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Sample records for sounding rocket motor

  1. A fluidic sounding rocket motor ignition system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchese, V. P.; Rakowsky, E. L.; Bement, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fluidic sounding rocket motor ignition has been found to be feasible using a system without stored energy and with the complete absence of electrical energy and wiring. The fluidic ignitor is based on a two component aerodynamic resonance heating device called the pneumatic match. Temperatures in excess of 600 C were generated in closed resonance tubes which were excited by a free air jet from a simple convergent nozzle. Using nitrocellulose interface material, ignition of boron potassium nitrate was accomplished with air supply pressures as low as 45 psi. This paper describes an analytical and experimental program which established a fluidic rocket motor ignition system concept incorporating a pneumatic match with a simple hand pump as the only energy source.

  2. A fluidic sounding rocket motor ignition system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchese, V. P.; Rakowsky, E. L.; Bement, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fluidic sounding rocket motor ignition has been found to be feasible using a system without stored energy and with the complete absence of electrical energy and wiring. The fluidic ignitor is based on a two component aerodynamic resonance heating device called the pneumatic match. Temperatures in excess of 600 C were generated in closed resonance tubes which were excited by a free air jet from a simple convergent nozzle. Using nitrocellulose interface material, ignition of boron potassium nitrate was accomplished with air supply pressures as low as 45 psi. This paper describes an analytical and experimental program which established a fluidic rocket motor ignition system concept incorporating a pneumatic match with a simple hand pump as the only energy source.

  3. Motor actuated vacuum door. [for photography from sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanagud, A. V.

    1986-01-01

    Doors that allow scientific instruments to record and retrieve the observed data are often required to be designed and installed as a part of sounding rocket hardware. The motor-actuated vacuum door was designed to maintain a medium vacuum of the order of 0.0001 torr or better while closed, and to provide an opening 15 inches long x 8.5 inches wide while open for cameras to image Halley's comet. When the electric motor receives the instruction to open the door through the payload battery, timer, and relay circuit, the first operation is to unlock the door. After unlatching, the torque transmitted by the motor to the main shaft through the links opens the door. A microswitch actuator, which rides on the linear motion conversion mechanism, is adjusted to trip the limit switch at the end of the travel. The process is repeated in the reverse order to close the door. 'O' rings are designed to maintain the seal. Door mechanisms similar to the one described have flown on Aerobee 17.018 and Black Brant 27.047 payloads.

  4. Motor actuated vacuum door. [for photography from sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanagud, A. V.

    1986-01-01

    Doors that allow scientific instruments to record and retrieve the observed data are often required to be designed and installed as a part of sounding rocket hardware. The motor-actuated vacuum door was designed to maintain a medium vacuum of the order of 0.0001 torr or better while closed, and to provide an opening 15 inches long x 8.5 inches wide while open for cameras to image Halley's comet. When the electric motor receives the instruction to open the door through the payload battery, timer, and relay circuit, the first operation is to unlock the door. After unlatching, the torque transmitted by the motor to the main shaft through the links opens the door. A microswitch actuator, which rides on the linear motion conversion mechanism, is adjusted to trip the limit switch at the end of the travel. The process is repeated in the reverse order to close the door. 'O' rings are designed to maintain the seal. Door mechanisms similar to the one described have flown on Aerobee 17.018 and Black Brant 27.047 payloads.

  5. Ignition of sounding rocket motors with hand-pumped air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakowsky, E. L.; Marchese, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    Method demonstrates inexpensive, safe, and foolproof concept for solid propellant rocket motors, using simple handpump to deliver air. Flueric ignition was accomplished using system without stored energy and with complete absence of electrical energy and wiring.

  6. Modeling of vortex generated sound in solid propellant rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flandro, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    There is considerable evidence based on both full scale firings and cold flow simulations that hydrodynamically unstable shear flows in solid propellant rocket motors can lead to acoustic pressure fluctuations of significant amplitude. Although a comprehensive theoretical understanding of this problem does not yet exist, procedures were explored for generating useful analytical models describing the vortex shedding phenomenon and the mechanisms of coupling to the acoustic field in a rocket combustion chamber. Since combustion stability prediction procedures cannot be successful without incorporation of all acoustic gains and losses, it is clear that a vortex driving model comparable in quality to the analytical models currently employed to represent linear combustion instability must be formulated.

  7. Modeling of vortex generated sound in solid propellant rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flandro, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    There is considerable evidence based on both full scale firings and cold flow simulations that hydrodynamically unstable shear flows in solid propellant rocket motors can lead to acoustic pressure fluctuations of significant amplitude. Although a comprehensive theoretical understanding of this problem does not yet exist, procedures were explored for generating useful analytical models describing the vortex shedding phenomenon and the mechanisms of coupling to the acoustic field in a rocket combustion chamber. Since combustion stability prediction procedures cannot be successful without incorporation of all acoustic gains and losses, it is clear that a vortex driving model comparable in quality to the analytical models currently employed to represent linear combustion instability must be formulated.

  8. Development and demonstration of flueric sounding rocket motor ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchese, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is described which established a flueric rocket motor ignition system concept incorporating a pneumatic match with a simple hand pump as the only energy source. An evaluation was made of this concept to determine the margins of the operating range and capabilities of every component of the system. This evaluation included a determination of power supply requirements, ignitor geometry and alinement, ignitor/propellant interfacing and materials and the effects of ambient temperatures and pressure. It was demonstrated that an operator using a simple hand pump for 30 seconds could ignite BKNO3 at a standoff distance of 100 m (330 ft) with the only connection to the ignitor being a piece of plastic pneumatic tubing.

  9. The Aries sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooling, D.

    1980-02-01

    A family of sounding rockets called Aries, using the motors from obsolete Minuteman ICBMs, is described. Payloads for Aries range from 1,500 to 3,500 lb (with a payload diameter of 44 in.) and include various instruments (magnetospheric tracers, X-ray and extreme ultraviolet astronomy and a large X-ray telescope). Prospects for future launching of a two and even three-stage Aries are discussed.

  10. ISRO's solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

    1989-08-01

    Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were

  11. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of highly accurate and useful system.

  12. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of highly accurate and useful system.

  13. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place In the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is managed by personnel from Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, either from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia, Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico or from Canada, Norway and Sweden. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requi6ng considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of a high accurate and useful system.

  14. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place In the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is managed by personnel from Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, either from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia, Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico or from Canada, Norway and Sweden. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requi6ng considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of a high accurate and useful system.

  15. Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

    2010-01-01

    At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

  16. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  17. Solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Ronn L.

    1993-01-01

    Structural requirements, materials and, especially, processing are critical issues that will pace the introduction of new types of solid rocket motors. Designers must recognize and understand the drivers associated with each of the following considerations: (1) cost; (2) energy density; (3) long term storage with use on demand; (4) reliability; (5) safety of processing and handling; (6) operability; and (7) environmental acceptance.

  18. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  19. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  20. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  1. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components and with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives functionally-required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g. powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf life characteristics.

  2. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  3. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Mendillo, M. )

    1990-08-01

    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited.

  4. The United States sounding rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The United States sounding rocket program is discussed. The program is concerned with the fields of solar physics, galactic astronomy, fields and particles, ionospheric physics, aeronomy, and meteorology. Sounding rockets are described with respect to propulsion systems, gross weight, and capabilities. Instruments used to conduct ionospheric probing missions are examined. Results of previously conducted sounding rocket missions are included.

  5. Peregrine 100-km Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University, and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of this technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, and fly a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked off in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. This research group began studying liquifying hybrid rocket fuel technology more than a decade ago. The overall goal of the research was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental physics of the liquid layer entrainment process responsible for the large increase in regression rate observed in these fuels, and to demonstrate the effect of increased regression rate on hybrid rocket motor performance. At the time of this reporting, more than 400 motor tests were conducted with a variety of oxidizers (N2O, GOx, LOx) at ever increasing scales with thrust levels from 5 to over 15,000 pounds (22 N to over 66 kN) in order to move this technology from the laboratory to practical applications. The Peregrine program is the natural next step in this development. A number of small sounding rockets with diameters of 3, 4, and 6 in. (7.6, 10.2, and 15.2 cm) have been flown, but Peregrine at a diameter of 15 in. (38.1 cm) and 14,000-lb (62.3-kN) thrust is by far the largest system ever attempted and will be one of the largest hybrids ever flown. Successful Peregrine flights will set the stage for a wide range of applications of this technology.

  6. Small Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    It was three-two-one to brilliant fire as NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center tested a small solid rocket motor designed to mimic NASA's Space Launch System booster. The Mar. 14 test provides a qui...

  7. Solid rocket motor internal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twichell, S. E. (Editor); Keller, R. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is defined as a layer of heat barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case propellant. The primary purpose is to prevent the case from reaching temperatures that endanger its structural integrity. Secondary functions of the insulation are listed and guidelines for avoiding critical problems in the development of internal insulation for rocket motors are presented.

  8. NASA Sounding Rockets and Hi-C

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Sounding Rockets Program Office (SRPO), located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, provides suborbital launch vehicles, payload development, and field operations sup...

  9. NASA Sounding Rocket Program Educational Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosanova, G.

    2013-01-01

    Sat-C elements of the "pipeline" have been successfully demonstrated by five annual flights thus far from Wallops Flight Facility. RockSat-X has successfully flown twice, also from Wallops. The NSRP utilizes launch vehicles comprised of military surplus rocket motors (Terrier-Improved Orion and Terrier-Improved Malemute) to execute these missions. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is proud of its role in inspiring the "next generation of explorers" and is working to expand its reach to all regions of the United States and the international community as well.

  10. GREECE Sounding Rocket Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.; Hampton, D. L.; Jahn, J. M.; Donovan, E.; Gustavsson, B.; Lanchester, B. S.; McHarg, M. G.; Spanswick, E.; Trondsen, T. S.; Valek, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    On 03 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT the Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska . It reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the native village of Venetie during a dynamic post-midnight auroral event. A wide range of precipitating electrons were measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) and Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), cumulatively covering 300 ev to 200 keV in varying time resolutions. DC to low frequency electric and magnetic fields were measured at the same time and a langmuir probe was also employed. In addition to the on board instrumentation a suite of ground based imagers was deployed under apogee. We used several electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) with different filters and field of views imaging along magnetic zenith. This yielded multi-emission line information about the auroral brightness at the magnetic footprint of the rocket critical for our main goal of exploring the correlation of the sheer flows often observed in high resolution imagery during aurora and the in situ signatures of precipitating particles and waves. The instruments used will be discussed in further detail along with preliminary results of an event rich in particle and wave signatures.

  11. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) that is being developed to replace, in 1997, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor which currently boosts the Space Shuttle. The ASRM will contain features to improve motor safety (fewer potential leak paths, improved seal materials, stronger case material, and fewer nozzle and case joints), an improved ignition system using through-bulkhead initiators, and highly reproducible manufacturing and inspection techniques with a large number of automated procedures. The ASRM will be able to deliver 12,000 lbs greater payloads to any given orbit of the Shuttle. There are also environmental improvements, realized by waste propellant recovery.

  12. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) that is being developed to replace, in 1997, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor which currently boosts the Space Shuttle. The ASRM will contain features to improve motor safety (fewer potential leak paths, improved seal materials, stronger case material, and fewer nozzle and case joints), an improved ignition system using through-bulkhead initiators, and highly reproducible manufacturing and inspection techniques with a large number of automated procedures. The ASRM will be able to deliver 12,000 lbs greater payloads to any given orbit of the Shuttle. There are also environmental improvements, realized by waste propellant recovery.

  13. Solid rocket motor witness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S.

    1991-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Motor Witness Test was undertaken to examine the potential for using thermal infrared imagery as a tool for monitoring static tests of solid rocket motors. The project consisted of several parts: data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. For data acquisition, thermal infrared data were obtained of the DM-9 test of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor on December 23, 1987, at Thiokol, Inc. test facility near Brigham City, Utah. The data analysis portion consisted of processing the video tapes of the test to produce values of temperature at representative test points on the rocket motor surface as the motor cooled down following the test. Interpretation included formulation of a numerical model and evaluation of some of the conditions of the motor which could be extracted from the data. These parameters included estimates of the insulation remaining following the tests and the thickness of the charred layer of insulation at the end of the test. Also visible was a temperature signature of the star grain pattern in the forward motor segment.

  14. Solid Rocket Motor Acoustic Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.D.

    1999-03-31

    Acoustic data are often required for the determination of launch and powered flight loads for rocket systems and payloads. Such data are usually acquired during test firings of the solid rocket motors. In the current work, these data were obtained for two tests at a remote test facility where we were visitors. This paper describes the data acquisition and the requirements for working at a remote site, interfacing with the test hosts.

  15. SHARPI/PICTURE Sounding Rocket Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, D.; Antonille, S.; Wallace, T.; Rabin, D.; Wake, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Solar High Angular Resolution Photometric Imager (SHARPI)/Planet Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment (PICTURE) Sounding Rocket Telescope is described. The topics include: 1) Lightweight precision mirror development; 2) Two sounding rocket concepts sharing a telescope; 3) Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) overview; 4) PM development program; 5) PM figure testing; 6) Mirror coatings; 7) PM mount and verification; 8) Secondary Mirror (SM); and 9) OTA.

  16. The OGRESS Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Thomas; Zeiger, B.; McEntaffer, R. L.; Schultz, T.; Oakley, P.; Cash, W. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of the Off-plane Grating Rocket for Extended Source Spectroscopy (OGRESS) sounding rocket payload based at the University of Iowa and University of Colorado, Boulder. The payload has been launched three times before under the names CyXESS, EXOS, and CODEX and is scheduled to fly again in February 2014. The payload is designed to observe large diffuse soft X-ray sources between ~100 - 1000 eV. OGRESS will observe the Vela supernova remnant and achieve the highest spectral resolution ever taken of this object in our bandpass. OGRESS does not use the standard optical design of a grazing incidence Wolter telescope. Instead, OGRESS uses a wire-grid collimator to remove any nonconverging light. This optical design leads to poor sensitivity to point sources, but works very well for large extended sources, for which the telescope beam is fully illuminated. The light is dispersed by an array of off-plane parallel-groove sinusoidal gratings and focused onto Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors.

