Science.gov

Sample records for son las tradiciones

  1. ?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

  2. Son preference in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Haughton, J; Haughton, D

    1995-01-01

    This article assesses the strength of son preference in Vietnam, as reflected in fertility behavior. It formulates and estimates a proportional hazards model applied to birth intervals, and a contraceptive prevalence model, using household survey data from 2,636 ever-married women aged 15-49 with at least one living child who were interviewed for the Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1992-1993. Son preference is found to be strong by world standards, but nevertheless, it has a minor effect on fertility; in its absence, the total fertility rate would fall by roughly 10 percent from the current level of about 3.2 children per woman of reproductive age.

  3. My Son Fired Me!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borntrager, Randy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the positive outcomes experienced by a father and his son with cerebral palsy after participating in Unified Sports, a program that places approximately equal numbers of Special Olympics athletes and athletes without intellectual disabilities ("partners") on sports teams for training and competition. The goal…

  4. To Save a Son

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zummo, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Sherri Zummo knew she somehow needed to find a way for her son to live in the world as a person who was profoundly deaf in both ears. He was also diagnosed as legally blind, on the autistic spectrum, and intellectually delayed with other medical and physical issues. As he grew, his special needs increased, behaviors became worse, and the struggle…

  5. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  6. Achalasia in father and son.

    PubMed

    Mackler, D; Schneider, R

    1978-11-01

    Achalasia has not been previously reported in father and son. A man, age 38, and his father, age 66, presented two years apart with symptoms of dysphagia and aspiration. The diagnosis of achalasia was made on the basis of x-ray and endoscopic findings and on esophageal motility studies performed on the father. Both responded well to pneumatic dilatation and have been asymptomatic for 24 months and 6 months, respectively. These cases again suggest a genetic basis for achalasia.

  7. ...And Kronos Ate His Sons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitiello, Giuseppe

    In closed systems, energy is conserved. The origin of the time axis is completely arbitrary due to the invariance under continuous time-translations. The flowing of time swallows those fictitious origins one might assign on its axis, as Kronos ate his sons. Dissipation breaks such a scenario. It implies a non-forgettable origin of time. Open systems need their complement (their "double") in order to become, together, a closed system. Time emerges as an observable measured by the evolution of the open system complement, which acts as a clock. The conservation of the energy-momentum tensor in electrodynamics is considered and its relation with dissipative systems and self-similar fractal structures is discussed. The isomorphism with coherent states in quantum field theory (QFT) is established and the generator of transitions among unitarily inequivalent representations of the canonical commutation relations (CCR) is shown to provide sequences in time of phases, which defines the arrow of time. Merging properties of electrodynamics, fractal self-similarity, dissipation and coherent states point to an integrated vision of Nature.

  8. Preference for sons: past and present.

    PubMed

    Li, D

    1997-10-01

    This brief article discusses the present and past preference for sons in China. The preference for sons is rooted in feudal views that men are superior to women. Preference for sons dates back to the Warring States Period, in about 500 B.C. Clan brotherhoods of men have existed for centuries. Historical records mention the practice of female infanticide. Patriarchal families believed that women were economically dependent on men and thus became their subjects. Daughters married, lived in their husband's home, and did not carry the responsibility of caring for their own parents. Couples with only daughters would seek a son-in-law to support them in old age. Rural families with no sons were looked down upon. Sons were expected to carry on the family lineage, increase the reputation of the family, and protect the family's interests. The lack of sons was a sign of humiliation and a curse. The founding of the People's Republic of China brought changes to son preference. The government attempted to increase women's status. In rural areas, women were given equal access to the land. Job opportunities were created for women during the industrialization drive. The Chinese government encouraged the repudiation of the negative impacts of the doctrines of Confucius and Mencius. Efforts were made to give men and women equal pay for equal work. Legislation was passed prohibiting arranged marriage, polygyny, and early marriage. A side effect of fertility decline is the renewed preference for sons. In Huangyan and Haining in Zhejiang, a developed province, the sex ratio at birth is normal. Sexual division of labor reinforces son preference.

  9. "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son": A Memoir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Reta Ugena

    2010-01-01

    "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son" is Kevin Jennings's autobiographical account of growing up gay in the Southern United States. In his memoir, Jennings shares formative experiences relating to his impoverished childhood and his career as teacher and social activist. His rich description of the influence of family relationships on his personal and…

  10. An Enriched Father and Son Combo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibulsky, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Recounts the experiences of an infant and his primary caregiver father. Focuses on the daily routines of the father and son and how the child benefited from having a highly nurturing father. Considers the conveniences of extra physical strength to do routine caregiving tasks and the variability among parents in their tolerance of their child's…

  11. A Son's Fears and a Father's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In the days since the surreal horror of December 14th, the author's children have responded to the tragedy differently. His daughter is a first grader, and she lost many of her friends to the gunman. She has been melancholy, sad in a way only a child who feels but does not understand her feelings can be. His 9-year-old son has been less sad and…

  12. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters More Disadvantaged than Sons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N = 4,663). Results indicated that sons and daughters reported equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons reported more overnight visits, sports, and movies and feeling closer to their fathers…

  13. SO(N) restricted Schur polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Garreth

    2015-02-15

    We focus on the 1/4-BPS sector of free super Yang-Mills theory with an SO(N) gauge group. This theory has an AdS/CFT (an equivalence between a conformal field theory in d-1 dimensions and type II string theory defined on an AdS space in d-dimensions) dual in the form of type IIB string theory with AdS{sub 5}×RP{sup 5} geometry. With the aim of studying excited giant graviton dynamics, we construct an orthogonal basis for this sector of the gauge theory in this work. First, we demonstrate that the counting of states, as given by the partition function, and the counting of restricted Schur polynomials match by restricting to a particular class of Young diagram labels. We then give an explicit construction of these gauge invariant operators and evaluate their two-point function exactly. This paves the way to studying the spectral problem of these operators and their D-brane duals.

  14. Mate-sampling costs and sexy sons.

    PubMed

    Kokko, H; Booksmythe, I; Jennions, M D

    2015-01-01

    Costly female mating preferences for purely Fisherian male traits (i.e. sexual ornaments that are genetically uncorrelated with inherent viability) are not expected to persist at equilibrium. The indirect benefit of producing 'sexy sons' (Fisher process) disappears: in some models, the male trait becomes fixed; in others, a range of male trait values persist, but a larger trait confers no net fitness advantage because it lowers survival. Insufficient indirect selection to counter the direct cost of producing fewer offspring means that preferences are lost. The only well-cited exception assumes biased mutation on male traits. The above findings generally assume constant direct selection against female preferences (i.e. fixed costs). We show that if mate-sampling costs are instead derived based on an explicit account of how females acquire mates, an initially costly mating preference can coevolve with a male trait so that both persist in the presence or absence of biased mutation. Our models predict that empirically detecting selection at equilibrium will be difficult, even if selection was responsible for the location of the current equilibrium. In general, it appears useful to integrate mate sampling theory with models of genetic consequences of mating preferences: being explicit about the process by which individuals select mates can alter equilibria.

  15. Mate-sampling costs and sexy sons.

    PubMed

    Kokko, H; Booksmythe, I; Jennions, M D

    2015-01-01

    Costly female mating preferences for purely Fisherian male traits (i.e. sexual ornaments that are genetically uncorrelated with inherent viability) are not expected to persist at equilibrium. The indirect benefit of producing 'sexy sons' (Fisher process) disappears: in some models, the male trait becomes fixed; in others, a range of male trait values persist, but a larger trait confers no net fitness advantage because it lowers survival. Insufficient indirect selection to counter the direct cost of producing fewer offspring means that preferences are lost. The only well-cited exception assumes biased mutation on male traits. The above findings generally assume constant direct selection against female preferences (i.e. fixed costs). We show that if mate-sampling costs are instead derived based on an explicit account of how females acquire mates, an initially costly mating preference can coevolve with a male trait so that both persist in the presence or absence of biased mutation. Our models predict that empirically detecting selection at equilibrium will be difficult, even if selection was responsible for the location of the current equilibrium. In general, it appears useful to integrate mate sampling theory with models of genetic consequences of mating preferences: being explicit about the process by which individuals select mates can alter equilibria. PMID:25399634

  16. Memorial stone (R. Norris and Son Locomotive Works), level 270 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (R. Norris and Son Locomotive Works), level 270 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. A test of the "sexy son" hypothesis: sons of polygynous collared flycatchers do not inherit their fathers' mating status.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lars; Qvarnström, Anna

    2006-02-01

    According to the original "sexy son" hypothesis, a female may benefit from pairing with an already-mated male despite a reduction in fecundity because her sons inherit their father's attractiveness. We used data from a long-term study of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) collected during 24 years to test this prediction. Our results show that the sons of polygynously mated females fledged in poor condition and therefore did not inherit their father's large forehead patch (a condition-dependent display trait) or mating status. From the female's perspective, polygynous pairing resulted in fewer recruited grandchildren than did a monogamous pairing. The reproductive value of sons did not outweigh the fecundity costs of polygyny because the low paternal care reduced the attractiveness of sons. When there are long-lasting parental effects on offspring attractiveness, costs of polygyny may include the production of nonsexy sons.

  18. Is the distant relationship of fathers and homosexual sons related to the sons' erotic preference for male partners, or to the sons' atypical gender identity, or to both?

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Blanchard, R

    1983-01-01

    Study 1 compared the retrospectively reported father-son relationships of four groups of adult males: (a) Gynephiles (males who erotically prefer physically mature females), (b) androphiles (who prefer physically mature males), (c) a combined group of heterosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter being attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent females), and (d) a combined group of homosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent males). The gynephiles were paid volunteers; the latter three groups were patients. The androphiles, the only group among those compared known to exhibit a measurably greater degree of cross gender identity in childhood, were also the only group to report significantly poorer father-son relations. The homosexual pedo/pedohebephiles, who also prefer male partners but who exhibit typical male gender identity in childhood, did not differ in father-son relations from the gynephiles or the heterosexual pedo/pedohebephiles. Study 2 showed that, within a sample of nonpatient volunteer androphiles, those individuals who reported the greatest degree of cross gender behavior in childhood also tended to report the worst relationships with their fathers. This correlation was replicated within a sample of androphilic patients in Study 3. The consistent pattern of results obtained from these three studies suggests that the emotionally distant relationships of fathers and androphilic sons relate to the sons' atypical childhood gender identity (or observable gender role behavior) rather than to the sons' erotic preference for male partners per se.

  19. Son Preference in Pakistan; A Myth or Reality

    PubMed Central

    Atif, Khaula; Ullah, Muhammad Zia; Afsheen, Afeera; Naqvi, Syed Abid Hassan; Raja, Zulqarnain Ashraf; Niazi, Saleem Asif

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze desire for sons/daughters among ladies of Peshawar, Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the subject. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar, from August 2015 - January 2016; sampling technique was random/probability/non-purposive. Self-designed questionnaire was utilized; carrying questions pertinent to desire for sons/daughters during marital life, and demographic details. Data analyzed via descriptive analysis (SPSS-21), expressed as frequencies/percentages and mean ± standard deviation(minimum/maximum). Sons and daughters desired (dependent variables) were cross-tabulated with independent variables. Results: Response rate was 63.25% (n-506). Data revealed following: Sons desired 3.05±2.061(1/12); Daughters desired 1.15±0.767(0/4); 6.1%(n-31) and 0.6%(n-3) desired infinite number of sons and daughters respectively, 18.2%(n-92) did not desire to have even one daughter, while 2.2%(n-11) considered it immaterial to have daughters or sons. There was a significant relation between sons desired and client’s education (p<0.001), husband’s education (p<0.001) and socioeconomic class (p<0.001). There was no significant impact of religion (p-0.142) on desire for sons. Impact of independent variables on daughters desired was similar but less pronounced. Conclusion: There was candid son preference among the respondents. Gender discrimination can be attenuated by adequately addressing son preference at all tiers.

  20. Son Preference in Pakistan; A Myth or Reality

    PubMed Central

    Atif, Khaula; Ullah, Muhammad Zia; Afsheen, Afeera; Naqvi, Syed Abid Hassan; Raja, Zulqarnain Ashraf; Niazi, Saleem Asif

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze desire for sons/daughters among ladies of Peshawar, Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the subject. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar, from August 2015 - January 2016; sampling technique was random/probability/non-purposive. Self-designed questionnaire was utilized; carrying questions pertinent to desire for sons/daughters during marital life, and demographic details. Data analyzed via descriptive analysis (SPSS-21), expressed as frequencies/percentages and mean ± standard deviation(minimum/maximum). Sons and daughters desired (dependent variables) were cross-tabulated with independent variables. Results: Response rate was 63.25% (n-506). Data revealed following: Sons desired 3.05±2.061(1/12); Daughters desired 1.15±0.767(0/4); 6.1%(n-31) and 0.6%(n-3) desired infinite number of sons and daughters respectively, 18.2%(n-92) did not desire to have even one daughter, while 2.2%(n-11) considered it immaterial to have daughters or sons. There was a significant relation between sons desired and client’s education (p<0.001), husband’s education (p<0.001) and socioeconomic class (p<0.001). There was no significant impact of religion (p-0.142) on desire for sons. Impact of independent variables on daughters desired was similar but less pronounced. Conclusion: There was candid son preference among the respondents. Gender discrimination can be attenuated by adequately addressing son preference at all tiers. PMID:27648055

  1. A Letter from a Black Mom to Her Son

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    An African American mother and teacher educator uses examples from her own childhood to describe how she hopes her child will be treated by teachers, and what she fears. In her letter to her son, the African American mom expresses how she want teachers to know her son's journey to school--metaphorically and physically. She wants them to know that…

  2. Son preference in rural China: patrilineal families and socioeconomic change.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; Lu, Xi

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on a survey conducted in six provinces in summer 2008 to investigate the determinants of son preference in rural China. The analysis confirms the conventional wisdom that son preference is embedded within patrilineal family structures and practices. We extend our analysis by exploring specific aspects of variation within patrilineal family culture. We find that the patrilineal group (clan) composition of villages and family participation in practices such as building ancestral halls and updating genealogies significantly influence son preference. Yet even though son preference is embedded within patrilineal family culture, our analysis suggests that over time the attenuation of son preference is likely. This is because determinants associated with socioeconomic change—for instance, higher levels of education, direct exposure to official policy education materials, higher income (a proxy for rural industrialization), and agricultural mechanization—all attenuate son preference. Being younger and female are also associated with weaker son preference, and both characteristics are likely to interact with education and industrialization to further dilute son preference in the longer term. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that concerted efforts are needed to ameliorate institutional discrimination against rural people in welfare provisioning and in labor markets, and to promote multiple dimensions of gender equality, including in land rights, wage rates, and education.

  3. Son preference in rural China: patrilineal families and socioeconomic change.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; Lu, Xi

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on a survey conducted in six provinces in summer 2008 to investigate the determinants of son preference in rural China. The analysis confirms the conventional wisdom that son preference is embedded within patrilineal family structures and practices. We extend our analysis by exploring specific aspects of variation within patrilineal family culture. We find that the patrilineal group (clan) composition of villages and family participation in practices such as building ancestral halls and updating genealogies significantly influence son preference. Yet even though son preference is embedded within patrilineal family culture, our analysis suggests that over time the attenuation of son preference is likely. This is because determinants associated with socioeconomic change—for instance, higher levels of education, direct exposure to official policy education materials, higher income (a proxy for rural industrialization), and agricultural mechanization—all attenuate son preference. Being younger and female are also associated with weaker son preference, and both characteristics are likely to interact with education and industrialization to further dilute son preference in the longer term. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that concerted efforts are needed to ameliorate institutional discrimination against rural people in welfare provisioning and in labor markets, and to promote multiple dimensions of gender equality, including in land rights, wage rates, and education. PMID:22319769

  4. Like Godfather, Like Son: Exploring the Intergenerational Nature of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjalmarsson, Randi; Lindquist, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Sons (daughters) with criminal fathers have 2.06 (2.66) times higher odds of having a criminal conviction than those with noncriminal fathers. One additional paternal sentence increases sons' (daughters') convictions by 32 (53) percent. Compared to traditional labor market measures, the intergenerational transmission of crime is lower than that…

  5. Patrilineal Ability: Nurturing Giftedness in Grandfathers, Fathers, and Sons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    The identification of his son's high ability can cause a father to confront his own experiences as a gifted child and adult and change his emotional life, family dynamics, and career. Over the past decade, Fiona Smith has worked closely with numerous multi-generations of grandfathers, fathers, and sons in Australia to analyze their backgrounds,…

  6. Rural Family Life Style and Sons' School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, B. Jeanne

    This study was designed: (1) to examine in depth family-related variables in 30 rural working-class families in order to determine whether there are certain life-style differences between those whose sons achieve at or above grade level and those whose sons' achievements fall below grade level; and (2) to gather information on how early boys begin…

  7. Germ-cell malignant tumours in father and son.

    PubMed Central

    Musa, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    Germ-cell malignant tumours occurred in a man and his son. The father, who had a teratoma of the right testicle removed 24 years ago, is presently alive and well. The son, who had a choriocarcinoma presenting as an abdominal mass, possibly originating in the testicle, died within 7 months of the diagnosis with metastases in the lungs, liver and retroperitoneum. This report documents the third such case of germ-cell neoplasms occurring in father and son. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1168534

  8. Causal Attributions and Parents' Acceptance of Their Homosexual Sons.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Yael; Diamond, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    This Internet-based study examined the association between Israeli parents' attributions regarding the cause of their son's homosexuality and their level of acceptance of their homosexual son. The sample (N = 57) was recruited via Internet Web sites (gay forums and support groups). Findings suggest that more essentialist (versus constructivist) causal attributions were associated with higher levels of parental acceptance. Length of time parents knew of their son's homosexual orientation predicted the degree to which their attributions were essentialist. Implications are discussed.

  9. Búsqueda de exoplanetas: ?`Cuán confiables son las observaciones obtenidas mediante telescopios terrestres?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Essen, C.; Páez, R. I.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    The main goal of this work is to present a model that generates synthetic light curves of primary transits, comparable to real observations, to study transit timing variations (TTV). Considering that we can observe the sky from different virtual observatories, we simulated observations of primary transits caused by a hot-Jupiter. We artificially added a perturbation caused by an Earth-like exoplanet in a 3:2 mean motion resonance. These simulations would allow to analyze the degree of distorsion that the light curves admit, in order to recover back the induced signal by the exoplanet. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. The Telephone Connection: An Interview with Ernest Hemingway's Son.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Brooke

    1979-01-01

    Relates how a conference call to Ernest Hemingway's son, Gregory, resolved questions and brought understanding and excitement to a group of Iowa high school students enrolled in a 12-week Hemingway seminar. (FL)

  11. THE ROLE OF SON IN SPLICING, DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinyi; Ng, Huck-Hui; Bubulya, Paula A.

    2014-01-01

    SON is a nuclear protein involved in multiple cellular processes including transcription, pre-mRNA splicing and cell cycle regulation. Although SON was discovered 25 years ago, the importance of SON’s function was only realized recently when its roles in nuclear organization and pre-mRNA splicing as well as the influence of these activities in maintaining cellular health were unveiled. Furthermore, SON was implicated to have a key role in stem cells as well as during the onset of various diseases such as cancer, influenza, and hepatitis. Here we review the progress that has been made in studying this multi-functional protein and discuss questions that remain to be answered about SON. PMID:24789761

  12. 8. William Beardsley standing with his son Robert Beardsley. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. William Beardsley standing with his son Robert Beardsley. Photographer unknown, c. early 1920s. Source: William M. Beardsley - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. The role of son preference in reproductive behaviour in Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, R.; Fikree, F. F.; Berendes, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The sex of surviving children is an important determinant of reproductive behaviour in South Asia in general and Pakistan in particular. This cohort study evaluates the role of the sex of children on reproductive intentions and subsequent behaviour of women in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. The analysis is based on two rounds of surveys conducted in 1990-91 and 1995 of a cohort of married women aged 15-49 years. The results show that pregnancies became increasingly unwanted as the number of surviving sons increased. The sex of surviving children was strongly correlated with subsequent fertility and contraceptive behaviour. However, rather than an exclusive son preference, couples strove for one or more sons and at least one surviving daughter. The policy implications of the link between overt son preference and low status of women are discussed. PMID:10812738

  14. Mother-son incest as a defence against psychosis.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, K M; Bossi, J

    1993-09-01

    In the following, a case of mother-adult son incest is described and explained from a psychoanalytical viewpoint. Two theories are put forward: (a) Mother-son incest may occur as a defence against psychosis, and (b) the incest represents an unconscious search for triangulation, a process in which external authorities (such as, for example, a court of law) may function as surrogates for persons who have been missed in the pre-oedipal past. It is therefore possible to understand mother-son incest symbolically as an indicator of pre-oedipal needs of the son and of the mother's longing for the absent partner. The incest is, however, not only a cry for help; it is also to be regarded as an attempt to solve the problem for both people involved. Looked at in this way, new ways of understanding and new possibilities for therapy emerge.

  15. Sex differentials in mortality: a corollary of son preference?.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A

    1987-01-01

    The author contends that sex differentials in childhood mortality in Pakistan are a likely outcome of son preference behavior by parents. Consideration is given to the historical improvement in the female disadvantage in mortality, the neglect of female children, gender and class factors, and son preference and high fertility. Data are from the 1981 Pakistan census and other official surveys. Comments by Naheed Aziz are included (pp. 566-8).

  16. The experience of sons caring for a parent with dementia.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Eilis; Ryan, Assumpta A

    2014-11-01

    This study explored the experiences of sons caring for a parent with dementia. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of sons (n = 13) in a rural part of Ireland. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed for common themes. The key themes that emerged were 'the parental bond', 'a binding role', 'coordinating care and support' and a 'getting on with it' approach to care. The study highlighted the commitment of sons to their caregiving role and the strong sense of duty that motivated them to provide care. The findings suggested that while many aspects of the caregiving experience such as lack of information and support are gender neutral, there are differences in the caregiving experiences of men and women in how they view their relationship with their parent and in the management of their caregiving role that merit further investigation. PMID:24339083

  17. Traditional and Nontraditional Mothers' Communication with their Daughters and Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Nancy; And Others

    1985-01-01

    When maternal communication with two-and-one-half- to three-and-one-half-year-old children was analyzed, significant differences between mothers' speech to daughters and sons were found. Males consistently received more verbal stimulation of the type thought to facilitate cognitive development. Differential treatment of girls and boys was lessened…

  18. Fathers and Their Adolescent Sons: Pubertal Development and Paternal Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Mark D.; Jones, Randall M.; Coyl, Diana, D.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relation between pubertal transition and qualitative aspects of the father-son relationship through a survey of 173 adolescent males and 122 fathers. Assessed physical affection, general support, companionship, and sustained contact over three levels of pubertal development. Found that perception of physical affection was the only…

  19. Origins, Form, and Development of the Son Jarocho: Veracruz, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loza, Steven J.

    1982-01-01

    Son Jarocho (specifically from Veracruz) is a song-and-dance form originating in Spain and implanted in Mexico during 17th- and 18th-century colonization. The jarocho style of music today is one of Latin America's most unique forms, using one to four instruments and characterized by its distinctive rhythm. (LC)

  20. Observations of a Father: My Son Has Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmel, Carl L.

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews his experiences as the father of a child with spina bifida, a congenital problem in which the spine is not completely enclosed. He recounts his feelings upon first finding out about the condition and his son's subsequent surgeries and crises. (CL)

  1. Understanding Motherhood as Maturation: Maternity Scripts in Lois Lowry's "Son"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deszcz-Tryhubczak, Justyna; Marecki, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    When put together with the other parts of The Giver Quartet, "Son" (2012), Lowry's recently published concluding book, emerges as an odd exception to the focus on young adult protagonists since it foregrounds the mother's perspective and addresses the issue of motherhood. It presents the reader with at least three conceptual models of…

  2. The Transmission of Parenting from Fathers to Sons

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Vesely, Colleen K.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective We address the extent to which parenting practices of fathers and mothers are associated with their sons’ parenting behaviors as young adults and whether adolescent behavior explains this association. Design Data come from 409 young men interviewed in the 2006 Young Adult study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results Men whose fathers were positively involved with them when growing up report more positive parenting of their own children, a direct effect. Less harsh mothering and more positive fathering are associated with reduced adolescent behavior problems, and positive mothering is associated with positive adjustment of these young men as adolescents. However, neither adolescent problem behavior nor positive adjustment is associated with young men’s fathering of their own children, and thus does not explain the association between the fathering young men received and their own fathering behavior. Conclusions Men’s parenting of their sons can have a long-term direct effect on how their sons parent their own children. Although parenting is associated with both positive and negative behaviors of sons during adolescence, these adolescent behaviors are not directly linked to later parenting behavior when sons have their own children. More research is needed to examine mediation mechanisms for the intergenerational transmission of parenting. PMID:23284271

  3. Las Vegas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. "Did I Have Blinders on or What?": Retrospective Sense Making by Parents of Gay Sons Recalling Their Sons' Earlier Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aveline, David

    2006-01-01

    Retrospective sense making is a common practice necessitated by new appearances that contradict old ones. This article examines this practice by parents who have recently learned that their sons are gay. Eighty parents are interviewed, and the data are analyzed for recurrent themes. In efforts to make sense of the past, parents recall much…

  5. 'SON-GO-KU' : a dream of automated library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Mamoru; Kishimoto, Juji

    In the process of automating libraries, the retrieval of books through the browsing of shelves is being overlooked. The telematic library is a document based DBMS which can deliver the content of books by simulating the browsing process. The retrieval actually simulates the process a person would use in selecting a book in a real library, where a visual presentation using a graphic display is substituted. The characteristics of prototype system "Son-Go-Ku" for such retrieval implemented in 1988 are mentioned.

  6. Like Father, Like Son? Intergenerational Educational Mobility in India.

    PubMed

    Azam, Mehtabul; Bhatt, Vipul

    2015-12-01

    Using the nationally representative India Human Development Survey (IHDS), we create a unique son-father matched data set that is representative of the entire adult male population (aged 20-65) in India. We use these data to document the evolution of intergenerational transmission of educational attainment in India over time, among different castes and states for the birth cohorts of 1940-1985. We find that educational persistence, as measured by the regression coefficient of father's education as a predictor of son's education, has declined over time. This implies that increases in average educational attainment are driven primarily by increases among children of less-educated fathers. However, we do not find such a declining trend in the correlation between educational attainment of sons and fathers, which is another commonly used measure of persistence. To understand the source of such a discrepancy between the two measures of educational persistence, we decompose the intergenerational correlation and find that although persistence has declined at the lower end of the fathers' educational distribution, it has increased at the top end of that distribution.

  7. Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Sylvestre

    2011-02-01

    The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables.

  8. Adolescent sexual matricide following repetitive mother-son incest.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, L B

    1999-07-01

    A case of a 16-year-old male who committed a sexual matricide following years of mother-son incest is reported. After murdering his mother by strangulation, which itself was sexually arousing, the youngster engaged in both vaginal and anal necrophilia. The homicide occurred while the perpetrator was in a dissociative state and experiencing what has been referred to as a catathymic crisis: the sudden release of emotionally charged psychic conflict and tension, resulting in extreme violence within an interpersonal bond. Discussion of maternal image and maternal sexual conduct in relationship to the psychosexual development of adolescent males offers insight into the motivation in this extremely rare case.

  9. [Bladder cancer at an early age in father and son].

    PubMed

    Ovsiannikov, D; Stöhr, R; Hartmann, A; Böttrich, R; Hengstler, J G; Golka, K

    2011-12-01

    Bladder cancer may be caused by external factors like tobacco smoking, but may also be familial. We report on a father and son who developed this tumour at the ages of 45 and 35. Testing various genetic markers including the mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6, whose loss is associated with a higher risk for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, Lynch syndrome), did not point to a familial disease. Thus the heavy smoking habits of the two patients must be considered as causal.

  10. Helium solubility in SON68 nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Fares, Toby; Peuget, Sylvain; Bouty, Olivier; Broudic, Veronique; Maugeri, Emilio; Bes, Rene; Jegou, Christophe; Chamssedine, Fadel; Sauvage, Thierry; Deschanels, Xavier

    2012-12-15

    Helium behavior in a sodium borosilicate glass (SON68) dedicated to the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste is examined. Two experimental approaches on nonradioactive glass specimens are implemented: pressurized helium infusion experiments and {sup 3}He ion implantation experiments. The temperature variation of helium solubility in SON68 glass was determined and analyzed with the harmonic oscillator model to determine values of the energy of interaction E(0) at the host sites (about -4000 J/mol), the vibration frequency (about 1.7 x 10{sup 11} s{sup -1}), and the density of solubility sites (2.2 x 10{sup 21} sites cm{sup -3}). The implantation experiments show that a non diffusive transport phenomenon (i.e., athermal diffusion) is involved in the material when the helium concentration exceeds 2.3 x 10{sup 21} He cm{sup -3}, and thus probably as soon as it exceeds the density of solubility sites accessible to helium in the glass. We propose that this transport mechanism could be associated with the relaxation of the stress gradient induced by the implanted helium profile, which is favored by the glass damage. Microstructural characterization by TEM and ESEM of glass specimens implanted with high helium concentrations showed a homogeneous microstructure free of bubbles, pores, or cracking at a scale of 10 nm. (authors)

  11. Family stress, social support, violence, and sons' behavior.

    PubMed

    Murata, J E

    1994-04-01

    Although the low income, female-headed, inner-city family has been repeatedly linked to child behavior problems, the family processes related to child misbehavior in this high risk group have not been identified. In a group of predominantly African American inner-city low-income mothers who lived alone with their children, the relationships between family stress, social support, mothers' conflict resolution tactics, and sons' behavior were examined using the family stress adaptation model, and potential nursing interventions were identified. The sample of low-income, inner-city mother-alone families reported more family stress and less social support than normative White Anglo-Saxon Protestant families. Family violence rates did not differ between the sample and nationally representative normative groups. Thirty-nine percent of sons, referred to the study because of school difficulties, were reported to have behavior problems requiring additional assessment. Analysis confirmed the fit of sample data to the model and identified family stress as the best site for nursing intervention for these high-risk families. PMID:8203136

  12. Son preference, sex selection, and kinship in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the recent rise in the sex ratio at birth in Vietnam and relates its emergence to kinship systems and ethnic composition using 2009 census micro-data. Presentation of the main socioeconomic and ethnic differentials in birth masculinity is followed by a review of the three intermediate factors leading to increases in the sex ratio at birth: prenatal technology, declining fertility, and gender bias. An indirect measurement of fertility behavior is used to demonstrate the close association between levels of the sex ratio at birth and the intensity of son preference. Data on household composition indicate that Vietnam is characterized by the co-existence of kinship patterns typical of East and Southeast Asia. Son preference in Vietnam is found to be related to the prevalence of more traditional patrilineal systems. The article concludes by considering the implications of the cultural dimensions of prenatal sex selection for policy responses and for the likely future change in the sex ratio at birth.

  13. Sexy sons: a dead end for cytoplasmic genes.

    PubMed

    Zeh, Jeanne A

    2004-08-01

    Critics of sexual conflict theory argue that females may gain a net reproductive benefit from mating with manipulative males because the direct costs that they suffer may be offset by the production of sexy, i.e. manipulative, sons. However, this exclusive focus on nuclear gene effects represents an incomplete view of female fitness. Females differ fundamentally from males in transmitting not only nuclear genes but also a wide range of cytoplasmic genetic elements (CGEs) that can have profound effects, from male killing to influencing development of the nervous system and cognitive ability. Maternal transmission of CGEs has two major implications for sexual selection. First, the evolution of male fitness traits, such as sperm competitive ability, may be constrained because response to selection on mitochondrial genomes can occur only through the female line. Second, CGEs bear the direct costs of male manipulation but gain no indirect benefits when females produce sexy sons. This should result in perpetual antagonistic coevolution between nuclear genes involved in male manipulation and CGEs that promote female resistance to male sexually selected traits. Explicit consideration of the consequences of selection acting on CGEs is therefore necessary for a better understanding of the relationship between sexual selection and sexual conflict.

  14. Becoming the Parent of a GLB Son or Daughter

    PubMed Central

    GRAFSKY, ERIKA L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has documented the importance of parental reactions to disclosure for sexual minority youth (SMY) (e.g., Ryan, Huebner, Diaz, & Sanchez, 2009). The purpose of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of the parent perspective of the disclosure to family experience of SMY ages 14-21. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight parents in the United States who had experienced a child disclose their lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) orientation to them. Constructivist grounded theory and symbolic interaction theory informed the methodology and data analysis for the project. Analysis revealed that the process of becoming the parent of an LGB son or daughter is an appropriate narrative to conceptualize the parental experience of the disclosure to family process. The findings highlight how disclosure introduces new roles into the existing family system, which affects the consideration and interpretation of the salience of particular identities, such as being the parent of an LGB son or daughter. Understanding how parents experience the disclosure to family process - particularly, how they understand and re-envision the meaning of being a parent - is crucial for research and intervention to help families become supportive of SMY. Limitations and suggestions for future research are presented. PMID:25685111

  15. Eating quality of "Vitela Tradicional do Montado"-PGI veal and Mertolenga-PDO veal and beef.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Ana C G; Gomes, Eduardo; Barreto, António S; Silva, Marina F; Fontes, Magda A; Bessa, Rui J B; Lemos, José P C

    2013-05-01

    Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were measured in veal and beef from the Portuguese Mertolenga breed having 3 quality labels as follows: Mertolenga-PDO beef and veal which apply to purebred animals and "Vitela Tradicional do Montado"-PGI veal which applies to crossbred animals. Measurements were made in longissimus lumborum muscle aged for 6days. The temperature 3h post-mortem (T3), cooking losses and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) reflected carcass weight (CW) differences between groups. The pigment content was influenced by age, with beef having higher values than veal. WBSF correlated negatively with intramuscular fat in Mertolenga-PDO beef, but not on veal. WBSF correlated positively with cooking losses and negatively with myofibrillar fragmentation index, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability. Cooking losses and juiciness were the main contributors for the tenderness differences. Vitela Tradicional do Montado-PGI and Mertolenga-PDO veal had lighter colour and were considered tender. The three meat types were well discriminated based on pHu, a* and C* parameters by canonical discriminant analysis. PMID:23391863

  16. SysSon - A Framework for Systematic Sonification Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Katharina; Goudarzi, Visda; Holger Rutz, Hanns

    2015-04-01

    SysSon is a research approach on introducing sonification systematically to a scientific community where it is not yet commonly used - e.g., in climate science. Thereby, both technical and socio-cultural barriers have to be met. The approach was further developed with climate scientists, who participated in contextual inquiries, usability tests and a workshop of collaborative design. Following from these extensive user tests resulted our final software framework. As frontend, a graphical user interface allows climate scientists to parametrize standard sonifications with their own data sets. Additionally, an interactive shell allows to code new sonifications for users competent in sound design. The framework is a standalone desktop application, available as open source (for details see http://sysson.kug.ac.at/) and works with data in NetCDF format.

  17. Transgenerational effects of nutrition are different for sons and daughters.

    PubMed

    Zizzari, Z V; van Straalen, N M; Ellers, J

    2016-07-01

    Food shortage is an important selective factor shaping animal life-history trajectories. Yet, despite its role, many aspects of the interaction between parental and offspring food environments remain unclear. In this study, we measured developmental plasticity in response to food availability over two generations and tested the relative contribution of paternal and maternal food availability to the performance of offspring reared under matched and mismatched food environments. We applied a cross-generational split-brood design using the springtail Orchesella cincta, which is found in the litter layer of temperate forests. The results show adverse effects of food limitation on several life-history traits and reproductive performance of both parental sexes. Food conditions of both parents contributed to the offspring phenotypic variation, providing evidence for transgenerational effects of diet. Parental diet influenced sons' age at maturity and daughters' weight at maturity. Specifically, being born to food-restricted parents allowed offspring to alleviate the adverse effects of food limitation, without reducing their performance under well-fed conditions. Thus, parents raised on a poor diet primed their offspring for a more efficient resource use. However, a mismatch between maternal and offspring food environments generated sex-specific adverse effects: female offspring born to well-fed mothers showed a decreased flexibility to deal with low-food conditions. Notably, these maternal effects of food availability were not observed in the sons. Finally, we found that the relationship between age and size at maturity differed between males and females and showed that offspring life-history strategies in O. cincta are primed differently by the parents. PMID:27018780

  18. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  19. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J. ); Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  20. New discoveries of old SON: a link between RNA splicing and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Christopher J; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Ahn, Eun-Young Erin

    2014-02-01

    The SON protein is a ubiquitously expressed DNA- and RNA-binding protein primarily localized to nuclear speckles. Although several early studies implicated SON in DNA-binding, tumorigenesis and apoptosis, functional significance of this protein had not been recognized until recent studies discovered SON as a novel RNA splicing co-factor. During constitutive RNA splicing, SON ensures efficient intron removal from the transcripts containing suboptimal splice sites. Importantly, SON-mediated splicing is required for proper processing of selective transcripts related to cell cycle, microtubules, centrosome maintenance, and genome stability. Moreover, SON regulates alternative splicing of RNAs from the genes involved in apoptosis and epigenetic modification. In addition to the role in RNA splicing, SON has an ability to suppress transcriptional activation at certain promoter/enhancer DNA sequences. Considering the multiple SON target genes which are directly involved in cell proliferation, genome stability and chromatin modifications, SON is an emerging player in gene regulation during cancer development and progression. Here, we summarize available information from several early studies on SON, and highlight recent discoveries describing molecular mechanisms of SON-mediated gene regulation. We propose that our future effort on better understanding of diverse SON functions would reveal novel targets for cancer therapy.

  1. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

  2. HPV vaccine for teen boys: Dyadic analysis of parents' and sons' beliefs and willingness

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Parents and adolescents often decide together whether the child should receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, few studies have investigated the dyadic nature of beliefs that affect this process. Method Data came from the 2010 HPV Immunization in Sons (HIS) Study, a national sample of 412 parents and their adolescent sons. We conducted dyadic multivariate logistic regression to test the relationships between parents' and sons' HPV vaccine beliefs and their willingness to have the son receive the vaccine. Results Fewer than half of parents and sons were willing to have the sons receive HPV vaccine (43% and 29%, respectively). Willing parents and sons anticipated greater regret if the son did not receive HPV vaccine but later contracted an HPV infection (parent odds ratio [OR]=1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.24-2.40; son OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.04-2.19) (both p<.05). Lower concerns about side effects, such as pain and fainting, were also associated with willingness. Conclusion Parents and sons were more willing to have the son receive HPV vaccine if they had higher anticipated regret about potential HPV infection and lower concerns about side effects. Communication campaigns should target these beliefs to increase parents' and sons' willingness to seek HPV vaccination. PMID:26190364

  3. Transfer of Decision Making and Farm Tasks from Father to Son in Father-and-Son Farming Arrangements. RS-51, August 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughenour, C. Milton; And Others

    The study examined the division of decision-making and farm tasks in a joint father and son enterprise, the extent to which the decisions tended to be shared equally, and the extent to which the principal operator had responsibility for those tasks not shared. Data were collected in 1974 from fathers and sons who were joint operators of 145 farms…

  4. De Novo Truncating Variants in SON Cause Intellectual Disability, Congenital Malformations, and Failure to Thrive.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Mari J; Braxton, Alicia A; Shao, Yunru; Lewis, Andrea M; Vincent, Marie; Küry, Sébastien; Besnard, Thomas; Isidor, Bertrand; Latypova, Xénia; Bézieau, Stéphane; Liu, Pengfei; Motter, Connie S; Melver, Catherine Ward; Robin, Nathaniel H; Infante, Elena M; McGuire, Marianne; El-Gharbawy, Areeg; Littlejohn, Rebecca O; McLean, Scott D; Bi, Weimin; Bacino, Carlos A; Lalani, Seema R; Scott, Daryl A; Eng, Christine M; Yang, Yaping; Schaaf, Christian P; Walkiewicz, Magdalena A

    2016-09-01

    SON is a key component of the spliceosomal complex and a critical mediator of constitutive and alternative splicing. Additionally, SON has been shown to influence cell-cycle progression, genomic integrity, and maintenance of pluripotency in stem cell populations. The clear functional relevance of SON in coordinating essential cellular processes and its presence in diverse human tissues suggests that intact SON might be crucial for normal growth and development. However, the phenotypic effects of deleterious germline variants in SON have not been clearly defined. Herein, we describe seven unrelated individuals with de novo variants in SON and propose that deleterious variants in SON are associated with a severe multisystem disorder characterized by developmental delay, persistent feeding difficulties, and congenital malformations, including brain anomalies. PMID:27545676

  5. De Novo Truncating Variants in SON Cause Intellectual Disability, Congenital Malformations, and Failure to Thrive.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Mari J; Braxton, Alicia A; Shao, Yunru; Lewis, Andrea M; Vincent, Marie; Küry, Sébastien; Besnard, Thomas; Isidor, Bertrand; Latypova, Xénia; Bézieau, Stéphane; Liu, Pengfei; Motter, Connie S; Melver, Catherine Ward; Robin, Nathaniel H; Infante, Elena M; McGuire, Marianne; El-Gharbawy, Areeg; Littlejohn, Rebecca O; McLean, Scott D; Bi, Weimin; Bacino, Carlos A; Lalani, Seema R; Scott, Daryl A; Eng, Christine M; Yang, Yaping; Schaaf, Christian P; Walkiewicz, Magdalena A

    2016-09-01

    SON is a key component of the spliceosomal complex and a critical mediator of constitutive and alternative splicing. Additionally, SON has been shown to influence cell-cycle progression, genomic integrity, and maintenance of pluripotency in stem cell populations. The clear functional relevance of SON in coordinating essential cellular processes and its presence in diverse human tissues suggests that intact SON might be crucial for normal growth and development. However, the phenotypic effects of deleterious germline variants in SON have not been clearly defined. Herein, we describe seven unrelated individuals with de novo variants in SON and propose that deleterious variants in SON are associated with a severe multisystem disorder characterized by developmental delay, persistent feeding difficulties, and congenital malformations, including brain anomalies.

  6. SysSon: A Sonification Platform for Climate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visda, Goudarzi; Hanns Holger, Rutz; Katharina, Vogt

    2014-05-01

    Climate data provide a challenging working basis for sonification. Both model data and measured data are assessed in collaboration with the Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change. The multi dimensionality and multi variety of climate data has a great potential for auditory displays. Furthermore, there is consensus on global climate change and the necessity of intensified climate research today in the scientific community and general public. Sonification provides a new means to communicate scientific results and inform a wider audience. SysSon is a user centered auditory platform for climate scientists to analyze data. It gives scientists broader insights by extracting hidden patterns and features from data that is not possible using a single modal visual interface. A variety of soundscapes to chose from lessens the fatigue that comes with repeated and sustained listening to long streams of data. Initial needs assessments and user tests made the work procedures and the terminology of climate scientists clear and informed the architecture of our system. Furthermore, experiments evaluated the sound design which led to a more advanced soundscape and improvement of the auditory display. We present a novel interactive sonification tool which combines a workspace for the scientists with a development environment for sonification models. The tool runs on different operating systems and is released as open source. In the standalone desktop application, multiple data sources can be imported, navigated and manipulated either via text or a graphical interface, including traditional plotting facilities. Sound models are built from unit generator graphs which are enhanced with matrix manipulation functions. They allow us to systematically experiment with elements known from the visual domain, such as range selections, scaling, thresholding, markers and labels. The models are organized in an extensible library, from which the user can choose and parametrize. Importance is

  7. Tradicion mistica y cervantismo en las novelas de Galdos, 1890-97 (The Traditional Mysticism and Cervantes' Influencein the novels of Galdos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Gustavo

    1970-01-01

    Special issue devoted to works and criticisms of Benito Perez Galdos on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Spanish author's death. First time that Hispania" has dedicated an entire issue to one author. (DS)

  8. Comparisons between Paternal and Maternal Involvement with Sons: Early to Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keown, Louise J.; Palmer, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This study compared father-son and mother-son involvement in two-parent families from early to middle childhood. Ninety-four families were recruited for a three-year follow-up study that began when the children were four years old. At each time point, in comparison to mothers, fathers were less accessible to their son on weekdays, and spent more…

  9. SON68 glass dissolution driven by magnesium silicate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Godon, Nicole; Ayral, André; Gin, Stéphane

    2013-11-01

    Experimental results are reported on the effect of magnesium silicate precipitation on the mechanisms and rate of borosilicate glass dissolution. Leaching experiments with SON68 glass, a borosilicate containing no Mg, were carried out in initially deionized water at 50 °C with a glass-surface-area-to-solution-volume ratio of 20,000 m-1. After 29 days of alteration the experimental conditions were modified by the addition of Mg to trigger the precipitation of Mg-silicate. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the importance of other parameters such as pH or dissolved silica on the mechanisms of precipitation of Mg-silicates and their consequences on the glass dissolution rate. Mg-silicates precipitate immediately after Mg is added. The amount of altered glass increases with the quantity of added Mg, and is smaller when silicon is added in solution. A time lag is observed between the addition of magnesium and the resumption of glass alteration because silicon is first provided by partial dissolution of the previously formed alteration gel. It is shown that nucleation does not limit Mg-silicate precipitation. A pH above 8 is necessary for the phase to precipitate under the investigated experimental conditions. On the other hand the glass alteration kinetics limits the precipitation if the magnesium is supplied in solution at a non-limiting rate. The concentration of i in solution was analyzed as well as that of boron. The quantity of i released from the glass is estimated with the assumption that i and B are released congruently at the glass dissolution front. The remained quantity of the element i is then supposed to be in the gel or in the secondary phase. In this paper, we do not make a difference between gel and hydrated glass using the same word 'gel' whereas Gin et al. [40] makes this difference. Recent papers [40,41] discussed about different key issues related to the passivation properties of the alteration layer including the hydrated glass

  10. Intergenerational Exchange between Parents and Migrant and Nonmigrant Sons in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cong, Zhen; Silverstein, Merril

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined whether intergenerational exchanges of time and money resources between older parents and their adult sons in rural China were conditioned on sons' migration status. Data derived from 2001 and 2003 waves of a longitudinal study of 1,126 parents, aged 60 and older, living in rural areas of Anhui Province, China, and…

  11. Impact of Adult Sons' Incarceration on African American Mothers' Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effect of sons' incarceration on their mothers' psychological distress. Interviews were conducted over the life course with a community cohort of African American mothers who had children in first grade in 1966-1967 when the study began ("N"=615). Thirty years later, their sons had significant rates of…

  12. Maternal Distancing Strategies toward Twin Sons, One with Mild Hearing Loss: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Silva, Alicia; Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The authors apply descriptive and sequential analyses to a mother's distancing strategies toward her 3-year-old twin sons in puzzle assembly and book reading tasks. One boy had normal hearing and the other a mild hearing loss (threshold: 30 dB). The results show that the mother used more distancing behaviors with the son with a hearing loss, and…

  13. Relevamiento de HI en las Nubes de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    El relevamiento de HI en el hemisferio sur, que se está realizando desde el IAR con el nuevo receptor enfriado, abarca, en su rango de velocidades, las velocidades desplegadas por el hidrógeno neutro de las Nubes de Magallanes. Esto permite obtener los perfiles de velocidad correspondientes a estas galaxias con una sensibilidad y una completitud de grilla excepcionales para el estudio de la distribución y de la cinemática del gas a gran escala y con una resolución angular de 30' y una resolución en velocidad de 1 km/s. Estas condiciones permiten el estudio de los campos de velocidad, de las componentes múltiples en velocidad, de las asimetrías, concentraciones y burbujas en la distribución del gas, los puentes entre las Nubes y entre las Nubes y la Galaxia, etc. Estas características son de particular importancia para su correlación con los mapas obtenidos con las emisiones en el radio-continuo, el IR y el CO (relacionable con el hidrógeno molecular) todas las cuales permiten el estudio de la dinámica de las Nubes y su relación con la Galaxia, de la formación y evolución estelar y de la evolución de la Nubes mismas.

  14. Polyandrous females produce sons that are successful at post-copulatory competition.

    PubMed

    Klemme, I; Bäumer, J; Eccard, J A; Ylönen, H

    2014-03-01

    Some of the genetic benefit hypotheses put forward to explain multiple male mating (polyandry) predict that sons of polyandrous females will have an increased competitive ability under precopulatory or post-copulatory competition via paternally inherited traits, such as attractiveness or fertilization efficiency. Here, we tested these predictions by comparing the competitive ability of sons of experimentally monandrous and polyandrous female bank voles (Myodes glareolus), while controlling for potential material and maternal effects. In female choice experiments, we found no clear preference for sons of either monandrous or polyandrous mothers. Moreover, neither male type was dominant over the other, indicating no advantage in precopulatory male contest competition. However, in competitive matings, sons of polyandrous mothers significantly increased their mating efforts (mating duration, intromission number). In line with this, paternity success was biased towards sons of polyandrous mothers. Because there was no evidence for maternal effects, our results suggest that female bank voles gain genetic benefits from polyandry. PMID:24517341

  15. Polyandrous females produce sons that are successful at post-copulatory competition.

    PubMed

    Klemme, I; Bäumer, J; Eccard, J A; Ylönen, H

    2014-03-01

    Some of the genetic benefit hypotheses put forward to explain multiple male mating (polyandry) predict that sons of polyandrous females will have an increased competitive ability under precopulatory or post-copulatory competition via paternally inherited traits, such as attractiveness or fertilization efficiency. Here, we tested these predictions by comparing the competitive ability of sons of experimentally monandrous and polyandrous female bank voles (Myodes glareolus), while controlling for potential material and maternal effects. In female choice experiments, we found no clear preference for sons of either monandrous or polyandrous mothers. Moreover, neither male type was dominant over the other, indicating no advantage in precopulatory male contest competition. However, in competitive matings, sons of polyandrous mothers significantly increased their mating efforts (mating duration, intromission number). In line with this, paternity success was biased towards sons of polyandrous mothers. Because there was no evidence for maternal effects, our results suggest that female bank voles gain genetic benefits from polyandry.

  16. Actitudes de los candidatos y maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca del uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuelo, Ezequiel

    Este estudio examino y comparo las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros de ciencias y los maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca de la utilizacion de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Tambien identifico y diferencio el uso que ellos dan a estas herramientas en las clases de ciencias. Este estudio presenta un diseno descriptivo exploratorio. Constituyeron la muestra trescientos diez sujetos que fueron candidatos a maestros de ciencias o maestros de ciencias en servicio. Para recoger los datos se construyo y valido un cuestionario de treinta y un itemes. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadisticas no parametricas Kruskal Wallis y Chi-cuadrado (test de homogeneidad) para establecer las diferencias entre las actitudes de los sujetos con relacion al uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Los hallazgos evidenciaron que son positivas y muy parecidas las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros y maestros en servicio hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas. No hubo diferencias entre los candidatos y maestros en servicio en terminos de las actitudes de confianza y empatia hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. En aspectos como el uso del banco de datos bibliografico Eric y el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en actividades educativas como explorar conceptos, conceptuar, aplicar lo aprendido y hacer asignaciones hubo diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los candidatos y los maestros en servicio. Al comparar las frecuencias observadas con las esperadas hubo mas maestros en servicio y menos candidatos que indicaron usar el anterior banco de datos y las herramientas computadorizadas en las mencionadas actividades educativas.

  17. SON controls cell-cycle progression by coordinated regulation of RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eun-Young; DeKelver, Russell C; Lo, Miao-Chia; Nguyen, Tuyet Ann; Matsuura, Shinobu; Boyapati, Anita; Pandit, Shatakshi; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2011-04-22

    It has been suspected that cell-cycle progression might be functionally coupled with RNA processing. However, little is known about the role of the precise splicing control in cell-cycle progression. Here, we report that SON, a large Ser/Arg (SR)-related protein, is a splicing cofactor contributing to efficient splicing of cell-cycle regulators. Downregulation of SON leads to severe impairment of spindle pole separation, microtubule dynamics, and genome integrity. These molecular defects result from inadequate RNA splicing of a specific set of cell-cycle-related genes that possess weak splice sites. Furthermore, we show that SON facilitates the interaction of SR proteins with RNA polymerase II and other key spliceosome components, suggesting its function in efficient cotranscriptional RNA processing. These results reveal a mechanism for controlling cell-cycle progression through SON-dependent constitutive splicing at suboptimal splice sites, with strong implications for its role in cancer and other human diseases.

  18. Does son preference influence children's growth in height? A comparative study of Chinese and Filipino children.

    PubMed

    Song, Shige; Burgard, Sarah A

    2008-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that son preference has a serious impact on the survival and well-being of female infants and children in some parts of South and East Asia, but little is known about the consequences of son preference in later childhood and adolescence. We compare children's growth trajectories in height over childhood and adolescence in China, where the level of son preference is relatively high, and the Philippines, where it is relatively low. Children's height reflects long-term nutritional status and exposure to infectious diseases, both influenced by household decision-making and, presumably, by a preference for sons. Using data from two high-quality longitudinal studies and multilevel growth models, we find that male children in China show an additional height advantage relative to their female counterparts, when compared to the sex difference in growth trajectories in the Philippines. Further analysis reveals that the additional advantage of males in China is stronger in rural areas.

  19. Familial Multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma (Gorlin's Syndrome): A Case Report of a Father and Son

    PubMed Central

    Nikam, Balkrishna; Kshirsagar, Ashok; Shivhare, Pratik; Garg, Amitoj

    2013-01-01

    Gorlin syndrome is a rare familial disorder characterized by numerous basal cell carcinomas along with facial and skeletal findings. Here, we report a father and son case, presented with features of Gorlin syndrome. PMID:24249904

  20. Charcot's son, commander Jean-Baptiste Charcot: from neurology to "Pourquoi Pas?".

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; Simões, Jefferson C

    2012-04-01

    Charcot name became very famous around the world, firstly because of the work of Professor Jean-Martin Charcot, the founder of Clinical Neurology, and, secondly, because of his son, Jean-Baptiste, the world famous maritime explorer.

