuclear Engineering Department of the National Technical University of Athens (NED-NTUA) since 1983. This paper presents detailed results for the natural radioactivity, the secular radioactive equilibrium disturbance and the radon exhalation rate of the fly-ash collected at the different stages along the emission control system of a lignite-fired power plant as well as of the bottom-ash. From the results obtained so far, it may be concluded that 226Ra radioactivity of fly-ash in some cases exceeds 1 kBq kg(-1), which is much higher than the mean 226Ra radioactivity of surface soils in Greece (25 Bq kg(-1)). Furthermore, the radioactivity of 210Pb in fly-ash may reach 4 kBq kg(-1). These results are interpreted in relation to the physical properties of the investigated nuclides, the temperature in the flue-gas pathway, as well as the fly-ash grain size distribution. It is concluded that towards the coldest parts of the emission control system of the power plant, the radioactivity of some natural nuclides is gradually enhanced, secular radioactive equilibrium is significantly disturbed and the radon exhalation rate tends to increase.

  9. Preparation and combustion of Yugoslavian lignite-water fuel, Task 7.35. Topical report, July 1991--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M.; DeWall, R.A.; Ljubicic, B.R.; Musich, M.A.; Richter, J.J.

    1994-03-01

    Yugoslavia`s interest in lignite-water fuel (LWF) stems from its involvement in an unusual power project at Kovin in northern Serbia. In the early 1980s, Electric Power of Serbia (EPS) proposed constructing a 600-MW power plant that would be fueled by lignite found in deposits along and under the Danube River. Trial underwater mining at Kovin proved that the dredging operation is feasible. The dredging method produces a coal slurry containing 85% to 90% water. Plans included draining the water from the coal, drying it, and then burning it in the pulverized coal plant. In looking for alternative ways to utilize the ``wet coal`` in a more efficient and economical way, a consortium of Yugoslavian companies agreed to assess the conversion of dredged lignite into a LWF using hot-water-drying (HWD) technology. HWD is a high-temperature, nonevaporative drying technique carried out under high pressure in water that permanently alters the structure of low-rank coals. Changes effected by the drying process include irreversible removal of moisture, micropore sealing by tar, and enhancement of heating value by removal of oxygen, thus, enhancement of the slurry ability of the coal with water. Physical cleaning results indicated a 51 wt % reduction in ash content with a 76 wt % yield for the lignite. In addition, physical cleaning produced a cleaned slurry that had a higher attainable solids loading than a raw uncleaned coal slurry. Combustion studies were then performed on the raw and physically cleaned samples with the resulting indicating that both samples were very reactive, making them excellent candidates for HWD. Bench-scale results showed that HWD increased energy densities of the two raw lignite samples by approximately 63% and 81%. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was conducted to evaluate the HWD and pipeline transport of Kovin LWF to domestic and export European markets. Results are described.

  10. Biophysics of active vesicle transport, an intermediate step that couples excitation and exocytosis of serotonin in the neuronal soma.

    PubMed

    De-Miguel, Francisco F; Santamaría-Holek, Iván; Noguez, Paula; Bustos, Carlos; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Rubí, J Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52-951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60-6.18 µm distances at average 11-95 nms(-1) velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4-72.0), calculated from the ratio of the ΔG(process)/ΔG(ATP), depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6-2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a quantitative method

  11. Biophysics of Active Vesicle Transport, an Intermediate Step That Couples Excitation and Exocytosis of Serotonin in the Neuronal Soma

    PubMed Central

    De-Miguel, Francisco F.; Santamaría-Holek, Iván; Noguez, Paula; Bustos, Carlos; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52–951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60–6.18 µm distances at average 11–95 nms−1 velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4–72.0), calculated from the ratio of the ΔGprocess/ΔGATP, depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6–2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a quantitative

  12. Use of humic acids derived from peat and lignite as phenanthrene sorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofikitis, Elias; Giannouli, Andriana; Kalaitzidis, Stavros; Christanis, Kimon; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Papanicolaou, Cassiani

    2015-04-01

    A broad range of materials is being applied for environmental remediation of water, among them sorbents such as humic acids. Being natural substances, the extraction and purification of humic acids might be cheaper than the production of synthetic sorbents. Having higher absorbing capacity than most of the sorbents used to date, humic acids have a competitive advantage against commonly used sorbents such as active charcoals and biochar. Humic acids are "complex colloidal super-mixtures" that are characterized by their functional groups. Therefore, composition and molecular formula can vary depending on the properties of the parent material. The aim of this project was (a) to study the sorption capacity of humic acids derived from peat and lignite samples picked up from deposits spread throughout Greece and (b) to compare the results with these of the parent materials. This comparison provides an insight to which matrix samples are suitable for further chemical treatment for the isolation of humic acids to be used as sorbents. The selected model pollutant was phenanthrene, which is a PAH that consists of three fused benzene rings. Humic acids were extracted according to the methodology proposed by the IHSS, slightly modified, in order to fit better to the properties of organic sediments. Sorption experiments were conducted by mixing 0.004 g of the sorbent (peat or lignite or humic acid) with aqueous solutions of phenanthrene at different concentrations of 30, 50, 100, 300, and 500 μg/L. The results show that phenanthrene sorption is higher for the humic acid than for the original lignite and peat samples. The original samples display higher sorption at the lower phenanthere solutions (30 μg/L; Kd ranges from 15,000 to 47,000 L/kg) than at the higher one (500 μg/L; Kd ranges from 4,100 to 13,000 L/Kg) suggesting non-linear sorption. The humic acids display mainly linear isotherms with Kd ranges from 6,600 to 120,000 L/kg. Concerning the suitability of the studied

  13. An ecosystem approach to evaluate restoration measures in the lignite mining district of Lusatia/Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Lignite mining in Lusatia has a history of over 100 years. Open-cast mining directly affected an area of 1000 km2. Since 20 years we established an ecosystem oriented approach to evaluate the development and site characteristics of post-mining areas mainly restored for agricultural and silvicultural land use. Water and element budgets of afforested sites were studied under different geochemical settings in a chronosequence approach (Schaaf 2001), as well as the effect of soil amendments like sewage sludge or compost in restoration (Schaaf & Hüttl 2006). Since 10 years we also study the development of natural site regeneration in the constructed catchment Chicken Creek at the watershed scale (Schaaf et al. 2011, 2013). One of the striking characteristics of post-mining sites is a very large small-scale soil heterogeneity that has to be taken into account with respect to soil forming processes and element cycling. Results from these studies in combination with smaller-scale process studies enable to evaluate the long-term effect of restoration measures and adapted land use options. In addition, it is crucial to compare these results with data from undisturbed, i.e. non-mined sites. Schaaf, W., 2001: What can element budgets of false-time series tell us about ecosystem development on post-lignite mining sites? Ecological Engineering 17, 241-252. Schaaf, W. and Hüttl, R. F., 2006: Direct and indirect effects of soil pollution by lignite mining. Water, Air and Soil Pollution - Focus 6, 253-264. Schaaf, W., Bens, O., Fischer, A., Gerke, H.H., Gerwin, W., Grünewald, U., Holländer, H.M., Kögel-Knabner, I., Mutz, M., Schloter, M., Schulin, R., Veste, M., Winter, S. & Hüttl, R.F., 2011: Patterns and processes of initial terrestrial-ecosystem development. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174, 229-239. Schaaf, W., Elmer, M., Fischer, A., Gerwin, W., Nenov, R., Pretsch, H. and Zaplate, M.K., 2013: Feedbacks between vegetation, surface structures and hydrology

  14. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  15. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  16. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  17. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  18. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and…

  19. Kinetic studies of the liquid-phase adsorption of a reactive dye onto activated lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Petrolekas, P.D.; Maggenakis, G.

    2007-02-14

    The kinetics of batch adsorption of a commercial reactive dye onto activated lignite has been investigated at temperatures of 26, 40, and 55{sup o}C, using aqueous solutions with initial dye concentrations in the range of 15-60 mg/L. An empirical single parameter relationship of the adsorbent loading versus the square root of contact time was proposed, which was determined to provide a very good description of the batch adsorption transients up to equilibrium. The data were also examined by means of the Elovich equation. The effect of the temperature and the initial dye concentration on the adsorption kinetics was analyzed, and the results were discussed by considering that intraparticle diffusion is the dominant mechanism.

  20. Biofunctional Characteristics of Lignite Fly Ash Modified by Humates: A New Soil Conditioner

    PubMed Central

    Chassapis, Konstantinos; Roulia, Maria; Vrettou, Evangelia; Fili, Despina; Zervaki, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash superficially modified with humic substances from the Megalopolis lignitic power plant was prepared and evaluated for agricultural uses. UV-vis spectrophotometry and IR spectroscopy revealed that fly ash shows high sorption efficiency towards humic substances. Adsorption proceeds stepwise via strong Coulombic and hydrophophic forces of attraction between guest and host materials. Langmuir, Freundlich, BET, Harkins-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were employed to evaluate the ongoing adsorption and shed light to the physicochemical properties of the sorbent-adsorbate system. Humic substances desorption and microbial cultivation experiments were also carried out to examine the regeneration of the humates under washing and explore the possibility of this material acclimatizing in real soil conditions, both useful for biofunctional agricultural applications. PMID:20592758

  1. Evaluating nephrotoxicity of high-molecular-weight organic compounds in drinking water from lignite aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, J.E.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Orem, W.H.; Pavlovic, N.

    2007-01-01

    High-molecular-weight organic compounds such as humic acids and/or fulvic acids that are naturally mobilized from lignite beds into untreated drinking-water supplies were suggested as one possible cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and cancer of the renal pelvis. A lab investigation was undertaken in order to assess the nephrotoxic potential of such organic compounds using an in vitro tissue culture model. Because of the infeasibility of exposing kidney tissue to low concentrations of organics for years in the lab, tangential flow ultrafiltration was employed to hyperconcentrate samples suitable for discerning effects in the short time frames necessitated by tissue culture systems. Effects on HK-2 kidney cells were measured using two different cell proliferation assays (MTT and alamarBlue). Results demonstrated that exposure of kidney tissue to high-molecular-weight organics produced excess cell death or proliferation depending on concentration and duration of exposure. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  2. Fluorescent carbon nano dots from lignite: unveiling the impeccable evidence for quantum confinement.

    PubMed

    Kumar Thiyagarajan, Senthil; Raghupathy, Suresh; Palanivel, Dharmalingam; Raji, Kaviyarasan; Ramamurthy, Perumal

    2016-04-28

    Synthesizing nano carbon from its bulk precursors is of recent research interest. In this report, luminescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) with tunable particle size and surface functionality are fabricated from lignite using ethylenediamine as the reactive solvent and surface passivating agent via different experimental methods. From the steady-state and time-resolved photophysical studies of these differently sized CNPs, it is unveiled that the energy of the excitons generated after photoexcitation is quantum confined, and it influences the observed photophysical behaviour significantly only when the particle size is less than 10 nm. A larger size of the CNPs and less surface functionalization lead to aggregation, and quenching of the fluorescence. But by dispersing smaller size CNPs in sodium sulfate matrix exhibits fluorescence in the solid state with an absolute fluorescence quantum yield of ∼34%. The prospective application of this hybrid material in sensing and removal of moisture in the atmosphere is illustrated.

  3. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  4. Identification of organic matter from peat, leonardite and lignite fertilisers using humification parameters and electrofocusing.

    PubMed

    Cavani, L; Ciavatta, C; Gessa, C

    2003-01-01

    The organic matter extracted from peats (P), leonardites (Le) and lignites (Li) was characterised by humification parameters and electrofocusing (EF). The degree of humification and the humification index might be used to distinguish P from Le and Li, but not Le from Li because they showed overlapped values, while the humification rate could be used only for the identification of Le and EF profiles of P, Le and Li fertilisers revealed different band patterns: P samples did not show bands in the region with isoelectric point, pI > 4.4; Le samples showed very intense bands in the region with pI > 4.4; Li samples showed a very different band pattern with poorly resolved bands in the region with pI > 3.8. P, Le and Li samples can be distinguished by combining humification parameters and EF.

  5. Elements in the hair of non-mining workers of a lignite open mine in Neyveli.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, Athimoolam; Subramanian, Ramachandran

    2003-04-01

    Trace elements are analyzed in the human scalp hair to assess the extent of body burden of pollution. The levels of seven elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in the hair of fishermen from Pondicherry, students and businessmen from Madras and non-mining workers from Neyveli lignite open mine. When compared between them, significantly high concentrations of Cd in the non-mining workers from Neyveli and Pb in both the students and businessmen from Madras were observed, thereby indicating environmental source of Cd and Pb pollution. The low Zn level was observed in the fishermen indicating their low nutritional source. In addition to the different residential areas, age, diet, smoking habit and family income of subjects are other factors influencing the concentrations of elements in the hair.

  6. Uncertainty estimation by Bayesian approach in thermochemical conversion of walnut hull and lignite coal blends.

    PubMed

    Buyukada, Musa

    2017-05-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to incorporate the uncertainties in the thermal behavior of walnut hull (WH), lignite coal, and their various blends using Bayesian approach. First of all, thermal behavior of related materials were investigated under different temperatures, blend ratios, and heating rates. Results of ultimate and proximate analyses showed the main steps of oxidation mechanism of (co-)combustion process. Thermal degradation started with the (hemi-)cellulosic compounds and finished with lignin. Finally, a partial sensitivity analysis based on Bayesian approach (Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations) were applied to data driven regression model (the best fit). The main purpose of uncertainty analysis was to point out the importance of operating conditions (explanatory variables). The other important aspect of the present work was the first performance evaluation study on various uncertainty estimation techniques in (co-)combustion literature.

  7. Results of reconnaissance for uraniferous coal, lignite, and carbonaceous shale in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hail, William James; Gill, James R.

    1953-01-01

    A reconnaissance search for uraniferous lignite and carbonaceous shale was made in western Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho during the summer of 1951. Particular emphasis in the examination was placed on coal and carbonaceous shale associated with volcanic rocks, as volcanic rocks in many areas appear to have released uranium to circulating ground water from which it was ,concentrated in carbonaceous material. Twenty-two areas in Montana and one area in Idaho were examined. The coal in five of these areas is of Cretaceous age. The coal and carbonaceous shale in the remaining 18 areas occur in Tertiary 'fake-bed' deposits of Oligocene and younger age. Both the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale are associated with contemporaneous or younger volcanic rocks and pyrociastic sequences.

  8. Mineralogy of selected lignitic coal overburdens of the Wilcox Group in east Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, H.S.; Dixon, J.B.; Hossner, L.R.; Senkayi, A.L.

    1984-04-01

    Lignite overburden core samples obtained in the premining stage were size-fractionated and analyzed by x-ray diffraction and chemical methods to determine their mineralogical composition. Although we found a broad similarity in crystalline mineral assemblage in these fluvial sediments from east Texas, we also observed wide variations in the distribution of smectite, kaolinite, mica, vermiculite, and chlorite, with sample location and depth. Electron microscopic investigations indicated that localized concentrations of siderite were probably authigenic in origin. The physicochemical properties and mineralogical composition data obtained in these investigations suggest that segregation of existing low-fertility surface soils for top-dressing may be unnecessary provided that pyrite-rich spoil material and clayey substrata are not deposited in the upper soil zone. 15 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  9. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  10. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  11. Integrated stratigraphy of Paleocene lignite seams of the fluvial Tullock Formation, Montana (USA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorbergen, Lars J.; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; Hilgen, Frederik J.; Krijgsman, Wout; Dekkers, Mark J.; Smit, Jan; Abels, Hemmo A.

    2015-04-01

    Coal-bearing fluvial sedimentation is generally thought to be dominated by autogenic processes that are processes intrinsic to the sedimentary system. Ongoing research however suggests that several fluvial processes such as floodplain inundation and avulsion, can also be controlled by external forcing such as orbital climate change. Still, the exact role of orbital climate forcing in fluvial sediments is difficult to decipher since riverine deposits are complicated by variable sedimentation rates including erosion of previously deposited material, by lateral heterogeneity of sedimentation, and by scarcity of independent dating methods. The early Paleocene lignite-bearing Tullock Formation of the Williston Basin in eastern Montana represents a record of fluvial sedimentation that is perfectly exposed and, displays a seemingly regular alternation of sandstones and lignite seams. These coal beds contain multiple volcanic ash layers. Here, we use an integrated stratigraphic approach (litho- and magnetostratigraphy, geochemical fingerprinting and radio-isotope dating of volcanic ash layers) to establish a high-resolution time frame for the early Paleocene fluvial sediments. First age estimations indicate that the Tullock Formation in Eastern Montana was deposited over a time span of ~ 1000 kyr subsequent to the Cretaceous - Paleogene boundary, dated at ~ 65.95 Ma [1]. Initial high-resolution magnetostratigraphy revealed the occurrence of the C29r/C29n polarity reversal which was stratigraphic consistent at different field locations. We investigate the regional significance of sedimentary change at multiple sites of the same age in order to provide improved insight on the role of orbital forcing in fluvial coal formation. References: [1] Kuiper, K.F., Deino, A., Hilgen, F.J., Krijgsman, W., Renne, P.R., Wijbrans, J.R. (2008). Synchronizing Rock Clocks of Earth History. Science 320, 500-504.

  12. Depositional environment of the San Miguel lignite deposit in Atascosa and McMullen Counties, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Gowan, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the environment of deposition of the San Miguel lignite deposit was carried out in order to understand newly discovered characteristics of the deposit. The environment of deposition of the overburden and underburden was evaluated through an interpretation of three continuous cores. Four coal cores and a highwall section were carefully described to determine the depositional environmental of the coal seams and partings. These studies were supplemented by the construction of seam and parting isopachs, and the analysis of the distribution of sulfur isotopes, sulfur, forms, and total sulfur within the coal. The sedimentary package is composed of a basal prograding barrier that beach, dune, and back-barrier sands. This unit correlates with a downdip sand that was also interpreted as a prograding barrier by other authors. The barrier is overlain by a series of slit and clay deposits of lagoonal, tidal flat, and tidal channel origin. These deposits are capped by restricted lagoon sediments composed of green, calcareous clays that occasionally contain shell layers. The restricted lagoon deposits formed when the barrier closed the lagoon off from the sea. Peat forming freshwater swamps eventually became established behind the barrier and on top of the restricted lagoon sediments. The parting isopachs reveal a reticulate morphology similar to the mangrove swamps located lateral to the modern Niger River Delta. The partings represent vegetated tidal flat deposits that formed during periodic invasions by the sea that killed the swamp and inundated the peat with sulfate rich water. The lignite interval is capped by open lagoon and tidal flat sediments.