  17. Small-Scale Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. successfully tested a sub-scale solid rocket motor on May 27. Testing a sub-scale version of a rocket motor is a cost-effective ...

  18. Microfabricated Liquid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, Alan H.; Joppin, C.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Schneider, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Under NASA Glenn Research Center sponsorship, MIT has developed the concept of micromachined, bipropellant, liquid rocket engines. This is potentially a breakthrough technology changing the cost-performance tradeoffs for small propulsion systems, enabling new applications, and redefining the meaning of the term low-cost-access-to-space. With this NASA support, a liquid-cooled, gaseous propellant version of the thrust chamber and nozzle was designed, built, and tested as a first step. DARPA is currently funding MIT to demonstrate turbopumps and controls. The work performed herein was the second year of a proposed three-year effort to develop the technology and demonstrate very high power density, regeneratively cooled, liquid bipropellant rocket engine thrust chamber and nozzles. When combined with the DARPA turbopumps and controls, this work would enable the design and demonstration of a complete rocket propulsion system. The original MIT-NASA concept used liquid oxygen-ethanol propellants. The military applications important to DARPA imply that storable liquid propellants are needed. Thus, MIT examined various storable propellant combinations including N2O4 and hydrazine, and H2O2 and various hydrocarbons. The latter are preferred since they do not have the toxicity of N2O4 and hydrazine. In reflection of the newfound interest in H2O2, it is once again in production and available commercially. A critical issue for the microrocket engine concept is cooling of the walls in a regenerative design. This is even more important at microscale than for large engines due to cube-square scaling considerations. Furthermore, the coolant behavior of rocket propellants has not been characterized at microscale. Therefore, MIT designed and constructed an apparatus expressly for this purpose. The report details measurements of two candidate microrocket fuels, JP-7 and JP-10.

  19. Solid propellant rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, W. L.; Shafer, J. I.; Behm, J. W.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of a solid propellant rocket engine with a controlled rate of thrust buildup to a desired thrust level are discussed. The engine uses a regressive burning controlled flow solid propellant igniter and a progressive burning main solid propellant charge. The igniter is capable of operating in a vacuum and sustains the burning of the propellant below its normal combustion limit until the burning propellant surface and combustion chamber pressure have increased sufficiently to provide a stable chamber pressure.

  20. Recent sounding rocket highlights and a concept for melding sounding rocket and space shuttle activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Mayo, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Highlights include launching guided vehicles into the African Solar Eclipse, initiation of development of a Three-Stage Black Brant to explore the dayside polar cusp, large payload Aries Flights at White Sands Missile Range, and an active program with the Orion vehicle family using surplus motors. Sounding rocket philosophy and experience is being applied to the shuttle in a Get Away Special and Experiments of Opportunity Payloads Programs. In addition, an orbit selection and targeting software system to support shuttle pallet mounted experiments is under development.

  1. The CODEX sounding rocket payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiger, B.; Shipley, A.; Cash, W.; Rogers, T.; Schultz, T.; McEntaffer, R.; Kaiser, M.

    2011-05-01

    We present the CODEX sounding rocket payload, a soft x-ray (0.1-1.0 keV) spectrometer designed to observe diffuse high-surface brightness astronomical sources. The payload is composed of two modules, each with a 3.25° x 3.25° field of view defined by a stack of wire grids that block light not coming to a 3.0 m focus and admit only nearly-collimated light onto an array of 67 diffraction gratings in an off-plane mount. After a 2.0 m throw, the spectrum is detected by offset large-format gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. CODEX will target the Vela supernova remnant later this year to measure the temperature and abundances and to determine the contributions of various soft x-ray emission mechanisms to the remnant's energy budget; resulting spectra will have resolution (E/▵E) ranging from 50 to 100 across the band. CODEX is the third-generation of similar payloads from the University of Colorado, with an increased bandpass, higher throughput, and a more robust mechanical structure than its predecessors.

  2. Aerodynamics of Sounding-Rocket Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical aerodynamics program TAD predicts aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding-rocket configurations. These slender, Axisymmetric finned vehicles have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high-speed armament. TAD calculates characteristics of separate portions of vehicle, calculates interference between portions, and combines results to form total vehicle solution.

  3. Development of small solid rocket boosters for the ILR-33 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, Pawel; Okninski, Adam; Pakosz, Michal; Cieslinski, Dawid; Bartkowiak, Bartosz; Wolanski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development of a 6000 Newton-class solid rocket motor for suborbital applications. The design configuration and results of interior ballistics calculations are given. The initial use of the motor as the main propulsion system of the H1 experimental in-flight test platform, within the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program, is presented. Comparisons of theoretical and experimental performance are shown. Both on-ground and in-flight tests are discussed. A novel composite-case manufacturing technology, which enabled to reach high propellant mass fractions, was validated and significant cost-reductions were achieved. This paper focuses on the process of adapting the design for use as the booster stage of the ILR-33 sounding rocket, under development at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw, Poland. Parallel use of two of the flight-proven rocket motors along with the main stage is planned. The process of adapting the rocket motor for booster application consists of stage integration, aerothermodynamics and reliability analyses. The separation mechanism and environmental impact are also discussed within this paper. Detailed performance analysis with focus on propellant grain geometry is provided. The evolution of the design since the first flights of the H1 rocket is covered and modifications of the manufacturing process are described. Issues of simultaneous ignition of two motors and their non-identical performance are discussed. Further applications and potential for future development are outlined. The presented results are based on the initial work done by the Rocketry Group of the Warsaw University of Technology Students' Space Association. The continuation of the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program on a larger scale at the Institute of Aviation proves the value of the outcomes of the initial educational project.

  4. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-08-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  5. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  6. National Report on the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberspeaker, Philip; Fairbrother, Debora

    2013-01-01

    The U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 30 to 40 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community and other users. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program supports the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payloads, and providing both the rocket vehicle and launch operations services. Activities since 2011 have included two flights from Andoya Rocket Range, more than eight flights from White Sands Missile Range, approximately sixteen flights from Wallops Flight Facility, two flights from Poker Flat Research Range, and four flights from Kwajalein Atoll. Other activities included the final developmental flight of the Terrier-Improved Malemute launch vehicle, a test flight of the Talos-Terrier-Oriole launch vehicle, and a host of smaller activities to improve program support capabilities. Several operational missions have utilized the new Terrier-Malemute vehicle. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program is currently engaged in the development of a new sustainer motor known as the Peregrine. The Peregrine development effort will involve one static firing and three flight tests with a target completion data of August 2014. The NASA Balloon Program supported numerous scientific and developmental missions since its last report. The program conducted flights from the U.S., Sweden, Australia, and Antarctica utilizing standard and experimental vehicles. Of particular note are the successful test flights of the Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP), the successful demonstration of a medium-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB), and most recently, three simultaneous missions aloft over Antarctica. NASA continues its successful incremental design qualification program and will support a science mission aboard WASP in late 2013 and a science mission aboard the SPB in early 2015. NASA has also embarked on an intra-agency collaboration to launch a rocket from a balloon to

  7. NASA sounding rockets, 1958 - 1968: A historical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The development and use of sounding rockets is traced from the Wac Corporal through the present generation of rockets. The Goddard Space Flight Center Sounding Rocket Program is discussed, and the use of sounding rockets during the IGY and the 1960's is described. Advantages of sounding rockets are identified as their simplicity and payload simplicity, low costs, payload recoverability, geographic flexibility, and temporal flexibility. The disadvantages are restricted time of observation, localized coverage, and payload limitations. Descriptions of major sounding rockets, trends in vehicle usage, and a compendium of NASA sounding rocket firings are also included.

  8. Upper atmospheric research at Woomera: The Australian-built sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Kerrie

    2006-07-01

    Sounding rocket programs for upper atmospheric research (UAR) commenced at Woomera in 1957, with the British Skylark project and the Anglo-Australian HARP rockoon program. Shortly afterwards, the Weapons Research Establishment (WRE) inaugurated its own sounding rocket program with the first successful Australian-built sounding rocket, Long Tom, developed from surplus British motors. This research would eventually lead to the development of Australia's first satellite, WRESAT, launched in 1967. Long Tom became the first more than 10 Australian designed and built sounding rockets that would be employed at Woomera until the demise of the WRE upper atmosphere program in 1976, as the Range was winding down to the cessation of the Anglo-Australian Joint Project. Like Long Tom, most of the early Australian sounding rockets were constructed by the WRE from surplus British motors, but after 1967 the later vehicles had a much higher local content, based on combinations of British motors and/or rocket motors developed in Australia. These new motors were named after constellations of the southern sky, while the rockets themselves bore the names of Australian native birds. This paper will outline the technical and scientific history of the Australian sounding rocket program, examining its origins and the reasons for its demise. It will look at the sequential development of the various Australian rockets and consider the particular research projects with which they were associated, the relationship with the WRESAT project and the move to Australian production after 1967.

  9. A miniature solid propellant rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

  10. Implementation of NASA's Sounding Rocket Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Dave

    2001-08-01

    NASA's Sounding Rocket Program was privatized in February 1999 at NASA Wallops Island, Virginia, USA. Litton/PRC* is the prime contractor on the 10-year NASA Sounding Rocket Contract (NSROC). The NSROC team is comprised of several teammates including Litton/PRC, Orbital Sciences, Arcata, RSS and Boeing. NSROC provides NASA's Sounding Rocket Office (SRPO) with all mission/vehicle planning, design, development, integration, test, launch and post-flight analysis. The NSROC team achieved ISO 9000 registration status in August 2000. NSROC launches an average of 20 vehicles/missions per year. Launches are performed from many world-wide launch ranges including Wallops Island Flight Facility Virginia, White Sands Missile Range New Mexico, Poker Flat Alaska, Esrange Sweden, Andøya Norway, Barking Sands Hawaii, Woomera Australia, Greenland, Svalbard Norway, Fortaleza Brazil, Vandeburg AFB California, Eastern Test Range Florida, Peru, Puerto Rico, amongst others.

  11. Development of the Astrobee F sounding rocket system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. B.; Taylor, J. P.; Honecker, H. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The development of the Astrobee F sounding rocket vehicle through the first flight test at NASA-Wallops Station is described. Design and development of a 15 in. diameter, dual thrust, solid propellant motor demonstrating several new technology features provided the basis for the flight vehicle. The 'F' motor test program described demonstrated the following advanced propulsion technology: tandem dual grain configuration, low burning rate HTPB case-bonded propellant, and molded plastic nozzle. The resultant motor integrated into a flight vehicle was successfully flown with extensive diagnostic instrumentation.-

  12. Premature ignition of a rocket motor.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Darlene Ruth

    2010-10-01

    During preparation for a rocket sled track (RST) event, there was an unexpected ignition of the zuni rocket motor (10/9/08). Three Sandia staff and a contractor were involved in the accident; the contractor was seriously injured and made full recovery. The data recorder battery energized the low energy initiator in the rocket.

  13. Sounding Rocket Launches Successfully from Alaska

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Caption: Time lapse photo of the NASA Oriole IV sounding rocket with Aural Spatial Structures Probe as an aurora dances over Alaska. All four stages of the rocket are visible in this image. Credit: NASA/Jamie Adkins More info: On count day number 15, the Aural Spatial Structures Probe, or ASSP, was successfully launched on a NASA Oriole IV sounding rocket at 5:41 a.m. EST on Jan. 28, 2015, from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. Preliminary data show that all aspects of the payload worked as designed and the principal investigator Charles Swenson at Utah State University described the mission as a “raging success.” “This is likely the most complicated mission the sounding rocket program has ever undertaken and it was not easy by any stretch," said John Hickman, operations manager of the NASA sounding rocket program office at the Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia. "It was technically challenging every step of the way.” “The payload deployed all six sub-payloads in formation as planned and all appeared to function as planned. Quite an amazing feat to maneuver and align the main payload, maintain the proper attitude while deploying all six 7.3-pound sub payloads at about 40 meters per second," said Hickman. Read more: www.nasa.gov/content/assp-sounding-rocket-launches-succes... NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. NASA's Advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) will not only bring increased safety, reliability and performance for the Space Shuttle Booster, it will enhance overall Shuttle safety by effectively eliminating 174 failure points in the Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling system and by reducing the exposure time to aborts due to main engine loss or shutdown. In some missions, the vulnerability time to Return-to-Launch Site aborts is halved. The ASRM uses case joints which will close or remain static under the effects of motor ignition and pressurization. The case itself is constructed of the weldable steel alloy HP 9-4-0.30, having very high strength and with superior fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance. The internal insulation is strip-wound and is free of asbestos. The nozzle employs light weight ablative parts and is some 5,000 pounds lighter than the Shuttle motor used to date. The payload performance of the ASRM-powered Shuttle is 12,000 pounds higher than that provided by the present motor. This is of particular benefit for payloads delivered to higher inclinations and/or altitudes. The ASRM facility uses state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, including continuous propellant mixing and direct casting.

  15. NASA's Advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) will not only bring increased safety, reliability and performance for the Space Shuttle Booster, it will enhance overall Shuttle safety by effectively eliminating 174 failure points in the Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling system and by reducing the exposure time to aborts due to main engine loss or shutdown. In some missions, the vulnerability time to Return-to-Launch Site aborts is halved. The ASRM uses case joints which will close or remain static under the effects of motor ignition and pressurization. The case itself is constructed of the weldable steel alloy HP 9-4-0.30, having very high strength and with superior fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance. The internal insulation is strip-wound and is free of asbestos. The nozzle employs light weight ablative parts and is some 5,000 pounds lighter than the Shuttle motor used to date. The payload performance of the ASRM-powered Shuttle is 12,000 pounds higher than that provided by the present motor. This is of particular benefit for payloads delivered to higher inclinations and/or altitudes. The ASRM facility uses state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, including continuous propellant mixing and direct casting.