  1. Some reflections on a case of mother/adolescent son incest.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1980-01-01

    A rare case of mother/adolescent son incest is presented. The son, treated in analysis, was not psychotic. Questions are raised about why father/daughter incest appears to be much more common than mother/son incest. Part of the answer, I speculate, has to do with the special psychic dangers for both mother and son, perhaps phylogenetically-based, which attach to the fantasy and the possibility of impregnating the mother. Where the incest taboo is violated, the primary responsibility would appear to be the parent's; the parent is frequently motivated by a compulsion to repeat his or her own incestuous past. In the case presented the probably psychotic mother had raised her son to look like a girl for several years, and he had been the victim of a homosexual assault at the age of 6. The incest at puberty seems to have helped him reverse a psychic position of subjection to the pre-oedipal mother, to have modified his rage and reinforced his masculinity. It also produced some of the arrogance, alongside a need for failure and punishment that evoke the legend of Oedipus. The mother, fearful of the possibility of getting pregnant, had abruptly stopped the incest. It had been repressed, and became conscious again when the son entered analysis. He then left his treatment without being able to work through much of the terror consequent to the consummation of incest, and with some of the feeling of oedipal triumph retained.

  2. Like daughter, like son? Fertility decline and the transformation of gender systems in the family

    PubMed Central

    Allendorf, Keera

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND An important question for population research is whether fertility decline transforms gender systems. OBJECTIVE This paper contributes to answering this broad question by examining how fertility decline may change the relative value and roles of daughters and sons in families. First, I outline theoretical pathways, suggesting that a key factor is the gender composition of families. As fertility declines, the proportion of families with children of only one gender increases, which may facilitate greater gender symmetry between daughters and sons. Second, I explore how fertility decline may have contributed to the transformation of the relative value and roles of sons and daughters in practice in one place. METHODS The analysis draws primarily on semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents living in one Indian village. This village is located in a district where fertility has declined to at least the replacement level. RESULTS Respondents perceive changes in the gender system, including less son preference, more equal schooling for sons and daughters, more freedom in marriage and premarital relationships, and perhaps greater daughter support of parents in old age. CONCLUSIONS The results describe changes in the relative value, treatment, and behavior of sons and daughters that are consistent with the theorized effects of fertility decline. Future research is needed, however, to determine whether fertility decline makes a causal contribution to changes in the gender system. PMID:27147902

  3. Native Sons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Michelle D.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1960s, in the midst of Vietnam War protests and the emergence of the Black power movement, students John Garland and James Renick worked as campus advocates to change the environment and curricula at Central State University. Today, Garland, president of Central State, and his college friend Renick, who began serving as senior adviser to…

  4. La edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    Las familias de asteroides son el producto de la disrupción colisional de objetos destruídos por impactos ocurridos en el cinturón principal. Las colisiones posteriores han modificado los tamaños y las órbitas de los miembros de estas familias, por lo que las distribuciones que vemos hoy en día pueden ser muy diferentes de aquellas producidas inmediatamente después de la fragmentación del objeto original. En esta hipótesis, puede ser difícil reconstruir la evolución colisional de la familia basándose sólo en las actuales distribuciones y puede ser necesario hacer ciertas suposiciones para obtener información sobre las condiciones iniciales. En este trabajo se deriva una estimación de la edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis obtenida de una simulación de la evolución colisional de un cuerpo original teórico para cada familia usando un modelo de distribución para el cinturón propuesto por Gil-Hutton (1996).

  5. Has Their Son Been Vaccinated? Beliefs About Other Parents Matter for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Christine L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if parents' beliefs about social norms of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for sons were associated with knowledge of HPV, intention to vaccinate sons, or beliefs about side effects. A cross-sectional, survey-based study of parents with sons was performed in 2010. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine associations between demographics and responses about social norms. Multivariate logistic regression models examined beliefs about social norms of male HPV vaccination and primary outcomes. Few parents agreed that others were vaccinating sons (n = 31/267, 12%), including 1% responding strongly agree and 11% responding agree. Most parents, 52%, disagreed that others were vaccinating (40% disagree, 11% strongly disagree), and 37% chose prefer not to answer regarding others' vaccination practices. Hispanic parents and those with a high school education or less were significantly more likely to choose prefer not to answer than their respective counterparts regarding vaccination norms. In multivariate models, parents agreeing others were vaccinating sons had greater odds of having high knowledge of HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] high vs low knowledge 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 8.77) and increased intention to vaccinate sons (n = 243, aOR = 4.41, 95% CI = 1.51, 12.89). Beliefs about side effects were not significantly associated with beliefs about social norms. Parents' beliefs about others' vaccination practices are important with regard to knowledge of HPV and intention to vaccinate sons. Studying how various public messages about HPV vaccine may influence normative beliefs could be relevant to improving vaccination coverage.

  6. Has Their Son Been Vaccinated? Beliefs About Other Parents Matter for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Christine L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if parents' beliefs about social norms of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for sons were associated with knowledge of HPV, intention to vaccinate sons, or beliefs about side effects. A cross-sectional, survey-based study of parents with sons was performed in 2010. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine associations between demographics and responses about social norms. Multivariate logistic regression models examined beliefs about social norms of male HPV vaccination and primary outcomes. Few parents agreed that others were vaccinating sons (n = 31/267, 12%), including 1% responding strongly agree and 11% responding agree. Most parents, 52%, disagreed that others were vaccinating (40% disagree, 11% strongly disagree), and 37% chose prefer not to answer regarding others' vaccination practices. Hispanic parents and those with a high school education or less were significantly more likely to choose prefer not to answer than their respective counterparts regarding vaccination norms. In multivariate models, parents agreeing others were vaccinating sons had greater odds of having high knowledge of HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] high vs low knowledge 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 8.77) and increased intention to vaccinate sons (n = 243, aOR = 4.41, 95% CI = 1.51, 12.89). Beliefs about side effects were not significantly associated with beliefs about social norms. Parents' beliefs about others' vaccination practices are important with regard to knowledge of HPV and intention to vaccinate sons. Studying how various public messages about HPV vaccine may influence normative beliefs could be relevant to improving vaccination coverage. PMID:25595021

  7. Accurate Splicing of HDAC6 Pre-mRNA Requires SON

    PubMed Central

    Battini, Vishnu Priya; Bubulya, Athanasios; Bubulya, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing requires proper splice site selection mediated by many factors including snRNPs and serine-arginine rich (SR) splicing factors. Our lab previously reported that the SR-like protein SON maintains organization of pre-mRNA splicing factors in nuclear speckles as well as splicing of many human transcripts including mRNAs coding for the chromatin-modifying enzymes HDAC6, ADA and SETD8. However, the mechanism by which SON maintains accurate splicing is unknown. To build tools for understanding SON-dependent pre-mRNA splicing, we constructed a minigene reporter plasmid driving expression of the genomic sequence spanning exons 26 through 29 of HDAC6. Following SON depletion, we observed altered splicing of HDAC6 reporter transcripts that showed exclusion of exons 27 and 28, reflecting the splicing patterns of endogenous HDAC6 mRNA. Importantly, loss of HDAC6 biological function was also observed, as indicated by truncated HDAC6 protein and corresponding absence of aggresome assembly activities of HDAC6 binding-of-ubiquitin zinc finger (BUZ) domain. We therefore propose that SON-mediated splicing regulation of HDAC6 is essential for supporting protein degradation pathways that prevent human disease. PMID:25782155

  8. Dyads of father and son suicide separated by time and circumstances.

    PubMed

    Carson, Henry J

    2010-03-01

    We encountered 2 dyadic suicides among fathers and sons. In the first dyad, the father was a 64-year-old man with complications of heart surgery. He committed suicide with a shotgun. The decedent's son was a 38-year-old man. Five years after his father's death, the son had an argument with his wife. That morning, he drove to the house where his father had lived and inflicted a handgun wound to his head. In the second dyad, the son was a 22-year-old man whose girlfriend left him. He inflicted a shotgun injury to the head. His blood alcohol level was 294 mg/dL. The father of this decedent was a 43-year-old man who 1 year later was despondent after a fight with his girlfriend. He was found dead at home with a single handgun wound to the chest. His blood alcohol level was 173 mg/dL. All 4 suicides appear to have been premeditated and all 4 men used guns. Suicide in a family tends to cause depression and complicate bereavement in survivors more than other types of death. Copycat suicide is well-documented in high-profile cases. The effect of father-son relationships is likely closer and more influential than celebrity suicides. PMID:19935393

  9. Variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Vucetich, H.

    La variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales es un problema que ha motivado numerosos trabajos teóricos y experimentales desde la hipótesis de los grandes números de Dirac en 1937. Entre los métodos experimentales y observacionales para establecer restricciones sobre la variación de las constantes fundamentes es importante mencionar: comparación entre relojes atómicos[1], métodos geofísicos[2][3], análisis de sistemas de absorción en quasares[4][5][6] y cotas provenientes de la nucleosíntesis primordial[7]. En un trabajo reciente[5], se reportó una significativa variación en la constante de estructura fina. Intentos de unificar las cuatro interacciones fundamentales dieron como resultado teorías con múltiples dimensiones como las teorías de Kaluza-Klein y teorías de supercuerdas. Estas teorías proporcionan un marco teórico natural para el estudio de la variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales. A su vez, un modelo sencillo para estudiar la variación de la constante de estructura fina, fue propuesto en [8], a partir de premisas muy generales como ser covarianza, invarianza de gauge, causalidad y invarianza ante reversiones temporales en el electromagnetismo. Diferentes versiones de las teorías antes mencionadas coinciden en predecir variaciones temporales de las constantes fundamentales pero difieren en la forma de esta variación[9][10]. De esta manera, las restricciones establecidas experimentalmente sobre la variación de las constantes fundamentales pueden ser una herramienta importante para testear estas diferentes teorías. En este trabajo, utilizamos las cotas provenientes de diversas técnicas experimentales, para testear si las mismas son consistentes con alguna de las teorías antes mencionadas. En particular, establecemos cotas sobre la variación de los parámentros libres de las diferentes teorías como por ejemplo el radio de las dimensiones extras en las teorías tipo Kaluza-Klein.

  10. Having a Son or Daughter with Down Syndrome: Perspectives from Mothers and Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Skotko, Brian G.; Levine, Susan P.; Goldstein, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study asks parents who have children with Down syndrome how they feel about their lives so that such information could be shared with expectant couples during prenatal counseling sessions. A valid and reliable survey instrument was mailed to 4,924 households on the mailing lists of six non-profit Down syndrome organizations. Of the 2,044 respondents, 99% reported that they love their son or daughter; 97% were proud of them; 79% felt their outlook on life was more positive because of them; 5% felt embarrassed by them; and 4% regretted having them. The parents report that 95% of their sons or daughters without Down syndrome have good relationships with their siblings with Down syndrome. The overwhelming majority of parents surveyed report that they are happy with their decision to have their child with Down syndrome and indicate that their sons and daughters are great sources of love and pride. PMID:21915989

  11. The deconfining phase transition of SO(N) gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Richard; Teper, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the deconfining temperature of SO(N ) gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions, and determine the order of the phase transition as a function of N , for various values of N ∈ [4 , 16]. We do so by extrapolating our lattice results to the infinite volume limit, and then to the continuum limit, for each value of N. We then extrapolate to the N =∞ limit and observe that the SO(N) and SU(N) deconfining temperatures agree in that limit. We find that the the deconfining temperatures of all the SO(N ) gauge theories appear to follow a single smooth function of N , despite the lack of a non-trivial centre for odd N . We also compare the deconfining temperatures of SO(6) with SU(4), and of SO(4) with SU(2) × SU(2), motivated by the fact that these pairs of gauge theories share the same Lie algebras.

  12. Maternal distancing strategies toward twin sons, one with mild hearing loss: a case study.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Sánchez-García, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The authors apply descriptive and sequential analyses to a mother's distancing strategies toward her 3-year-old twin sons in puzzle assembly and book reading tasks. One boy had normal hearing and the other a mild hearing loss (threshold: 30 dB). The results show that the mother used more distancing behaviors with the son with a hearing loss, and thus gave greater encouragement to this son's cognitive development. These results differ from those of previous studies of deaf or hard of hearing children, whose participants generally had severe or profound hearing loss. In those studies, parents of deaf children used more low-level distancing than parents of normally hearing children. The results of the present study are discussed in terms of their implications for the parenting of twins and of children with mild hearing loss.

  13. Maternal distancing strategies toward twin sons, one with mild hearing loss: a case study.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Sánchez-García, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The authors apply descriptive and sequential analyses to a mother's distancing strategies toward her 3-year-old twin sons in puzzle assembly and book reading tasks. One boy had normal hearing and the other a mild hearing loss (threshold: 30 dB). The results show that the mother used more distancing behaviors with the son with a hearing loss, and thus gave greater encouragement to this son's cognitive development. These results differ from those of previous studies of deaf or hard of hearing children, whose participants generally had severe or profound hearing loss. In those studies, parents of deaf children used more low-level distancing than parents of normally hearing children. The results of the present study are discussed in terms of their implications for the parenting of twins and of children with mild hearing loss. PMID:15646940

  14. Non-genetic benefits of mate choice: fecundity enhancement and sexy sons.

    PubMed

    M

    1998-05-01

    I compared reproductive success (lifetime number of fertilized eggs) as a function of mate choice among females of the stink bug, Nezara viridula L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). 'Choosing' (C) females were placed with one of two males on alternate days. CI females chose between inexperienced males while CR females chose between males previously rejected by CI females. 'Non-choosing' (N) females were placed with the same male every day. Non-choosing NI, NR and NA females encountered, respectively, inexperienced males, previously rejected males, or previously accepted and mated males. Reproductive success was highest for CI females, showing direct selection on mate preferences. Reproductive success did not differ between CR and NR females, indicating that male quality, not the act of choosing a mate, affects fitness. CI females preferred males with longer antennae and their fecundity (lifetime number of eggs) was correlated with male antenna length, consistent with antenna length as an indicator of male ability to transfer nutritive sperm produced in paired harlequin lobes of the testes. Harlequin lobes were smaller in rejected than chosen males. In second-generation mate choice trials, sons of NR females competed well against sons of NA females but not against sons of CI females. This suggests that non-genetic paternal contributions that decline with prior mating account for the attractiveness of sons because sons of CI and NA females shared the same fathers. Sons experiencing mating success came from larger eggs and egg size was greatest for CI females, perhaps as a consequence of paternal nutritional contributions. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  15. Mothers Make a Difference: Mothers Develop Weaker Bonds with Immature Sons than Daughters

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Lars; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Among mammals, individuals form strong social bonds preferentially with their kin. Differences in these relationships are linked to differential kin availability due to sex-specific dispersal patterns, but there is some indication that differential bonding among sexes already occurs prior to maturation. However, little is known about how these patterns arise during individual development. Here we investigated sex differences in the development of mother-offspring bonds in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results revealed that mothers showed sex-biased bonding toward their offspring. Sons had a distinctly higher probability of receiving aggression from their mothers than did daughters in the first year of life, while no differences were found with respect to affiliative interactions. After the first year, probabilities of all affiliative and aggressive behaviours investigated were higher for daughters than for sons, although generally declining. Furthermore, sons spending less time with their mother and receiving more maternal aggression tended to disperse earlier. The results of our study suggest that mothers influence their bonding strength with offspring by interacting less affiliative with sons than daughters. PMID:27191403

  16. One Able Daughter Is Worth 10 Illiterate Sons: Reframing the Patriarchal Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan Ahmed, Sania; Bould, Sally

    2004-01-01

    This research note reports on interviews with 120 mothers employed in garment factories in Bangladesh. These mothers express views on the necessity of being married, having sons, and educating daughters that challenge traditional patriarchal practices. They report that men of their families can no longer guarantee women and children lifetime…

  17. Marriage Form and Son Preference in Rural China: An Investigation in Three Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from two surveys in three counties among which the prevalence of uxorilocal marriage varies greatly, this paper analyzes effects of marriage form, as well as individual, family, and social factors on son preference in the context of strict birth control in rural China. It is shown that, under the Chinese patrilineal joint family system,…

  18. Better-surviving barn swallow mothers produce more and better-surviving sons.

    PubMed

    Romano, Andrea; Costanzo, Alessandra; Caprioli, Manuela; Parolini, Marco; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts that parents are selected to bias their progeny sex ratio (SR) toward the sex that will benefit the most from parental quality. Because parental quality may differentially affect survival of sons and daughters, a pivotal test of the adaptive value of SR adjustment is whether parents overproduce offspring of the sex that accrues larger fitness advantages from high parental quality. However, this crucial test of the long-term fitness consequences of sex allocation decisions has seldom been performed. In this study of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we showed a positive correlation between the proportion of sons and maternal annual survival. We then experimentally demonstrated that this association did not depend on the differential costs of rearing offspring of either sex. Finally, we showed that maternal lifespan positively predicted lifespan of sons but not of daughters. Because in barn swallows lifespan is a strong determinant of lifetime reproductive success, the results suggest that mothers overproduce offspring of the sex that benefits the most from maternal quality. Hence, irrespective of mechanisms causing the SR bias and mother-son covariation in lifespan, we provide strong evidence that sex allocation decisions of mothers can highly impact on their lifetime fitness.

  19. When the Least Restrictive Environment is Residential: Meeting the Needs of Our Son

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Djenne-Amal

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author, a parent of Malik, a special needs child with CHARGE Syndrome, describes the difficulties she encountered with her local educational agency (LEA) in transitioning her son from the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts to the Eastern North Carolina School for the Deaf (ENCSD). At ENCSD, Malik now…

  20. Fathers' Parenting Hassles and Coping: Associations with Emotional Expressiveness and Their Sons' Socioemotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Phillip A.; Reese-Weber, Marla; Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined fathers' daily parenting hassles and coping strategies to (a) determine their association with fathers' emotional expressiveness and (b) predict their sons' development of socioemotional competence. Fathers of 148 preschool-aged boys reported on their parenting hassles, coping strategies, and emotional expressiveness;…

  1. The Putative Son's Attractiveness Alters the Perceived Attractiveness of the Putative Father.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2015-08-01

    A body of literature has investigated female mate choice in the pre-mating context (pre-mating sexual selection). Humans, however, are long-living mammals forming pair-bonds which sequentially produce offspring. Post-mating evaluations of a partner's attractiveness may thus significantly influence the reproductive success of men and women. I tested herein the theory that the attractiveness of putative sons provides extra information about the genetic quality of fathers, thereby influencing fathers' attractiveness across three studies. As predicted, facially attractive boys were more frequently attributed to attractive putative fathers and vice versa (Study 1). Furthermore, priming with an attractive putative son increased the attractiveness of the putative father with the reverse being true for unattractive putative sons. When putative fathers were presented as stepfathers, the effect of the boy's attractiveness on the stepfather's attractiveness was lower and less consistent (Study 2). This suggests that the presence of an attractive boy has the strongest effect on the perceived attractiveness of putative fathers rather than on non-fathers. The generalized effect of priming with beautiful non-human objects also exists, but its effect is much weaker compared with the effects of putative biological sons (Study 3). Overall, this study highlighted the importance of post-mating sexual selection in humans and suggests that the heritable attractive traits of men are also evaluated by females after mating and/or may be used by females in mate poaching. PMID:25731909

  2. The Putative Son's Attractiveness Alters the Perceived Attractiveness of the Putative Father.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2015-08-01

    A body of literature has investigated female mate choice in the pre-mating context (pre-mating sexual selection). Humans, however, are long-living mammals forming pair-bonds which sequentially produce offspring. Post-mating evaluations of a partner's attractiveness may thus significantly influence the reproductive success of men and women. I tested herein the theory that the attractiveness of putative sons provides extra information about the genetic quality of fathers, thereby influencing fathers' attractiveness across three studies. As predicted, facially attractive boys were more frequently attributed to attractive putative fathers and vice versa (Study 1). Furthermore, priming with an attractive putative son increased the attractiveness of the putative father with the reverse being true for unattractive putative sons. When putative fathers were presented as stepfathers, the effect of the boy's attractiveness on the stepfather's attractiveness was lower and less consistent (Study 2). This suggests that the presence of an attractive boy has the strongest effect on the perceived attractiveness of putative fathers rather than on non-fathers. The generalized effect of priming with beautiful non-human objects also exists, but its effect is much weaker compared with the effects of putative biological sons (Study 3). Overall, this study highlighted the importance of post-mating sexual selection in humans and suggests that the heritable attractive traits of men are also evaluated by females after mating and/or may be used by females in mate poaching.

  3. Andrew Wyeth and N.C. Wyeth: a psychodynamic perspective on father and son.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between two extraordinary artists, father and son--N.C. Wyeth (1882-1945) and Andrew Wyeth (1917-2009)--and their art. N.C. Wyeth, the father, the most famous illustrator of his day, painted scenes full of drama and action, often of men engaged in violent life and death struggles. N.C. was unable to separate from his powerful mother and yearned for his iconic father. He thought himself an artistic failure and dedicated himself to raising his children to be geniuses. The youngest son, Andrew Wyeth, who lived a "secret life," painted scenes often characterized by pathos: bleak and barren landscapes, leaden skies, tire tracks, gray framed houses, desiccated fields, and circling buzzards. In the father-son relationship, we often seen three themes perpetuated developmentally: (1) the son's identification with the innermost conflicts of his father; (2) the yearning for the iconic father of his youth; and (3) a continuation and disavowal of his father's life. These themes are played out in the relationship between Andrew Wyeth and his father.

  4. Boys Will Be Men: Raising Our Sons for Courage, Caring and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivel, Paul

    This book offers practical advice on how to rear sons to become the kind of men needed for a multicultural and democratic society. Suggestions are given for dealing with racism, homophobia, pornography, drugs, social class problems, consumerism, sex, and violence. The chapters are: (1) "Male Socialization"; (2) "The Big Picture"; (3) "Mothering,…

  5. The mystery of the Doctor’s son, or the riddle of West syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eling, Paul; Renier, Willy O.; Pomper, Joern; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2011-01-01

    Although the eponym “West syndrome” is used widely for infantile spasms, the originators of the term and the time frame of its initial use are not well known. This article provides historical details about Dr. West, about his son who had infantile spasms, and about the circumstances leading to the coining of the term West syndrome. PMID:11914414

  6. Does Father Know Best? Mothers and Fathers Teaching Their Preschool Sons and Daughters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Marc T.; And Others

    The interactional teaching patterns of 36 fathers and mothers with their 6-year-old sons and daughters were studied. Parents were asked to play (in parent-child dyads) with their child on a jigsaw puzzle and to teach the child to remember 25 picture cards that could be divided into conceptual categories. It was found that parents' instructional…

  7. Mothers Make a Difference: Mothers Develop Weaker Bonds with Immature Sons than Daughters.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Lars; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Among mammals, individuals form strong social bonds preferentially with their kin. Differences in these relationships are linked to differential kin availability due to sex-specific dispersal patterns, but there is some indication that differential bonding among sexes already occurs prior to maturation. However, little is known about how these patterns arise during individual development. Here we investigated sex differences in the development of mother-offspring bonds in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results revealed that mothers showed sex-biased bonding toward their offspring. Sons had a distinctly higher probability of receiving aggression from their mothers than did daughters in the first year of life, while no differences were found with respect to affiliative interactions. After the first year, probabilities of all affiliative and aggressive behaviours investigated were higher for daughters than for sons, although generally declining. Furthermore, sons spending less time with their mother and receiving more maternal aggression tended to disperse earlier. The results of our study suggest that mothers influence their bonding strength with offspring by interacting less affiliative with sons than daughters. PMID:27191403

  8. SonTek IQ Plus Velocity Index Discharge Compared to Historical Stage Discharge Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, I.

    2014-12-01

    The SonTek IQ Plus bottom-mounted, up-looking Doppler Current meter is relatively new, low profile instrument specifically designed to measure water velocity in open channels through a wide range of conditions and water depth. The predecessor to the IQ, the SonTek Argonaut SW, is a well-established tool for measuring discharge in open channels utilizing a velocity index equation. The IQ builds upon this with velocity indexing capabilities and the addition of two skew beams and the implementation of SmartPulseHD. The SonTek IQ Plus measures velocity with 4-acoustic transducers and the water level using a fifth vertically oriented transducer integrated with a pressure sensor. This improves upon previous and other bottom-mounted, up-looking, acoustic Doppler current meters by measuring the velocity at more points across the channel using its 4-monostatic acoustic transducers. Additionally, the vertically oriented transducer measures the water level and works in conjunction with the pressure sensor to provide a highly accurate water level/stage measurement. The implementation of SmartPulseHD enables the IQ to change ping type and processing technique based on water depth and velocity, in order to provide the most accurate velocity data possible. The IQ was designed specifically for measuring open channel flow in irrigation canals and similar open channels, either by utilizing SonTek's theoretical flow algorithm or using a velocity index equation. The study presented here demonstrates data collected by an IQ installed in an irrigation canal and the discharge computed using a developed index velocity equation. These data are then compared to discharge data determined by a conventional stage discharge curve developed over many years. The data presented demonstrate the capability of the SonTek IQ to compute accurate discharge values based on an index velocity equation that was developed over a relatively short period of time.

  9. Virgin ant queens mate with their own sons to avoid failure at colony foundation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christine Vanessa; Frohschammer, Sabine; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Mother-son mating (oedipal mating) is practically non-existent in social Hymenoptera, as queens typically avoid inbreeding, mate only early in life and do not mate again after having begun to lay eggs. In the ant genus Cardiocondyla mating occurs among sib in the natal nests. Sex ratios are extremely female-biased and young queens face the risk of remaining without mating partners. Here, we show that virgin queens of Cardiocondyla argyrotricha produce sons from their own unfertilized eggs and later mate with them to produce female offspring from fertilized eggs. Oedipal mating may allow C. argyrotricha queens to found new colonies when no mating partners are available and thus maintains their unusual life history combining monogyny, mating in the nest, and low male production. Our result indicates that a trait that sporadically occurs in solitary haplodiploid animals may evolve also in social Hymenoptera under appropriate ecological and social conditions.

  10. Virgin ant queens mate with their own sons to avoid failure at colony foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christine Vanessa; Frohschammer, Sabine; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Mother-son mating (oedipal mating) is practically non-existent in social Hymenoptera, as queens typically avoid inbreeding, mate only early in life and do not mate again after having begun to lay eggs. In the ant genus Cardiocondyla mating occurs among sib in the natal nests. Sex ratios are extremely female-biased and young queens face the risk of remaining without mating partners. Here, we show that virgin queens of Cardiocondyla argyrotricha produce sons from their own unfertilized eggs and later mate with them to produce female offspring from fertilized eggs. Oedipal mating may allow C. argyrotricha queens to found new colonies when no mating partners are available and thus maintains their unusual life history combining monogyny, mating in the nest, and low male production. Our result indicates that a trait that sporadically occurs in solitary haplodiploid animals may evolve also in social Hymenoptera under appropriate ecological and social conditions.

  11. The mystery of the perpetual motion clock of Geiser and Son

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piguet, Jean-Michel

    A description of the operation and mechanisms of a so called perpetual motion clock is given. At the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, the achievement of perpetual motion was one of the Neuchatel clockmakers' great interests. Some watchmakers presented scientists and the public with constructions which, at first sight, seemed to have solved the problem. In 1815 a really interesting clock mechanism invented by Jean Geiser and his son was presented in Neuchatel.

  12. Boys of Few Words: Raising Our Sons to Communicate and Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Adam J.

    2006-01-01

    When parents feel separated from their sons by a curtain of silence or a wall of resistance, they are right to be concerned. Boys of few words-the ones who limit their expression to a timid shrug or an indifferent grunt-need help. Whether the problem is rooted in "nature" or "nurture," boys who grow up unable to talk about their thoughts and…

  13. Early social exposure in wild chimpanzees: Mothers with sons are more gregarious than mothers with daughters

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Carson M.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Stanton, Margaret A.; Wellens, Kaitlin R.; Miller, Jordan A.; Goodall, Jane; Pusey, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    In many mammals, early social experience is critical to developing species-appropriate adult behaviors. Although mother–infant interactions play an undeniably significant role in social development, other individuals in the social milieu may also influence infant outcomes. Additionally, the social skills necessary for adult success may differ between the sexes. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), adult males are more gregarious than females and rely on a suite of competitive and cooperative relationships to obtain access to females. In fission–fusion species, including humans and chimpanzees, subgroup composition is labile and individuals can vary the number of individuals with whom they associate. Thus, mothers in these species have a variety of social options. In this study, we investigated whether wild chimpanzee maternal subgrouping patterns differed based on infant sex. Our results show that mothers of sons were more gregarious than mothers of daughters; differences were especially pronounced during the first 6 mo of life, when infant behavior is unlikely to influence maternal subgrouping. Furthermore, mothers with sons spent significantly more time in parties containing males during the first 6 mo. These early differences foreshadow the well-documented sex differences in adult social behavior, and maternal gregariousness may provide sons with important observational learning experiences and social exposure early in life. The presence of these patterns in chimpanzees raises questions concerning the evolutionary history of differential social exposure and its role in shaping sex-typical behavior in humans. PMID:25422411

  14. The fitness of dispersing spotted hyaena sons is influenced by maternal social status.

    PubMed

    Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Hofer, Heribert; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Thierer, Dagmar; Trillmich, Fritz; Burke, Terry; East, Marion L

    2010-01-01

    Life history theory predicts that mothers should provide their offspring with a privileged upbringing if this enhances their offspring's and their own fitness. In many mammals, high-ranking mothers provide their offspring with a privileged upbringing. Whether dispersing sons gain fitness benefits during adulthood from such privileges (a 'silver spoon' effect) has rarely been examined. In this paper, we show that in the complex, female-dominated society of spotted hyaenas, high-born sons grew at higher rates, were more likely to disperse to clans offering the best fitness prospects, started reproducing earlier and had a higher reproductive value than did lower-born sons. This illustrates the evolutionary importance of maternal effects even in societies in which male size or fighting ability does not influence fitness. By demonstrating for the first time in a non-human mammal that maternal status influences immigration patterns, the study also advances our understanding of two key ecological and evolutionary processes, dispersal and habitat selection. PMID:20975715

  15. Terascale Physics Opportunities at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment:. NuSOnG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Conrad, J. M.; de Gouvêa, A.; Fisher, P. H.; Formaggio, J. A.; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kobilarcik, T. R.; Kopp, S.; Kyle, G.; Loinaz, W. A.; Mason, D. A.; Milner, R.; Moore, R.; Morfín, J. G.; Nakamura, M.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Olness, F. I.; Owens, J. F.; Pate, S. F.; Pronin, A.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Schellman, H.; Schienbein, I.; Syphers, M. J.; Tait, T. M. P.; Takeuchi, T.; Tan, C. Y.; van de Water, R. G.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yu, J. Y.

    This paper presents the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering on Glass). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain over an order of magnitude higher statistics than presently available for the purely weak processes νμ + e- → νμ + e- and νμ + e- → νe + μ-. A sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples will also be obtained. As a result, NuSOnG will be unique among present and planned experiments for its ability to probe neutrino couplings to Beyond the Standard Model physics. Many Beyond Standard Model theories physics predict a rich hierarchy of TeV-scale new states that can correct neutrino cross-sections, through modifications of Zνν couplings, tree-level exchanges of new particles such as Z‧'s, or through loop-level oblique corrections to gauge boson propagators. These corrections are generic in theories of extra dimensions, extended gauge symmetries, supersymmetry, and more. The sensitivity of NuSOnG to this new physics extends beyond 5 TeV mass scales. This paper reviews these physics opportunities.

  16. Girl adoption in China-A less-known side of son preference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuyu; Ebenstein, Avraham; Edlund, Lena; Li, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    In 1987, 4 per cent of girls were adopted within China. Why? Unlike infanticide, abandonment rids parents of daughters while preserving the supply of potential brides. In fact, an erstwhile tradition common in Fujian and Jiangxi provinces had parents of sons adopting an infant girl to serve as a future daughter-in-law and household help. Analysing a nationally representative 1992 survey of children, we found that: (1) girl adoptions were concentrated in the above-mentioned provinces; (2) girls were predominantly adopted by families with sons; (3) adopted girls faced substantial disadvantage as measured by school attendance at ages 8-13. In the 1990s, as the sex ratio at birth climbed, were girls aborted rather than abandoned? Observing that in the 2000 census too many girls appear in families with older sons, we estimated that at least 1/25 girls were abandoned in the 1990s, a proportion that in Fujian and Jiangxi may have peaked at 1/10 in 1994.

  17. Son Preference and Children’s Housework: The Case of India

    PubMed Central

    Adserà, Alícia

    2013-01-01

    We use a nationally representative survey of Indian households (NFHS-3) to conduct the first study that analyzes whether son preference is associated with girls bearing a larger burden of housework than boys. Housework is a non-negligible part of child labor in which around 60 % of children in our sample are engaged. The preference for male offspring is measured by a mother’s ideal proportion of sons among her offspring. We show that when the ideal proportion increases from 0 to 1, the gap in the time spent on weekly housework for an average girl compared to that of a boy increases by 2.5 h. We conduct several robustness analyses. First, we estimate the main model separately by caste, religion, and family size. Second, we use a two-stage model to look at participation into housework (as well as other types of work) in addition to hours. Third, we use mother’s fertility intentions as an alternative measure of son preference. The analysis confirms that stated differences in male preference translate in de facto differences in girl’s treatment. PMID:23914000

  18. Mutation rate at 17 Y-STR loci in "Father/Son" pairs from moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Laouina, Adil; Nadifi, Sellama; Boulouiz, Redouane; El Arji, Marzouk; Talbi, Jalal; El Houate, Brahim; Yahia, Hakima; Chbel, Faiza

    2013-09-01

    Precise knowledge of mutation rate at Y-STRs loci is essential for a correct evaluation of typing results in forensic casework and specially kinship genetic studies. In this study, we have examined 252 confirmed and unrelated father/son sample pairs from Moroccan population using the 17 Y-STR markers DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a, DYS385b, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, and Y-GATA-H4 of the AmpFlSTR Yfiler™ kit used in routine casework. We observed a total of 15 single repeat mutations between fathers and sons as mutational events. Nine mutations resulted in the gain of a repeat in the son and six resulted in a loss of a repeat. The average mutation rate in the studied sample is 3.5×10(-3) (95% CI 2-5.8×10(-3)). Furthermore, Y-STRs mutation occurrence seems to be 4 times more frequent than autosomal STRs mutation in this sample. PMID:23623014

  19. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  20. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  1. Casein kinase 1 is recruited to nuclear speckles by FAM83H and SON

    PubMed Central

    Kuga, Takahisa; Kume, Hideaki; Adachi, Jun; Kawasaki, Naoko; Shimizu, Maiko; Hoshino, Isamu; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Saito, Youhei; Nakayama, Yuji; Tomonaga, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    In some fibroblasts, casein kinase 1α (CK1α) is localized to nuclear speckles, which are sub-nuclear compartments supplying splicing factors, whereas it is recruited on keratin filaments in colorectal cancer cells such as DLD1 cells. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of why CK1α is localized to these different subcellular sites, we herein elucidated the mechanisms underlying its localization to nuclear speckles. CK1α and FAM83H were localized to nuclear speckles in RKO and WiDr colorectal cancer cells, which do not express simple epithelial keratins, and in DLD1 cells transfected with siRNAs for type I keratins. The localization of FAM83H to nuclear speckles was also detected in colorectal cancer cells with a poorly organized keratin cytoskeleton in colorectal cancer tissues. Using an interactome analysis of FAM83H, we identified SON, a protein present in nuclear speckles, as a scaffold protein to which FAM83H recruits CK1α. This result was supported by the knockdown of FAM83H or SON delocalizing CK1α from nuclear speckles. We also found that CK1δ and ε are localized to nuclear speckles in a FAM83H-dependent manner. These results suggest that CK1 is recruited to nuclear speckles by FAM83H and SON in the absence of an intact keratin cytoskeleton. PMID:27681590

  2. Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Version 4.1 of LAS provides flexible framework for algorithm development and processing and analysis of image data. Over 500,000 lines of code enable image repair, clustering, classification, film processing, geometric registration, radiometric correction, and manipulation of image statistics.

  3. From Here to There and Back Again: The Story of a Mother, Her Son, Disability, and School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Glenys

    2016-01-01

    Nelly and her children live in Queensland, Australia. When it came time for her second youngest son to start school, Nelly was not prepared for the difficulty that she had enrolling him at the school of her choice. In spite of her son's disability, Nelly thought that it was natural that he would go to his local school with his sister. It is not…

  4. 29 CFR 825.122 - Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember, adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.122 Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember... term does not include parents “in law.” (c) Son or daughter. For purposes of FMLA......

  5. 29 CFR 825.122 - Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember, adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.122 Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember... term does not include parents “in law.” (c) Son or daughter. For purposes of FMLA......

  6. 29 CFR 825.122 - Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember, adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.122 Definitions of spouse, parent, son or daughter, next of kin of a covered servicemember... term does not include parents “in law.” (c) Son or daughter. For purposes of FMLA......

  7. ‘Too many girls, too much dowry’: son preference and daughter aversion in rural Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    DIAMOND-SMITH, NADIA; LUKE, NANCY; MCGARVEY, STEPHEN

    2013-01-01

    The southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu has experienced a dramatic decline in fertility, accompanied by a trend of increased son preference. This paper reports on findings from qualitative interviews with women in rural villages about their fertility decision-making. Specifically addressed are the reasons behind increasing son preference and the consequences of this change. Findings suggest that daughter aversion, fuelled primarily by the perceived economic burden of daughters due to the proliferation of dowry, is playing a larger role in fertility decision-making than son preference. The desire for a son is often trumped by the worry over having many daughters. Women use various means of controlling the sex of their children, which in this study appear to be primarily female infanticide. It is important to distinguish between son preference and daughter aversion and to examine repercussions of low fertility within this setting. PMID:18821352

  8. Designing Messages to Motivate Parents to Get Their Preteenage Sons Vaccinated Against Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Joan R.; Ortiz, Rebecca; Shafer, Autumn; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, licensed for use in 9–26-year-olds, is most effective when given before sexual activity begins. HPV causes genital warts, is associated with several cancers and disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minorities. Parents are typically unaware of male HPV vaccine; messages that might motivate them to get their preteenage sons vaccinated are unexplored. METHODS Messages promoting vaccination of preteenage boys were designed and tested in 2009 and 2010. Five focus groups were conducted with 29 black parents of 11–12-year-old boys, recruited through three churches and a middle school in North Carolina, and a racially diverse sample of 100 parents of 9–13-year-old boys in a university-based adolescent health clinic was interviewed. A constant comparison method was used to code transcripts and interpret themes. Chi-square and t tests or analyses of variance were used to assess differences in quantitative data. RESULTS Focus group parents knew little about HPV in males. Although concerned about safety and cost, parents supported vaccination for their sons. They wanted to see racial diversity and both parents in motivational materials. In interviews, 89% of parents reported never having heard of male HPV vaccine. The largest proportion said that a message stressing the prevalence and possible consequences of HPV infection was the most motivating (32%); the design favored by the largest proportion (43%) showed two parents. CONCLUSIONS Messages that may most motivate parents to get preteenage boys vaccinated against HPV focus on infection risk and include images of parents with their sons. PMID:22405151

  9. When a son steals money from his mother: courtroom perceptions of elder financial exploitation.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jonathan M; Hodell, Emily C; Dunlap, Emily E; Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Keller, Peggy S

    2013-01-01

    The perception of elder financial exploitation was investigated using community members (N = 104) and undergraduates (N = 143). Participants read an exploitation trial summary; an 85-year-old victim accused her son of stealing her money. Primary results indicated that alleged victims described as healthy rendered more guilty verdicts than those described as having a cognitive deficit; pro-victim judgments were higher for women than men; and younger and older community members' rendered more guilty verdicts than middle-aged mock jurors. The results are discussed in terms of the factors that impact the perception of exploitation in court.

  10. Performance of the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, S. J.; Howe, R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Davies, G. R.; Elsworth, Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) has been operating with a full complement of six stations since 1992. Over 20 years later, we look back on the network history. The meta-data from the sites have been analysed to assess performance in terms of site insolation, with a brief look at the challenges that have been encountered over the years. We explain how the international community can gain easy access to the ever-growing dataset produced by the network, and finally look to the future of the network and the potential impact of nearly 25 years of technology miniaturisation.

  11. Data and Analysis Methods of the Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, J. D.; Simons, F. J.; Nolet, G.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present, for the first time, the results from pilot deployments of the Son-O-Mermaid project, an autonomously drifting, oceangoing data-collection platform that can be cheaply deployed without the need for a costly research vessel, and that records and transmits hydroacoustic signals (with a target of those generated by teleseismic earthquakes) in near real-time. Both deployments employ three identical hydrophones spaced about 70 cm apart at the end of a 700 m long cable attached to a surface buoy that houses electronics, communications, and a GPS location package. The maiden voyage occurred October 8, 2012, in Exuma Bay, Bahamas and returned 25 hours of acoustic data. A second deployment is to take place in September 2014, with near-immediate data relay via Iridium modem. The experimental setup is different from the MERMAID instrument, which sinks to a midcolumn depth and surfaces to transmit waveforms when an event detection algorithm is triggered. MERMAIDs have recorded hundreds of seismic traces from 18 active floats in the Indian and Mediterranean Oceans with a signal-to-noise ratio suitable for global tomography. As with earthquake early-warning studies, both Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID benefit from rapid and accurate event detection, discrimination, and measurement technology. With this triple purpose in mind we continue to improve methods (in the time-domain, via spectrogram analysis and using wavelets) that we illustrate on the latest and some of the older data, as well. While hydroacoustic data have numerous other applications beyond seismology (whale calls, ice calving, weather patterns, and so on) the Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID instruments may potentially revolutionize seismic data collection in the oceans. Moreover, in the near future they will be fitted with more or different instruments, becoming multipurpose and multidisciplinary platforms for all types of scientific research in and of the oceans. In seismology we envision a future when the

  12. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Son of an Organic Chemist of Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbois, Ronald G.

    2004-04-01

    Once faced with structure reactivity relationships in the context of nucleophilic substitution at sp 3 carbon, introductory organic chemistry students must compare and contrast the various attributes and ramifications of S N 2 versus S N 1 reaction pathways. The dramatic (even melodramatic) way in which some students ask such comparative questions inspired a parody of Hamlet's famous to be or not to be soliloquy. Herein, Hamlet (the son of an organic chemist of Denmark) is the surrogate of any and every student as he uses a thoroughly Shakespearian approach to sorting out some of the key distinguishing features of S N 2 versus S N 1 reactions.

  13. The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. Methods We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n = 1,468). A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n = 783,817). Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. Results Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR) of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31) and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49) compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20) and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35), but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96) and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4). Conclusions The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women exposed to

  14. La Función de Luminosidad de las poblaciones de cúmulos globulares alrededor de NGC 1399

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.; Forte, J. C.; Geisler, D.

    Mediante el empleo de una técnica especial para filtrar el pattern de fringing, se ha obtenido una función de luminosidad de los cúmulos globulares de NGC 1399 superando por ~ 1 mag el turn-over en la banda T1 del sistema de Washington. El análisis de los resultados de la fotometría multibanda (C, M, T1) permite determinar que las mitades mas brillantes de las funciones de luminosidad de las dos principales poblaciones de cúmulos globulares asociadas con esta galaxia son similares.

  15. Sons learn songs from their social fathers in a cooperatively breeding bird

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Emma I.; Taft, Benjamin N.; Pruett-Jones, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Song learning is hypothesized to allow social adaptation to a local song neighbourhood. Maintaining social associations is particularly important in cooperative breeders, yet vocal learning in such species has only been assessed in systems where social association was correlated with relatedness. Thus, benefits of vocal learning as a means of maintaining social associations could not be disentangled from benefits of kin recognition. We assessed genetic and cultural contributions to song in a species where social association was not strongly correlated with kinship: the cooperatively breeding, reproductively promiscuous splendid fairy-wren (Malurus splendens). We found that song characters of socially associated father–son pairs were more strongly correlated (and thus songs were more similar) than songs of father–son pairs with a genetic, but no social, association (i.e. cuckolding fathers). Song transmission was, therefore, vertical and cultural, with minimal signatures of kinship. Additionally, song characters were not correlated with several phenotypic indicators of male quality, supporting the idea that there may be a tradeoff between accurate copying of tutors and quality signalling via maximizing song performance, particularly when social and genetic relationships are decoupled. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that song learning facilitates the maintenance of social associations by permitting unrelated individuals to acquire similar signal phenotypes. PMID:22593105

  16. Assessment of family history of alcoholism in sons of alcoholic fathers.

    PubMed

    Cowley, D S; Godon, C

    1995-01-01

    Results of studies of sons of alcoholics (SOAs) may vary depending on the density of the family history of alcoholism of the SOA subjects selected. To assess how reliably SOA subjects report a history of alcoholism in first- and second-degree relatives, we compared family histories obtained from 20 SOAs with those provided by their fathers. In all 20 cases, SOAs and their fathers agreed that the father met criteria for alcohol dependence but for no other primary Axis I psychiatric disorder. However, agreement was not as good for whether other paternal relatives in addition to the father were affected (kappa = 0.36) or for whether the family history was unigenerational or multigenerational for alcoholism (kappa = 0.44). Whether this discrepancy was due to under-reporting by the son or over-reporting by the father is unclear. These results suggest that 18-25 year old SOAs are reliable sources regarding alcohol dependence in their fathers, but that for determination of density of the family history of alcoholism, other relatives should also be interviewed directly.

  17. Fathers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness as Predictors of Adult Sons' Perceptions of Fathers' Sarcasm, Criticism, and Verbal Aggressiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Michael J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Finds that approximately 40% of the variance in adult sons' reports of fathers' messages (sarcasm, criticism, and verbal aggressiveness) was attributable to fathers' self-reported argumentativeness and verbal aggression. (SR)

  18. Haplotype and mutation analysis for newly suggested Y-STRs in Korean father-son pairs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yu Na; Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Eun Hye; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 363 Korean father-son haplotype transfers in 351 families were analyzed using an in-house multiplex PCR system for 14 Y-STRs (DYS385a/b, DYF387S1, DYS391, DYS449, DYS460, DYS481, DYS518, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS627 and DYS643), that included 11 loci newly added to the PowerPlex Y23 system or the Yfiler Plus system. The Y-STRs showed gene diversity values ranging from 0.2499 to 0.9612; the multicopy Y-STR loci DYS385 and DYF387S1 had high gene diversity of 0.9612 and 0.9457, respectively. In addition, DYF387S1, which has two copies, showed three alleles in seven individuals, and micro-variant alleles were observed in 14 individuals at four loci (DYS448, DYS518, DYS570 and DYS627). Among 351 haplotypes for the 11 newly added Y-STRs, 350 different haplotypes were observed, with an overall haplotype diversity of 0.9999 and discrimination capacity of 99.72%. In 363 haplotype transfers from 351 pedigrees, 29 single-step mutations were observed at 11 Y-STRs. Locus-specific mutation rate estimates varied from 0.0 to 1.93×10(-2), with an average estimated mutation rate of 6.66×10(-3). Two father-son pairs had mutations at two different loci in 11 Y-STRs. The number of pairs with mutations at multiple loci increased to five when the mutation event was investigated for haplotype transfer at 28 Y-STRs including 17 Yfiler loci and 11 Y-STRs examined in this study: four father-son pairs had mutations at two loci, and one pair had mutations at three loci. Overall, mutations were frequently observed at DYS449, DYS576 and DYS627 loci, which are known to be rapidly mutating Y-STRs. Mutation rate estimates at most loci were not significantly different from rates in other populations, but estimates for DYF387S1, DYS518 and DYS570 were considerably lower in the Korean population than in other populations. PMID:25459034

  19. Evolution of Hang Son Doong, Vietnam: the largest cave passage in the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Hang Son Doong (HSD), or Mountain River Cave, in the Quang Binh province of Vietnam, is considered to be the largest cave passage in the world. It has continuous widths near 100 m, and heights locally exceeding 200 m in a passage >6.5 km long. HSD is one of many extremely large caves in the tropical karst of the Ke Bang massif, a massively bedded limestone surrounded by metamorphic and clastic sedimentary rocks. Why are these caves so large? Is it because they are young and rapidly formed, or instead did they form slowly in exceptionally strong bedrock? To address these questions it is necessary to examine the style and timing of speleogenesis. Hang Son Doong was formed by an allogenic river sinking along a straight subvertical fault. The cave is formed largely within a brecciated fault zone that extends up to 100 m wide. A relict karst valley indicates that speleogenesis occurred due to wholesale capture of the surface river. The cave pattern is strongly fault-controlled with few branches, consistent with a primarily allogenic rather than distributed recharge. The cave is punctuated by two collapse dolines, one of which impedes discharge today. Massive slackwater deposits perhaps 100 m thick accumulated upstream of this doline collapse, and are overlain by corroded flowstone. To place some time constraints on speleogenesis, two samples were collected for cosmogenic nuclide burial dating with 26Al and 10Be in allogenic quartz. One was from the slackwater deposits, and another from a breccia-filled tributary passage at a fault junction. Both samples postdate cave formation, and can only be used to place minimum ages on the cave. Cosmogenic nuclide concentrations are very low, leading to large uncertainties in the ages. Nonetheless, the burial ages yield some important information. Initial results indicate that the slackwater deposits formed recently, during the past 300 ky. The filled passage, on the other hand, is much older and dates to the Pliocene. Re

  20. Alfabetizacion de las personas que son sordas e invidentes. Hoja informativa de DB-LINK (Literacy for Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind. DB-LINK Fact Sheet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Barbara

    This fact sheet discusses the importance of literacy for individuals who are deaf-blind, the social functions of reading and writing, and conditions necessary for the development of literacy. Strategies for promoting literacy among this population are described and include: (1) invite children and adults who are deaf-blind to observe as you use…

  1. Using BiSON to detect solar internal g-modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuszlewicz, J.; Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.

    2015-09-01

    The unambiguous detection of individual solar internal g modes continues to elude us. With the aid of new additions to calibration procedures, as well as updated methods to combine multi-site time series more effectively, the noise and signal detection threshold levels in the low-frequency domain (where the g modes are expected to be found) have been greatly improved. In the BiSON 23-year dataset these levels now rival those of GOLF, and with much greater frequency resolution available, due to the long time series, there is an opportunity to place more constraints on the upper limits of individual g mode amplitudes. Here we detail recent work dedicated to the challenges of observing low-frequency oscillations using a ground-based network, including the role of the window function as well as the effect of calibration on the low frequency domain.

  2. J. M. W. Turner's painting "The unpaid bill, or the dentist reproving his son's prodigality".

    PubMed

    Bishop, M; Gelbier, S; King, J

    2004-12-25

    In November 2002, the BDA News carried an item, illustrated with a colour reproduction, describing a painting of a Georgian dentist's rooms by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), one of the most respected of English artists, which was shortly to come up for auction at Christies' Rooms in London. This work, first exhibited in 1808, was entitled "The unpaid bill, or the dentist reproving his son's prodigality", and had originally been commissioned by the connoisseur Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824). "The examiner", a contemporary London journal, identifies the 'cradle-piece' for the commission as being a Rembrandt which Payne Knight owned, and the journalist Robert Hunt said that Turner had more than come up to the task of showing that a modern could handle light as well as the old master, 'for a picture of colouring and effect, it is ... inestimable'.

  3. Dioxin and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations in Mother's Serum and the Timing of Pubertal Onset in Sons

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Emond, Claude; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that timing of pubertal onset can be altered by prenatal exposure to dioxins or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but studies of human populations have been quite limited. Methods We assessed the association between maternal serum concentrations of dioxins and PCBs and the sons’ age of pubertal onset in a prospective cohort of 489 mother–son pairs from Chapaevsk, Russia, a town contaminated with these chemicals during past industrial activity. The boys were recruited at ages 8 to 9 years, and 4 years of annual follow-up data were included in the analysis. Serum samples were collected at enrollment from both mothers and sons for measurement of dioxin and PCB concentrations using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The sons’ pubertal onset—defined as pubertal stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G) or pubic hair (P), or testicular volume >3 mL—was assessed annually by the same physician. Results In multivariate Cox models, elevated maternal serum PCBs were associated with earlier pubertal onset defined by stage G2 or higher (4th quartile hazard ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 1.1– 2.5]), but not for stage P2 or higher or for testicular volume >3 mL. Maternal serum concentrations of dioxin toxic equivalents were not consistently associated with the sons’ pubertal onset, although a dose-related delay in pubertal onset (only for G2 or higher) was seen among boys who breast-fed for 6 months or more. Conclusions Maternal PCB serum concentrations measured 8 or 9 years after sons’ births—which may reflect sons’ prenatal and early-life exposures—were associated with acceleration in some, but not all, measures of pubertal onset. PMID:21968773

  4. "Fathers" and "sons" of theories in cell physiology: the membrane theory.