  13. Utilization of lignite power generation residues for the production of lightweight aggregates.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Iason M; Stivanakis, Victor E

    2009-04-15

    A novel process is proposed for the utilization of lignite combustion solid residues in the production of inflammable lightweight aggregates (LWA). The process consists of two stages, pelletization and sintering, and carbon contained in BA was used as the process fuel. The main residues bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) from Megalopolis power plant were characterized, mixed in different proportions and treated through pelletization and sintering process. Sintering benefits from combustion of BA carbon content and the product is a hardened porous cake. The energy required for achievement of high temperatures, in the range of 1250 degrees C, was offered by carbon combustion and CO(2) evolution is responsible for porous structure formation. Selected physical properties of sintered material relevant to use as lightweight aggregates were determined, including bulk density, porosity and water absorption. Bulk density varies from 0.83 to 0.91 g/cm(3), porosity varies from 60% to 64% and water absorption varies from 66% to 80%. LWA formed is used for the production of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Thermal conductivity coefficient varies from 0.25 to 0.37 W/mK (lower than maximum limit 0.43 W/mK) and compressive strength varies from 19 to 23 MPa (higher than minimum limit 17 MPa). The results indicate that sintering of lignite combustion residues is an efficient method of utilization of carbon containing BA and production of LWA for structural and insulating purposes. Carbon content of BA is a key factor in LWA production. Finally, this research work comprises the first proposed application for utilization of BA in Greece.

  14. Depositional environments of overbank sedimentation in the lignite-bearing Grey Clays Member: New evidence from Middle Miocene deposits of central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widera, Marek

    2016-04-01

    A detailed sedimentological study of Polish lignite-bearing successions has not previously been undertaken. This contribution focuses on the lignite lithotypes and lake and crevasse splay lithofacies that together constitute the Grey Clays Member. This lithostratigraphic unit strictly refers to the Middle Miocene overbank fluvial environments in central Poland. It mostly consists of the First Mid-Polish Lignite Seam (MPLS-1) in the Tomisławice lignite opencast mine. This lignite seam, containing four lithotypes, is interbedded by sandy and silty-clayey lithofacies. The lithotype associations are characteristic of the low-lying mires representing: fen or open water (< 2 m deep), bush moor and wet-forest swamp. Thus, during their formation the water table was close to the depositional surface. On the other hand, the occurrence of a muddy association composed of clayey-silty (fines) lithofacies both within and on top of the lignite seam corresponds to the presence of small and deep (> 2 m) lakes in the mire area. This is additional evidence of the relatively long-lasting and slow sedimentation of these very fine-grained clastics from suspension in standing lake water. Conversely, the sandy lithofacies associations, representing crevasse splays, were deposited suddenly during overbank flooding. Crevasse splay deposits are typical of initial stages of avulsion and are moderately diverse both texturally and structurally. Exceptions here are slurry flow deposits that contain rip-up clasts of paleosol aggregates. These crevasse splay deposits provide the first evidence of the fluvial environments of the Mid-Miocene mires (backswamp) in central Poland, and they split the currently exploited lignite seam, MPLS-1, in the study area. Thus, identification and description of lithofacies and lithotypes, and determination of their spatial distribution can contribute to a better understanding of the mire development, of which the examined lignite seam arose.

  15. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  16. Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers for lignite gasification and the Texaco Partial Oxidation Process to gasify Lurgi by-product liquids. Final topical report, April 1985-November 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.T.; Smelser, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    A design and cost estimate was prepared for a 250 billion Btu/day lignite-to-SNG plant that uses Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify lignite and the Texaco Partial Oxidation (POX) process to gasify the various hydrocarbon liquids produced by the Lurgi process. Also presented are plant performance and economic comparisons between this plant design and a Base Case design prepared previously in which the Lurgi by-product liquids are burned in boilers and superheaters for steam production. The cost-of-gas for the Study Case is approximately 1.5% higher than the cost-of-gas for the Base Case. It is slightly more economical to burn Lurgi liquids than to gasify them in an auxiliary unit, primarily because if liquids are gasified, additional coal-fired boilers are required for generation of process steam and these are substantially more expensive than boilers fired with liquid fuel.

  17. Protein accumulation underlying lifespan extension via ovariectomy in grasshoppers is consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis but is not due to dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Hatle, John D; Paterson, Cathy S; Jawaid, Imran; Lentz, Colleen; Wells, Sean M; Fronstin, Raime B

    2008-10-01

    Reduced reproduction extends lifespan in many experimental animals, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. The disposable soma hypothesis suggests that when reproduction is reduced, more nutrients are allocated to the soma and lifespan is extended. Alternatively, the reproductive tissues or the process of reproduction may have a direct (i.e., non-nutritional) negative effect on lifespan. We used ovariectomized grasshoppers to examine the effects of reduced reproduction throughout the lifespan at the physiological level. We focused on protein, the limiting nutrient for egg production. Ovariectomized females lived significantly longer than sham females. Because both groups ingested similar amounts, the effect was independent of dietary restriction. Despite this, ovariectomized females gained less body mass than sham females. Ovariectomized grasshoppers produced the egg yolk-precursor protein vitellogenin. At the time sham females laid their first clutch, cumulative reproductive protein was similar in ovariectomized and sham females. By advanced ages, however, ovariectomized females had produced about five-fold less cumulative reproductive protein than sham females. In contrast, old ovariectomized females had at least two-fold more hemolymph storage protein. These results are consistent with ovariectomy extending lifespan in part via enhanced protein allocation to storage at the expense of reproduction.

  18. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  19. Removal and recovery of metal ions from acid mine drainage using lignite--A low cost sorbent.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Chander, Subhash

    2006-10-11

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), has long been a significant environmental problem resulting from the microbial oxidation of iron pyrite in presence of water and air, affording an acidic solution that contains toxic metal ions. The main objective of this study was to remove and recover metal ions from acid mine drainage (AMD) by using lignite, a low cost sorbent. Lignite has been characterized and used for the AMD treatment. Sorption of ferrous, ferric, manganese, zinc and calcium in multi-component aqueous systems was investigated. Studies were performed at different pH to find optimum pH. To simulate industrial conditions for acid mine wastewater treatment, all the studies were performed using single and multi-columns setup in down flow mode. The empty bed contact time (EBCT) model was used for minimizing the sorbent usage. Recovery of the metal ions as well as regeneration of sorbent was achieved successfully using 0.1 M nitric acid without dismantling the columns.

  20. Co-pyrolysis of pine sawdust and lignite in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuyao; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2014-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of lignite and pine sawdust were studied in a TGA and a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and blending ratio on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products (gas, tar, and char) were investigated. TGA experiments showed that pine sawdust decomposition took place at lower temperatures compared to lignite. With increasing the pine sawdust content in the blend, the DTG peaks shifted towards lower temperatures due to synergetic effect. In fixed-bed experiments, the synergetic effect increased the yield of volatile matter compared to the calculated values. The major gases released at low temperatures were CO2 and CO. However, hydrogen was the primary gaseous product at higher temperatures. During co-pyrolysis, concentrations of benzene, naphthalene, and hydrocarbons in the tar decreased, accompanied by an increase in phenols and guaiacol concentrations. With increasing pyrolysis temperature, the OH, aliphatic CH, CO, and CO functional groups in char decomposed substantially.

  1. Palynofacies of lignites and associated sediments in the upper paleocene Tuscahoma sand of southwestern Alabama and eastern Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, R.E. )

    1993-09-01

    The Tuscahoma Sand of the Wilcox Group is composed of fine-grained sand, laminated sandy clay, marl and lignite. The Tuscahoma forms a poorly exposed belt from southeastern Alabama and extends northwestward into western Alabama and eastern Mississippi. The sand is assigned to the late Paleocene planktonic foraminiferal Morozovella velascoensis interval zone. Lignites in the Tuscahoma Sand occur as parasequence deposits in the highstand systems tract of a type 2 depositional sequence near the top of the formation. Organic debris associated with these highstand-systems-tract deposits is dominated by land-derived plant tissues. Marine influence is evidenced by the rare occurrence of dinoflagellate cysts, microforminiferal test linings, and the presence of gray, amorphous organic matter. Three palynofacies are recognized within highstand-systems-tract deposits in the upper Tuscahoma Sand based on the occurrence of organic debris. These palynofacies represent freshwater swamp, brackish marsh and marginal- to shallow-water marine depositional environments. Lignites in the Tuscahoma Sand are dominated by an angiosperm pollen assemblage. Gymnosperm pollen is rare, and marine forms are absent. This assemblage reflects deposition under fresh-water swamp conditions. Carbonaceous clay samples vary in the composition of organic debris. However, many are characterized by the occurrence of herbaceous angiosperm pollen. Arborescent angiosperm pollen is common, as are fern spores. Bisaccate conifer pollen is common and dinoflagellate cysts are rare. Fungal elements are abundant and woody tissue commonly is more degraded than in lignite samples. This assemblage represents deposition in coastal, brackish marsh environments. Organic debris in laminated clays, silts, and sands typically have angiosperm and gymnosperm pollen, dinoflagellate cysts, degraded terrestrial plant material, and amorphous organic matter, and represent shallow-marine and marginal-marine deposits.

  2. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  4. JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

    2008-02-29

    Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and

  5. A field study of lignite as a drying aid in the superheated steam drying of anaerobically digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Hoadley, A F A; Qi, Y; Nguyen, T; Hapgood, K; Desai, D; Pinches, D

    2015-10-01

    Dried sludge is preferred when the sludge is either to be incinerated or used as a soil amendment. This paper focuses on superheated steam drying which has many benefits, because the system is totally enclosed, thereby minimising odours and particulate emissions. This work reports on field trials at a wastewater treatment plant where anaerobically digested sludge is dried immediately after being dewatered by belt press. The trials showed that unlike previous off-site tests, the sludge could be dried without the addition of a filter aid at a low production rate. However, the trials also confirmed that the addition of the lignite (brown coal) into the anaerobically digested sludge led to a more productive drying process, improved product quality and a greater fraction of the product being in the desired product size range. It is concluded that these results were achieved because the lignite helped to control the granule size in the dryer. Furthermore neither Salmonella spp or E coli were detected in the dried samples. Tests on spontaneous combustion show that this risk is increased in proportion to the amount of lignite used as a drying aid.

  6. Trace elements in the Fontinalis antipyretica from rivers receiving sewage of lignite and glass sand mining industry.

    PubMed

    Kosior, Grzegorz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Brudzińska-Kosior, Anna; Bena, Waldemar; Kempers, Alexander J

    2015-07-01

    Intensive lignite and glass sand mining and industrial processing release waste which may contain elements hazardous to the aquatic ecosystem and constitute a potential risk to human health. Therefore, their levels must be carefully controlled. As a result, we examined the effects of sewage on the aquatic Fontinalis antipyretica moss in the Nysa Łużycka (lignite industry) and the Kwisa Rivers (glass sand industry). The Nysa Łużycka and the Kwisa Rivers appeared to be heavily polluted with As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, which were reflected in the extremely high concentration of these elements in F. antipyretica along the studied watercourses. In the Nysa Łużycka, trace element composition in the moss species is affected by lignite industry with accumulation in its tissues of the highest concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, while samples from the Kwisa sites influenced by glass sand industry revealed the highest concentrations of As, V and Fe. The principal component and classification analysis classifies the concentration of elements in the aquatic F. antipyretica moss, thus enabling the differentiation of sources of water pollution in areas affected by mining industry.

  7. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

  8. Influence of lignite mining and utilization on organic matter budget in the Alfeios River Plain, Peloponnese (South Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    G. Siavalas; S. Kalaitzidis; G. Cornelissen; A. Chatziapostolou; K. Christanis

    2007-09-15

    The Megalopolis Lignite Centre (MLC) is a lignite mining and power generation complex located in Southern Greece. In the present study, we investigate the influence of mining and combustion activities on the organic matter (OM) budget of the adjacent Alfeios River plain sediments. A total of 28 plain-sediment samples along with 13 lignite and ash samples from the MLC were collected. The sediment samples were collected from sites upstream and downstream, as well as from the vicinity of the MLC. Their OM and total organic carbon contents range from 0.9 to 43.4 and 0.2 to 24.0 wt %, respectively. The particulate OM was classified in coal-derived, carbonized particles and fresh tissues according to its origin. The different OM phases were quantified using maceral analysis on the sediments' light fraction obtained after heavy media separations. Approximately 75 vol % of the OM was of anthropogenic origin (coal and char particles) related to mining, transport, and combustion processes at the MLC, revealing a high contamination degree. The most contaminated sites were those in the vicinity of the MLC, but upstream and downstream sites also proved to contain high concentrations of anthropogenic OM. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content of the same sediments was very low, similar to pristine areas indicating that there is no contamination from such compounds in the area. 82 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    SciTech Connect

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any balance

  10. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-12-01

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs). Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During previous studies, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon product. As much as a 130% increase in the humic acid sorption capacity of a PAC produced from a high-sodium-content lignite was observed. During this study, activated carbons were prepared from three coals representing high-sodium, low-sodium--low-calcium, and high-calcium compositions in two steps, an initial char formation followed by mild activation with steam to avoid excessive burnout. This set of carbons was characterized with respect to physical and chemical properties. The BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) nitrogen adsorption isotherms gave relatively low surface areas (ranging from 245 to 370 m{sup 2}/g). The lowest-BET area was obtained for the high-sodium carbon, which can be attributed to enlargement of micropores as a result of sodium-catalyzed gasification reaction of the carbon structure. This hypothesis is consistent with the scanning electron microscopy microprobe analyses, which show that in both the coal and the activated carbon from this coal, the sodium is distributed over both the carbon structure and the mineral particles. Thus it is initially associated with carboxylate groups on the coal and then as sodium oxide or

  11. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  12. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  13. Background hydrologic information in potential lignite mining areas in north-central Mississippi, August 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology, is conducting a hydrologic data collection program in potential lignite-producing areas in Mississippi. During the last two weeks of August 1984, hydrologic data were collected at 15 stream sites that drain potential lignite mining areas in Lafayette, Calhoun, and Yalobusha Counties. Main channel widths ranged from approximately 60 feet at three streams (Coon Creek near Toccopula, Muckaloon Creek near Tula, and Hurricane Creek near Velma) to approximately 120 feet at two streams (Potlockney Creek near Tula, and Savannah Creek near Bruce). Maximum water depths ranged from less than 1.0 foot at most streams to over 5.0 feet at sites on Potlockney Creek near Tula and McGill Creek near Sarepta. Stream discharge ranged from 0.32 cubic feet per second in Persimmon Creek near Bruce to 18.5 cubic feet per second in Puskus Creek near Etta. The specific conductance of stream water ranged from 25 to 160 microsiemens and dissolved solids concentrations ranged from 22 to 91 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Most major ion concentrations were less than 10 mg/L with the exception of calcium (11 mg/L), sodium (12 mg/L) and sulfate (18 mg/L) in the water of Persimmon Creek near Bruce. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were greater than 5.0 mg/L at all but one site. Turbidity values were generally less than 50 units. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were equal to or less than 0.10 mg/L in all streams except in Potlockney Creek near Tula where the concentration was 0.11 mg/L. Copper and selenium concentrations in the water at all sampling sites ranged from below the detection limits (1 microgram/g) to 4 micrograms/g (micrograms per gram) and mercury concentrations in bottom material samples ranged from less than 0.01 microgram/g to 0.15 microgram/g. (USGS)

  14. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Lignite-derived products (LDPs), including humic acids and organo-mineral soil conditioners, are being marketed in many parts of the world. They are promoted as plant growth stimulants, additives that improve plant nutrient uptake as well as providing humic materials to improve soil structure and combat soil degradation. There are mixed views regarding the efficacy of these products and there is a lack of scientific studies that verify the efficacy of these products in the field. Anecdotally, agricultural producers become repeat users of the products when they see economic benefits, such as increases in crop yields, while others abandon repeat use when no benefits were seen. In this paper, we present results from a literature meta-analysis1 and a number of field studies that examine the potential for LDPs to improve soil fertility and plant growth. Our findings suggest that complex interactions between LDPs, soil types, environmental conditions and plant species mean that a 'one-size fits all' product or solution is unlikely; and that changes to soil characteristics brought about by LDPs are more apparent over longer time periods than a single cropping season. Most of these studies have not been undertaken in full field trial conditions, where the crop has been grown to harvest. Limited studies in small plots or glass-house conditions often report early benefits. It is not known if these benefits persist. Moreover, the actual composition of these additives may vary significantly and is rarely specified in full. In a study of our own, a small plot experiment evaluated the effect of a single application of a commercial potassium humate product from Victorian lignite on ryegrass and lucerne grown in a sandy, nutrient deficient, low organic matter soil. Treatment resulted in increased shoot growth (up to 33%) of ryegrass during the pasture establishment phase. Root growth was also improved with a 47% increase at 0-10 cm depth and 122% increase at 10-30 cm depth

  15. Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

    2008-01-01

    Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct

  16. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-12-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon

  17. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Mike J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang; Jill M. Zola

    2004-02-01

    North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, pilot, or field scale: (1) activated carbon injection (ACI) upstream of an ESP

  18. Nutrition and gastric cancer in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Suayib

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains to be one of leading causes of cancer deaths despite worldwide decreasing incidence. In Turkey gastric cancer incidence is 9.6/100,000 in men and 5.7/100,000 in females. Gastric cancer is also one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Turkey with a crude death rate of 5.84/100,000 in men, 3.7/100,000 in women. The mean age of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer is 56 years in Turkey. The relatively high rate of gastric cancer in Turkey is mainly due to dietary factors. The traditional food preservation such as salt curing or smoking and lack of refrigeration of food play a significant role in gastric cancer development in the country. There are etiological and epidemiological differences among geographical regions in Turkey. Gastric cancer is seen much more often in the central, northeastern, and eastern part of Turkey. Increased HP pylori infection is also another important reason for increased incidence of gastric cancer in some parts of the country.

  19. Turkey vulture and California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.; Pendleton, Beth Giron

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  20. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  1. Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

  2. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  3. regA, a Volvox gene that plays a central role in germ-soma differentiation, encodes a novel regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Kirk, M M; Stark, K; Miller, S M; Müller, W; Taillon, B E; Gruber, H; Schmitt, R; Kirk, D L

    1999-02-01

    Volvox has two cell types: mortal somatic cells and immortal germ cells. Here we describe the transposon-tagging, cloning and characterization of regA, which plays a central role as a master regulatory gene in Volvox germ-soma differentiation by suppressing reproductive activities in somatic cells. The 12.5 kb regA transcription unit generates a 6,725 nucleotide mRNA that appears at the beginning of somatic cell differentiation, and that encodes a 111 kDa RegA protein that localizes to the nucleus, and has an unusual abundance of alanine, glutamine and proline. This is a compositional feature shared by functional domains of many 'active' repressors. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that RegA acts in somatic cells to repress transcription of genes required for growth and reproduction, including 13 genes whose products are required for chloroplast biogenesis.

  4. Boss/Sev signaling from germline to soma restricts germline-stem-cell-niche formation in the anterior region of Drosophila male gonads.

    PubMed

    Kitadate, Yu; Shigenobu, Shuji; Arita, Kayo; Kobayashi, Satoru

    2007-07-01

    Drosophila germline stem cells are regulated by the somatic microenvironment, or "niche," which ensures that the stem cells can both self-renew and produce functional gametes throughout adult life. However, despite its prime importance, little is known about how niche formation is regulated during gonadal development. Here, we demonstrate that a receptor tyrosine kinase, Sevenless (Sev), is required to ensure that the niche develops in the anterior region of the male embryonic gonads. Sev is expressed in somatic cells within the posterior region of the gonads. Sev is activated by a ligand, Bride of sevenless (Boss), which is expressed by the germline, to prevent ectopic niche differentiation in the posterior gonadal somatic cells. Thus, we propose that signal transduction from germline to soma restricts expansion of the germline-stem-cell niche in the gonads.