  16. Sound from apollo rockets in space.

    PubMed

    Cotten, D; Donn, W L

    1971-02-12

    Low-frequency sound has been recorded on at least two occasions in Bermuda with the passage of Apollo rocket vehicles 188 kilometers aloft. The signals, which are reminiscent of N-waves from sonic booms, are (i) horizontally coherent; (ii) have extremely high (supersonic) trace velocities across the tripartite arrays; (iii) have nearly identical appearance and frequencies; (iv) have essentially identical arrival times after rocket launch; and (v) are the only coherent signals recorded over many hours. These observations seem to establish that the recorded sound comes from the rockets at high elevation. Despite this high elevation, the values of surface pressure appear to be explainable on the basis of a combination of a kinetic theory approach to shock formation in rarefied atmospheres with established gas-dynamics shock theory.

  17. The Norwegian Sounding Rocket and Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skatteboe, Rolf

    2001-08-01

    The status and recent developments of the Norwegian Sounding Rocket and Balloon Program are presented with focus on national activities and recent achievements. The main part of the Norwegian program is sounding rocket launches conducted by Andøya Rocket Range from the launch facilities on Andøya and at Svalbard. For the majority of the programs, the scientific goal is investigation of processes in the middle and upper atmosphere. The in situ measurements are supplemented by a large number of ground-based support instruments located at the ALOMAR Observatory. The ongoing and planned projects are described and the highlights of the latest completed projects are given. The scientific program for the period 2001-2003 will be reviewed. Several new programs have been started to improve the services available to the international science comunity. The Hotel Payload project and MiniDusty are important examples that will be introduced in the paper. Available space related infrastructure is summarized.

  18. Acoustic Measurements for Small Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Models have been developed to predict large solid rocket motor acoustic loads based on the scaling of small solid rocket motors. MSFC has measured several small solid rocket motors in horizontal and launch configurations to anchor these models. Solid Rocket Test Motor (SRTM) has ballistics similar to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) therefore a good choice for acoustic scaling. Acoustic measurements were collected during the test firing of the Insulation Configuration Extended Length (ICXL) 7,6, and 8 (in firing order) in order to compare to RSRM horizontal firing data. The scope of this presentation includes: Acoustic test procedures and instrumentation implemented during the three SRTM firings and Data analysis method and general trends observed in the data.

  19. Sounding Rocket Launches Successfully from Alaska

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    A NASA Oriole IV sounding rocket with the Aural Spatial Structures Probe leaves the launch pad on Jan. 28, 2015, from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. Credit: NASA/Lee Wingfield More info: On count day number 15, the Aural Spatial Structures Probe, or ASSP, was successfully launched on a NASA Oriole IV sounding rocket at 5:41 a.m. EST on Jan. 28, 2015, from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. Preliminary data show that all aspects of the payload worked as designed and the principal investigator Charles Swenson at Utah State University described the mission as a “raging success.” “This is likely the most complicated mission the sounding rocket program has ever undertaken and it was not easy by any stretch," said John Hickman, operations manager of the NASA sounding rocket program office at the Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia. "It was technically challenging every step of the way.” “The payload deployed all six sub-payloads in formation as planned and all appeared to function as planned. Quite an amazing feat to maneuver and align the main payload, maintain the proper attitude while deploying all six 7.3-pound sub payloads at about 40 meters per second," said Hickman. Read more: www.nasa.gov/content/assp-sounding-rocket-launches-succes... NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Rocket ozone sounding network data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. U.; Krueger, A. J.; Foster, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    During the period December 1976 through February 1977, three regular monthly ozone profiles were measured at Wallops Flight Center, two special soundings were taken at Antigua, West Indies, and at the Churchill Research Range, monthly activities were initiated to establish stratospheric ozone climatology. This report presents the data results and flight profiles for the period covered.

  1. NASA Sounding Rocket Program educational outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberspeaker, P. J.

    2005-08-01

    Educational and public outreach is a major focus area for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) shares in the belief that NASA plays a unique and vital role in inspiring future generations to pursue careers in science, mathematics, and technology. To fulfill this vision, the NASA Sounding Rocket Program engages in a host of student flight projects providing unique and exciting hands-on student space flight experiences. These projects include single stage Orion missions carrying "active" high school experiments and "passive" Explorer School modules, university level Orion and Terrier-Orion flights, and small hybrid rocket flights as part of the Small-scale Educational Rocketry Initiative (SERI) currently under development. Efforts also include educational programs conducted as part of major campaigns. The student flight projects are designed to reach students ranging from Kindergarteners to university undergraduates. The programs are also designed to accommodate student teams with varying levels of technical capabilities - from teams that can fabricate their own payloads to groups that are barely capable of drilling and tapping their own holes. The program also conducts a hands-on student flight project for blind students in collaboration with the National Federation of the Blind. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is proud of its role in inspiring the "next generation of explorers" and is working to expand its reach to all regions of the United States and the international community as well.

  2. CODEX sounding rocket wire grid collimator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Ann; Zeiger, Ben; Rogers, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    CODEX is a sounding rocket payload designed to operate in the soft x-ray (0.1-1.0 kV) regime. The instrument has a 3.25 degree square field of view that uses a one meter long wire grid collimator to create a beam that converges to a line in the focal plane. Wire grid collimator performance is directly correlated to the geometric accuracy of actual grid features and their relative locations. Utilizing a strategic combination of manufacturing and assembly techniques, this design is engineered for precision within the confines of a typical rocket budget. Expected resilience of the collimator under flight conditions is predicted by mechanical analysis.

  3. Reduced hazard chemicals for solid rocket motor production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1995-01-01

    During the last three years. the NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Thiokol Corporation have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem-solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this challenge.

  4. Reduced hazard chemicals for solid rocket motor production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1995-01-01

    During the last three years. the NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Thiokol Corporation have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem-solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this challenge.

  5. Program Computes Sound Pressures at Rocket Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogg, Gary; Heyman, Roy; White, Michael; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Launch Vehicle External Sound Pressure is a computer program that predicts the ignition overpressure and the acoustic pressure on the surfaces and in the vicinity of a rocket and launch pad during launch. The program generates a graphical user interface (GUI) that gathers input data from the user. These data include the critical dimensions of the rocket and of any launch-pad structures that may act as acoustic reflectors, the size and shape of the exhaust duct or flame deflector, and geometrical and operational parameters of the rocket engine. For the ignition-overpressure calculations, histories of the chamber pressure and mass flow rate also are required. Once the GUI has gathered the input data, it feeds them to ignition-overpressure and launch-acoustics routines, which are based on several approximate mathematical models of distributed sources, transmission, and reflection of acoustic waves. The output of the program includes ignition overpressures and acoustic pressures at specified locations.

  6. Acoustic Measurements of Small Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Rocket acoustic noise can induce loads and vibration on the vehicle as well as the surrounding structures. Models have been developed to predict these acoustic loads based on scaling existing solid rocket motor data. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center acoustics team has measured several small solid rocket motors (thrust below 150,000 lbf) to anchor prediction models. This data will provide NASA the capability to predict the acoustic environments and consequent vibro-acoustic response of larger rockets (thrust above 1,000,000 lbf) such as those planned for the NASA Constellation program. This paper presents the methods used to measure acoustic data during the static firing of small solid rocket motors and the trends found in the data.

  7. Ignition transient analysis of solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Samuel S.

    1990-01-01

    To predict pressure-time and thrust-time behavior of solid rocket motors, a one-dimensional numerical model is developed. The ignition phase of solid rocket motors (time less than 0.4 sec) depends critically on complex interactions among many elements, such as rocket geometry, heat and mass transfer, flow development, and chemical reactions. The present model solves the mass, momentum, and energy equations governing the transfer processes in the rocket chamber as well as the attached converging-diverging nozzle. A qualitative agreement with the SRM test data in terms of head-end pressure gradient and the total thrust build-up is obtained. Numerical results show that the burning rate in the star-segmented head-end section and the erosive burning are two important parameters in the ignition transient of the solid rocket motor (SRM).

  8. Acoustic Measurements of Small Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Rocket acoustic noise can induce loads and vibration on the vehicle as well as the surrounding structures. Models have been developed to predict these acoustic loads based on scaling existing solid rocket motor data. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center acoustics team has measured several small solid rocket motors (thrust below 150,000 lbf) to anchor prediction models. This data will provide NASA the capability to predict the acoustic environments and consequent vibro-acoustic response of larger rockets (thrust above 1,000,000 lbf) such as those planned for the NASA Constellation program. This paper presents the methods used to measure acoustic data during the static firing of small solid rocket motors and the trends found in the data.

  9. 24 Inch Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A scaled-down 24-inch version of the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor was successfully fired for 21 seconds at a Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Test Stand. The motor was tested to ensure a replacement material called Lycocel would meet the criteria set by the Shuttle's Solid Motor Project Office. The current material is a heat-resistant, rayon-based, carbon-cloth phenolic used as an insulating material for the motor's nozzle. Lycocel, a brand name for Tencel, is a cousin to rayon and is an exceptionally strong fiber made of wood pulp produced by a special 'solvent-spirning' process using a nontoxic solvent. It will also be impregnated with a phenolic resin. This new material is expected to perform better under the high temperatures experienced during launch. The next step will be to test the material on a 48-inch solid rocket motor. The test, which replicates launch conditions, is part of Shuttle's ongoing verification of components, materials, and manufacturing processes required by MSFC, which oversees the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor project. Manufactured by the ATK Thiokol Propulsion Division in Promontory, California, the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor measures 126 feet (38.4 meters) long and 12 feet (3.6 meters) in diameter. It is the largest solid rocket motor ever flown and the first designed for reuse. During its two-minute burn at liftoff, each motor generates an average thrust of 2.6 million pounds (1.2 million kilograms).

  10. NASA, ATK Successfully Test Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    With a loud roar and mighty column of flame, NASA and ATK Aerospace Systems successfully completed a two-minute, full-scale test of the largest and most powerful solid rocket motor designed for fli...

  11. Solid rocket motor cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harney, A. G.; Raphael, L.; Warren, S.; Yakura, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic and standardized procedure for estimating life cycle costs of solid rocket motor booster configurations. The model consists of clearly defined cost categories and appropriate cost equations in which cost is related to program and hardware parameters. Cost estimating relationships are generally based on analogous experience. In this model the experience drawn on is from estimates prepared by the study contractors. Contractors' estimates are derived by means of engineering estimates for some predetermined level of detail of the SRM hardware and program functions of the system life cycle. This method is frequently referred to as bottom-up. A parametric cost analysis is a useful technique when rapid estimates are required. This is particularly true during the planning stages of a system when hardware designs and program definition are conceptual and constantly changing as the selection process, which includes cost comparisons or trade-offs, is performed. The use of cost estimating relationships also facilitates the performance of cost sensitivity studies in which relative and comparable cost comparisons are significant.

  12. Description and Flight Performance Results of the WASP Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pauw, J. F.; Steffens, L. E.; Yuska, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    A general description of the design and construction of the WASP sounding rocket and of the performance of its first flight are presented. The purpose of the flight test was to place the 862-pound (391-kg) spacecraft above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) on free-fall trajectory for at least 6 minutes in order to study the effect of "weightlessness" on a slosh dynamics experiment. The WASP sounding rocket fulfilled its intended mission requirements. The sounding rocket approximately followed a nominal trajectory. The payload was in free fall above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) for 6.5 minutes and reached an apogee altitude of 134 nautical miles (248 km). Flight data including velocity, altitude, acceleration, roll rate, and angle of attack are discussed and compared to nominal performance calculations. The effect of residual burning of the second stage motor is analyzed. The flight vibration environment is presented and analyzed, including root mean square (RMS) and power spectral density analysis.

  13. Sounding rocket study of auroral electron precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of energetic electrons in the auroral zone have proved to be one of the most useful tools in investigating the phenomena of auroral arc formation. This dissertation presents a detailed analysis of the electron data from two sounding rocket campaigns and interprets the measurements in terms of existing auroral models. The Polar Cusp campaign consisted of a single rocket launched from Cape Parry, Canada into the afternoon auroral zone at 1:31:13 UT on January 21, 1982. The results include the measurement of a narrow, magnetic field aligned electron flux at the edge of an arc. This electron precipitation was found to have a remarkably constant 1.2 eV temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field over a 200 to 900 eV energy range. The payload also made simultaneous measurements of both energetic electrons and 3-MHz plasma waves in an auroral arc. Analysis has shown that the waves are propagating in the upper hybrid band and should be generated by a positive slope in the parallel electron distribution. A correlation was found between the 3-MHz waves and small positive slopes in the parallel electron distribution but experimental uncertainties in the electron measurement were large enough to influence the analysis. The BIDARCA campaign consisted of two sounding rockets launched from Poker Flat and Fort Yukon, Alaska at 9:09:00 UT and 9:10:40 UT on February 7, 1984.

  14. The DXL and STORM sounding rocket mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicholas E.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Collado-Vega, Yaireska M.; Collier, Michael R.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kujawski, Joseph; Kuntz, K. D.; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Lepri, Susan T.; McCammon, Dan; Morgan, Kelsey; Porter, F. Scott; Prasai, Krishna; Read, Andy M.; Robertson, Ina P.; Sembay, Steve F.; Sibeck, David G.; Snowden, Steven L.; Uprety, Youaraj; Walsh, Brian M.

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy (DXL) sounding rocket experiment is to distinguish the soft X-ray emission due to the Local Hot Bubble (LHB) from that produced via Solar Wind charge exchange (SWCX). Enhanced interplanetary helium density in the helium focusing cone provides a spatial variation to the SWCX that can be identified by scanning through the focusing cone using an X-ray instrument with a large grasp. DXL consists of two large proportional counters refurbished from the Aerobee payload used during the Wisconsin All Sky Survey. The counters utilize P-10 fill gas and are covered by a thin Formvar window (with Cyasorb UV-24 additive) supported on a nickel mesh. DXL's large grasp is 10 cm2 sr for both the 1/4 and 3/4 keV bands. DXL was successfully launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico on December 12, 2012 using a Terrier Mk70 Black Brant IX sounding rocket. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) instrument is a prototype soft X-ray camera also successfully own on the DXL sounding rocket. STORM uses newly developed slumped micropore (`lobster eye') optics to focus X-rays onto a position sensitive, chevron configuration, microchannel plate detector. The slumped micropore optics have a 75 cm curvature radius and a polyimide/aluminum filter bonded to its surface. STORM's large field-of-view makes it ideal for imaging SWCX with exospheric hydrogen for future missions. STORM represents the first flight of lobster-eye optics in space.