    PubMed

    Matveev, V V; Wheatley, D N

    2005-12-16

    The last 50 years in the history of life sciences are remarkable for a new important feature that looks as a great threat for their future. A profound specialization dominating in quickly developing fields of science causes a crisis of the scientific method. The essence of the method is a unity of two elements, the experimental data and the theory that explains them. To us, "fathers" of science, classically, were the creators of new ideas and theories. They were the true experts of their own theories. It is only they who have the right to say: "I am the theory". In other words, they were carriers of theories, of the theoretical knowledge. The fathers provided the necessary logical integrity to their theories, since theories in biology have still to be based on strict mathematical proofs. It is not true for sons. As a result of massive specialization, modern experts operate in very confined close spaces. They formulate particular rules far from the level of theory. The main theories of science are known to them only at the textbook level. Nowadays, nobody can say: "I am the theory". With whom, then is it possible to discuss today on a broader theoretical level? How can a classical theory--for example, the membrane one--be changed or even disproved under these conditions? How can the "sons" with their narrow education catch sight of membrane theory defects? As a result, "global" theories have few critics and control. Due to specialization, we have lost the ability to work at the experimental level of biology within the correct or appropriate theoretical context. The scientific method in its classic form is now being rapidly eroded. A good case can be made for "Membrane Theory", to which we will largely refer throughout this article. PMID:16359629

  5. Las fulguraciones como manifestación de reconexión en el campo magnético solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagalá, L. G.; Mandrini, M. C.; Rovira, M. G.; Démoulin, P.

    Las fulguraciones solares son fenómenos transitorios de liberación de energía que se desarrollan en las estructuras magnéticas de las regiones activas del Sol. Las fulguraciones pueden llegar a liberar hasta 1032 erg en 100 seg. en todo el rango electromagnético, y acelerar partículas. En este trabajo mostramos que la ubicación de los abrillantamientos en Hα de diversas fulguraciones está relacionado con las propiedades de las conexiones de las líneas del campo magnético de la región, como se espera por las teorías de reconexión en 3D recientemente desarrolladas (Démoulin et al, 1996a). El campo magnético coronal se extrapola del campo fotosférico observado suponiendo una configuración libre de fuerzas lineal. Por medio de un algoritmo se determinan las regiones donde existe un cambio drástico en la conectividad de las líneas de campo (límites ``cuasi-discontinuos'', o cuasi-separatrices CS). Las CS son bandas abiertas que identifican zonas donde el campo magnético se reconectará con más probabilidad y, siempre que las mismas sean lo suficientemente finas, se producirá allíla liberación de energía proveniente del campo magnético. Hemos encontrado que en todas las regiones fulgurantes estudiadas (Démoulin et al, 1996b) existen CS en los mismos lugares donde se observaron los abrillantamientos en Hα. Allídonde coinciden los abrillantamientos con las CS, éstas tienen un espesor menor que 1 Mm. Las líneas de campo coronales extrapoladas de nuestro modelo tienen sus orígenes fotosféricos a ambos lados de las CS, como se espera dados los recientes estudios de reconexión magnética en 3D. Estos resultados ponen a prueba los modelos presentes sobre fulguraciones solares.

  6. "There is such a thing as too many daughters, but not too many sons": A qualitative study of son preference and fetal sex selection among Indian immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Puri, Sunita; Adams, Vincanne; Ivey, Susan; Nachtigall, Robert D

    2011-04-01

    In response to concerns from feminists, demographers, bioethicists, journalists, and health care professionals, the Indian government passed legislation in 1994 and 2003 prohibiting the use of sex selection technology and sex-selective abortion. In contrast, South Asian families immigrating to the United States find themselves in an environment where reproductive choice is protected by law and technologies enabling sex selection are readily available. Yet there has been little research exploring immigrant Indian women's narratives about the pressure they face to have sons, the process of deciding to utilize sex selection technologies, and the physical and emotional health implications of both son preference and sex selection. We undertook semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 65 immigrant Indian women in the United States who had pursued fetal sex selection on the East and West coasts of the United States between September 2004 and December 2009. Women spoke of son preference and sex selection as separate though intimately related phenomena, and the major themes that arose during interviews included the sociocultural roots of son preference; women's early socialization around the importance of sons; the different forms of pressure to have sons that women experienced from female in-laws and husbands; the spectrum of verbal and physical abuse that women faced when they did not have male children and/or when they found out they were carrying a female fetus; and the ambivalence with which women regarded their own experience of reproductive "choice." We found that 40% of the women interviewed had terminated prior pregnancies with female fetuses and that 89% of women carrying female fetuses in their current pregnancy pursued an abortion. These narratives highlight the interaction between medical technology and the perpetuation of this specific form of violence against women in an immigrant context where women are both the assumed beneficiaries of reproductive choice

  7. The Harmonic Convergence of Fathers Predicts the Mating Success of Sons in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Cator, Lauren J.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    During courtship males often communicate information about their fitness to females. The matching of harmonic components of flight tone in male-female pairs of flying mosquitoes, or harmonic convergence, was recently described. This behaviour occurs prior to mating and has been suggested to function in mate selection. We investigated the hypothesis that harmonic convergence is a component of mosquito courtship. A key prediction of this hypothesis is that harmonic convergence should provide information to potential mates about fitness benefits. We measured the effect of harmonic convergence behaviour on the direct and indirect benefits obtained by females. We found that the sons of pairs that converged at harmonic frequencies prior to mating had increased mating success and that these offspring were themselves more likely to converge prior to mating. These results suggest that males may be able to signal information about their genetic quality to females prior to mating and that this signal may be heritable. These findings are important for our understanding of mosquito behaviour and have applications in the control of mosquito-borne disease. This study also contributes to the study of male-female interactions and signal coevolution. PMID:22003255

  8. Ready to make nice: parental socialization of young sons' and daughters' prosocial behaviors with peers.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Paul D; McShane, Kelly E; Parker, Richard; Ladha, Farriola

    2007-06-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which maternal and paternal parenting styles, cognitions, and behaviors were associated with young girls' and boys' more compassionate (prototypically feminine) and more agentic (prototypically masculine) prosocial behaviors with peers. Parents of 133 preschool-aged children reported on their authoritative parenting style, attributions for children's prosocial behavior, and responses to children's prosocial behavior. Approximately 6 months later, children's more feminine and more masculine prosocial behaviors were observed during interactions with unfamiliar peers and reported on by their preschool teachers. Boys and girls did not differ in the observed and teacher-reported measures of prosocial behavior. Compared to other parents, fathers of boys were less likely to express affection or respond directly to children's prosocial behavior. Mothers' authoritative style, internal attributions for prosocial behavior, and positive responses to prosocial behavior predicted girls' displays of more feminine prosocial actions and boys' displays of more masculine prosocial actions toward peers. Relations were similar but weaker for fathers' parenting, and after accounting for mother' scores, fathers' scores accounted for unique variance in only one analysis: Teachers reported more masculine prosocial behavior in boys of fathers who discussed prosocial behavior. Overall, the results support a model of parental socialization of sex-typed prosocial behavior and indicate that mothers contribute more strongly than do fathers to both daughters' and sons' prosocial development. PMID:17936971

  9. Tetracycline-exposed Drosophila melanogaster males produce fewer offspring but a relative excess of sons

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Kaitlyn L; Singh, Nadia D

    2015-01-01

    A large diversity of species possesses endosymbionts; these endosymbionts can exhibit mutualistic, parasitic, and commensal relationships with their hosts. Previous work has consistently revealed that depleting endosymbiont titer with antibiotic treatment can significantly alter host fitness and function, particularly with respect to reproductive phenotypes. Although these findings are often interpreted as resulting from the breakdown of highly coevolved symbioses, it is possible that antibiotic treatment itself rather than endosymbiont removal contributes to the observed perturbations in reproductive phenotypes. Here, we investigate the effect of tetracycline treatment on sex ratio and male reproductive fitness using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Our results indicate that tetracycline-treated males produce a relative excess of sons. We also find that tetracycline treatment reduces the number of progeny produced by treated males but not treated females. These findings are independent of the effects of tetracycline on Wolbachia titer and implicate the antibiotic itself as mediating these changes. It is yet unclear whether the sex ratio shift and reduction in male reproductive fitness are direct or indirect consequences of tetracycline exposure, and more work is needed to determine the molecular mechanisms by which these disturbances in reproductive phenotypes arise. Our data highlight the importance of considering the potentially confounding effects of antibiotic treatment when investigating the effects of endosymbiont depletion on host phenotypes. PMID:26357541

  10. Permo-Triassic intermediate felsic magmatism of the Truong Son belt, eastern margin of Indochina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, Tran Trong; Anh, Tran Tuan; Phuong, Ngo Thi; Dung, Pham Thi; Anh, Tran Viet; Izokh, Andrey E.; Borisenko, Alexander S.; Lan, C. Y.; Chung, S. L.; Lo, C. H.

    2008-02-01

    Permo-Triassic intermediate-felsic magmatism is developed along the Truong Son fold belt, located in the eastern margin of the Indochina Block. It comprises a succession of the active continental margin associations: calc-alkaline volcano-plutonic associations (272-248 Ma), peraluminous granites (259-245 Ma), and subalkaline felsic volcano-plutonic associations (younger than 245 Ma). Detailed study of geochemical characteristics such as trace elements (LILE, REE, HFSE) and isotopes (Sr, Nd, Pb) indicates that they are homogeneous and that they are products of the Palaeotethys subduction process in relation to Indochina (IC)/North Vietnam-South China (NV-SC) amalgamation (S.L. Chung et al., Abstr., GEOSEA 98, Malaysia, 1998, pp. 17-19). The Indosinian characteristics are represented by mantle-crust interaction in magma generation, controlled by their emplacement localities in relation to the Kontum Uplift. The spatial and temporal evolution of Permo-Triassic magmatism allows reconstructing the geodynamic history of the Indosinian orogeny. It confirms that this event ended in Early to Middle Triassic (246-240 Ma, after C. Lepvrier et al., Tectonophysics 393 (2004) 87-118).

  11. Simultaneous type 1 diabetes onset in mother and son coincident with an enteroviral infection.

    PubMed

    Hindersson, Maria; Maria, Hindersson; Elshebani, Asma; Orn, Anders; Anders, Orn; Tuvemo, Torsten; Torsten, Tuvemo; Frisk, Gun; Gun, Frisk

    2005-06-01

    Enterovirus (EV) infections have been implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes. (T1D). They may cause beta-cell destruction either by cytolytic infection of the cells or indirectly by triggering the autoimmune response. Virus was isolated from a woman at diagnosis of T1D (Tuvemo 1) and in addition, virus was isolated from her son at diagnosis of T1D at the same day (Tuvemo 2). None of the isolates could initially be serotyped by conventional methods. The Tuvemo 1 virus was genotyped and after sub-cultivation it was also serotyped as Coxsackievirus B5. The mother revealed antibodies against GAD65. The boy and the father both revealed a significant increase in neutralization antibody titre against two strains of CBV-4, clearly indicating a recent or ongoing EV infection. In addition, the brother showed such a titre rise against another CBV-4 strain (E2) and against a CBV-5 strain (4429). These results show that the whole family had a proven EV infection at the time of T1D diagnosis of the mother and the 10-years-old boy, indicating that the infection might cause or accelerate the T1D.

  12. Polyandrous females benefit by producing sons that achieve high reproductive success in a competitive environment.

    PubMed

    Firman, Renée C

    2011-09-22

    Females of many taxa often copulate with multiple males and incite sperm competition. On the premise that males of high genetic quality are more successful in sperm competition, it has been suggested that females may benefit from polyandry by accruing 'good genes' for their offspring. Laboratory studies have shown that multiple mating can increase female fitness through enhanced embryo viability, and have exposed how polyandry influences the evolution of the ejaculate. However, such studies often do not allow for both female mate choice and male-male competition to operate simultaneously. Here, I took house mice (Mus domesticus) from selection lines that had been evolving with (polygamous) and without (monogamous) sperm competition for 16 generations and, by placing them in free-ranging enclosures for 11 weeks, forced them to compete for access to resources and mates. Parentage analyses revealed that female reproductive success was not influenced by selection history, but there was a significant paternity bias towards males from the polygamous selection lines. Therefore, I show that female house mice benefit from polyandry by producing sons that achieve increased fitness in a semi-natural environment.

  13. Meta-analysis suggests choosy females get sexy sons more than "good genes".

    PubMed

    Prokop, Zofia M; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Drobniak, Szymon M; Herdegen, Magdalena; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-09-01

    Female preferences for specific male phenotypes have been documented across a wide range of animal taxa, including numerous species where males contribute only gametes to offspring production. Yet, selective pressures maintaining such preferences are among the major unknowns of evolutionary biology. Theoretical studies suggest that preferences can evolve if they confer genetic benefits in terms of increased attractiveness of sons ("Fisherian" models) or overall fitness of offspring ("good genes" models). These two types of models predict, respectively, that male attractiveness is heritable and genetically correlated with fitness. In this meta-analysis, we draw general conclusions from over two decades worth of empirical studies testing these predictions (90 studies on 55 species in total). We found evidence for heritability of male attractiveness. However, attractiveness showed no association with traits directly associated with fitness (life-history traits). Interestingly, it did show a positive correlation with physiological traits, which include immunocompetence and condition. In conclusion, our results support "Fisherian" models of preference evolution, while providing equivocal evidence for "good genes." We pinpoint research directions that should stimulate progress in our understanding of the evolution of female choice.

  14. Meta-analysis suggests choosy females get sexy sons more than "good genes".

    PubMed

    Prokop, Zofia M; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Drobniak, Szymon M; Herdegen, Magdalena; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-09-01

    Female preferences for specific male phenotypes have been documented across a wide range of animal taxa, including numerous species where males contribute only gametes to offspring production. Yet, selective pressures maintaining such preferences are among the major unknowns of evolutionary biology. Theoretical studies suggest that preferences can evolve if they confer genetic benefits in terms of increased attractiveness of sons ("Fisherian" models) or overall fitness of offspring ("good genes" models). These two types of models predict, respectively, that male attractiveness is heritable and genetically correlated with fitness. In this meta-analysis, we draw general conclusions from over two decades worth of empirical studies testing these predictions (90 studies on 55 species in total). We found evidence for heritability of male attractiveness. However, attractiveness showed no association with traits directly associated with fitness (life-history traits). Interestingly, it did show a positive correlation with physiological traits, which include immunocompetence and condition. In conclusion, our results support "Fisherian" models of preference evolution, while providing equivocal evidence for "good genes." We pinpoint research directions that should stimulate progress in our understanding of the evolution of female choice. PMID:22946794

  15. Two sons and a daughter: sex composition and women's reproductive behaviour in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Edmeades, Jeffrey; Pande, Rohini; Macquarrie, Kerry; Falle, Tina; Malhotra, Anju

    2012-11-01

    This article examines how the sex composition of women's current children at the start of a pregnancy interval influences both fertility desires and the full range of reproductive actions women may take to realize them, including temporary contraception, abortion and sterilization, in Madhya Pradesh, India, where popular notions of ideal family size and sex composition are dominated by son preference. The analysis is conducted using a dataset of 9127 individual pregnancy intervals from a 2002 statewide representative survey of 2444 women aged 15-39 with at least one child. The results indicate that women's preferences go beyond a singular preference for male children, with the preferred composition of children being two boys and one girl. Women with this composition are 90% less likely to report having wanted another pregnancy (OR 0.097, p < 0.01) relative to those with two girls. These preferences have significant implications for reproductive actions. While sex composition has no statistically significant effect on the use of temporary contraception, those with the preferred sex composition are twice as likely to attempt abortion (OR 2.436, p < 0.01) and twelve times more likely to be sterilized (OR 12.297, p < 0.01) relative to those with two girls only.

  16. Identification of murine homologues of the Drosophila son of sevenless gene: potential activators of ras.

    PubMed Central

    Bowtell, D; Fu, P; Simon, M; Senior, P

    1992-01-01

    Several findings suggest that signals from tyrosine kinases are transduced, at least in part, through ras proteins. These findings include (i) blockage of the transforming activity of constitutively active tyrosine kinases by inhibiting ras function and (ii) genetic screens in Caenorhabditis elegans and in Drosophila that identified ras genes as downstream effectors of tyrosine kinases. The recently isolated Drosophila gene Son of sevenless (Sos) is postulated to act as a positive regulatory link between tyrosine kinase and ras proteins by catalyzing exchange of GDP for GTP on ras protein. Such exchange proteins have been reported in extracts of mammalian cells but have not been previously characterized at a molecular level. As Sos appears to function in this role in Drosophila, we sought to isolate a vertebrate counterpart(s). We have characterized two widely expressed murine genes with a high degree of homology to Sos. Hybridization with human DNA and RNA indicates a high degree of conservation of these genes in other vertebrates. Images PMID:1631150

  17. Las Campanas Stellar Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan; Beletsky, Yuri; Worthey, Guy

    2015-08-01

    Stellar libraries are fundamental tools required to understand stellar populations in star clusters and galaxies as well as properties of individual stars. Comprehensive libraries exist in the optical domain, but the near-infrared (NIR) domain stays a couple of decades behind. Here we present the Las Campanas Stellar Library project aiming at obtaining high signal-to-noise intermediate-resolution (R=8000) NIR spectra (0.83<λ<2.5μm) for a sample of 1200 stars in the Southern sky using the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph at the 6.5-m Magellan Baade telescope. We developed a dedicated observing strategy and customized the telescope control software in order to achieve the highest possible level of data homogeniety. As of 2015, we observed about 600 stars of all spectral types and luminosity classes making our library the largest homogeneous collection of stellar spectra covering the entire NIR domain. We also re-calibrated in flux and wavelength the two existing optical stellar libraries, INDO-US and UVES-POP and followed up about 400 non-variable stars in the NIR in order to get complete optical-NIR coverage. Worth mentioning that our current sample includes about 80 AGB stars and a few dozens of bulge/LMC/SMC stars.

  18. Son preference in the context of fertility decline: limits to new constructions of gender and kinship in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Brunson, Jan

    2010-06-01

    This article explores the persistence of son preference in a patrilineal, patrilocal society in the midst of fertility decline. Using survey and ethnographic data from Hindu-caste Nepali families in a semiurban village, I analyze which cultural norms regarding reproduction are questioned by contemporary married couples and which remain intact. Despite modest improvements in gender equality, levels of education, and economic conditions, the practical knowledge that daughters will be lost to other lineages and households pressures couples who might otherwise be willing to invest in daughters to continue procreating until they produce a son. Young mothers, therefore, reluctantly admit to needing a son, revealing a discrepancy between their initially stated reproductive ideals and their ultimate behavior. PMID:21466108

  19. "My Son Is Reliable": Young Drivers' Parents' Optimism and Views on the Norms of Parental Involvement in Youth Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Nurit

    2013-01-01

    The high crash rates among teenage drivers are of great concern across nations. Parents' involvement is known to help increase their young drivers' driving safety. In particular, parents can place restrictions on their son's/daughter's driving (e.g., restrict night time driving), which can enable the young driver to gain driving experience in…

  20. Literature as an exploration of the phenomenology of schizophrenia: disorder and recovery in Denis Johnson's Jesus' Son.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jay A; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Fogley, Rebecca L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-12-01

    When read as a fictional psychosis narrative, Jesus' Son, a collection of short stories by Denis Johnson, reveals important elements of the phenomenology of schizophrenia and recovery. It is possible that Jesus' Son, as a work of fiction, may be able to uniquely add depth and nuance to an understanding of the phenomenology of schizophrenia involving a state of psychological fragmentation, an ever-changing interpersonal field and a loss of personal agency. In addition, by following the protagonist in Jesus' Son as he begins to resolve some of his difficulties, the book also offers an individualised account of recovery. The authors detail how the book reveals these insights about schizophrenia and recovery and suggest that these elements are intertwined in such a manner that leads to a profound disruption of self-experience, characterised by a collapse of metacognitive processes. Jesus' Son may add depth to our understanding of the subjective experience of schizophrenia and recovery, and also may serve as one example in which the study of humanities offers an opportunity to explore the human elements in the most profound forms of suffering.

  1. Differences in Interaction Patterns of Families with First or Second Grade Sons Rated High or Low in Classroom Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Susan; And Others

    This study attempts to determine whether families with a son rated by his teacher as either "high" or "low" on classroom adjustment (behavior indicative of social maturity and achievement motivation) could be differentiated on the basis of their communicative patterns. It was questioned if significant differences existed in the amount of positive…

  2. Self-Regulation in Early Adolescence: Relations with Mother-Son Relationship Quality and Maternal Regulatory Support and Antagonism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fitzpatrick, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine relations among maternal regulatory support, maternal antagonism, and mother-son relationship quality in relation to boys' self-regulation during early adolescence. As part of a larger longitudinal study on 263 low-income, ethnically diverse boys, multiple informants and methods were used to…

  3. 76 FR 44912 - Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    .... Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.epa.gov/region4/waste/sf/enforce.htm E-mail. Painter.Paula@epa.gov FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula V. Painter at 404/562-8887. Dated: July 7, 2011. Greg Armstrong, Acting...

  4. 77 FR 72906 - Chessie Logistics Co., LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-J. Emil Anderson & Son, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Chessie Logistics Co., LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- J. Emil... exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from J. Emil Anderson & Son, Inc. (Anderson) and to operate 1.006... it. See Mannheim Armitage Ry.--Acquis. & Operation Exemption--Certain Trackage Rights of J....

  5. The Quest of Father and Son: Illuminating Character Identity, Motivation, and Conflict in Cormac McCarthy's "The Road"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Chris

    2012-01-01

    "The Road" has been an important part of the author's English IV Honors course for several years now. Undeniably bleak, it details a father and son's journey through a seared, post-apocalyptic wasteland. As they travel through the burnt remains of America, they are threatened by starvation, dehydration, and scattered, hostile humans. Although his…

  6. BiSON data preparation: a correction for differential extinction and the weighted averaging of contemporaneous data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Hale, S. J.

    2014-07-01

    The Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) has provided high-quality high-cadence observations from as far back in time as 1978. These data must be calibrated from the raw observations into radial velocity and the quality of the calibration has a large impact on the signal-to-noise ratio of the final time series. The aim of this work is to maximize the potential science that can be performed with the BiSON data set by optimizing the calibration procedure. To achieve better levels of signal-to-noise ratio, we perform two key steps in the calibration process: we attempt a correction for terrestrial atmospheric differential extinction; and the resulting improvement in the calibration allows us to perform weighted averaging of contemporaneous data from different BiSON stations. The improvements listed produce significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the BiSON frequency-power spectrum across all frequency ranges. The reduction of noise in the power spectrum will allow future work to provide greater constraint on changes in the oscillation spectrum with solar activity. In addition, the analysis of the low-frequency region suggests that we have achieved a noise level that may allow us to improve estimates of the upper limit of g-mode amplitudes.

  7. Return Migration, Investment in Children, and Intergenerational Mobility: Comparing Sons of Foreign- and Native-Born Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustmann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies parental investment in education and intergenerational earnings mobility for father-son pairs with native- and foreign-born fathers. We illustrate within a simple model that for immigrants, investment in their children is related to their return migration probability. In our empirical analysis, we include a measure for return…

  8. Pathways to Prevention: Improving Nonresident African American Fathers' Parenting Skills and Behaviors to Reduce Sons' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Antonakos, Cathy L.; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E. Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8-to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group…

  9. Antecedents and Outcomes of Joint Trajectories of Mother-Son Conflict and Warmth during Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lacourse, Eric; Hyde, Luke W.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development of mother-son relationship quality from ages 5 to 15 in a sample of 265 low-income families. Nonparametric random effects modeling was utilized to uncover distinct and homogeneous developmental trajectories of conflict and warmth; antecedents and outcomes of the trajectory groups also were examined. Four…

  10. Examination of the Film "My Father and My Son" According to the Basic Concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tulin; Voltan-Acar, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic concepts of multigenerational Family Therapy and to evaluate the scenes of the film ''My Father and My Son'' according to these concepts. For these purposes firstly basic concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy such as differentiation of self, triangles/triangulation, nuclear…

  11. Older-Aged Parents: The Final Safety Net for Adult Sons and Daughters with AIDS in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knodel, John; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the role that older-aged parents play in the care and support of adult sons and daughters with HIV or AIDS and of AIDS orphans in Thailand within the context of a limited institutional safety net. The analysis draws on both quantitative and qualitative data from survey and open-ended interviews with the parents and from…

  12. Mothers and Sons: Androgynous Relationships in African-West Indian and African-American Novels of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSeur, Geta

    1992-01-01

    Four African-American and West Indian novels of childhood illustrate relationships and bonding between mothers and sons: (1) "Go Tell It on the Mountain" (James Baldwin); (2) "Not without Laughter" (Langston Hughes); (3) "Amongst Thistles and Thorns" (Austin Clarke); and (4) "In the Castle of My Skin" (George Lanning). (SLD)

  13. Giving Birth to Life--Again!: Bereaved Parents' Experiences with Children Born Following the Death of an Adult Son

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Rosenfeld, Sarah; Buchbinder, Eli

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study examining the experiences of parents that lost a son during military service in Israel and consequently choose to give birth to another child. Seven couples and 3 mothers were interviewed for the study, and their interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Three main themes…

  14. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  15. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  16. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, Leonard G.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; Conrad, Janet Marie; de Gouvea, A.; Fisher, Peter H.; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; Kobilarcik, T.R.; /Fermilab /Texas U.

    2009-06-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics.

  17. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment:. NuSOnG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Conrad, J. M.; de Gouvêa, A.; Fisher, P. H.; Formaggio, J. A.; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kobilarcik, T. R.; Kopp, S.; Kyle, G.; Loinaz, W. A.; Mason, D. A.; Milner, R.; Moore, R.; Morfín, J. G.; Nakamura, M.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Olness, F. I.; Owens, J. F.; Pate, S. F.; Pronin, A.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Schellman, H.; Schienbein, I.; Syphers, M. J.; Tait, T. M. P.; Takeuchi, T.; Tan, C. Y.; van de Water, R. G.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yu, J. Y.

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDF's). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parametrized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of "Beyond the Standard Model" physics.

  18. Alteration kinetics of the glass-ceramic zirconolite and role of the alteration film Comparison with the SON68 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C.; Ribet, I.; Frugier, P.; Gin, S.

    2007-06-01

    The glass-ceramic zirconolite is being considered for specific conditioning of plutonium or the minor actinides. The actinides are distributed throughout the zirconolite crystals and the residual glass phase. Since zirconolite alteration is extremely limited, actinide release from the glass-ceramic material is mainly attributable to alteration of the residual glass. Specimens corresponding to the residual glass phase alone were therefore altered under different conditions to compare their kinetics with the one of the SON68 glass (inactive R7T7 type glass). Glass-ceramic zirconolite presents a more important rate decrease occuring more rapidly and that induces a quantity of glass altered at least 10 times as small as for SON68 glass. This slowdown of the alteration rate is attributed to the formation of an alteration film that has been the subject of a specific study. We have in particular identified a dense phase enriched in titanium and neodymium that probably influences deeply the kinetics.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA analysis on remains of a putative son of Louis XVI, King of France and Marie-Antoinette.

    PubMed

    Jehaes, E; Decorte, R; Peneau, A; Petrie, J H; Boiry, P A; Gilissen, A; Moisan, J P; Van den Berghe, H; Pascal, O; Cassiman, J J

    1998-01-01

    Carl Wilhelm Naundorff was buried in 1845 in Delft as Louis Charles, Duc de Normandie, 'Louis XVII'. However, the son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette-Louis XVII--officially died in the Temple of Paris in 1795. In order to resolve the identity of Naundorff, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of his remains were compared with the sequences obtained from the hairs of two sisters of Marie-Antoinette, Marie-Antoinette herself, and with the sequences obtained from DNA samples of two living maternal relatives. The mtDNA sequence of a bone sample from Naundorff showed two nucleotide differences from the sequences of the three sisters and four differences from the sequences of living maternal relatives. Based on this evidence it becomes very unlikely that Naundroff is the son of Marie-Antoinette. PMID:9781047

  20. An X-linked sex ratio distorter in Drosophila simulans that kills or incapacitates both noncarrier sperm and sons.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R

    2014-10-01

    Genomic conflict occurs when a genomic component gains a reproductive advantage at the expense of the organism as a whole. X-linked segregation distorters kill or incapacitate Y-bearing sperm, thereby gaining a transmission advantage but also reducing male fertility and generating a female-biased sex ratio. When some damaged, Y-bearing sperm survive and fertilize eggs, then the segregation distortion phenotype could be expanded by harming or killing sons in the next generation. X-linked son-killers are predicted by theory to be favored by natural selection and evolve when brothers and sisters compete for shared limiting resources and/or when brothers reduce the inclusive fitness of their sisters via sib-mating-a phenomenon called SA-zygotic drive. Here I develop and use a process-of-elimination screen to show that an unclassified X-linked sex ratio distorter (skew) in Drosophila simulans kills or incapacitates noncarrier sperm and also kills a substantial proportion of sons, i.e., it has both a segregation distortion and a SA-zygotic drive phenotype. There are three unique X-linked segregation distorters known to occur in D. simulans named Winters, Durham, and Paris. Autosomal-dominant suppressors of Winters (Nmy) and Durham (Tmy) failed to suppress skew. A Y-linked suppressor of Paris, however, did suppress skew, and a recombination test failed to detect recombinants between these two sex ratio distorters, indicating that they are tightly linked and plausibly identical or allelic. Son-killing may be an important yet unrecognized component of other X-linked segregation distorters.

  1. William Henry, Duke of Gloucester (1689-1700), son of Queen Anne (1665-1714), could have ruled Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Holmes, G E F; Holmes, F F

    2008-02-01

    Hope for continuation of the Stuart dynasty in Britain ended with the death, from pneumonia in 1700, of the 11-year-old son of Princess Anne and Prince George, William Henry Duke of Gloucester. Considered by some to have been physically and mentally unfit to reign, careful examination of primary source materials shows him to have been a bright and interesting boy with mild hydrocephalus. Had he lived, he could have ruled. PMID:18463064

  2. An X-Linked Sex Ratio Distorter in Drosophila simulans That Kills or Incapacitates Both Noncarrier Sperm and Sons

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic conflict occurs when a genomic component gains a reproductive advantage at the expense of the organism as a whole. X-linked segregation distorters kill or incapacitate Y-bearing sperm, thereby gaining a transmission advantage but also reducing male fertility and generating a female-biased sex ratio. When some damaged, Y-bearing sperm survive and fertilize eggs, then the segregation distortion phenotype could be expanded by harming or killing sons in the next generation. X-linked son-killers are predicted by theory to be favored by natural selection and evolve when brothers and sisters compete for shared limiting resources and/or when brothers reduce the inclusive fitness of their sisters via sib-mating—a phenomenon called SA-zygotic drive. Here I develop and use a process-of-elimination screen to show that an unclassified X-linked sex ratio distorter (skew) in Drosophila simulans kills or incapacitates noncarrier sperm and also kills a substantial proportion of sons, i.e., it has both a segregation distortion and a SA-zygotic drive phenotype. There are three unique X-linked segregation distorters known to occur in D. simulans named Winters, Durham, and Paris. Autosomal-dominant suppressors of Winters (Nmy) and Durham (Tmy) failed to suppress skew. A Y-linked suppressor of Paris, however, did suppress skew, and a recombination test failed to detect recombinants between these two sex ratio distorters, indicating that they are tightly linked and plausibly identical or allelic. Son-killing may be an important yet unrecognized component of other X-linked segregation distorters. PMID:25081980

  3. SonTek SL3G Side-Looking Doppler Current Meter application in Complex Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, D.

    2014-12-01

    The SonTek Argonaut SL Side-Looking Doppler Current Meters are well established products in the measurement of real-time water velocity in open channels. With the development of acoustic doppler technology the decision was made to incorporate latest technology in the Argonaut SL and hence the SonTek SL3G was born.The SonTek SL3G Acoustic Doppler instrument incorporates a number of innovations that improves velocity measurements and quality assurance of data for Side-Looking Doppler Current Meters. SmartPulseHD was originally introduced with the launch of the SonTek M9/S5 RiverSurveyor Acoustic Doppler Instruments and the increased accuracy and resolution of velocity measurements made it obvious to include into the new SL3G instruments. SmartPulseHD continuously tracks the water conditions and selects the optimum processing configuration required using multiple ping types and processing techniques. The new SL3G design makes it the smallest Side Looking Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meter on the market reducing flow disturbance caused by the instrument and the distance of first measurement cell from boundary.The application of the SL3G Acoustic Doppler instrument is designed for complex flow conditions where the use of conventional stage-discharge relationships is economically not viable and therefore requires the use of velocity index methodology. The case-study presented in this paper is situated in the Colorado River downstream of Imperial Dam affected by controlled releases, drainage from adjacent irrigation areas and backwater from a weir situated downstream of the monitoring site. The paper analyses the relationship between measured mean velocity and index velocity and if additional variables such as stage and or Y-velocity need to be incorporated in the development of the index velocity rating. In addition, to determine the variables impacting on the index velocity rating, the index velocity applied will be evaluated by the best linear relationship between the

  4. Zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry of granitoids in the Truong Son terrane, Vietnam: Tectonic and metallogenic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Mei-Feng; Lin, Fang-Cheng; Fan, Wen-Yu; Deng, Qi; Cong, Feng; Tran, My-Dung; Zhu, Hua-Ping; Wang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Truong Son terrane, one of the most important tectonic and metallogenic terranes in Indochina block, is composed of many volcano-plutonic complexes. Reported here is geochronological and geochemical data obtained from six different volcano-plutonic complexes. The new data reveals that the granite from the Hai Van complex is 438 Ma in age, and shows collision-related geochemical characteristics; whereas another five samples from five volcano-plutonic complexes present consistent emplacement and crystallization ages ranging from 261 to 242 Ma. Dien Bien granodiorite, Phia Bioc monzogranite and Dong Trau rhyolite display typical subduction-related calc-alkaline affinity (e.g., depletion in Nb-Ta and Ti and enrichment in Rb and La), while monzogranite from Song Ma complex displays collision-related shoshoniteseries and granites from Bengiang-Queson complex are related to post-collision calc-alkaline series. Based on these observations, in combination with the previous published geochronological data, we propose that at least four major stages of magmatic activities occurred during the Paleozoic and the Early Mesozoic through the Truong Son terrane: Ordovician-Silurian (420-470 Ma), Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (280-300 Ma), Late Permian to Mid-Triassic (245-270 Ma) and Middle-Late Triassic (200-245 Ma). These magmatic activities are not only attributed to the Tethyan Song Ma ocean southwestward subduction but also related to Paleo Tamky-Phuoc Son oceanic bidirectional subduction. Synthesized with regional metallogenic data, we identified three metallogenic epochs: (1) Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (280-300 Ma) arc-magmatic hydrothermal Cu-Au-Fe polymetallic metallogenic system related to the Tamky-Phuoc Son ocean north-dipping subduction; (2) Late Permian-Middle Triassic (245-280 Ma) arc-magmatic hydrothermal Cu-Au-Fe and orogenic W-Sn-Au polymetallic metallogenic system, which linked to both Paleo-Tethyan Song Ma ocean south-dipping subduction and Tamky

  5. Effect of Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock on the dissolution rate of the SON68 simulated nuclear waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeway, James J.; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Ribet, Solange; El Mendili, Yassine; Schumacher, Stéphan; Grambow, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste glass in France is expected to occur in an engineered barrier system (EBS) located in a subsurface Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay rock formation in the Paris Basin in northeastern France. Understanding the behavior of glass dissolution in the complex system is critical to be able to reliably model the performance of the glass in this complex environment. To simulate this multi-barrier repository scenario in the laboratory, several tests have been performed to measure glass dissolution rates of the simulated high-level nuclear waste glass, SON68, in the presence of COx claystone at 90 °C. Experiments utilized a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pump to pass simulated Bure site COx pore water through a reaction cell containing SON68 placed between two COx claystone cores for durations up to 200 days. Silicon concentrations at the outlet were similar in all experiments, even the blank experiment with only the COx claystone (∼4 mg/L at 25 °C and ∼15 mg/L at 90 °C). The steady-state pH of the effluent, measured at room temperature, was roughly 7.1 for the blank and 7.3-7.6 for the glass-containing experiments demonstrating the pH buffering capacity of the COx claystone. Dissolution rates for SON68 in the presence of the claystone were elevated compared to those obtained from flow-through experiments conducted with SON68 without claystone in silica-saturated solutions at the same temperature and similar pH values. Additionally, through surface examination of the monoliths, the side of the monolith in direct contact with the claystone was seen to have a corrosion thickness 2.5× greater than the side in contact with the bulk glass powder. Results from one experiment containing 32Si-doped SON68 also suggest that the movement of Si through the claystone is controlled by a chemically coupled transport with a Si retention factor, Kd, of 900 mL/g.

  6. El origen de las galaxias en modelos jerárquicos de formación de la estructura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, J. F.

    En esta charla presentaré una revisión de los modelos corrientes de formación de galaxias. En particular, haré énfasis en el origen de la gran variedad de morfologías galácticas y de las correlaciones entre las propiedades estructurales de discos y esferoides, todo dentro del contexto cosmológico jerárquico provisto por teorías como la de materia oscura fría. En este tipo de teorías las correlaciones observadas entre la luminosidad, velocidad de rotación, momento angular, y tamaño de galaxias son el resultado de la falta de escalas naturales en el proceso de formación de los halos de materia oscura que dichas galaxias habitan. Simulaciones numéricas que incorporan efectos gravitacionales, hidrodinámicos y de formación estelar ilustran estas ideas y demuestran las dificultades que aquejan a modelos donde tanto discos como esferoides son el resultado final de una secuencia de fusiones de sistemas protogalácticos.

  7. Spin Nematics, Valence-Bond Solids, and Spin Liquids in SO(N) Quantum Spin Models on the Triangular Lattice.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Ribhu K

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a simple model of SO(N) spins with two-site interactions which is amenable to quantum Monte Carlo studies without a sign problem on nonbipartite lattices. We present numerical results for this model on the two-dimensional triangular lattice where we find evidence for a spin nematic at small N, a valence-bond solid at large N, and a quantum spin liquid at intermediate N. By the introduction of a sign-free four-site interaction, we uncover a rich phase diagram with evidence for both first-order and exotic continuous phase transitions. PMID:26550748

  8. Establishing SON in 21q22.11 as a cause a new syndromic form of intellectual disability: Possible contribution to Braddock-Carey syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Takenouchi, Toshiki; Miura, Kiyokuni; Uehara, Tomoko; Mizuno, Seiji; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2016-10-01

    A recent study of exome analyses in 109 patients with undiagnosed diseases included a 5-year-old girl with intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies, who had an apparently de novo frameshift mutation in SON. However, the combination of the truncating mutation in SON and the phenotype has not been reproduced until date, and it remains unclear if this combination represents a distinctive disease entity. Here we report an additional male with intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, distinctive facial features with curly hair and protruding ears, and long slender extremities, and hyperextensible joints. Exome analysis showed that he had the same de novo frameshift mutation in SON in a heterozygous state. Along with the first and original description of the apparently de novo truncating mutation in SON mentioned above, we have established that haploinsufficiency of SON causes a new recognizable syndrome of intellectual disability. SON is located within 21q22.11, a critical region for Braddock-Carey syndrome, which is characterized by congenital thrombocytopenia, intellectual disability, micrognathia, and a distinctive facies. Therefore, we suggest that the intellectual disability observed in Braddock-Carey syndrome could be accounted for by haploinsufficiency of SON. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27256762

  9. EMPACT: THE LAS VEGAS INTERAGENCY PILOT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ENPACT: The Las Vegas Interagency Pilot Project

    The Las Vegas Interagency Pilot Project of the EMPACT program has involved eleven efforts. These efforts are described in brief on the poster presentation. They include: Las Vegas Environmental Monitoring Inventory, the Qual...

  10. A pilot study of factors associated with resilience to substance abuse in adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers.

    PubMed

    Springer, S A; Gastfriend, D R

    1995-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the association between substance abuse outcome and putative protective factors in sons of alcoholic fathers. A battery of questionnaires was anonymously self-administered to 24 sons of alcoholic fathers ages 16-19 years to identify relationships between alcohol and/or drug abuse and factors hypothesized to be related to parental alcoholism. Of the 24 subjects, 13 were categorized through self-identification and self-report screening measures as having alcohol and/or drug problems and 11 were categorized as not having substance abuse problems. Boys without substance problems: (1) had significantly higher maternal occupational status (p = .01); (2) experienced more good life events (p < .001), and (3) had a more internally oriented locus of control (p < .001). Good events and internal locus of control were highly correlated with each other (r = .620, p < .01). The fact that these preliminary findings are consistent with other literature despite marked methodologic and sample differences indicates that these putative components of resilience are robust and deserve further study towards improved substance abuse prevention in those at high risk.

  11. When mothers make sons sexy: maternal effects contribute to the increased sexual attractiveness of extra-pair offspring

    PubMed Central

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Rutstein, Alison N.; Griffith, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Quality differences between offspring sired by the social and by an extra-pair partner are usually assumed to have a genetic basis, reflecting genetic benefits of female extra-pair mate choice. In the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), we identified a colour ornament that is under sexual selection and appears to have a heritable basis. Hence, by engaging in extra-pair copulations with highly ornamented males, females could, in theory, obtain genes for increased offspring attractiveness. Indeed, sons sired by extra-pair partners had larger ornaments, seemingly supporting the genetic benefit hypothesis. Yet, when comparing ornament size of the social and extra-pair partners, there was no difference. Hence, the observed differences most likely had an environmental basis, mediated, for example, via differential maternal investment of resources into the eggs fertilized by extra-pair and social partners. Such maternal effects may (at least partly) be mediated by egg size, which we found to be associated with mean ornament expression in sons. Our results are consistent with the idea that maternal effects can shape sexual selection by altering the genotype–phenotype relationship for ornamentation. They also caution against automatically attributing greater offspring attractiveness or viability to an extra-pair mate's superior genetic quality, as without controlling for differential maternal investment we may significantly overestimate the role of genetic benefits in the evolution of extra-pair mating behaviour. PMID:21957136

  12. Expression of Multiple Sexual Signals by Fathers and Sons in the East-Mediterranean Barn Swallow: Are Advertising Strategies Heritable?

    PubMed Central

    Vortman, Yoni; Safran, Rebecca J.; Reiner Brodetzki, Tali; Dor, Roi; Lotem, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    The level of expression of sexually selected traits is generally determined by genes, environment and their interaction. In species that use multiple sexual signals which may be costly to produce, investing in the expression of one sexual signal may limit the expression of the other, favoring the evolution of a strategy for resource allocation among signals. As a result, even when the expression of sexual signals is condition dependent, the relative level of expression of each signal may be heritable. We tested this hypothesis in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow (Hirundo rustica transitiva), in which males have been shown to express two uncorrelated sexual signals: red-brown ventral coloration, and long tail streamers. We show that variation in both signals may partially be explained by age, as well as by paternal origin (genetic father-son regressions), but that the strongest similarity between fathers and sons is the relative allocation towards one trait or the other (relative expression index), rather than the expression of the traits themselves. These results suggest that the expression of one signal is not independent of the other, and that genetic strategies for resource allocation among sexual signals may be selected for during the evolution of multiple sexual signals. PMID:25679206

  13. When mothers make sons sexy: maternal effects contribute to the increased sexual attractiveness of extra-pair offspring.

    PubMed

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Rutstein, Alison N; Griffith, Simon C

    2012-03-22

    Quality differences between offspring sired by the social and by an extra-pair partner are usually assumed to have a genetic basis, reflecting genetic benefits of female extra-pair mate choice. In the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), we identified a colour ornament that is under sexual selection and appears to have a heritable basis. Hence, by engaging in extra-pair copulations with highly ornamented males, females could, in theory, obtain genes for increased offspring attractiveness. Indeed, sons sired by extra-pair partners had larger ornaments, seemingly supporting the genetic benefit hypothesis. Yet, when comparing ornament size of the social and extra-pair partners, there was no difference. Hence, the observed differences most likely had an environmental basis, mediated, for example, via differential maternal investment of resources into the eggs fertilized by extra-pair and social partners. Such maternal effects may (at least partly) be mediated by egg size, which we found to be associated with mean ornament expression in sons. Our results are consistent with the idea that maternal effects can shape sexual selection by altering the genotype-phenotype relationship for ornamentation. They also caution against automatically attributing greater offspring attractiveness or viability to an extra-pair mate's superior genetic quality, as without controlling for differential maternal investment we may significantly overestimate the role of genetic benefits in the evolution of extra-pair mating behaviour.

  14. When mothers make sons sexy: maternal effects contribute to the increased sexual attractiveness of extra-pair offspring.

    PubMed

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Rutstein, Alison N; Griffith, Simon C

    2012-03-22

    Quality differences between offspring sired by the social and by an extra-pair partner are usually assumed to have a genetic basis, reflecting genetic benefits of female extra-pair mate choice. In the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), we identified a colour ornament that is under sexual selection and appears to have a heritable basis. Hence, by engaging in extra-pair copulations with highly ornamented males, females could, in theory, obtain genes for increased offspring attractiveness. Indeed, sons sired by extra-pair partners had larger ornaments, seemingly supporting the genetic benefit hypothesis. Yet, when comparing ornament size of the social and extra-pair partners, there was no difference. Hence, the observed differences most likely had an environmental basis, mediated, for example, via differential maternal investment of resources into the eggs fertilized by extra-pair and social partners. Such maternal effects may (at least partly) be mediated by egg size, which we found to be associated with mean ornament expression in sons. Our results are consistent with the idea that maternal effects can shape sexual selection by altering the genotype-phenotype relationship for ornamentation. They also caution against automatically attributing greater offspring attractiveness or viability to an extra-pair mate's superior genetic quality, as without controlling for differential maternal investment we may significantly overestimate the role of genetic benefits in the evolution of extra-pair mating behaviour. PMID:21957136

  15. Aging parents' caregiving and rehabilitating a brain-injured son: an autoethnography of a 10-year journey.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Jamaludin, Husna

    2014-01-01

    This autoethnography withdraws from information accumulated through a 10-year period of daily-weekly-monthly descriptive observation-recording (triangulated- parents & house-helper) of caregiving and rehabilitating of our brain injured son (survivor/care-receiver). We present it as an interactive voice of verbal conversation, thoughts, insights, and interpretations. It is delivered as a series of articulation intra-pulsated with our interrogation of societal-cultural-religious perspectives, norms and biases, and aligns with the CAP (Creative Analytical Practices) method of Ellis. This autoethnography glows from the richness of information which encapsulates the challenges confronting us the aging parent caregivers, the gradual incremental mind mending achievement of our son, and the interactive verbalizations and thoughts, of the caregivers, care-receiver, and other persons. The overwhelming mental and physical pain and struggle of the survivor and the aging caregivers and their sense of celebratory-satisfaction with rehabilitation progress are highlighted. Interpretation and valuation of positive and negative responses of other persons provide a critical matrix to this autoethnography. We intend to inform other caregivers and relevant healthcare professionals through this autoethnography. PMID:25763170

  16. Aging parents’ caregiving and rehabilitating a brain-injured son: an autoethnography of a 10-year journey

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Jamaludin, Husna

    2014-01-01

    This autoethnography withdraws from information accumulated through a 10-year period of daily-weekly-monthly descriptive observation-recording (triangulated- parents & house-helper) of caregiving and rehabilitating of our brain injured son (survivor/care-receiver). We present it as an interactive voice of verbal conversation, thoughts, insights, and interpretations. It is delivered as a series of articulation intra-pulsated with our interrogation of societal-cultural-religious perspectives, norms and biases, and aligns with the CAP (Creative Analytical Practices) method of Ellis. This autoethnography glows from the richness of information which encapsulates the challenges confronting us the aging parent caregivers, the gradual incremental mind mending achievement of our son, and the interactive verbalizations and thoughts, of the caregivers, care-receiver, and other persons. The overwhelming mental and physical pain and struggle of the survivor and the aging caregivers and their sense of celebratory-satisfaction with rehabilitation progress are highlighted. Interpretation and valuation of positive and negative responses of other persons provide a critical matrix to this autoethnography. We intend to inform other caregivers and relevant healthcare professionals through this autoethnography. PMID:25763170

  17. Aging parents' caregiving and rehabilitating a brain-injured son: an autoethnography of a 10-year journey.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Jamaludin, Husna

    2014-01-01

    This autoethnography withdraws from information accumulated through a 10-year period of daily-weekly-monthly descriptive observation-recording (triangulated- parents & house-helper) of caregiving and rehabilitating of our brain injured son (survivor/care-receiver). We present it as an interactive voice of verbal conversation, thoughts, insights, and interpretations. It is delivered as a series of articulation intra-pulsated with our interrogation of societal-cultural-religious perspectives, norms and biases, and aligns with the CAP (Creative Analytical Practices) method of Ellis. This autoethnography glows from the richness of information which encapsulates the challenges confronting us the aging parent caregivers, the gradual incremental mind mending achievement of our son, and the interactive verbalizations and thoughts, of the caregivers, care-receiver, and other persons. The overwhelming mental and physical pain and struggle of the survivor and the aging caregivers and their sense of celebratory-satisfaction with rehabilitation progress are highlighted. Interpretation and valuation of positive and negative responses of other persons provide a critical matrix to this autoethnography. We intend to inform other caregivers and relevant healthcare professionals through this autoethnography.

  18. The impact of parent care on marital quality and well-being in adult daughters and sons.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2009-05-01

    This study prospectively examined the long-term impact of providing parent care using data from a probability-based U.S. sample of adult daughters and sons who had varying parent care experiences over time (N = 716). Parent care x Gender x Time mixed multivariate analyses of covariance using marital quality and well-being indicators as outcomes showed that, on average, experienced caregivers reported less marital happiness, more marital role inequity, and greater hostility than recent adult child caregivers. Significant three-way interactions indicated that experienced and recent caregiving daughters, respectively, showed an increase over time in depressive symptomatology and long-term depression, whereas their male counterparts showed a decline over the same period. Findings are discussed in terms of gender differences in the relative applicability of the wear-and-tear versus adaptation models of caregiving outcomes.

  19. Simulated alteration tests on non-radioactive SON 68 nuclear glass in the presence of corrosion products and environmental materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollivet, Patrick; Minet, Yves; Nicolas, Michèle; Vernaz, Étienne

    2000-10-01

    Alteration tests with non-radioactive French SON 68 (R7T7-type) nuclear glass in the presence of simulated metal canister corrosion products (CP) or environmental materials (EM) were simulated using the LIXIVER2 computer code. The code incorporates hypotheses concerning glass alteration in aqueous media based on the first-order kinetic law for total silicon with variable silicon retention in the gel and silicon diffusion in the gel interstitial water, coupled with silicon adsorption and diffusion in the materials in contact with the glass. The canister CP are considered as a localized medium with a mass adsorption capacity Rad, while the EM are considered as a porous medium with a diffusion coefficient Dp and a distribution coefficient Kd. L IXIVER2 simulates these media in one-dimensional Cartesian geometry. The Kd values determined by simulating alteration tests logically increase with the aggressiveness of the materials with respect to the glass.

  20. Antecedents and Outcomes of Joint Trajectories of Mother-Son Conflict and Warmth during Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lacourse, Eric; Hyde, Luke W.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development of mother-son relationship quality from ages 5 to 15 in a sample of 265 low-income families. Non-parametric random effects modeling was utilized to uncover distinct and homogeneous developmental trajectories of conflict and warmth; antecedents and outcomes of the trajectory groups also were examined. Four conflict trajectory groups and three warmth trajectory groups were identified. Difficult temperament in early childhood discriminated both conflict and warmth trajectory group membership (TGM), and adult relationship quality in early childhood was related to warmth trajectories. In addition, conflict TGM differentiated youth antisocial behavior during adolescence, and warmth trajectories predicted adolescent peer relationship quality and youth moral disengagement. Implications for socialization processes are discussed. PMID:21883153

  1. Giving birth to life--again!: bereaved parents' experiences with children born following the death of an adult son.

    PubMed

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Rosenfeld, Sarah; Buchbinder, Eli

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study examining the experiences of parents that lost a son during military service in Israel and consequently choose to give birth to another child. Seven couples and 3 mothers were interviewed for the study, and their interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Three main themes were extracted from parents' descriptions of their experiences: (a) "From the place where pain and sadness was sown, a new smile was grown," relating to transforming the experience of loss into a new meaning for life; (b) "No to a child memorial," focusing on parents' awareness of the burden placed on the child who was born; and (c) "Different parenting," dealing with participant's parenting following their loss. The study's findings are discussed in the context of literature dealing with reconstructing meaning through coping and bereavement. PMID:24479183

  2. The Sun-as-a-star observations: GOLF & VIRGO on SoHO, and BiSON network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, R. A.; Davies, G. R.; Jiménez, A.; Ballot, J.; Mathur, S.; Salabert, D.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Régulo, C.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2013-06-01

    Sun-as-a-star observations are very important for the study of the conditions within the Sun and in particular for the deep interior where higher degree modes do not penetrate. They are also of significance in this era of dramatic advances in stellar asteroseismology as they are comparable to those measured in other stars by asteroseismic missions such as CoRoT, Kepler, and MOST. More than 17 years of continuous measurements of SoHO and more than 30 years of BiSON observations provide very long data sets of uninterrupted helioseismic observations. In this work, we discuss the present status of all these facilities that continue to provide state-of-the-art measurements and invaluable data to improve our knowledge of the deepest layers of the Sun and its structural changes during the activity cycle.

  3. The impact of parent care on marital quality and well-being in adult daughters and sons.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2009-05-01

    This study prospectively examined the long-term impact of providing parent care using data from a probability-based U.S. sample of adult daughters and sons who had varying parent care experiences over time (N = 716). Parent care x Gender x Time mixed multivariate analyses of covariance using marital quality and well-being indicators as outcomes showed that, on average, experienced caregivers reported less marital happiness, more marital role inequity, and greater hostility than recent adult child caregivers. Significant three-way interactions indicated that experienced and recent caregiving daughters, respectively, showed an increase over time in depressive symptomatology and long-term depression, whereas their male counterparts showed a decline over the same period. Findings are discussed in terms of gender differences in the relative applicability of the wear-and-tear versus adaptation models of caregiving outcomes. PMID:19359594

  4. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference.