  5. Sod-seeding to modify coastal bermuda grass on reclaimed lignite overburden in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Skousen, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the ability of nine low-maintenance species to establish and persist with Coastal bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) established on reclaimed lignite overburden; to evaluate the establishment and persistence of seventeen low-maintenance species seeded in overburden with no vegetation cover; and to examine seeding mixtures and rates for establishing low-maintenance species into three cover types (bermuda grass, oats, (Avena fatua L.) and no cover). Seventeen low-maintenance species established and persisted in overburden without fertilization during years of low precipitation. Several seeded grasses showed sufficient stand development in monoculture for erosion control. Most of the other seeded species were slower in establishment, yet persisted on the site and promoted multiple use of the reclaimed area. Recommended seeding rates were generally adequate for seedling establishment in oat, bermuda grass, and no vegetation cover types. Sod-seeding into bermuda grass resulted in higher seedling densities than those in oats and no cover because of stored moisture beneath the sod during bermuda grass dormancy. Using /sup 15/N-labelled fertilizer, Coastal bermuda grass demonstrated the ability to rapidly recovery applied N. Maximilian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani Schrad.) was suppressed by Coastal bermuda grass in mixture at all fertilizer N rates.

  6. Fast co-pyrolysis of biomass and lignite in a micro fluidized bed reactor analyzer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yebing; Dong, Lei; Dong, Yuping; Liu, Wenping; Chang, Jiafu; Yang, Shuai; Lv, Zhaochuan; Fan, Pengfei

    2015-04-01

    The co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and lignite were investigated in a Micro Fluidized Bed Reaction Analyzer under isothermal condition. The synergetic effect was evaluated by comparing the experimental gas yields and distributions with the calculated values, and iso-conversional method was used to calculate the kinetic parameters of formation of each gas component. The results showed that synergetic effect was manifested in co-pyrolysis. For the range of conversion investigated, the activation energies for H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were 72.90 kJ/mol, 43.90 kJ/mol, 18.51 kJ/mol and 13.44 kJ/mol, respectively; the reactions for CH4 and CO2 conformed to 2 order chemical reaction model, and for H2 and CO conformed to 1.5 order chemical reaction model; the pre-exponential factors for CH4, CO2, H2 and CO were 249.0 S(-1), 5.290 S(-1), 237.4 S(-1) and 2.693 S(-1), respectively. The discrepancy of the kinetic parameters implied that there were different pathways for forming the different gas.

  7. The effects of adsorbing organic pollutants from super heavy oil wastewater by lignite activated coke.

    PubMed

    Tong, Kun; Lin, Aiguo; Ji, Guodong; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xinghui

    2016-05-05

    The adsorption of organic pollutants from super heavy oil wastewater (SHOW) by lignite activated coke (LAC) was investigated. Specifically, the effects of LAC adsorption on pH, BOD5/COD(Cr)(B/C), and the main pollutants before and after adsorption were examined. The removed organic pollutants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Boehm titrations, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). FTIR spectra indicated that organic pollutants containing -COOH and -NH2 functional groups were adsorbed from the SHOW. Boehm titrations further demonstrated that carboxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, and lactonic groups on the surface of the LAC increased. GC-MS showed that the removed main organic compounds are difficult to be degraded or extremely toxics to aquatic organisms. According to the results of LC-OCD, 30.37 mg/L of dissolved organic carbons were removed by LAC adsorption. Among these, hydrophobic organic contaminants accounted for 25.03 mg/L. Furthermore, LAC adsorption was found to increase pH and B/C ratio of the SHOW. The mechanisms of adsorption were found to involve between the hydrogen bonding and the functional groups of carboxylic, phenolic, and lactonic on the LAC surface. In summary, all these results demonstrated that LAC adsorption can remove bio-refractory DOCs, which is beneficial for biodegradation.

  8. Methodology for quantifying uncertainty in coal assessments with an application to a Texas lignite deposit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.; Luppens, J.A.; Tewalt, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    A common practice for characterizing uncertainty in coal resource assessments has been the itemization of tonnage at the mining unit level and the classification of such units according to distance to drilling holes. Distance criteria, such as those used in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 891, are still widely used for public disclosure. A major deficiency of distance methods is that they do not provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty. Additionally, relying on distance between data points alone does not take into consideration other factors known to have an influence on uncertainty, such as spatial correlation, type of probability distribution followed by the data, geological discontinuities, and boundary of the deposit. Several geostatistical methods have been combined to formulate a quantitative characterization for appraising uncertainty. Drill hole datasets ranging from widespread exploration drilling to detailed development drilling from a lignite deposit in Texas were used to illustrate the modeling. The results show that distance to the nearest drill hole is almost completely unrelated to uncertainty, which confirms the inadequacy of characterizing uncertainty based solely on a simple classification of resources by distance classes. The more complex statistical methods used in this study quantify uncertainty and show good agreement between confidence intervals in the uncertainty predictions and data from additional drilling. ?? 2010.

  9. Mercury oxidation and adsorption characteristics of potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Chen, Jitao; Liang, Peng; Wang, Li

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of virgin and potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke (SC) for gaseous Hg0 were investigated in an attempt to produce more effective and lower price adsorbents for the control of elemental mercury emission. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the surface physical and chemical properties of SC, Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC before and after mercury adsorption. The results indicated that potassium permanganate modification had significant influence on the properties of semi-coke, such as the specific surface area, pore structure and surface chemical functional groups. The mercury adsorption efficiency of modified semi-coke was lower than that of SC at low temperature, but much higher at high temperature. Amorphous Mn7+, Mn6+ and Mn4+ on the surface of Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC were the active sites for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous Hg0, which oxidized the elemental mercury into Hg2+ and captured it. Thermal treatment reduced the average oxidation degree of Mn(x+) on the surface of Mn-SC from 3.80 to 3.46. However, due to the formation of amorphous MnOx, the surface oxidation active sites for gaseous Hg0 increased, which gave Mn-H-SC higher mercury adsorption efficiency than that of Mn-SC at high temperature.

  10. Reactivity of alkaline lignite fly ashes towards CO2 in water.

    PubMed

    Back, Martin; Kuehn, Michael; Stanjek, Helge; Peiffer, Stefan

    2008-06-15

    The reaction kinetics between alkaline lignite fly ashes and CO2 (pCO2 = 0.01--0.03 MPa)were studied in a laboratory CO2 flow-through reactor at 25--75 degrees C. The reaction is characterized by three phases that can be separated according to the predominating buffering systems and the rates of CO2 uptake. Phase I (pH > 12, < 30 min) is characterized by the dissolution of lime, the onset of calcite precipitation and a maximum uptake, the rate of which seems to be limited by dissolution of CO2. Phase II (pH < 10.5, 10--60 min) is dominated by the carbonation reaction. CO2 uptake in phase III (pH < 8.3) is controlled by the dissolution of periclase (MgO) leading to the formation of dissolved magnesium-bicarbonate. Phase I could be significantly extended by increasing the solid-liquid ratios and temperature, respectively. At 75 degrees C the rate of calcite precipitation was doubled leading to the neutralization of approximately 0.23 kg CO2 per kg fly ash within 4.5 h, which corresponds to nearly 90% of the total acid neutralizing capacity.

  11. Bucket wheel rehabilitation of ERC 1400-30/7 high-capacity excavators from lignite quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vîlceanu, Fl; Iancu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The existence of bucket wheel equipment type ERC 1400-30/7 in lignite quarries with lifetime expired, or in the ultimate life period, together with high cost investments for their replacement, makes rational the efforts made to rehabilitation in order to extend their life. Rehabilitation involves checking operational safety based on relevant expertise of metal structures supporting effective resistance but also the replacement (or modernization) of subassemblies that can increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption, reducing mechanical stresses. This paper proposes an analysis of constructive solution of using a part of the classical bucket wheel, on which are located 9 cutting cups and 9 chargers cups and adding a new part so that the new redesigned bucket-wheel will contain 18 cutting-chargers cups, compared to the classical model. On the CAD model of bucket wheel was performed a static and a dynamic FEA, the results being compared with the yield strength of the material of the entire structure, were checked mechanical stresses in the overall distribution map, and were verified the first 4 vibrating modes the structure compared to real loads. Thus was verified that the redesigned bucket-wheel can accomplish the proposed goals respectively increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption and reducing mechanical stresses.

  12. Background hydrologic information in potential lignite mining areas in north-central Mississippi, August 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology, is conducting a hydrologic data collection program in potential lignite-producing areas in the outcrops of the Wilcox Group in Mississippi. During August 1985, hydrologic data were collected at a total of 15 stream sites in Benton, Lafayette, Marshall, and Union Counties. Main channel widths ranged from approximately 30 feet to 115 feet. Stream depths during low-flow periods were shallow, generally less than 1.0 foot at most sites. Discharges ranged from 0.04 to 74.8 cubic feet per second. The specific conductance of stream water ranged from 28 to 78 microsiemens and dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 24 to 59 milligrams per liter. Turbidity values were 20 units or less. Chromium and copper concentrations in bottom material samples ranged from below detection limits (1 microgram per gram) to 5 microgram per gram and mercury concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.08 microgram per gram. (USGS)

  13. JV Task 75 - Lignite Fuel Enhancement via Air-Jigging Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Lamb; Steven Benson; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-03-01

    Several North Dakota lignite coals from the Falkirk Mine were processed in a 5-ton-per-hour dry coal-cleaning plant. The plant uses air-jigging technology to separate undesirable ash constituents as well as sulfur and mercury. The results of this study indicate average ash, sulfur, and mercury reductions on a weight basis of 15%, 22%, and 28%, respectively. The average heating value was increased by 2% on a Btu/lb basis. Two computer models were used to understand the impact of a cleaned fuel on boiler performance: PCQUEST{reg_sign} and Vista. The PCQUEST model indicated improvements in slagging and fouling potential when cleaned coals are used over feed coals. The Vista model was set up to simulate coal performance and economics at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station. In all cases, the cleaned fuel performed better than the original feed coal, with economic benefits being realized for all fuels tested. The model also indicated that one fuel considered to be unusable before cleaning was transformed into a potentially salable product. While these data indicate full-scale implementation of air-jigging technology may be beneficial to the mine and the plant, complete economic analysis, including payback period, is needed to make the final decision to implement.

  14. Abundance, diversity, and vitality of mycorrhizae of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in lignite recultivation sites.

    PubMed

    Münzenberger, B; Golldack, J; Ullrich, A; Schmincke, B; Hüttl, R F

    2004-07-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands cover large areas in the Lusatian and the Middle German lignite mining districts. Due to adverse chemical substrate conditions, the root systems of the trees are restricted to the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic forest floor layers. To investigate functioning of fine root systems under the prevailing site factors, we studied mycorrhizal colonization rate and frequency as well as mycorrhizal diversity, vitality and growth phases in Scots pine ecosystems along a chronosequence in both mining districts. Mycorrhizal rate was close to 100% in both districts. Mycorrhizal abundance was higher in the organic forest floor layer than the mineral soil layer. In total, 25 morphotypes were recorded. Diversity differed between the districts. The mycorrhizae of Amphinema byssoides, Tuber puberulum, Pinirhiza discolor, Pinirhiza cf. bicolorata and E-type were present in both mining areas. These morphotypes are typical of nutrient-rich soils with high pH values. Compared with the undisturbed sites, vitality of mycorrhizae was very high at the test sites on spoil substrate, correlating with the high growth dynamics of mycorrhizae at recultivation sites. A relatively high carbon flow to the mycorrhizal root systems at these sites seems likely. Thus, mycorrhizal root systems are able to cope with the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic layer. The main reason for the adaptation is the large number of ectomycorrhizal fungal species available in this area where Pinus sylvestris is indigenous.

  15. Stable isotope fractionation related to technically enhanced bacterial sulphate degradation in lignite mining sediments.

    PubMed

    Knöller, Kay; Jeschke, Christina; Simon, André; Gast, Martin; Hoth, Nils

    2012-01-01

    A mine dump aquifer in the Lusatian lignite mining district, Germany, is contaminated with acid mine drainage (AMD). The only natural process that can counteract the effects of the contamination is bacterial sulphate reduction. The technical measures chosen to handle the contamination include the injection of glycerol into the aquifer to supply electron donors and to accelerate the growth and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria. An initial assessment of the hydrochemical conditions in the aquifer showed that sulphate concentrations are subject to alteration due to flow-related processes. Consequently, the decision whether sulphate reduction is occurring in the investigated aquifer section was based on the stable isotopic composition of dissolved sulphate and sulphide, which were used in combination with sulphate concentrations. The significant enrichment of both heavy sulphur and heavy oxygen in the remaining sulphate pool and a characteristic isotope fractionation pattern are a clear evidence for the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria utilising the injected glycerol as an electron donor. This activity seemed to intensify over the observation period. The spatial distribution of sulphate reduction activity, however, appeared to be highly inhomogeneous. Rather than occurring ubiquitously, sulphate reduction activity seemed to concentrate in a defined reaction zone. Regardless of the inhomogeneous distribution, the overall turnover of sulphate during the period of investigation proves the applicability of this enhanced natural attenuation method to handle the restoration of aquifers contaminated with AMD.

  16. Results of reconnaissance for uraniferous coal, lignite, and carbonaceous shale in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hail, William J.; Gill, James R.

    1952-01-01

    A reconnaissance search for uraniferous lignite and carbonaceous shale was made in western Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho during the summer of 1951. Particular emphasis in the examination was placed on coal and carbonaceous shale associated with volcanic rocks, as volcanic rocks in many area appear to have released uranium to circulating ground water from which it was concentrated in carbonaceous material. Twenty-two area in Montana and one area of Idaho were examine. The coal in five of these area is of Cretaceous age. The coal and carbonaceous shale in the remaining 18 area occur in Tertiary "lake-bed" deposits of Oligocene and younger age. Both the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale are associated with contemporaneous or younger volcanic rocks and pyroclastic sequences. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Prickly Pear Valley northeast of Helena, Montana, contained 0.013 percent uranium. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Flint Creek Valley southwest of Drummond, Montana, contained 0.006 percent uranium. All other samples of both Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale were essentially non-radioactive. No further work is planned on the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale in western Montana. A few localities in Idaho will be visited in the course of other work.

  17. Reactivity of alkaline lignite fly ashes towards CO{sub 2} in water

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Back; Michael Kuehn; Helge Stanjek; Stefan Peiffer

    2008-06-15

    The reaction kinetics between alkaline lignite fly ashes and CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2} = 0.01-0.03 MPa) were studied in a laboratory CO{sub 2} flow-through reactor at 25-75{sup o}C. The reaction is characterized by three phases that can be separated according to the predominating buffering systems and the rates of CO{sub 2} uptake. Phase I (pH > 12, < 30 min) is characterized by the dissolution of lime, the onset of calcite precipitation and a maximum uptake, the rate of which seems to be limited by dissolution of CO{sub 2}. Phase II (pH < 10.5, 10-60 min) is dominated by the carbonation reaction. CO{sub 2} uptake in phase III (pH < 8.3) is controlled by the dissolution of periclase (MgO) leading to the formation of dissolved magnesium-bicarbonate. Phase I could be significantly extended by increasing the solid-liquid ratios and temperature, respectively. At 75{sup o}C the rate of calcite precipitation was doubled leading to the neutralization of approximately 0.23 kg CO{sub 2} per kg fly ash within 4.5 h, which corresponds to nearly 90% of the total acid neutralizing capacity. 21 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Conversion of solvent refined lignite into premium liquid fuels. Annual report, January-December, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Baltisberger, R.J.; Stenberg, V.I.; Klabunde, K.J.; Woolsey, N.F.

    1981-04-01

    Comparison of three preasphaltene samples separated from three lignite derived samples obtained from GFETC prepared at 404, 460 and 480/sup 0/C shows that increased temperature tends to produce higher molecular weight preasphaltene fractions containing more aromatic carbons with fewer acid (phenolic) sites per molecule. Ether cleavage studies of the model compounds; diphenyl ether, bibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran and anisole, show that partial or complete ether cleavage was obtained with sodium in hexamethyl phosphoramide solvent. Thus a careful consideration of acidity before and after cleavage can now give a measure of the diaryl ether content of a mixture. This reaction may be useful in coal liquid analysis. Denitrification of N,N-Dimethylamine without aromatic ring reduction occurs with CO-H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ at 425/sup 0/C in about 13% conversion. The optimum of 21 conditions gave a 19% conversion which occurs at 150 psi H/sub 2/S and 750 psi H/sub 2/. Thus, H/sub 2/S enhances nitrogen removal from this model compound. Using ESR dispersion techniques we have shown the presence of a second CO radical species on MgO, probably CO-.. observed by ESR, treatment of carbon monoxide radical species on both CO and MgO with CO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/O causes a destruction of one of the radical species at a rate greater than that of the other.

  19. Effects of maternal care and selection for low mortality on tyrosine hydroxylase concentrations and cell soma size in hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale in adult laying hen.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, R E; Zeinstra, E C; Rodenburg, T B; van der Staay, F J

    2013-01-01

    Feather pecking and cannibalism in farm-kept laying hens are damaging behaviors both in terms of animal welfare and economic loss, and a major challenge in modern poultry farming. Both rearing with a foster hen and genetic selection have been demonstrated to reduce feather pecking in laying hens. We examined the effects of rearing with a foster hen, genetic selection for low mortality from cannibalism, and interactions between both, using cellular morphology and levels of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) as a potential measure for laying hen welfare. Hens from the second generation of a sib-selection scheme line derived from a pure-bred White Leghorn line, selected for low mortality and for production characteristics, or their control line (CL) selected only for production characteristics, were housed with or without a foster Silky hen for the first 7 wk of life. Aside from the presence or absence of a foster Silky hen during the first 7 wk of life, housing conditions were identical for all hens. The hens were then sacrificed and brains were removed at 52 wk of age. Brains were sectioned and stained using a Nissl staining to reveal cell soma morphology, or using immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxlase. A greater degree of lateralization in the hippocampus was observed in hens reared without a foster hen, as measured by absolute difference in cell soma size between hemispheres (P<0.05). The low mortality line showed decreased concentrations of tyrosine hydroxylase in the NCL compared with the CL (P<0.005). Our results indicate that morphological changes in brain induced in very early life can be detected in adult hens, and that genetic selection against mortality due to cannibalism impacts tyrosine hydroxylase in the NCL of laying hens. These observations strengthen the notion that brain measures may be useful as potential readouts for animal welfare.