  15. Field refurbishment of recoverable sounding rocket payloads.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needleman, H. C.; Tackett, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Sounding rocket payload field refurbishment has been shown to be an effective means for obtaining additional scientific data with substantial time and monetary savings. In a recent campaign three successful missions were flown using two payloads. Field refurbished hardware from two previously flown and recovered payloads were field integrated to form a third payload. Although this operational method may result in compromises in the refurbished system, it allows for quick turn around when the mission requires it. This paper describes the recent success of this approach with the Dudley Observatory Nike-Apache micrometeorite collection experiments launched from Kiruna, Sweden, in October 1972.

  16. Operation Argus. Sounding rocket measurements - Project Jason

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.L.; Allen, L.; Dennis, J.L.; Welch, J.A.; Walton, R.B.

    1984-08-31

    The general objective was to measure the distribution of beta particles originating from the Argus shots and subsequently trapped in the earth's magnetic field. This was accomplished with the aid of high-altitude sounding rockets containing radiation counters. The flux of high-energy electrons was measured as a function of: (1) magnetic latitude from 23 to 39 degrees; (2) altitude from sea level to 900 km; (3) electron energy; (4) time after the nuclear explosion; and (5) angular distribution with respect to magnetic field.

  17. Encyclopedia: Satellites and Sounding Rockets, August 1959 - December 1969

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Major space missions utilizing satellites or sounding rockets managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center between August 1959 and December 1969 were documented. The information was presented in the following form: (1) description of each satellite project where Goddard was responsible for the spacecraft or the successful launch or both, with data such as launch characteristics, objectives, etc.; (2) description of each Goddard sounding rocket project, with the following data: sounding rocket type, vehicle number, experimental affiliation, and type of experiment; (3) brief description of current sounding rockets and launch vehicles; (4) table of tracking and data acquisition stations. Summary tables are also provided.

  18. Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyma, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents the flight safety philosophy for protecting the public against the risk created by the conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The flight safety criteria used to implement this philosophy are defined and the methodologies used to calculate mission risk are described.

  19. Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyma, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents the flight safety philosophy for protecting the public against the risk created by the conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The flight safety criteria used to implement this philosophy are defined and the methodologies used to calculate mission risk are described.

  20. Continued analysis of sounding rocket particle data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mella, M. R.; Lynch, K. A.; Kintner, P. M.; Lundberg, E. T.; Lessard, M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hampton, D. L.; Dahlgren, H.

    2010-12-01

    The sounding rocket Cascades-2 launched on 20 March 2009 from the Poker Flat Research Range at 11:04:00 UT through a series of poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs). The rocket initially crosses a diffuse arc, then crosses the equatorward extent of one PBI, and finally crosses the initiation of a separate PBI before entering the polar cap. In this poster we present a more detailed analysis of particle distribution functions and moments of the distribution function. In situ electron precipitation and ion signatures associated with each crossing of the aurora are analyzed. Conjugate THEMIS measurements from three satellites located at -10 Re downtail lay out the sequence of events between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Earthward plasma flows are observed at THEMIS for ten minutes prior to the aurora being seen to brighten in the ground cameras. After another half hour THEMIS observes a near-Earth dipolarization, at which point the flows are no longer seen. It is not until after these events that PBI activity is seen in the ground cameras, where it is observed by the rocket.

  1. Development of the Hawk/Nike Hawk sounding rocket vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A new sounding rocket family, the Hawk and Nike-Hawk Vehicles, have been developed, flight tested and added to the NASA Sounding Rocket Vehicle Stable. The Hawk is a single-stage vehicle that will carry 35.6 cm diameter payloads weighing 45.5 kg to 91 kg to altitudes of 78 km to 56 km, respectively. The two-stage Nike-Hawk will carry payloads weighing 68 kg to 136 kg to altitudes of 118 km to 113 km, respectively. Both vehicles utilize the XM22E8 Hawk rocket motor which is available in large numbers as a surplus item from the U.S. Army. The Hawk fin and tail can hardware were designed in-house. The Nike tail can and fin hardware are surplus Nike-Ajax booster hardware. Development objectives were to provide a vehicle family with a larger diameter, larger volume payload capability than the Nike-Apache and Nike-Tomahawk vehicles at comparable cost. Both vehicles performed nominally in flight tests.

  2. ARIM-1: The Atmospheric Refractive Index Measurements Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, B. Ian (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the ARIM-1 sounding rocket mission, whose goal is to study atmospheric turbulence in the tropopause region of the atmosphere, is presented. The study was conducted by an interdisciplinary team of students at the University of Alaska Fairbanks who were enrolled in a Space Systems Engineering course. The implementation of the ARIM-1 mission will be carried out by students participating in the Alaska Student Rocket Program (ASRP), with a projected launch date of August 1997. The ARIM-1 vehicle is a single stage sounding rocket with a 3:1 ogive nose cone, a payload diameter of 8 in., a motor diameter of 7.6 in., and an overall height of 17.0 ft including the four fins. Emphasis is placed on standardization of payload support systems. The thermosonde payload will measure the atmospheric turbulence by direct measurement of the temperature difference over a distance of one meter using two 3.45-micron 'hot-wire' probes. The recovery system consists of a 6 ft. diameter ribless guide surface drogue chute and a 33 ft. diameter main cross parachute designed to recover a payload of 31 pounds and slow its descent rate to 5 m/s through an altitude of 15 km. This document discusses the science objectives, mission analysis, payload mechanical configuration and structural design, recovery system, payload electronics, ground station, testing plans, and mission implementation.

  3. NASA's Sounding Rocket Program NSROC, accomplishments and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, David J.

    2005-08-01

    Since the contract start in 1999, NSROC has completed 140 Sounding Rocket flights as of 23 May 2005. These missions have supported science disciplines in Geospace, Solar/Heliospheric, High Energy Astrophysics, UV/Optical Astrophysics, Solar System Exploration, Student Outreach and Technology Innovation demonstrations. The success of the NSROC program is due to our large talent pool of experienced engineers and technicians along with a large inventory of rocket motors/hardware and flight proven components, subsystems and systems. The NSROC program enjoys a rich heritage of many high fidelity subsystem designs. The NSROC Attitude Control Systems are an excellent example of high resolution, low cost and high reliability. Pointing accuracies of sub arc-second (0.2 arc-second) are common for the solar and celestial ACS systems flown on the NSROC Program. New developments within the NASA Sounding Rocket Program have increased inertial attitude control pointing system accuracies by 300%. The future is bright and well within a legitimate technological reach.

  4. SCORE - Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Moses, Dan; Romoli, Marco

    The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a coronagraph for multi-wavelength imaging of the coronal Lyman-alpha lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and for the broad.band visible-light emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009 acquiring the first images of the HeII line-emission from the extended corona. The simultaneous observation of the coronal Lyman-alpha HI 121.6 nm, has allowed the first determination of the absolute helium abundance in the extended corona. This presentation will describe the lesson learned from the first flight and will illustrate the preparations and the science perspectives for the second re-flight approved by NASA and scheduled for 2016. The SCORE optical design is flexible enough to be able to accommodate different experimental configurations with minor modifications. This presentation will describe one of such configurations that could include a polarimeter for the observation the expected Hanle effect in the coronal Lyman-alpha HI line. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV) can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Thus, space-based UV spectro-polarimetry would provide an additional new tool for the diagnostics of coronal magnetism.

  5. Auroral Spatial Structures Probe sounding rocket mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, E. M.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe (ASSP) is a NASA sounding rocket mission that, will be used to study both the spatial and temporal small scale variation of the E-fields during breakup aurora and geomagnetically active conditions. This will be accomplished through the use of a constellation of small payloads that separate relative to each other throughout a sounding rocket flight. The multiple baseline observations of the electric and magnetic fields will be used to observe variability of both the E-field and the Poynting flux. These observations will be placed in the context of available data, including winds, large scale E-fields, and proxy conductivity (airglow images) observations. In this way we will address the main scientific objective of this mission which is: What are the contributions of small spatial scale and rapid temporal scale fluctuations of electric fields relative to the larger-scale electrodynamic processes? The high altitude rocket will be launched along the magnetic field line and carry six sub-payloads to be ejected from the main payload at high velocity. The sub-payloads will be deployed both along the flight path and perpendicular to the flight path so that both spatial features and temporal-spatial ambiguities can be explored. The low-mass sub-payloads that, for a fixed ejection impulse will achieve at least a 50 km separation by the end of the flight are key to the observational success. Each sub-payload will carry a crossed pair of double-probe sensors to measure in-situ electric fields, a three axis magnetometer, a Langmuir probe and a GPS receiver. In this poster we review the ASSP science and mission concepts.

  6. Aerodynamics of sounding rockets at supersonic speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vira, N. R.

    This dissertation presents a practical and low cost method of computing the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles such as sounding rockets, high speed bombs, projectiles and guided missiles in supersonic flight. The vehicle configuration consists of a slender axisymmetric body with a conical or ogive noise, cylinders, shoulders and boattails, if any, and have sets of two, three or four fins. Geometry of the fin cross section can be single wedge, double wedge, modified single wedge or modified double wedge. First the aerodynamics of the fins and the body are analyzed separately; then fin body and fore and aft fin interferences are accounted for when they are combined to form the total vehicle. Results and formulas documented in this work are the basis of the supersonic portion of the Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives (TAD) computer program operating at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  7. Electronic timer for sounding rocket payload use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. P.

    1986-01-01

    An electronic timer has been developed for sounding rocket use. The timer uses CMOS technology for low power consumption and has a battery back-up to keep the timing circuit active in case of a dropout on the payload power bus. Time-event decoding is done by programming EPROM's which enable a +28 volt dc sourcing output. There are 32 discrete outputs which can provide +28 volt dc into a minimum load impedance of 150 ohms. Inputs are designed to operate on standard CMOS voltage levels, but they can withstand +28 volts dc without damage. The timer can be started by either 'G' or lift-off switch closure or umbilical release at lift-off.

  8. Electronic timer for sounding rocket payload use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. P.

    1986-01-01

    An electronic timer has been developed for sounding rocket use. The timer uses CMOS technology for low power consumption and has a battery back-up to keep the timing circuit active in case of a dropout on the payload power bus. Time-event decoding is done by programming EPROM's which enable a +28 volt dc sourcing output. There are 32 discrete outputs which can provide +28 volt dc into a minimum load impedance of 150 ohms. Inputs are designed to operate on standard CMOS voltage levels, but they can withstand +28 volts dc without damage. The timer can be started by either 'G' or lift-off switch closure or umbilical release at lift-off.

  9. The FOXSI Solar Sounding Rocket Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Sam; Christe, Steven; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is, in its initial form, a sounding rocket experiment designed to apply the technique of focusing hard X-ray (HXR) optics to the study of fundamental questions about the high-energy Sun. Solar HXRs arise via bremsstrahlung from energetic electrons and hot plasma produced in solar flares and thus are one of the most direct diagnostics of flare-accelerated electrons and the impulsive heating of the solar corona. Previous missions have always been limited in sensitivity and dynamic range by the use of indirect (Fourier) imaging due to the lack of availability of direct focusing optics, but technological advances now make direct focusing accessible in the HXR regime (as evidenced by the NuSTAR spacecraft and several suborbital missions). The FOXSI rocket experiment develops and optimizes HXR focusing telescopes for the unique scientific requirements of the Sun. To date, FOXSI has completed two successful flights on 2012 November 02 and 2014 December 11 and is funded for a third flight. This paper gives a brief overview of the experiment, which is sensitive to solar HXRs in the 4-20 keV range, describes its first two flights, and gives a preview of plans for FOXSI-3.

  10. The FOXSI solar sounding rocket campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Säm.; Christe, Steven; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Courtade, Sasha; Turin, Paul; McBride, Stephen; Shourt, Van; Hoberman, Jane; Foster, Natalie; Vievering, Juliana

    2016-07-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is, in its initial form, a sounding rocket experiment designed to apply the technique of focusing hard X-ray (HXR) optics to the study of fundamental questions about the high-energy Sun. Solar HXRs arise via bremsstrahlung from energetic electrons and hot plasma produced in solar flares and thus are one of the most direct diagnostics of are-accelerated electrons and the impulsive heating of the solar corona. Previous missions have always been limited in sensitivity and dynamic range by the use of indirect (Fourier) imaging due to the lack of availability of direct focusing optics, but technological advances now make direct focusing accessible in the HXR regime (as evidenced by the NuSTAR spacecraft and several suborbital missions). The FOXSI rocket experiment develops and optimizes HXR focusing telescopes for the unique scientific requirements of the Sun. To date, FOXSI has completed two successful flights on 2012 November 02 and 2014 December 11 and is funded for a third flight. This paper gives a brief overview of the experiment, which is sensitive to solar HXRs in the 4-20 keV range, describes its first two flights, and gives a preview of plans for FOXSI-3.

  11. Device and process for attachment of parts to rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagla, Jon J.; Lowry, Robert W.; Mears, Otho L.

    1992-04-01

    An attachment platform positioned longitudinally on a rocket motor chamber and secured with laser welding techniques is described. Each attachment platform is continuously sealed longitudinally to the rocket motor chamber through the application of laser welding and optical seam tracking. Application of laser welding techniques allows for repair and installation of attachment platforms on rocket motors fully loaded with live propellant.