    PubMed

    Guo, Man; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2016-07-01

    Using 8-year panel data for 1,355 older adults in rural Anhui province, China, this study examined the trajectories and determinants of elder care provided by adult children to their older parents. The results of two-level latent variable growth models showed that trajectories of elder care differed by the gender of children, with an increase in care from sons but a decrease in care from daughters over time. Children's life stages influenced their care provision but differed by gender. Functional impairment of parents and care provided by siblings in the family also affected the care provided by each child. The findings reflect the patrilineal nature of Chinese family systems and demonstrate the linkages between critical life events and caregiving behaviors of adult children. Findings of this study can inform the formulation of elder care policies that meet the needs of families with different structures and at different life stages.

  5. El fenotipo de las mucinas en el esófago de Barrett

    PubMed Central

    Torrado, Julio; Piazuelo, María Blanca; Ruiz, Irune; Izarzugaza, María Isabel; Camargo, María Constanza; Delgado, Alberto; Abdirad, Afshin; Correa, Pelayo

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes El esófago de Barrett es una reconocida lesión precursora de adenocarcinoma esofágico. Aunque generalmente asociada al reflujo gastroesofágico, los mecanismos patogénicos de la enfermedad no son bien conocidos. El objetivo del presente estudio es explorar la historia natural e identificar marcadores de progreso del proceso precanceroso. Material y métodos Se utilizaron cortes histológicos de 67 especímenes de esófago correspondientes a 14 pacientes con esófago de Barrett, a los que se siguió entre 1 – 9 años. Se clasificaron las lesiones en: esófago de Barrett sin displasia, indefinido para displasia o con displasia. Se evaluó la expresión de diferentes mucinas en las células caliciformes y en las columnares usando técnicas de histoquímica e inmunohistoquímica. Resultados En todos los casos se comprobó la presencia de metaplasia intestinal incompleta. Las células columnares dentro del epitelio metaplásico contenían mucinas neutras. A mayor severidad de la lesión se encontró significativamente menor expresión de sialomucinas en las células columnares (p de tendencia igual a 0,03). En sujetos con lesiones indefinidas para displasia se observó un mayor contenido de sulfomucinas en las células caliciformes (p=0,034) y de MUC2 en las células columnares (p=0,029) que en sujetos con esófago de Barrett sin displasia. Se observó expresión de la mucina intestinal MUC2 y de la mucina gástrica MUC5AC en todas las muestras. MUC6, una mucina de las glándulas profundas gástricas, se presentó ocasionalmente. Conclusión La evaluación de los perfiles de mucinas en el esófago de Barrett sugiere una transición gradual del fenotipo del epitelio metaplásico a medida que la lesión avanza en el tiempo. PMID:21804831

  6. Deletion of locus D15S113 in a mother and son without features of Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelis, R.C.; Tarleton, J.C.; Donlon, T.A.; Simensen, R.J.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 result in Angelman syndrome when inherited from the mother and Prader-Willi syndrome when inherited from the father. The minimal critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome has been reported to include D15S74 (B1.5), D15S10 (TD3-21), and D15S113 (LS6-1). We report a mother and son who have deletions that include D15S113 but who do not have features of Angelman syndrome. D.H. is a 10-year-old white male referred for genetic evaluation due to mental retardation. He has mild to moderate mental retardation and minor dysmorphic features, including downslanting palpebral fissures, prominent nose, broad forehead, small chin, midface hypoplasia, and large ears. His mother (B.S.) has slightly downslanting palpebral fissures and a borderline intellectual deficit. Neither individual has the seizures, excessive laughter, hand clapping, ataxia or facial dysmorphism which are characteristic of Angelman syndrome. The linear order of probes mapping to 15q11-q13 is 15cen-D15S11-D15S13-D15S10-D15S113-GABRB3-D15S12-tel. The proximal border of the deletion in our patients lies between D15S10 and D15S113. The fact that these two individuals do not have Angelman syndrome, despite deletion of D15S113, suggests that the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region should be further refined to exclude the D15S113 locus. In addition, the findings of a more severe intellectual impairment in the son than in the mother suggests that the region immediately telomeric to the critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome may contain imprintable genes that influence intellectual function.

  7. The Sons of Bridgewater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massella, Regina A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective teacher training and preparation is widely recognized as key in raising student achievement. This historical study examined the influence of the normal school movement, one of the first concrete approaches to the preparation and training of public school teachers in the nineteenth century in the United States. Specifically, this study…

  8. Red Son Rising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Adele R.

    Among the Native Americans, few tribes were as warlike as the Apaches of the Southwest. The courage and ferocity of Apache warriors like Geronimo, Cochise, Victorio, and Mangas Coloradas is legendary. Based on a true story, this book is about an Apache boy who was captured by an enemy tribe and sold to a white man. Carlos Gentile, a photographer…

  9. Native Son. Vista Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urvant, Ellen; And Others

    The June issue of the Vista Volunteer is devoted to a presentation of the current plight of the American Indian emphasizing the injustice with which the Indian has been treated. Throughout the 5 articles the achievements and efforts of the Vista volunteers working with various Indian tribes are described. Statements by Indian leaders point up the…

  10. Sweet Sorrow's Son.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Presents an award-winning essay about a teacher's relationship with a troubled student placed in his alternative classroom. Shows how the two worked together on science, math, and "Romeo and Juliet." (TB)

  11. El aprendizaje significativo en las ciencias al participar en proyectos de investigacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora Polanco, Miguelena

    La ciencia es el eje fundamental a traves del cual se desarrollan las habilidades necesarias para el pensar cientifico que va a la busqueda del conocimiento cientifico. La intencion de este estudio fue indagar en el tema de investigacion cientifica desde el punto de vista de los participantes en los siguientes aspectos relacionados con la experiencia de investigacion cientifica: a) conceptos, b) proceso, c) destrezas y d) disposicion. Tambien se analizaron: a) las perspectivas del metodo cientifico, b) la estrategia de ensenanza, c) la cultura cientifica y d) la exposicion del proyecto investigativo en la Feria Cientifica; como parte del aprendizaje significativo de la ciencias de los participantes. Esta investigacion cualitativa propuso como diseno el estudio de caso. Los aspectos relacionados a la experiencia de participar en proyecto de investigacion cientifica son el fenomeno o caso bajo estudio. En el estudio participaron cinco (5) estudiantes egresados de escuela publica o privada que cursaban hasta el tercer ano de estudios universitarios, conducentes a un bachillerato en educacion secundaria en ciencias o en ciencias naturales. Las tecnicas utilizadas para recopilar los datos fueron: analisis de documentos del DEPR, revision de artefactos y entrevistas profundas. Para el analisis de los datos de las entrevistas se utilizo el modelo de Wolcott (1994). Del analisis de documentos del DEPR se identificaron areas a mejorar en las guias de las cartas circulares con relacion a la investigacion escolar y la feria cientifica. El analisis de los artefactos proveyo evidencia de como los internados, simposios e investigaciones fomentan el que los estudiantes se superen en el aspecto cognitivo, se conviertan en creadores del conocimiento, al hacer suyo los conceptos para poder explicarlos al publico. De las entrevistas los participantes manifestaron que la experiencia de investigacion fue una de aprendizaje significativo que los marco para toda la vida y les expandio su

  12. Hydrological changes in western Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) during the Holocene as inferred from a palaeolimnological study in lake Son Kul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi; von Suchodoletz, Hans; Prasad, Sushma; Sorrel, Philippe; Plessen, Birgit; Mathis, Marie; Usubaliev, Raskul

    2014-11-01

    The hydrology of western Central Asia is highly sensitive to climatic perturbations. In order to understand its long-term variability and to infer linkages between precipitation and atmospheric and oceanic systems, we conducted a thorough sedimentary and geochemical study on a composite core retrieved in lake Son Kul (central Kyrgyzstan). A multi-proxy approach was conducted on lake sediments based on grain size analyses, magnetic susceptibility, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and carbon and oxygen isotope analyses on bulk and biogenic materials (ostracoda and molluscs shells) at a resolution equivalent to ca 40 years, aiming to characterise the sequence of palaeolimnological changes in Son Kul. As indicated by δ18O record of bulk carbonates, mainly consisting of aragonite, the Holocene hydrological balance was negative during most of time, suggesting an excess of evaporation (E) over precipitation (P). Limnological conditions fluctuated rapidly before 5000 cal yr BP indicating significant changes in regional hydrology and climate. In particular, the long-term negative hydrological balance was impeded by several short stages with marked increase of precipitation, lasting several decades to a few centuries (e.g., 8300-8200, 6900-6700, 6300-6100, 5500-5400, 5300-5200 and 3100-3000 cal yr BP). Precipitation changes as inferred from δ18O data are also documented by increased minerogenic detritus and higher TOC. We propose that the seasonal pattern of precipitation varied transiently in western Central Asia during the Holocene, although evaporation changes may also account for the rapid changes observed in δ18O data. When the annual water balance was less critical (P ≤ E), the excess of water might be ascribed to increased precipitation during cold seasons mainly because winter precipitation has more negative δ18O than its summer equivalent. Conversely, when the annual water balance is negative (P ≪ E), the moisture was mainly delivered during

  13. A case study of conflict management in bonobos: how does a bonobo (Pan paniscus) mother manage conflicts between her sons and her female coalition partner?

    PubMed

    Legrain, L; Stevens, J; Alegria Iscoa, J; Destrebecqz, A

    2011-01-01

    Female coalitions are an important part of the social organization of bonobos. The strength of the mother-son relationship is another essential part of this social structure. A bonobo mother is therefore facing a dilemma when a conflict arises between her sons and her female coalition partners. Will she take her coalition partner's side and favour the social organization of the group or support her son in order to defend her offspring? In order to address this issue, we performed an observational study of the captive group at Planckendael (Belgium) and used social grooming and proximity to assess the relationship between individuals. As a case study, we focused on the relationships between Hortense, one of the group's mothers, her 3 sons Redi, Vifijo and Zamba, and her coalition partner Hermien. Surprisingly, we observed that Hortense preferentially supported her female coalition partner. For Hortense's social status in the group, it may be more important to maintain the strong relationship with her higher-ranking female coalition partner than to support her sons.

  14. De Novo Mutations in SON Disrupt RNA Splicing of Genes Essential for Brain Development and Metabolism, Causing an Intellectual-Disability Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Shinde, Deepali N; Reijnders, Margot R F; Hauser, Natalie S; Belmonte, Rebecca L; Wilson, Gregory R; Bosch, Daniëlle G M; Bubulya, Paula A; Shashi, Vandana; Petrovski, Slavé; Stone, Joshua K; Park, Eun Young; Veltman, Joris A; Sinnema, Margje; Stumpel, Connie T R M; Draaisma, Jos M; Nicolai, Joost; Yntema, Helger G; Lindstrom, Kristin; de Vries, Bert B A; Jewett, Tamison; Santoro, Stephanie L; Vogt, Julie; Bachman, Kristine K; Seeley, Andrea H; Krokosky, Alyson; Turner, Clesson; Rohena, Luis; Hempel, Maja; Kortüm, Fanny; Lessel, Davor; Neu, Axel; Strom, Tim M; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Bramswig, Nuria; Laccone, Franco A; Behunova, Jana; Rehder, Helga; Gordon, Christopher T; Rio, Marlène; Romana, Serge; Tang, Sha; El-Khechen, Dima; Cho, Megan T; McWalter, Kirsty; Douglas, Ganka; Baskin, Berivan; Begtrup, Amber; Funari, Tara; Schoch, Kelly; Stegmann, Alexander P A; Stevens, Servi J C; Zhang, Dong-Er; Traver, David; Yao, Xu; MacArthur, Daniel G; Brunner, Han G; Mancini, Grazia M; Myers, Richard M; Owen, Laurie B; Lim, Ssang-Taek; Stachura, David L; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Ahn, Eun-Young Erin

    2016-09-01

    The overall understanding of the molecular etiologies of intellectual disability (ID) and developmental delay (DD) is increasing as next-generation sequencing technologies identify genetic variants in individuals with such disorders. However, detailed analyses conclusively confirming these variants, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms explaining the diseases, are often lacking. Here, we report on an ID syndrome caused by de novo heterozygous loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in SON. The syndrome is characterized by ID and/or DD, malformations of the cerebral cortex, epilepsy, vision problems, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and congenital malformations. Knockdown of son in zebrafish resulted in severe malformation of the spine, brain, and eyes. Importantly, analyses of RNA from affected individuals revealed that genes critical for neuronal migration and cortex organization (TUBG1, FLNA, PNKP, WDR62, PSMD3, and HDAC6) and metabolism (PCK2, PFKL, IDH2, ACY1, and ADA) are significantly downregulated because of the accumulation of mis-spliced transcripts resulting from erroneous SON-mediated RNA splicing. Our data highlight SON as a master regulator governing neurodevelopment and demonstrate the importance of SON-mediated RNA splicing in human development. PMID:27545680

  15. How parasitoid females produce sexy sons: a causal link between oviposition preference, dietary lipids and mate choice in Nasonia.

    PubMed

    Blaul, Birgit; Ruther, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that phenotypic traits used to choose a mate should reflect honestly the quality of the sender and thus, are often costly. Physiological costs arise if a signal depends on limited nutritional resources. Hence, the nutritional condition of an organism should determine both its quality as a potential mate and its ability to advertise this quality to the choosing sex. In insects, the quality of the offspring's nutrition is often determined by the ovipositing female. A causal connection, however, between the oviposition decisions of the mother and the mating chances of her offspring has never been shown. Here, we demonstrate that females of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis prefer those hosts for oviposition that have been experimentally enriched in linoleic acid (LA). We show by (13)C-labelling that LA from the host diet is a precursor of the male sex pheromone. Consequently, males from LA-rich hosts produce and release higher amounts of the pheromone and attract more virgin females than males from LA-poor hosts. Finally, males from LA-rich hosts possess three times as many spermatozoa as those from LA-poor hosts. Hence, females making the right oviposition decisions may increase both the fertility and the sexual attractiveness of their sons. PMID:21429922

  16. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB (r = 0.54 to 0.57, p < 0.001). Further, IQ emerged as a powerful predictor of SRB after controlling for the effects of all the known covariates like fertility, maternal age, polygyny prevalence, wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

  17. Water diffusion in the simulated French nuclear waste glass SON 68 contacting silica rich solutions: Experimental and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrand, K.; Abdelouas, A.; Grambow, B.

    2006-09-01

    To understand the role of water diffusion on the long-term nuclear waste glass alteration, dynamic experiments were conducted with the borosilicate SON 68 glass in synthetic solutions enriched in Si, Na and B at 50 and 90 °C. The water entering the glass exists to 80% in the form of molecular H 2O and to 20% in the form of SiOH. The ratio of H/Na was 2.6 ± 0.3, indicating a complex mechanism including water diffusion and ionic-exchange. It was in agreement with model calculations based on glass structural units such as reedmergnerite and B 2O 3. Water diffusion coefficients in the glass, determined by modeling of the experimental data, were between 2 × 10 -21 and 6 × 10 -23 m 2 s -1. Finally, under HLW disposal conditions, where interaction of nuclear glass with groundwater is expected to maintain saturation conditions, it is likely that water diffusion will contribute to the control of the glass alteration and the release of radionuclides.

  18. How parasitoid females produce sexy sons: a causal link between oviposition preference, dietary lipids and mate choice in Nasonia.

    PubMed

    Blaul, Birgit; Ruther, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that phenotypic traits used to choose a mate should reflect honestly the quality of the sender and thus, are often costly. Physiological costs arise if a signal depends on limited nutritional resources. Hence, the nutritional condition of an organism should determine both its quality as a potential mate and its ability to advertise this quality to the choosing sex. In insects, the quality of the offspring's nutrition is often determined by the ovipositing female. A causal connection, however, between the oviposition decisions of the mother and the mating chances of her offspring has never been shown. Here, we demonstrate that females of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis prefer those hosts for oviposition that have been experimentally enriched in linoleic acid (LA). We show by (13)C-labelling that LA from the host diet is a precursor of the male sex pheromone. Consequently, males from LA-rich hosts produce and release higher amounts of the pheromone and attract more virgin females than males from LA-poor hosts. Finally, males from LA-rich hosts possess three times as many spermatozoa as those from LA-poor hosts. Hence, females making the right oviposition decisions may increase both the fertility and the sexual attractiveness of their sons.

  19. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB ( r = 0.54 to 0.57, p < 0.001). Further, IQ emerged as a powerful predictor of SRB after controlling for the effects of all the known covariates like fertility, maternal age, polygyny prevalence, wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

  20. Slit-Dependent Endocytic Trafficking of the Robo Receptor Is Required for Son of Sevenless Recruitment and Midline Axon Repulsion

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Rebecca K.; Bashaw, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how axon guidance receptors are activated by their extracellular ligands to regulate growth cone motility is critical to learning how proper wiring is established during development. Roundabout (Robo) is one such guidance receptor that mediates repulsion from its ligand Slit in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here we show that endocytic trafficking of the Robo receptor in response to Slit-binding is necessary for its repulsive signaling output. Dose-dependent genetic interactions and in vitro Robo activation assays support a role for Clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and entry into both the early and late endosomes as positive regulators of Slit-Robo signaling. We identify two conserved motifs in Robo’s cytoplasmic domain that are required for its Clathrin-dependent endocytosis and activation in vitro; gain of function and genetic rescue experiments provide strong evidence that these trafficking events are required for Robo repulsive guidance activity in vivo. Our data support a model in which Robo’s ligand-dependent internalization from the cell surface to the late endosome is essential for receptor activation and proper repulsive guidance at the midline by allowing recruitment of the downstream effector Son of Sevenless in a spatially constrained endocytic trafficking compartment. PMID:26335920

  1. Laboratory evaluation of an OTT acoustic digital current meter and a SonTek Laboratory acoustic Doppler velocimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vermeyen, T.B.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Jackson, Patrick Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Recently, an acoustic current meter known as the OTT * acoustic digital current meter (ADC) was introduced as an alternative instrument for stream gaging measurements. The Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborated on a side- by-side evaluation of the ADC and a SonTek/YSI acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). Measurements were carried out in a laboratory flume to evaluate the performance characteristics of the ADC under a range of flow and boundary conditions. The flume contained a physical model of a mountain river with a diversion dam and variety of bed materials ranging from smooth mortar to a cobble bed. The instruments were installed on a trolley system that allowed them to be easily moved within the flume while maintaining a consistent probe orientation. More than 50 comparison measurements were made in an effort to verify the manufacturer’s performance specifications and to evaluate potential boundary disturbance for near-bed and vertical boundary measurements. Data and results from this evaluation are presented and discussed. 

  2. "Now if you have only sons you are dead": migration, gender, and family economy in twentieth century northwestern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Korah, Gariba B

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the interconnectedness between labor migration, gender, and the family economy in northwestern Ghana in the 20th century. It focuses specifically on the Dagaaba of the Nadowli and Jirapa administrative districts of what is now the Upper West Region (UWR). It examines how the relationships between men and women in terms of roles, status, access to productive resources and inheritance, changed in tandem with broader changes in society in the 20th century; changes that over time produced enhanced value and elevated status for women in the family. These changes in gender relations are reflected increasingly in the belief among elderly men that ‘now if you have only sons, you are dead’. By focusing on the lived experiences of ordinary women and men in the migration process, it argues that even though indigenous social structures privileged men over women in almost all spheres of life, Dagaaba women were nonetheless significantly active in shaping the history of their communities and that gender relations in Dagaaba communities were not static — they changed over time and generation. This article contributes to the ongoing discussion of the internal migration phenomenon in West Africa, which has so far attracted scant historical analysis.

  3. NanoSIMS Imaging Alternation Layers of a Leached SON68 Glass Via A FIB-made Wedged Crater

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Chung; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Neeway, James J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Zhu, Zihua; Wei, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Currently, nuclear wastes are commonly immobilized into glasses because of their long-term durability. Exposure to water for long periods of time, however, will eventually corrode the waste form and is the leading potential avenue for radionuclide release into the environment. Because such slow processes cannot be experimentally tested, the prediction of release requires a thorough understanding the mechanisms governing glass corrosion. In addition, due to the exceptional durability of glass, much of the testing must be performed on high-surface-area powders. A technique that can provide accurate compositional profiles with very precise depth resolution for non-flat samples would be a major benefit to the field. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiling is an excellent tool that has long been used to examine corrosion layers of glass. The roughness of the buried corrosion layers, however, causes the corresponding SIMS depth profiles to exhibit erroneously wide interfaces. In this study, NanoSIMS was used to image the cross-section of the corrosion layers of a leached SON68 glass sample. A wedged crater was prepared by a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument to obtain a 5× improvement in depth resolution for NanoSIMS measurements. This increase in resolution allowed us to confirm that the breakdown of the silica glass network is further from the pristine glass than a second dissolution front for boron, another glass former. The existence of these two distinct interfaces, separated by only ~20 nm distance in depth, was not apparent by traditional ToF-SIMS depth profiling but has been confirmed also by atom probe tomography. This novel sample geometry will be a major benefit to efficient NanoSIMS sampling of irregular interfaces at the nanometer scale that would otherwise be obscured within ToF-SIMS depth profiles.

  4. Las ideologias, las ciencias naturales y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada Roldan, Sandra

    Este estudio ausculto las concepciones epistemologicas de los docentes de ciencia del nivel secundario con relacion a las ideologias y las ciencias naturales. Tambien examino las posiciones de los docentes ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Para propositos de este estudio se diseno y se valido el cuestionario con el cual se obtuvieron los resultados. La investigacion es de tipo cuantitativa y se utilizo como diseno la encuesta. El cuestionario se administro en varias actividades de desarrollo profesional para maestros de ciencia. Un total de 78 maestros del nivel secundario respondieron el cuestionario. Para analizar los datos obtenidos se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas como la distribucion de frecuencia y el porciento. Ademas se establecieron codigos y categorias para describir las posiciones de los maestros ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Los analisis demostraron que entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la filosofia materialista de las ciencias naturales, b) la naturaleza tentativa y constructivista del conocimiento cientifico, c) el uso de una metodologia que garantiza cierto grado de objetividad y con el que se justifican y validan los enunciados cientificos y d) la funcion instrumental del conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas erroneas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) tendencia inductivista en el que las teorias cientificas comienzan con observaciones que establecen generalizaciones, b) secuencia jerarquica de la metodologia cientifica. Ademas, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas

  5. "We Txt 2 Sty Cnnectd": An African American Mother and Son Communicate: Digital Literacies, Meaning-Making, and Activity Theory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tisha Y.

    2013-01-01

    This research demonstrated how an African American mother and son communicated via texting and instant messaging at home. Data from a 2007 larger ethnographic case study of a family's digital literacy practices were collected and analyzed. Situated within the framework of New Literacy Studies and multimodality, this research explored: (a) how and…

  6. Understanding Gender Differences in Children's Risk Taking and Injury: A Comparison of Mothers' and Fathers' Reactions to Sons and Daughters Misbehaving in Ways that Lead to Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Zdzieborski, Daniel; Normand, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    This study compared reactions of mothers and fathers to the risk taking behavior of sons and daughters. Mother-father pairs (N = 52) imagined their 2-year-old boy or girl behaving in risky ways in common home situations that could, and did, result in injury. Emotional and parenting reactions to the behaviors were assessed before and after injury.…

  7. How Black Mothers Participate in the Development of Manhood and Masculinity: What Do We Know about Black Mothers and Their Sons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson Bush, V.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis was carried out on the body of literature exploring African-American mother-son relationship. The analysis suggested that African-American mothers play an important role in the healthy development of manhood and masculinity and challenged notions about considering mothering as a gender or biological assignment rather than as an act…

  8. Enhancing Adolescent Health Behaviors through Strengthening Non-Resident Father-Son Relationships: A Model for Intervention with African-American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Wright, Joan C.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Walsemann, Katrina M.; Williams, Deborah; Isichei, Patrick A. C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a description of and rationale for components of a theoretically based conceptual model that guided the development and implementation of the Fathers and Sons Intervention Program. Using a community-based participatory research process, this intervention was designed to prevent risky health behaviors through strengthening…

  9. Polyandrous females provide sons with more competitive sperm: Support for the sexy-sperm hypothesis in the rattlebox moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).

    PubMed

    Egan, Andrea L; Hook, Kristin A; Reeve, H Kern; Iyengar, Vikram K

    2016-01-01

    Given the costs of multiple mating, why has female polyandry evolved? Utetheisa ornatrix moths are well suited for studying multiple mating in females because females are highly polyandrous over their life span, with each male mate transferring a substantial spermatophore with both genetic and nongenetic material. The accumulation of resources might explain the prevalence of polyandry in this species, but another, not mutually exclusive, possibility is that females mate multiply to increase the probability that their sons will inherit more-competitive sperm. This latter "sexy-sperm" hypothesis posits that female multiple mating and male sperm competitiveness coevolve via a Fisherian runaway process. We tested the sexy-sperm hypothesis by using competitive double matings to compare the sperm competition success of sons of polyandrous versus monandrous females. In accordance with sexy-sperm theory, we found that in 511 offspring across 17 families, the male whose polyandrous mother mated once with each of three different males sired significantly more of all total offspring (81%) than did the male whose monandrous mother was mated thrice to a single male. Interestingly, sons of polyandrous mothers had a significantly biased sex ratio of their brood toward sons, also in support of the hypothesis. PMID:26626578

  10. Polyandrous females provide sons with more competitive sperm: Support for the sexy-sperm hypothesis in the rattlebox moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).

    PubMed

    Egan, Andrea L; Hook, Kristin A; Reeve, H Kern; Iyengar, Vikram K

    2016-01-01

    Given the costs of multiple mating, why has female polyandry evolved? Utetheisa ornatrix moths are well suited for studying multiple mating in females because females are highly polyandrous over their life span, with each male mate transferring a substantial spermatophore with both genetic and nongenetic material. The accumulation of resources might explain the prevalence of polyandry in this species, but another, not mutually exclusive, possibility is that females mate multiply to increase the probability that their sons will inherit more-competitive sperm. This latter "sexy-sperm" hypothesis posits that female multiple mating and male sperm competitiveness coevolve via a Fisherian runaway process. We tested the sexy-sperm hypothesis by using competitive double matings to compare the sperm competition success of sons of polyandrous versus monandrous females. In accordance with sexy-sperm theory, we found that in 511 offspring across 17 families, the male whose polyandrous mother mated once with each of three different males sired significantly more of all total offspring (81%) than did the male whose monandrous mother was mated thrice to a single male. Interestingly, sons of polyandrous mothers had a significantly biased sex ratio of their brood toward sons, also in support of the hypothesis.

  11. 75 FR 5359 - In the Matter of L. Luria & Son, Inc., Lew Corp. (n/k/a Questus Global Limited), Library Bureau...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of L. Luria & Son, Inc., Lew Corp. (n/k/a Questus Global Limited), Library Bureau, Inc., Life Sciences, Inc., Lifesmart Nutrition Technologies, Inc., Lightning Rod Software, Inc... of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Library Bureau, Inc. because it...

  12. Toward the Autonomous Recording and Transmission of Seismic Data from the Oceans: Testing the Son-O-Mermaid Float in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, J. D.; Simons, F. J.; Vincent, H. T.; Nolet, G.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the deployment of two new Son-O-Mermaid floats into theSargasso Sea during a cruise aboard the R/V Atlantic Explorer, whichdeparted from Bermuda in May of 2015. Son-O-Mermaid is a freelyfloating and autonomous oceangoing system composed of a surface buoyconnected to a length of cable from which a three-hydrophone array issuspended. The main objective of the Son-O-Mermaid project is torecord signals suitable for global tomography in the deep ocean andprovide the seismic community with an abundance of novel raypaths frompreviously unsampled regions of the Earth. The Son-O-Mermaid float,with its ability to continually record, analyze, and transmit seismicdata from the oceans in near-real time has the potential torevolutionize the field of seismology. We analyze new data returnedfrom this deployment, a previous Son-O-Mermaid test, as well as theongoing MERMAID mission in the time, spectral, and wavelet domains. Afull description of the float and deployment report will be presented.A short-term goal of the project is determining realistic magnitude,distance, and pressure relationships for teleseismic earthquakes thatare recorded in the water column. Our analysis of this question isaided by synthetics created using SPECFEM2D and guided by the data,especially noise records recorded by Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID fromoceans throughout the world. Synthetics provide an idealized waveformuseful for understanding the often very messy and noisy arrivalscommon in midcolumn acoustic recordings. Notably, synthetics allowthe confirmation or rejection of unlikely phases which are matched toearthquake databases after arrivals are detected by automatic pickingalgorithms. Additionally, marine-acoustic processing techniques willbe improved once the underwater acoustic field is better modeled usingrealistic signal-to-noise ratios and noise spectra returned fromSon-O-Mermaid and MERMAID missions. This analysis, particularly whenimplemented in the wavelet domain, is proving

  13. Legacies and Memorializations in the Intergenerational Transmission of Psychic Life: Psychoanalytic Notes on Some of the Ways in Which Sons Assume Their Father's Mantle.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Barnaby B

    2016-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of psychic life has been difficult to explore psychoanalytically given that a treatment of both parent and child is rarely, if ever, feasible. Here the issue is explored in terms of father-son relationships. Three legendary fathers (Abraham, Laius, Shiva) are discussed as illustrating the filicidal legacy they imposed psychically and corporeally on their sons. Three contemporary case vignettes are then presented, indicating ways in which sons ambivalently memorialize their fathers. This material provides a model as to some of the ways in which sons assume the mantle of the father's conscious and unconscious dynamics in the course of their personal history. Paternal legacies generate "memorializations" that express profound and poignant conflicts animating the son's psychic life. In the context of this investigation, the significance of the distinction between actual fathers or father figures (who are mortal, who possess some sort of gendered qualities, and who may be present or absent, emotionally and physically) and the "symbolic father" (who is the locus of the phallus that organizes the possibility of representational discourse) is discussed. It is suggested that boys and men typically develop in terms of confusions around this distinction. The oedipal conundrum and challenge of the boy's passage into manhood is then formulated as follows: Masculinity involves both the integration of patricidal desire (in response to the paternal legacy) and the mourning of actual fathers or father figures. It also involves the acceptance of the human condition, which is both that of mortality and of our "castratedness" in relation to the "symbolic father" as the locus of the phallus (the only one who knows whereof "He" speaks and acts, and who can neither be mourned nor surpassed). PMID:27042981

  14. Latino Parents' Awareness and Receipt of the HPV Vaccine for Sons and Daughters in a State with Low Three-Dose Completion.

    PubMed

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Mooney, Kathi

    2015-12-01

    Latinos suffer a disproportionate burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-preventable cancers, yet uptake and completion of the HPV vaccine among Latinos is below recommendations. Reasons for low HPV vaccine uptake among Latinos in Utah are unknown. We surveyed Latino parents of HPV vaccine age-eligible adolescents (N=118). Univariable analyses identified sociodemographic characteristics associated with HPV vaccine awareness, interest, and uptake for daughter(s) and/or son(s) using chi-square tests or Fisher's exact tests. More parents who had lived in the USA for 15 years or more had vaccinated their daughter (43.6 vs. 32.5%, p=0.035) compared to those living in the USA for shorter time periods. Parents born in Mexico reported their son had not received the HPV vaccine (74.6 vs. 58.3%, p=0.049) more than those born elsewhere. Parents with Mexican birthplace and ancestry reported not knowing about the HPV vaccine as the main barrier to vaccinating daughters (47.1 vs. 5.9%, p=0.002 for both) and sons (birthplace 38.3 vs. 10.3%, p=0.007; ancestry 37.1 vs. 11.1%, p=0.013) compared to those born or descending elsewhere. Non-acculturated parents with a son were more likely to report not knowing about the HPV vaccine as the main barrier to vaccine receipt (47.6 vs. 12.5%, p<0.001). Our results focus on Latinos in an understudied region and complement prior research in other regions. This study may have implications for designing culturally tailored interventions to improve uptake of the HPV vaccine among the growing population of Latinos in Utah, and other states in the Intermountain West.

  15. Legacies and Memorializations in the Intergenerational Transmission of Psychic Life: Psychoanalytic Notes on Some of the Ways in Which Sons Assume Their Father's Mantle.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Barnaby B

    2016-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of psychic life has been difficult to explore psychoanalytically given that a treatment of both parent and child is rarely, if ever, feasible. Here the issue is explored in terms of father-son relationships. Three legendary fathers (Abraham, Laius, Shiva) are discussed as illustrating the filicidal legacy they imposed psychically and corporeally on their sons. Three contemporary case vignettes are then presented, indicating ways in which sons ambivalently memorialize their fathers. This material provides a model as to some of the ways in which sons assume the mantle of the father's conscious and unconscious dynamics in the course of their personal history. Paternal legacies generate "memorializations" that express profound and poignant conflicts animating the son's psychic life. In the context of this investigation, the significance of the distinction between actual fathers or father figures (who are mortal, who possess some sort of gendered qualities, and who may be present or absent, emotionally and physically) and the "symbolic father" (who is the locus of the phallus that organizes the possibility of representational discourse) is discussed. It is suggested that boys and men typically develop in terms of confusions around this distinction. The oedipal conundrum and challenge of the boy's passage into manhood is then formulated as follows: Masculinity involves both the integration of patricidal desire (in response to the paternal legacy) and the mourning of actual fathers or father figures. It also involves the acceptance of the human condition, which is both that of mortality and of our "castratedness" in relation to the "symbolic father" as the locus of the phallus (the only one who knows whereof "He" speaks and acts, and who can neither be mourned nor surpassed).

  16. Biological effect of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on some potentially toxic elements during alteration of SON 68 nuclear glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, M.; Crovisier, J. L.; Stille, P.; Vuilleumier, S.; Geoffroy, V.

    2009-04-01

    Although underground nuclear waste repositories are not expected to be favourable places for microbial activity, one should not exclude localized action of extremophilic bacteria on some materials involved in the storage concept. Among endogenous or accidentally introduced acidophiles, some are susceptible to lead to a locally drastic decreased in pH, with potential consequences on materials corrosion. Experiments were performed with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on 100-125 m french reference nuclear glass SON68 grains in a mineral medium under static conditions during 60 days at 25degC. Growth medium was periodically renewed and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS spectrometry for both major, trace and ultra-trace elements. Biofilm formation was evidenced by confocal laser microscopy, staining DNA with ethidium bromide and exopolysaccharides with calcofluor white. Biofilm thickness around material grains exceeded 20 m under the chosen experimental conditions. It can be noticed that while numerous studies on biofilm formation upon interaction between Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and materials are found in the literature, evidence for biofilm formation is still scarce for the case of the acidophilic bacterium A. thiooxidans. Presence of biofilm is a key parameter for material alteration at the solid/solution interface in biotic systems. Indeed, various constitutive elements of materials trapped in the polyanionic polymer of biofilm may also influence the alteration process. In particular, biofilm may reduce the alteration rate of materials by forming a protective barrier at their surface (Aouad et al., 2008). In this study, glass alteration rates, determined using strontium as tracer, showed that the progressive formation of a biofilm on the surface of glass has a protective effect against its alteration. Uranium and rare earth elements (REE) are efficiently trapped in the biogenic compartment of the system (exopolysaccharides + bacterial cells). Besides, the ratio

  17. Profil bactériologique du pied diabétique et son impact sur le choix des antibiotiques

    PubMed Central

    Zemmouri, Adil; Tarchouli, Mohamed; Benbouha, Abdellatif; Lamkinsi, Tarik; Bensghir, Mustapha; Elouennass, Mostafa; Haimeur, Cherqui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Analyse du profil bactériologique des pieds diabétiques pris en charge à l'hôpital militaire de Rabat et son influence sur l'antibiothérapie de première intention. Méthodes Etude prospective non randomisée étalée sur 18 mois, ayant concerné 105 patients. Après recueil des données et en attente des résultats bactériologiques nos patients ont été divisés en deux groupes: un groupe a été mis sous Amoxicilline + Acide clavulanique + Gentamycine (59 patients) et un groupe sous Ertapénème±Gentamycine (46 patients). Résultats L’étude a regroupé 85 hommes et 20 femmes (sexe ratio = 4.26). L’âge moyen est de 64.4 ans. La gangrène a été observée chez 79% des malades; elle était humide-donc surinfectée en principe- dans 43% des cas. Par ailleurs, 67% des malades ont un chiffre de globules blancs 12000 définissant une infection sévère. L'ostéolyse a été mise en évidence chez 27% de nos patients. Parmi les différentes techniques de prélèvements: 81% ont été profonds dont 21% de biopsie osseuse per opératoire et 14% de prélèvements combinés. 42% de ces prélèvements sont poly microbiens et 21% sont stériles. Les résultats bactériologiques viennent confirmer la prédominance des bactéries aérobies à Gram positif. Le taux de remplacement de l'Ertapénème est de 22% contre un taux de 50% pour l'Amoxiclav. Conclusion L'antibiothérapie ne doit être instaurée qu'en cas d'infection du pied diabétique diagnostiquée sur les critères cliniques établis par les consensus internationaux récents. Le respect des mesures de lutte contre la diffusion de la résistance bactérienne s'avère primordiale. PMID:27386024

  18. Overview of the land analysis system (LAS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quirk, Bruce K.; Olseson, Lyndon R.

    1987-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is a fully integrated digital analysis system designed to support remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems research. LAS is being developed through a cooperative effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center and the U. S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. LAS has over 275 analysis modules capable to performing input and output, radiometric correction, geometric registration, signal processing, logical operations, data transformation, classification, spatial analysis, nominal filtering, conversion between raster and vector data types, and display manipulation of image and ancillary data. LAS is currently implant using the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). While TAE was designed primarily to be transportable, it still provides the necessary components for a standard user interface, terminal handling, input and output services, display management, and intersystem communications. With TAE the analyst uses the same interface to the processing modules regardless of the host computer or operating system. LAS was originally implemented at EROS on a Digital Equipment Corporation computer system under the Virtual Memorial System operating system with DeAnza displays and is presently being converted to run on a Gould Power Node and Sun workstation under the Berkeley System Distribution UNIX operating system.

  19. Mothers' responses to sons and daughters engaging in injury-risk behaviors on a playground: implications for sex differences in injury rates.

    PubMed

    Morrongiello, B A; Dawber, T

    2000-06-01

    Videotapes of children engaging in injury-risk activities on a playground were shown to mothers, who were asked to intervene by stopping the tape and saying whatever they would to their child in the situation shown. Results revealed that mothers of daughters were more likely to judge behaviors as posing some degree of injury risk, and they intervened more frequently and quickly than mothers of sons. Mothers' speed to intervene positively correlated with both children's injury history and their risk-taking tendencies, indicating that mothers of children who were previously injured and who often engaged in injury-risk behaviors had a higher degree of tolerance for children's risk taking than mothers of children who experienced fewer injuries and less frequently engaged in injury-risk behaviors. Mothers' verbalizations to children's risk taking revealed that daughters received more cautions and statements communicating vulnerability for injury, whereas sons received more statements encouraging risk-taking behavior. PMID:10788304

  20. Genetic data and de novo mutation rates in father-son pairs of 23 Y-STR loci in Southern Brazil population.

    PubMed

    Da Fré, Nicole Nascimento; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Gastaldo, André Zoratto; Hanson, Erin; Ballantyne, Jack; Alho, Clarice Sampaio

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated haplotype and allele frequencies, as well as statistical forensic parameters, for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) loci of the PowerPlex®Y23 system (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, Y-GATA-H4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS643) in a sample of 150 apparently healthy males, resident in South Brazil. A total of 150 different haplotypes were identified. The highest gene diversity (GD) was observed for the single locus marker DYS570 (GD = 0.7888) and for a two-locus system DYS385 (GD = 0.9009). We also examined 150 father-son pairs by the same system, and a total of 13 mutations were identified in the 3450 father-son allelic transfers, with an overall mutation rate across the 23 loci of 3.768 × 10(-3) (95% CI: 3.542 × 10(-3) to 3.944 × 10(-3)). In all cases there was only one locus mutated with gain/loss of repeats in the son (5 one-repeat gains, and 7 one-repeat and 1 two-repeat losses); we observed no instances of mutations involving a non-integral number of repeats.

  1. Variaciones seculares de período en las RR Lyrae de ω~Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marraco, H. G.; Milesi, G. E.

    Utilizando 689 observaciones de 35 estrellas RR Lyrae del cúmulo globular ω Centauri hemos obtenido nuevas determinaciones de sus períodos y sus correspondientes variaciones seculares. Las observaciones fueron obtenidas de la literatura con la excepción de un grupo 66 determinaciones que se presentan por vez primera aquí. Utilizando el parámetro testigo σ descripto en Marraco & Muzzio (Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 92, 700, 1980), hemos realizado un ajuste bidimensional en P y β (donde β es la variación secular del período). Con este fin la totalidad de las 689 observaciones fueron llevadas a un sistema fotométrico común. Para esto se realizó un cuidadoso análisis de los numerosos errores en la identificación de las estrellas de las series de comparación. Los resultados de los ajustes bidimensionales fueron analizados utilizando técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes. Con este fin el parámetro de ajuste σ fue representado como función de P y β. En las imágenes resultantes se buscaron los mínimos y al menor de ellos se lo aceptó como período instantáneo verdadero y su variación secular β. La determinación precisa de cada parámetro se realizó mediante ajuste de gaussianas y se determinaron sus errores. A modo de ejemplo la variable #8 fue analizada en una matriz de 501 × 501 elementos representando el parámetro σ para valores comprendidos entre 0,521034 < P < 0,521534 dias y -150×10-10 < β < +150×10-10 dias/dia. El mejor período instantáneo (correspondiente a la época DJ=2.426.908) y su variación secular son P = 0,5212859±0,0000001 días y β 14,012±,010×10-10 días/día respectivamente. Con estos valores el parámetro testigo resulta σ= 0,127 . Si no se tiene en cuenta la variación secular del período y se busca aquél de mejor ajuste para β = 0, se obtiene P = 0,5212960 días, pero entonces el parámetro de ajuste resulta tan alto como σ = 0,23 .

  2. lasA and lasB genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: analysis of transcription and gene product activity.

    PubMed Central

    Toder, D S; Ferrell, S J; Nezezon, J L; Rust, L; Iglewski, B H

    1994-01-01

    The lasA gene was the first of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa genes involved in proteolysis and elastolysis to be cloned and sequenced. Its function and significance have been studied by genetic approaches (D. S. Toder, M. J. Gambello, and B. H. Iglewski, Mol. Microbiol. 5:2003-2010, 1991) and by attempts to purify an active fragment of the protein (J. E. Peters and D. R. Galloway, J. Bacteriol. 172:2236-2240, 1990). To further study LasA in vivo, we have constructed and characterized an insertional mutant in the lasA gene in strain PAO1 (PAO-A1) and in the lasB insertional mutant, PAO-B1. Analysis of these isogenic strains demonstrates that the lasA lesion diminished elastolysis more than proteolysis and that LasA is required for staphylolytic activity. Despite previous suggestions that lasB elastase cleaves the LasA protein, the size of the LasA protein was the same whether or not lasB elastase was present. Expression of lasA in a lasR-negative mutant, PAO-R1, demonstrated that the LasA protein is produced in an active form in the absence of (lasB) elastase or alkaline protease and is itself a protease with elastolytic activity. We also observed that PAO-A1 was closer to the parental phenotype, with respect to elastolytic and proteolytic activities, than the previously characterized, chemically induced lasA mutant PAO-E64. Quantification of promoter activity with lasA::lacZ and lasB::lacZ fusions suggests that PAO-E64 harbors a mutation in a gene which regulates expression of both lasA and lasB. Images PMID:8132339

  3. Genetic data and de novo mutation rates in father-son pairs of 23 Y-STR loci in Southern Brazil population.

    PubMed

    Da Fré, Nicole Nascimento; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Gastaldo, André Zoratto; Hanson, Erin; Ballantyne, Jack; Alho, Clarice Sampaio

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated haplotype and allele frequencies, as well as statistical forensic parameters, for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) loci of the PowerPlex®Y23 system (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, Y-GATA-H4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS643) in a sample of 150 apparently healthy males, resident in South Brazil. A total of 150 different haplotypes were identified. The highest gene diversity (GD) was observed for the single locus marker DYS570 (GD = 0.7888) and for a two-locus system DYS385 (GD = 0.9009). We also examined 150 father-son pairs by the same system, and a total of 13 mutations were identified in the 3450 father-son allelic transfers, with an overall mutation rate across the 23 loci of 3.768 × 10(-3) (95% CI: 3.542 × 10(-3) to 3.944 × 10(-3)). In all cases there was only one locus mutated with gain/loss of repeats in the son (5 one-repeat gains, and 7 one-repeat and 1 two-repeat losses); we observed no instances of mutations involving a non-integral number of repeats. PMID:25391811

  4. Daniel John Cunningham (1850-1909): anatomist and textbook author, whose sons achieved distinction in the Army, Navy and Indian Medical Service.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Matthew H

    2008-02-01

    Daniel John Cunningham was a son of the manse. His father John (1819-93) was the parish priest at Crieff, Perthshire from 1845 and was to remain there for 41 years. In 1886 he was appointed Principal of St Mary's College of the University of St Andrews and Moderator of the Church of Scotland. Daniel was educated at Crieff Academy before he progressed to the University of Edinburgh. He graduated MB CM with First-class Honours in 1874 and then proceeded MD in 1876 when he was awarded a Gold Medal for his thesis. He acted as Demonstrator to Professor Turner (1832-1916) in Edinburgh for eight years until 1882 and was then appointed to the Chair of Anatomy at the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, in Dublin. After only one year there, he transferred to Trinity College, Dublin, where he occupied a similar position for 20 years. In 1903, on the appointment of Sir William Turner to the post of Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh, Daniel was invited to succeed him as Professor of Anatomy in Edinburgh. Daniel held this post until his premature death in 1909. He had three sons and two daughters. Each of his three sons achieved distinction in different fields - one in the Army, another in the Navy and the third in the Indian Medical Service. One of Daniel's daughters married Dr Edwin Bramwell (1873-1952), who was later to occupy the Moncrieff Arnott Chair of Clinical Medicine in the University of Edinburgh.

  5. Conformal windows of SP(2N) and SO(N) gauge theories from topological excitations on Bbb R3 × S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkar, Siavash

    2009-11-01

    We derive an estimate of the lower boundary of the conformal window of SP(2N) and SO(N) gauge theories with fermionic matter in several different representations. We calculate the index of topological excitations for these groups on the manifold Bbb R3 × S1, from which we deduce the scale of the generation of the mass gap of the theory. This is then used to approximate the critical value of the number of species nf* for the onset of conformality on Bbb R4. We also provide a detailed comparison with other estimates of the conformal window.

  6. Pressure leaching las cruces copper ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezowsky, R. M.; Xue, T.; Collins, M. J.; Makwana, M.; Barton-Jones, I.; Southgate, M.; Maclean, J. K.

    1999-12-01

    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for treating the Las Cruces massive sulfide-ore deposit located near Seville, Spain. A two-stage countercurrent leach process, consisting of an atmospheric leach and a pressure leach, was developed to effectively leach copper from the copper-bearing minerals and to generate a solution suitable for the subsequent solvent-extraction and copper-electrowinning operations. The results of batch and continuous miniplant tests are presented.

  7. LANDSCAPE CHANGE OF THE LAS VEGAS VALLEY, 1972 TO 1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    Las Vegas has become one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States. The cities population has doubled from 1980 to 1994 and in 1995 Las Vegas has surpassed the one million mark. The population of Las Vegas is currently growing at a rate of 7 percent annually....

  8. Deletion involving D15S113 in a mother and son without Angelman syndrome: Refinement of the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelis, R.C.; Skinner, S.A.; Lethco, B.A.

    1995-01-02

    Deletions of 15q11-q13 typically result in Angelman syndrome when inherited from the mother and Prader-Willi syndrome when inherited from the father. The critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome has recently been restricted by a report of an Angelman syndrome patient with a deletion spanning less than 200 kb around the D15S113 locus. We report here on a mother and son with a deletion of chromosome 15 that includes the D15S113 locus. The son has mild to moderate mental retardation and minor anomalies, while the mother has a borderline intellectual deficit and slightly downslanting palpebral fissures. Neither patient has the seizures, excessive laughter and hand clapping, ataxia or the facial anomalies which are characteristic of Angelman syndrome. The proximal boundary of the deletion in our patients lies between the D15S10 and The D15S113 loci. Our patients do not have Angelman syndrome, despite the deletion of the D15S113 marker. This suggests that the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region is now defined as the overlap between the deletion found in the previously reported Angelman syndrome patient and the region that is intact in our patients. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Parents think their sons are brighter than their daughters: sex differences in parental self-estimations and estimations of their children's multiple intelligences.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Reeves, Emma; Budhani, Salima

    2002-03-01

    In this study, 156 participants, predominantly White British adults (M age = 44.3 years) rated themselves on overall IQ and on H. Gardner's (1983) 7 intelligence subtypes. Parents (n = 120) also estimated the intelligence of their children. Men's self-estimates were significantly higher than women's (110.15 vs. 104.84). Participants thought their verbal, mathematical, and spatial intelligence scores were the best indicators of their own overall intelligence. Parents estimated that their sons had significantly higher IQs than their daughters (115.21 vs. 107.49). Self-estimates and estimates of children's multiple intelligences were higher for men and sons, significantly so for logical-mathematical and spatial intelligence. Parents rated 2nd-born daughters as having significantly higher verbal and musical intelligence than their male counterparts. Higher parental IQ self-estimates corresponded with higher IQ estimates for children. Results for 1st-born children were clearest and showed the most significant differences. The findings are interpreted in terms of sociocultural and familial influences and the possibility of actual sex differences in particular abilities.

  10. A new efficient method for determining weighted power spectra: detection of low-frequency solar p-modes by analysis of BiSON data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, S. T.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; New, R.

    2011-08-01

    We present a new and highly efficient algorithm for computing a power spectrum made from evenly spaced data which combines the noise-reducing advantages of the weighted fit with the computational advantages of the fast Fourier transform. We apply this method to a 10-yr data set of the solar p-mode oscillations obtained by the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) and thereby uncover three new low-frequency modes. These are the ℓ= 2, n= 5 and n= 7 modes and the ℓ= 3, n=7 mode. In the case of the ℓ= 2, n= 5 mode, this is believed to be the first such identification of this mode in the literature. The statistical weights needed for the method are derived from a combination of the real data and a sophisticated simulation of the instrument performance. Variations in the weights are due mainly to the differences in the noise characteristics of the various BiSON instruments, the change in those characteristics over time and the changing line-of-sight velocity between the stations and the Sun. It should be noted that a weighted data set will have a more time-dependent signal than an unweighted set and that, consequently, its frequency spectrum will be more susceptible to aliasing.

  11. Sexy sons from re-mating do not recoup the direct costs of harmful male interactions in the Drosophila melanogaster laboratory model system.

    PubMed

    Orteiza, N; Linder, J E; Rice, W R

    2005-09-01

    The empirical foundation for sexual conflict theory is the data from many different taxa demonstrating that females are harmed while interacting with males. However, the interpretation of this keystone evidence has been challenged because females may more than counterbalance the direct costs of interacting with males by the indirect benefits of obtaining higher quality genes for their offspring. A quantification of this trade-off is critical to resolve the controversy and is presented here. A multi-generation fitness assay in the Drosophila melanogaster laboratory model system was used to quantify both the direct costs to females due to interactions with males and indirect benefits via sexy sons. We specifically focus on the interactions that occur between males and nonvirgin females. In the laboratory environment of our base population, females mate soon after eclosion and store sufficient sperm for their entire lifetime, yet males persistently court these nonvirgin females and frequently succeed in re-mating them. Females may benefit from these interactions despite direct costs to their lifetime fecundity if re-mating allows them to trade-up to mates of higher genetic quality and thereby secure indirect benefits for their offspring. We found that direct costs of interactions between males and nonvirgin females substantially exceeded indirect benefits through sexy sons. These data, in combination with past studies of the good genes route of indirect benefits, demonstrate that inter-sexual interactions drive sexually antagonistic co-evolution in this model system.

  12. When Parents Separate and One Parent 'Comes Out' as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual: Sons and Daughters Engage with the Tension that Occurs When Their Family Unit Changes.

    PubMed

    Daly, Siobhán C; MacNeela, Pádraig; MacNeela, Pádriag; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-01-01

    The experiences of Irish sons and daughters born into heterosexually-organised parental partnerships/unions whose parents have separated and one has come out as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual (LGB) were explored through a grounded theory approach. 15 adult children (over the age of 18 years), who varied in age when their parents separated and one disclosed as LGB, were interviewed. The primary concern that emerged centred on participants having to adjust to their parents' being separated, as opposed to their parent being LGB. This involved engaging with the tension that arose from the loss of the parental union, which involved changes to the home environment and adapting to new parental partners and family units. Heightened reflection on sexual orientation and an increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice were specifically associated with a parent coming out as LGB. How parents negotiated disclosing the changes to others, the level of support available to parents, and how capable parents were at maintaining the parent-child relationship had an impact on the tension experienced by sons and daughters. Participants moved from initially avoiding and resisting the family changes that were occurring to gradual consonance with their altered family environments. Concluding directions for research and clinical considerations are suggested. PMID:26710277

  13. When Parents Separate and One Parent 'Comes Out' as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual: Sons and Daughters Engage with the Tension that Occurs When Their Family Unit Changes.