  20. H-binding of size- and polarity-fractionated soil and lignite humic acids after removal of metal and ash components.

    PubMed

    Drosos, Marios; Leenheer, Jerry A; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2014-03-01

    A fractionation technique, combining dialysis removal of metal and ash components with hydrofluoric acid and pH 10 citrate buffer followed by chromatography of dialysis permeate on XAD-8 resin at decreasing pH values, has been applied to lignite humic acid (lignite-HA) and soil humic acid (soil-HA). H-binding data and non ideal competitive adsorption-Donnan model parameters were obtained for the HA fractions by theoretical analysis of H-binding data which reveal a significant increase of the carboxyl and the phenolic charge for the lignite-HA fractions vs. the parental lignite humic acid (LParentalHA). The fractionated lignite-HA material consisted mainly of permeate fractions, some of which were fulvic acid-like. The fractionated soil-HA material consisted mainly of large macromolecular structures that did not permeate the dialysis membrane during deashing. Chargeable groups had comparable concentrations in soil-HA fractions and parental soil humic acid (SParentalHA), indicating minimal interference of ash components with carboxyl and phenolic (and/or enolic) groups. Fractionation of HA, combined with theoretical analysis of H-binding, can distinguish the supramolecular vs. macromolecular nature of fractions within the same parental HA.

  1. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... Pasta from Italy and Turkey: Investigation Nos. 701- TA-365-366 and 731-TA-734-735 (Third...

  2. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  3. Impact of free calcium oxide content of fly ash on dust and sulfur dioxide emissions in a lignite-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrios Sotiropoulos; Andreas Georgakopoulos; Nestoras Kolovos

    2005-07-01

    Emitted pollutants from the Agios Dimitrios lignite-fired power plant in northern Greece show a very strong linear correlation with the free calcium oxide content of the lignite ash. Dust (fly ash) emissions are positively correlated to free calcium oxide content, whereas sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions are negatively correlated. As a result, at present, the Agios Dimitrios Power Plant operates very strictly within the legislative limits on atmospheric particulate emission. In the study reported, the factors to be considered in assessing the impact of lignite combustion on the environment are presented and evaluated statistically. The ash appears to have a remarkable SO{sub 2} natural dry scrubbing capability when the free calcium oxide content ranges between 4 and 7%. Precipitator operating problems attributable to high ash resistivity can be overcome by injecting sulfur trioxide to reduce the ash resistivity, with, of course, a probable increase in operating costs. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingshan; Mor, Sunil K.; Porter, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV) causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O'Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon's tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced (P < 0.05) tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys. PMID:28105381

  5. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  6. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  7. Design features of first of its kind AFBC high pressure boiler for Kutch lignite fuel in Gujarat, India

    SciTech Connect

    Diwakar, K.K.; Mokashi, A.H.

    1999-11-01

    Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Limited (GHCL) in Gujarat State in India is one of the largest manufacturers of Soda Ash with modern most technology from Akzo of Neitherland. GHCL with earlier experience of firing of kind of lignite on travagrate boiler and with converted fluidized bed boiler has very clearly identified the problem areas for review and with that rich experience awarded contract to Thermax Babcock and Wilcox Limited (TBW), Pune, India a joint venture company of Thermax Limited, Pune, India and Babcock and Wilcox, USA. Accordingly, boiler has been designed to suit Kutch Lignite and Coal with AFBC Technology, Single Drum Design, top supported with underbed feeding system. Capacity of boiler is 90 Ton/Hr with design pressure of 130 kg/cm{sup 2} with superheated steam temperature of 510 C. This is the first boiler in India with such a high pressure and temperature conditions for this capacity firing lignite. Other first of its kind features include single drum boiler convection bank made with headers and tubes, riffled inbed evaporator tubes, erosion protection by surface coating and not by studs, line bed system for inert material, no soot blowers, specially designed double hinged SS supports for inbed superheater coils etc. This boiler also has a provision of over fire air arrangement for better combustion split. Other unique features include the start-up arrangement by HSD burners which can take the boiler up to 30% load, provision for flue gas recirculation system, specially designed SS air distribution nozzles, separate compartments for under feed, ash drain and air cooled distribution plate with 1:5 turndown. The paper discusses all the above design features.

  8. Water resources of the Rattlesnake Butte area, a site of potential lignite mining in west-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The D and E lignite beds, the two mineable beds in the lower Sentinel Butte Member (Fort Union Formation), underlies the entire Rattlesnake Butt study area, North Dakota but are unsaturated over much of their area of occurrence. Ground-water flow in both lignite aquifers is largely controlled by topography. Interconnected sand beds form aquifers between the E and D beds (E-D aquifer) and below the D bed (D-HT aquifer). Both aquifers underlie the central part of the study area and consist of fine silty sand. Depth to the aquifers is as much as 320 feet. Aquifers also occur in strata of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary age. Aquifers in the Fox Hills Sandstone (Cretaceous) and lower Tongue River Member (Tertiary) lie at depths of about 1,700 and 750 feet, respectively. All aquifers yield a sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate type water. Mean dissolved-solids concentrations in the four shallowest aquifers ranged from 1,290 to 1,970 milligrams per litter. North Creek and an unnamed tributary of Green River drain most of the study area. North Creek, the major drain, ceases to flow during several months of most years, while the Green River tributary, with a smaller basin area, has sustained base flows of 0.15 to 0.25 cubic foot per second. Mining-induced impacts on the shallow ground-water flow system would be very localized because of the already low water levels and the segmented nature of the flow system in the lignite aquifers. (USGS)

  9. Characterisation of Particulate Matter Emitted from Cofiring of Lignite and Agricultural Residues in a Fixed-Bed Combustor

    PubMed Central

    Mantananont, Nattasut; Garivait, Savitri; Patumsawad, Suthum

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on the emission of fixed bed combustor batch operated. Real-time analyser ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) system was used to size-segregated particulate matter emission ranging from 40 nm to 10 μm. The results show that total number concentration were 3.4 × 103, 1.6 × 104, and 1.5 × 105 particles/cm3 · kgfuel, while total mass of particles were 12.2, 8.0, and 6.5 mg/Nm3 · kgfuel for combustion of lignite, rice husk and bagasse, respectively. But it can be noticed that cofiring released more particulate matter. Meanwhile it was found that the effect of ratio of over-fired air to total air supply is more pronounced, since decrease in this ratio, the amount of particles are decreased significantly. For particle size distribution, it can be observed that submicron-sized particles dominate and the most prevailing size is in the range: 50 nm lignite and agricultural residues. However, during cofiring of fuel mixture at 70% rice husk mass concentration, it is found that there are two major fractions of particle size; 40 nm lignite combustion is characterised by different geometries such as round, capsule, rod, flake-like, whereas the spherical shape is obtained with combustion of rice husk. PMID:22629186

  10. Management of mine spoil for crop productivity with lignite fly ash and biological amendments.

    PubMed

    Ram, L C; Srivastava, N K; Tripathi, R C; Jha, S K; Sinha, A K; Singh, G; Manoharan, V

    2006-04-01

    Long-term field trials using lignite fly ash (LFA) were carried out in rice crops during the period 1996-2000 at Mine I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Tamil Nadu. LFA, being alkaline and endowed with an excellent pozzolanic nature, silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve the texture, fertility, and crop productivity of mine spoil. The rice crops were the first, third, fifth, and sixth crops in rotation. The other crops, such as green gram (second) and sun hemp (fourth), were grown as green manure. For experimental trials, LFA was applied at various dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 t/ha), with and without press mud (10 t/ha), before cultivation of the first crop. Repeat applications of LFA were made at the same dosages in treatments of up to 50 t/ha (with and without press mud) before cultivation of the third and fifth crops. Press mud, a lightweight organic waste product from the sugar industry, was used as an organic amendment and source of plant nutrients. Also, a recommended dosage of chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer as supplementing agents, was applied in all the treatments, including control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA, from 5 to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), the crop yield (grain and straw) increased significantly (p < 0.05), in the range from 3.0 to 42.0% over the corresponding control. The maximum yield was obtained with repeat applications of 20 t/ha of LFA with press mud in the third crop. The press mud enhanced the yield in the range of 1.5-10.2% with various dosages of LFA. The optimum dosage of LFA was 20 t/ha for both one-time and repeat applications. Repeat applications of LFA at lower dosages of up to 20 t/ha were more effective in increasing the yield than the corresponding one-time applications of up to 20 t/ha and repeat applications at 50 t/ha. One-time and repeat applications of LFA of up to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), apart from

  11. STUDIES OF THE SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF LOW RANK COALS AND LIGNITES

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Okoh; Joseph N.D. Dodoo

    2005-07-26

    Spontaneous combustion has always been a problem in coal utilization especially in the storage and transportation of coal. In the United States, approximately 11% of underground coal mine fires are attributed to spontaneous coal combustion. The incidence of such fires is expected to increase with increased consumption of lower rank coals. The cause is usually suspected to be the reabsorption of moisture and oxidation. To understand the mechanisms of spontaneous combustion this study was conducted to (1) define the initial and final products during the low temperature (10 to 60 C) oxidation of coal at different partial pressures of O{sub 2}, (2) determine the rate of oxidation, and (3) measure the reaction enthalpy. The reaction rate (R) and propensity towards spontaneous combustion were evaluated in terms of the initial rate method for the mass gained due to adsorbed O{sub 2}. Equipment that was used consisted of a FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer), an accelerated surface area porosimeter (ASAP, Micromeritics model 2010), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Cahn Microbalance TG 121) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, Q1000, thermal analysis instruments). Their combination yielded data that established a relation between adsorption of oxygen and reaction enthalpy. The head space/ gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer system (HS/GC/MS) was used to identify volatiles evolved during oxidation. The coal samples used were Beulah lignite and Wyodak (sub-bituminous). Oxygen (O{sub 2}) absorption rates ranged from 0.202 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.20 (Beulah pyrolyzed at 300 C) to 6.05 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.8 (wyodak aged and pyrolyzed at 300 C). Aging of coal followed by pyrolysis was observed to contribute to higher reaction rates. Reaction enthalpies ranged from 0.42 to 1580 kcal/gm/mol O{sub 2}.

  12. Cultural resources investigations at the Dolet Hills Lignite Mine, Desoto Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.

    1997-12-31

    During May 1996, archaeologists from Espey, Huston & Associates, Inc. conducted National Register of Historic Places testing at four archaeological sites within the Dolet Hills Lignite Mine, 1998-2002 Environmental/Operations Narrative Area, in DeSoto Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the investigations at one of these sites, 16DS228, which represents the Third Phase of the Civil War battle known as the Battle of Mansfield, fought on April 8, 1864. The Battle of Mansfield represented the culmination of the Federal Red River Campaign, which was designed to destroy the Confederate Army west of the Mississippi, and to enter and occupy Texas. The Federal strategy was based on a two-pronged attack by the land-naval force under General Nathaniel Banks and Admiral David Porter. The battle was fought in three phases. Initially, the advance segments of the Federal Army encountered Confederate forces commanded by General Richard Taylor, a few miles south of Mansfield. The Confederates overwhelmed the northerners in two successive engagements, forcing them back several miles to the farm of Joshua Chapman, where they made a final stand. During the fighting at Chapman`s farm, now known as the Third Phase of the battle, the U.S. Nineteenth Corps succeeded in stopping the Confederate advance, and allowed the badly mauled Federal Army to retreat southward to Pleasant Hill, where they again fought Taylor`s Confederates on the following afternoon. The archaeological investigations at the Third Phase battlefield examined an area of approximately 40 acres. Numerous historic maps and records from both northern and southern sources suggested that the investigated area included positions of two brigades of the U.S. Nineteenth Corps.

  13. Geoelectrical surveys for monitoring acid mine drainage in groundwater at abandoned open-cast lignite mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollberg, R.; Hirsch, M.; Weiss, H.

    2013-05-01

    Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques (DC resistivity measurements, Direct Push based electrical conductivity logging) were used to identify and localize acid mine drainage (AMD) at former lignite mining areas and adjacent groundwater bodies in Central Germany. Geoelectrical surface measurements are a fast and high-resolution survey method for the identification and discrimination of subsurface sections with different electrical properties. The method is based on a current injection by a pair of electrodes and electrical potential measurements by a second pair of electrodes. An electrical resistivity distribution of the subsurface can be measured by the ratio of injected currents and measured potentials. Moreover, electrical conductivity logging (EC-logging) was applied along the profile line of the geoelectrical surface measurement. A direct-push machine was used to push a GeoProbe® Wenner-Probe attached to a rod string into the ridges of mining dumps for recording vertical electrical resistivity profiles. The main objective has been the comparison between the superficial resistivity measurements and the results from in-situ downhole EC-logging for identifying the presence of AMD. Both, surface and subsurface measurements yielded in a precise and corresponding imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. A good correlation of the results obtained by these non- to minimal invasive investigation techniques with conventional (i.e. groundwater sampling) approaches could be proven.

  14. Management of lignite fly ash for improving soil fertility and crop productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, L.C.; Srivastava, N.K.; Jha, S.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Masto, R.E.; Selvi, V.A.

    2007-09-15

    Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and bioferfertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy metal contents and in the level of gamma-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

  15. Management of Lignite Fly Ash for Improving Soil Fertility and Crop Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Lal C.; Srivastava, Nishant K.; Jha, Sangeet K.; Sinha, Awadhesh K.; Masto, Reginald E.; Selvi, Vetrivel A.

    2007-09-01

    Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. The highest yield LFA dose was 200 t/ha for one-time and repeat applications, the maximum yield being with crop III (combination treatment). One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy-metal contents and in the level of γ-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

  16. A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Feder, G.L.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a fatal kidney disease that is known to occur only in clusters of villages in alluvial valleys of tributaries of the Danube River in Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and Croatia. The confinement of this disease to a specific geographic area has led to speculation that an environmental factor may be involved in the etiology of BEN. Numerous environmental factors have been suggested as causative agents for producing BEN, including toxic metals in drinking water, metal deficiency in soils of BEN areas, and environmental mycotoxins to name a few. These hypotheses have either been disproved or have failed to conclusively demonstrate a connection to the etiology of BEN, or the clustering of BEN villages. In previous work, we observed a distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and BEN villages. We hypothesized that the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites by groundwater was a primary factor in the etiology of BEN. In our current work, chemical analysis using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) spectroscopy indicated a high degree of organic functionality in Pliocene lignite from the Balkans, and suggested that groundwater can readily leach organic matter from these coal beds. Semi-quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of solvent extracts of groundwater from shallow wells in BEN villages indicated the presence of potentially toxic aromatic compounds, such as napthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at concentrations in the ppb range. Laboratory leaching of Balkan Pliocene lignites with distilled water yielded soluble organic matter (> 500 MW) containing large amounts of aromatic structures similar to the simple/discrete aromatic compounds detected in well water from BEN villages. These preliminary results are permissive of our hypothesis and suggest that further

  17. Human fasciolosis in Van province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Gödekmerdan, Ahmet

    2004-10-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the frequency of the fasciolosis in Erciş, a town in the Van province located in the Eastern Turkey. The study includes 500 asymptomatic subjects (322 males and 178 females) whose ages ranged from 5 to 75 years. In all subjects, stool samples were examined at initiation of the study and one week later to rule out pseudoparasitosis. The methods of flotation (in saturated saline solution) and sedimentation (in formalin-ether solution) were used in examination of the stool samples. Fasciola hepatica eggs were detected in nine (1.8%) out of 500 subjects. In conclusion, our data showed that the prevalence of human fasciolosis was high in our region because watercress consumption was common. We also think that human fasciolosis is more frequent than expected in Turkey. To determine the exact prevalence of the disease, extensive serological investigations should be performed in different regions of Turkey.

  18. One hundred years of radiotherapy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dincer, M; Kuter, S

    2001-10-01

    The study and practice of radiology in Turkey began in 1897, only 2 years after the discovery of X-rays. A simple X-ray machine was constructed in Istanbul, consisting of a Crookes tube, a Ruhmkorff coil, and a home-made battery. This machine was first used on wounded soldiers, for diagnostic purposes. The first report of X-rays being used therapeutically in Turkey was published in a national journal in 1904. By 1933, the most up-to-date radiotherapy equipment of the time had been installed in every major city in the country. Innovative radiotherapy techniques, such as rotational treatment, were also being tried in 1930s. Today, there are 45 radiotherapy centres in Turkey, and 400 radiation oncologists and 80 medical physicists practise there.

  19. Antigenicity of two turkey astrovirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Saif, Y M

    2004-12-01

    Astroviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. These viruses cause gastroenteritis in humans and in a variety of animal species, including turkey poults. Only human astroviruses are well characterized antigenically. In the current study, two turkey astrovirus isolates, TAstV1987 and TAstV2001, were antigenically compared using cross-neutralization tests in turkey embryos, as well as cross-reactivity of the two isolates by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antigenic relatedness values (R) were calculated using the Archetti and Horsfall formula. The R value based on the cross-neutralization tests was 0.56%, which indicates that TAstV1987 and TAstV2001 belong to different serotypes; the R value of the two viruses based on ELISA was 70.7%, which suggests these two viruses share common antigen(s).

  20. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings.

    PubMed

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskın, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

    2015-12-01

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3.

  1. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development.

  2. Turkey: Enduring Partner or Emerging Foe?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    de Gaulle in the 1960s, Turkey may opt for its own “force de frappe” – a nuclear deterrent – and its own “Realpolitik” with countries such as China...India, and Russia. It could even contemplate leaving, as France under de Gaulle did, the military structure of NATO, while maintaining its...President Obama to treat a Gaullist Turkey as President Kennedy treated de Gaulle in France in the 1960s—demonizing foreign policy and national grandeur as

  3. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  4. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, D J; Lashev, L D; Yanev, S G; Pandova, B

    2007-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (EFL) and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIP) was investigated in 7-8 month old turkeys (6 birds per sex). EFL was administered intravenously (i.v.) and orally (p.o.) at a dose 10 mg kg(-1) body weight. Blood was taken prior to and at 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h following drug administration. The concentrations of EFL and CIP in blood serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum concentrations versus time were analysed by a noncompartmental analysis. The elimination half-live and the mean residence time of EFL after i.v. injection for the serum were after oral administration 6.64+/-0.90 h, 8.96+/-1.18 h and 6.92+/-0.97 h, 11.91+/-1.87 h, respectively. After single p.o. administration, EFL was absorbed slowly (MAT=2.76+/-0.48 h) with time to reach maximum serum concentrations of 6.33+/-2.54 h. Maximum serum concentrations was 1.23+/-0.30 microg mL(-1). Oral bioavailability for for EFL after oral administration was found to be 69.20+/-1.49%. The ratios C(max)/MIC and AUC(0 --> 24)/MIC were respectively from 161.23+/-5.9 h to 12.90+/-0.5 h for the pharmacodynamic predictor C(max)/MIC, and from 2153.44+/-66.6 h to 137.82+/-4.27 h for AUC(0 --> 24)/MIC, for the different clinically significant microorganisms, whose values for MIC varies from 0.008 microg L(-1) to 0.125 microg mL(-1).