  12. Pressure Oscillations in Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomshield, Fred S.; Bicker, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    All Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors (SRM's) exhibit low amplitude longitudinal pressure oscillations during motor burn. Although the oscillations have no known deleterious effect on motor ballistics, the acoustic pressure variations cause thrust oscillations that might affect Shuttle systems or components. The acoustic mode of greatest interest is the first or fundamental mode which, in the SRM, has a nominal frequency of 14-Hz. Oscillations in the SRM are believed to be caused by coupling between large scale vortices and the acoustic modes of the motor chamber. The vortices are thought to be created in the region of the motor segment interfaces and are inherent in the design of the motor. In such a situation the usual approach is to measure the oscillations and assess their impact on any sensitive components through tests and analysis. Questionable components can be altered to survive the vibration environment. As motor firings occur, oscillations are monitored to determine whether there are changes in the nature of the oscillations. Since the first static test, SRM's have been equipped with instrumentation especially designed to acquire chamber pressure oscillation data. Data from the first SRM static tests were used to establish predicted upper bounds for the maximum amplitudes in the latter half of burn. Those bounds have been used as a basis for worst-case simulation scenarios by specialists in structural dynamics at NASA and Rockwell International and to provide a basis for evaluating data from individual motors which were tested subsequent to the original SRM's. This paper updates the upper bounds prediction the High Performance Motors (HPM) by including data from all static tests performed to date including both original SRM's and post Challenger SRM's or Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) in which the joint design was changed. All together, this study examines 27 SRM motors, 16 HPM motors and 11 RSRM motors. Predicted upper bounds will be made for both the

  13. Introduction to the Special Issue on Sounding Rockets and Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Zeiger, Ben; Pfaff, Rob; Garcia, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Rocket technology, originally developed for military applications, has provided a low-cost observing platform to carry critical and rapid-response scientific investigations for over 70 years. Even with the development of launch vehicles that could put satellites into orbit, high altitude sounding rockets have remained relevant. In addition to science observations, sounding rockets provide a unique technology test platform and a valuable training ground for scientists and engineers. Most importantly, sounding rockets remain the only way to explore the tenuous regions of the Earth’s atmosphere (the upper stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower ionosphere/thermosphere) above balloon altitudes (˜40km) and below satellite orbits (˜160km). They can lift remote sensing telescope payloads with masses up to 400kg to altitudes of 350km providing observing times of up to 6min above the blocking influence of Earth’s atmosphere. Though a number of sounding rocket research programs exist around the world, this article focuses on the NASA Sounding Rocket Program, and particularly on the astrophysical and solar sounding rocket payloads.

  14. Sounding Rocket Particle Sampling in the Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldemarsson, T.; Giovane, F.; Stroud, R. M.; Gumbel, J.; Hedin, J.; Blum, J.; Reissaus, P.; Siskind, D. E.; Stegman, J.; Khaplanov, M.

    Current estimates suggest that somewhere between 10 and 100 tons of meteoric material enters the Earth atmosphere each day It is well known that the ablation of this incoming material is the source of metal atoms and ions regularly observed in the upper atmosphere by remote sensing techniques such as lidar and satellite limb measurements What happens next is more uncertain but subsequent condensation and coagulation of the ablated material is thought to form nanometer-size particles also denoted meteoric smoke It has been suggested that meteoric smoke plays a key role in a number of mesospheric processes related to e g noctilucent clouds NLC and polar mesosphere summer echos PMSE We will present a recently developed instrument MAGIC Mesospheric Aerosol - Genesis Interaction and Composition designed for in situ sampling of smoke particles during a sounding rocket flight The MAGIC instrument has been built at the Naval Research Laboratory with particular emphasis on aerodynamic challenges imposed by the tiny size of the particles By sampling smoke particles and making them available for laboratory analysis their existence and properties can be studied Basic questions concern their number density size altitude distribution and composition The first flights of the MAGIC instrument took place at Esrange Sweden in January 2005 and at Wallops Island USA in May 2005 An overview of the campaigns will be presented together with preliminary results from the transmission electron microscopy analysis carried out on these first flown collection

  15. Ignition transient analysis of solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Samuel S.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement data on the performance of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor show wide variations in the head-end pressure changes and the total thrust build-up during the ignition transient periods. To analyze the flow and thermal behavior in the tested solid rocket motors, a 1-dimensional, ideal gas flow model via the SIMPLE algorithm was developed. Numerical results showed that burning patterns in the star-shaped head-end segment of the propellant and the erosive burning rate are two important factors controlling the ignition transients. The objective of this study is to extend the model to include the effects of aluminum particle commonly used in solid propellants. To treat the effects of aluminum-oxide particles in the combustion gas, conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations for the particles are added in the numerical formulation and integrated by an inter-phase-slip algorithm.

  16. Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Dennis; Phelps, Jack; Perkins, Fred

    2010-01-01

    RSRM is a highly reliable human-rated Solid Rocket Motor: a) Largest diameter SRM to achieve flight status; b) Only human-rated SRM. RSRM reliability achieved by: a)Applying special attention to Process Control, Testing, and Postflight; b) Communicating often; c) Identifying and addressing issues in a disciplined approach; d) Identifying and fully dispositioning "out-of-family" conditions; e) Addressing minority opinions; and f) Learning our lessons.

  17. Terrier-Black Brant Sounding Rocket Microacceleration Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacpura, Thomas; Acevedo, Julio

    1998-01-01

    On September 10, 1997 a Terrier-Black Brant Sounding Rocket was launched to support the Lewis Research Center DARTFire combustion experiment at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The sounding rocket also carried two microacceleration measurement systems to support the DARTFire experiment by measuring the microacceleration environment. The SAMS-FF system and a SAMS-type triaxial sensor head (TSH) were flown. The SAMS-FF system consisted of a variable frequency, digital output TSH and a roll rate sensor. Data from the two systems were analyzed and compared. Data will be presented from both systems in order to characterize the sounding rocket microacceleration environment. The data collected demonstrated that a sounding rocket is a viable vehicle for conducting space experiments that require a quiet, dedicated microacceleration environment.

  18. Launch of 2014 RockOn Sounding Rocket

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Students and teachers designed experiments which were included in the payload of the RockOn sounding rocket, seen here launching from NASA Wallops Flight Facility on June 26, 2014, at 7:21 a.m. EDT...

  19. Sounding rockets utilized to support Department of Defense programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, E. R.; Seaton, D. F.

    Sounding rocket technology is utilized in the truest sense in a successful flight test program to develop advanced technology optical sensors in support of ballistic missile defenses. Single and two stage sounding rockets have been flown ballistically to lift large sensor vehicle payloads to altitudes in excess of 100 nautical miles to demonstrate and evaluate sensor performance. This paper will describe the utility of sounding rockets in the development of a major Department of Defense program and the key role demonstrated on the Designating Optical Tracker (DOT) Flight Test Program. Flight test objectives and results are discussed. This paper also defines the transition into a larger sounding rocket system with increased payload carrying capability and boost phase guidance.

  20. Rocket Motor Joint Construction Including Thermal Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal barrier for extremely high temperature applications consists of a carbon fiber core and one or more layers of braided carbon fibers surrounding the core. The thermal barrier is preferably a large diameter ring, having a relatively small cross-section. The thermal barrier is particularly suited for use as part of a joint structure in solid rocket motor casings to protect low temperature elements such as the primary and secondary elastomeric O-ring seals therein from high temperature gases of the rocket motor. The thermal barrier exhibits adequate porosity to allow pressure to reach the radially outward disposed O-ring seals allowing them to seat and perform the primary sealing function. The thermal barrier is disposed in a cavity or groove in the casing joint, between the hot propulsion gases interior of the rocket motor and primary and secondary O-ring seals. The characteristics of the thermal barrier may be enhanced in different applications by the inclusion of certain compounds in the casing joint, by the inclusion of RTV sealant or similar materials at the site of the thermal barrier, and/or by the incorporation of a metal core or plurality of metal braids within the carbon braid in the thermal barrier structure.

  1. Results of Labscale Hybrid Rocket Motor investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, B.; Frederick, R. A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This work was performed to establish a labscale hybrid rocket motor test and evaluation capability at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The scope included activation of a Labscale Hybrid Motor, determination of baseline burning rates for PMMA fuel, and replication of pressure oscillations for HTPB fuel. The 0.820-in.-diam port, 10-in.-long fuel grains were burned for two seconds with gaseous oxygen. PMMA fuels were tested at oxygen fluxes from 0.047 lbm/sec sq in. to 0.378 lbm/sec sq in., and the HTPB fuel was evaluated at 0.378 lbm/sec sq in. The results showed that the labscale hybrid motor replicated previously reported PMMA fuel regression rates. The results also replicated low-frequency (less than 100 Hz) pressure oscillations that have been observed for HTPB fuels. These results establish the Labscale Hybrid Motor facility at MSFC.

  2. Results of Labscale Hybrid Rocket Motor investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, B.; Frederick, R. A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This work was performed to establish a labscale hybrid rocket motor test and evaluation capability at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The scope included activation of a Labscale Hybrid Motor, determination of baseline burning rates for PMMA fuel, and replication of pressure oscillations for HTPB fuel. The 0.820-in.-diam port, 10-in.-long fuel grains were burned for two seconds with gaseous oxygen. PMMA fuels were tested at oxygen fluxes from 0.047 lbm/sec sq in. to 0.378 lbm/sec sq in., and the HTPB fuel was evaluated at 0.378 lbm/sec sq in. The results showed that the labscale hybrid motor replicated previously reported PMMA fuel regression rates. The results also replicated low-frequency (less than 100 Hz) pressure oscillations that have been observed for HTPB fuels. These results establish the Labscale Hybrid Motor facility at MSFC.

  3. Thermal Electron Results from the CAPER Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; Pollock, Craig J.; Moore, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    The Cleft Accelerated Plasma Experiment Rocket (CAPER) sounding rocket launched on January 21, 1999 at 06:13:30 UT into the cusp. Ion outflows and strong electric fields were present. We will present the preliminary results of the thermal electron detector, TECHS that was on this payload.

  4. Compilation of weights, balance, CG, and moments of inertia for sounding rocket payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, J. J., Jr.; Fitz, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of weight, balance, center of gravity, and moments of inertia of various sounding rocket payloads are presented. A permanent record of the physical characteristics of sounding rocket payloads in one location is provided. Data for the weight of payloads which the sounding rockets can support are developed. Illustrations of various sounding rockets to show the space available for payloads are included.

  5. Performance of a Solidification Furnace Developed for Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chen Y.; Boschetti, Cesar; Ribeiro, Manuel F.; Toledo, Rafael C.; Freitas, Filipe E.; Bandeira, Iraja N.

    2011-11-01

    Brazil has a Microgravity Program mainly based on experiments using sounding rockets. This paper presents a brief account of the Program and the experiments made on the Brazilian rockets. Up to now three missions carrying a total of 26 experiments were made. In all flights a fast solidification furnace, capable of producing temperatures up to 900°C, was tested with semiconductor and metal alloys. This paper describes the construction and the performance of that furnace during the last parabolic flight, occurred in 2010. The solidification furnace is now qualified and ready to be used by other institutions in sounding rocket flights.

  6. Collaborative Sounding Rocket launch in Alaska and Development of Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Akimasa; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kan, Yuji; Tohyama, Fumio; Nakashino, Kyouichi; Hawkins, Joseph

    Tokai University student rocket project (TSRP) was established in 1995 for a purpose of the space science and engineering hands-on education, consisting of two space programs; the one is sounding rocket experiment collaboration with University of Alaska Fairbanks and the other is development and launch of small hybrid rockets. In January of 2000 and March 2002, two collaborative sounding rockets were successfully launched at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. In 2001, the first Tokai hybrid rocket was successfully launched at Alaska. After that, 11 hybrid rockets were launched to the level of 180-1,000 m high at Hokkaido and Akita in Japan. Currently, Tokai students design and build all parts of the rockets. In addition, they are running the organization and development of the project under the tight budget control. This program has proven to be very effective in providing students with practical, real-engineering design experience and this program also allows students to participate in all phases of a sounding rocket mission. Also students learn scientific, engineering subjects, public affairs and system management through experiences of cooperative teamwork. In this report, we summarize the TSRP's hybrid rocket program and discuss the effectiveness of the program in terms of educational aspects.

  7. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences.

    PubMed

    Gurkin, L W

    1992-10-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

  8. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurkin, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

  9. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurkin, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

  10. Radiation from advanced solid rocket motor plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Smith, Sheldon D.; Myruski, Brian L.

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop an understanding of solid rocket motor (SRM) plumes in sufficient detail to accurately explain the majority of plume radiation test data. Improved flowfield and radiation analysis codes were developed to accurately and efficiently account for all the factors which effect radiation heating from rocket plumes. These codes were verified by comparing predicted plume behavior with measured NASA/MSFC ASRM test data. Upon conducting a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art of SRM plume flowfield and radiation prediction methodology and the pertinent data base, the following analyses were developed for future design use. The NOZZRAD code was developed for preliminary base heating design and Al2O3 particle optical property data evaluation using a generalized two-flux solution to the radiative transfer equation. The IDARAD code was developed for rapid evaluation of plume radiation effects using the spherical harmonics method of differential approximation to the radiative transfer equation. The FDNS CFD code with fully coupled Euler-Lagrange particle tracking was validated by comparison to predictions made with the industry standard RAMP code for SRM nozzle flowfield analysis. The FDNS code provides the ability to analyze not only rocket nozzle flow, but also axisymmetric and three-dimensional plume flowfields with state-of-the-art CFD methodology. Procedures for conducting meaningful thermo-vision camera studies were developed.

  11. Radiation from advanced solid rocket motor plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Smith, Sheldon D.; Myruski, Brian L.