    PubMed

    Daly, Siobhán C; MacNeela, Pádraig; MacNeela, Pádriag; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-01-01

    The experiences of Irish sons and daughters born into heterosexually-organised parental partnerships/unions whose parents have separated and one has come out as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual (LGB) were explored through a grounded theory approach. 15 adult children (over the age of 18 years), who varied in age when their parents separated and one disclosed as LGB, were interviewed. The primary concern that emerged centred on participants having to adjust to their parents' being separated, as opposed to their parent being LGB. This involved engaging with the tension that arose from the loss of the parental union, which involved changes to the home environment and adapting to new parental partners and family units. Heightened reflection on sexual orientation and an increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice were specifically associated with a parent coming out as LGB. How parents negotiated disclosing the changes to others, the level of support available to parents, and how capable parents were at maintaining the parent-child relationship had an impact on the tension experienced by sons and daughters. Participants moved from initially avoiding and resisting the family changes that were occurring to gradual consonance with their altered family environments. Concluding directions for research and clinical considerations are suggested.

  14. Parents think their sons are brighter than their daughters: sex differences in parental self-estimations and estimations of their children's multiple intelligences.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Reeves, Emma; Budhani, Salima

    2002-03-01

    In this study, 156 participants, predominantly White British adults (M age = 44.3 years) rated themselves on overall IQ and on H. Gardner's (1983) 7 intelligence subtypes. Parents (n = 120) also estimated the intelligence of their children. Men's self-estimates were significantly higher than women's (110.15 vs. 104.84). Participants thought their verbal, mathematical, and spatial intelligence scores were the best indicators of their own overall intelligence. Parents estimated that their sons had significantly higher IQs than their daughters (115.21 vs. 107.49). Self-estimates and estimates of children's multiple intelligences were higher for men and sons, significantly so for logical-mathematical and spatial intelligence. Parents rated 2nd-born daughters as having significantly higher verbal and musical intelligence than their male counterparts. Higher parental IQ self-estimates corresponded with higher IQ estimates for children. Results for 1st-born children were clearest and showed the most significant differences. The findings are interpreted in terms of sociocultural and familial influences and the possibility of actual sex differences in particular abilities. PMID:11952262

  15. Abundancias químicas de las estrellas CP del grupo HgMn μ Leporis y 53 Tauri. II. Boro, Berilio, Carbono, Magnesio, Aluminio y Silicio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, Z.; Malaroda, S. M.; Faraggiana, R.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de los elementos más livianos presentes en dos estrellas CP del grupo HgMn, μ Lep y 53 Tau, utilizando espectros IUE de alta resolución y técnicas de cálculo de espectros sintéticos. Para el cálculo de las líneas se utiliza la lista mas completa de datos atómicos disponible y el programa SYNTHE. Para el cálculo de la abundancia de un elemento se comparan, para cada imagen, los perfiles observados del mayor número de líneas presentes con los perfiles calculados obtenidos por variación de las abundancias iniciales, reteniendo la abundancia para la cual el acuerdo entre las líneas observadas y calculadas es considerado visualmente el mejor. Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con los estimados por la teoría de la difusión.

  16. Regiones de formación de estrellas masivas en las Nubes de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbá, R.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Rubio, M.; Walborn, N.

    Las Nubes de Magallanes son un laboratorio formidable para el estudio de regiones de formación estelar. A diferencia de lo que sucede en el plano galáctico, ambas galaxias contienen poco polvo que nos afecte la visión directa de dichas regiones. Por otra parte, la menor metalicidad de las Nubes, nos permiten hacer un estudio comparativo de la formación estelar en ambientes de baja metalicidad. El presente trabajo da una revisión de los progresos notables que hemos alcanzado en el conocimiento del contenido estelar de algunas regiones de formación de estrellas masivas en ambas Nubes, en base a la utilización de imágenes del Telescopio Espacial Hubble, Gemini Sur, y Very Large Telescope, entre otros. En especial, nos concentramos en 30 Doradus y N11 en la Nube Mayor, y en NGC 346 en la Nube Menor. Nuevas imágenes de N11 obtenidas en los últimos meses con la Advanced Camera for Surveys del Hubble (óptico), y con Flamingos en Gemini Sur (infrarrojo), nos han permitido descubrir un nuevo `jet' con origen en una fuente infrarroja sumergida en un pilar polvoriento similar al objeto Herbig-Haro de M20 en nuestra galaxia. Este `jet' (junto a otros tres que hemos descubierto en 30 Doradus), es el cuarto ejemplo confirmado de `jet' asociado a una protoestrella fuera de nuestra galaxia. Además, presentamos el descubrimiento del primer objeto estelar joven masivo de la Nube Menor confirmado espectroscópicamente.

  17. Oculofacialbulbar palsy in mother and son: review of 26 reports of familial transmission within the 'Möbius spectrum of defects'.

    PubMed Central

    MacDermot, K D; Winter, R M; Taylor, D; Baraitser, M

    1991-01-01

    We report a mother and son with 5th, 6th, 7th, and bulbar cranial nerve paralysis, who had two similarly affected relatives. None of them had primary skeletal defects. Twenty-six previous reports of familial cases within the heterogeneous 'Möbius spectrum of defects' were reviewed. When cranial nerve palsies were associated with a primary skeletal defect, familial transmission was not found. No recurrence was noted in 31 cases with cranial nerve palsies associated with oral abnormalities and limb defects. The term Möbius syndrome should be restricted to cases with congenital 6th and 7th nerve paralysis with skeletal defects, who have a low recurrence risk (2%). The features in an index case which may indicate a higher risk of recurrence are the absence of skeletal defects, isolated facial palsy, deafness, ophthalmoplegia, and digital contractures. A recurrence risk of 25 to 30% in these cases appears reasonable. Images PMID:1999828

  18. [Applicability of the SON-R 6-40 in children with hearing impairment and children with diverse cultural and language backgrounds].

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Anne; Heinze, Lisa; Lipsius, Maike; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Certain aspects of the use of the Snijders-Oomen Non-verbal Intelligence Test (SON-R 6-40) in clinical and educational assessment of children with hearing impairment and children from immigrant families are discussed. Test results of 35 children per group have been compared to the data from a German-speaking control group, matched by age, sex and educational achievement of both parents. Specific differences between the three groups on both subtest and IQ levels are demonstrated. This paper provides scoring results for the three groups and discusses the differences between the test profiles. The test can be accomplished with children who have special educational needs. Results also prove the usefulness of a non verbal test in the assessment of cognitive abilities in clinical-diagnostic questions. PMID:22462294

  19. DNA analysis of a grandfather-father-son relationship from 300-year-old remains of the Date clan in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchihi, R; Yamamoto, T; Nozawa, H; Tamaki, K; Ozawa, T; Yamada, T K; Katsumata, Y

    1998-04-01

    The grandfather-father-son relationship of the first three lords of the Date clan in Japan was ascertained by HLA-DNA sequencing analysis. From their hairs and dried lung tissue found in ca. 300-year-old remains, DNA was extracted with usual phenol-chloroform method followed by purification with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Two HLA class II genes, HLA-DQA1 and -DPB1, were amplified by seminested, or dual/triple PCR. The PCR products were cloned and analyzed by automated sequencing. Since the three lords shared a haplotype of DQA1*0301-DPB1*0402, we concluded that there is no inconsistency in their lineage. This is the first case of biological evidence for a historical Samurai family relationship in the 17-18th centuries.

  20. Le fibromatosis colli ou torticolis congénital: son diagnostic et sa prise en charge à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Tchaou, Mazamaesso; Pegbessou, Plaodezina Essobozou; Sonhaye, Lantam; Ahouanssou, Patricia Yékpé; Amadou, Abdoulatif; Kolou, Beresa; Kama, Lidi Bessi; Garba, Nouhou Mahamadou; Koussema, Lama Kegdigoma Agoda; N'dakéna, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Le fibromatosis colli (FC) est pseudotumeur rare du muscle sterno-cléido-mastoïdien (SCM), à l'origine d'un torticolis dit congénital chez le nouveau-né ou le nourrisson. Le mécanisme étio-pathogénique de sa survenue est sujet à controverse. Son diagnostic fait appel à l’échographie qui permet de mettre en évidence un épaississement caractéristique du muscle. Nous rapportons deux cas diagnostiqués par l’échographie avec pour un cas une notion de malposition intra-utérine et pour l'autre cas une absence totale de malposition et de traumatisme obstétrical qui pourtant est évoqué comme élément du mécanisme de survenue du FC. PMID:26834927

  1. Dissolution rate of borosilicate glass SON68: A method of quantification based upon interferometry and implications for experimental and natural weathering rates of glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Steefel, Carl I.

    2015-05-01

    Rates of glass dissolution from laboratory and field studies are often considered to be irreconcilable, although potential causes for the difference, such as solution saturation state and increasing surface area from progressive weathering, have not been explored in depth. The dissolution rate of SON68 glass, the non-radioactive analog of the French R7T7 composition, was determined in a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) system at 90 °C and pH 9 over a silica-saturation interval. Dissolution rates were determined on both powdered and monolithic specimens by assaying the concentration of elements released from glass to effluent solution. In addition, rates of 12 monolithic specimens were quantified using a Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) method. The method entails measuring the difference in height between a reference and reaction surface. The height difference is proportional to the dissolution rate. By adjusting the relative position of the reacted surface to average surface roughness, the effects of surface area on the dissolution rate can be minimized. Values of the dissolution rate, based upon chemical assay of the effluent solution on the one hand, and VSI methods on the other, were compared. In general, rates determined by the two methods are within a factor of 2×. The difference in rates may be due to the presence of a reaction layer that develops on the glass surface, resulting in an underestimation of the height difference measurement. The dissolution rates of SON68 glass in silica-saturated solutions were then compared to rates previously determined on basalt glass in natural weathering environments (Gordon and Brady, 2002, Chem. Geol. 190, 113-122). When adjusted for differences in temperature and pH, the ranges of borosilicate and basalt glass dissolution rates overlap, indicating that laboratory and field rates can be reconciled and that the principal control on glass dissolution is solution saturation with respect to amorphous silica.

  2. Effects of A-CREB, a dominant negative inhibitor of CREB, on the expression of c-fos and other immediate early genes in the rat SON during hyperosmotic stimulation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lubelski, Daniel; Ponzio, Todd A.; Gainer, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of hypertonic saline to the rat supraoptic nucleus (SON) increases the expression of several immediate early genes (IEG) and the vasopressin gene. These increases have usually been attributed to action of the cyclic-AMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB). In this paper, we study the role of CREB in these events in vivo by delivering a potent dominant-negative form of CREB, known as A-CREB, to the rat SON through the use of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector. Preliminary experiments on HEK 293 cells in vitro showed that the A-CREB vector that we used completely eliminated CREB-induced c-fos expression. We stereotaxically injected this AAV-A-CREB into one SON and a control AAV into the contralateral SON of the same rat. Two weeks following these injections we injected hypertonic saline intraperitoneally into the rat. Using this paradigm, we could measure the relative effects of inhibiting CREB on the induced expression of c-fos, ngfi-a, ngfi-b, and vasopressin genes in the A-CREB AAV injected SON versus the control AAV injected SON in the same rat. We found only a small (20%) decrease of c-fos expression and a 30% decrease of ngfi-b expression in the presence of the A-CREB. There were no significant changes in expression found in the other IEGs nor in vasopressin that were produced by the A-CREB. This suggests that CREB may play only a minor role in the expression of IEGs and vasopressin in the osmotically activated SON in vivo. PMID:22079318

  3. Las Vegas Basin Seismic Response Project: Preliminary Results From Seismic Refraction Experiments, Las Vegas, NV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaragoza, S. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Harder, S. H.; Kaip, G.; Luke, B.; Buck, B. J.; Hanson, A. D.

    2002-12-01

    In May and September 2002, seismic refraction data were acquired in the Las Vegas basin. Located in the southern Basin and Range province, the cities of Las Vegas, North Las Vegas, and Henderson sit atop a fault-bounded basin with a depth of up to 5 km and basin dimensions of roughly 60 km wide (east-west) by 50 km in length (north-south). Previous isostatic gravity, seismic reflection, and aeromagnetic studies indicate that a series of sub-basins exist beneath the unconsolidated basin fill, with the deepest sub-basin occurring 5 km west of the fault block bounding the eastern edge of the basin (Frenchman Mountain). The basin is significantly deeper along its northern extremity, following the path of the fault block bounding the northern edge of the basin (Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone), and along the western edge of Frenchman Mountain. Recent, paleoseismic studies have indicated that faults in the Las Vegas region have the potential for an earthquake of M6.5 to 7.0. It is estimated that a M6.9 earthquake in the basin could produce about 11 billion dollars in damage and a significant number of deaths and/or injuries. In addition, an equivalent or larger event in the Death Valley fault zone, 150 km distance, would also be devastating to the metropolitan area of approximately 1.5 million residents. Therefore, it is essential to understand the seismic hazard posed to the Las Vegas region. This project is part of a larger collaborative effort to characterize the basin and its response to ground shaking. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas with assistance from the University of Texas at El Paso, students from UNLV and UTEP, volunteers from the community and several students from Centennial High school deployed 432 portable seismic recorders ("Texans") throughout the valley. Shot point locations were located at three quarries in the valley, one to the north, one to the east and one to the southwest. The profiles cross the Las Vegas Valley Shear zone as well as a prominent

  4. Magnetic Data Interpretation for the Source-Edge Locations in Parts of the Tectonically Active Transition Zone of the Narmada-Son Lineament in Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, G. K.

    2016-02-01

    The study has been carried out in the transition zone of the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL) which is seismically active with various geological complexities, upwarp movement of the mantle material into the crust through fault, fractures lamination and upwelling. NSL is one of the most prominent lineaments in central India after the Himalaya in the Indian geology. The area of investigation extends from longitude 80.25°E to 81.50°E and latitude 23.50°N to 24.37°N in the central part of the Indian continent. Different types of subsurface geological formations viz. alluvial, Gondwana, Deccan traps, Vindhyan, Mahakoshal, Granite and Gneisses groups exist in this area with varying geological ages. In this study area tectonic movement and crustal variation have been taken place during the past time and which might be reason for the variation of magnetic field. Magnetic anomaly suggests that the area has been highly disturbed which causes the Narmada-Son lineament trending in the ENE-WSW direction. Magnetic anomaly variation has been taken place due to the lithological variations subject to the changes in the geological contacts like thrusts and faults in this area. Shallow and deeper sources have been distinguished using frequency domain analysis by applying different filters. To enhance the magnetic data, various types of derivatives to identify the source-edge locations of the causative source bodies. The present study carried out the interpretation using total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative, horizontal tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative map to get source-edge locations. The results derived from various derivatives of magnetic data have been compared with the basement depth solutions calculated from 3D Euler deconvolution. It is suggested that total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative are the most useful tools for identifying the multiple source edge locations of the causative bodies in this tectonically active

  5. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa (Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters.

    PubMed

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (∼200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  6. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  7. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa (Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters.

    PubMed

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (∼200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes. PMID:27216175

  8. Evidence for an extensive intrusive component of the Deccan Large Igneous Province in the Narmada Son Lineament region, India from three dimensional magnetotelluric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patro, Prasanta K.; Sarma, S. V. S.

    2016-10-01

    The crustal electrical structure beneath the western segment of Narmada-Son lineament zone in Central India has been imaged using magnetotelluric (MT) data set of 153 stations distributed over a grid (∼7-8 km site spacing). Three dimensional modeling of this data set brought out several major crustal conductors with different geometries at different depth levels in the crustal column. The conductive features, correlating with gravity high anomalies and high seismic velocity zones are interpreted to be mafic-ultramafic bodies derived from mantle. We infer that these bodies represent the intrusive component of the Large Igneous Province (LIP) of the Deccan volcanic episode triggered by the passage of the Indian continent over the Reunion hot spot during the Late Cretaceous. The disposition and the geometry of the subsurface magmatic bodies, which must have served as magma chambers for outpouring of the Deccan lavas, suggest that they are closely related to the plumbing geometry of the LIP of the Deccan volcanic episode.

  9. Materials characterization activities for %E2%80%9CTake Our Sons&Daughters to Work Day%E2%80%9D 2013.

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Pimentel, Adam S.; Sparks, Elizabeth Schares; Hanlon, Brittany Paula

    2013-09-01

    We created interactive demonstration activities for Take Our Daughters&Sons to Work Day (TODSTWD) 2013 in order to promote general interest in chemistry and also generate awareness of the type of work our laboratories can perform. %E2%80%9CCurious about Mars Rover Curiosity?%E2%80%9D performed an elemental analysis on rocks brought to our lab using the same technique utilized on the planet Mars by the NASA robotic explorer Curiosity. %E2%80%9CFood is Chemistry?%E2%80%9D utilized a mass spectrometer to measure, in seconds, each participant's breath in order to identify the food item consumed for the activity. A total of over 130 children participated in these activities over a 3 hour block, and feedback was positive. This document reports the materials (including handouts), experimental procedures, and lessons learned so that future demonstrations can benefit from the baseline work performed. We also present example results used to prepare the Food activity and example results collected during the Curiosity demo.

  10. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence*

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L.; Embrey, Kevin J.; Golovanov, Alexander P.

    2016-01-01

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly 15N-labeled Ras as well as [13C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions. PMID:26565026

  11. Generativity, hierarchical action and recursion in the technology of the Acheulean to Middle Palaeolithic transition: a perspective from Patpara, the Son Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Shipton, C; Clarkson, C; Pal, J N; Jones, S C; Roberts, R G; Harris, C; Gupta, M C; Ditchfield, P W; Petraglia, M D

    2013-08-01

    The Acheulean to Middle Palaeolithic transition is one of the most important technological changes that occurs over the course of human evolution. Here we examine stone artefact assemblages from Patpara and two other excavated sites in the Middle Son Valley, India, which show a mosaic of attributes associated with Acheulean and Middle Palaeolithic industries. The bifaces from these sites are very refined and generally small, but also highly variable in size. A strong relationship between flake scar density and biface size indicates extensive differential resharpening. There are relatively low proportions of bifaces at these sites, with more emphasis on small flake tools struck from recurrent Levallois cores. The eventual demise of large bifaces may be attributed to the curation of small prepared cores from which sharper, or more task-specific flakes were struck. Levallois technology appears to have arisen out of adapting aspects of handaxe knapping, including shaping of surfaces, the utilization of two inter-dependent surfaces, and the striking of invasive thinning flakes. The generativity, hierarchical organization of action, and recursion evident in recurrent Levallois technology may be attributed to improvements in working memory.

  12. Crustal thickness mapping in Raipur-Katni area of Narmada-Son lineament in central India derived from 3D Euler deconvolution of magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, G. K.; Singh, C. L.

    2013-10-01

    The Narmada-Son lineament (NSL) is one of the most prominent tectonic features which divides the Indian peninsula into two subcontinents, northern and southern India since Precambrian times. The area is seismically active and geologically complex with different geological formations. Magnetic data divides the area into two parts and more prominent magnetic highs are observed near Tikwa, Mau and Amarpur regions with 800, 600 and 400 nT, respectively due to the presence of the crystalline basement rock. Tectonic resettlement and lithological changes causes upwarpment of Mahakoshal rocks. In the present study, magnetic data interpretation is carried out for locating depth of causative body and delineating structural fault/dyke boundaries using Euler deconvolution technique. Most of the faults are oriented in the ENE-WSW direction; however, few more faults are identified which are oriented in the SE to NW direction. These fault patterns suggest that the area is exaggerated by tectonic turmoil and distressed both sedimentary to basement rocks isolating the area into numerous faulted blocks. The maximum depths (>4.5 km) observed at Katni and Umaria area and moderate depths (between 4.0 and 4.5 km) observed towards east of Katni, Ramnagar, Burwa and east of Umaria and Sarna area.

  13. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-01-22

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly (15)N-labeled Ras as well as [(13)C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions.

  14. Perspectivas para mejorar la salud sexual de las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence; Sun, Christina J.; Andrade, Mario; Villatoro, Guillermo; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala son afectadas de manera desproporcionada por el VIH y otras infecciones transmitidas sexualmente (ITS). Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los factores que contribuyen al riesgo de infección en estas minorías. Investigadores de Estados Unidos y Guatemala quisimos informarnos sobre las necesidades de salud sexual e identificar características de programas de prevención de VIH/ITS para estas minorías. Llevamos a cabo 8 grupos focales con hombres gay, bisexuales y personas transgénero y entrevistas en profundidad con líderes comunitarios. Utilizamos el Método Comparativo Constante para analizar las transcripciones. Identificamos 24 factores que influyen en la salud sexual y 16 características de programas para reducir el riesgo de VIH/ITS en estas poblaciones. La identificación de factores de conductas sexuales de riesgo y de características de programas potencialmente efectivos ofrece gran potencial para desarrollar intervenciones que contribuyan a reducir el riesgo de infección por VIH/ITS en estas minorías en Guatemala. PMID:27494000

  15. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. M.; Baliber, N.; Bianco, F. B.; Bowman, M.; Burleson, B.; Conway, P.; Crellin, M.; Depagne, É.; De Vera, J.; Dilday, B.; Dragomir, D.; Dubberley, M.; Eastman, J. D.; Elphick, M.; Falarski, M.; Foale, S.; Ford, M.; Fulton, B. J.; Garza, J.; Gomez, E. L.; Graham, M.; Greene, R.; Haldeman, B.; Hawkins, E.; Haworth, B.; Haynes, R.; Hidas, M.; Hjelstrom, A. E.; Howell, D. A.; Hygelund, J.; Lister, T. A.; Lobdill, R.; Martinez, J.; Mullins, D. S.; Norbury, M.; Parrent, J.; Paulson, R.; Petry, D. L.; Pickles, A.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W. E.; Ross, R.; Sand, D. J.; Saunders, E. S.; Shobbrook, J.; Shporer, A.; Street, R. A.; Thomas, D.; Tsapras, Y.; Tufts, J. R.; Valenti, S.; Vander Horst, K.; Walker, Z.; White, G.; Willis, M.

    2013-09-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a young organization dedicated to time-domain observations at optical and (potentially) near-IR wavelengths. To this end, LCOGT is constructing a worldwide network of telescopes, including the two 2 m Faulkes telescopes, as many as 17 × 1 m telescopes, and as many as 23 × 40 cm telescopes. These telescopes initially will be outfitted for imaging and (excepting the 40 cm telescopes) spectroscopy at wavelengths between the atmospheric UV cutoff and the roughly 1-μm limit of silicon detectors. Since the first of LCOGT's 1 m telescopes are now being deployed, we lay out here LCOGT's scientific goals and the requirements that these goals place on network architecture and performance, we summarize the network's present and projected level of development, and we describe our expected schedule for completing it. In the bulk of the paper, we describe in detail the technical approaches that we have adopted to attain desired performance. In particular, we discuss our choices for the number and location of network sites, for the number and sizes of telescopes, for the specifications of the first generation of instruments, for the software that will schedule and control the network's telescopes and reduce and archive its data, and for the structure of the scientific and educational programs for which the network will provide observations.

  16. Radioxenon Atmospheric Measurements in North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrath, Brian D.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Lidey, Lance S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Karr, L.; Shafer, David S.; Tappen, J.

    2007-09-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) deployed the Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) in North Las Vegas for two weeks in February and March 2006 for the purpose of measuring the radioxenon background at a level of sensitivity much higher than previously done in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The measurements establish what might be expected if future measurements are taken at NTS itself and investigate improved methods of environmental monitoring of NTS for test site readiness. Also, such radioxenon measurements have not previously been performed in a United States location considered to be as remote from nuclear reactors. A second detector, the Portable Environmental Monitoring Station (PEMS), built and operated by the Desert Research Institute (DRI), was deployed in conjunction with the ARSA and contained a pressure ion chamber, aerosol collection filters, and meteorological sensors. Some of the radioxenon measurements detected 133Xe at levels up to 3 mBq/m3. This concentration of radioxenon is consistent with the observation of low levels of radioxenon emanating from distance nuclear reactors. Previous measurements in areas of high nuclear reactor concentration have shown similar results, but the western US, in general, does not have many nuclear reactors. Measurements of the wind direction indicate that the air carrying the radioxenon came from south of the detector and not from the NTS.

  17. LAS - LAND ANALYSIS SYSTEM, VERSION 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, P. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an image analysis system designed to manipulate and analyze digital data in raster format and provide the user with a wide spectrum of functions and statistical tools for analysis. LAS offers these features under VMS with optional image display capabilities for IVAS and other display devices as well as the X-Windows environment. LAS provides a flexible framework for algorithm development as well as for the processing and analysis of image data. Users may choose between mouse-driven commands or the traditional command line input mode. LAS functions include supervised and unsupervised image classification, film product generation, geometric registration, image repair, radiometric correction and image statistical analysis. Data files accepted by LAS include formats such as Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The enhanced geometric registration package now includes both image to image and map to map transformations. The over 200 LAS functions fall into image processing scenario categories which include: arithmetic and logical functions, data transformations, fourier transforms, geometric registration, hard copy output, image restoration, intensity transformation, multispectral and statistical analysis, file transfer, tape profiling and file management among others. Internal improvements to the LAS code have eliminated the VAX VMS dependencies and improved overall system performance. The maximum LAS image size has been increased to 20,000 lines by 20,000 samples with a maximum of 256 bands per image. The catalog management system used in earlier versions of LAS has been replaced by a more streamlined and maintenance-free method of file management. This system is not dependent on VAX/VMS and relies on file naming conventions alone to allow the use of identical LAS file names on different operating systems. While the LAS code has been improved, the original capabilities

  18. Results of borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in the John Wagner and Sons, Inc former production well, Ivyland, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    A suite of borehole geophysical logs and heat-pulse-flowmeter measurements run in the former production well at the John Wagner and Sons, Inc. plant indicate two zones of borehole flow. In the upper part of the well, water enters the borehole through a fracture at 90 ft (feet) below floor level, moves upward, and exits the borehole through a fracture at 72 ft below floor level. Water also enters the borehole through fractures at 205-213, 235, and 357 ft below floor level; moves downward; and exits the borehole through fractures at 450-459, 468-470, and 483-490 ft below floor level. Five zones were selected for aquifer-isolation (packer) tests on the basis of borehole geophysical logs. The zones were isolated using a straddle-packer assembly. The lowermost three zones (below 248, 223 to 248, and 198 to 223 ft below floor level) were hydraulically isolated from zones above and below. Specific capacities were 0.12, 0.034, and 0.15 gallons per minute per foot, respectively. The hydrograph from zone 2 (223 to 248 ft below floor level) showed interference from a nearby pumping well. For the upper two zones (81 to 106 and 57 to 81 ft below floor level), similar drawdowns in the isolated zone and the zones above and below the isolated zone indicate that these fractures are hydraulically connected outside the borehole in the unconfined part of the Stockton Formation. The specific capacity of zones 4 and 5 are similar--0.82 and 0.61, respectively.

  19. Patterns of HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in the cross-border area of Lang Son Province, Vietnam, and Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Johnston, Patrick; Friedmann, Patricia; Kling, Ryan; Liu, Wei; Ngu, Doan; Chen, Yi; Hoang, Tran V; Donghua, Meng; Van, Ly K; Tung, Nguyen D; Binh, Kieu T; Hammett, Theodore M

    2005-01-01

    Background To assess patterns of injecting drug use and HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) in an international border area along a major heroin trans-shipment route. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of IDUs in 5 sites in Lang Son Province, Vietnam (n = 348) and 3 sites in Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China (n = 308). Respondents were recruited through peer referral ("snowball") methods in both countries, and also from officially recorded lists of IDUs in Vietnam. A risk behavior questionnaire was administered and HIV counseling and testing conducted. Results Participants in both countries were largely male, in their 20s, and unmarried. A majority of subjects in both countries were members of ethnic minority groups. There were strong geographic gradients for length of drug injecting and for HIV seroprevalence. Both mean years injecting and HIV seroprevalence declined from the Vietnamese site farthest from the border to the Chinese site farthest from the border. 10.6% of participants in China and 24.5% of participants in Vietnam reported crossing the international border in the 6 months prior to interview. Crossing the border by IDUs was associated with (1) distance from the border, (2) being a member of an ethnic minority group, and (3) being HIV seropositive among Chinese participants. Conclusion Reducing the international spread of HIV among IDUs will require programs at the global, regional, national, and "local cross border" levels. At the local cross border level, the programs should be coordinated on both sides of the border and on a sufficient scale that IDUs will be able to readily obtain clean injection equipment on the other side of the border as well as in their country of residence. PMID:16120225

  20. Late Pleistocene monsoon variability in northwest Thailand: an oxygen isotope sequence from the bivalve Margaritanopsis laosensis excavated in Mae Hong Son province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marwick, Ben; Gagan, Michael K.

    2011-10-01

    Long, continuous records of Late Quaternary environmental change are rare in Southeast Asia, yet they are crucial for understanding the nature of early human dispersal and occupation in the Australasian region. We present a new record of palaeomonsoon activity extending back to 35,000 BP (years before the present), based on the analysis of oxygen isotope ratios (δ 18O) in the freshwater bivalve Margaritanopsis laosensis excavated from the Tham Lod and Ban Rai rockshelters in Mae Hong Son Province, northwest Thailand. Long-term changes in the M. laosensis δ 18O record reflect changes in the δ 18O of the river water in which these organisms grew, and correlate well with changes in speleothem δ 18O records of east Asian monsoon rainfall from Hulu Cave and Dongge Cave in China. The new northwest Thailand δ 18O sequence indicates wetter and relatively unstable climatic conditions from 35,000 to 20,000 BP, followed by drier conditions from 20,000 to 11,500 BP. A period of peak aridity occurred around 15,600 BP during Heinrich Event 1, suggesting that the intertropical convergence zone shifted southward when the North Atlantic region cooled. However, there is little evidence for the Younger Dryas event at ˜12,800-11,500 BP. After 9,800 BP, precipitation increased substantially and climatic variability declined. Our findings provide an improved baseline against which to gauge interactions between early humans and climate change in Southeast Asia. For example, there was no significant change in the prehistoric flake stone technology used at Tham Lod and Ban Rai despite the bivalve δ 18O evidence for substantial climate change in the region. Also, the climatic impact of the Younger Dryas event appears to have been less intense in northwest Thailand compared to the cooling and drying observed in China, and may explain why agriculture made a relatively late appearance in Thailand, possibly involving migrants from China.

  1. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants.

    PubMed

    Temmink, H; Klapwijk, Bram

    2004-02-01

    Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg l(-1) and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27 days. Effluent and waste sludge concentrations varied between 5 and 10 microg l(-1) and between 37 and 69 microg g(-1) VSS, respectively. In the sludge samples only 2-8% was present as dissolved LAS-C12, whereas the remaining 92-98% was found to be adsorbed to the sludge. In spite of this high degree of sorption, more than 99% of the LAS-C12 load was removed by biodegradation, showing that not only the soluble fraction but also the adsorbed fraction of LAS-C12 is readily available for biodegradation. Sorption and biodegradation of LAS-C12 were also investigated separately. Sorption was an extremely fast and reversible process and could be described by a linear isotherm with a partition coefficient of 3.2 l g(-1) volatile suspended solids. From the results of biodegradation kinetic tests it was concluded that primary biodegradation of LAS-C12 cannot be described by a (growth) Monod model, but a secondary utilisation model should be used instead. The apparent affinity of the sludge to biodegrade LAS-C12 increased when the sludge was loaded with higher influent concentrations of LAS-C12.

  2. The Land Analysis System (LAS) for multispectral image processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wharton, S. W.; Lu, Y. C.; Quirk, Bruce K.; Oleson, Lyndon R.; Newcomer, J. A.; Irani, Frederick M.

    1988-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system available in the public domain for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete online and hard-copy documentation, extensive image-data file management, reformatting, conversion utilities, and high-level device independent access to image display hardware. The authors summarize the capabilities of the current release of LAS (version 4.0) and discuss plans for future development. Particular emphasis is given to the issue of system portability and the importance of removing and/or isolating hardware and software dependencies.

  3. Biodegradation of the french reference nuclear glass SON 68 by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans : protective effect of the biofilm,U and REE retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, M.; Crovisier, J.; Stille, P.; Boutin, R.; Vuilleumier, S.; Geoffroy, V.

    2008-12-01

    Although underground nuclear waste repositories are not expected to be favourable places for microbial activity, one should not exclude localized action of extremophilic bacteria on some materials involved in the storage concept. Among endogenous or accidentally introduced acidophiles, some are susceptible to lead to a locally drastic decreased in pH with potential consequences on materials corrosion. Experiments were performed with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on 100-125 μm french reference nuclear glass SON68 grains in a mineral medium under static conditions during 60 days at 25°C. Growth medium was periodically renewed and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS spectrometry for both major, traces and ultra-traces elements. Biofilm formation was evidenced by confocal laser microscopy, staining DNA with ethidium bromide and exopolysaccharides with calcofluor white. Biofilm thickness around material grains exceeded 20 μm under the chosen experimental conditions. It can be noticed that while numerous studies on biofilm formation upon interaction between Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and materials can be found in the literature, evidence for biofilm formation is still scarce for the case of the acidophilic bacterium A. thiooxidans. Presence of biofilm is a key parameter for material alteration at the solid/solution interface in biotic systems. Indeed, various constitutive elements of materials trapped in the polyanionic polymer of biofilm may also influence the alteration process. In particular, biofilm may reduce the alteration rate of materials by forming a protective barrier at their surface (Aouad et al., 2008). In this study, glass alteration rates, determined using strontium, molybdenum and caesium as tracers, showed that the biofilm has a protective effect against glass alteration. U and REE are efficiently trapped in the biogenic compartment of the system (exopolysaccharides (EPS) + bacterial cells). Biofilm analysis are in progress to determine whether these

  4. Environmental behavior of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in aquatic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongyuan; Tan, Yuyun; Korte, F.

    1991-03-01

    LAS degradation rate in Donghu Lake water under aerobic was much faster than under anaerobic condition. The half life of LAS in aerobic and anaerobic environment was 3.2 days and 57 days, respectively. The degradation rate at 25 27°C was approximately 20 times higher than that at 1.5 3.5 °C. In a laboratory model aquatic ecosystem, two stages of bioconcentration in fish, daphnia and snail were observed. The first stage, on second day exposure, resulted from accumulation of intact LAS, and the second stage, on 16th day exposure, was due to metabolites. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of LAS was extremely low in the muscle of hybrid carp (0.64), but rather high (2485) in the gall bladder.

  5. Modification et caractérisation de la surface de fibres de verre pour son insertion postérieure dans des matériaux cimentaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bismarck, A.; Ajuriagojeaskoa, E. E.; Springer, J.; Habel, W. R.

    1999-07-01

    Optical fibres are widely used as physical and mechanical sensors in various matrices. Those commercial available fibres are mostly coated with different polymers (e.g. polyimide). The problem of using such coatings is the undefined adhesion and the stress transmission from the matrix material into the fibre as well as the alkaline attack from the cementitious environments onto the glass surface. Therefore the known silanisation process with alkylsilanes for surface modification was studied. To achieve a silane film onto the fibre surface as close as possible a fibre pre-treatment in oxygen plasma was applied. The wetting behaviour of the oxygen plasma treated fibres as well as the silanized fibres were studied using the Wilhelmy-method. The influence of the silane concentration and the time of the pre-treatment on the wetting properties was investigated. By scanning electron microscopy, changes of the surface morphology were detected. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the oxygen plasma treated fibres, and silanized fibres exposed to a highly alkaline pore solution were measured. For selected fibre samples (decoated and untreated as well as silanized fibres) the adhesion to a concrete matrix was studied using the indention test. Les fibres optiques sont de plus en plus utilisées comme capteurs des propriétés physiques et mécaniques de nombreuses matrices. Ces fibres commerciales sont généralement enrobées avec différents polymères (par exemple polyimide). Les problèmes dus à l'enrobage des fibres optiques sont une adhésion et une transmission de charge de la matrice du béton à la fibre non définies. Un autre problème majeur est l'alcalinité du béton et son influence sur la surface de la fibre. Nous avons utilisé le procédé de silanisation. Pour obtenir un film de silane le plus homogène possible sur la surface, les fibres sont pré-traitées par le plasma d?oxygène. Le mouillage de fibres traitées par le plasma d?oxygène, ainsi que

  6. Transplantation rénale au Maroc: l'hémodialysé et son entourage sont-ils suffisamment informés?

    PubMed Central

    Noto-Kadou-Kaza, Béfa; Sabi, Kossi Akomola; Imangue, Ghislain; Al-Torayhi, Mays Hadi; Amekoudi, Eyram Yoan Makafui; Tsevi, Claude Mawufemo; Zamd, Mohamed; Medkouri, Ghislaine; Benghanem, Mohamed Gharbi; Ramdani, Benyounes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La transplantation rénale constitue le traitement idéal de l'insuffisance rénale chronique. Cependant il existe une insuffisance de donneurs contrairement aux receveurs dont le nombre ne cesse de s'accroitre. La méconnaissance de la transplantation par les hémodialysés et leur entourage pourrait être l'une des causes. Notre but était d’évaluer les connaissances et opinions de l'hémodialysé et de son entourage sur la transplantation rénale. Méthodes L'enquête menée en Aout 2013 avait inclus 83 hémodialysés de notre centre et 70 membres de leur entourage. Ils ont été soumis à un questionnaire qui portait sur les thèmes suivants: statut socio-économique, volonté d’être transplanté ou d’être donneur, avantages de la transplantation rénale, point de vue de la religion sur la transplantation. Aucun des individus interrogés n'avait jamais fait l'objet d'une transplantation ou d'un don d'organe. Résultats Parmi 83 hémodialysés on notait 49,4% de femmes avec une moyenne d’âge de 41,4±12 ans. Le niveau socio-économique bas représentait 66,7%. Le manque d'information chez était estimé à 62,7%. Seuls 41% se disaient être candidat à la transplantation rénale mais 12% seulement était inscrit sur la liste d'attente de greffe. La transplantation était estimée plus couteuse que l'hémodialyse par 50,6% des patients et seuls 71,1% estimaient qu'elle offrait une meilleure vie. Pour 20,5%, l'Islam s'opposerait au don cadavérique et pour 10,9% au don vivant. Parmi les 70 membres de l'entourage interrogé il y avait 56,8% de femmes; la moyenne d’âge était de 44,4±10,5 ans. Le niveau économique bas représentait 52,3%. Le manque d'information était estimé à 61,4%. Pour 56,8% la vie serait impossible avec un seul rein. Seuls 13,6% étaient inscrit sur le registre de don. Pour 45,5% l'Islam s'opposerait au don cadavérique. Conclusion Il importe d'intensifier la sensibilisation des hémodialysées et leur famille

  7. Las dificultades de sentir: el rol de las emociones en la estigmatización del VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    MARZÁN-RODRÍGUEZ, Melissa; VARAS-DÍAZ, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Resumen El Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) y el Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) han sido motivo de estigmatización para las personas que viven con ellos. Esta estigmatización se ha estudiado consecuentemente desde la perspectiva de opiniones de agentes estigmatizantes. Estas opiniones han obviado sistemáticamente el rol de las emociones en el proceso de estigmatización. Llevamos a cabo este estudio con el propósito de identificar el rol de las emociones en el proceso de estigmatización de las personas que viven con el virus (PVVS) por parte de profesionales de la salud. Para lograr este objetivo utilizamos un diseño exploratorio y cualitativo en el cual utilizamos la técnica de entrevistas semiestructuradas a profundidad. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de las siguientes especialidades: psicología, trabajo social, medicina y enfermería. Los resultados reflejaron la existencia de emociones asociadas al VIH/SIDA tales como pena, lástima, compasión, asco, fobia y miedo entre los/as profesionales y estudiantes que participaron. Las personas participantes evidenciaron la necesidad de controlar sus emociones al interactuar con PVVS. Los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de explorar aquellos factores que mediatizan las emociones, tales como el contexto social en que se manifiestan y ante quiénes se revelan, para lograr entender a cabalidad el estigma que rodea al VIH/SIDA. PMID:20212916

  8. Evolution in karst massifs: Cryptic diversity among bent-toed geckos along the Truong Son Range with descriptions of three new species and one new country record from Laos.

    PubMed

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Bonkowski, Michael; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Schneider, Nicole; Ngo, Hanh Thi; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Species designated as 'cryptic' share a similar morphotype, and are often only clearly separable by molecular data. Cyrtodactylus, the most diverse gecko genus of the family Gekkonidae, is a prime example, because many morphologically similar taxa have only recently been identified as new species as a result of available genetic evidence. However, while cryptic diversity of Cyrtodactylus is already well documented on the Vietnamese side of the Truong Son range, only scarce data is available from central Laos. In this study, we address this issue by means of an integrative approach, which employs morphological, molecular, and ecological data to distinguish cryptic species of the Cyrtodacylus phongnhakebangensis species group primarily distributed along the northern Truong Son Range. Our analyses based on 12 selected morphological characters, a partial mitochondrial gene (COI), and five ecological parameters revealed three undescribed cryptic Cyrtodactylus species from Hin Nam No National Protected Area, which are described as Cyrtodactylus calamei sp. nov., Cyrtodactylus hinnamnoensis sp. nov., and Cyrtodactylus sommerladi sp. nov. A fourth discovered Cyrtodactylus population in Hin Nam No proved to be the first country record of C. cryptus for Laos. Our results highlight the importance of applying an integrative approach to resolving the taxonomy of complex and cryptic species groups, and the role of the Truong Son Range in maintaining the high level of biodiversity over time. PMID:27394811

  9. LAS: a software platform to support oncological data management.

    PubMed

    Baralis, Elena; Bertotti, Andrea; Fiori, Alessandro; Grand, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    The rapid technological evolution in the biomedical and molecular oncology fields is providing research laboratories with huge amounts of complex and heterogeneous data. Automated systems are needed to manage and analyze this knowledge, allowing the discovery of new information related to tumors and the improvement of medical treatments. This paper presents the Laboratory Assistant Suite (LAS), a software platform with a modular architecture designed to assist researchers throughout diverse laboratory activities. The LAS supports the management and the integration of heterogeneous biomedical data, and provides graphical tools to build complex analyses on integrated data. Furthermore, the LAS interfaces are designed to ease data collection and management even in hostile environments (e.g., in sterile conditions), so as to improve data quality.

  10. [My interpretation as a pediatrician of "Las Meninas"].

    PubMed

    Valtueña Borque, O

    1999-01-01

    Las Meninas from Velázquez is one of the most important pictures in the world nevertheless, there is not an interpretation out of doubt of his meaning, in spite of all the studies written about it. After an original study of the history of Las Meninas, the persons painted, what are they doing, the Spanish culture on the time in what was painted and the historical life of the Infanta Margarita, the central personage of the picture, the author arrives to the conclusion about the possibility that she had a precocious puberty.

  11. The Las Vegas Sustainability Atlas: Modeling Place-based Interactions and Implications in the Las Vegas Valley Bioregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ego, H.; McCown, K.; Saghafi, N.; Gross, E.; Hunter, W.; Zawarus, P.; Gann, A.; Piechota, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    Las Vegas, Nevada, with 2 million residents and 40 million annual visitors, is one of the driest metropolitan environments of its size in the world. The metro imports nearly all of its resources, including energy, water and food. Rapid population increases, drought, and temperature increases due to climate change create challenges for planning resilient systems in the Las Vegas Valley. Because of its growth rate, aridity, Las Vegas, Nevada is a significant and relevant region for the study of the water, energy, food and climate nexus. Cities in the United States and the world are seeing increasing trends in urbanization and water scarcity. How does the water-energy-climate-food nexus affect each metropolitan area? How can this complex information be used for resiliency planning? How can it be related to the public, so they can understand the issues in a way that makes them meaningful participants in the planning process? The topic of our presentation is a 'resiliency atlas.' The atlas is a place-based model tested in Las Vegas to explore bioregional distinctiveness of the water-energy-climate-food nexus, including regional transportation systems. The atlas integrates the systems within a utilitarian organization of information. Systems in this place-based model demonstrate how infrastructure services are efficiently provided for the Las Vegas Valley population. This resiliency atlas can clarify how the nexus applies to place; and how it can be used to spur geographically germane adaption strategies. In the Las Vegas Valley, climate change (drought and high sustained temperatures) and population affect water, energy, and food systems. This clarity of a place based model can help educate the public about the resilience of their place, and facilitate and organize the planning process in the face of uncertainty.

  12. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos

  13. Reading "Las Meninas": An Ekphrastic Approach to Teaching "Don Quijote"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortuno, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Reading and teaching "Don Quijote" present multiple challenges to twenty-first century students and instructors who are culturally and historically distanced from the seventeenth century. With "Las Meninas" serving as a visual lexicon for cuing correlative themes and events in "Don Quijote", the instructor, through an ekphrastic, interdisciplinary…

  14. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  15. Las Rocas Nos Cuentan (Rocks Tell Their Stories)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llerandi-Roman, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Many Earth science lessons today still focus on memorizing the names of rocks and minerals. This led the author to develop a lesson that reveals the fascinating stories told by rocks through the study of their physical properties. He first designed the lesson for Puerto Rican teachers, hence its Spanish title: "Las Rocas Nos Cuentan Su Historia."…

  16. Aeromagnetic map of Nevada: Las Vegas sheet, Map 95

    SciTech Connect

    Saltus, R.W.; Ponce, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A 1:250,000-scale map showing total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field at intervals of 10 to 500 nanoteslas, and a 1:1,000,000-scale merged aeromagnetic map. The topographic base with drainage pattern and cultural information is from the Las Vegas 1/degree/ by 2/degree/ Quadrangle. (6 refs.)

  17. Solar Hot Water for a Motor Inn -- Las Vegas, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar hot-water installation at motor inn in Las Vegas, Nevada is described in report containing descriptions of design, philosophy, operation of system and problems and solutions. Provides drawings of solar roof plan, operator's instructions, manufacturers' brochures and copy of acceptance report.

  18. [The relationship of religions with the hieratic and tradicional medicine].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sala Moris, José Luis

    2002-01-01

    A long the years I have visited many foreign countries. So, I had the opportunity to know different believes and religions. However not always could I feel that strong bond, that intrinsecal, inalienable, innermost union that should exist between man and God. Because "God sends and always will send this two messages of eternal and supreme foriititude: Peace and love". So, the way to follow for men should be supported on the these two points. From then, for sure, should flow the right coexistence and happiness of the men. But, it's no so. Many religions rules of different epochs, and no seldom, have been favoring untrue teachings about wars and the hatred to the enemy. Here is a short reference about some of these big mistakes in religions sermons in the present or in the past time. PMID:16773808

  19. [The relationship of religions with the hieratic and tradicional medicine].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sala Moris, José Luis

    2002-01-01

    A long the years I have visited many foreign countries. So, I had the opportunity to know different believes and religions. However not always could I feel that strong bond, that intrinsecal, inalienable, innermost union that should exist between man and God. Because "God sends and always will send this two messages of eternal and supreme foriititude: Peace and love". So, the way to follow for men should be supported on the these two points. From then, for sure, should flow the right coexistence and happiness of the men. But, it's no so. Many religions rules of different epochs, and no seldom, have been favoring untrue teachings about wars and the hatred to the enemy. Here is a short reference about some of these big mistakes in religions sermons in the present or in the past time.

  20. When Parents Separate and One Parent ‘Comes Out’ as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual: Sons and Daughters Engage with the Tension that Occurs When Their Family Unit Changes

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Siobhán C.; MacNeela, Pádriag; Sarma, Kiran M.

    2015-01-01

    The experiences of Irish sons and daughters born into heterosexually-organised parental partnerships/unions whose parents have separated and one has come out as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual (LGB) were explored through a grounded theory approach. 15 adult children (over the age of 18 years), who varied in age when their parents separated and one disclosed as LGB, were interviewed. The primary concern that emerged centred on participants having to adjust to their parents’ being separated, as opposed to their parent being LGB. This involved engaging with the tension that arose from the loss of the parental union, which involved changes to the home environment and adapting to new parental partners and family units. Heightened reflection on sexual orientation and an increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice were specifically associated with a parent coming out as LGB. How parents negotiated disclosing the changes to others, the level of support available to parents, and how capable parents were at maintaining the parent-child relationship had an impact on the tension experienced by sons and daughters. Participants moved from initially avoiding and resisting the family changes that were occurring to gradual consonance with their altered family environments. Concluding directions for research and clinical considerations are suggested. PMID:26710277

  1. Near-Ground optical turbulence measurements at Cerro Las Campanas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, G.; Berdja, A.; Thomas-Osip, J. E.

    2011-11-01

    We report preliminary results from Near-Ground optical turbulence measurements carried out at Cerro Las Campanas, the future site of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), using MooSci (Moon Scintillomenter), DIMM (Differential Image Motion Monitor) and MASS (Multiple Aperture Scintillation Sensor), focusing on the effects above the future GMT enclosure. This campaign will continue with future observations of the NGL turbulence in order to better model the adaptive optics performance and aid in the design of the GMT AO instrumentation

  2. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  3. GIS methodology for quantifying channel change in Las Vegas, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckingham, S.E.; Whitney, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study applies spatial analyses to examine the consequences of accelerated urban expansion on a hydrologic system over a period of 24 years. Three sets of historical aerial photos are used in a GIS analysis to document the geomorphic history of Las Vegas Wash, which drains the rapidly growing Las Vegas urban area in southern Nevada. New spatial techniques are introduced to make quantitative measurements of the erosion at three specific time intervals in the hydrologic evolution of the channel and floodplain. Unlike other erosion studies that use two different elevation surfaces to assess erosion, this study used a single elevation surface to remove systematic and nonsystemic elevation errors. The spatial analysis quantifies channel changes for discrete time periods, calculates erosion volumes, and provides a foundation to examine how the specific mechanisms related to urban expansion have affected Las Vegas Wash. The erosion calculated over 24 years is the largest documented sediment loss attributed to the effect of rapid urban growth. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  4. Geology of Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, R.V.; Karakouzian, M. ); Bax-Valentine, V. ); Peterson, L.; Palmer, S. ); Slemmons, D.B.

    1993-03-01

    Las Vegas is one of the fastest growing cities in the US. Its regional geologic setting is in the Basin and Range geomorphic province and in the Sevier orogenic belt. The city itself lies in a broad north-south valley formed by coalescing alluvial fans and lake beds which give rise to several soil and foundation problems. Although destructive earthquakes have not occurred in the Las Vegas area in modern times, the record is very short. Major earthquakes could have taken place in the past when the area was unoccupied except for a few nomadic tribes. Studies are underway to better define the seismicity. Although the climate is hot and dry, flash flooding occurs frequently from late summer thunderstorms and torrential rains. The Regional Flood Control District is actively constructing retention basins and drainage improvements for diversion and protection from such floods. Water supply is a problem for the increasing population. The groundwater supply has long been overdrawn, and the allotment to Nevada under the Colorado River Compact will be completely utilized in the near future. Las Vegas has faced the problems of solid waste disposal, water treatment, rational water use, flooding and earthquakes - all of which are related to the unique geologic and geomorphic setting.

  5. 40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Las Vegas...

  6. 40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Nevada) has been revised to consist of the territorial area encompassed by... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air...

  7. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  8. Anaerobic treatment of sludge: focusing on reduction of LAS concentration in sludge.

    PubMed

    Haggensen, F; Mogensen, A S; Angelidaki, I; Ahring, B K

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was tested in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). LAS12 was used as a model compound and was spiked on sewage sludge. The experiments clearly showed that transformation of LAS12 occurred under anaerobic conditions. The degree oftransformation varied between 14% and 25%. HPLC analysis showed that disappearance of LAS12 was followed by the formation of a metabolite. The experiments indicated that there is a clear correlation between degradation of organic matter contained in sludge and transformation of LAS 12. When the reduction degree of the organic matter increased from 22% to 28%, the transformation degree of LAS12 also increased, from 14% to 20%. Decreasing the total solids concentration of the influent sludge or increasing the spiked concentration of LAS12 did not alter the degree of LAS12 transformation significantly. A clear correlation between transformed and bioavailable LAS12 was found, indicating that it is merely the bioavailable fraction of LAS12 that is transformed by anaerobic digestion. The results from the present study are promising and indicate that a great potential for biological degradation of LAS is possible even at anaerobic conditions.

  9. Las1 Is an Essential Nuclear Protein Involved in Cell Morphogenesis and Cell Surface Growth

    PubMed Central

    Doseff, A. I.; Arndt, K. T.

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutations that cause a requirement for SSD1-v for viability were isolated, yielding one new gene, LAS1, and three previously identified genes, SIT4, BCK1/SLK1, and SMP3. Three of these genes, LAS1, SIT4, and BCK1/SLK1, encode proteins that have roles in bud formation or morphogenesis. LAS1 is essential and loss of LAS1 function causes the cells to arrest as 80% unbudded cells and 20% large budded cells that accumulate many vesicles at the mother-daughter neck. Overexpression of LAS1 results in extra cell surface projections in the mother cell, alterations in actin and SPA2 localization, and the accumulation of electron-dense structures along the periphery of both the mother cell and the bud. The nuclear localization of LAS1 suggests a role of LAS1 for regulating bud formation and morphogenesis via the expression of components that function directly in these processes. PMID:8582632

  10. Linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LAS) degradation by immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa under low intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lijun, Xiang; Bochu, Wang; Zhimin, Li; Chuanren, Duan; Qinghong, Wang; Liu, Liu

    2005-01-15

    We studied the LAS degradation of immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa with low-intensity ultrasonic and the influence of original LAS concentration, pH, rotary velocity and different conditions of low-intensity ultrasonic irradiation on the degradation of LAS. In our experiment, the degradation rate of LAS was the main index. We found that low-intensity ultrasonic irradiation could improve the metabolism of microorganism cells and promote the LAS biodegradation of immobilized cells. In the experiment, 50 mg/l LAS were used to simulate wastewater, and low-intensity ultrasonic was considered. We found the influence was obvious, and the optimal degradation rate was acquired when the conditions of ultrasonic were frequency 24 kHz, power 8 W, stimulation time 5 s, intermissive time 30 s, and total time 10 min. The LAS degradation rate of immobilized cells with ultrasonic were respectively 40% and 9.5% higher than that of the suspending cells and immobilized cells without irradiation.