  5. Elective Tracheotomy Practices in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Atalan, Hakan Korkut

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Elective tracheotomy (ET) procedures in intensive care units (ICU) might be different in accordance with countries and ICUs’ features. The aim of the present study was to search the epidemiology of ET procedures in Turkey. Methods A questionnaire which consists of 43 questions was sent by e-mail to 238 ICUs which were officially recognized by The Turkish Ministry of Health. All answers were obtained between August 1, 2015 and August 31, 2015. Results Two hundred and three ICUs (85.3%) participated in this study. 177 (87.2%) and 169 (83.4%) of ICU’s were level III and mixed ICUs respectively. Anesthesiologists were the director of 189 (93.0%) ICUs. Estimated total count of admitted, mechanically ventilated and tracheotomized patients in 2014 were 126282, 80569 (63.8%) and 8989 (7.1%) respectively. Most common indication for ET was prolonged mechanical ventilation (76.9%). The first choice for ET procedure was percutaneous in 162 (79.8%) ICUs. Griggs guide wire dilatational forceps (GWDF) technique was used as the first choice for elective percutaneous tracheotomy (EPT) by 143 (70.4%) ICUs. Most common early EPT complication was bleeding (68.0%) and late EPT complication was stenosis (35.0%). While facilitation of weaning was most important advantage (26.1%), bleeding and tracheal complications were most important disadvantages for EPT (29.1%). Conclusions Most common indications for ET are prolonged MV and coma in Turkish ICUs. EPT is the preferred procedure for ET and GWDF is the most common technique. Bronchoscopy and USG are rarely used as a guide. PMID:27846248

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  7. Isotherm and thermodynamic studies of Zn (II) adsorption on lignite and coconut shell-based activated carbon fiber.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sohan; Son, Guntae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Tae Gwan

    2013-08-01

    The Zn (II) adsorption capacity of lignite and coconut shell-based activated carbon fiber (ACF) was evaluated as a function of initial Zn (II) concentration, temperature and contact time in batch adsorption process in this study. Adsorption uptake increased with initial Zn (II) concentration and temperature. Optimal contact time for the adsorption of Zn (II) ions onto lignite and coconut shell-based ACF was found to be 50 min. Removal percentage decreased from 88.0% to 78.54% with the increment in initial Zn (II) concentration from 5 to 50 mg L(-1). Equilibrium data fit well with Langmuir-I isotherm indicating homogeneous monolayer coverage of Zn (II) ions on the adsorbent surface. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of Zn (II) ions on ACF was found to be 9.43 mg g(-1). Surface morphology and functionality of ACF prior to and after adsorption were characterized by electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Various thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), standard enthalpy (ΔH°), and standard entropy (ΔS°) were evaluated.

  8. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The subject of this study is the palynology (biostratigraphic and taxonomic) and the plant remains of the lignite strip mines of Eskihisar, Salihpasalar, and Tinaz (Muğla province, western Turkey). In the Yatağan basin two Miocene to Pliocene formations are present, the Eskihisar Formation (early to middle Miocene) and the Yatağan Formation (late Miocene to early Pliocene). Both formations represent river and lake deposits consisting mainly of conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, limestone, tuffite, and intercalated lignite; the thickest, actively mined lignite seams occur in the Sekköy member of the Eskihisar Formation. Previous palynological studies of the palynoflora of the Yatağan basin mainly focussed on its biostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic significance, using conventional morphological nomenclature and light microscopy (LM). In this study the "single grain method" is applied. Using this method, the same individual pollen grains are investigated by using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting high-resolution pictographs enable a much higher taxonomic resolution. The studied palynoflora is very rich and taxonomically diverse. Cryptogams are represented by more than ten spore morphotypes of at least three families (Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae, Polypodiaceae). Gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Cupressaceae, Gnetales (Ephedra), and Pinaceae (Cathaya, Keteleeria, Pinus). Angiosperm pollen can be assigned to 57 different genera belonging to Poaceae, Typhaceae, Altingiaceae, Amaranthaceae (Chenopodieae), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae (three types), Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichoriodeae), Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya) Buxaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera), Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus, Trigonobalanopsis) Geraniaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae, Oleaceae (four different types), Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae (Rumex), Rosaceae

  9. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

  10. Primary Education Curriculum Reforms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and evaluate the basic structure of changes in primary educational curricula in Turkey since the establishment of Republic. The study is mainly qualitative and is based on literature and document analyses and teaching curricular reviews. The research findings indicate that primary educational reforms in Turkey…

  11. Extensive Quaternary glaciations in eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Akçar, Naki; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During cold periods in the Quaternary, global ice volume increased and as a result valley glaciers advanced and the vice versa occurred during the warm periods. Quaternary glacier fluctuations had been also recorded in the Turkish mountains. Recently, the chronology of Late Quaternary advances in the northern and western Turkish mountains was reconstructed by surface exposure dating. However, these advances in the eastern Turkey are not dated yet. In this study, we investigated paleoglaciations in Kavuşşahap Mountains, which is located to the south of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. These mountains are one of the extensively glaciated areas in Turkey. Glacial activity is evidenced by more than 20 U-shaped valleys. For instance, one of the prominent and well-preserved glacial landscapes of Turkey is situated in the Narlıca valley system. Lateral and terminal moraines in the valley system indicate more than 10 glacial advances. To build their chronology, 39 erratic carbonaceous boulders were sampled for surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl. We also reconstructed the ice margin reconstruction of the Narlıca paleoglacier using the accumulation area ratio and area-altitude balance ratio approaches. We estimated an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 2900 m above sea level based on the maximum ice extend, which implied ca. 800 m decrease in the ELA during the Late Quaternary in comparison to the lower bound of the modern ELA estimate. The first results of the surface exposure dating will be presented.

  12. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  13. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  14. Social Stratification and Consumption Patterns in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Kemal

    2006-01-01

    In this article, by analyzing consumption practices of Turkish households, I attempted to identify whether there are distinctions between different social classes in Turkey. Stated another way, I assessed and explored the impact of socio-economic forces on consumption patterns, taste and lifestyle. In doing so, I tested empirically, two…

  15. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  16. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  17. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  18. Preschool Education System in Turkey: Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekman, Sevda

    1993-01-01

    Describes Turkey's preschool system and discusses the outcomes of (1) an investigation of the effects of social class and preschool center type on child and staff behaviors; and (2) a project to develop an intervention model for disadvantaged environments, while comparing the impact of educational preschools, custodial preschools, and home care on…

  19. Early Childhood Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usakli, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that early childhood education has paramount significance for the well-being of societies. In this study, the current situation of early childhood education in Turkey is discussed mainly in terms of its perception by the government, the school enrollment rate and the quality of early childhood education programs. The…

  20. Myocarditis associated with reovirus in turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myocarditis associated with reovirus was diagnosed in 17 day-old male turkey poults based on virus isolation, reverse transcript – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), demonstration of reovirus antigen in the cytoplasm of mononuclear inflammatory cells and myocytes in the heart by immunohistochemistr...

  1. Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

  2. Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults H. L. ShivaprasadA, M. S. FrancaA, P. R. WoolcockA, R. NordhausenB, M. DayC and M. Pantin-JackwoodC California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, AFresno and BDavis Branches, University of California, Davis, 2789 South Orange Av...

  3. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-26

    transfers to Iran through the SWIFT system were prohibited) and July 2013 (when energy transactions with Iran using precious metals became subject to U.S...Turkey’s economic dynamism and geopolitical importance underpin its regional and global influence. Although Turkey still depends on the United States...17 Energy

  4. NRG1 and KITL Signal Downstream of Retinoic Acid in the Germline to Support Soma-Free Syncytial Growth of Differentiating Spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Karen M; Medrano, Gerardo A; Chaudhary, Jaideep; Hamra, F Kent

    Defined culture systems supporting spermatogonial differentiation will provide experimental platforms to study spermatogenesis. However, germline-intrinsic signaling mechanisms sufficient to support spermatogonial differentiation without somatic cells remain largely undefined. Here, we analyzed EGF superfamily receptor and ligand diversity in rat testis cells, and delineated germline-intrinsic signaling via an ERBB3 co-transducer, ERBB2, as essential for retinoic acid-induced syncytial growth by differentiating spermatogonia. Like the ERBB2/3 agonist NRG1, we found KIT Ligand (KITL) robustly supported spermatogonial differentiation without serum or somatic cells. ERBB2 inhibitors failed to disrupt KITL-dependent spermatogonial development, and, KITL prevented ERBB3-deficient spermatogonial degeneration upon differentiation. Thus, we report NRG1 and KITL activate alternative pathways downstream of retinoic acid signaling in the germline that are essential for stem cells to undergo pre-meiotic steps of spermatogenesis in culture. Robust serum/soma-free spermatogonial differentiation opens new doors to study mammalian germ cell biology in culture, which will facilitate the discovery of spermatogenic factors that can drive meiotic progression in vitro.

  5. Effect of application rate of commercial lignite-derived amendments on early-stage growth of Medicago sativa and soil health, in acidic soil conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Little, Karen; Rose, Michael; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Tim

    2013-04-01

    Commercially available lignite-derived amendments, sold mainly as humate preparations, have been promoted as plant growth stimulants leading to higher crop yields. These products are also claimed to improve soil properties such as pH. This study investigated the effect of application rate of three lignite-derived amendments on the early-stage growth of a pasture legume, lucerne (Medicago sativa), and soil health in a soil type common to south eastern Australia, in a glasshouse setting. An organic-mineral humate product and 'run of mine' lignite coal did not improve shoot or root growth despite application at a range of rates at, and in excess of, the manufacturers recommendation. Application of soluble K-humate product at 20 kg/ha (9.5 kg/ha C equivalent) produced an observable positive effect in shoot growth. At this application rate, a significant delay in the appearance of chlorotic symptoms was observed along with an increase in soil pH concurrent with decreased availability of soil Mn and Al. Higher root dry weight was associated with lower microbial biomass carbon which may indicate an effect on allocation of resources between the microbial community and the plant. An assessment of the effectiveness of lignite-derived amendments on plant growth, as well as their potential to improve the health of an acidic soil will assist farmers in making decisions regarding the use of these products.

  6. Decreasing trend of groundwater in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarachi, S.; Moghim, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    In these days the increasing demand for water has created problems for availability of its resources. Some recent issues like population growth, global warming and inefficient methods of water consumption, generated the need to find sources of water other than surface water such as ground water. Excess using of groundwater in most parts of the world causes depletion of ground water in those areas. Scientists are trying to find efficient means to quantify these trends. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) including two satellites launched in March 2002, is making measurements of the Earth's gravity field which is used to display the change of storage of the water on the Earth. GRACE makes it possible to find the trend of the change of storage all over the world.It can show specific areas in the world that have dramatic decreasing trend of water storage. One of these regions that have been considered in this study is Turkey in western Asia, as one of the countries deeply affected by global warming. Turkey is identified as one of the first places where desertification will start in Europe, according to estimates by the UN Environment Program (UNEP). Turkey has 25 underground water tables and they had a decrease in level of 27 meters in the past 25 years (Turkey water report 2009). In this paper the change of the ground water is evaluated by applying the GRACE storage anomalies and the mass conservation equation that concludes the reduction trend in groundwater. The results clarify that decreasing trend of groundwater is more noticeable during recent years, particularly since 2006. Our results show that in recent years the average decrease in ground water level is 2.5 cm per year and the maximum decrease occurred in May 2007 with the value of about 7.9 cm. KEY WORDS: water resources; Ground water; Turkey; GRACE

  7. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.

  8. Top cited articles in urology from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    İpekçi, Tümay; Yüksel, Mustafa; Tunçkıran, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Objective Citation is the name given for a scientific publication in order to be used as a reference by another publication. In this study, we reviewed the most frequently cited publications in urology from Turkey. Although the number of citations is not completely definitive on its own, it shows the importance and effect of the publication. Besides the number of citations directly determines the impact factor of the journals and this factor is generally used in the evaluation of the quality and importance of the journal. Material and methods On March 7–14, 2016, 51 studies with highest number of citations from Turkey are determined from Science Citation Index Expanded database index and the journals in which studies are published, the authors of the publications, their cities and departments, study types, publication date of the studies and the number of citations are recorded. Results The most frequently encountered subjects in the publications that are mostly cited from Turkey are urolithiasis (23.5%), infertility (15.6%), benign prostatic hyperplasia (11.7%), sexual dysfunction (11.7%) and bladder carcinoma/urothelial carcinoma (9.8%). Distribution of 51 publications is as follows: 18 case series, 11 randomized study, 7 non-randomized study, 6 study, 3 review, 3 cross-sectional studies and 3 survey studies. Of all the studies, 68.6% are from Ankara, İstanbul and İzmir and 72.5% of them have originated from the university hospitals. Conclusion It is important to show the most cited Turkish publications in order to show the contribution in the world literature regarding to urology. The most cited publications in Turkey belong to urolithiasis and andrology areas. When the citation analysis publications in urology and different areas both in Turkey and in the world, it is observed that the number of our qualified publications is at acceptable levels. PMID:28270953

  9. Toward a phenology network in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalfes, H. N.; Ülgen, H.; Zeydanli, U.; Durak, A. T.

    2012-04-01

    All climate projections indicate that drastic changes are to occur in the Mediterranean Basin and Southwestern Asia. Detailed studies also foresee strong patterns of change in seasonality for most climate fields all across the country, threatening Turkey's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems already in trouble due to massive land use changes and careless resource extraction projects. It is therefore obvious that climate impact studies can benefit from detailed and continuous monitoring of relationships between climate and natural systems. Recently started efforts to build a phenology network for Turkey will hopefully constitute a component of a more comprehensive ecological observation infrastructure. The Phenology Network of Turkey Project saw its debut as a joint initiative of an academic institution (Istanbul Technical University) and a research NGO (Nature Conservation Center). It has been decided from the very beginning to rely a much as possible on Internet technologies (provided by the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey). The effort is also inspired by and collaborates with already established networks in general and USA National Phenology Network in particular. Many protocols, instructional materials and Nature's Notebook application has been barrowed from the USA NPN. The project has been designed from the start as a two-faceted effort: an infrastructure to accumulate/provide useful data to climate/ecosystem research communities and a 'citizen science' project to raise nature and climate change awareness among all components of the society in Turkey in general and secondary education teachers and students in particular. It has been opted to start by gathering plant phenological data. A set with 20 plant species has been designed to serve as a countrywide 'calibration set'. It is also anticipated to salvage and extend as much of possible historical animal (especially bird and butterfly) observations.

  10. Petrography and geochemistry of selected lignite beds in the Gibbons Creek mine (Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Paleocene) of east-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.; Crowley, S.S.; Ruppert, L.F.; Pontolillo, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of two lignite beds (3500 and 4500 beds, Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Eocene) that are mined at the Gibbons Creek mine in east-central Texas. The purpose of the study was to identify the relations among sample ash yield, coal petrography, and trace-element concentrations in lignite and adjoining rock layers of the Gibbons Creek mine. Particular interest was given to the distribution of 12 environmentally sensitive trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U) that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Eleven lignite, floor, and rock parting samples were collected from incremental channel samples of the 3500 and 4500 beds that were exposed in a highwall of pit A3 at the Gibbons Creek mine. Short proximate and ultimate and forms of sulfur analyses were performed on all lignite samples, and lignite and rock samples were analyzed for 60 major, minor and trace elements. Representative splits of all lignite samples were ground and cast into pellets, and polished for petrographic analyses in blue-light fluorescence and reflected white light to determine liptinite, inertinite, and huminite maceral group percentages. The following observations summarize our results and conclusions about the geochemistry, petrography, and sedimentology of the 3500 and 4500 beds of the Gibbons Creek lignite deposit: (1) Weighted average dry (db) ash yield for the two beds is 29.7%, average total sulfur content is 2.6%, and average calorific value is 7832 Btu (18.22 MJ/kg). Ash yields are greatest in the lower bench (59.33% db) of the 3500 bed and in the upper bench of the 4500 bed (74.61% db). (2) For lignite samples (on a whole-coal basis), the distributions of two of the HAPs (Pb and Sb) are positively related to ash yield, probably indicating an inorganic affinity for these elements. By using cluster analysis we

  11. The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, Vinay K.

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), T max and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal

  12. The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, Vinay

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), Tmax and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal

  13. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  14. Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers for lignite gasification with KRW gasifiers for gasification of coal fines. Topical report (Final), April 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Smelser, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    A first-pass design and cost estimate was prepared for a plant to convert lignite to substitute natural gas (SNG) using Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify the coal and the KRW fluid-bed gasifiers to gasify the coal fines. The overall plant thermal efficiency is between that of the Lurgi and KRW base case designs. The study-case design is of commercial interest compared to a Lurgi plant when the Lurgi plant coal fines cannot be sold. The study case is more capital-intensive because it requires more-expensive boilers and more of different types of process units than either base case. There is no advantage over a KRW plant design that provides a 30% lower cost of gas.

  15. A New Regulatory Mechanism for Kv7.2 Protein During Neuropathy: Enhanced Transport from the Soma to Axonal Terminals of Injured Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Elsa; Roza, Carolina; Jackson, Nieka; López-García, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Kv7.2 channel expression has been reported to decrease in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following the induction of a peripheral neuropathy while other experiments show that Kv7.2 accumulates in peripheral neuromas. The mechanisms underlying these novel expression patterns are poorly understood. Here we use immunofluorescence methods to analyze Kv7.2 protein expression changes in sensory neurons following peripheral axotomy and the potential role of axonal transport. Results indicate that DRG neurons express Kv7.2 in ~16% of neurons and that this number decreases by about 65% after axotomy. Damaged neurons were identified in DRG by application of the tracer Fluoro-ruby at the site of injury during surgery. Reduction of Kv7.2 expression was particularly strong in damaged neurons although some loss was also found in putative uninjured neurons. In parallel to the decrease in the soma of axotomized sensory neurons, Kv7.2 accumulated at neuromatose fiber endings. Blockade of axonal transport with either vinblastine (VLB) or colchicine (COL) abolished Kv7.2 redistribution in neuropathic animals. Channel distribution rearrangements did not occur following induction of inflammation in the hind paw. Behavioral tests indicate that protein rearrangements within sensory afferents are essential to the development of allodynia under neuropathic conditions. These results suggest that axotomy enhances axonal transport in injured sensory neurons, leading to a decrease of somatic expression of Kv7.2 protein and a concomitant accumulation in damaged fiber endings. Localized changes in channel expression patterns under pathological conditions may create novel opportunities for Kv7.2 channel openers to act as analgesics. PMID:26696829

  16. UNC-16 (JIP3) Acts Through Synapse-Assembly Proteins to Inhibit the Active Transport of Cell Soma Organelles to Caenorhabditis elegans Motor Neuron Axons.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Stacey L; Morrison, Logan M; Yorks, Rosalina M; Hoover, Christopher M; Boominathan, Soorajnath; Miller, Kenneth G

    2015-09-01

    The conserved protein UNC-16 (JIP3) inhibits the active transport of some cell soma organelles, such as lysosomes, early endosomes, and Golgi, to the synaptic region of axons. However, little is known about UNC-16's organelle transport regulatory function, which is distinct from its Kinesin-1 adaptor function. We used an unc-16 suppressor screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to discover that UNC-16 acts through CDK-5 (Cdk5) and two conserved synapse assembly proteins: SAD-1 (SAD-A Kinase), and SYD-2 (Liprin-α). Genetic analysis of all combinations of double and triple mutants in unc-16(+) and unc-16(-) backgrounds showed that the three proteins (CDK-5, SAD-1, and SYD-2) are all part of the same organelle transport regulatory system, which we named the CSS system based on its founder proteins. Further genetic analysis revealed roles for SYD-1 (another synapse assembly protein) and STRADα (a SAD-1-interacting protein) in the CSS system. In an unc-16(-) background, loss of the CSS system improved the sluggish locomotion of unc-16 mutants, inhibited axonal lysosome accumulation, and led to the dynein-dependent accumulation of lysosomes in dendrites. Time-lapse imaging of lysosomes in CSS system mutants in unc-16(+) and unc-16(-) backgrounds revealed active transport defects consistent with the steady-state distributions of lysosomes. UNC-16 also uses the CSS system to regulate the distribution of early endosomes in neurons and, to a lesser extent, Golgi. The data reveal a new and unprecedented role for synapse assembly proteins, acting as part of the newly defined CSS system, in mediating UNC-16's organelle transport regulatory function.