    1994-12-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop an understanding of solid rocket motor (SRM) plumes in sufficient detail to accurately explain the majority of plume radiation test data. Improved flowfield and radiation analysis codes were developed to accurately and efficiently account for all the factors which effect radiation heating from rocket plumes. These codes were verified by comparing predicted plume behavior with measured NASA/MSFC ASRM test data. Upon conducting a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art of SRM plume flowfield and radiation prediction methodology and the pertinent data base, the following analyses were developed for future design use. The NOZZRAD code was developed for preliminary base heating design and Al2O3 particle optical property data evaluation using a generalized two-flux solution to the radiative transfer equation. The IDARAD code was developed for rapid evaluation of plume radiation effects using the spherical harmonics method of differential approximation to the radiative transfer equation. The FDNS CFD code with fully coupled Euler-Lagrange particle tracking was validated by comparison to predictions made with the industry standard RAMP code for SRM nozzle flowfield analysis. The FDNS code provides the ability to analyze not only rocket nozzle flow, but also axisymmetric and three-dimensional plume flowfields with state-of-the-art CFD methodology. Procedures for conducting meaningful thermo-vision camera studies were developed.

  12. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor nozzle development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, W. J.; Moss, J. D.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a status update of the design and development of an improved nozzle for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The ASRM nozzle incorporates advanced state-of-the-art design features and materials which contribute to enhanced safety, reliability, performance, and producibility for the space shuttle boosters. During 1992 the nozzle design progressed through a successful Preliminary Design Review (PDR). An improved ablative material development program also culminated in the selection of new standard and low density carbon cloth phenolic prepreg offering reduced variability and improved process attributes. A subscale motor test series to evaluate new materials and design features was also completed. An overview update of the matured design characteristics, supporting analysis, key development-program results and program status and plans is reported.

  13. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor nozzle development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, W. J.; Moss, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a status update of the design and development of an improved nozzle for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The ASRM nozzle incorporates advanced state-of-the-art design features and materials which contribute to enhanced safety, reliability, performance, and producibility for the space shuttle boosters. During 1992 the nozzle design progressed through a successful Preliminary Design Review (PDR). An improved ablative material development program also culminated in the selection of new standard and low density carbon cloth phenolic prepreg offering reduced variability and improved process attributes. A subscale motor test series to evaluate new materials and design features was also completed. An overview update of the matured design characteristics, supporting analysis, key development-program results and program status and plans is reported.

  14. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor nozzle development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, W. J.; Moss, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a status update of the design and development of an improved nozzle for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The ASRM nozzle incorporates advanced state-of-the-art design features and materials which contribute to enhanced safety, reliability, performance, and producibility for the space shuttle boosters. During 1992 the nozzle design progressed through a successful Preliminary Design Review (PDR). An improved ablative material development program also culminated in the selection of new standard and low density carbon cloth phenolic prepreg offering reduced variability and improved process attributes. A subscale motor test series to evaluate new materials and design features was also completed. An overview update of the matured design characteristics, supporting analysis, key development-program results and program status and plans is reported.

  15. Nondestructive testing of Scout rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oaks, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    The nondestructive tests applied to Scout rocket motors were reviewed and appraised. Analytical techniques were developed to evaluate the capabilities of the radiographic and ultrasonic procedures used. Major problem areas found were the inadequacy of high voltage radiography for detecting unbonds and propellant cracks having narrow widths, the inability to relate the ultrasonic signals received from flat-bottomed holes in standards to those received from real defects and in the general area of the specification of acceptance criteria and how these were to be met. To counter the deficiencies noted, analyses were conducted to the potential utility of radiometric, acoustic, holographic and thermographic techniques for motor and nozzle bond inspection, a new approach to qualifying magnetic particle inspection and the application of acoustic emission analysis to the evaluation of proof and leak test data.

  16. Solid Rocket Motor/Booster-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This image illustrates the solid rocket motor (SRM)/solid rocket booster (SRB) configuration. The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the SRM's were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment. The boosters are designed to survive water impact at almost 60 miles per hour, maintain flotation with minimal damage, and preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. Under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRB's are assembled and refurbished by the United Space Boosters. The SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Sounding Rocket Pneumatic System Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armen, Jerald

    2010-01-01

    The recent fusion of decades of advancements in mathematical models, numerical algorithms and curve fitting techniques marked the beginning of a new era in the science of simulation. It is becoming indispensable to the study of rockets and aerospace analysis. In pneumatic system, which is the main focus of this paper, particular emphasis will be placed on the efforts of compressible flow in Attitude Control System of sounding rocket.

  18. Sounding rocket activities of Japan in 2003 and 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Nobuaki; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Nonaka, Satoshi; Nakajima, Takashi; Takumi, Abe; Yuichi, Tsuda; Yamagami, Takamasa

    2005-08-01

    In October 2003, a new space agency, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) was reorganized and started as a primary space agency to promote all space activities in Japan. The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) belonged to JAXA and continued to promote space science and technologies using unique scientific satellites, sounding rockets and balloons. This paper summarizes sounding rocket and ballooning activities of ISAS in the fiscal year of 2003 and 2004, associated with satellite launch programs. In this time period, three sounding rockets and nineteen balloons were launched by ISAS. One of the sounding rocket, S-310-35 was an international collaboration between Japan and Norway, which was launched from Andoya Rocket Range (ARR), Andenes, Norway, so as to study the upper atmospheric dynamics and energetics associated with the auroral energy in the polar lower thermosphere. Through the combination with the national researchers and the cooperation with international organizations, ISAS will keep its own flight opportunities and be able to obtain many new scientific findings.

  19. X-ray astronomy experiments from sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, Saul

    1987-01-01

    During the past fourteen years, the M.I.T. X-ray Astronomy sounding rocket group has designed, fabricated, and flown five different scientific sounding rocket payloads. These experiment payloads were launched on a total of twelve sounding rocket flights of which only one failed because of rocket problems. Eight of these flights yielded astronomical data that resulted in a total of twelve publications. The bulk of this research was supported by NASA Grant NGR 22-009-730 X-Ray Astronomy Experiments Sounding Rockets. The fifth and final experiment payload conceived and built under this Grant (the Wide Field Soft X-ray Camera: WFSXC) served as the prototype for the British Wide Field Camera (WFC) experiment to be launched on the ROSAT mission. The five experiment payloads and the results obtained from these experiments are briefly described. In the case of the WFSXC, which served principally as an engineering prototype for a major space mission, a number of papers written by British collaborators which describe the ROSAT Wide Field Camera are presented.

  20. Study of solid rocket motor for a space shuttle booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster was directed toward definition of a parallel-burn shuttle booster using two 156-in.-dia solid rocket motors. The study effort was organized into the following major task areas: system studies, preliminary design, program planning, and program costing.

  1. Development of a small high-thrust tractor rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C.E.; Oberlander, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the parachute extraction tractor rocket motor design and test efforts conducted during the Sandia ASW/SOW development program. The prime contractor was Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico; the tractor rocket motor subcontractor was Morton Thiokol, Inc., Elkton, Maryland.

  2. Delta II JPSS-1 Solid Rocket Motor Hoist and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-19

    The United Launch Alliance/Orbital ATK Delta II solid rocket motor arrives at Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Technicians and engineers lift and mate the solid rocket motor to a Delta II rocket in preparation for launch of the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 (JPSS-1) later this year. JPSS, a next-generation environmental satellite system, is a collaborative program between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA.

  3. Delta II JPSS-1 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-04

    The United Launch Alliance/Orbital ATK Delta II solid rocket motor arrives at Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Technicians and engineers lift and mate the solid rocket motor to a Delta II rocket in preparation for launch of the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 (JPSS-1) later this year. JPSS, a next-generation environmental satellite system, is a collaborative program between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA.

  4. Upper Atmosphere Sounding Rocket Projects at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockowandt, Christian; Kemi, Stig; Sjolander, Krister; Abrahamsson, Mattias

    Swedish Space Corporation, SSC has a long tradition of developing and launching scientific sounding rockets from Esrange Space Center with the aim to study the different layers of the atmosphere and near space. Now a new era has started with an initiative from the Swedish National Space Board, SNSB. The sounding rocket and atmospheric balloon activities will be vitalised with a national program offering the scientific community yearly rocket launches and balloon flights. The three upcoming sounding rocket missions that have recently started are: O-STATES O STATES (Oxygen transformation in the thermosphere) is a research project at the Meteorological Institute of Stockholm University with Prof. Jörg Gumbel, as responsible researcher. The payload comprises two instrument modules with totally 7 instruments for studying oxygen in its various forms. The payload will be launched twice on two sounding rockets at the same launch campaign, in different atmospheric conditions. This provides a cost-effective mission with a large research exchange. The launches from Esrange Space Center are preliminary scheduled to take place in August 2014 with an apogee of approximately 250 km. SPIDER SPIDER (Small Payloads for Investigation of Disturbances in Electrojet by Rockets) is a research project at Space and Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm with Nicholay Ivchenko as responsible researcher. The mission includes up to 10 subsidiary payloads ejected from the main payload to measure the structure of the electrostatic turbulence in the ionosphere. The measurements take place entirely in the subsidiary payloads, which are completely autonomous and recovered individually after the flight. The launch from Esrange Space Center is preliminary scheduled to take place in March 2015 with a desired apogee of approximately 140 km. LEEWAVES LEEWAVES (Local Excitation and Effects of Waves on Atmospheric Vertical Structure) is a research project at the Meteorological

  5. Altitude compensating ablative stiffening band for rocket motor nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. Lynn; McIntire, Vaughn W., Jr.; Clontz, Leslie A.; Peckham, Richard J.; Dixon, Alan B. C.; West, James C.

    1993-03-01

    A rocket motor nozzle with an ablative internal structural member which provides rigidity to the rocket motor both prior to and during motor operation is described. The rocket motor nozzle of the present invention includes an outer shell which converges to a throat and then diverges to form an entrance. An ablative stiffening band, secured to the inner surface of the nozzle and extending from the aft portion of the nozzle to the throat, is contoured to allow the exhaust gases to flow smoothly through a central longitudinal opening in the band.

  6. The History of Sounding Rockets and Their Contribution to European Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Günther

    2006-11-01

    The report describes the history of rocket development before and during the Second World War and their use as sounding rockets in Europe, the USA and the USSR, and outlines the technical, operational and scientific features of sounding rockets. The major European national sounding-rocket activities and those of ESRO from the early 1960s to the early 1970s are described, a period when sounding rockets represented an important part of space research. Over that time span, several hundred sounding rockets (up to 500 per year around 1970) were launched worldwide each year.

  7. The role of wind tunnels in predicting sounding rocket aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of some cases of flow separation, flow-field interference, unusual vehicle shape or size, excessive deviations to high angular positions. Mach number induced effects, Reynolds number effects, and effects of protruberances on wind tunnel investigations of sounding rockets are illustrated.

  8. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberspeaker, Philip J.; Smith, Ira S.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 50 to 60 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions support investigations sponsored by NASA's Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program provides the science community with payload development support, environmental testing, launch vehicles, and launch operations from fixed and mobile launch ranges. Sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface. New technology efforts include GPS payload event triggering, tailored trajectories, new vehicle configuration development to expand current capabilities, and the feasibility assessment of an ultra high altitude sounding rocket vehicle. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. The Long Duration Balloon (LDB) is capable of providing flight durations in excess of two weeks and has had many successful flights since its development. The NASA Balloon Program is currently engaged in the development of the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB), which will be capable of providing flight times up to 100-days. Additional development efforts are focusing on ultra high altitude balloons, station keeping techniques and planetary balloon technologies.

  9. Lyman alpha coronagraph research sounding rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Kohl, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The ultraviolet light coronagraph was developed and successfully flown on three rocket flights on 13 April 1979, 16 February 1980 and 20 July 1982. During each of these flights, the Ultraviolet Light Coronagraph was flown jointly with the White Light Coronagraph provided by the High Altitude Observatory. Ultraviolet diagnostic techniques and instrumentation for determining the basic plasma parameters of solar wind acceleration regions in the extended corona were developed and verified and the understanding of the physics of the corona through the performance, analysis and interpretation of solar observations advanced. Valuable UV diagnostics can be performed in the absence of a natural solar eclipse.

  10. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, Bobby J.; Needleman, Harvey C.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a combined total of approximately fifty to sixty missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions are provided in support of investigations sponsored by NASA'S Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program has continued to su,pport the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payload and providing the rocket vehicle and launch operations necessary to provide the altitude/time required obtain the science objectives. The sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface, which is physically inaccessible to either balloons or satellites. A new architecture for providing this support has been introduced this year with the establishment of the NASA Sounding Rockets Contract. The Program has continued to introduce improvements into their operations and ground and flight systems. An overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets Program with special emphasis on the new support contract will be presented. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. Long duration balloon (LDB) is a prominent aspect of the program with two campaigns scheduled for this calendar year. Two flights are scheduled in the Northern Hemisphere from Fairbanks, Alaska, in June and two flights are scheduled from McMurdo, Antarctica, in the Southern Hemisphere in December. The comprehensive balloon research and development (R&D) effort has continued with advances being made across the

  11. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, Bobby J.; Needleman, Harvey C.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a combined total of approximately fifty to sixty missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions are provided in support of investigations sponsored by NASA'S Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program has continued to su,pport the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payload and providing the rocket vehicle and launch operations necessary to provide the altitude/time required obtain the science objectives. The sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface, which is physically inaccessible to either balloons or satellites. A new architecture for providing this support has been introduced this year with the establishment of the NASA Sounding Rockets Contract. The Program has continued to introduce improvements into their operations and ground and flight systems. An overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets Program with special emphasis on the new support contract will be presented. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. Long duration balloon (LDB) is a prominent aspect of the program with two campaigns scheduled for this calendar year. Two flights are scheduled in the Northern Hemisphere from Fairbanks, Alaska, in June and two flights are scheduled from McMurdo, Antarctica, in the Southern Hemisphere in December. The comprehensive balloon research and development (R&D) effort has continued with advances being made across the

  12. Additional historical solid rocket motor burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, Carsten; Homeister, Maren; Oswald, Michael; Stabroth, Sebastian; Klinkrad, Heiner; Vörsmann, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The use of orbital solid rocket motors (SRM) is responsible for the release of a high number of slag and Al 2O 3 dust particles which contribute to the space debris environment. This contribution has been modeled for the ESA space debris model MASTER (Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference). The current model version, MASTER-2005, is based on the simulation of 1076 orbital SRM firings which mainly contributed to the long-term debris environment. SRM firings on very low earth orbits which produce only short living particles are not considered. A comparison of the modeled flux with impact data from returned surfaces shows that the shape and quantity of the modeled SRM dust distribution matches that of recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array measurements very well. However, the absolute flux level for dust is under-predicted for some of the analyzed Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) surfaces. This indicates that some past SRM firings are not included in the current event database. Thus it is necessary to investigate, if additional historical SRM burns, like the retro-burn of low orbiting re-entry capsules, may be responsible for these dust impacts. The most suitable candidates for these firings are the large number of SRM retro-burns of return capsules. This paper focuses on the SRM retro-burns of Russian photoreconnaissance satellites, which were used in high numbers during the time of the LDEF mission. It is discussed which types of satellites and motors may have been responsible for this historical contribution. Altogether, 870 additional SRM retro-burns have been identified. An important task is the identification of such missions to complete the current event data base. Different types of motors have been used to de-orbit both large satellites and small film return capsules. The results of simulation runs are presented.