  11. Geological Mapping Using Legacy Geophysical Data in Las Vegas Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, D.; O'Donnell, J.; McLin, K.

    2014-12-01

    In 2008-2011, Clark County, Building Department contracted with Optim to collect 10,700 Reflection Microtremor (ReMi) 600 ft seismic lines that cover most of the metropolitan area of Las Vegas and other outlying communities such as Moapa, Laughlin, Primm, and Coyote Spring. The County completed their goal of characterizing seismic susceptibility of the top 100 ft and the results are posted at http://gisgate.co.clark.nv.us/openweb/. The research question of the authors is: What additional geologic information can be inferred from the data, either through reprocessing, cross correlation of drill hole data or additional data collection? An advantage of geophysical data is that it can be reprocessed to provide additional insight into the local geologic setting. The interpretation is also improved if combined with drill hole data and / or hydrologic information. It should be noted that there is also legacy geophysical data in limited areas collected by the USGS, primarily in conjunction with water well drilling, where some of the ReMi seismic data was collected. An unexpected result of the ReMi survey was a clear delineation of current and paleo channels in Laughlin, Moapa, and Las Vegas. The geometry of the paleochanel, of the Colorado River, is well away from the current position. however the signal is very similar to modern streams such as the Muddy River. Although the surficial geologic mapping in Las Vegas Valley was very detailed, and importantly, was performed prior to development; the new geophysical data provides better details of the lithologic properties of the units. That is it may be an excellent basis for remapping for specific properties related to engineering and hydrologic modeling.

  12. El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper resume the investigation entitled ``El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas''. That consist in an edition of the original text of the book of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours from the Books of the knowledge of Astronomy of Alfonso X (Manuscript 156, Complutense University). And a description of the astronomical functionality of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours. It includes a geometric description of the positional astronomy on which the operation of the Palace is based.

  13. Characteristics of the Las Vegas/Clark County visitor economy

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a review of the Clark County visitor economy and the Clark County visitor. The review, undertaken in support of NWPO`s two objectives mentioned above, addressed a number of topics including performance of the Clark County visitor economy as a generator of employment, earnings and tax base; importance of the Clark County visitor economy to the Nevada economy as a whole; elements of the Clark County visitor economy outside the Las Vegas strip and downtown areas; current trends in the Clark County visitor industry; and indirect economic effects of Clark County casino/hotel purchases.

  14. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  15. IGBP: Crown jewel or prodigal son?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Juan G.

    At its 1986 General Assembly in Bern, Switzerland, the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) launched what promises to be the biggest and most ambitious enterprise of international scientific cooperation (see “ICSU Gives Green Light to IGBP,” Eos, 67, p. 777, 1986). The International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), known also as “Global Change,” has as its main objective to describe and understand the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes that regulate the total Earth system, the unique environment that it provides for life, the changes that are occurring in this system, and the manner in which they are influenced by human actions.It should be no wonder, then, that this year's ICSU General Committee Meeting at the Academia das Ciencias de Lisboa (Lisbon, Portugal, October 11-14) was virtually dominated by IGBP matters, even during the discussion of agenda items that did not include this subject explicitly. It is fair to say that the Unions are just becoming fully aware of the real magnitude of the program they themselves helped launch in Bern in 1986—and of how little input and control they have had so far in its development. An indication of this “awakening” was already apparent during the ICSU General Assembly in Beijing in 1988, but the full realization of the enormous impact and ramifications of IGBP inside and outside ICSU is emerging only now.

  16. Leptotrachelus dorsalis: the prodigal son returns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insecticides are well established as a production practice that can de-stabilize agricultural ecosystems. This occurs because insecticides frequently control not only the pest, but they also kill beneficial insects. These beneficial insects help to maintain the pests bellow economic levels and if th...

  17. Brady, Our Firstborn Son, Has Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh-Kennedy, Mei

    2008-01-01

    Autism awareness is spreading like wildfire. Diagnoses have increased at an astounding rate. The statistic most often quoted is that 1 child in 150 has autism. As if the high rate of autism diagnoses were not worrisome enough, many doctors are not properly trained, or kept up to date, on how to detect autism at the earliest possible age. In many…

  18. Sons, Daughters, and Intergenerational Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna; Logan, John

    1990-01-01

    Examined effects of the number and gender composition of children on the receipt of social support by older persons. Effects varied with type of support: having daughters was most salient for telephone contact, while frequency of visiting was affected by both gender and number of children. (Author/TE)

  19. The Strengths of My Son, Trayvon Martin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponds, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    For over 30 years, Ken Ponds has served as Chaplain to thousands of children of color at Starr Commonwealth. This school was founded in 1913 by Floyd Starr with the legendary motto "There is no such thing as a bad boy." Starr Commmonwealth sees their mission as "discovering greatness" in every young person. In this interview…

  20. Watching Our Son Natty Grow Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Joan Carter

    1986-01-01

    The progress of a developmentally delayed child is described by his mother, covering his infancy, placement in and withdrawal from a residential school, family life, placement in a day school, adolescence, and entry into adulthood. (CB)

  1. Mexican Americans: Sons of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Ruth S.

    Concerned with the Mexican Americans, who constitute the largest ethnic group in the southwestern United States, this book traces the history of these people from the early explorations and colonizing efforts of the Spanish in North and South America during the 16th century to the present. Major divisions of this book are the Introduction,…

  2. Communicating With Our Sons and Daughters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multicultural Drug Abuse Prevention Resource Center, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet examines the role of Mexican American parents in the educational lives of their children. Information is also included to help parents understand the reasons behind drug and alcohol abuse and to help them lessen the chances of their children becoming victims. Using pictorial representations as illustrations, this booklet explains what…

  3. LAS homolog distribution shift during wastewater treatment and composting ecological implications

    SciTech Connect

    Prats, D.; Ruiz, F.; Vazquez, B.; Zarzo, D. . Div. Chemical Engineering); Berna, J.L.; Moreno, A. )

    1993-09-01

    The behavior of LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) in different environmental compartments was studied through wastewater treatment process steps in sewage treatment plants of Alicante and Benidorm (activated sludge type) as well as in Guardamar (lagoons). The fate of LAS, using a specific HPLC method, was monitored during treatment sludge compostage and soil amendment operations. Finally, the marine sediments close to a submarine wastewater sewer outfall were analyzed. The results show significant differences between distribution of LAS homologs in water and solids (sludges, sediments, and soils), as compared to the original distribution in detergent formulations, yielding a lower LAS average molecular weight in water samples. The change observed in the homolog distribution of LAS implies a reduction in the toxicity to Daphnia, because a lower average molecular weight of LAS is less toxic.

  4. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  5. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  6. Environmental levels of Linear alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) in sediments from the Tagus estuary (Portugal): environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Hampel, M; Canário, J; Branco, V; Vale, C; Blasco, J

    2009-02-01

    Sediments from the Tagus estuary (Portugal) were collected at 40 stations in July and December 2004. Total LAS concentrations ranged between 0.03 and 17.76 mg LAS.kg(-1) dry weight in July, and between 0.09 and 9.57 mg LAS.kg(-1) in December. Highest LAS concentrations were found at the upper northern part of the estuary, coincident with the localisation of an important waste water treatment station. According to the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) of 8.1 mg.kg(-1) derived for this compound, Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) identified a hazard for the ecosystem at the station with the highest LAS concentration, and similar results are obtained by Equilibrium Partitioning Method (EPM). Nevertheless, LAS concentrations decreased significantly between samplings in the stations with the highest LAS concentrations in July, whereas increased LAS concentrations at adjacent stations were found in December. In the remaining stations, LAS concentrations were up to three orders of magnitude lower, representing no hazard for the sediment community. PMID:18228153

  7. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Infrastructure Preparations at Las Campanas Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Frederick R.; Wilson, J. C.; Majewski, S. R.; Leger, F.; Harding, P.; Parejko, J. K.; Roman, A.; Ebelke, G.; SDSS-IV; APOGEE-1/2

    2014-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, conducted on the Sloan Foundation Telescope at Apache Point Observatory for the last 15 years, is embarking on a dual hemisphere survey. This next iteration of the survey, termed SDSS-IV, will conduct a portion of the galactic evolution experiment APOGEE in Chile on the du Pont Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory; critical portions of the Galaxy are best or only accessible in southern skies. The infrastructure for the southern survey will be derived from the mature and productive systems at APO, while the concept of operations will significantly depart from the established SDSS model. Presented herein are the elements that comprise the LCO infrastructure and the rationale for the envisioned survey operations.

  8. Proteus aircraft over Las Cruces International Airport in New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  9. Proteus in flight over mountains near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  10. Comprehensive quality evaluation of Chishao by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zaiyou, Jian; Wenquan, Wang; Guifang, Xu; Li, Meng; Junling, Hou

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito de este artículo es la evaluación cualitativa extensa de Chishao. Métodos: En el experimento de este trabajo, se establecen los espectros de identificación de Chishao en todas las localizaciones mediante RP-HPLC y el método del análisis de componentes principales con las áreas pico de RPHPLC. Resultados: La calidad de Chishao en el norte de China o del procedente de Paeonia lactiflora es mejor que la de otras localizaciones o procedente de P. obovata, P. mairei y P. anomala. Los resultados son congruentes con la impresión tradicional de la calidad de esta planta. Estos resultados indican que el análisis de los componentes principales (ACP) puede utilizarse como método eficaz y económico para evaluar la calidad de Chishao y podría aplicarse a otras plantas medicinales chinas. Conclusiones: Dada la complicada base de la eficacia de la Medicina tradicional china (MTC), un método como el ACP para diversos componentes químicos parece ser más adecuado para la evaluación de la calidad de la MTC en comparación con la determinación de un único o unos pocos agentes químicos.

  11. Kidney transplantation from a mother with unrecognized Fabry disease to her son with low α-galactosidase A activity: A 14-year follow-up without enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Odani, Keiko; Okumi, Masayoshi; Honda, Kazuho; Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of kidney transplantation from mother to son, both of whom were likely to have had an unrecognized renal variant phenotype of Fabry disease. The patient was a 54-year-old man, with an unknown primary cause of end stage renal disease. He had no notable past medical history, other than end stage renal disease. He underwent living-related kidney transplantation from his mother at age 40 years. Foam cells in the glomeruli were identified on histology assessment of a 0-hour allograft biopsy, with zebra bodies identified in the glomerular visceral epithelial cells by electron microscopy. These findings were indicative of Fabry disease in the donated kidney. As a definitive diagnosis of Fabry's disease could not be confirmed, enzyme replacement therapy was not initiated. Thirteen years after kidney transplantation, the patient underwent left nephrectomy for a left renal tumour, with pathological findings of clear cell carcinoma, foam cells and zebra bodies in the native kidney. Detailed examinations identified low α-galactosidase A activity and mutation of the α-Gal A gene, confirming a diagnosis of a renal variant phenotype of Fabry disease. Histology of several allograft biopsies performed over the 14 years from the time of kidney transplantation revealed only moderate interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, with no evidence of disease progression on electron microscopy, despite the presence of zebra bodies in the glomerular visceral epithelial cells. PMID:26971403

  12. Influence of LAS on marine calanoid copepod population dynamics and potential reproduction.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Kirsten; Hansen, Benni W; Johansson, Liselotte S; Krog, Elisabeth

    2003-05-29

    The toxicity of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) to marine invertebrates is well documented under laboratory conditions using single-species tests. It is less known how LAS affects natural populations of aquatic organisms. We hypothesised that LAS was more toxic to the calanoid copepod Acartia sp. under natural conditions than Acartia tonsa under cultured conditions in the laboratory. This hypothesis was checked by a direct comparison of LAS toxicity in single-species and model (mesocosm) studies. The acute and sublethal effects of LAS on the survival and egg production of laboratory reared A. tonsa were examined by standard test, i.e. incubation with LAS without food for 24-72 h. The LC(50) and EC(50) values averaged 1.23 and 0.74 mg l(-1) for survival and egg production, respectively. These values are comparable to previous reports. The effects of LAS on a natural copepod community were also investigated under in situ conditions. A series of seven mesocosms (holding approx. 3 m(3) of seawater each) was established with two mesocosms being controls without LAS and five mesocosms with increasing concentrations of LAS ranging from 0.1 to 6.5 mg l(-1) applied as a single dose. The indigenous copepod community, dominated by Acartia sp. and Centropages sp., responded clearly to LAS concentrations above 0.1 mg l(-1). The calculated no effect value was 0.14 mg LAS l(-1) (95% CI=0.08-1.82 mg LAS l(-1)) for the entire copepod community including all development stages after 24 h exposure. The increased sensitivity under in situ conditions was probably promoted by the suboptimal growth conditions, e.g. no saturated food concentration or inadequate nutritive values of the food. The amount of food expressed as chlorophyll concentration was low (around 2 microg chl. a l(-1)) but was not affected by LAS. It appeared that the naupliar stages of Acartia and Centropages were the least affected by LAS and that new cohorts were able to develop 15 days after the dosing with LAS.

  13. Las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado para la materia extraña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudian las propiedades generales de las estrellas constituídas por materia extraña (ME) en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado (EOS) en la que consideramos la masa de los quarks como dependiente del número medio de bariones por unidad de volumen. Se asume esta dependencia de forma que los quarks sean livianos (pesados) a densidades altas (bajas). En esta aproximación, la EOS de la ME es similar a la predicha por el modelo de la Bolsa del MIT, pero es significativamente mas dura a bajas densidades. Esta propiedad modifica las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en forma notable. Encontramos que, con esta nueva EOS, los objetos pueden ser más masivos que en el caso de la EOS de la bolsa del MIT y que, además, pueden presentar mayores redshifts gravitatorios en hasta un 10%. En el caso de las oscilaciones radiales de estos objetos, calculamos la relación período vs. redshift gravitacional y encontramos una expresión analítica simple para el caso de las oscilaciones de objetos de baja masa. Encontramos que, aún con hipótesis muy diferentes en cuanto a la ecuación de estado de la materia extraña, las propiedades generales de estos objetos no se ve afectada en forma fundamental, y, por lo tanto, no deberían ser muy diferentes de las aquí expuestas.

  14. Estudio comparativo de las moléculas isovalentes de interés atmosférico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes halógenos aislados Cl y Br.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los últimos años un creciente interés entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas espectroscópicas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electrónicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorción que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atmósfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtención de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran interés. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las moléculas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas moléculas presentan idéntica estructura electrónica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la corrección de nuestros resultados en base a las analogías esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones análogas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado carácter atómico en el espectro correspondiente a estas moléculas, siendo muy similar a los de los átomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, además de establecer la comparación entre ambas moléculas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos halógenos. Los cálculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodología Molécular de Orbítales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los átomos de Cl y Br se empleó la versión relativista del método (RQDO) [3].

  15. Optimization of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) degradation in UASB reactors by varying bioavailability of LAS, hydraulic retention time and specific organic load rate.

    PubMed

    Okada, Dagoberto Y; Delforno, Tiago P; Esteves, Andressa S; Sakamoto, Isabel K; Duarte, Iolanda C S; Varesche, Maria B A

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in UASB reactors was optimized by varying the bioavailability of LAS based on the concentration of biomass in the system (1.3-16 g TS/L), the hydraulic retention time (HRT), which was operated at 6, 35 or 80 h, and the concentration of co-substrates as specific organic loading rates (SOLR) ranging from 0.03-0.18 g COD/g TVS.d. The highest degradation rate of LAS (76%) was related to the lowest SOLR (0.03 g COD/g TVS.d). Variation of the HRT between 6 and 80 h resulted in degradation rates of LAS ranging from 18% to 55%. Variation in the bioavailability of LAS resulted in discrete changes in the degradation rates (ranging from 37-53%). According to the DGGE profiles, the archaeal communities exhibited greater changes than the bacterial communities, especially in biomass samples that were obtained from the phase separator. The parameters that exhibited more influence on LAS degradation were the SOLR followed by the HRT. PMID:23196232

  16. An EXCEL macro for importing log ASCII standard (LAS) files into EXCEL worksheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkaya, Sait Ismail

    1996-02-01

    An EXCEL 5.0 macro is presented for converting a LAS text file into an EXCEL worksheet. Although EXCEL has commands for importing text files and parsing text lines, LAS files must be decoded line-by-line because three different delimiters are used to separate fields of differing length. The macro is intended to eliminate manual decoding of LAS version 2.0. LAS is a floppy disk format for storage and transfer of log data as text files. LAS was proposed by the Canadian Well Logging Society. The present EXCEL macro decodes different sections of a LAS file, separates, and places the fields into different columns of an EXCEL worksheet. To import a LAS file into EXCEL without errors, the file must not contain any unrecognized symbols, and the data section must be the last section. The program does not check for the presence of mandatory sections or fields as required by LAS rules. Once a file is incorporated into EXCEL, mandatory sections and fields may be inspected visually.

  17. Inhibition of biogas production by alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) in a screening test for anaerobic biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M Teresa; Campos, Encarna; Dalmau, Manel; Illán, Patricia; Sánchez-Leal, Joaquin

    2006-02-01

    The effect of the inoculum source on the digestion of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) under anaerobic conditions has been investigated. The potential for primary and ultimate LAS biodegradation of anaerobic sludge samples obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of different geographical locations was studied applying a batch test system. It was found that only 4-22% of the LAS added to the batch anaerobic digesters was primarily transformed suggesting a poor primary degradation of the LAS molecule in anaerobic discontinuous systems. Regarding ultimate biodegradation, the addition of LAS to the batch anaerobic digesters caused a reduction on the extent of biogas production. Significant differences in the inhibition extent of the biogas production were observed (4-26%) depending on the sludge used as inoculum. Effect of the surfactant on the anaerobic microorganisms was correlated with its concentration in the aqueous phase. Sorption of LAS on anaerobic sludge affects its toxicity by depletion of the available fraction of the surfactant. LAS content on sludge was related to the total amount of calcium and magnesium extractable ions. The presence of divalent cations promote the association of LAS with anaerobic sludge reducing its bioavailability and the extent of its inhibitory effect on the biogas production. PMID:16453170

  18. REMOTE SENSING OF PERCHLORATE EFFECTS ON SALT CEDAR PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE LAS VEGAS WASH

    EPA Science Inventory



    Sodium Perchlorate and ammonium Perchlorate, major components of solid rocket fuel, have been manufactured in the Las Vegas Valley immediately up gradient from the Las Vegas Wash, since 1945 and 1956, respectively. Measurements of emerging ground water quality in the vici...

  19. La Noche de las Brujas Module. Nivel Primario. [The Night of the Witches Module. Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Delia

    La Noche de las Brujas (Halloween) is the topic of this primary level unit. The objectives are to enable the child to: (1) draw scenery, using his imagination, about witches, castles, and devils; (2) write compositions on witches, devils, and Halloween; (3) explain the story "La Noche de las Brujas"; (4) tell about any adventures or incidents he…

  20. 40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.80 Section 81.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las...

  1. A Total Water Management Analysis of the Las Vegas Wash Watershed, Nevada

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change, land use change, and population growth are fundamental factors affecting future hydrologic conditions in streams, especially in arid regions with scarce water resources. Located in the arid southwest, Las Vegas Valley located within the Las Vegas Wash watershed is...

  2. FLS2 from Solanum tuberosum have interaction with FlaLas from Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is a Gram-negative and phloem-limited alphaproteobacterium. Las attacks all citrus species and citrus hybrids in the genus of Citrus and other relatives, and causes a systemic disease. Currently, control of this devastating disease is extremely difficult sinc...

  3. Problem-Solving in Las Vegas: Students Are Building Skills and a Global Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Gregory; Curry, Don

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project initiated at Silverado High School in Las Vegas, where students from Las Vegas and schools across the United States monitor the levels of radon in the atmosphere. Enables students to learn first hand about the collection, analysis, and interpretation of scientific data and to network with other students from the United States…

  4. Earthquake Hazard Class Mapping by Parcel in Las Vegas Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancha, A.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Louie, J. N.; Hellmer, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    Clark County, Nevada completed the very first effort in the United States to map earthquake hazard class systematically through an entire urban area. The map is used in development and disaster response planning, in addition to its direct use for building code implementation and enforcement. The County contracted with the Nevada System of Higher Education to classify about 500 square miles including urban Las Vegas Valley, and exurban areas considered for future development. The Parcel Map includes over 10,000 surface-wave array measurements accomplished over three years using Optim's SeisOpt° ReMi measurement and processing techniques adapted for large scale data. These array measurements classify individual parcels on the NEHRP hazard scale. Parallel "blind" tests were conducted at 93 randomly selected sites. The rms difference between the Vs30 values yielded by the blind data and analyses and the Parcel Map analyses is 4.92%. Only six of the blind-test sites showed a difference with a magnitude greater than 10%. We describe a "C+" Class for sites with Class B average velocities but soft surface soil. The measured Parcel Map shows a clearly definable C+ to C boundary on the west side of the Valley. The C to D boundary is much more complex. Using the parcel map in computing shaking in the Valley for scenario earthquakes is crucial for obtaining realistic predictions of ground motions.

  5. Loose Groups of Galaxies in the Las Campanas Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Douglas L.; Oemler, Augustus, Jr.; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Shectman, Stephen A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lin, Huan; Landy, Stephen D.; Schechter, Paul L.; Allam, Sahar S.

    2000-10-01

    A ``friends-of-friends'' percolation algorithm has been used to extract a catalog of δn/n=80 density enhancements (groups) from the six slices of the Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS). The full catalog contains 1495 groups and includes 35% of the LCRS galaxy sample. A clean sample of 394 groups has been derived by culling groups from the full sample that either are too close to a slice edge, have a crossing time greater than a Hubble time, have a corrected velocity dispersion of zero, or contain a 55" ``orphan'' (a galaxy with a mock redshift that was excluded from the original LCRS redshift catalog due to its proximity to another galaxy-i.e., within 55"). Median properties derived from the clean sample include a line-of-sight velocity dispersion σlos=164 km s-1, crossing time tcr=0.10 H-10, harmonic radius Rh=0.58 h-1 Mpc, pairwise separation Rp=0.64 h-1 Mpc, virial mass Mvir=1.90×1013 h-1 Msolar, total group R-band luminosity Ltot=1.30×1011 h-2 Lsolar, and R-band mass-to-light ratio M/L=171 h Msolar/Lsolar the median number of observed members in a group is three.

  6. Atmospheric Radioxenon Measurements in North Las Vegas, NV

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrath, Brian D.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Lidey, Lance S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Karr, L.; Shafer, D.; Tappen, J.

    2006-07-31

    PNNL deployed the ARSA radioxenon measurement system in North Las Vegas for two weeks in February and March 2006 for the purpose of measuring the radioxenon background at a level of sensitivity much higher than previously done in the vicinity of the NTS. The measurements establish what might be expected if future measurements are taken at NTS itself. The measurements are also relevant to test site readiness. A second detector, the PEMS, built and operated by DRI, was deployed in conjunction with the ARSA and contained a PIC, aerosol collection filters, and meteorological sensors. Originally, measurements were also to be performed at Mercury, NV on the NTS, but these were canceled due to initial equipment problems with the ARSA detector. Some of the radioxenon measurements detected 133Xe at levels up to 3 mBq/m3. This concentration of radioxenon is consistent with the observation of low levels of radioxenon emanating from distance nuclear reactors. Previous measurements in areas of high nuclear reactor concentration have shown similar results, but the western US, in general, does not have many nuclear reactors. Measurements of the wind direction indicate that the air carrying the radioxenon came from south of the detector and not from the NTS.

  7. The vitamin riboflavin and its derivative lumichrome activate the LasR bacterial quorum sensing receptor

    PubMed Central

    Rajamani, Sathish; Bauer, Wolfgang D.; Robinson, Jayne B.; Farrow, John M.; Pesci, Everett C.; Teplitski, Max; Gao, Mengsheng; Sayre, Richard T.; Phillips, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) as an intercellular signaling mechanism to regulate gene expression in local populations. Plant and algal hosts, in turn, secrete compounds that mimic bacterial QS signals, allowing these hosts to manipulate QS-regulated gene expression in bacteria. Lumichrome, a derivative of the vitamin riboflavin, was purified and chemically identified from culture filtrates of the alga Chlamydomonas as a QS signal-mimic compound capable of stimulating the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR QS receptor. LasR normally recognizes the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signal, N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL). Authentic lumichrome and riboflavin stimulated the LasR receptor in bioassays, and lumichrome activated LasR in gel shift experiments. Amino acid substitutions in LasR residues required for AHL binding altered responses to both AHLs and lumichrome/riboflavin. These results and docking studies indicate that the AHL binding pocket of LasR recognizes both AHLs and the structurally dissimilar lumichrome/riboflavin. Bacteria, plants and algae commonly secrete riboflavin and/or lumichrome, raising the possibility that these compounds could serve as either QS signals or as interkingdom signal-mimics capable of manipulating QS in bacteria with a LasR-like receptor. PMID:18700823

  8. European risk assessment of LAS in agricultural soil revisited: species sensitivity distribution and risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, John; Smith, Stephen R; Krogh, Paul Henning; Versteeg, Donald J; Temara, Ali

    2007-10-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) is used at a rate of approximately 430,000 tons/y in Western Europe, mainly in laundry detergents. It is present in sewage sludge (70-5,600 mg/kg; 5-95th percentile) because of its high usage per capita, its sorption and precipitation in primary settlers, and its lack of degradation in anaerobic digesters. Immediately after amendment, calculated and measured concentrations are <1 to 60 mg LAS/kg soil. LAS biodegrades rapidly in soil with primary and ultimate half-lives of up to 7 and 30 days, respectively. Calculated residual concentrations after the averaging time (30 days) are 0.24-18 mg LAS/kg soil. The long-term ecotoxicity to soil microbiota is relatively low (EC10 >or=26 mg sludge-associated LAS/kg soil). An extensive review of the invertebrate and plant ecotoxicological data, combined with a probabilistic assessment approach, led to a PNEC value of 35 mg LAS/kg soil, i.e. the 5th percentile (HC5) of the species sensitivity distribution (lognormal distribution of the EC10 and NOEC values). Risk ratios were identified to fall within a range of 0.01 (median LAS concentration in sludge) to 0.1 (95th percentile) and always below 0.5 (maximum LAS concentration measured in sludge) according to various scenarios covering different factors such as local sewage influent concentration, water hardness, and sewage sludge stabilisation process. Based on the present information, it can be concluded that LAS does not represent an ecological risk in Western Europe when applied via normal sludge amendment to agricultural soil. PMID:17765285

  9. Managing Floods and Resources at the Arroyo Las Positas

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L; Van Hattem, M; Mathews, S

    2002-03-05

    Engineers and water resource professionals are challenged with protecting facilities from flood events within environmental resource protection, regulatory, and economic constraints. One case in point is the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP), an intermittent stream that traverses the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. Increased runoff from post-drought rainfall, upstream development, and new perennial discharges from LLNL activities have resulted in increased dry weather flows and wetland vegetation. These new conditions have recently begun to provide improved habitat for the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii; CRLF), but the additional vegetation diminishes the channel's drainage capacity and increases flood risk. When LLNL proposed to re-grade the channel to reestablish the 100-year flood capacity, traditional dredging practices were no longer being advocated by environmental regulatory agencies. LLNL therefore designed a desilting maintenance plan to protect LLNL facility areas from flooding, while minimizing impacts to wetland resources and habitat. The result was a combination of structural upland improvements and the ALP Five Year Maintenance Plan (Maintenance Plan), which includes phased desilting in segments so that the entire ALP is desilted after five years. A unique feature of the Maintenance Plan is the variable length of the segments designed to minimize LLNL's impact on CRLF movement. State and federal permits also added monitoring requirements and additional constraints on desilting activities. Two years into the Maintenance Plan, LLNL is examining the lessons learned on the cost-effectiveness of these maintenance measures and restrictions and reevaluating the direction of future maintenance activities.

  10. Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the interspecific competition between Microcystis and Scenedesmus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Huaimin; Guo, Lili; Li, Ming

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of detergents increases the concentration of surfactant in lakes and reservoirs. High surfactant loads produces toxicity to algae; however, the influence of the increasing surfactant on the competition between algae is not clear. In this paper, different amounts of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were added to test the effects of LAS on the competition between Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus obliquus under eutrophic condition. In single culture, the growth of S. obliquus was promoted under lower LAS concentrations (1 and 20 mg L(-1)), but cell density of S. obliquus reduced when treated with higher LAS concentration (100 mg L(-1)). The growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited markedly with 20 and 100 mg L(-1) LAS. Compared with single culture, the result was opposite in co-cultures and the cell density of S. obliquus increased significantly when treated with LAS of 1, 20, and 100 mg L(-1). The specific growth rates of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in both cultures were 0.4-0.5 day(-1) and 0.6-0.7 day(-1), respectively, except that the specific growth rate of M. aeruginosa in both cultures treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was about 0.2 day(-1). M. aeruginosa dominated over S. obliquus in the co-culture without LAS, while the competition was completely opposite with the addition of 20 mg L(-1) LAS. The growth of S. obliquus treated with 20 mg L(-1) LAS was not affected significantly in single culture but was promoted by 75 % in co-culture. Moreover, the growth of S. obliquus in co-culture treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was promoted by more than 97 %. These results suggested that the increasing LAS would overturn the competition of algae in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:27154838

  11. Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the interspecific competition between Microcystis and Scenedesmus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Huaimin; Guo, Lili; Li, Ming

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of detergents increases the concentration of surfactant in lakes and reservoirs. High surfactant loads produces toxicity to algae; however, the influence of the increasing surfactant on the competition between algae is not clear. In this paper, different amounts of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were added to test the effects of LAS on the competition between Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus obliquus under eutrophic condition. In single culture, the growth of S. obliquus was promoted under lower LAS concentrations (1 and 20 mg L(-1)), but cell density of S. obliquus reduced when treated with higher LAS concentration (100 mg L(-1)). The growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited markedly with 20 and 100 mg L(-1) LAS. Compared with single culture, the result was opposite in co-cultures and the cell density of S. obliquus increased significantly when treated with LAS of 1, 20, and 100 mg L(-1). The specific growth rates of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in both cultures were 0.4-0.5 day(-1) and 0.6-0.7 day(-1), respectively, except that the specific growth rate of M. aeruginosa in both cultures treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was about 0.2 day(-1). M. aeruginosa dominated over S. obliquus in the co-culture without LAS, while the competition was completely opposite with the addition of 20 mg L(-1) LAS. The growth of S. obliquus treated with 20 mg L(-1) LAS was not affected significantly in single culture but was promoted by 75 % in co-culture. Moreover, the growth of S. obliquus in co-culture treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was promoted by more than 97 %. These results suggested that the increasing LAS would overturn the competition of algae in freshwater ecosystems.

  12. Microbial mineralization of IsoLAS in activated sludge, aquatic and soil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, A.M.; Beall, C.E.; Britton, L.N.; Russell, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    IsoLAS is a minor component (< 1 % to 6%) in commercial linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). It consists of two types (1 and 2). IsoLAS type 1 molecules have a single methyl group attached to non-benzylic carbons of the alkyl chain. IsoLAS type 2 molecules have a single methyl group attached to the benzylic carbon. A [{sup 14}C]-benzene ring-labeled C{sub 12}, LAS and four [{sup 14}C]-benzene ring-labeled single methyl branched alkylbenzene sulfonates (IsoLAS) were synthesized and tested. They were: Type 1A-Sodium 5-methyl-2-undecyl [{sup 14}C]benzene sulfonate, Type 1B-Sodium 5-methyl-5-undecyl [{sup 14}C]benzene sulfonate, Type 2A-Sodium 2-methyl-2undecyl [{sup 14}C]benzene sulfonate, Type 2B-Sodium 5-methyl-5-undecyl [{sup 14}C]benzene sulfonate. Mineralization results during the steady state operation of the continuous flow porous pot activated sludge laboratory test systems were: C{sub 12} LAS-58%, type 1A-53%, type 1B-58%, type 2A-52% and type 2B-8%. All except type 2B showed about 30% of the radioactivity in the biomass and 10--20% in the water soluble effluent; type 2B released 88% of its radioactivity into the effluent. Total recoveries of radioactivity in the porous pot units ranged from 97% to 102%. Since all units showed > 98% primary biodegradation, mineralization of the porous pot effluents in aquatic test systems suggests the ultimate biodegradation if IsoLAS biodegradation intermediates in receiving waters. Rapid and extensive mineralization of LAS and IsoLAS types 1 and 2 was noted in batch activated sludge, soil and aquatic test systems. Half lives were: activated sludge -- 1--3 days, sludge amended soil -- 1.5--5 days, water/periphyton -- 3--8.5 days and water/sediment -- 3.5--12 days. These results demonstrate that the IsoLAS in commercial LAS undergo rapid and ultimately complete mineralization during biological wastewater treatment and downstream exposure to surface waters.

  13. 40 CFR 81.82 - El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.82 El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (New...

  14. 77 FR 77090 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated...

  15. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated...

  16. Double star images taken by HST WFPC and Las Campanas Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of the same area of sky (a double star) taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) wide field planetary camera (WFPC) and ground-based image taken from the Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Institute of Washington.

  17. Response-Induced Reversals of Preference in Gambling: An Extended Replication in Las Vegas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Sarah; Slovic, Paul

    1973-01-01

    The present report describes an expanded replication of the previous experiments in a nonlaboratory real-play setting unique to the experimental literature on decision processes - a casino in downtown Las Vegas. (Author)

  18. Terrestrial risk assessment for linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    de Wolf, W; Feijtel, T

    1998-03-01

    A comparison of the estimated environmental concentration and the effect concentrations (in the laboratory or field) in the receiving compartment form the basis of environmental risk assessments. This paper reviews processes that critically influence the fate of LAS in the terrestrial environment. Concentrations of LAS in sludge are quite high due to sorption to primary sludge, precipitation of Ca and Mg-salts of LAS, and lack of biodegradation under anaerobic digestion. This implies that when sludge is applied to soil e.g. as a fertilizer, considerable amounts of this important surfactant may enter the terrestrial environment. Influence of aerobic situations on LAS concentrations during sludge storage needs further research to allow incorporation into the risk assessment. Aerobic biodegradation in soil is considered the most important removal mechanism of LAS loading to the terrestrial environment through sludge-amendment. Sorption plays a role in determining the residence time of a chemical in the soil, hereby enabling more time for biodegradation to occur. In addition, sorption may affect the expression of effects of surfactants towards benthic and soil dwelling organisms and plants. Another factor that needs further attention is the form of LAS in the environment, which is not similar to the commercial material applied in detergents. The differential sorption and biodegradation of the LAS components lead to a shift in the alkyl chain length (homologue), and phenylisomer distribution towards increased hydrophobicity. Also, occurrence of Ca/Mg-salts in the environment versus the Na-salt for the commercial material critically impacts the extrapolation of effects data obtained in lab studies (mostly performed with the commercial material) to the field. The literature data were used in combination with strategies and methods provided by the European Union Technical Guidance Document in support of risk assessment of new and notified substances (1996) for the

  19. Best Practices Case Study: Pulte Homes and Communities of Del Webb, Las Vegas Division

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    Case study of Pulte Homes Las Vegas Division, who certified nearly 1,200 homes to the DOE Builders Challenge between 2008 and 2012. All of the homes by Las Vegas’ biggest builder achieved HERS scores of lower than 70, and many floor plans got down to the mid 50s, with ducts located in sealed attics insulated along the roof line, advanced framing, and extra attention to air sealing.

  20. Effect of the test media and toxicity of LAS on the growth of Isochrysis galbana.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Perez, M C; Perales-VargasMachuca, J A; Nebot-Sanz, E; Sales-Márquez, D

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, the toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was evaluated in the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana using data of growth inhibition toxicity tests at 96-h exposure time. Toxicity was examined in standard conditions and by means of the modification of two variables of the test media: (1) the dilution water and (2) the content of nutrients in the test medium. For this purpose, a total of 10 toxicity test were designed: five dilution waters, four natural marine waters and one synthetic seawater; each in two different nutritive conditions, saturated nutrient concentration (SC) by the addition of modified f/2 nutritive medium, and natural nutrient concentration (NC), i.e., without the addition of f/2. At threshold toxicity levels, the dilution waters used in the test and the nutrient concentrations did not affect the toxicity of LAS. At IC50 concentrations, the toxicity of LAS is influenced by both variables: under SC conditions, the toxic effect of LAS diminishes, obtaining in all the tests IC50 > 10 mg/L LAS. Under NC conditions, IC50 concentrations ranging between 3.15 and 9.26 mg/L LAS have been obtained.

  1. Cluster galaxy evolution with the Las Campanas Distant Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Amy Elizabeth

    Understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies is a principal goal of modern cosmology. In this thesis, we place constraints on galaxy evolution models using the largest sample of high redshift clusters to date. Our sample consists of 63 clusters at 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 0.9 drawn from the Las Campanas Distant Cluster Survey (LCDCS). This survey differs from traditional optical surveys in that we detect clusters as regions of excess surface brightness relative to the background sky rather than selecting overdensities of resolved galaxies. Therefore, not only does this sample result in a significant increase in the number of known clusters at these redshifts, but because our cluster identification criteria is independent of those utilized in previous surveys, this catalog provides an independent, well-defined sample with which to compare the results of more traditional surveys. In this work, we take a two-pronged approach to studying galaxy evolution. First, we examine the luminosity and color evolution of the bright cluster galaxies as a class. Specifically, we measure the evolution of: (1) M*I , the characteristic luminosity of cluster galaxies, (2) the location of the red envelope in V--I and I--K', and (3) the fraction of blue galaxies (i.e. the Butcher-Oemler effect; Butcher & Oemler 1984). Our data suggest that luminous early type galaxies (or the progenitors of current day early type galaxies) form the bulk of their stellar populations at high redshifts ( ≲ 5) and that many of these galaxies, if not all, experience a short term episode of star formation at lower redshifts (1.5 < z < 2). Second, we narrow the focus and study a single type of cluster galaxy, the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We constrain the amount of luminosity and color evolution of BCGs, particularly in the context of recent claims in the literature of significant mass accretion since z ˜ 1 (Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Burke, Collins, & Mann 2000). Consistent with previous results (Burke

  2. Monitoring Changes in Channel Morphology in Las Vegas Wash with Global Fiducials Program Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    To borrow from a popular adage, "What happens in Las Vegas [Wash], stays in Las Vegas [Wash]"—but only with a lot of help. This past decade has seen a concerted effort to curb erosion and sediment transport along the 12 mile long channel between East Las Vegas and Lake Mead. Las Vegas Wash is prototypical of an urban river in an arid environment that is being impacted by increasing urban development and impervious surface runoff within its drainage area. Rapid urbanization since the 1970s has increased the flow of water into Las Vegas Wash, causing severe channel destabilization. Within two decades millions of cubic yards of rocks and sediment were scoured out of the wash and transported downstream to Lake Mead. The wetlands that once covered over 2,000 acres within Las Vegas Wash dwindled to 200 acres in the 1990s as the channel became as much as 40 feet deeper and 300 feet wider at some points. In 1999 the Las Vegas Wash Coordination Committee (LVWCC) initiated a 20-year plan to construct erosion control structures (weirs) for channel stabilization and rock riprap for stream bank protection. The hope is to design structures that will slow down the water flow, trap sediments, and to eventually restore much of the wetland environment. Using high-resolution satellite imagery from the Global Fiducials Program Library housed at the U. S. Geological Survey, this transition is being tracked from 1999 to the present. From November 1999 to July 2008 new residential and commercial development has claimed an additional 12 square kilometers (3000 acres) of land in Henderson, NV, along the south side of Las Vegas Wash. Even with the increased volume of surface and groundwater runoff entering the wash, current sediment yields are much lower than the 1999 totals. The imagery documents the construction of 14 of the 22 LVWCC planned weirs by the year 2011. It also shows many miles of stream bank stabilization by riprap, planting of riparian vegetation and placing of

  3. Environmentally Endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains with Mutations in lasR Are Associated with Increased Disease Severity in Corneal Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Hammond, John H; Hebert, Wesley P; Naimie, Amanda; Ray, Kathryn; Van Gelder, Rachel D; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Lalitha, Prajna; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Acharya, Nisha R; Lietman, Thomas; Hogan, Deborah A; Zegans, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a multicenter, international study of bacterial keratitis in which 101 Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were treated. Twenty-two of 101 P. aeruginosa isolates collected had a colony morphology characteristic of a loss-of-function mutation in lasR, the gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator. Ulcers caused by these 22 strains were associated with larger areas of corneal opacification, worse vision, and a lower rate of vision recovery in response to treatment than ulcers caused by the other isolates. The lasR sequences from these isolates each contained one of three nonsynonymous substitutions, and these strains were deficient in production of LasR-regulated protease and rhamnolipids. Replacement of lasR with either of the two most common lasR alleles from the SCUT isolates was sufficient to decrease protease and rhamnolipid production in PA14. Loss of LasR function is associated with increased production of CupA fimbriae, and the LasR-defective isolates exhibited higher production of CupA fimbriae than LasR-intact isolates. Strains with the same lasR mutation were of the same multilocus sequence type, suggesting that LasR-deficient, environmental P. aeruginosa strains were endemic to the area, and infections caused by these strains were associated with worse patient outcomes in the SCUT study. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00324168.) IMPORTANCE The LasR transcription factor is an important regulator of quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa and positively controls multiple virulence-associated pathways. The emergence of strains with lasR loss-of-function alleles in chronic disease is well described and is thought to represent a specific adaptation to the host environment. However, the prevalence and virulence of these strains in acute infections remain unclear. This report describes observations revealing that lasR mutants were common among isolates from a large

  4. Environmentally Endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains with Mutations in lasR Are Associated with Increased Disease Severity in Corneal Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, John H.; Hebert, Wesley P.; Naimie, Amanda; Ray, Kathryn; Van Gelder, Rachel D.; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Lalitha, Prajna; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Acharya, Nisha R.; Lietman, Thomas; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a multicenter, international study of bacterial keratitis in which 101 Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were treated. Twenty-two of 101 P. aeruginosa isolates collected had a colony morphology characteristic of a loss-of-function mutation in lasR, the gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator. Ulcers caused by these 22 strains were associated with larger areas of corneal opacification, worse vision, and a lower rate of vision recovery in response to treatment than ulcers caused by the other isolates. The lasR sequences from these isolates each contained one of three nonsynonymous substitutions, and these strains were deficient in production of LasR-regulated protease and rhamnolipids. Replacement of lasR with either of the two most common lasR alleles from the SCUT isolates was sufficient to decrease protease and rhamnolipid production in PA14. Loss of LasR function is associated with increased production of CupA fimbriae, and the LasR-defective isolates exhibited higher production of CupA fimbriae than LasR-intact isolates. Strains with the same lasR mutation were of the same multilocus sequence type, suggesting that LasR-deficient, environmental P. aeruginosa strains were endemic to the area, and infections caused by these strains were associated with worse patient outcomes in the SCUT study. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00324168.) IMPORTANCE The LasR transcription factor is an important regulator of quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa and positively controls multiple virulence-associated pathways. The emergence of strains with lasR loss-of-function alleles in chronic disease is well described and is thought to represent a specific adaptation to the host environment. However, the prevalence and virulence of these strains in acute infections remain unclear. This report describes observations revealing that lasR mutants were common among isolates from

  5. Environmentally Endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains with Mutations in lasR Are Associated with Increased Disease Severity in Corneal Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, John H.; Hebert, Wesley P.; Naimie, Amanda; Ray, Kathryn; Van Gelder, Rachel D.; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Lalitha, Prajna; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Acharya, Nisha R.; Lietman, Thomas; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a multicenter, international study of bacterial keratitis in which 101 Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were treated. Twenty-two of 101 P. aeruginosa isolates collected had a colony morphology characteristic of a loss-of-function mutation in lasR, the gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator. Ulcers caused by these 22 strains were associated with larger areas of corneal opacification, worse vision, and a lower rate of vision recovery in response to treatment than ulcers caused by the other isolates. The lasR sequences from these isolates each contained one of three nonsynonymous substitutions, and these strains were deficient in production of LasR-regulated protease and rhamnolipids. Replacement of lasR with either of the two most common lasR alleles from the SCUT isolates was sufficient to decrease protease and rhamnolipid production in PA14. Loss of LasR function is associated with increased production of CupA fimbriae, and the LasR-defective isolates exhibited higher production of CupA fimbriae than LasR-intact isolates. Strains with the same lasR mutation were of the same multilocus sequence type, suggesting that LasR-deficient, environmental P. aeruginosa strains were endemic to the area, and infections caused by these strains were associated with worse patient outcomes in the SCUT study. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00324168.) IMPORTANCE The LasR transcription factor is an important regulator of quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa and positively controls multiple virulence-associated pathways. The emergence of strains with lasR loss-of-function alleles in chronic disease is well described and is thought to represent a specific adaptation to the host environment. However, the prevalence and virulence of these strains in acute infections remain unclear. This report describes observations revealing that lasR mutants were common among isolates from

  6. Molecular Insights into the Impact of Oxidative Stress on the Quorum-Sensing Regulator Protein LasR.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Prapti; Amoh, Amanda N; Reaves, Jocelyn M; Suneby, Emma G; Tutunjian, Kathryn A; Tyson, Reed L; Schneider, Tanya L

    2016-05-27

    The LasR regulator protein functions at the top of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing hierarchy and is implicated in promoting bacterial virulence. Of note is recent evidence that this transcription factor may also respond to oxidative stress. Here, all cysteines in LasR were inspected to deduce their redox sensitivity and to probe the connection between stress response and LasR activity using purified LasR and individual LasR domains. Cys(79) in the ligand binding domain of LasR appears to be important for ligand recognition and folding of this domain to potentiate DNA binding but does not seem to be sensitive to oxidative stress when bound to its native ligand. Two cysteines in the DNA binding domain of LasR do form a disulfide bond when treated with hydrogen peroxide, and formation of this Cys(201)-Cys(203) disulfide bond appears to disrupt the DNA binding activity of the transcription factor. Mutagenesis of either of these cysteines leads to expression of a protein that no longer binds DNA. A cell-based reporter assay linking LasR function with β-galactosidase activity gave results consistent with those obtained with purified LasR. This work provides a possible mechanism for oxidative stress response by LasR and indicates that multiple cysteines within the protein may prove to be useful targets for disabling its activity. PMID:27053110

  7. LasR Variant Cystic Fibrosis Isolates Reveal an Adaptable Quorum-Sensing Hierarchy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Feltner, John B.; Wolter, Daniel J.; Pope, Christopher E.; Groleau, Marie-Christine; Smalley, Nicole E.; Greenberg, E. Peter; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Burns, Jane; Hoffman, Lucas R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections cause significant morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Over years to decades, P. aeruginosa adapts genetically as it establishes chronic lung infections. Nonsynonymous mutations in lasR, the quorum-sensing (QS) master regulator, are common in CF. In laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa, LasR activates transcription of dozens of genes, including that for another QS regulator, RhlR. Despite the frequency with which lasR coding variants have been reported to occur in P. aeruginosa CF isolates, little is known about their consequences for QS. We sequenced lasR from 2,583 P. aeruginosa CF isolates. The lasR sequences of 580 isolates (22%) coded for polypeptides that differed from the conserved LasR polypeptides of well-studied laboratory strains. This collection included 173 unique lasR coding variants, 116 of which were either missense or nonsense mutations. We studied 31 of these variants. About one-sixth of the variant LasR proteins were functional, including 3 with nonsense mutations, and in some LasR-null isolates, genes that are LasR dependent in laboratory strains were nonetheless expressed. Furthermore, about half of the LasR-null isolates retained RhlR activity. Therefore, in some CF isolates the QS hierarchy is altered such that RhlR quorum sensing is independent of LasR regulation. Our analysis challenges the view that QS-silent P. aeruginosa is selected during the course of a chronic CF lung infection. Rather, some lasR sequence variants retain functionality, and many employ an alternate QS strategy involving RhlR. PMID:27703072

  8. Evaluation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) behaviour in agricultural soil through laboratory continuous studies.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-07-01

    The behaviour of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in agricultural soil is investigated in the laboratory using continuous-flow soil column studies in order to simultaneously analyze the three main underlying phenomena (adsorption/desorption, degradation and transport). The continuous-flow soil column experiments generated the breakthrough curves for each LAS homologue, C10, C11, C12 and C13, and by adding them up, for total LAS, from which the relevant retention, degradation and transport parameters could be estimated, after proposing adequate models. Several transport equations were considered, including the degradation of the sorbate in solution and its retention by soil, under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions between the sorbent and the sorbate. In general, the results obtained for the estimates of those parameters that were common to the various models studied (such as the isotherm slope, first order degradation rate coefficient and the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient) were rather consistent, meaning that mass transfer limitations are not playing a major role in the experiments. These three parameters increase with the length of the LAS homologue chain. The study will provide the underlying conceptual framework and fundamental parameters to understand, simulate and predict the environmental behaviour of LAS compounds in agricultural soils. PMID:25765258

  9. Cystic fibrosis–adapted Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing lasR mutants cause hyperinflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    LaFayette, Shantelle L.; Houle, Daniel; Beaudoin, Trevor; Wojewodka, Gabriella; Radzioch, Danuta; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Burns, Jane L.; Dandekar, Ajai A.; Smalley, Nicole E.; Chandler, Josephine R.; Zlosnik, James E.; Speert, David P.; Bernier, Joanie; Matouk, Elias; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Simon; Nguyen, Dao

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterized by chronic airway infections with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and severe neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation. P. aeruginosa undergoes extensive genetic adaptation to the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung environment, and adaptive mutations in the quorum sensing regulator gene lasR commonly arise. We sought to define how mutations in lasR alter host-pathogen relationships. We demonstrate that lasR mutants induce exaggerated host inflammatory responses in respiratory epithelial cells, with increased accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil recruitment due to the loss of bacterial protease–dependent cytokine degradation. In subacute pulmonary infections, lasR mutant–infected mice show greater neutrophilic inflammation and immunopathology compared with wild-type infections. Finally, we observed that CF patients infected with lasR mutants have increased plasma interleukin-8 (IL-8), a marker of inflammation. These findings suggest that bacterial adaptive changes may worsen pulmonary inflammation and directly contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of chronic lung disease in CF patients. PMID:26457326

  10. Evaluation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) behaviour in agricultural soil through laboratory continuous studies.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-07-01

    The behaviour of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in agricultural soil is investigated in the laboratory using continuous-flow soil column studies in order to simultaneously analyze the three main underlying phenomena (adsorption/desorption, degradation and transport). The continuous-flow soil column experiments generated the breakthrough curves for each LAS homologue, C10, C11, C12 and C13, and by adding them up, for total LAS, from which the relevant retention, degradation and transport parameters could be estimated, after proposing adequate models. Several transport equations were considered, including the degradation of the sorbate in solution and its retention by soil, under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions between the sorbent and the sorbate. In general, the results obtained for the estimates of those parameters that were common to the various models studied (such as the isotherm slope, first order degradation rate coefficient and the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient) were rather consistent, meaning that mass transfer limitations are not playing a major role in the experiments. These three parameters increase with the length of the LAS homologue chain. The study will provide the underlying conceptual framework and fundamental parameters to understand, simulate and predict the environmental behaviour of LAS compounds in agricultural soils.

  11. Nucleotide sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Schad, P A; Iglewski, B H

    1988-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-E64 is a mutant which produces parental levels of elastase antigen but has no elastolytic activity at 37 degrees C. The lesion (lasA1) in PAO-E64 is not a mutation in the structural gene for P. aeruginosa elastase (P.A. Schad, R.A. Bever, T.I. Nicas, F. Leduce, L.F. Hanne, and B.H. Iglewski, J. Bacteriol. 169: 2691-2696, 1987). A 1.7-kilobase segment of DNA that complements the lasA1 lesion was sequenced. Computer analysis of the DNA sequence showed that it contained an open reading frame which encoded a 41,111-dalton protein. The lasA gene was expressed under an inducible PT-7 promoter, and a 40,000-dalton protein was detected in Escherichia coli lysates. The lasA protein was localized in the outer membrane fraction of E. coli. This lasA protein produced in E. coli activated the extracellular elastase produced by the P. aeruginosa mutant, PAO-E64. Images PMID:2836371

  12. Roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl quorum-sensing systems in control of elastase and rhamnolipid biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, J P; Pesci, E C; Iglewski, B H

    1997-01-01

    Two quorum-sensing systems (las and rhl) regulate virulence gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The las system consists of a transcriptional activator, LasR, and LasI, which directs the synthesis of the autoinducer N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone (PAI-1). Induction of lasB (encoding elastase) and other virulence genes requires LasR and PAI-1. The rhl system consists of a putative transcriptional activator, RhlR, and RhlI, which directs the synthesis of N-butyryl homoserine lactone (PAI-2). Rhamnolipid production in P. aeruginosa has been reported to require both the rhl system and rhlAB (encoding a rhamnosyltransferase). Here we report the generation of a delta lasI mutant and both delta lasI delta rhlI and delta lasR rhlR::Tn501 double mutants of strain PAO1. Rhamnolipid production and elastolysis were reduced in the delta lasI single mutant and abolished in the double-mutant strains. rhlAB mRNA was not detected in these strains at mid-logarithmic phase but was abundant in the parental strain. Further RNA analysis of the wild-type strain revealed that rhlAB is organized as an operon. The rhlAB transcriptional start was mapped, and putative sigma 54 and sigma 70 promoters were identified upstream. To define components required for rhlAB expression, we developed a bioassay in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that PAI-2 and RhlR are required and sufficient for expression of rhlA. To characterize the putative interaction between PAI-2 and RhlR, we demonstrated that [3H]PAI-2 binds to E. coli cells expressing RhlR and not to those expressing LasR. Finally, the specificity of the las and rhl systems was examined in E. coli bioassays. The las system was capable of mildly activating rhlA, and similarly, the rhl system partly activated lasB. However; these effects were much less than the activation of rhlA by the rhl system and lasB by the las system. The results presented here further characterize the roles of the rhl and las quorum-sensing systems in

  13. Estudio de la transparencia de las nubes de Magallanes a partir de la observación espectroscópica de galaxias ubicadas en dirección a las mismas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, C.; Bica, E.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.:

    Se presentan los primeros resultados obtenidos a partir de observaciones espectroscópicas de galaxias ubicadas en dirección a las Nubes de Magallanes. Los espectros fueron obtenidos con el telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO y cubren el rango 3500-7000 Å. El material observacional recolectado permite examinar poblaciones estelares y determinar el enrojecimiento interestelar que afecta a cada una de las galaxias. La distribución angular de la muestra de galaxias observadas permite efectuar el mapeamiento del enrojecimiento que afecta las distintas regiones de las Nubes de Magallanes.