  17. The proximal chromosome 14q microdeletion syndrome: delineation of the phenotype using high resolution SNP oligonucleotide microarray analysis (SOMA) and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Torgyekes, Edina; Shanske, Alan L; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Nahum, Odelia; Pirzadeh, Sara; Blumfield, Einat; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Warburton, Dorothy; Levy, Brynn

    2011-08-01

    We report on two patients with overlapping small interstitial deletions involving regions 14q12 to 14q13.1. Both children had severe developmental delay, failure to thrive, microcephaly, and distinctive facial features, including abnormal spacing of the eyes, epicanthal folds, sloping forehead, low-set ears, rounded eyebrows with triangular media aspect and outer tapering, depressed and broad nasal bridge, small mouth, a long philtrum, and a prominent Cupid's bow. Brain MRI of both children showed partial agenesis of the corpus callosum. Our first patient had bilateral hypoplastic optic nerves causing blindness, mild hearing impairment, sinus arrhythmia, abnormal temperature regulation, frequent apneic episodes, myoclonic jerks, and opisthotonus. Our second patient had a seizure disorder confirmed by EEG, sleep apnea, chronic interstitial lung disease, and several episodes of pneumonia and gastroenteritis. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal karyotype in Patient 1 and a unique apparently balanced three-way translocation in Patient 2 involving chromosomes 4, 14, and 11. High resolution SNP Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis (SOMA) revealed a deletion in the proximal region of chromosome 14q overlapping with the deletion of our first patient, and no copy number changes in chromosomes 4 and 11. Here, we review and compare published cases with a deletion involving the 14q12-22.1 chromosomal region in an effort to correlate phenotype and genotype. We also examine the underlying genomic architecture to identify the possible mechanism of the chromosomal abnormality. Our review found a patient with a mirror duplication of our first patient's deletion, confirming the existence of an underlying genomic structural instability in the region. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Natural infection of turkeys by infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Portz, Cristiana; Beltrão, Nilzane; Furian, Thales Quedi; Júnior, Alfredo Bianco; Macagnan, Marisa; Griebeler, Josiane; Lima Rosa, Carlos André Veiga; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Back, Alberto; Barth Schatzmayr, Ortrud Monika; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2008-09-18

    The infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an important respiratory pathogen of chickens that also infects pheasants and peafowl. Epidemiologically non-related commercial turkey flocks with clinical signs such as tracheitis, swollen sinuses, conjunctivitis and expectoration of bloody mucus were examined for the presence of the virus. Laboratory ILTV detection was performed by virus isolation in embryonated eggs and cell cultures, PCR and sequencing of amplification products, histopathology, indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. One ILTV turkey isolate was also experimentally inoculated into susceptible chickens and turkeys, reproducing a mild respiratory disease. This is the first description of natural infections with ILTV in turkeys.

  19. Determinants of a quality wild turkey hunting season.

    PubMed

    Wynveen, Christopher J; Cavin, Drew A; Wright, Brett A; Hammitt, William E

    2005-07-01

    According to the National Wild Turkey Federation, there has been a 450% increase in the number of licensed wild turkey hunters since 1973. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research articles focusing specifically on turkey hunting. Most human dimensions of wildlife research have focused on either deer or waterfowl hunting. In this study, dimensions of hunting quality, days a field, and harvest were examined among a sample of 739 Virginia fall turkey hunters. Quality of a hunting season, rather than a specific hunt, was examined. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed five domains of attributes of a high-quality turkey-hunting season: wildlife interaction, education, being away, social interaction, and hunting skills. The domains of hunting quality revealed by the PCA are similar to domains found previously for spring turkey hunters as well as other types of hunters. Also examined were hunter perceptions of overall hunting quality, the number of days spent hunting turkeys during the fall season, and harvest success. For comparative purposes and agency needs, hunters were segmented into three categories based on days spent hunting: low frequency (1 to 2 days), medium frequency (3 to 4 days), and high frequency (> or =5 days). The influence of these variables to respondents' perceptions of overall quality was examined using a series of regression models. Variables found to be significant predictors of quality were wildlife interaction and harvest success. Hunters who killed a turkey reported a significantly higher quality season than those who did not kill a turkey.

  20. Association and in silico assignment of sequences from turkey BACs.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kent M; Faile, Gretchen M; Kreuth, Stacy B; Chaves, Lee D; Sullivan, Laura M

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) provide an important resource in genetic mapping. An initial set of BACs corresponding to microsatellite markers in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) was isolated from the CHORI-260 turkey BAC library. The selected markers were distributed on both macro- and microchromosomes and included a genetically unlinked marker. End sequences were obtained for a subset of the recovered BACs and compared to the chicken whole genome sequence. Close association of the turkey BAC-end sequences and original marker sequences was generally conserved in the chicken genome. Gene content of the turkey BACs is predicted from the comparative sequence alignments.

  1. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-09-30

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  2. A report on syphilis control in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Sven

    1954-01-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month survey of the nature and extent of venereal diseases in Turkey which was undertaken by the author, on behalf of WHO, at the request of the Turkish Government. The first part of the report outlines the present venereal-disease-control system and includes descriptions of the work undertaken by public authorities, hospitals and dispensaries, mobile venereal-disease-control teams, and laboratories; in the second part, the author enumerates certain recommendations for the intensification of the current control programme. These recommendations are particularly concerned with the control of syphilis (since the incidence of other venereal diseases in Turkey is of very secondary importance), and with the expansion, standardization, and co-ordination of serodiagnostic facilities and services. It is suggested that there might be a gradual intensification and reorientation of the present programme. A proposed plan of operations for an eight-year period is described. PMID:13182590

  3. The history of psychosurgery in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Zahmacioğlu, Oğuzhan; Dinç, Gülten; Naderi, Sait

    2009-07-01

    The modern age of psychosurgery can be said to have started with Moniz and Lima. Freeman and Watts subsequently revised and popularised the lobotomy procedure. Moniz shared the 1949 Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses, which accelerated the worldwide popularisation of lobotomy, particularly during the years from 1948 to 1953. In Turkey, psychosurgical interventions were first performed in the early 1950s, and were applied in almost 400 cases. These operations gradually ceased after the discovery and worldwide clinic applications of a modern antipsychotic drug named Chlorpromazine in 1950s, paralleling a similar trend in other countries. Our paper reviews the clinical, psychometric and histopathological results of psychosurgery performed in Turkey in the 1950s.

  4. Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

  5. Ectoparasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Senlik, Bayram; Aydin, Levent; Cirak, Veli Y

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal, spiny-coated animals that have been growing in popularity as exotic pets. However, these animals are host to a wide variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, some of which are of zoonotic character. Thus, because hedgehogs have a potential role to transmit zoonoses including arthropod-borne diseases, we examined them for their ectoparasites. The study was carried out on hedgehogs found dead mainly due to road casualties in the Bursa province of Turkey. The ectoparasites were collected by both insecticide spraying of the body and inspection on a white paper carefully. Totally three species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Haemophysalis parvo) and one flea species (Archeopsylla erinacei) were detected. The prevalence of mixed infestation with both ticks and fleas was 45.5%. Haemaphysalis parva was reported for the first time from hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Turkey. The occurrence of ectoparasites and their potential role as vectors of certain zoonotic diseases are briefly discussed.

  6. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice

    2017-01-31

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  7. Task 50 - deposition of lignites in the Fort Union Group and related strata of the northern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J.H.; Roth, B.; Kihm, A.J.

    1997-08-11

    Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, and early Eocene geologic and paleontologic studies were undertaken in western North Dakota, eastern and south-central Montana, and northwestern and northeastern Wyoming. These study areas comprise the Williston, Bighorn, and Powder River Basins, all of which contain significant lignite resources. Research was undertaken in these basins because they have the best geologic sections and fossil record for the development of a chronostratigraphic (time-rock) framework for the correlation of lignite beds and other economic resources. A thorough understanding of the precise geologic age of the deposition of sediments permits a powerful means of interpreting the record of geologic events across the northern Great Plains. Such an understanding allows for rigorous interpretation of paleoenviromnents and estimates of resource potential and quality in this area of economically significant deposits. This work is part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of molluscan fossil faunas to provide a paleoenvironmentally sensitive independent means of interpreting time intervals of brief duration during the Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene. This study focuses on the record of mollusks and, to a lesser extent, mammals in the (1) Hell Creek-Tullock Formations, which include the Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary, in the western portion of the Williston Basin, Montana; (2) uppermost Cretaceous, Paleocene, and lowermost Eocene strata in western North Dakota, which -includes the last interior seaway in North Dakota; (3) upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene of the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin of south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming; and (4) Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The geologic record provides different physical and paleontological information to aid in interpreting the geologic record through the study interval.

  8. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Stepan; Thomas A. Moe; Melanie D. Hetland; Margaret L. Laumb

    2001-06-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will further affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. This project, a cooperative effort between the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Grand Forks Water Treatment Plant, and the University of North Dakota Department of Civil Engineering, consists of several interrelated tasks. The objective of the research was to evaluate a cost-effective PAC produced from North Dakota lignite for removing NOM from water and reducing trihalomethane formation potential. The research approach was to develop a statistically valid testing protocol that can be used to compare dose-response relationships between North Dakota lignite-derived PAC and commercially available PAC products. A statistical analysis was performed to determine whether significant correlations exist between operating conditions, water properties, PAC properties, and dose-response behavior. Pertinent physical and chemical properties were also measured for each of the waters and each of the PACs.

  9. Turkey’s Security Policy and NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    of a low chance of military intervention, and a working multi-party system. Because Turkish politicians managed to change the government by election ...PROJECT NO. TASK NO. I WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Indude Socity Cmiication) TURKEY’S SECURITY POLICY AND NATO 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR...ABSTRACT (Cont,,ue an m.voe d nece,• ty and ,denfi by bba nufter) This research provides a study about the changing interaction of a Treaty Organization

  10. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  11. An epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Mason, S J; Maiers, J D

    1984-01-01

    A major epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum occurred in the Monroe, North Carolina, area between January and June of 1983. The outbreak involved 304,000 turkeys of various ages, which were slaughtered in the eradication program at a cost of more than $550,000 to growers and poultry companies. An infected peafowl was the likely source of infection on the first farm. Traffic between farms by growers and company personnel was theorized to be the means of further spread.

  12. Healthcare Information Technology Infrastructures in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, M.; Ertürkmen, G. L.; Kabak, Y.; Namli, T.; Yıldız, M. H.; Ay, Y.; Ceyhan, B.; Hülür, Ü.; Öztürk, H.; Atbakan, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for “Health-Net”), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. Methods The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Results Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients’ Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. Conclusion With the introduction of the “Health Transformation Program” in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality. PMID:24853036

  13. Turkey: A Bridge to the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    NAME AND ADDRESS 10 PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJEC. TASK AREA 6 WORK UNIT NUMBERS U.S. Army War College Carlisle Barracks, Pa 17013 Ii. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME...society. 10 During this period Turkey also benefited from foreign assistance. Road building projects provided a transportation network throughout the...exports to the point where both the United 10 States and European producers demanded import protection quotas. Basic industries such as iron and

  14. The Rise of Political Islam in Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    monograph describes the politico-religious landscape in Turkey and the relationship between the state and religion, and it evaluates how the balance ...perceived as changing the secular-religious balance or provoking the secularists into another attempt to remove it from power. The presence of AKP mem...background, the selection of Gül as president and possible constitutional changes proposed by the AKP will be key tests of the secular-religious balance in

  15. U.S.-Turkey Strategic Dialogue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    global  proliferation,  disarmament,  and...weapons   before   they   are   rescinded ;   this   would   allow   Turkey   to   maintain   Ankara’s   highly   regarded...Turkish   participants  underscored  that  Turkey’s   warm  relations  with  Iran,  as  well  as  fears  that

  16. Pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Jirjis, F F; Noll, S L; Halvorson, D A; Nagaraja, K V; Shaw, D P

    2002-05-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) is the cause of a respiratory disease of turkeys characterized by coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, and swelling of the infraorbital sinuses. Sixty turkey poults were reared in isolation conditions. At 3 weeks of age, serum samples were collected and determined to be free of antibodies against APV, avian influenza, hemorrhagic enteritis, Newcastle disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and Bordetella avium. When the poults were 4 weeks old, they were inoculated with cell culture-propagated APV (APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97) via the conjunctival spaces and nostrils. After inoculation, four poults were euthanatized every 2 days for 14 days, and blood, swabs, and tissues were collected. Clinical signs consisting of nasal discharge, swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, and frothy ocular discharge were evident by 2 days postinoculation (PI) and persisted until day 12 PI. Mild inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses was present between days 2 and 10 PI. Mild inflammatory changes were seen in tracheas of poults euthanatized between days 4 and 10 PI. Antibody to APV was detected by day 7 PI. The virus was detected in tissue preparations and swabs of nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and immunohistochemical staining methods between days 2 and 10 PI. Virus was detected in tracheal tissue and swabs between days 2 and 6 PI using the same methods. In this experiment, turkey poults inoculated with tissue culture-propagated APV developed clinical signs similar to those seen in field cases associated with infection with this virus.

  17. The 1994 Economic Crisis in Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Rodrik (1990) argues that coalition governments during the 1970s were an outcome of a substantial reduction in the popular vote gap between the...coalition governments lasted on average two years ( Rodrik 1990). The volatility in the political environment adversely affected the government’s...25.2% in 1982, the lowest inflation rate in Turkey since 1980 ( Rodrik 1990). Table 1. Main Economic Indicators (% of GNP) Between 1978 - 1983

  18. Assessment of Housing Energy Consumption in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerel Kandemir, Suheyla; Erdem Çerçevik, Ali; Ankara, Huseyin; Ozgur Yayli, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we analyze housing energy consumption in Turkey. The energy consumption is evaluated by using the multivariate techniques such as cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. The number of clusters for housing energy consumption was selected as five years. Finally, cluster and MDS analysis results show that the 2009 and 2010 was the most similar consumption years in housing energy consumption. Finally, this paper present that the usefulness of cluster and MDS analysis for assessment in the energy consumption.

  19. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  20. Assessing Poverty and Related Factors in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US $4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  1. History of forensic medicine in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal

    2009-05-01

    Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaroğlu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library.

  2. Local magnitude scale for earthquakes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, T.; Ottemöller, L.; Havskov, J.; Yanık, K.; Kılıçarslan, Ö.; Alver, F.; Özyazıcıoğlu, M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the earthquake event data accumulated by the Turkish National Seismic Network between 2007 and 2013, the local magnitude (Richter, Ml) scale is calibrated for Turkey and the close neighborhood. A total of 137 earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) are used for the Ml inversion for the whole country. Three Ml scales, whole country, East, and West Turkey, are developed, and the scales also include the station correction terms. Since the scales for the two parts of the country are very similar, it is concluded that a single Ml scale is suitable for the whole country. Available data indicate the new scale to suffer from saturation beyond magnitude 6.5. For this data set, the horizontal amplitudes are on average larger than vertical amplitudes by a factor of 1.8. The recommendation made is to measure Ml amplitudes on the vertical channels and then add the logarithm scale factor to have a measure of maximum amplitude on the horizontal. The new Ml is compared to Mw from EMSC, and there is almost a 1:1 relationship, indicating that the new scale gives reliable magnitudes for Turkey.

  3. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  4. Literacy in Turkey with Special Reference to Women's State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusavas, Mualla

    In Turkey today, 93% of all persons between the ages of 6 and 15 attend school, and 89.7% of males and 71.1.% of females over the age of 15 are literate. Turkey's largest adult education programs are public, free, and offered both within and outside the formal educational system by governmental bodies, national institutions, and voluntary…

  5. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  6. Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanal, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

  7. An Examination of Articles Published on Preschool Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine articles published in Turkey on Preschool Education both in terms of subject and method. Sample of the study based on document analysis in qualitative method consists of seven Turkey-based journals indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) and 10 journals indexed in Turkish Academic Network and Information Center…

  8. Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Göktürk, Ramazan Süleyman; Sümbül, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae) is described and illustrated from south Anatolia, Turkey. The species grows on steppe and stony places in Anamur (C4 Mersin province) in south Anatolia. Diagnostic morphological characters from closely similar taxa are discussed. The geographical distribution of the new species and two closely related species in Turkey are mapped. PMID:27489486

  9. Socioscientific Issues in Science Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami; Mugaloglu, Ebru Zeynep; Guven, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the foci and results of studies on socioscientific issues (SSI) conducted in Turkey. Additionally, the study aimed to compare the results of this study with ones conducted internationally. For this aim, a literary review of empirical studies related to SSI conducted in Turkey was carried out. Four criteria…

  10. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  11. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  12. Turkey as a U.S. Security Partner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    new groups have 1 For a comprehensive discussion, see Bulent Aliriza and Seda Ciftci, “The Train to Europe Stalls,” Turkey Update, Washington, D.C...political process in the future. 33 Bibliography Aliriza, Bulent, and Seda Ciftci, “The Train to Europe Stalls,” Turkey Update, Washington, D.C

  13. International Counseling Students in Turkey and Their Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Tahsin; Korkut-Owen, Fidan; Furr, Susan; Parikh, Sejal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions and experiences of international counseling students (ICSs) in university training programs in Turkey. A majority of participants reported they had adjusted positively, but did experience problems related to language, food, and customs. Participants largely also thought that the training in Turkey met their…

  14. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  15. University Students' Perception of Discrimination on Campus in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokce, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    This study explores discrimination on campus in Turkey. The participants were 164 university students from the first, third, and fourth classes of two departments in a university in Turkey. The data was gathered through a questionnaire developed by the author. The results revealed that students were discriminated against because of their clothing…

  16. New Bythinella (Gastropoda, Bythinellidae) species from western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Mehmet Zeki; Kebapçı, Ümit; Koca, Seval Bahadır; Yüce, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bythinella anatolica sp. n., Bythinella istanbulensis sp. n., Bythinella magdalenae sp. n., and Bythinella wilkei sp. n. from western Turkey are described herein. Illustrations of the shell and genitalia of the newly described taxa, together with comparisons with previously known Bythinella taxa and a key to the species from western Turkey, are also provided. PMID:25685028

  17. Stress-induced immunosupression and gangrenous dermatitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our laboratory has been researching the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 16 years and we have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have traditionally be...