  13. Telemaxus: A telescience oriented sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, R.; Fortezza, R.; Desiderio, G.; Capuano, G.; Titomanlio, D.

    Following the success of the Texus 23 Campaign (November 1989), during which the Teletexus experiment was conducted a more ambitious Telescience experiment was accomodated on the 1991 MAXUS 1 Payload. The fluidynamic experiment on the oscillatory Marangoni flow was performed on board the rocket (launched at Kiruna, Sweden) using a modified TEM-06/4 module. The experiment was fully controlled by the PI (Professor Monti) directly from the Telescience Control Room located at MARS Center (Naples, Italy). The experiment was also aimed to demonstrate the capabilities of Telescience Service that ESA offers to the European Microgravity User Community. Respect to other experiments already tested and assessed during previous Texus missions (14b, 23), the Telescience operation mode included new state-of-art technologies and subsystems to demonstrate capabilities, flexibility and usefulness of this operation concept mainly in the perspective of Columbus utilization. Unfortunately due to a failure of the rocket system, the microgravity condition was not reached during the flight and the fluidynamic results were missed. However, in spite of the tumbling attitude of the rocket, the telescience link was successfully tested and the video/data/audio communication was correctly established between MARS and Esrange. This paper illustrates the technological aspects and gives an overview of the systems/equipments integrated and realized for the experiment control. In the first part the H/W configurations for the experiment monitoring and control, identified by the research team are illustrated. The relevant items of the H/W configuration include: the Telescience Work Stations architecture, the link channels used for the selection, transmission and reception of video/data/commands and the subsystems manufactured to improve the system versatility. The second part deals with the communication link used for transmission between Sweden and Italy of experimental data, facility status, voice

  14. Physico-Chemical Research on the Sounding Rocket Maser 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockowandt, Christian; Kemi, Stig; Abrahamsson, Mattias; Florin, Gunnar

    MASER is a sounding rocket platform for short-duration microgravity experiments, providing the scientific community with an excellent microgravity tool. The MASER programme has been running by SSC from 1987 and has up to 2012 provided twelve successful flights for microgravity missions with 6-7 minutes of microgravity, the g-level is normally below 1x10-5 g. The MASER 13 is planned to be launched in spring 2015 from Esrange Space Center in Northern Sweden. The rocket will carry four ESA financed experiment modules. The MASER 13 vehicle will be propelled by the 2-stage solid fuel VSB-30 rocket motor, which provided the 390 kg payload with an apogee of 260 km and 6 and a half minutes of microgravity. Swedish Space Corporation carries out the MASER missions for ESA and the program is also available for other customers. The payload comprise four different experiment modules of which three could be defined as physic-chemical research; XRMON-SOL, CDIC-3, MEDI. It also comprises the Maser Service Module and the recovery system. The Service Module provided real-time 5 Mbps down-link of compressed experiment digital video data from the on-board cameras, as well as high-speed housekeeping telemetry data. XRMON-SOL In this experiment the influence of gravity on the formation of an equiaxed microstructure will be investigated. Special attention will be put on the aspect of nucleation, segregation and impingement. The experiment scope is to melt and solidify an AlCu-alloy sample in microgravity. The solidification will be performed in an isothermal environment. The solidification process will be monitored and recorded with X-ray image during the whole flight, images will also be down-linked to ground for real-time monitoring and possible interaction. CDIC-3 The goal is to study in migrogravity the spatio-temporal dynamics of a chemical front travelling in a thin solution layer open to the air and specifically the respective role of Marangoni and density-related hydrodynamic

  15. General view of a Solid Rocket Motor Forward Segment in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of a Solid Rocket Motor Forward Segment in the process of being offloaded from it's railcar inside the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly in the process of being mounted onto the Mobile Launch Platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly being transported from the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Inflatable device for excluding sea water from a rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, Michael J.

    1992-06-01

    An inflatable water exclusion device for protecting the rocket motor of a solid-propellant-powered missile, launched from below the surface of the sea by means of launching gas, from being damaged by a spout of water spurting up into the atmosphere. The device consists of a round base plate that attaches to an expellable baffle assembly located within the throat of the rocket motor nozzle, and an inflatable elastomer-coated cloth bag that is attached to the rim of the base plate. As the missile ascends toward the surface of the sea, launching gas that was originally contained within the voids of the rocket motor expands and streams out through the nozzle thereby causing the bag to inflate. After the missile has breached the surface of the sea the rocket motor ignites, thereby causing the baffle assembly and the inflatable water exclusion device attached thereto to be expelled from the nozzle and fall back into the sea.

  19. Filament-wound graphite/epoxy rocket motor case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, W. D.; Schmidt, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication procedures are described for a filament-wound rocket motor case, approximately 56 cm long x 71 cm diameter, utilizing high tensile strength graphite fibers. The process utilized Fiberite Hy-E-1330B prepreg tape which consists of Courtaulds HTS fibers in a temperature-sensitive epoxy matrix. This fabrication effort, with resultant design, material and process recommendations, substantiates the manufacturing feasibility of graphite/epoxy rocket motor cases in the 56 cm x 71 cm size range.

  20. Error-free command link for sounding rockets and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringstrand, Hans

    2003-08-01

    The Swedish Space Corporation has developed an error-free command uplink system for sounding rockets and satellites. The system architecture allows for safe command transmission without any time penalties during normal operation, and it recovers fast and wholly transparent from transmission errors without any user or operator interaction. The implementation is partly based on the CCSDS recommendations regarding satellite uplinks, but modified to better suit the PCM-based downlink systems, normally used for sounding rockets systems and small satellites. The system has proven extremely efficient and reliable during several small- and micro satellite projects such as ODIN, TeleFoton and Astrid-2. This paper presents the system architecture and shows the details for the implementations used in the Swedish scientific satellites ODIN and Astrid-2.

  1. Fertilization of frog eggs on a sounding rocket in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubbels, G. A.; Berendsen, W.; Narraway, J.

    During the TEXUS-17 flight (April/May 1988) eggs of a higher organism, the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, have for the first time been successfully fertilized under microgravity on a Sounding Rocket. This result also implies that Life Sciences Experiments of Short Duration can be carried out on Sounding Rockets. The latter can therefore function as additional carriers for such experiments. Histological sections of the experimental material demonstrated the penetration of sperm into eggs, while SEM analysis revealed the differentiation of characteristic egg surface structures. Our TEXUS-17 experiment convincingly shows that the modified automatic experiment container, originally designed for experiment BR 52NL on the D1-mission, now functions flawlessly. Eight containers were flown in an airtight, well-isolated box (TEM 06-15), and a similar set was activated on Earth, two hours later. The analysis of the biological material is in progress.

  2. Fertilization of frog eggs on a Sounding Rocket in space.

    PubMed

    Ubbels, G A; Berendsen, W; Narraway, J

    1989-01-01

    During the TEXUS-17 flight (April/May 1988) eggs of a higher organism, the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, have for the first time been successfully fertilized under microgravity on a Sounding Rocket. This result also implies that Life Sciences Experiments of Short Duration can be carried out on Sounding Rockets. The latter can therefore function as additional carriers for such experiments. Histological sections of the experimental material demonstrated the penetration of sperm into eggs, while SEM analysis revealed the differentiation of characteristic egg surface structures. Our TEXUS-17 experiment convincingly shows that the modified automatic experiment container, originally designed for experimental BR 52NL on the D1-mission, now functions flawlessly. Eight containers were flown in an airtight, well-isolated box (TEM 06-15), and a similar set was activated on Earth, two hours later. The analysis of the biological material is in progress.

  3. Measuring the Internal Environment of Solid Rocket Motors During Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisenberg, Brent; Smith, Doug; Speas, Kyle; Corliss, Adam

    2003-01-01

    A new instrumentation system has been developed to measure the internal environment of solid rocket test motors during motor ignition. The system leverages conventional, analog gages with custom designed, electronics modules to provide safe, accurate, high speed data acquisition capability. To date, the instrumentation system has been demonstrated in a laboratory environment and on subscale static fire test motors ranging in size from 5-inches to 24-inches in diameter. Ultimately, this system is intended to be installed on a full-scale Reusable Solid Rocket Motor. This paper explains the need for the data, the components and capabilities of the system, and the test results.

  4. Workshop on the Suborbital Science Sounding Rocket Program, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The unique characteristics of the sounding rocket program is described, with its importance to space science stressed, especially in providing UARS correlative measurements. The program provided opportunities to do innovative scientific studies in regions not other wise accessible; it was a testbed for developing new technologies; and its key attributes were flexibility, reliability, and economy. The proceedings of the workshop are presented in viewgraph form, including the objectives of the workshop and the workshop agenda.

  5. Probabilistic failure assessment with application to solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell L.; Davidson, Barry D.; Moore, Nicholas R.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative methodology is being developed for assessment of risk of failure of solid rocket motors. This probabilistic methodology employs best available engineering models and available information in a stochastic framework. The framework accounts for incomplete knowledge of governing parameters, intrinsic variability, and failure model specification error. Earlier case studies have been conducted on several failure modes of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Work in progress on application of this probabilistic approach to large solid rocket boosters such as the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor for the Space Shuttle is described. Failure due to debonding has been selected as the first case study for large solid rocket motors (SRMs) since it accounts for a significant number of historical SRM failures. Impact of incomplete knowledge of governing parameters and failure model specification errors is expected to be important.

  6. On the relative need for satellite remote soundings and rocket soundings of the upper atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A review of engineering and research data requirements for altitudes 30-100 km is made, indicating a variety of concrete data applications above 30 km (10 mb). The required data have in large measure been provided from meteorological rocket soundings, of which 18,000 have been taken, at considerable cost, since 1959. Remote vertical soundings based on satellite infrared radiation measurements have been obtained since 1969 with considerable success to an altitude of 25 km (30 mb). From developmental work in progress, it is expected that reliable temperature soundings may be obtained to 40-45 km. A discussion of the overall reliability and utility of the satellite data leads to several conclusions regarding the continuing need for rocket soundings.

  7. On the relative need for satellite remote soundings and rocket soundings of the upper atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A review of engineering and research data requirements for altitudes 30-100 km is made, indicating a variety of concrete data applications above 30 km (10 mb). The required data have in large measure been provided from meteorological rocket soundings, of which 18,000 have been taken, at considerable cost, since 1959. Remote vertical soundings based on satellite infrared radiation measurements have been obtained since 1969 with considerable success to an altitude of 25 km (30 mb). From developmental work in progress, it is expected that reliable temperature soundings may be obtained to 40-45 km. A discussion of the overall reliability and utility of the satellite data leads to several conclusions regarding the continuing need for rocket soundings.

  8. Design and qualification of an UHV system for operation on sounding rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, Jens Braxmaier, Claus; Seidel, Stephan Tobias; Becker, Dennis; Lachmann, Maike Diana; Scharringhausen, Marco; Rasel, Ernst Maria

    2016-05-15

    The sounding rocket mission MAIUS-1 has the objective to create the first Bose–Einstein condensate in space; therefore, its scientific payload is a complete cold atom experiment built to be launched on a VSB-30 sounding rocket. An essential part of the setup is an ultrahigh vacuum system needed in order to sufficiently suppress interactions of the cooled atoms with the residual background gas. Contrary to vacuum systems on missions aboard satellites or the international space station, the required vacuum environment has to be reached within 47 s after motor burn-out. This paper contains a detailed description of the MAIUS-1 vacuum system, as well as a description of its qualification process for the operation under vibrational loads of up to 8.1 g{sub RMS} (where RMS is root mean square). Even though a pressure rise dependent on the level of vibration was observed, the design presented herein is capable of regaining a pressure of below 5 × 10{sup −10} mbar in less than 40 s when tested at 5.4 g{sub RMS}. To the authors' best knowledge, it is the first UHV system qualified for operation on a sounding rocket.

  9. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) locomotion during a sounding rocket flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mark S.; Keller, Tony S.

    2008-05-01

    The locomotor activity of young Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) was studied during a Nike-Orion sounding rocket flight, which included a short-duration microgravity exposure. An infrared monitoring system was used to determine the activity level, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity of 240 (120 male, 120 female) fruit flies. Individual flies were placed in chambers that limit their motion to walking. Chambers were oriented both vertically and horizontally with respect to the rocket's longitudinal axis. Significant changes in Drosophila locomotion patterns were observed throughout the sounding rocket flight, including launch, microgravity exposure, payload re-entry, and after ocean impact. During the microgravity portion of the flight (3.8 min), large increases in all locomotion measurements for both sexes were observed, with some measurements doubling compared to pad (1 G) data. Initial effects of microgravity were probably delayed due to large accelerations from the payload despining immediately before entering microgravity. The results indicate that short-duration microgravity exposure has a large effect on locomotor activity for both males and females, at least for a short period of time. The locomotion increases may explain the increased male aging observed during long-duration exposure to microgravity. Studies focusing on long-duration microgravity exposure are needed to confirm these findings, and the relationship of increased aging and locomotion.