  14. Bioconcentration of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the marine shrimp Palaemonetes varians: a radiotracer study.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Florent; Warnau, Michel; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Temara, Ali; Rouleau, Claude; Metian, Marc

    2014-08-15

    Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved [(14)C]C₁₂-6-linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were determined in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians using environmentally relevant exposure concentration. The shrimp concentrated LAS from seawater with a mean BCF value of 120 L kg(-1) after a 7-day exposure. Uptake biokinetics were best described by a saturation model, with an estimated BCFss, of 159 ± 34 L kg(-1), reached after 11.5 days. Shrimp weight influenced significantly BCF value with smaller individuals presenting higher affinity to LAS. To the light of a whole body autoradiography, major accumulation of LAS occurred in the cephalothorax circulatory system (gills, heart, hepatopancreas) and ocular peduncle, but not in the flesh, limiting potential transfer to human consumers. LAS depuration rate constant value of the shrimp was 1.18 ± 0.08 d(-1) leading to less than 1% of remaining LAS in its tissues after 8 days of depuration.

  15. Sobre las soluciones acotadas del problema instantáneo de dos cuerpos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavista, C.

    La demostración se basa en el hecho de que las integrales del problema de los N-cuerpos admiten componentes en el campo complejo según las raíces n-ésimas de la unidad. Definida la matriz unitaria correspondiente, la fórmula de Cayley permite transformar la matriz unitaria en una matriz hermitiana. Utilizando como parámetros los cosenos direccionales de un sistema de coordenadas orbitales referidos a un sistema de referencia fijo, puede construirse, utilizando el operador hermitiano antes definido, una forma cuadrática cuyas raíces mínima y máxima definen las cotas respectivas de los movimientos de los mencionados cosenos direccionales.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) Aircraft Measurements of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Lance E.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.; Jacob, Joseph C.; Hyon, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) utilizes Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) at 2.05 microns to obtain CO2 column mixing ratios weighted heavily in the boundary layer. CO2LAS employs a coherent detection receiver and continuous-wave Th:Ho:YLF laser transmitters with output powers around 100 milliwatts. An offset frequency-locking scheme coupled to an absolute frequency reference enables the frequencies of the online and offline lasers to be held to within 200 kHz of desired values. We describe results from 2009 field campaigns when CO2LAS flew on the Twin Otter. We also describe spectroscopic studies aimed at uncovering potential biases in lidar CO2 retrievals at 2.05 microns.

  17. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiker, T.J.; Abney, S.R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  18. Methanogenic activity inhibition by increasing the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentration.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luiza F C; Florencio, Lourdinha; Gavazza, Savia; Kato, Mario T

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the initial concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was investigated in this work. Six anaerobic flasks reactors with 1 L of total volume were inoculated with anaerobic sludge (2 g VSS L(-1)). The reactors were assayed for 42 days, and fed with volatile fatty acids, nutrients, and LAS. The initial LAS concentrations were 0, 10, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1) for the treatment flasks T1 (control), T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively. When compared with T1, T2 exhibited a 30% reduction in maximum SMA and total methane production (TMP). In treatment T3 through T6, the reductions were 44-97% (T3-T6) for SMA, and 30-90% (T3-T6) for TMP. Total LAS removal increased following the increase in the initial LAS concentration (from 36% at T1 to 76% at T6), primarily due to the high degree of sludge adsorption. LAS biodegradation also occurred (32% in all treatments), although this was most likely associated with the formation of non-methane intermediates. Greater removal by adsorption was observed in long-chain homologues, when compared to short-chain homologues (C13 > C10), whereas the opposite occurred for biodegradation (C10 > C13). The C13 homologue was adsorbed to a great extent (in mass) in T4, T5 and T6, and may also have inhibited methane formation in these treatments. PMID:27088975

  19. A reinterpretation of the Pleistocene human and faunal association at Las Buitreras Cave, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Luis A.; Martin, Fabiana M.

    2008-12-01

    The faunal assemblage recovered from Layers VIII-VII at Las Buitreras Cave has been considered as associated with human artifacts. On that basis, the previous analysis had concluded that human hunters had exploited ground sloths at the end of the Pleistocene. A reanalysis of the bones as well as the rest of the evidence suggests that there is no basis for that conclusion. On the contrary, it is suggested here that the lower layers at Las Buitreras are the result of the use of the cave as a den by ground sloths.

  20. Discovery of LAS101057: A Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious A2B Adenosine Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The structure−activity relationships for a series of pyrazine-based A2B adenosine receptor antagonists are described. From this work, LAS101057 (17), a potent, selective, and orally efficacious A2B receptor antagonist, was identified as a clinical development candidate. LAS101057 inhibits agonist-induced IL-6 production in human fibroblasts and is active in an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse model after oral administration, reducing airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, Th2 cytokine production, and OVA-specific IgE levels. PMID:24900298

  1. Sealing 304L to lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Moddeman, W.E.; Pence, R.E.; Massey, R.T.; Cassidy, R.T.; Kramer, D.P.

    1989-10-01

    Lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) glass-ceramics have been developed whose high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) allows the formation of stress-free seals with 300-series stainless steels, by adjusting either the parent glass composition or the sealing/crystallization cycle used in forming seals between LAS glass-ceramics and Ni-base alloys. CTE value and alloy yield strength data are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of feedthroughs and pyrotechnic components based on these materials; the integrity of the glass/steel interfaces is indicated by TEM, metallographic, and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy results. 10 refs.

  2. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua cont

  3. Positive correlation of algD transcription to lasB and lasA transcription by populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Storey, D G; Ujack, E E; Mitchell, I; Rabin, H R

    1997-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a chronic infection in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis. The P. aeruginosa isolates from these infections, when grown under laboratory conditions, characteristically are mucoid and produce low levels of the more destructive virulence factors, such as exotoxin A and the proteases. We wanted to determine if during the chronic lung infections associated with CF, the expression of alginate was inversely correlated to the expression of exotoxin A, elastase, and the LasA protease. We measured the transcript accumulation of algD, a marker of alginate, toxA, the structural gene for exotoxin A, lasB, the structural gene for elastase, and lasA, the structural gene for LasA protease, from the sputum bacterial populations of 23 patients. In the 131 samples tested, we frequently detected transcripts from the four genes. When a Spearman rank correlation analysis was done on the samples, we found no correlation between algD transcript accumulation and toxA transcript accumulation. This result suggested that toxA was regulated independently of algD. Curiously, we found a positive correlation between algD transcript accumulation and both lasB and lasA transcript accumulation levels. This correlation may not indicate a direct association between algD and either lasA or lasB. More likely, it indicates a common regulatory element in a cascade of regulators or a common environmental cue that triggers transcription. PMID:9317008

  4. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Las Cruces quadrangle, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-31

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 501 water samples and 1817 sediment samples from the Las Cruces Quadrangle, New Mexico. The samples were collected and uranium analysis performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory; multielement analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  5. Crustal structure in the vicinity of Las Vegas, Nevada, from seismic and gravity observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roller, John C.

    1963-01-01

    A seismic-refraction profile indicates that the crust of the Earth increases in thickness by as much as 5 km over a horizontal distance of less than 25 km northeast of Las Vegas, Nevada. This feature correlates with a decrease in the Bouguer anomaly and an increase in the average surface altitude.

  6. 76 FR 61379 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... public land management in New Mexico. Planned agenda items include a welcome and introduction of new... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY:...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: L and T dwarfs from UKIDSS LAS (Marocco+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, F.; Jones, H. R. A.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Pinfield, D. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Burningham, B.; Zhang, Z. H.; Smart, R. L.; Gomes, J. I.; Smith, L.

    2015-11-01

    The objects presented here have been selected from the UKIDSS LAS 7th Data Release. The details of the selection criteria can be found in Day-Jones et al. (2013, Cat. J/MNRAS/430/1171, hereafter ADJ13). (5 data files).

  8. Hydrologic impacts of climate change and urbanization in Las Vegas Wash Watershed, Nevada

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, a cell-based model for the Las Vegas Wash (LVW) Watershed in Clark County, Nevada, was developed by combining the traditional hydrologic modeling methods (Thornthwaite’s water balance model and the Soil Conservation Survey’s Curve Number method) with the pixel-base...

  9. Episodic Impacts from California Wildfires Identified in Las Vegas Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutant concentrations near major highways are usually attributed to a combination of nearby traffic emissions and regional background, and generally presumed to be additive in nature. During a recent year-long near-road monitoring study conducted in Las Vegas, NV, a substa...

  10. Changes in the morphometry of Las Vegas Wash and the impact on water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roline, Richard A.; Sartoris, James J.

    1988-01-01

    Las Vegas Wash, a natural wash east of Las Vegas, Nevada, carries stormwater, groundwater drainage, and sewage effluent from two sewage treatment plants to Lake Mean. Over 80 percent of the normal discharge of approximately 3.4 m3/s (120 ft3/s) consists of effluent from the City of Las Vegas and Clark County sewage treatment plants. Beginning in the 1950s, a large wetland area developed along the wash that supported waterfowl populations and contributed to some water quality transformations. Heavy rains and subsequent flooding in the area in 1983 and 1984 resulted in erosion and channelization that greatly reduced the wetland area within Las Vegas Wash. The reduction in wetland area shortened water travel time in the wash and affected water quality. The primary impacts on the water entering Lake Mead have been an increase in temperature, a decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration, and an increase in ammonia levels. Other physical-chemical parameters and changes in nutrient transformations are also discussed.

  11. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - NextGen Home, Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on the NextGen demo home built in Las Vegas. The home has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index score of 44 with R-40 spray foam attic insulation, R-40 insulated concrete walls, and a 4kW DC solar laminate

  12. Perceptions toward the Value of Higher Education for Hotel Professionals in Las Vegas: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deel, Gary Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns a qualitative investigation of the views toward higher education and its importance to hospitality career success among hotel professionals in the Las Vegas, Nevada area. Existing literature supported the premise that education may be important to professional career success in several different ways, and that values concerning…

  13. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  14. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - Masco Environments for Living, Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on Masco’s Environments for Living Certified Green demo home at the 2009 International Builders Show in Las Vegas. The home has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index score of 44, a right-sized air conditi

  15. 77 FR 65332 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Las Vegas, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... establishing the Las Vegas, NV, Terminal Control Area (TCA) with an effective date of November 11, 1974 (39 FR... to ensure that turbine-powered aircraft operations were fully contained within the TCA (47 FR 30052). In 1993, as part of the Airspace Reclassification Final Rule (56 FR 65638), the term...

  16. 78 FR 43772 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Las Vegas, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... (77 FR 65332). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by submitting... reopening the comment period until February 13, 2013 (78 FR 2646). The Aircraft Owners and Pilots... to reduce the number of Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) alerts between Las...

  17. The Development of Child Subjectivity in "La lengua de las mariposas"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Jose Luis Cuerda's film "La lengua de las mariposas" is set in rural Galicia in the immediate lead-up to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. It portrays the tender relationship between a Republican schoolteacher, Don Gregorio, and a boy named Moncho. Upon the Nationalist capture of the town, the young Moncho hurls stones at his friend, but…

  18. 76 FR 35371 - Proposed Modification of the Las Vegas, NV, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...: (1) The meeting on Thursday, August 18, 2011, will be held at Centennial High School, 10200... Coronado High School, 10 1 Coronado Center Drive, Henderson, NV 89052; (3) The meeting on Thursday, August 25, 2011, will be held at Shadow Ridge High School, 5050 Brent Lane, Las Vegas, NV 89131....

  19. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  20. Hydrologic impacts of climate change and urbanization in Las Vegas Wash Watershed, Nevada

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, a cell-based model for the Las Vegas Wash (LVW) Watershed in Clark County, Nevada, was developed by combining the traditional hydrologic modeling methods (Thornthwaite’s water balance model and the Soil Conservation Survey’s Curve Number method) with th...

  1. 75 FR 38778 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 89 Las Vegas, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... the Federal Register (74 FR 59131-59132, 11/17/09) and the application has been processed pursuant to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 89 Las Vegas, NV Pursuant to its authority...

  2. PERCHLORATE UPTAKE BY SALT CEDAR (TAMARIX RAMOSISSIMA) IN THE LAS VEGAS WASH RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate ion (CIO4-) has been identified in samples of dormant salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) growing in the Las vegas Wash. Perchlorate is an oxidenat, but its reduction is kineticaly hindered. CXoncern over thyrpoid effects caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  3. State-of-the-Art Building Concepts Lower Energy Bills, Pulte Homes - Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    Houses built by Pulte Homes as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program in Las Vegas, Nevada, save money for the home owners by reducing electric air-conditioning costs and gas heating costs with little or no additional inv

  4. Comportamiento del Helio en estrellas químicamente peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaroda, S. M.; López García, Z.; Leone, F.; Catalano, F.

    Las estrellas químicamente peculiares (CP) se caracterizan por tener deficiencias y sobreabundancias de algunos elementos químicos de hasta 106 veces la abundancia solar. Además presentan variaciones en las líneas espectrales. Se piensa que ello se debe a que los campos magnéticos presentes en este tipo de estrellas son principalmente dipolares, con un eje de simetría diferente del eje de rotación. La distribución de los elementos sobreabundantes y deficientes no es homogénea sobre la superficie estelar y las variaciones observadas serían una consecuencia directa de la rotación estelar. Entre los elementos con abundancia anómala se encuentra el Helio, cuyas líneas tienen intensidades que no son consistentes con una abundancia normal, que no puede ser determinada del modo usual, o sea, considerando una atmósfera con composición solar. Con el fin de determinar la abundancia de este elemento, se inició un estudio de estrellas anómalas de Helio, Hew y He strong. Además se determinarán las abundancias de otros elementos anómalos como ser el Si, Cr, Mg, Mn y Fe. Las mismas se determinan del modo tradicional, o sea: a) medida de los anchos equivalentes de las líneas de los distintos elementos analizados; b) adopción de la temperatura efectiva, gravedad y abundancia del Helio; c) cálculo del modelo de atmósfera d) comparación con las observaciones y reinicio de un proceso iterativo hasta lograr un acuerdo entre todos los parámetros analizados. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en el Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. Se observaron setenta y ocho estrellas anómalas de Helio. En este momento se está procediendo a calcular las abundancias correspondientes a los distintos elementos químicos. Para ello se hace uso de los modelos de Kurucz, ATLAS9. Los cálculos NLTE de las líneas de Helio se llevan a cabo con el programa MULTI y se compararán con los realizados con el programa WIDTH9 de Kurucz (LTE), con el objeto de resaltar la importancia de

  5. Probabilistic risk assessment for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in sewage sludge used on agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Schowanek, Diederik; David, Helen; Francaviglia, Rosa; Hall, Jeremy; Kirchmann, Holger; Krogh, Paul Henning; Schraepen, Nathalie; Smith, Stephen; Wildemann, Tanja

    2007-12-01

    Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments were developed for commercial LAS in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge. The procedure done according to ILSI Europe's Conceptual Framework [Schowanek, D., Carr, R., David, H., Douben, P., Hall, J., Kirchmann, H., Patria, L., Sequi, P., Smith, S., Webb, S.F., 2004. A risk-based methodology for deriving quality standards for organic contaminants in sewage sludge for use in agriculture-conceptual Framework. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 40 (3), 227-251], consists of three main steps. First, the most sensitive endpoint was determined. This was found to be the chronic ecotoxicity of LAS to soil invertebrates and plants. Additional endpoints, such as potential for plant uptake and transfer in the food chain, leaching to groundwater, surface erosion run-off, human health risk via drinking water, plant consumption and soil ingestion were also systematically evaluated but were all assessed to be of little toxicological significance. In the second step, a back-calculation was conducted from the Predicted No-Effect Concentration in soil (PNECsoil) to a safe level of LAS in sludge (here called 'Sludge Quality Standard'; SQS). The deterministic approach followed the default agricultural soil exposure scenario in the EU-Technical Guidance Document (TGD). The SQS for LAS was calculated as 49 g/kg sludge Dry Matter (DM). In order to assess the potential variability as a result of varying agricultural practices and local environmental conditions, two probabilistic exposure assessment scenarios were also developed. The mean SQS was estimated at 55 and 27.5 g/kg DM for the homogeneous soil mixing and soil injection scenarios, respectively. In the final step, the resulting SQS values were evaluated for consistency and relevance versus available information from agricultural experience and field tests. No build-up, adverse impact on soil fertility, agronomic performance, or animal/human health have been reported for agricultural

  6. The vitamin riboflavin and its derivative lumichrome activate the LasR bacterial quorum-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sathish; Bauer, Wolfgang D; Robinson, Jayne B; Farrow, John M; Pesci, Everett C; Teplitski, Max; Gao, Mengsheng; Sayre, Richard T; Phillips, Donald A

    2008-09-01

    Many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) as an intercellular signaling mechanism to regulate gene expression in local populations. Plant and algal hosts, in turn, secrete compounds that mimic bacterial QS signals, allowing these hosts to manipulate QS-regulated gene expression in bacteria. Lumichrome, a derivative of the vitamin riboflavin, was purified and chemically identified from culture filtrates of the alga Chlamydomonas as a QS signal-mimic compound capable of stimulating the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR QS receptor. LasR normally recognizes the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signal, N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone. Authentic lumichrome and riboflavin stimulated the LasR receptor in bioassays and lumichrome activated LasR in gel shift experiments. Amino acid substitutions in LasR residues required for AHL binding altered responses to both AHLs and lumichrome or riboflavin. These results and docking studies indicate that the AHL binding pocket of LasR recognizes both AHLs and the structurally dissimilar lumichrome or riboflavin. Bacteria, plants, and algae commonly secrete riboflavin or lumichrome, raising the possibility that these compounds could serve as either QS signals or as interkingdom signal mimics capable of manipulating QS in bacteria with a LasR-like receptor.

  7. Sealing 304L to lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Moddeman, W.E.; Pence, R.E.; Massey, R.T.; Cassidy, R.T.; Kramer, D.P.

    1989-12-31

    The formation of a crack-free between 300 series stainless steel and a glass-ceramic is difficult owing to the high coefficients of thermal expansion of the stainless steels. Lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) glass-ceramics were successfully developed and sealed to 304L stainless steel. These crack-free seals were fabricated by two techniques: by adjusting the parent glass composition (reducing the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content), or by adjusting the sealing/crystallization cycle. All seals were hermetic, with leak rates < 10{sup -8} cc/sec STP helium. CTE and alloy yield strengths are given which show the feasibility of using these materials to make feedthroughs, pyrotechnic components, etc. Metallography, SEM, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy show the quality and integrity of the glass-ceramic/stainless steel interface. These data are compared to those on the Inconel 718/LAS-glass seal system.

  8. Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS.

    PubMed

    Mauffret, A; Rico-Rico, A; Temara, A; Blasco, J

    2010-02-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 +/- 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 +/- 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequently, the actual 10-d LC50 value (208 mg/kg) was overestimated by the Equilibrium Partitioning calculation (1629 mg/kg). This suggests that the sediment associated LAS fraction was bioavailable to the snails. It could also be due to modifications in physiological parameters in absence of sediment, the organism natural substrate.

  9. Reinterpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of the Rancho Las Norias area, central Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, W.R.; Harris, A.G.; Poole, F.G.; Repetski, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    New geologic mapping and fossil data in the vicinity of Rancho Las Norias, 30 km east of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, show that rocks previously mapped as Precambrian instead are Paleozoic. Previous geologic maps of the Rancho Las Norias area show northeast-directed, southwest-dipping reverse or thrust faults deforming both Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. The revised stratigraphy requires reinterpretation of some of these faults as high-angle normal or oblique-slip faults and the elimination of other faults. We agree with earlier geologic map interpretations that compressional structures have affected the Paleozoic rocks in the area, but our mapping suggests that the direction of compression is from southeast to northwest. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Comenditic and pantelleritic ash-flow tuffs from Volcan Las Navajas, Nayarit, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.A.; Hebre, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two distinctive ash-flow tuffs occur around the base of Volcan Las Navajas, a Pleistocene trachyte - peralkaline rhyolite center located in the northwestern segment of the Mexican Volcanic belt. The lower ash-flow unit is locally up to 65 m thick, is lithic rich and contains pumice blocks of comenditic rhyolite. The unit is not extensively exposed, and thus its areal extent and volume cannot be determined. Its chemical characteristics and stratigraphic relationship to other products erupted from Las Navajas suggest that it is related to the formation of the older of the two calderas which occur on Las Navajas. Unconformably overlying this unwelded ash-flow is a pantelleritic airfall pumice unit which is locally welded. This airfall unit is conformably overlain by a welded as-flow tuff that contains fiamme of pantelleritic composition (72 %SiO/sub 2/, 8% FeO*, 900 ppm Zr, agpaitic index of 1.7) as well as pumice blocks that show evidence of various degrees of mixing between pantellerite and trachyte. This suggests eruption from a chemically zoned magma chamber. This unit is locally up to 20 m thick, although its top has been removed by erosion. It is found on all sides of Las Navajas except on the south where it may be covered by Volcan Sanganguey, a Pleistocene to Recent calc-alkaline volcano. The welded ash-flow has been dated by K - Ar at 0.2+/-0.1 m.y. Stratigraphically and chemically this ash-flow appears to be related to the formation of younger of the two calderas.

  11. Quantifying multi-temporal urban development characteristics in Las Vegas from Landsat and ASTER data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.; McMahon, C.

    2008-01-01

    Urban development has expanded rapidly in Las Vegas, Nevada of the United States, over the last fifty years. A major environmental change associated with this urbanization trend is the transformation of the landscape from natural cover types to increasingly anthropogenic impervious surface. This research utilizes remote sensing data from both the Landsat and Terra-Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments in conjunction with digital orthophotography to estimate urban extent and its temporal changes by determining sub-pixel impervious surfaces. Percent impervious surface area has shown encouraging agreement with urban land extent and development density. Results indicate that total urban land-use increases approximately 110 percent from 1984 to 2002. Most of the increases are associated with medium-to high-density urban development. Places having significant increases in impervious surfaces are in the northwestern and southeastern parts of Las Vegas. Most high-density urban development, however, appears in central Las Vegas. Impervious surface conditions for 2002 measured from Landsat and ASTER satellite data are compared in terms of their accuracy. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  12. Surficial geology and distribution of post-impoundment sediment in Las Vegas Bay, Lake Mead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Rudin, Mark J.; Parolski, Kenneth F.; Rendigs, Richard R.

    2001-01-01

    Sidescan sonar imagery and seismic-reflection profiles were collected in the northwestern part of Las Vegas Bay to map the distribution and volume of sediment that has accumulated in this part of Lake Mead since impoundment. The mapping suggests that three ephemeral streams are the primary source of this sediment, and of these, Las Vegas Wash is the largest. Two deltas off the mouth of Las Vegas Wash formed at different lake elevations and account for 41% of the total volume of post-impoundment sediment within the study area. Deltas off the other two washes (Gypsum and Government) account for only 6% of the total volume. The sediment beyond the front of the deltas is primarily mud, and it only occurs in valley floors, where it forms a flat-lying blanket that is mostly less than 1.5 m thick. Although a thin layer, the fine-grained sediment accounts for approximately 53% of the total post-impoundment sediment volume of 5.7 x 106 m3 that has accumulated in the study area. This sediment appears to have been transported several kilometers from the river sources by density flows.

  13. GRACE and ICESat Data for Estimation of Ice Sheet Surface Changes in LAS, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, H.; Ju, X.; Liu, J.; Gu, Z.; Liu, S.; Tian, Y.; Chen, L.; Shen, Y.; Tong, X.; Sun, B.; Li, R.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of mass changes of the Antarctic ice sheet is essential for understanding global climate change, specifically, for sea-level change. This presentation reports the the results of a comparative study on changes of regional ice sheet mass and surface elevation based on observations of GRACE and ICESat satellites over the period of 2004 - 2008 in the Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf System (LAS), East Antarctica. LAS is an important drainage system in East Antarctica and one of the significant contributors to the mass budget of the Antarctic. We fitted the GRACE monthly solutions to a model that contains a linear trend, an acceleration, annual and semiannual terms, and a 161 days tide aliasing term (S2). We employed the IJ05 R2 GIA model. For ICESat observations, we employed a modified spatial-temporal polynomial model to describe the ice surface topography and an annual elevation change rate (trend), which is solved by using repeat-track points within a moving box along the repeating tracks. Uncertainties of the source data and the estimated trends from both GRACE and ICESat data are given. The mass changes from GRACE and ICESat are compared and the differences are analyzed. A number of key issues in the comparison and mass - volume conversion are discussed. Afterwards, spatial and temporal correlations between the results at the annual change level derived from the two data sets are analyzed. Impact of firn models, GIA models, and comparison with other research results in LAS demonstrated.

  14. The Las Vegas Valley Seismic Response Project: Ground Motions in Las Vegas Valley from Nuclear Explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; McCallen, D

    2005-03-18

    Between 2001-2004 the Las Vegas Seismic Response Project has sought to understand the response of Las Vegas Valley (LVV) to seismic excitation. In this study, the author report the findings of this project with an emphasis on ground motions in LVV from nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These ground motions are used to understand building structural response and damage as well as human perception. Historical nuclear explosion observations are augmented with earthquake recordings from a temporary deployment of seismometers to improve spatial coverage of LVV. The nuclear explosions were conducted between 1968 and 1989 and were recorded at various sites within Las Vegas. The data from past nuclear tests were used to constrain ground motions in LVV and to gain a predictive capability of ground motions for possible future nuclear tests at NTS. Analysis of ground motion data includes peak ground motions (accelerations and velocities) and amplification of basin sites relative to hard rock sites (site response). Site response was measured with the Standard Spectral Ratios (SSR) technique relative to hard rock reference sites on the periphery of LVV. The site response curves indicate a strong basin amplification of up to a factor of ten at frequencies between 0.5-2 Hz. Amplifications are strongest in the central and northern portions of LVV, where the basin is deeper than 1 km based on the reported basin depths of Langenheim et al (2001a). They found a strong correlation between amplification and basin depth and shallow shear wave velocities. Amplification below 1 Hz is strongly controlled by slowness-averaged shear velocities to depths of 30 and 100 meters. Depth averaged shear velocities to 10 meters has modest control of amplifications between 1-3 Hz. Modeling reveals that low velocity material in the shallow layers (< 200 m) effectively controls amplification. They developed a method to scale nuclear explosion ground motion time series to sites around LVV

  15. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...

  16. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...

  17. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...

  18. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...

  19. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...

  20. Shear Velocity Structure Beneath the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada From Regional and Teleseismic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwan, D. J.; Snelson, C. M.; Tkalcic, H.; Rodgers, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Las Vegas Valley (LVV), Nevada is located in the central Basin and Range province of western North America. The Valley sits atop a broad sedimentary basin and is susceptible to large earthquakes generated by local and regional faults. During ground motion events, the Las Vegas basin has been found to amplify seismic energy. In addition, the crustal and upper mantle structure of the Valley is poorly understood. Therefore, surface wave data have been used to create shear velocity profiles of the crust and upper mantle beneath LVV using regional and teleseismic events. This project is part of a larger collaborative study, which is characterizing the Las Vegas basin for test site readiness and seismic hazards. Although the frequency of large events is small, the risk associated with such an event is very high for the Valley. As a result, the Las Vegas Valley Broadband array (LVVBB) was deployed in late September 2002 by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Nevada Las Vegas. It consists of a mixture of twelve three-component broadband and short period seismometers deployed in a saw-tooth geometry oriented northeast-southwest across the northeastern and central LVV, above the area estimated to be the deepest portion of the basin. Data examined as part of this study include both regional and global earthquake events recorded within a five-month period on seven of the twelve stations. All seven broadband stations used a three-component Guralp CMG40T sensor with a 40 samples/second sampling rate. Group velocity dispersion curves from Rayleigh waves and Love waves were determined using a multiple filter technique. Rayleigh wave group velocities range from 2.7 to 3.5 km/s for periods from 10 to 30s. Love wave group velocities range from 3.1 to 4.0 km/s for periods from 10 to 100s. In addition, Rg and Lg were examined from local events. 1-D shear velocity profiles of the crust and upper mantle have been produced through inversion along regional

  1. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with

  2. Final Report for the Arroyo Las Positas Maintenance Impact Study, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    van Hattem, M; Paterson, L

    2006-01-12

    In 2000, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Environmental Protection Department, in coordination with Plant Engineering (PE), began dredging sections of the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP) to alleviate concerns about flooding of sensitive facilities within the mainsite of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In order to reduce potential impacts on the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii), LLNL proposed to dredge sections of the ALP in a ''checkerboard pattern'', resulting in a mosaic of open water habitat and vegetated sections (Figure 1). The Arroyo Las Positas Management Plan (Plan) was coordinated with both state and federal agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), California Department of Fish and Game (CDF&G), San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board (SFRWQCB), and the Army Corp of Engineers (ACOE). Water Discharge Requirements (WDRs) were issued for this project on December 30, 1999 (Order No. 99-086) by the SFRWQCB. Provision 19 of the WDRs outlined a five-year (2000 through 2004) Maintenance Impact Study (MIS) that LLNL began in coordination with dredging work that was conducted as part of the Arroyo Las Positas Management Plan. Provision 20 of these WDRs requires LLNL to submit a final report of the results of the Maintenance Impact Study for this project to the SFRWQCB. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the Maintenance Impact Study for Arroyo Las Positas and meet the requirements of Provision 20. A description of the annual monitoring included in this Maintenance Impact Study is included in the methods section of this report. Initially the Plan called for dredging the entire length of the Arroyo Las Positas (approximately 6,981 linear feet) over a 5-year period to minimize temporal impacts on the California red-legged frog. Dredging occurred in 2000 ({approx}1,300 ft.), 2001 ({approx}800 ft.), and 2002 ({approx}1,200 ft.), which constituted approximately

  3. Earthquakes in the Classroom, Las Vegas, NV: The Nevada Educational Seismic Network (NESN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J.; Snelson, C. M.; Zaragoza, S. A.; Smith, K.; Depolo, D.

    2002-12-01

    Geophysics is a term guaranteed to strike fear into the heart of the bravest high school science student. Using math to describe the earth can involve complex equations that can only be deciphered by enigmatic computer programs. But high school science students in the Las Vegas Valley have been given a unique opportunity to gather important research information while learning about geophysics, real-time data collection, and Internet communications in a less threatening environment. Three seismograph stations funded by the Department of Energy and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas have been installed in three different high schools in the Clark County School District. These three stations form a triangle in the Las Vegas Valley basin covering areas where the basin depths change significantly. The geophones are buried outside and a cable connects the sensors and GPS receiver to a digitizer on a local PC. The data is transmitted continuously in real-time via Internet communications protocols to the Seismic Explorer Monitoring Network. There it is available to all schools and to researchers who will analyze the data. These short-period geophones will record small local earthquakes and larger more distant events contributing to real-time seismic network operations in southern Nevada. Students at a school site are able to see live real-time data from other school stations as well as from seismograph stations in southern Nevada, the western US, and the world. Mentored by researchers at the University of Nevada, Reno and University of Nevada, Las Vegas, the teachers and students conduct simple waveform analysis to determine earthquake locations and magnitudes and operate the stations in this cooperative research effort. The goal of this partnership between secondary and university educational systems is to create a successful alliance that will benefit the research community as well as the classroom teacher and his/her students. Researchers will use the data collected

  4. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los des

  5. Long-term assessment of ultrafine particles on major roadways in Las Vegas, Nevada and Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation at the National Air Monitoring conference, given at the request of OAQPS partners. The presentation will cover ultrafine particle data collected at three locations - Las Vegas, Detroit, and Research Triangle Park.

  6. Seismic Data for Evaluation of Ground Motion Hazards in Las Vegas in Support of Test Site Readiness Ground Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A

    2008-01-16

    In this report we describe the data sets used to evaluate ground motion hazards in Las Vegas from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. This analysis is presented in Rodgers et al. (2005, 2006) and includes 13 nuclear explosions recorded at the John Blume and Associates network, the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and a temporary deployment of broadband station in Las Vegas. The data are available in SAC format on CD-ROM as an appendix to this report.

  7. A brief hydrologic appraisal of the July 3-4, 1975, flash flood in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katzer, T.L.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Harmsen, Lynn

    1976-01-01

    Heavy thunderstorm precipitation on the afternoon of July 3, 1975, between metropolitan Las Vegas and the mountains to the south, west, and north, caused flash flooding in the city area. Total storm precipitation equaled or exceeded 3 inches (76 mm) in some areas. The total storm yield on the area of significant runoff was probably between 20,000 and 25,000 acre-feet (2.5 x 107 m3 and 3.1 x 107 m3) of water. Of this amount, probably less than 3,000 acre-feet (37 x 106 m3) flowed directly to Lake Mead. Peak flows of Tropicana Wash, Flamingo Wash, Las Vegas Creek, and Las Vegas Wash were the highest ever determined. Flooding caused the loss of two lives and inflicted extensive property damage. Total damage was reportedly estimated by the Clark County Flood Control District at $4-5 million. Problems associated with sediment erosion, transportation, and deposition occurred throughout the flooded area. An unknown amount of the material transported during the flood was deposited in Lake Mead near the mouth of Las Vegas Wash. Lateral erosion appeared more prominent than vertical erosion along most major channels, except on Las Vegas Wash at Northshore Road where downcutting threatened the loss of the highway. Sediment deposits were particularly noticeable and troublesome in Flamingo Wash at Caesars Palace parking lot and on the Winterwood Golf Course near the junction of Flamingo Wash and Las Vegas Wash.

  8. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los des

  9. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the City of North Las Vegas (Downtown) and the Motor Speedway

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2007-12-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey on December 11-12, 2007, with the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. The survey covered 19.4 square miles (9.2 square miles over the downtown area of the City of North Las Vegas and 10.2 square miles over the Las Vegas Motor Speedway [LVMS]). The flight lines over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1 and 2. A total of four 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 ft of flight line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system-REDAR V using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data in the form of gamma energy spectra were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes sources. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of City of North Las Vegas and LVMS security along with the gross counts-based exposure rate and man-made counts maps.

  10. Roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl Quorum-Sensing Systems in Control of Twitching Motility

    PubMed Central

    Glessner, Alex; Smith, Roger S.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Robinson, Jayne B.

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium and an important human pathogen. The production of several virulence factors by P. aeruginosa is controlled through two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. We have obtained evidence that both the las and rhl quorum-sensing systems are also required for type 4 pilus-dependent twitching motility and infection by the pilus-specific phage D3112cts. Mutants which lack the ability to synthesize PAI-1, PAI-2, or both autoinducers were significantly or greatly impaired in twitching motility and in susceptibility to D3112cts. Twitching motility and phage susceptibility in the autoinducer-deficient mutants were partially restored by exposure to exogenous PAI-1 and PAI-2. Both twitching motility and infection by pilus-specific phage are believed to be dependent on the extension and retraction of polar type 4 pili. Western blot analysis of whole-cell lysates and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of intact cells were used to measure the amounts of pilin on the cell surfaces of las and rhl mutants relative to that of the wild type. It appears that PAI-2 plays a crucial role in twitching motility and phage infection by affecting the export and assembly of surface type 4 pili. The ability of P. aeruginosa cells to adhere to human bronchial epithelial cells was also found to be dependent on the rhl quorum-sensing system. Microscopic analysis of twitching motility indicated that mutants which were unable to synthesize PAI-1 were defective in the maintenance of cellular monolayers and migrating packs of cells. Thus, PAI-1 appears to have an essential role in maintaining cell-cell spacing and associations required for effective twitching motility. PMID:10049396

  11. Seismic Wave Amplification in Las Vegas: Site Response and Empirical Estimates of Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A.; McCallen, D.; Tkalcic, H.; Wagoner, J.; Louie, J.; Anderson, J.; Luke, B.; Snelson, C.; Taylor, W.

    2004-12-01

    This presentation will summarize a multidisciplinary effort to understand seismic wave amplification in Las Vegas Valley. The project involves weak motion recording and analysis, geotechnical and seismic refraction field studies, geologic and lithologic interpretation and model building. We will provide a brief overview of the project, then focus on specifics of seismic wave amplification including observations and interpretations. We analyzed recordings of nuclear explosions from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and regional earthquakes to estimate site response in Las Vegas. An empirical transfer function method was used to transform ground motion time-series at one (reference) station to other stations, using frequency dependent site response curves in the band 0.2-5.0 Hz. The method transforms the time-series to the frequency domain by Fast Fourier transform, multiplies the amplitude spectrum by the site response curve and inverse FFT's back to the time domain. The approach is validated by the ability to predict horizontal component S-wave ground motion measures, such as peak and rms ground velocities and accelerations. We then can provide empirical estimates of ground motion for a wider distribution of sites in Las Vegas. Frequency dependent amplifications (site response) and peak ground motions are strongly correlated with measures of shallow shear-wave (geotechnical) velocities. Details of the geotechnical measurements and models will be presented in a companion presentation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  12. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Las Vegas Strip and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    As proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of the Las Vegas Strip and adjacent areas on December 29, 2008. This survey was one of the bi-annual surveys carried in support of the city of Las Vegas Police Department (LVPD) before significant events on the Las Vegas Strip: e.g., the annual New Year’s Eve and July Fourth celebrations. The AMS operation and appropriate law enforcement agencies selected this area as an appropriate urban location to exercise AMS capability for mapping environmental radiation and searching for man-made radioactive sources. The surveys covered approximately 11 square miles. Each survey required a 2.5-hour-long flight, performed at an altitude of 300 ft above ground level (AGL) at a line spacing of 600 ft. Water line and test line flights are conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to determine the non-terrestrial background contributed by aircraft, radon, and cosmic activity, and to determine the altitude-dependent air mass correction. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2" x 4" x 16" sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Gamma energy spectral data were collected second-by-second over the survey area. This spectral data allows the system to distinguish between natural terrestrial background contributions and man-made radioisotope contributions. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific man-made radioactive isotopes. Data geo-locations were determined with a Real-Time Differential Global Positioning System (RDGPS).

  13. The Liege Acromegaly Survey (LAS): a new software tool for the study of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Petrossians, Patrick; Tichomirowa, Maria A; Stevenaert, Achile; Martin, Didier; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2012-06-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic rare disease associated with negative pathological effects on multiple systems and organs. We designed a new informatics tool to study data from patients with acromegaly, the Liege Acromegaly Survey (LAS). This relational database permits the inclusion of anonymous historical and prospective data on patients and includes pathophysiology, clinical features, responses to therapy and long term outcomes of acromegaly. We deployed the LAS in a validation study at a single center in order to study the characteristics of patients with acromegaly diagnosed at our center from 1970-2011. A total of 290 patients with acromegaly were included (147 males and 143 females). There was a linear relationship between age at diagnosis and the date of diagnosis, indicating that older patients are being diagnosed with acromegaly more frequently. A majority presented with macroadenomas (77.5%) and the median diameter was 14 mm. Patients with macroadenomas were significantly younger than patients with microadenomas (P=0.01). GH values at diagnosis decreased with the age of the patients (P=0.01) and there was a correlation between GH values and tumor size at diagnosis (P=0.02). No correlation existed between insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels and tumor characteristics. The prevalence of diabetes was 21.4% in this population and 41.0% had hypertension. The presence of hypertension and diabetes were significantly associated with one another (P<0.001). There was a linear relation between initial GH and IGF-1 levels at diagnosis and those obtained during SSA analog treatment and the lowest GH and IGF-1 values following SSA therapy were obtained in older patients (GH: P<0.001; IGF-1: P<0.001). The LAS is a new relational database that is feasible to use in the clinical research setting and permits ready pooling of anonymous patient data from multiple study sites to undertake robust statistical analyses of clinical and therapeutic characteristics.

  14. Interferograms showing land subsidence and uplift in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, 1992-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavelko, Michael T.; Hoffmann, Jorn; Damar, Nancy A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources-Division of Water Resources and the Las Vegas Valley Water District, compiled 44 individual interferograms and 1 stacked interferogram comprising 29 satellite synthetic aperture radar acquisitions of Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, from 1992 to 1999. The interferograms, which depict short-term, seasonal, and long-term trends in land subsidence and uplift, are viewable with an interactive map. The interferograms show that land subsidence and uplift generally occur in localized areas, are responsive to ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge, and, in part, are fault controlled. Information from these interferograms can be used by water and land managers to mitigate land subsidence and associated damage. Land subsidence attributed to ground-water pumpage has been documented in Las Vegas Valley since the 1940s. Damage to roads, buildings, and other engineered structures has been associated with this land subsidence. Land uplift attributed to artificial recharge and reduced pumping has been documented since the 1990s. Measuring these land-surface changes with traditional benchmark and Global Positioning System surveys can be costly and time consuming, and results typically are spatially and temporally sparse. Interferograms are relatively inexpensive and provide temporal and spatial resolutions previously not achievable. The interferograms are viewable with an interactive map. Landsat images from 1993 and 2000 are viewable for frames of reference to locate areas of interest and help determine land use. A stacked interferogram for 1992-99 is viewable to visualize the cumulative vertical displacement for the period represented by the individual interferograms. The interactive map enables users to identify and estimate the magnitude of vertical displacement, visually analyze deformation trends, and view interferograms and Landsat images side by side. The

  15. Elevation Changes of LAS, East Antarctica, Derived From ICESat and CryoSat-2 Altimetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Xie, H.; Hai, G.; Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Tong, X.; Li, R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of mass changes of the Antarctic ice sheet is essential for sea level rise study. A research effort has been made to estimate elevation mass changes at Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf System (LAS), East Antarctica using ICESat data of 2004-2008 and Cryosat-2 data of 2010-2015. A repeat-tack processing method that includes a trend and the first order terrain terms is applied to repeat-track points of all ICESat Campaigns of 2004-2008. The estimated change rate in LAS from 2004-2008 is 3.14±4.13 Gt yr-1. At the basin level, two basins show a combined positive trend of 8.16±2.96 Gt yr-1 while other four basins a combined negative trend of -5.39±6.04 Gt yr-1. Cryosat-2 altimeter works in three modes with the "synthetic aperture interferometer mode" (SARIn) and "low-resolution mode" (LRM) in LAS. Our data coverage is from 2010 to 2015. Cryosat-2 ground tracks do not maintain repeated points. We further divide the entire area into a grid of 5km by 5km. Then we estimate the elevation change rate in each grid cell using a least-squares fitting model with a trend and a second order polynomial. We found that the quality of the estimates is correlated with slopes of cells. The progress of the CryoSat-2 data processing result as well as the analysis with the existing ICESat result will be presented. An integrated model of both ICESat and CryoSat-2 data processing will be developed.

  16. Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa

    El Senado Academico del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico aprobo en el ano academico 2005-2006 la Certificacion 46, que contiene los lineamientos de un nuevo bachillerato. Este nuevo bachillerato introdujo cambios significativos en el curriculo tradicional. Entre ellos se encuentra la reduccion del componente de educacion general y el de Ciencias Biologicas en particular. La reduccion de creditos en el componente de Ciencias Biologicas ha obligado a reevaluar el concepto de cultura cientifica que desarrollan esos cursos. El proposito del estudio consistio en auscultar las percepciones de los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Humanidades, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion y Estudios Generales del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas y la reduccion de creditos en el nuevo bachillerato. Las preguntas que guiaron la investigacion fueron: ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Estudios Generales, Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades y Educacion, en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de Ciencias Biologicas en torno al concepto cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿existen diferencias significativas por facultad, genero, experiencia, rango y nombramiento en las percepciones que tienen los profesores del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico sobre los elementos que caracterizan la cultura cientifica y los contenidos biologicos que deben tener los egresados del Recinto? ¿que implicaciones curriculares tienen estos testimonios en el desarrollo del concepto de cultura cientifica en el nuevo bachillerato? Para realizar la

  17. First results from optical turbulence measurements at Cerro Las Campanas in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdja, A.; Prieto, G.; Thomas-Osip, J. E.

    2011-09-01

    We report preliminary results from optical turbulence measurements carried out in 2010 at Cerro Las Campanas, the future site for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). The instruments involved are MooSci, a lunar scintillometer for the near-ground optical turbulence profile, Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) for the whole atmosphere total seeing, and MASS Multiple Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) for high-altitude optical turbulence estimation. The main purpose of these measurements is to anticipate the optical turbulence strength above the future GMT enclosure, and to provide a means to model the future adaptive optics performance. We also discuss the significance of such a combination of instruments and some hypothetical limitations.

  18. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope 1-meter Telescope Project: Design, Deployment Plans, Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.; Burleson, B.; Crellin, M.; De Vera, J.; Dubberly, M.; Greene, R.; Falarski, M.; Haldeman, B.; Hausler, S.; Haynes, R.; Hjelstrom, A.; Hygelund, J.; Johnson, D.; Lobdill, R.; Martinez, J.; Mullins, D.; Pickles, A.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W.; Tufts, J.; Vander Horst, K.; Vanderhyden, B.; Walker, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a privately-funded observatory dedicated to time-domain astronomy. Our main observing tool will be a homogeneous world-wide network of 12 x 1m optical telescopes, each equipped for both imaging and spectroscopy. Here we describe the LCOGT 1m telescope design, its development status, and our plans for deploying a dozen or so such telescopes in a worldwide network capable of continuous observing. We also describe the 80 cm Sedgwick telescope, which is now in regular operation as a research instrument, and which has served as a prototype for many of the 1m mechanical and control systems.

  19. Geodetic leveling data used to define historical height changes between Tonopah Junction and Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, T.D.

    1992-12-31

    This report documents geodetic leveling data for a survey route following US Highway 95 from Tonopah Junction, approximately 50 km west of Tonopah, Nevada, to Las Vegas, Nevada. The survey route passes immediately south of the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. Comparisons among the results of the several repeated levelings along this survey route provide a partial basis for evaluating contemporary crustal deformation patterns in the vicinity of the Yucca Mountain site and the relation between any such deformation and geologic structures known or suspected to have been active during Quaternary time.

  20. Father, Son, Wife, Husband: Philanthropy as Exchange and Balance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This essay attempts to use exchange and balance theories to explain philanthropy. For exchange, such theoretical components as attractions or rewards, costs, barriers and alternatives are invoked to make sense of the biography of a Chinese philanthropist in Hong Kong who donated two schools to remember his father and wife. The balance theory was also used, which argues that people do not seek to maximize their pleasure or to minimize their pain, but to balance, advancing one purpose or concern without neglecting the other—to enhance their well-being and to act morally. The essay argues that the case study method is most able to handle complex behaviour and complex lives. It concludes with a plea for more active use of social theory in research on philanthropy as moral and economic behavior embedded in the social contexts of family, marriage and community. PMID:20835377

  1. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  2. Women infected with parasite Toxoplasma have more sons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaňková, Š.; Šulc, J.; Nouzová, K.; Fajfrlík, K.; Frynta, D.; Flegr, J.

    2007-02-01

    The boy-to-girl ratio at birth (secondary sex ratio) is around 0.51 in most populations. The sex ratio varies between societies and may be influenced by many factors, such as stress and immunosuppression, age, primiparity, the sex of the preceding siblings and the socioeconomic status of the parents. As parasite infection affects many immunological and physiological parameters of the host, we analyzed the effect of latent toxoplasmosis on sex ratios in humans. Clinical records of 1,803 infants born from 1996 to 2004 contained information regarding the mother’s age, concentration of anti- Toxoplasma antibodies, previous deliveries and abortions and the sex of the newborn. The results of our retrospective cohort study suggest that the presence of one of the most common parasites (with a worldwide prevalence from 20 to 80%), Toxoplasma gondii, can influence the secondary sex ratio in humans. Depending on the antibody concentration, the probability of the birth of a boy can increase up to a value of 0.72, C.I.95 = (0.636, 0.805), which means that for every 260 boys born, 100 girls are born to women with the highest concentration of anti- Toxoplasma antibodies. The toxoplasmosis associated with immunosuppression or immunomodulation might be responsible for the enhanced survival of male embryos. In light of the high prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in most countries, the impact of toxoplasmosis on the human population might be considerable.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Jean-Charles Houzeau et son temps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Verhas, P.

    2002-12-01

    This is a wonderful book. It describes the life and work of Belgian astronomer Jean-Charles Houzeau (1820-1888) and, as the last three words of the title indicate, it has a broader focus including the social, industrial and scientific context of the second part of the 19th century. This is set in a very broad international social context including social revolutions in Belgium and France, and the abolition of slavery in the United States. The biography clearly shows that this hard-working man was driven by science and justice, by individualism and generosity, by humor and sentiment. The book is divided in four parts, each part is placed in its own historical context. The first part "The apprentice, the master and his disciples" describes Houzeau's childhood and young years, his early scientific career at the Observatory in Brussels, and his relationship with Adolphe Quetelet. The evolution of this relationship is very well documented: the turbulent revolutionary Houzeau versus cool, moderated and diplomatic royalist Quetelet, the observer versus the mathematician theorist. But both were very dedicated teachers: Quetelet established public courses and after the Revolution of 1830 he contributed to the foundation of the University of Brussels; Houzeau was the peripatetic teacher wherever place he was, also after his return to Belgium. The second part is "The politician" and deals with Houzeau's political ideas and revolutionary attitudes and their consequences. His revolutionary ideas, though, were not confined to politics only: he also severely criticised the paucity of high-precision observations collected at the Royal Observatory in his days. Because he participated at revolutionary meetings, Houzeau was fired from his position at the Observatory by the Minister of Interior Affairs Charles Rogier. Thus started his peripathetic life, covering observational work in astronomy, geography, geodesy and natural sciences in many places in Belgium and abroad. The third part, "The separation", is a very interesting account of Houzeau's emigration to North America, in vain search for his revolutionary dream. Of course he also ran into trouble in the US due to publications such as "The white terror in Texas" and because of his loyalty with the slaves, his advocacy for black civil rights and his refusal to join the confederate army, so he had to flee Texas too. The book gives many details on the civil war era. His absence from Belgium led to a very significant scientific work, in the first place his most homogeneous and extensive star atlas (6000 stars to declination -65) which was made in very good atmospheric conditions by one and only one observer, totally independent from previously published catalogues. The last part "The builder" tells the story of the construction of the new Royal Observatory in the suburb of Uccle, a new and better site than the one established in the city center by the Dutch regime in 1826. When the succession of Adolphe Quetelet was discussed, Houzeau was about the only candidate with a vast publication record and a broad observational expertise. Surprisingly, he was appointed as the second director of the Observatory and remained in function till 1883. One chapter in the fourth part of the book deals with Houzeau's participation at a Venus transit expedition of 1882. Jean-Charles Houzeau made very significant contributions to astronomy and his major works include "Vade-mecum de l'Astronomie", the "Uranometrie Generale" and his monumental "Bibliographie Generale de l'Astronomie", an early precursor of our modern web-based ADS (NASA Astrophysics Data System). This is a book which every Belgian astronomer should read because it is an eye opener on the history of the establishment of the kingdom, and because it explains the roots and difficult early development of astronomy in this country. This history is internationally linked and refers to many contemporary scientists such as Argelander, Heis, Herschel, von Humboldt etc. The book by Verhas includes many details on observational techniques and geodetic triangulation, and explains very well the underlying principles of the described experiments. There are various nice diagrams and many high-quality photographic reproductions. Technically, the work is very well made and is printed on high-quality glossy paper. There are only a small number of typographical errors, and some low-resolution photographs have been reproduced on a scale much too large to be esthetic. The two-column format of 22 x 28 cm makes it very suitable for consultation at the library desk but not very adequate for armchair enjoyment or travel reading. The single shortcoming is the absence of a Name and Subject Index.

  4. What Carnot's Father Taught His Son about Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Erich A.

    2012-01-01

    The historical development of the classical postulates of the second law of Thermodynamics can be traced back to the book by Sadi Carnot, "Reflections on the motive power of fire." While unique in its own right and in some sense revolutionary, the book starts with an analogy between heat engines and waterwheels. Waterwheels were common engines of…

  5. Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

    This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges in…

  6. You'll be a clinician-scientist, my son.

    PubMed

    Smeesters, Pierre R

    2015-11-04

    Opinion-based commentary about the complex reality of being a clinician-scientist in today's modern biomedical environment. The essay uses the beautiful, but old, poem "If" from Rudyard Kipling to draw a parallel with the ambitions, dreams and limits of being a clinical-scientist today.