  18. The Use of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oczelik, Durmus Ali; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (TEO) (B. S. Bloom, 1956) in Turkey is reviewed, highlighting curriculum development, teaching and teacher education, and measurement and evaluation of learning. Developments in TEO use in the United States are followed in Turkey with a gap of 5 to 10 years. (SLD)

  19. Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Boran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

  20. The Status and Future of Aerospace Engineering Education in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Francis J.

    There is no aerospace industry in Turkey, and the level of operational activity is low even though the potential for the exploitation of aviation is high. The government of Turkey hopes to establish an aircraft factory in conjunction with a foreign contractor and is aware of the need for aerospace engineering education. This paper describes the…

  1. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  2. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  3. English Language Teacher Education in Turkey: Policy vs Academic Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalingappa, Laura J.; Polat, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines curriculum frameworks in English language teacher education (ELTE) programs in Turkey in light of current second language (L2) teaching standards and research vs Turkey's Higher Education Council (HEC) mandates. It also investigates program directors' perceptions about the current situations of their programs with…

  4. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    PubMed

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone.

  5. Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High-Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-447

    SciTech Connect

    Iisa, Kristiina

    2016-04-06

    NREL will work with Participant as a subtier partner under DE-FOA-0000240 titled "Co-Production of Power, Fuels, and Chemicals via Coal/Biomass Mixtures." The goal of the project is to determine the gasification characteristics of switchgrass and lignite mixtures and develop kinetic models. NREL will utilize a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer to measure the reactivity of chars generated in a pressurized entrained-flow reactor at Participant's facilities and to determine the evolution of gaseous species during pyrolysis of switchgrass-lignite mixtures. Mass spectrometry and Fourier-transform infrared analysis will be used to identify and quantify the gaseous species. The results of the project will aid in defining key reactive properties of mixed coal biomass fuels.

  6. Spatial and vertical distribution and risk assessment of natural radionuclides in soils surrounding the lignite-fired power plants in Megalopolis basin, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaefthymiou, H V; Manousakas, M; Fouskas, A; Siavalas, G

    2013-01-01

    Twenty soil profile samples and fourteen surface soil samples collected from the vicinity of the lignite-fired power plants in the Megalopolis basin (Greece) were analysed for their natural radionuclide concentration and (137)Cs, since fossil fuels are associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials and hence with radiological impact. No significant enhancement of surface soil radioactivity levels in the vicinity of lignite-fired plants was observed. A downcore decreasing trend of (137)Cs was observed in a number of cores reflecting its atmospheric origin, whereas the uniform distribution observed in a number of other cores gave information on the mechanical alteration of the soil. The average dose rate value was found to be 63 ± 22 nGy h(-1), while the annual average effective dose from the terrestrial gamma radiation was found to be 0.08 ± 0.03 mSv.

  7. JNK1 controls dendritic field size in L2/3 and L5 of the motor cortex, constrains soma size, and influences fine motor coordination

    PubMed Central

    Komulainen, Emilia; Zdrojewska, Justyna; Freemantle, Erika; Mohammad, Hasan; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Deshpande, Prasannakumar; Marchisella, Francesca; Mysore, Raghavendra; Hollos, Patrik; Michelsen, Kimmo A.; Mågard, Mats; Rauvala, Heikki; James, Peter; Coffey, Eleanor T.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1), the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622, and T1625 (Uniprot P15146) corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622, and T1625 increases dendrite complexity in L2/3 indicating that JNK1 phosphorylation of HMW-MAP2 regulates the dendritic field. Consistent with the morphological changes observed in L2/3 and L5, Jnk1-/- mice exhibit deficits in limb placement and motor coordination, while stride length is reduced in older animals. In summary, JNK1 phosphorylates HMW-MAP2 to increase its stabilization of microtubules while at the same time controlling dendritic fields in the main excitatory pathway of M1. Moreover, JNK1 contributes to normal functioning of fine motor coordination. We report for the first time, a quantitative Sholl analysis of dendrite architecture, and of motor behavior in Jnk1-/- mice. Our results illustrate the molecular and behavioral consequences of interrupted JNK1 signaling and provide new ground for mechanistic understanding of those prevalent neuropyschiatric disorders where genetic disruption of the JNK pathway is central. PMID:25309320

  8. Liver pathology associated with increased mortality in turkey breeder and meat turkey flocks.

    PubMed

    Popp, Christina; Hauck, Rüdiger; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Lüschow, Dörte; Kershaw, B Olivia; Hoferer, Marc; Hafez, Hafez M

    2014-09-01

    Between 2006 and 2011 a series of disease conditions characterized by raised mortality and liver disorders occurred in turkey breeder flocks and in meat turkey flocks in Germany. The flocks were between 12 and 23 wk of age, and mostly hens were affected. Clinical signs were nonspecific and accompanied by mortality varying between 1% and 7%. Affected birds displayed swollen livers that were marbled with black and red spots and yellowish areas. The pericardium was filled with an amber fluid, and the coronary groove was extensively filled with fat. Spleens were swollen, and a serous fluid that seemed to leak from the liver was present in the body cavity. Histopathological findings in all but one case included fatty degeneration of hepatocytes with parenchymal collapse and associated hemorrhages. Some animals showed cholangitis and hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. In three cases with breeders, electron microscopy detected virus particles that were between 23 and 30 nm and similar to parvo- or picornavirus. In addition, picornavirus RNA was detected in the livers of one meat turkey flock. Investigations by PCR for circovirus, polyomavirus parvovirus, and aviadenovirus yielded negative results in all cases, but an aviadenovirus was isolated from livers twice and a reovirus from the intestines once. Supplementation with vitamin E and selenium seemed to improve the situation. The most likely diagnosis is lipidosis, a metabolic disorder with complex etiology, which has rarely been described in turkeys.

  9. 9 CFR 381.171 - Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition and standard for âTurkey... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.171 Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.” (a) “Turkey Ham” shall be fabricated from boneless, turkey thigh meat with skin and the surface fat attached to the...

  10. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary... tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey). The period of investigation is January 1, 2012... Turkey and several other countries.\\1\\ The CVD investigation and the AD investigations cover the...

  11. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  12. High prevalence of turkey parvovirus in turkey flocks from Hungary experiencing enteric disease syndromes.

    PubMed

    Palade, Elena Alina; Demeter, Zoltán; Hornyák, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Kisary, János; Rusvai, Miklós

    2011-09-01

    Samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ED) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. Turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (TAst-2) in 26.53%. The investigations directly demonstrated the high prevalence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in 23 flocks (46.9%) experiencing signs of ED, making this pathogen the second most identified after astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis on a 527 base pair-long region from the NS1 gene revealed two main clusters, a chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and a TuPV group, but also the presence of a divergent branch of tentatively named "TuPV-like ChPV" strains. The 23 Hungarian TuPV strains were separately positioned in two groups from the American origin sequences in the TuPV cluster. An Avail-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has also been developed for the quick differentiation of TuPV, ChPV, and divergent TuPV-like ChPV strains. As most detected enteric viruses have been directly demonstrated in healthy turkey flocks as well, the epidemiology of this disease complex remains unclear, suggesting that a certain combination of pathogens, environmental factors, or both are necessary for the development of clinical signs.

  13. Health and Roma People in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif

    2016-01-01

    Background: The research and published literature on Roma health in Turkey is much more limited than in other European countries. Among these, there are hardly any published literature focusing on the health status, health indicators and health behaviors. Aims: The aim of this research is to describe the perceptions of health-related concepts and access and the use of health services and social determinants of the health of Roma people in Turkey. Study Design: Descriptive qualitative survey. Methods: The participants were chosen by random sampling. The semi-structured interview topic guide was developed from sources such as advice from the Romani community leaders, published evidence and personal experience from previous work with Roma communities. Non-directive open-ended questions allowed the exploration of their health status, how they conceptualize health and disease, their level of awareness on the impact of social determinants of health, on their health status and the access and use of health services. The data analysis was based on grounded theory. Analysis proceeded in four steps: 1. Reading and examining the transcripts separately using open coding, 2. Extracting the key words and codes from the transcripts and sorting them into categories, 3. Re-reading the transcripts by using selective coding, and 4. Examining the categories derived from the open coding systematically and determining the concepts summarizing the material. Results: The survey results are compatible with the existing literature on Roma health and reveal that 1) there is a tight link between the lack of social determinants of health and the poor health status of Roma people 2) socioeconomic factors and cultural norms of the ethnic minority are suspicious factors 3) comparative and systematic research is needed to illuminate the actual health gaps and causal factors for them. Conclusion: The research proves that the need for comparative and systematic research in Turkey to determine the

  14. SUDEP: The First Case Series in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    GÜNGÖR, Mesut; ACAR ARSLAN, Elif; TEZER FİLİK, Fadime İrsel; SAYGI, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is defined as the sudden, unexpected, witnessed or unwitnessed, non-traumatic, and non-drowning death of patients with epilepsy with or without evidence of a seizure, excluding documented status epilepticus, and in whom postmortem examinations do not reveal a toxicological or anatomic cause for death. In this study, data on patients who passed away under observation in the epilepsy clinic due to sudden, unexpected death have been compiled, and we also aim to emphasize the importance of SUDEP in Turkey. Methods This study was performed with a total of nine cases. Data were obtained from hospital records, information given by the families of patients, the database of the General Directorate for Civil Services of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Turkey, and from the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality Cemetery Information System. As the basis of classification and definition, the proposals suggested by Nashef et al., which were made to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in 2011, were taken into consideration. Results Eight of the patients were classified as probable SUDEP and one of them as possible SUDEP; the mean age at SUDEP was 33 years, and the average follow-up period was 19.7 years. In these cases, except for known risk factors (generalized tonic–clonic seizures, nocturnal seizures, severe epilepsy, more frequent seizures, younger age at the onset of epilepsy, unwitnessed seizures, polytherapy, and mental handicap), a different risk factor was not identified Conclusion This study is the first case series on SUDEP in Turkey. Postmortem studies are the most important shortcoming of the study. However, the importance of the topic is highlighted by presenting the available data. SUDEP deserves more attention during the daily practice of neurologists, pediatric neurologists, forensic physicians, and family physicians. If death is sudden and unexpected in a patient with epilepsy, SUDEP should be

  15. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011.

  16. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  17. Homosexuality in Turkey: strategies for managing heterosexism.

    PubMed

    Bakacak, Ayça Gelgeç; Oktem, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the strategies used by young homosexuals to manage their sexual minority status in Turkey. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 self-identified homosexual university students. The data on the strategies employed by homosexuals suggested a categorization of these strategies into four interrelated areas: strategies employed in the process of self-acceptance; strategies to manage sexual stigma and prejudice; strategies specific to the coming-out process; and the strategies used while openly expressing their sexual identities.

  18. The Influence of Islam in Turkey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    must be considered evidence of some popular chord beinq struck. The question then of this paper is: "Is Islam an influ- ence in Turkey today?" By tracing...34 Middle East Journal vol. 30 #2 (Spring, 1976), p. 187; and Gunaydin 16 Oct 1979, p. 1. 50 Labor was never a particularly vocal force in the leadership...the 1960 coup, students too were not a major political force, but became more vocal and impatient after- ward. At the same time, the students, following

  19. February 2011 sensitive clay landslides at the Çöllolar coalfield, eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçar, Naki; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Nyffenegger, Franziska; Fredin, Ola; Stolz, Martin; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    The Elbistan basin is an intramontane basin, which is located in the eastern Turkey and bound by the Taurus and Antitaurus Mountains. The basin covers an area of 900 km² at a mean elevation of about 1200 m. The basement rock in this field is karstic limestone, which is overlain by a thick layer of clay (>100 m), followed by 20-50 m thick Lignite series that is overlain by the 20-50 m thick Gyttja sequence. These deposits are overlain by Quaternary deposits, comprising the top surfaces of the terraces of the Hurman River, which drains the surface and ground water from the surrounding hills to the northeast towards the center of the Elbistan basin. The Çöllolar open pit mine, situated in the northwestern sector of the Elbistan basin, contains 90 km2 of mineable coal which has been excavated since 2008. In February 2011, two landslides in which 10 workers were killed, occurred in this field. Of the two landslides, the 2nd and largest which covers an area of ca. 2.3 km2,was caused by the collapse of the northeastern wall of the open-pit mine. The failure was made of successive rearward collapses with the debris flowing into the open-pit. In this study, we focus on the geologic factors that led to instability and the trigger of the landslides. To reveal these factors, we employ sedimentological and geotechnical analysis of deposits, with a special emphasis on the Pliocene lacustrine carbonaceous sediments and the sensitivity of the overlying Quaternary clays. First results from the fieldwork and the mineralogical composition and physical properties of the collected samples indicate that the landslide was caused by the liquefaction of one of the layers within the thick sequence of this part of the Elbistan basin based on the flow style of the movement and nature of the failure. In brief, we conclude that massive failures at the Çöllolar coalfield are unique examples of sensitive clay landslides occurred in a subtropical arid region beyond the extent of Quaternary

  20. Sustainability of energy and carbon capture and storage for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpsar, Cengiz

    This study, as study herein, is intended to approach a different way to provide sustainability of energy and environment by different aspects for Turkey. This study investigates the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey for non-emissions of GHG and elaborates on a carbon capture and storage technology by creating a roadmap for Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to make a roadmap about carbon capture and storage (CCS) for Turkey to use as it proceeds. As one of the members of International Panel of Climate Change, which signed Kyoto protocol, it must adapt its acts and regulations. In addition, this study concentrates on the sustainable energy potential of Turkey, although the study investigated only the alternative energy resources suitable for Turkey: solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy, and hydropower. There are huge numbers of potential renewable energy sources, and given Turkey's total energy demand of 106.3 million tons equivalent petroleum in 2010, only solar potential would be able to eventually supply the total demand, but energy from the wind and hydropower are sufficient to provide partial amounts. This study might help policy makers in their decisions regarding CCS technology. Currently, there are various technical and non-technical economic and social challenges that prevent CCS from become an extensively used commercial technology. This document discusses them and presents goals for each research pathway.

  1. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, J. T.; Bildstein, K. L.; Bohrer, G.; Winkler, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195

  2. Thirty years of primary immunodeficiencies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Ozden; Tezcan, Ilhan

    2011-11-01

    Turkey, with its population of some 75 million, has a high rate of consanguineous marriages. Because the majority of the primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are inherited as autosomal recessive (AR) forms, the high consanguinity rate leads to a high prevalence of PID diseases in Turkey. The first pediatric immunology division was established in 1972, since then over 10 other immunology divisions have been established in different cities. Approximately 4,000 patients with possible PID are referred to these centers annually. The percentages of some of the major immunodeficiency groups and individual disease numbers among these patients differ somewhat in comparison with Western countries, likely because the relative incidences of PIDs with AR inheritance and of rare diseases are higher. These characteristics of the patient population, and our determination of differences in disease presentation and unusual features, have led us to undertake studies in collaboration with various centers in Western countries. These collaborations have contributed to the identification of the genes responsible for some rare immunodeficiencies, to the resolution of the genetic heterogeneity underlying conventional phenotypes, and to the description of new clinical phenotypes.

  3. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

    2008-12-09

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.

  4. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  5. National Childhood Diabetes Program Activities in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Recent census figures in Turkey show that out of a population of 76.6 million, 22.7 million (29.7%) are younger than 18 years old. The great majority (>95%) of pediatric cases of diabetes in Turkey are type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In recent years, with increase in number of pediatric endocrine centers around the country, the important issue of care for diabetic children and adolescents has been revived and major steps have been taken for improvement in pediatric care and its outreach to all diabetic children. The Childhood Diabetes Group continues its activities in cooperation with the Turkish Ministry of Health. A list of areas of interest of the Group include “School programs”, “Incidence/prevalence studies and national registry system”, “Educational guidelines for diabetes in children”, “Increasing the numbers of camps and summer schools for diabetic children”, “Organization of educational programs for the health team”, “National guidelines for transition of diabetic children to adult clinics”, “Improvement of school canteens”, “Educational spots” to improve awareness of diabetes. The activities of the Childhood Diabetes Group will be discussed in detail in this article. PMID:25800469

  6. Patient doses from CT examinations in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ataç, Gökçe Kaan; Parmaksız, Aydın; İnal, Tolga; Bulur, Emine; Bulgurlu, Figen; Öncü, Tolga; Gündoğdu, Sadi

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to establish the first diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for computed tomography (CT) examinations in adult and pediatric patients in Turkey and compare these with international DRLs. METHODS CT performance information and examination parameters (for head, chest, high-resolution CT of the chest [HRCT-chest], abdominal, and pelvic protocols) from 1607 hospitals were collected via a survey. Dose length products and effective doses for standard patient sizes were calculated from the reported volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). RESULTS The median number of protocols reported from the 167 responding hospitals (10% response rate) was 102 across five different age groups. Third quartile CTDIvol values for adult pelvic and all pediatric body protocols were higher than the European Commission standards but were comparable to studies conducted in other countries. CONCLUSION The radiation dose indicators for adult patients were similar to those reported in the literature, except for those associated with head protocols. CT protocol optimization is necessary for adult head and pediatric chest, HRCT-chest, abdominal, and pelvic protocols. The findings from this study are recommended for use as national DRLs in Turkey. PMID:26133189

  7. Sleep characteristics in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Mexicano, G; Ramos, J I

    2003-03-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of the states of vigilance were analyzed in chronically implanted specimens of the turkey Meleagris gallopavo (M. gallopavo). Five different states of vigilance were observed throughout the nyctohemeral period: active wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), drowsiness (D), slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These states exhibit characteristics similar to those described in other bird species. Sleep periods displayed a polyphasic distribution; however, they showed the tendency to concentrate between 2100 and 0900 h in spite of the fact that the recordings were carried out under constant illumination. Sleep period occupied 45.71% of the nyctohemeral cycle, 43.33% corresponded to SWS, while 2.38% to REM sleep. The average duration of the REM sleep phase was very short, lasting 7.7+/-0.55 s (mean+/-S.D.). In contrast, its frequency was very high with an average recurrence of 268+/-63 phases throughout the nyctohemeral cycle. The short duration of REM sleep phase presented by the turkey as by other bird species studied up to now may be dependent upon genetic factors shared by this group of vertebrates.

  8. National childhood diabetes program activities in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-03-01

    Recent census figures in Turkey show that out of a population of 76.6 million, 22.7 million (29.7%) are younger than 18 years old. The great majority (>95%) of pediatric cases of diabetes in Turkey are type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In recent years, with increase in number of pediatric endocrine centers around the country, the important issue of care for diabetic children and adolescents has been revived and major steps have been taken for improvement in pediatric care and its outreach to all diabetic children. The Childhood Diabetes Group continues its activities in cooperation with the Turkish Ministry of Health. A list of areas of interest of the Group include "School programs", "Incidence/prevalence studies and national registry system", "Educational guidelines for diabetes in children", "Increasing the numbers of camps and summer schools for diabetic children", "Organization of educational programs for the health team", "National guidelines for transition of diabetic children to adult clinics", "Improvement of school canteens", "Educational spots" to improve awareness of diabetes. The activities of the Childhood Diabetes Group will be discussed in detail in this article.