  7. Family Matters: Father and Son Follow Same Career Path; Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Together, Samuel L. Myers Sr. and Jr. prove that the apple tree, when properly nurtured in the rich intellectual orchards of academia, will bear prime fruit that lands close to its roots. The Doctors Myers both earned bachelor's degrees from Morgan State University and then ventured to Boston for their Ph.D.s in economics. Though their specialties…

  8. Phenotype of FOXP2 haploinsufficiency in a mother and son.

    PubMed

    Rice, Gregory M; Raca, Gordana; Jakielski, Kathy J; Laffin, Jennifer J; Iyama-Kurtycz, Christina M; Hartley, Sigan L; Sprague, Rae E; Heintzelman, Anne T; Shriberg, Lawrence D

    2012-01-01

    Disruptions in FOXP2, a transcription factor, are the only known monogenic cause of speech and language impairment. We report on clinical findings for two new individuals with a submicroscopic deletion of FOXP2: a boy with severe apraxia of speech and his currently moderately affected mother. A 1.57 Mb deletion on chromosome 7q31 was detected by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition to FOXP2, the patients' deletion involves two other genes, MDFIC and PPP1R3A, neither of which has been associated with speech or language disorders. Thus, findings for these two family members provide informative phenotypic information on FOXP2 haploinsufficiency. Evaluation by a clinical geneticist indicated no major congenital anomalies or dysmorphic features. Evaluations by a clinical psychologist and occupational therapist indicated cognitive-linguistic processing and sensorimotor control deficits, but did not support a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Evaluation by clinical and research speech pathologists confirmed that both patients' speech deficits met contemporary criteria for apraxia of speech. Notably, the patients were not able to laugh, cough, or sneeze spontaneously, replicating findings reported for two other FOXP2 cases and a potential diagnostic sign of nonsyndromic apraxia of speech. Speech severity findings for the boy were not consistent with the hypothesis that loss of maternal FOXP2 should be relatively benign. Better understanding of the behavioral phenotype of FOXP2 disruptions will aid identification of patients, toward an eventual understanding of the pathophysiology of syndromic and nonsyndromic apraxia of speech.

  9. [Inspired by Apollo and Asclepio's sons in Homer and Virgil].

    PubMed

    Merlino, R L

    1989-01-01

    Important passages of the Homeric and Virgilian epic are regarding the art of divination and the medical science, and underline contextually the figures of the fortune teller and that of the physician. Two roles are associated to one matrix: heroic-aristocratic or royal-sacerdotal. In Homer's epic it is possible to single out surgical and phytotherapeutic knowledge together with remedies for diseases aroused by a solar god, like Apollo is, gods' physician. Pitiful divinities comfort those who have been struck by demoniac and mysterious forms. On the contrary, in Virgil's epic a symbiosis is carried out between the physician's figure and the priest's one, with the very vague outlines of the two arts and however, overloaded by factors which are typically Virgilian. Unusual form of incubation of the Greek rituals has been transplanted in the Latin matrix; and moreover there is a constant recall of words used in their most antique meaning.

  10. Benjamin Franklin, Philadelphia's favorite son, was a membrane biophysicist.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Neng; Stieglitz, Heather; Marden, Jennifer; Tamm, Lukas K

    2013-01-22

    Benjamin Franklin, mostly known for his participation in writing The Declaration of Independence and work on electricity, was also one of the first scientists to seek to understand the properties of oil monolayers on water surfaces. During one of his many voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, Franklin observed that oil had a calming effect on waves when poured into rough ocean waters. Though at first taking a backseat to many of his other scientific and political endeavors, Franklin went on to experiment with oil, spreading monomolecular films on various bodies of water, and ultimately devised a concept of particle repulsion that is indirectly related to the hydrophobic effect. His early observations inspired others to measure the dimensions of oil monolayers, which eventually led to the formulation of the contemporary lipid bilayer model of the cell membrane.

  11. The Effect of Parents' Attitudes on Sons' Marriage Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Elyse A.; Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of family stability and change, demographic processes, and social psychological influences on behavior all posit that parental attitudes and beliefs are a key influence on their children's behavior. We have evidence of these effects in Western populations, but little information regarding this social mechanism in non-Western contexts.…

  12. Project Icarus - Son of Daedalus - Flying Closer to Another Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K. F.; Fogg, M.; Obousy, R.; Tziolas, A.; Mann, A.; Osborne, R.; Presby, A.

    During the 1970s members of the British Interplanetary Society embarked on a landmark theoretical engineering design study to send a probe to Barnard's star. Project Daedalus was a two-stage vehicle employing electron beam driven inertial confinement fusion engines to reach its target destination. This paper sets out the proposal for a successor interstellar design study called Project Icarus. This is an attempt to redesign the Daedalus vehicle with similar terms of reference. The aim of this study is to evolve an improved engineering design and move us closer to achieving interstellar exploration. Although this paper does not prematurely discuss what design modifications are likely to occur some indications are given from the nature of the discussions. This paper is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  13. Observatoire de Maragheh : l'Iran restaure son patrimoine astronomique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari, A.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2005-11-01

    Joyau de la science du Moyen-Age, l'observatoire de Maragheh a accueilli des astronomes du monde entier. A la fin du XIIIe siècle, il a été le symbole d'un savoir partagé... Avant de tomber en ruine. Après des siècles d'oubli, la restauration de ce prestigieux site iranien commence.

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Jean-Charles Houzeau et son temps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Verhas, P.

    2002-12-01

    This is a wonderful book. It describes the life and work of Belgian astronomer Jean-Charles Houzeau (1820-1888) and, as the last three words of the title indicate, it has a broader focus including the social, industrial and scientific context of the second part of the 19th century. This is set in a very broad international social context including social revolutions in Belgium and France, and the abolition of slavery in the United States. The biography clearly shows that this hard-working man was driven by science and justice, by individualism and generosity, by humor and sentiment. The book is divided in four parts, each part is placed in its own historical context. The first part "The apprentice, the master and his disciples" describes Houzeau's childhood and young years, his early scientific career at the Observatory in Brussels, and his relationship with Adolphe Quetelet. The evolution of this relationship is very well documented: the turbulent revolutionary Houzeau versus cool, moderated and diplomatic royalist Quetelet, the observer versus the mathematician theorist. But both were very dedicated teachers: Quetelet established public courses and after the Revolution of 1830 he contributed to the foundation of the University of Brussels; Houzeau was the peripatetic teacher wherever place he was, also after his return to Belgium. The second part is "The politician" and deals with Houzeau's political ideas and revolutionary attitudes and their consequences. His revolutionary ideas, though, were not confined to politics only: he also severely criticised the paucity of high-precision observations collected at the Royal Observatory in his days. Because he participated at revolutionary meetings, Houzeau was fired from his position at the Observatory by the Minister of Interior Affairs Charles Rogier. Thus started his peripathetic life, covering observational work in astronomy, geography, geodesy and natural sciences in many places in Belgium and abroad. The third part, "The separation", is a very interesting account of Houzeau's emigration to North America, in vain search for his revolutionary dream. Of course he also ran into trouble in the US due to publications such as "The white terror in Texas" and because of his loyalty with the slaves, his advocacy for black civil rights and his refusal to join the confederate army, so he had to flee Texas too. The book gives many details on the civil war era. His absence from Belgium led to a very significant scientific work, in the first place his most homogeneous and extensive star atlas (6000 stars to declination -65) which was made in very good atmospheric conditions by one and only one observer, totally independent from previously published catalogues. The last part "The builder" tells the story of the construction of the new Royal Observatory in the suburb of Uccle, a new and better site than the one established in the city center by the Dutch regime in 1826. When the succession of Adolphe Quetelet was discussed, Houzeau was about the only candidate with a vast publication record and a broad observational expertise. Surprisingly, he was appointed as the second director of the Observatory and remained in function till 1883. One chapter in the fourth part of the book deals with Houzeau's participation at a Venus transit expedition of 1882. Jean-Charles Houzeau made very significant contributions to astronomy and his major works include "Vade-mecum de l'Astronomie", the "Uranometrie Generale" and his monumental "Bibliographie Generale de l'Astronomie", an early precursor of our modern web-based ADS (NASA Astrophysics Data System). This is a book which every Belgian astronomer should read because it is an eye opener on the history of the establishment of the kingdom, and because it explains the roots and difficult early development of astronomy in this country. This history is internationally linked and refers to many contemporary scientists such as Argelander, Heis, Herschel, von Humboldt etc. The bo

  15. An atypical neurocognitive profile in alcoholic fathers and their sons.

    PubMed

    Whipple, S C; Parker, E S; Noble, E P

    1988-05-01

    Prepubescent boys and their recovering alcoholic fathers exhibited an Atypical Neurocognitive Profile consisting of (1) a reduction in amplitude of the late positive complex (LPC) of the event-related potential (ERP) during a complex visual discrimination task, and (2) reduced visuoperceptual performance evidenced by significantly lower scores on the Object Assembly, Block Design and Picture Completion subtests of the WISC-R and the Embedded Figures Test. Low LPC amplitudes were significantly correlated with poorer visuoperceptual performance. This Atypical Neurocognitive Profile may represent a marker for alcoholism. PMID:2453738

  16. Crystal Structure of the LasA Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Substrate Specificity and Mechanism of M23 Metallopeptidases

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, James; Murphy, Loretta M.; Conners, Rebecca; Sessions, Richard B.; Gamblin, Steven J.

    2010-09-21

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunist Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections in immunocompromized individuals and is a leading cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. A number of secreted virulence factors, including various proteolytic enzymes, contribute to the establishment and maintenance of Pseudomonas infection. One such is LasA, an M23 metallopeptidase related to autolytic glycylglycine endopeptidases such as Staphylococcus aureus lysostaphin and LytM, and to DD-endopeptidases involved in entry of bacteriophage to host bacteria. LasA is implicated in a range of processes related to Pseudomonas virulence, including stimulating ectodomain shedding of the cell surface heparan sulphate proteoglycan syndecan-1 and elastin degradation in connective tissue. Here we present crystal structures of active LasA as a complex with tartrate and in the uncomplexed form. While the overall fold resembles that of the other M23 family members, the LasA active site is less constricted and utilizes a different set of metal ligands. The active site of uncomplexed LasA contains a five-coordinate zinc ion with trigonal bipyramidal geometry and two metal-bound water molecules. Using these structures as a starting point, we propose a model for substrate binding by LasA that explains its activity against a wider range of substrates than those used by related lytic enzymes, and offer a catalytic mechanism for M23 metallopeptidases consistent with available structural and mutagenesis data. Our results highlight how LasA is a structurally distinct member of this endopeptidase family, consistent with its activity against a wider range of substrates and with its multiple roles in Pseudomonas virulence.

  17. Giant Magellan Telescope Site Testing and Characterization at Las Campanas Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Osip, Joanna E.; Prieto, Gabriel E.

    2009-09-01

    Las Campanas Observatory has been designated as the location for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). We report results obtained since the commencement, in 2005, of a systematic site testing campaign at LCO. Measurements of the turbulence profile of the free-atmosphere above LCO have been collected with a MASS/DIMM. We examine the contribution to the seeing arising from turbulence in the ground layer (defined here as below an altitude of 500 m) through the difference between the turbulence integrals in the full atmosphere (as measured by DIMM) and in the free atmosphere (as measured by MASS). In preparation to characterize the Giant Magellan Telescope site and guide the development of its adaptive optics system, two campaigns to systematically compare the turbulence profiles obtained independently with three different instruments were conducted at Las Campanas Observatory in September, 2007 and January 2008. Slope detection and ranging (SLODAR) was used on the 2.5-m duPont telescope. SLODAR measures the Cn2 profile as a function of altitude through observations of double stars. The separation of the observed double star sets the maximum altitude and height resolution. Ground layer (altitudes < 1 km) and free atmosphere turbulence profiles are compared with those obtained with a lunar scintillometer (LuSci) and a multi-aperture scintillation sensor (MASS), respectively. In addition, the total atmospheric seeing was measured by both SLODAR and a differential image motion monitor (DIMM).

  18. Seasonal subsidence and rebound in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, observed by synthetic aperture radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffmann, J.; Zebker, H.A.; Galloway, D.L.; Amelung, F.

    2001-01-01

    Analyses of areal variations in the subsidence and rebound occurring over stressed aquifer systems, in conjunction with measurements of the hydraulic head fluctuations causing these displacements, can yield valuable information about the compressibility and storage properties of the aquifer system. Historically, stress-strain relationships have been derived from paired extensometer/piezometer installations, which provide only point source data. Because of the general unavailability of spatially detailed deformation data, areal stress-strain relations and their variability are not commonly considered in constraining conceptual and numerical models of aquifer systems. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques can map ground displacements at a spatial scale of tens of meters over 100 km wide swaths. InSAR has been used previously to characterize larger magnitude, generally permanent aquifer system compaction and land subsidence at yearly and longer timescales, caused by sustained drawdown of ground-water levels that produces intergranular stresses consistently greater than the maximum historical stress. We present InSAR measurements of the typically small-magnitude, generally recoverable deformations of the Las Vegas Valley aquifer system occurring at seasonal timescales. From these we derive estimates of the elastic storage coefficient for the aquifer system at several locations in Las Vegas Valley. These high-resolution measurements offer great potential for future investigations into the mechanics of aquifer systems and the spatial heterogeneity of aquifer system structure and material properties as well as for monitoring ongoing aquifer system compaction and land subsidence.

  19. Influence of composition and temperature on hydrocarbon migration through Morrow fluvial reservoirs, Las Animas Arch, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Bolyard, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    Precipitation of wax in pores may impair permeability and prohibit the flow of oil. Crude oil composition and temperature are the most important controlling factors. Oils are chemically complex, may contain up to 45 wax compounds and may vary significantly even in the same pool. High-wax oils are common in the Morrow of eastern Colorado. Narrow fluvial sandstones provide migration paths toward the Las Animas Arch from adjacent basins. Temperatures range from less than 110{degrees}F. on the top of the arch to 180{degrees}F at a structural position only 1,400 feet lower. A range of 30{degrees}F has been observed in individual pools. Wax has precipitated in the 120-140{degrees}F range, creating relative permeability barriers which cut across the sandstones. Wax barriers are impermeable to oil, but may be permeable to gas and water. They account for certain dry holes with high porosity, permeability and oil saturation (and low water saturation) in both core and electrical log analysis. They explain why some oil wells with impaired permeability are adjacent to structurally lower gas wells with good permeability. A network of wax barriers around the Las Animas Arch accounts for approximately 300 feet of variation in the structural position of a line separating oil from gas fields. Since the low temperature bands may be short and discontinuous, wax barriers are more effective in narrow fluvial reservoirs than in blanket reservoirs.

  20. Excess air during aquifer storage and recovery in an arid basin (Las Vegas Valley, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, D. Kip; Cole, Erin; Leising, Joseph F.

    2011-02-01

    The Las Vegas Valley Water District in Nevada, USA, has operated an artificial recharge (AR) program since 1989. In summer 2001, observations of gas exsolving from tap water prompted a study that revealed total dissolved gas (TDG) pressures approaching 2 atm with a gas composition that it is predominantly air. Measurements of TDG pressure at well heads and in the distribution system indicated two potential mechanisms for elevated TDG pressures: (1) air entrainment during AR operations, and (2) temperature changes between the winter recharge season and the summer withdrawal season. Air entrainment during pumping was investigated by intentionally allowing the forebay (upstream reservoir) of a large pumping station to drawdown to the point of vortex formation. This resulted in up to a 0.7 atm increase in TDG pressure. In general, the solubility of gases in water decreases as the temperature increases. In the Las Vegas Valley, water that acquired a modest amount of dissolved gas during winter artificial recharge operations experienced an increase in dissolved gas pressure (0.04 atm/°C) as the water warmed in the subsurface. A combination of air entrainment during AR operations and its amplification by temperature increase after recharge can account for most of the observed amounts of excess gas at this site.

  1. L'environnement linguistique: son influence et son importance. (The Linguistic Environment: Its Influence and its Importance).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banko, Rosalie; Smith, Brian

    1979-01-01

    Describes an appended questionnaire prepared for the Ministry of Education of the Quebec Region to determine the influence of the linguistic environment on learners of English as a second language and to define their needs at the secondary school level. Points out that statistical results support simultaneous teaching of the four skills and…

  2. MBAS (Methylene Blue Active Substances) and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates) in Mediterranean coastal aerosols: Sources and transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becagli, S.; Ghedini, C.; Peeters, S.; Rottiers, A.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Chiari, M.; Jalba, A.; Despiau, S.; Dayan, U.; Temara, A.

    2011-12-01

    Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS) concentrations, together with organic carbon and ions were measured in atmospheric coastal aerosols in the NW Mediterranean Basin. Previous studies have suggested that the presence of surfactants in coastal aerosols may result in vegetation damage without specifically detecting or quantifying these surfactants. Coastal aerosols were collected at a remote site (Porquerolles Island-Var, France) and at a more anthropised site (San Rossore National Park-Tuscany, Italy). The chemical data were interpreted according to a comprehensive local meteorological analysis aiming to decipher the airborne source and transport processes of these classes of compounds. The LAS concentration (anthropogenic surfactants) was measured in the samples using LC-MS/MS, a specific analytical method. The values were compared with the MBAS concentration, determined by a non-specific analytical method. At Porquerolles, the MBAS concentration (103 ± 93 ng m -3) in the summer samples was significantly higher than in the winter samples. In contrast, LAS concentrations were rarely greater than in the blank filters. At San Rossore, the mean annual MBAS concentration (887 ± 473 ng m -3 in PM10) contributed about 10% to the total atmospheric particulate organic matter. LAS mean concentration in these same aerosol samples was 11.5 ± 10.5 ng m -3. A similar MBAS (529 ± 454 ng m -3) - LAS (7.1 ± 4.1 ng m -3 LAS) ratio of ˜75 was measured in the fine (PM2.5) aerosol fraction. No linear correlation was found between MBAS and LAS concentrations. At San Rossore site the variation of LAS concentrations was studied on a daily basis over a year. The LAS concentrations in the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) were higher during strong sea storm conditions, characterized by strong air flow coming from the sea sector. These events, occurring with more intensity in winter, promoted the formation of primary marine aerosols containing LAS

  3. The study of ozone variations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area using remote sensing information and ground observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban development in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, has grown rapidly in the past fifty years. Associated with this growth has been a change in landscape from natural cover types to developed urban land mixed with planned vegetation canopy throughout in the metropolitan area. Air quality in the Las Vegas Valley has been affected by increases in anthropogenic emissions and concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and criteria pollutants of particular matter. Ozone concentration in the region is generally influenced by synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions, as well as regional transport of pollutants from the western side of Las Vegas. Local influences from ground-level nitrogen oxide emissions and vegetation canopy coverage also affect ozone concentration. Multi-year observational data collected by a network of local air monitoring stations in Clark County, Nevada, indicate that ozone maximums develop in May and June, while minimums exist primarily from November to February. Ozone concentrations are high on the west and northwest sides of the valley. A nighttime ozone reduction in the urban area characterizes the heterogeneous features of spatial distribution for average ozone levels in the Las Vegas urban area. The urban vegetation canopy has a locally positive effect by reducing ozone in urban areas. Decreased ozone levels associated with increased urban development density suggests that the highest ozone concentrations are associated with medium- to low-density urban development in Las Vegas.

  4. Overexpression of the Brassica napus BnLAS gene in Arabidopsis affects plant development and increases drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minggui; Yang, Qingyong; Fu, Tingdong; Zhou, Yongming

    2011-03-01

    The GRAS proteins are a family of transcription regulators found in plants and play diverse roles in plant growth and development. To study the biological roles of GRAS family genes in Brassica napus, an Arabidopsis LAS homologous gene, BnLAS and its two homologs were cloned from B. napus and its two progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. Relatively high levels of BnLAS were observed in roots, shoot tips, lateral meristems and flower organs based on the analysis of the transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR and promoter-reporter assays. Constitutive overexpression of BnLAS in Arabidopsis resulted in inhibition of growth, and delays in leaf senescence and flowering time. A large portion of transgenic lines had darker leaf color and higher chlorophyll content than in wild type plants. Interestingly, water lose rates in transgenic leaves were reduced, and transgenic plants exhibited enhanced drought tolerance and increased recovery after exposed to dehydration treatment. The stomatal density on leaves of the transgenic plants increased significantly due to the smaller cell size. However, the stomatal aperture on the leaves of the transgenic plants reduced significantly compared with wild type plants. More epidermal wax deposition on transgenic leaves was observed. Furthermore, several genes involved in wax synthesis and regulation, including CER1, CER2, KCS1 and KCS2, were upregulated in the transgenic plants. Our results indicate a potential to utilize BnLAS in the improvement of drought tolerance in plants.

  5. Wide-range and accurate modeling of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) adsorption/desorption on agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, rigorous data and adequate models about linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) adsorption/desorption on agricultural soil are presented, contributing with a substantial improvement over available adsorption works. The kinetics of the adsorption/desorption phenomenon and the adsorption/desorption equilibrium isotherms were determined through batch studies for total LAS amount and also for each homologue series: C10, C11, C12 and C13. The proposed multiple pseudo-first order kinetic model provides the best fit to the kinetic data, indicating the presence of two adsorption/desorption processes in the general phenomenon. Equilibrium adsorption and desorption data have been properly fitted by a model consisting of a Langmuir plus quadratic term, which provides a good integrated description of the experimental data over a wide range of concentrations. At low concentrations, the Langmuir term explains the adsorption of LAS on soil sites which are highly selective of the n-alkyl groups and cover a very small fraction of the soil surface area, whereas the quadratic term describes adsorption on the much larger part of the soil surface and on LAS retained at moderate to high concentrations. Since adsorption/desorption phenomenon plays a major role in the LAS behavior in soils, relevant conclusions can be drawn from the obtained results. PMID:26070080

  6. The degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the presence of light and natural biofilms: the important role of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xiuyi; Li, Ming; Su, Yulong; Dong, Deming; Guo, Zhiyong; Liang, Dapeng

    2012-08-30

    Photosynthesis of algae usually changes the chemical conditions of microenvironment in natural waters. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the effects of diurnal variation and photosynthesis on behavior of organic pollutants in aquatic environments. In this study, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was selected as a representative of non-persistent organic pollutants to investigate the degradation of this type of pollutants in the presence of light and natural biofilms by laboratory batch experiments, with special emphasis on the effect of photosynthesis of the biofilms. The maximum decrease of LAS was observed in the coexistence of both illumination and fully active biofilms, and about 75% of the LAS were removed after a 36-h degradation experiment. The removal of LAS was found to be dominated by photosynthesis of the biofilms, with lesser roles attributed to biodegradation and adsorption by the biofilms, and the role of direct photolysis was negligible. The production of some reactive oxygen species might account for the role of photosynthesis in decomposing the LAS. The study confirms the important roles of algae biofilms and their photosynthesis in determining the fate of organic pollutants in aquatic environments.

  7. Wide-range and accurate modeling of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) adsorption/desorption on agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, rigorous data and adequate models about linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) adsorption/desorption on agricultural soil are presented, contributing with a substantial improvement over available adsorption works. The kinetics of the adsorption/desorption phenomenon and the adsorption/desorption equilibrium isotherms were determined through batch studies for total LAS amount and also for each homologue series: C10, C11, C12 and C13. The proposed multiple pseudo-first order kinetic model provides the best fit to the kinetic data, indicating the presence of two adsorption/desorption processes in the general phenomenon. Equilibrium adsorption and desorption data have been properly fitted by a model consisting of a Langmuir plus quadratic term, which provides a good integrated description of the experimental data over a wide range of concentrations. At low concentrations, the Langmuir term explains the adsorption of LAS on soil sites which are highly selective of the n-alkyl groups and cover a very small fraction of the soil surface area, whereas the quadratic term describes adsorption on the much larger part of the soil surface and on LAS retained at moderate to high concentrations. Since adsorption/desorption phenomenon plays a major role in the LAS behavior in soils, relevant conclusions can be drawn from the obtained results.

  8. 20 years of mass balances on the Piloto glacier, Las Cuevas river basin, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, J. C.; Cabrera, G. A.; Lenzano, L. E.

    2007-10-01

    Climatic changes of the 20th century have altered the water cycle in the Andean basins of central Argentina. The most visible change is seen in the mountain glaciers, with loss of part of their mass due to decreasing thickness and a substantial recession in the last 100 years. This paper briefly describes the results of glacier mass balance research since 1979 in the Piloto Glacier at the Cajón del Rubio, in the headwaters of Las Cuevas River, presenting new results for the period 1997-2003. Very large interannual variability of net annual specific balance is evident, due largely to variations in winter snow accumulation, with a maximum net annual value of + 151 cm w.e. and a minimum value of - 230 cm w.e. Wet El Niño years are normally associated with positive net annual balances, while dry La Niña years generally result in negative balances. Within the 24-year period, 67% of the years show negative net annual specific balances, with a cumulative mass balance loss of - 10.50 m water equivalent (w.e.). Except for exceptions normally related to El Niño events, a general decreasing trend of winter snow accumulation is evident in the record, particularly after 1992, which has a strong effect in the overall negative mass balance values. The glacier contribution to Las Cuevas River runoff is analysed based on the Punta de Vacas River gauge station for a hypothetical year without snow precipitation (YWSP), when the snowmelt component is zero. Extremely dry years similar to a YWSP have occurred in 1968-1969, 1969-1970 and 1996-1997. The Punta de Vacas gauge station is located 62 km downstream from Piloto Glacier, and the basin contains 3.0% of uncovered glacier ice and 3.7% of debris-covered ice. The total glacier contribution to Las Cuevas River discharge is calculated as 82 ± 8% during extremely dry years. If glacier wastage continues at the present trend as observed during the last 2 decades, it will severely affect the water resources in the arid central Andes of

  9. Sociohydrology of an Arid City: Development of a Coupled Model of Water Management in Las Vegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.; Portney, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rapidly growing cities in arid regions present a significant water management challenge. Key to tackling this challenge is understanding how and why some cities transition to more sustainable water management; acknowledging that urban water resources decisions are both responding to and precipitating hydrologic change, this question is best tackled through a sociohydrology approach. While coupling of natural and societal systems is in it's infancy in the field of hydrology, there is a strong tradition of studying coupled systems in the field of Socio-Ecological Systems. We build on Ostrom's Socio-Ecological Systems framework to develop a system dynamics model of water management for the Las Vegas metropolitan area using Vensim. A key objective our proposed modeling framework is to illuminate the dynamic interactions of the sociohydrologic system components and enable testing of various assumptions and strategies. The model of Las Vegas water management consists of five sub-modules: water supply, water demand, finances, public perception and policy making process. The development of the first three modules were based on clearly defined system structure. The public perception sub-module tracks the level public risk perception of a water supply shortage and represents the hypothesis that public risk perception is updated periodically when shortage events are experienced. The policy making process module uses an algorithm capturing the hypothesized decision making process to select policy actions (or in-action) from a set of feasible actions in response to the system states tracked by the model and observable to decision makers. The model was tested and parameterized using mix of quantitative data on water demands, supplies and costs and qualitative data from document analysis and interview data covering 1990 to 2010 period. Given that not only the parameters but also the structure of the public perception and the policy making process sub-systems is contested, a

  10. A design for a new catalog manager and associated file management for the Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, Cheryl

    1986-01-01

    Due to the larger number of different types of files used in an image processing system, a mechanism for file management beyond the bounds of typical operating systems is necessary. The Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) Catalog Manager was written to meet this need. Land Analysis System (LAS) users at the EROS Data Center (EDC) encountered some problems in using the TAE catalog manager, including catalog corruption, networking difficulties, and lack of a reliable tape storage and retrieval capability. These problems, coupled with the complexity of the TAE catalog manager, led to the decision to design a new file management system for LAS, tailored to the needs of the EDC user community. This design effort, which addressed catalog management, label services, associated data management, and enhancements to LAS applications, is described. The new file management design will provide many benefits including improved system integration, increased flexibility, enhanced reliability, enhanced portability, improved performance, and improved maintainability.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air particles in the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Vera Castellano, A; López Cancio, J; Santana Alemán, P; Santana Rodríguez, J

    2003-07-01

    Concentration levels, seasonal variation and winter/summer ratios of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the TSP of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria city were determined. The study area is under the influence of heavy traffic (80000 vehicles/day). Pyr/BaA, Pyr/Flt, B(ghi)P/I(cd)P and B(b+k)F/B(ghi)P ratios were calculated; the values of these two last suggest a strong influence of diesel fuel burning. Levels of TSP and TSP-bound PAHs were also established. The hazard potential of PAHs in terms of carcinogenicity of BaP is acceptable. Potential risk on the basis of TEFs is also studied. PMID:12705945

  12. Giant Magellan Telescope site evaluation and characterization at Las Campanas Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Osip, Joanna E.; Prieto, Gabriel; Johns, Matt; Phillips, Mark M.

    2008-07-01

    Las Campanas Observatory has been designated as the location for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). We report results obtained since the commencement, in 2005, of a systematic site testing campaign at LCO. Meteorological (cloud cover, temperature, pressure, wind, and humidity) and DIMM seeing data have been obtained at three potential sites, and are compared with identical data taken at the site of the twin Magellan 6.5m telescopes. In addition, measurements of the turbulence profile of the free-atmosphere above LCO have been collected with a MASS/DIMM. We examine the contribution to the seeing arising from turbulence in the ground layer (defined here as below an altitude of 500 m) through the difference between the turbulence integrals in the full atmosphere (as measured by DIMM) and in the free atmosphere (as measured by MASS). Additionally, we consider photometric quality, light pollution, and precipitable water vapor at LCO.

  13. Two campaigns to compare three turbulence profiling techniques at Las Campanas Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Bustos, Edison; Goodwin, Michael; Jenkins, Charles; Lambert, Andrew; Prieto, Gabriel; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2008-07-01

    In preparation to characterize the Giant Magellan Telescope site and guide the development of its adaptive optics system, two campaigns to systematically compare the turbulence profiles obtained independently with three different instruments were conducted at Las Campanas Observatory in September, 2007 and January 2008. Slope detection and ranging (SLODAR) was used on the 2.5-m duPont telescope. SLODAR measures the C2n profile as a function of altitude through observations of double stars. The separation of the observed double star sets the maximum altitude and height resolution. Ground layer (altitudes < 1 km) and free atmosphere turbulence profiles are compared with those obtained with a lunar scintillometer (LuSci) and a multi-aperture scintillation sensor (MASS), respectively. In addition, the total atmospheric seeing was measured by both SLODAR and a differential image motion monitor (DIMM).

  14. Late Neandertals in Southeastern Iberia: Sima de las Palomas del Cabezo Gordo, Murcia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Michael J.; Gibert, Josep; López, Mariano V.; Lombardi, A. Vincent; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Zapata, Josefina; Ortega, Jon; Higham, Thomas; Pike, Alistair; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Zilhão, João; Trinkaus, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Middle Paleolithic fossil human remains from the Sima de las Palomas in southeastern Iberia (dated to ≤43,000–40,000 calendar years before present) present a suite of derived Neandertal and/or retained ancestral morphological features in the mandibular symphysis, mandibular ramus, dental occlusal morphology, and distal hand phalanx. These traits are combined with variation in the mandibular corpus, discrete dental morphology, tooth root lengths, and anterior dental size that indicate a frequency difference with earlier Iberian and more northern European Neandertals. The Palomas Neandertals therefore confirm the late presence of Neandertals associated with the Iberian persistence of the Middle Paleolithic, but suggest microevolutionary processes and/or population contact with contemporaneous modern humans to the north. PMID:19074275

  15. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network: Keeping education in the dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R.; Roche, P.; Roberts, S.

    2008-06-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN) is a privately-funded, non-profit organisation that is creating a cutting edge science programme paired with an innovative education programme. We are building two networks of telescopes in rings in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres for complete sky coverage, all of which will be equipped with high-quality, science-grade instrumentation. The telescopes will be completely robotic with the ability to be controlled by anyone, from anywhere with a broadband internet connection. Accompanying the observations will be a library of resources and activities including how to plan and carry out an observing session as well as several activities and project ideas to carry out in both formal and informal education settings. The goal is not to produce more astronomers, but to encourage a new understanding of science and technology that people will be able to apply to any field that is studied.

  16. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, G.; Giménez-Pardo, C.; Gegúndez, M.I.; Lledó, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited. PMID:21894267

  17. Neighborhood Reputation and Resident Sentiment in the Wake of the Las Vegas Foreclosure Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Jeremy; Batson, Christie D.; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how two major components of a neighborhood’s reputation—perceived disorder and collective efficacy—shape individuals’ sentiments toward their neighborhoods during the foreclosure crisis triggered by the Great Recession. Of central interest are whether neighborhood reputations are durable in the face of a crisis (neighborhood resiliency hypothesis) or whether neighborhood reputations wane during times of duress (foreclosure crisis hypothesis). Geo-coded individual-level data from the Las Vegas Metropolitan Area Social Survey merged with data on census tract foreclosure rates are used to address this question. The results provide qualified support for both perspectives. In support of the neighborhood resiliency hypothesis, collective efficacy is positively associated with how residents feel about the quality of their neighborhoods, and this relationship is unaltered by foreclosure rates. In support of the foreclosure crisis hypothesis, foreclosure rates mediate the effects of neighborhood disorder on resident sentiment. The implications of these findings for community resiliency are discussed. PMID:25678735

  18. The Proteus aircraft and NASA Dryden's T-34 in flight over Las Cruces, New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  19. Paleoslope, sea-level and climate controls on Upper Miocene platform evolution, Las Negras area, southeastern Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; ,

    1996-01-01

    Carbonate platforms in the Las Negras area evolved from onlapping ramps to fringing reef complexes later draped by cyclic shallow marine strata. Although sea-level history and paleoclimate had an effect on platform evolution, substrate topography played a dominant role. The strata are divided into five depositional sequences of Tortonian and Messinian age. The model of platform evolution provided by the Las Negras area exposures likely has applications for other Miocene carbonate complexes in the Mediterranean and could apply to other carbonate complexes in the rock record.

  20. Perchlorate uptake by salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) in the Las Vegas wash riparian ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Urbansky, E T; Magnuson, M L; Kelty, C A; Brown, S K

    2000-07-10

    Perchlorate ion (ClO4-) has been identified in samples of dormant salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) growing in the Las Vegas Wash. Perchlorate is an oxidant, but its reduction is kinetically hindered. Concern over thyroid effects caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to add perchlorate to the drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). Beginning in 2001, utilities will look for perchlorate under the Unregulated Contaminants Monitoring Rule (UCMR). In wood samples acquired from the same plant growing in a contaminated stream, perchlorate concentrations were found as follows: 5-6 microg g(-1) in dry twigs extending above the water and 300 microg g(-1) in stalks immersed in the stream. Perchlorate was leached from samples of wood, and the resulting solutions were analyzed by ion chromatography after clean-up. The identification was confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry after complexation of perchlorate with decyltrimethylammonium cation. Because salt cedar is regarded as an invasive species, there are large scale programs aimed at eliminating it. However, this work suggests that salt cedar might play a role in the ecological distribution of perchlorate as an environmental contaminant. Consequently, a thorough investigation of the fate and transport of perchlorate in tamarisks is required to assess the effects that eradication might have on perchlorate-tainted riparian ecosystems, such as the Las Vegas Wash. This is especially important since water from the wash enters Lake Mead and the Colorado River and has the potential to affect the potable water source of tens of millions of people as well as irrigation water used on a variety of crops, including much of the lettuce produced in the USA. PMID:10902849

  1. Stratospheric contribution to surface ozone in the desert Southwest during the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, A. O.; Senff, C. J.; Alvarez, R. J. _II, II; Brioude, J. F.; Cooper, O. R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lin, M.; Marchbanks, R.; Pierce, R. B.; Reddy, P. J.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A. M.; Williams, E. J.; Gustin, M. S.; Iraci, L. T.; Leblanc, T.; Yates, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was designed to investigate the potential impact of stratosphere-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport of pollution from Asia on surface O3 concentrations in Clark County, NV. This measurement campaign, which took place in May and June of 2013, was conducted at Angel Peak, NV, a high elevation site about 2.8 km above mean sea level and 45 km west of Las Vegas. The study was organized around the NOAA ESRL truck-based TOPAZ scanning ozone lidar with collocated in situ sampling of O3, CO, and meteorological parameters. These measurements were supported by the NOAA/NESDIS real time modelling system (RAQMS), FLEXPART particle dispersion model, and the NOAA GFDL AM3 model. In this talk, I will describe one of several STT events that occurred during the LVOS campaign. This intrusion, which was profiled by TOPAZ on the night of May 24-25, was also sampled by the NASA Alpha Jet, the Table Mountain ozone lidar, and by an ozonesonde flying above southern California. This event also led to significant ozone increases at surface monitors operated by Clark County, the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. National Park Service, and the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative (NRVOI), and resulted in exceedances of the 2008 75 ppbv O3 NAAQS both in Clark County and in surrounding areas of Nevada and southern California. The potential implications of this and similar events for air quality compliance in the western U.S. will be discussed.

  2. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  3. Characterization of stormwater discharges from Las Flores Industrial Park, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2000-01-01

    Stormwater discharges from Las Flores Industrial Park, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, were characterized from June 1998 to July 1999 by measuring the flow rate at two outfalls, delineating the drainage areas for each outfall, and calculating the volume of the stormwater discharges. Stormwater-discharge samples were collected and analyzed to determine the quality of the discharges. Constituent loads and loads per area were estimated for each drainage area. The studied drainage subareas covered approximately 46 percent of the total area of the Las Flores Industrial Park. Industrial groups represented in the study areas include manufacturers of textile, electronics, paper, fabricated metal, plastic, and chemical products. The concentrations of oil and grease (1 to 6 milligrams per liter), biochemical oxygen demand (4.7 to 16 milligrams per liter), total organic carbon (5.8 to 36 milligrams per liter), total suspended solids (28 to 100 milligrams per liter), and total phosphorous (0.11 to 0.78 milligrams per liter) from all the samples collected were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stormwater benchmark concentrations. Concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (15.8 to 157 milligrams per liter) and nitrate and nitrite (0.06 to 1.75 milligrams per liter) exceeded benchmark concentrations at one of the studied drainage areas. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations (1.00 to 3.20 milligrams per liter) exceeded the benchmark concentrations at the two studied drainage areas. Maximum concentrations for oil and grease, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, and total phosphorous were detected in an area where electronics, plastics, and chemical products are currently manufactured. The maximum concentration of total suspended solids was detected at an area where textile, paper, plastic, chemical, and fabricated metal products are manufactured.

  4. Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae) in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.

    PubMed

    Mair, James M; Cipriani, Roberto; Guzman, Hector M; Usan, David

    2012-09-01

    Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1 +/- 6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within +/-10% of the optimal length but only six (15%) were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/LNSO Index (MEI) (R2=0.54). Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of mega-spawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

  5. Can a Spanish Science Education Journal Become International? The Case of "Enseñanza De Las Ciencias"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinet, Mariona; Izquierdo, Mercè; Garcia-Pujol, Clara

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the case of the science education research journal "Enseñanza de las Ciencias" ("EC") around the issue of its internationalization and the consequences this process has had and is still having on the use and preservation of different languages and more specifically the Castilian (Spanish) language. We…

  6. Mechanistic analysis of a synthetic inhibitor of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasI quorum-sensing signal synthase

    PubMed Central

    Lidor, O.; Al-Quntar, A.; Pesci, E. C.; Steinberg, D.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen responsible for many human infections. LasI is an acyl-homoserine lactone synthase that produces a quorum-sensing (QS) signal that positively regulates numerous P. aeruginosa virulence determinants. The inhibition of the LasI protein is therefore an attractive drug target. In this study, a novel in silico to in vitro complementation was applied to screen thiazolidinedione-type compounds for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation at concentrations not affecting bacterial growth. The compound (z)-5-octylidenethiazolidine-2, 4-dione (TZD-C8) was a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and chosen for further study. Structural exploration of in silico docking predicted that the compound had high affinity for the LasI activity pocket. The TZD-C8 compound was also predicted to create hydrogen bonds with residues Arg30 and Ile107. Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) of these two sites demonstrated that TZD-C8 inhibition was abolished in the lasI double mutant PAO-R30D, I107S. In addition, in vitro swarming motility and quorum sensing signal production were affected by TZD-C 8, confirming this compound alters the cell to cell signalling circuitry. Overall, this novel inhibitor of P. aeruginosa quorum sensing shows great promise and validates our mechanistic approach to discovering inhibitors of LuxI-type acyl-homoserine lactone synthases. PMID:26593271

  7. Ambient air monitoring during the 2011 Las Conchas wildland fire near Los Alamos, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Andrew A.; Schlemann, Shea A.; Young, Daniel L.

    2012-08-31

    Air monitoring data collected during the Las Conchas fire near the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 2011 are presented. Data included are for selected radionuclides and selected metals found in particulate matter. None of these analytes were seen at levels which exceeded any state or federal standards.

  8. 76 FR 3678 - Board Meeting: February 16, 2011-Las Vegas, NV, the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: February 16, 2011--Las Vegas, NV, the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review... Radioactive Waste Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste...

  9. Seasonal and diurnal analysis of NO2 concentrations from a long-duration study conducted in Las Vegas, Nevada

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study, conducted in Las Vegas, NV from mid-December 2008 to mid-December 2009 along an interstate highway, collected continuous and integrated ambient air quality samples for a wide variety of species including NO2 and NOX. Previous near-road studies have been short duration, ...

  10. Preliminary information on ambient concentrations measured at the Las Vegas National Near-Road MSAT study site

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides preliminary information on the trends in ambient concentrations observed near a heavily traveled highway in Las Vegas, Nevada. As part of a joint effort by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Federal Highway Administration, an air monitoring pro...

  11. Female Adolescent Subjectivities in Las Vegas: Poststructural Thoughts on the Intersections of Gender, Sexuality, Consumer Logic and Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey M.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, data collected from an ethnographic study of adolescent girls growing up in the city of Las Vegas in the US is used to further our understanding of the role of mediated sex and consumer culture and in relationship to emerging adolescent female identities. Girls in this study articulated a clear sense of their abilities to make…

  12. Un programa innovador busca ayudar a las personas que cuidan a pacientes con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un programa educativo del City of Hope Cancer Center que ofrece a los profesionales de salud la información y las herramientas necesarias para ayudar a los familiares a saber cómo cuidarse a si mismos y a sus seres queridos con cáncer.

  13. What Happens in Vegas Does "Not" Stay in Vegas: Youth Leadership in the Immigrant Rights Movement in Las Vegas, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revilla, Anita Tijerina

    2012-01-01

    Students calling themselves the Las Vegas Activist Crew shut down the city's famed Strip on May 1, 2006, with an immigrant rights protest that was one of the largest demonstrations in Nevada's history. This research analyzes the ways that students engage in activism to improve their own social conditions and those of their communities. The…

  14. A second Las17 monomeric actin-binding motif functions in Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization during endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Daniel; Tolsma, Thomas O; Farrell, Kristen B; Aradi, Al; Di Pietro, Santiago M

    2015-04-01

    During clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), actin assembly provides force to drive vesicle internalization. Members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family play a fundamental role stimulating actin assembly. WASP family proteins contain a WH2 motif that binds globular actin (G-actin) and a central-acidic motif that binds the Arp2/3 complex, thus promoting the formation of branched actin filaments. Yeast WASP (Las17) is the strongest of five factors promoting Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization during CME. It was suggested that this strong activity may be caused by a putative second G-actin-binding motif in Las17. Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo characterization of such Las17 G-actin-binding motif (LGM) and its dependence on a group of conserved arginine residues. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, GST-pulldown, fluorescence polarization and pyrene-actin polymerization assays, we show that LGM binds G-actin and is necessary for normal Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization in vitro. Live-cell fluorescence microscopy experiments demonstrate that LGM is required for normal dynamics of actin polymerization during CME. Further, LGM is necessary for normal dynamics of endocytic machinery components that are recruited at early, intermediate and late stages of endocytosis, as well as for optimal endocytosis of native CME cargo. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments show that LGM has relatively lower potency compared to the previously known Las17 G-actin-binding motif, WH2. These results establish a second G-actin-binding motif in Las17 and advance our knowledge on the mechanism of actin assembly during CME.

  15. Human-health pharmaceutical compounds in Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona, and Las Vegas Wash, Nevada, October 2000-August 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Robert A.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service conducted a reconnaissance study to investigate the occurrence of selected human-health pharmaceutical compounds in water samples collected from Lake Mead on the Colorado River and Las Vegas Wash, a waterway used to transport treated wastewater from the Las Vegas metropolitan area to Lake Mead. Current research indicates many of these compounds can bioaccumulate and may adversely affect aquatic organisms by disrupting physiological processes, impairing reproductive functions, increasing cancer rates, contributing to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, and acting in undesirable ways when mixed with other substances. These compounds may be present in effluent because a high percentage of prescription and non-prescription drugs used for human-health purposes are excreted from the body as a mixture of parent compounds and degraded metabolite compounds; also, they can be released to the environment when unused products are discarded by way of toilets, sinks, and trash in landfills. Thirteen of 33 targeted compounds were detected in at least one water sample collected between October 2000 and August 2001. All concentrations were less than or equal to 0.20 micrograms per liter. The most frequently detected compounds in samples from Las Vegas Wash were caffeine, carbamazepine (used to treat epilepsy), cotinine (a metabolite of nicotine), and dehydronifedipine (a metabolite of the antianginal Procardia). Less frequently detected compounds in samples collected from Las Vegas Wash were antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim), acetaminophen (an analgesic and anti-inflammatory), cimetidine (used to treat ulcers), codeine (a narcotic and analgesic), diltiazem (an antihypertensive), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (a metabolite of caffeine). Fewer compounds were detected in samples collected from Lake Mead than from Las Vegas Wash. Caffeine was detected in all samples

  16. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Las Vegas Wash to Virgin River, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laney, R.L.; Bales, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    This study is the last of a series of eight geohydrologic reconnaissance studies that were done in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. The studies were done to evaluate the water resources in the recreation area and to identify areas having potential for the development of water supplies that would be adequate for marinas and campgrounds. The study area includes about 250 square miles north of Lake Mead from Las Vegas Wash to the Virgin River (Overton Arm), Nevada. Volcanic rocks, consolidated sedimentary rocks, and unconsolidated to semiconsolidated sedimentary rocks underlie the area. Surface-water sources include the Colorado River, Virgin River, Muddy River, and Las Vegas Wash. Elsewhere in the area, streamflow is meager and extremely variable. Ground water originates from four sources: (1) subsurface flow in local basins, (2) infiltration of water from Lake Mead into permeable rocks near the lake, (3) subsurface flow in valleys of perennial streams, and (4) subsurface flow in consolidated rocks of the Muddy Mountains. The quantity of water from Lake Mead that has saturated rocks adjacent to the lake probably is greater than the quantity of ground water from all the Other sources. Rocks saturated by water from the lake probably extend less than 0.5 mileinland from the lake shore. The quality of virtually all the ground water in the area is not acceptable for drinking purposes. The most favorable areas for obtaining ground water are those underlain by the coarse-grained deposits of the older alluvium and the younger alluvium adjacent to Lake Mead. The least favorable areas are those underlain by the mudstone facies of the Muddy Creek Formation and fine-grained rocks of the Horse Spring Formation. Four areas identified as having potential for ground-water development are (1) near Overton Beach, (2) west of Callville Bay, (3) near Middle Point, and (4) in the lower Moapa Valley. Usable quantities of water probably can be obtained at these sites, but the

  17. Growth and production of Donax striatus (Bivalvia: Donacidae) from Las Balsas beach, Gibara, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Frank A

    2015-09-01

    Clams of the genus Donax are worldwide the dominating group of the invertebrate community on sandy beaches. They are primary consumers that provide a significant abundance and biomass to the ecosystem. In the Caribbean, Donax striatus has an important role for nature and human, nonetheless studies on the population dynamics of this beach clam are scarce and no information exists on secondary production of this species. Growth parameters and secondary production of D. striatus were estimated from February 2008 to November 2009 at Las Balsas beach, Northeastern Cuba, in order to provide basic information for management purposes. In each month 45 samples were taken by means of a PVC corer of 0.025 m2 area and sieved with a 1 mm mesh. Animals were measured and weighted with and without shell. A total of 5 471 specimens were collected during the sampling period. Shell length ranged from 2.7-33.3 mm. Growth parameters estimated from length frequency data were L∞ = 36.1 mm, K= 0.8/yr and t0= 0.2/yr. The growth performance resulted in values of Φ'= 3.02. Life span was 2.4 yrs and mortality rate was 3.07 /yr. In 2008, mean abundance of D. striatus ranged between 17.1 - 770.7 ind./m2. In 2009 the lowest mean abundance was 34.4 and the highest was 892.5 ind./m2. During 2009 biomass and production was more than twice higher in comparison with 2008. Individual production showed highest values in the 24 mm shell size (3.74 g/m2.yr) and 25 mm (0.71 g/m2.yr), considering mass with shell and without shell, respectively. During 2009 abundance of individuals with 15 mm shell length or more increased resulting in higher biomass and production, compared to 2008. Using the conversion factor of wet mass to ash free dry mass (AFDM), annual production ranged between 2.87-6.11 g AFDM/m2.yr, resulting in a turnover rate (P/B) between 5.11 and 3.47 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The rapid growth and high turnover rate of D. striatus suggest a rapid recovery of the population. These

  18. Growth and production of Donax striatus (Bivalvia: Donacidae) from Las Balsas beach, Gibara, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Frank A

    2015-09-01

    Clams of the genus Donax are worldwide the dominating group of the invertebrate community on sandy beaches. They are primary consumers that provide a significant abundance and biomass to the ecosystem. In the Caribbean, Donax striatus has an important role for nature and human, nonetheless studies on the population dynamics of this beach clam are scarce and no information exists on secondary production of this species. Growth parameters and secondary production of D. striatus were estimated from February 2008 to November 2009 at Las Balsas beach, Northeastern Cuba, in order to provide basic information for management purposes. In each month 45 samples were taken by means of a PVC corer of 0.025 m2 area and sieved with a 1 mm mesh. Animals were measured and weighted with and without shell. A total of 5 471 specimens were collected during the sampling period. Shell length ranged from 2.7-33.3 mm. Growth parameters estimated from length frequency data were L∞ = 36.1 mm, K= 0.8/yr and t0= 0.2/yr. The growth performance resulted in values of Φ'= 3.02. Life span was 2.4 yrs and mortality rate was 3.07 /yr. In 2008, mean abundance of D. striatus ranged between 17.1 - 770.7 ind./m2. In 2009 the lowest mean abundance was 34.4 and the highest was 892.5 ind./m2. During 2009 biomass and production was more than twice higher in comparison with 2008. Individual production showed highest values in the 24 mm shell size (3.74 g/m2.yr) and 25 mm (0.71 g/m2.yr), considering mass with shell and without shell, respectively. During 2009 abundance of individuals with 15 mm shell length or more increased resulting in higher biomass and production, compared to 2008. Using the conversion factor of wet mass to ash free dry mass (AFDM), annual production ranged between 2.87-6.11 g AFDM/m2.yr, resulting in a turnover rate (P/B) between 5.11 and 3.47 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The rapid growth and high turnover rate of D. striatus suggest a rapid recovery of the population. These

  19. Metallic species in atmospheric particulate matter in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Cancio, J López; Castellano, A Vera; Hernández, M Chaar; Bethencourt, R García; Ortega, E Macías

    2008-12-30

    In this work, we quantified the total, water-soluble and insoluble fractions of 12 metallic species (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and Mn) present in total suspended particulates (TSP) in an urban area with heavy traffic (about 80 000 vehicles/day) of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Experimental measurements were made from July to December 2003 on a total of 42 samples (7 per month). Particulate matter (TSP) was collected in fiber filters and high volume samplers. PM10 levels were estimated assuming the PM10 fraction is about 70% of all TSP. Total fractions was determined gravimetrically. Water-soluble fraction was extracted by sonication. Concentrations of metallic elements were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Temporal changes in the concentrations of the target elements were examined and a multivariate approach used to identify the primary sources for each species. Mean value for TSP is 71.92microg/m3. The water-soluble fraction consisted mainly of Na, Ca, Mg, and K. The insoluble fraction contained higher concentrations of all elements than the soluble except Na. In the water-soluble fraction, Na, K, Ca and Mg were found to come mainly from natural sources; Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu from anthropogenic sources. PMID:18440133

  20. Recovery of Durvillaea antarctica (Durvilleales) inside and outside Las Cruces Marine Reserve, Chile.

    PubMed

    Castilla, J C; Campo, M A; Bustamante, R H

    2007-07-01

    We present the results for over two decades of monitoring on intertidal food-gatherers and the population of the low rocky shore dweller kelp Durvillaea antarctica, a short-distance disperser, inside and outside the no-take marine reserve, Estacion Costera de Investigaciones Marinas (ECIM), at Las Cruces, central Chile. It was hypothesized that protection of an initially extremely depleted population would recover by recolonizing first the no-take area and then adjacent non-protected (exploited) areas. We found that recovery of D. antarctica occurred slowly inside ECIM, with increase in density and biomass, of up to three orders of magnitude as compared to an adjacent non-protected area, which showed approximately 2-yr delay. These results suggest that the kelp population inside ECIM was likely regulated via intraspecific competition, which did not occur outside. Results showed no evidence for juvenile vs. adult density dependence other than a weak relationship for the central area of ECIM. These findings also suggest that the population recovery and cross-boundary seeding subsides affected the population dynamics. Understanding these dynamics may enhance management and conservation policies. Our work highlights the critical value of baseline and long-term comparative studies in marine no-take protected and non-protected areas for understanding how population processes respond to human and conservation practices.