  9. Removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution by lignite-based humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, G.; Cetin, S.; Pehlivan, E.

    2007-07-01

    The removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal ions from an aqueous solution were investigated by using humic acids (HAs) in a batch arrangement. HAs were prepared by using alkaline extraction, following sedimentation and acidic precipitation from three Turkish lignites: Ilgin, Beysehir, and Ermenek. The interactions of Cu(II) and Ni(II) with solid HAs and influence of three parameters (initial metal concentration, solution pH and temperature) on the removal of metals were studied. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved in about 120 min for Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions. The sorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II) on the surface of HAs depended strongly on the pH, and increased with increasing pH and the initial concentration of metal. The sorption of Cu(II) was higher than that of Ni(II) for HAs. The equilibrium relationship between adsorbent and adsorbate is described by adsorption isotherms at a fixed temperature 35 {sup o}C, at pH about 4.0. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was used to describe observed sorption phenomena. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics data of Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions removed by HAs are presented and discussed.

  10. Development of HUMASORB{trademark}, a lignite derived humic acid for removal of metals and organic contaminants from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjay, H.G.; Srivastave, K.C.; Walia, D.S.

    1995-10-01

    Heavy metal and organic contamination of surface and groundwater systems is a major environmental concern. The contamination is primarily due to improperly disposed industrial wastes. The presence of toxic heavy metal ions, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides in water is of great concern and could affect the safety of drinking water. Decontamination of surface and groundwater can be achieved using a broad spectrum of treatment options such as precipitation, ion-exchange, microbial digestion, membrane separation, activated carbon adsorption, etc. The state of the art technologies for treatment of contaminated water however, can in one pass remediate only one class of contaminants, i.e., either VOCs (activated carbon) or heavy metals (ion exchange). This would require the use of at a minimum, two different stepwise processes to remediate a site. The groundwater contamination at different Department of Energy (DOE) sites (e.g., Hanford) is due to the presence of both VOCs and heavy metals. The two-step approach increases the cost of remediation. To overcome the sequential treatment of contaminated streams to remove both organics and metals, a novel material having properties to remove both classes of contaminants in one step is being developed as part of this project.The objective of this project is to develop a lignite-derived adsorbent, Humasorb{sup TM} to remove heavy metals and organics from ground water and surface water streams.

  11. Overcoming Murphy`s Law to gain ERP - a case study at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, E.M.; Horbaczewski, J.K.

    1997-12-31

    As of January 1997, there are 2,586 acres of reclaimed land in the Extended Responsibility Period (ERP) at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Texas. This achievement has taken approximately five years to accomplish - from 1991 to 1996. During this period, there were a number of issues, some of which appeared to follow Murphy`s Law (whatever can go wrong, will go wrong!). For example, the ERP candidate areas were split among three permit areas, which first had to be consolidated to facilitate the ERP process. Minesoil issues, identified as ERP prerequisites, became entangled in an overall renewal/revision of the newly-consolidated Permit 26B. Special-purpose vegetation studies were performed to investigate the effects of different minesoil textures. In the meantime, small depressional areas, wetland/wildlife enhancement areas, reclamation ponds and restored drainages became the subjects of attention from landowners and regulatory agencies. Some of these structures and features were subsequently reclaimed; others were approved via the permitting process. In some cases, the only way out of the impasse was through land acquisition. Finally, after all these issues had been resolved, an unforeseen oil-well drilling program crisscrossed the proposed ERP areas with a network of oil well pads and service roads, requiring a post-mining land use change. Eventually, whatever could go wrong, went right, and entry of lands into ERP was accomplished.

  12. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  14. Using radon-222 for tracing groundwater discharge into an open-pit lignite mining lake--a case study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Axel; Schubert, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater discharge into an open pit lignite mining lake was investigated using radon-222 as a naturally occurring environmental tracer. The chosen study site was a meromictic lake, i.e., a water body that is divided horizontally into two separate layers--the upper mixolimnion (with seasonal mixing) and the lower monimolimnion (without seasonal mixing). For the estimation of groundwater discharge rates into the lake, a simple box model including all radon sinks and sources related to each layer was applied. Two field investigations were performed. During the October campaign, the total groundwater discharge into the lake was found to be 18.9 and 0.7 m(3) d(-1) for the mixolimnion and monimolimnion, respectively. During the December campaign, the groundwater discharge into the mixolimnion was 15.0 m(3) d(-1), whereas no discharge at all was observed into the monimolimnion. Based on the given water volumes, the residence time of lake water was 5.3 years for the monimolimnion and varies between 0.9 and 1.1 years for the mixolimnion. The investigation confirmed radon to be a useful environmental tracer for groundwater and surface water interactions in meromictic lake environments.

  15. On the precipitation climatology of Turkey by harmonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadolu, Mikdat; Öztürk, Naim; Erdun, Hakan; En, Zekai

    1999-12-01

    Basic climatological features over any region are hidden in many meteorological variables, especially in precipitation and temperature records. Among these features the single most important one is the periodicity of different harmonics. Identification of periodic features require regionally and temporally representative data sets and treatment methodology for depicting their amplitudes, frequencies, phase angles and basic statistical parameters. In this paper, only precipitation records are considered for depicting spatial periodic features over the whole of Turkey. Herein, more than 200 precipitation records, uniformly scattered all over Turkey, are studied with basic harmonic analysis revealing the various climatological patterns of Turkey in the form of contour maps. It is observed that only the first and the second harmonics are sufficient to explain more than 90% of the climatological variations in Turkey.

  16. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  17. Experimental lead poisoning in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura).

    PubMed

    Carpenter, James W; Pattee, Oliver H; Fritts, Steven H; Rattner, Barnett A; Wiemeyer, Stanley N; Royle, J Andrew; Smith, Milton R

    2003-01-01

    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiologic response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large numbers of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiologic response.

  18. The Moss Flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey. PMID:25587573

  19. Experimental lead poisoning in Turkey Vultures, Cathartes aura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Pattee, O.H.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J. Andrew; Smith, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus. We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiological response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large number of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiological response.

  20. International spotlight: developing a gerontological social policy agenda for Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arun, Özgür

    2013-12-01

    From 1960 to 2013, the population of Turkey increased almost threefold, with older adults aged 65 and older increasing almost sevenfold. In light of the demographic revolution in the age composition of world populations, we investigated the following research questions from the perspective of Turkish gerontologists: What are the conditions of older people based on sociological factors such as gender, partnership status, income, education, health, religion, and ethnicity? What should Turkey's gerontological agenda contain for the short term, mid-term, and long term, particularly in view of the rapidly changing nature of political, social, and economic life in the country? By 2025, adults (aged 40-65) will make up the largest population group in Turkey's history. It is time for Turkey to embrace this demographic gift and identify its own gerontological agenda to pave the way for social justice and social citizenship.

  1. Bullying within the forestry organizations of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations.

  2. [Problems in cardiology specialty training in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altun, Armağan

    2012-04-01

    Cardiology Specialty Training in our country should be made in accordance with the law numbered 1219 on the Practice of Medicine and Related Arts, and according to the Medical and Dental Specialist Training Regulation which is published according to the 9th article of this law. The duration of Cardiology Specialist Training has been defined as 4 years in our country. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC), European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), and the European Cardiology Section Foundation (ECSF) define the duration of Cardiology Specialist Training as 6 years. Therefore, insufficient Cardiology residency training occurs in our country due to the shortened length of time. In this report, the problems of the Cardiology Specialist Training in Turkey will be addressed under different headings.

  3. Spatial Evolution of Openstreetmap Dataset in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, M.; Seker, D. Z.; Cakir, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Large amount of research work has already been done regarding many aspects of OpenStreetMap (OSM) dataset in recent years for developed countries and major world cities. On the other hand, limited work is present in scientific literature for developing or underdeveloped ones, because of poor data coverage. In presented study it has been demonstrated how Turkey-OSM dataset has spatially evolved in an 8 year time span (2007-2015) throughout the country. It is observed that there is an east-west spatial biasedness in OSM features density across the country. Population density and literacy level are found to be the two main governing factors controlling this spatial trend. Future research paradigms may involve considering contributors involvement and commenting about dataset health.

  4. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  5. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled.

  6. A simple and effective method for portraying and quantifying the macropetrography of lignites: A new tool for coal seam facies analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, R. ); Pratt, K.C. )

    1994-07-01

    All coal seams contain internal successions of lithologically distinct layers, although the layering in many seams may not be obvious in exposed faces or cores. The layers represent seam facies, and their detailed analysis can provide useful insight into the autogenic and allogenic controls on peat and coal formation. Nevertheless, the facies concept has not been extensively applied to coal seams, and hence the development of coal seam facies models has been slow. A major reason for this has been the lack of established methods for portraying the macropetrographic composition and texture of coal. Accordingly, for the identification and analysis of lithofacies, graphical methods of logging coal seam profiles should portray the vitrain/xylite and fusain components, and enable quantification of their size and content. No existing methods satisfy these requirements because they use symbols to portray coal types (see Bustin et al. 1985, p. 49--61, for selected examples), so the authors have devised a new method for use with lignites, which has proved effective in identifying and characterizing seam lithofacies. The method has been applied to lignite seams in the Ravenscrag Formation (Paleocene) of southern Saskatchewan, Canada. A newly exposed face of one seam and fresh cores of 18 other seams showed only indistinct layering, but dry sawing of the lignites revealed much greater proportions of xylite and fusain and the layering became obvious. The clarity of detail revealed in the sawn faces enabled the xylite, fusain, and coal/clastic contacts to be readily traced, providing true-scale graphic representations of the macropetrography. The representations of individual samples are referred to as lith-graphs whereas those of seam profiles are termed lith-logs.

  7. 78 FR 55755 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Mexico and Turkey; Institution of Antidumping and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Mexico and Turkey; Institution of Antidumping and... from Mexico and Turkey of steel concrete reinforcing bar, primarily provided for in subheadings...

  8. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  9. Association between Maternal Mortality and Cesarean Section: Turkey Experience

    PubMed Central

    Uzuncakmak, Cihangir; Ozcam, Hasene

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the cesarean Section (C/S) rates and maternal mortality (MM) causes and its relation between 2002 and 2013. Methods Data were gathered from Turkish Ministry of Health and Istanbul Health Administration. The Annual Clinical Reports for 2002–2013 were reviewed and analyzed: C/Ss and maternal deaths in women who gave birth ≥20 weeks between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2013, in any hospital in Turkey and Istanbul. Results The major causes of MM were hemorrhage (20%), hypertensive disorders (18.2%), embolism (10.3%), cardiovascular conditions (9%), infection (8.5%), and other causes (10.4%). Overall, the average annual CS delivery rate was 46.4% in Istanbul and 36.6% in Turkey. There was a significant increase in the CS rates in Istanbul and Turkey from 2008 to 2013 relative to those from 2002 to 2007 (p = 0.004). There was a statistically significant and inverse relationship (97.2%) between the MMR and CS rate from 2002 to 2013 in Turkey (p = 0.001). However, no significant relationship was detected between the MMR and CS rate from 2002 to 2013 in Istanbul (p > 0.05). There was a significant inverse correlation (66.3%) between the CS rate and peripartumhemorrhage in Turkey (p = 0.019) and there was a significant inverse correlation (66.5%) between the CS rate and peripartumhemorrhage(p = 0.018) in Istanbul between 2007 to 2013. There were no significant differences in ante-intrapartum haemorrhage bleeding (p > 0.05) or postpartum hemorrhage (p > 0.05) from 2007 to 2013. Conclusions This study demonstrates that there was a inverse correlation between increased CS and maternal mortality rates during the previous decade in Turkey. Although cesarean rates increase excessively, it appears that improved health care facilities have a positive effect on MMRs in Turkey. PMID:27880841

  10. Molecular detection of novel picornaviruses in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Tibor; Fey, Brittney; Hargitt, Edwin; Parcells, Mark; Ladman, Brian; Murgia, Maria; Saif, Yehia

    2012-04-01

    Fecal specimens, including swabs and litter extracts, collected from chickens, domestic ducks, turkeys, and Canadian geese were tested using degenerate primers targeting regions encoding for conserved amino acid motifs (YGDD and DY(T/S)(R/K/G)WDST) in calicivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Similar motifs are also present in other RNA viruses. Two fecal specimens and 18 litter extracts collected from chickens and turkeys yielded RT-PCR products. BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all amplicons represented picornaviruses that clustered into two major groups. Four chicken and one turkey samples yielded 250 bp amplicons with 84-91% nucleotide identity to the recently described turkey hepatitis viruses, while 280 and 283 bp amplicons obtained from 11 chicken and 4 turkey samples represented novel picornaviruses with the closest nucleotide identity to kobuviruses (54-61%) and turdiviruses (47-54%). Analysis of 2.2-3.2 kb extended genome sequences including the partial P2 (2C) and complete P3 (3A, 3B (VPg), 3C(pro), and 3D(pol)) regions of selected strains indicated that viruses yielding the 280/283 bp amplicons represent a putative new genus of Picornaviridae. The 3'-non-translated region (NTR) of the turkey hepatitis-like viruses described in this study was significantly longer (641-654 nt) than that of any of the other piconaviruses and included a putative short open reading frame (ORF). In summary, we report the molecular detection of novel picornaviruses that appear to be endemic in both chickens and turkeys.

  11. Immunohistological demonstration of CaV3.2 T-type voltage-gated calcium channel expression in soma of dorsal root ganglion neurons and peripheral axons of rat and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kirstin E.; Lunardi, Nadia; Boscolo, Annalisa; Dong, Xinzhong; Erisir, Alev; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Todorovic, Slobodan M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous behavioural studies have revealed that CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels support peripheral nociceptive transmission and electrophysiological studies have established the presence of T-currents in putative nociceptive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG). To date, however, the localization pattern of this key nociceptive channel in the soma and peripheral axons of these cells has not been demonstrated due to lack of isoform-selective anti-CaV3.2 antibodies. In the present study a new polyclonal CaV3.2 antibody is used to localize CaV3.2 expression in rodent DRG neurons using different staining techniques including confocal and electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy of both acutely dissociated cells and short-term cultures demonstrated strong immunofluorescence of anti-CaV3.2 antibody that was largely confined to smaller diameter DRG neurons where it co-localized with established immuno-markers of unmyelinated nociceptors, such as, CGRP, IB4 and peripherin. In contrast, a smaller proportion of these CaV3.2-labeled DRG cells also co-expressed NF-200, a marker of myelinated sensory neurons. In the rat sciatic nerve preparation, confocal microscopy demonstrated anti-CaV3.2 immunofluorescence which was co-localized with both peripherin and NF-200. Further, electron microscopy revealed immuno-gold labelling of CaV3.2 preferentially in association with un-myelinated sensory fibres from mouse sciatic nerve. Finally, we demonstrated the expression of CaV3.2 channels in peripheral nerve endings of mouse hindpaw skin as shown by co-localisation with Mrgpd-GFP-positive fibres. The CaV3.2 expression within the soma and peripheral axons of nociceptive sensory neurons further demonstrates the importance of this channel in peripheral pain transmission. PMID:23867767

  12. [Tularemia is spreading from north to south side of Turkey: a small outbreak in Kahramanmaras, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, İlkay; Kiliç, Selçuk

    2014-07-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. Sporadic tularemia cases have been increasingly reported particularly from provinces located at northwest and central regions of Turkey especially during last two decades, as well as waterborne outbreaks reported from almost all regions. Transmission most often occurs through consumption of contaminated water and food, thus, oropharyngeal form is the most common clinical presentation in our country. The aim of this study was to present a small outbreak experience in Afsin, country of Kahramanmaras province located at southern part of Turkey. A total of 10 patients (5 male, 5 female; age range 2-68 years; mean age 25 years) who were admitted to Afsin State Hospital with the complaints of swollen neck between 21 October 2013-22 January 2014, were evaluated considering their clinical findings and treatment outcomes. Following the diagnosis of the first tularemia case coming from Nadir village, a field investigation was performed. All villagers were informed about the disease and water samples from the possible sources of outbreak were collected by provincial health authorities. Lymph node aspirate and serum samples were sent for culture and serologic investigation and the environmental water samples were sent for molecular analysis to the National Tularemia Reference Laboratory at Public Health Institution of Turkey. Six out of 10 patients' sera were found positive in terms of F.tularensis antibodies between the titers of 1/320-1/1280 by microagglutination test (MAT) and diagnosis of oropharyngeal tularemia was based on the clinical and serological findings. One of the patients also presented with oculoglandular form accompanying oropharyngeal form. Cultures from aspirate samples that could be obtained from only two patients yielded negative results. Three out of six patients' lymph nodes were drained surgically and one was drained by ultrasound-guided needle. In one case lymph node suppuration occured

  13. Effects of hunting and season of fire on wild turkey populations in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, William, F.; Kilgo, John, C.; Guynn, David, C.; Davis, James, R.

    2002-07-31

    This report assesses impacts to wild turkey populations from hunting and prescribed fire. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To compare survival rates and causes of mortality of wild turkey gobblers between hunted and unhunted populations; (2) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on nesting success, survival and habitat use of wild turkey hens; (3) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on the availability of wild turkey plant foods.

  14. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Gok, R.; Zor, E.; Walter, W. R.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet, forming a complex tectonic regime. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provide a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure of the region. Zor et al. (2003) found an average 46 km thick crust in the Anatolian plateau using a six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver functions alone, however, may result in an apparent depth-velocity trade-off [Ammon et al., 1990]. In order to improve upon this velocity model, we have combined the receiver functions with surface wave data using the joint inversion method of Julia et al. (2000). In this technique, the two sets of observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. The receiver functions are calculated using an iterative time-domain deconvolution technique. We also consider azimuthal changes in the receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups accordingly. We are improving our surface wave model by making Love and Rayleigh dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and incorporating them into a regional group velocity model for periods between 10 and 100 seconds. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocities toward the northeast, indicating slow upper mantle velocities in the area consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. Starting models used for the joint inversions include both a 1-D model from a 12-ton dam shot recorded by ETSE [Gurbuz et al., 2004] and

  15. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function

  16. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  17. 75 FR 34776 - Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4; Environmental... licensee), for operation of the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4, located in Florida... consider approval of an exemption for Turkey Point, Units 3 and 4, from certain requirements of 10 CFR...

  18. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  19. The Effects of Community Factors on School Participation in Turkey: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Turkey, like many developing countries, is facing considerable problems in terms of low school attendance rates, late enrolment and early dropout of girls in particular. Numerous studies have already been conducted, both in Turkey and elsewhere, to determine the factors affecting school enrolment of boys and girls. Existing studies in Turkey,…

  20. Progressive Education in Turkey: Reports of John Dewey and His Successors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    John Dewey, the well-known figure in progressive education, visited Turkey in 1924. Through his visit, Turkey was introduced to progressive education. Although his visit was short, the reports he prepared influenced the shape of the Turkish education system. After Dewey's visit, many foreign educators were invited to Turkey, particularly through…