  10. The Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment (RAISE) Sounding Rocket Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Glenn T.; Hassler, Donald M.; Deforest, Craig; Slater, David D.; Thomas, Roger J.; Ayres, Thomas; Davis, Michael; de Pontieu, Bart; Diller, Jed; Graham, Roy; Michaelis, Harald; Schuele, Udo; Warren, Harry

    2016-03-01

    We present a summary of the solar observing Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment (RAISE) sounding rocket program including an overview of the design and calibration of the instrument, flight performance, and preliminary chromospheric results from the successful November 2014 launch of the RAISE instrument. The RAISE sounding rocket payload is the fastest scanning-slit solar ultraviolet imaging spectrograph flown to date. RAISE is designed to observe the dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere and corona on time scales as short as 100-200ms, with arcsecond spatial resolution and a velocity sensitivity of 1-2km/s. Two full spectral passbands over the same one-dimensional spatial field are recorded simultaneously with no scanning of the detectors or grating. The two different spectral bands (first-order 1205-1251Å and 1524-1569Å) are imaged onto two intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors whose focal planes are individually adjusted for optimized performance. RAISE reads out the full field of both detectors at 5-10Hz, recording up to 1800 complete spectra (per detector) in a single 6-min rocket flight. This opens up a new domain of high time resolution spectral imaging and spectroscopy. RAISE is designed to observe small-scale multithermal dynamics in Active Region (AR) and quiet Sun loops, identify the strength, spectrum and location of high frequency waves in the solar atmosphere, and determine the nature of energy release in the chromospheric network.

  11. The FOXSI sounding rocket: Latest analysis and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Krucker, Sam; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Ramsey, Brian; Han, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations are a linchpin for studying particle acceleration and hot thermal plasma emission in the solar corona. Current and past indirectly imaging instruments lack the sensitivity and dynamic range needed to observe faint HXR signatures, especially in the presences of brighter sources. These limitations are overcome by using HXR direct focusing optics coupled with semiconductor detectors. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment is a state of the art solar telescope that develops and applies these capabilities.The FOXSI sounding rocket has successfully flown twice, observing active regions, microflares, and areas of the quiet-Sun. Thanks to its far superior imaging dynamic range, FOXSI performs cleaner hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy than previous instruments that use indirect imaging methods like RHESSI.We present a description of the FOXSI rocket payload, paying attention to the optics and semiconductor detectors calibrations, as well as the upgrades made for the second flight. We also introduce some of the latest FOXSI data analysis, including imaging spectroscopy of microflares and active regions observed during the two flights, and the differential emission measure distribution of the nonflaring corona.

  12. Assessment of impact damage of composite rocket motor cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    This contract reviewed the available literature on mechanisms of low velocity impact damage in filament wound rocket motor cases, MDE methods to quantify damage, critical coupon level test methods, manufacturing and material process variables and empirical and analytical modeling off impact damage. The critical design properties for rocket motor cases are biaxial hoop and axial tensile strength. Low velocity impact damage is insidious because it can create serious nonvisible damage at very low impact velocities. In thick rocket motor cases the prevalent low velocity impact damage is fiber fracture and matrix cracking adjacent to the front face. In contrast, low velocity loading of thin wall cylinders induces flexure, depending on span length and the flexure induces delamination and tensile cracking on the back face wall opposed to impact occurs due to flexural stresses imposed by impact loading. Important NDE methods for rocket motor cases are non-contacting methods that allow inspection from one side. Among these are vibrothermography, and pulse-echo methods based on acoustic-ultrasonic methods. High resolution techniques such as x-ray computed tomography appear to have merit for accurate geometrical characterization of local damage to support development of analytical models of micromechanics. The challenge of coupon level testing is to reproduce the biaxial stress state that the full scale article experiences, and to determine how to scale the composite structure to model full sized behavior. Biaxial tensile testing has been performed by uniaxially tensile loading internally pressurized cylinders. This is experimentally difficult due to gripping problems and pressure containment. Much prior work focused on uniaxial tensile testing of model filament wound cylinders. Interpretation of the results of some studies is complicated by the fact that the fabrication process did not duplicate full scale manufacturing. It is difficult to scale results from testing subscale

  13. Assessment of impact damage of composite rocket motor cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1994-02-01

    This contract reviewed the available literature on mechanisms of low velocity impact damage in filament wound rocket motor cases, MDE methods to quantify damage, critical coupon level test methods, manufacturing and material process variables and empirical and analytical modeling off impact damage. The critical design properties for rocket motor cases are biaxial hoop and axial tensile strength. Low velocity impact damage is insidious because it can create serious nonvisible damage at very low impact velocities. In thick rocket motor cases the prevalent low velocity impact damage is fiber fracture and matrix cracking adjacent to the front face. In contrast, low velocity loading of thin wall cylinders induces flexure, depending on span length and the flexure induces delamination and tensile cracking on the back face wall opposed to impact occurs due to flexural stresses imposed by impact loading. Important NDE methods for rocket motor cases are non-contacting methods that allow inspection from one side. Among these are vibrothermography, and pulse-echo methods based on acoustic-ultrasonic methods. High resolution techniques such as x-ray computed tomography appear to have merit for accurate geometrical characterization of local damage to support development of analytical models of micromechanics. The challenge of coupon level testing is to reproduce the biaxial stress state that the full scale article experiences, and to determine how to scale the composite structure to model full sized behavior. Biaxial tensile testing has been performed by uniaxially tensile loading internally pressurized cylinders. This is experimentally difficult due to gripping problems and pressure containment. Much prior work focused on uniaxial tensile testing of model filament wound cylinders. Interpretation of the results of some studies is complicated by the fact that the fabrication process did not duplicate full scale manufacturing. It is difficult to scale results from testing subscale

  14. Past and Present Large Solid Rocket Motor Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, Robert R.; Owen, David B., II

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed to identify the current and historical trends in the capability of solid rocket motor testing in the United States. The study focused on test positions capable of testing solid rocket motors of at least 10,000 lbf thrust. Top-level information was collected for two distinct data points plus/minus a few years: 2000 (Y2K) and 2010 (Present). Data was combined from many sources, but primarily focused on data from the Chemical Propulsion Information Analysis Center s Rocket Propulsion Test Facilities Database, and heritage Chemical Propulsion Information Agency/M8 Solid Rocket Motor Static Test Facilities Manual. Data for the Rocket Propulsion Test Facilities Database and heritage M8 Solid Rocket Motor Static Test Facilities Manual is provided to the Chemical Propulsion Information Analysis Center directly from the test facilities. Information for each test cell for each time period was compiled and plotted to produce a graphical display of the changes for the nation, NASA, Department of Defense, and commercial organizations during the past ten years. Major groups of plots include test facility by geographic location, test cells by status/utilization, and test cells by maximum thrust capability. The results are discussed.

  15. Aerodynamic influences on atmospheric in situ measurements from sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbel, Jörg

    2001-06-01

    Sounding rockets are essential tools for studies of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. However, in situ measurements from rockets are potentially subject to a number of perturbations related to the gas flow around the vehicle. This paper reviews the aerodynamic principles behind these perturbations. With respect to both data analysis and experiment design, there is a substantial need for improved understanding of aerodynamic effects. Any such analysis is complicated by the different flow regimes experienced during a rocket flight through the rarefied environment of the mesosphere and thermosphere. Numerical studies are presented using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) approach, which is based on a tracing of individual molecules. Complementary experiments have been performed in a low-density wind tunnel. These experiments are crucial for the development of appropriate model parameterization. However, direct similarity between scaled wind tunnel results and arbitrary atmospheric flight conditions is usually difficult to achieve. Density, velocity, and temperature results are presented for different payload geometries and flow conditions. These illustrate a wide range of aerodynamic effects representative for rocket flights in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  16. Ultrasonic measurements of burning rates in full-size rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurabayashi, H.; Sato, A.; Yamashita, K.; Nakayama, H.; Hori, K.; Honda, M.; Hasegawa, K.

    2011-10-01

    A new ultrasonic sounding technique to measure the instantaneous propellant thickness in a solid rocket motor has been developed and was used successfully in the static firing tests with full-size motors. The technique applies a low-frequency ultrasonic wave (50 or 100 kHz) [1, 2]. Sets of transducers were installed in the motor case using magnets, with each set comprising a transmitter/receiver and receivers. Transducer installation required careful setup to maintain good acoustic coupling between each transducer and motor case and to withstand the harsh vibrations of the environment. Time histories were obtained for the propellant thickness at various locations during the burning tests. This paper presents in detail the ultrasonic sounding and installation techniques and the results obtained.

  17. Measurements of Particulates in Solid Propellant Rocket Motors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    gradients created during a firing, however, could be a problem. Finally, a torch was placed in the motor to study temperature effects. The nitrogen...techniques available for studying particulate behavior in solid propellant rocket motors is holography. For the exposed scene a hologram provides both...is underway to study the effects of addition of aluminum and other metallic particles on the magnitude of the performance losses in propellant motors

  18. A new sounding rocket payload for solar plasma studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Marilyn E.; Brown, William A.; Appert, Kevin L.

    1989-01-01

    A sounding rocket payload developed for studies of high-temperature plasmas associated with solar active regions and flares is described. The payload instruments will record both spectra and images in the UV, EUV, and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The instruments, including the Dual Range Spectrograph, the Flat Field Soft X-ray Spectrograph, the Normal Incidence Soft X-ray Imager, the UV Filtergraph, and the H-alpha Imaging system, are described. Attention is also given to the new structural system of the payload, based on a large optical table suspended within the payload cavity, which will support the optical elements in their correct positions and orientations and will maintain these alignments throughout the rocket launch environment.

  19. Sounding rocket observations of particle data in the cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mella, M.; Lynch, K.; Kintner, P.; Lundberg, E.; Lessard, M.

    2008-12-01

    The winter 2008 Scifer-2 sounding rocket campaign studied ionospheric outflow in the cusp region. The rocket was launched on January 18, 2008 at 0730 UT from the Andoya Rocket Range in Norway, reaching an apogee of 1468 km over the Eiscat Svalbard Radar. The Scifer 2 campaign was designed as a joint case study, involving both ground and in situ observations, of the low altitude signatures of ionospheric outflow. In situ observations show a thermal ion population with temperatures around 0.6 - 0.8 eV, while ESR observes the temperature at lower altitudes to be ~0.2 eV. This difference is a result of calculating the average over all in situ look directions, which would artificially raise the temperature. In addition to the thermal ion population, there are several bursts of a hotter population of ions with temperatures ranging between 12 -20 eV, along with concurrent elevated wave activity. These hotter ions appear to have been accelerated to energies of several hundred eV, and show interesting velocity dispersion signatures with repeated bands at increasing energies. These two populations are not observed simultaneously, but rather are localized in different regions bordering one another. Additionally, the pitch angle distributions for each of these populations are different. Similar signatures have been seen by other nightside low altitude sounding rockets where upgoing low energy ions are seen adjacent to and coincident with higher energy ion precipitation. Neither observed ion population has a clear local relationship to the variations in the ambient electron temperature, which is a tracer for soft precipitation. We will continue to explore these populations and their boundaries as a case study of structuring in particle signatures in the cusp.

  20. Analyses of Noise from Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Firings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Kent L.; Kenny, R. Jeremy; Jerome, Trevor W.; Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Hobbs, Christopher M.; James, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Space Launch Vehicle (SLS) program has chosen the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor V (RSRMV) as the booster system for initial flights. Lift off acoustics continue to be a consideration in overall vehicle vibroacoustic evaluations and launch pad modifications. Work started with the Ares program to understand solid rocket noise mechanisms is continuing through SLS program in conjunction with BYU/Blue Ridge Research Consulting.

  1. General view of the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated with the Aft Skirt Assembly and External Tank Attach Ring in the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center and awaiting transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building where it will be mounted onto the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. General view of a Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of a Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center, being prepared to be mated with the Aft Skirt. In this view you can see the attach brackets where the Thrust Vector Control System actuators connect to the nozzle which can swivel the nozzle up to 3.5 degrees to redirect the thrust to steer and maintain the Shuttle's programmed trajectory. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Status of the Micro-X Sounding Rocket Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, David; Adams, Joseph D.; Baker, Bob; Bandler, Simon; Danowski, Meredith E.; Doriese, Randy; Eckart, Megan; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Heine, Sarah N.; Hilton, Gene; Hubbard, Antonia; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline; Manzagol, Renée; McCammon, Dan; Okajima, Takashi; Porter, Frederick Scott; Reintsema, Carl; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Smith, Stephen J.; Wikus, Patrick; Micro-X Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Micro-X is a sounding rocket borne X-ray telescope that uses Transition Edge Sensor microcalorimeters to provide superior energy resolution. Micro-X has a variety of applications with plans to observe the Puppis A supernova remnant during its first flight, as well as future observations of the Milky Way to search for X-ray signals from decaying dark matter. Commissioning and functionality testing are complete and this project is now in the calibration and performance optimization phase. We present an overview of the instrument and an update on ongoing progress in preparation for the upcoming launch.

  4. Status of the Micro-X Sounding Rocket Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, David; Micro-X Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Micro-X is a sounding rocket borne X-ray telescope that uses Transition Edge Sensor microcalorimeters to provide superior energy resolution. Micro-X has a variety of applications with plans to observe the Puppis A supernova remnant during its first flight, as well as future observations of the Milky Way to search for X-ray signals from decaying dark matter. Commissioning and functionality testing are complete and this project is now in the calibration and performance optimization phase. We present an overview of the instrument and an update on ongoing progress in preparation for the upcoming launch. NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  5. An Improved Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives Computer Program for Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J. S.; Fan, D. N.; Obosu, C. B.; Vira, N. R.; Yang, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines a Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives (TAD) computer program for computing the aerodynamics of sounding rockets. TAD outputs include normal force, pitching moment and rolling moment coefficient derivatives as well as center-of-pressure locations as a function of the flight Mach number. TAD is applicable to slender finned axisymmetric vehicles at small angles of attack in subsonic and supersonic flows. TAD improvement efforts include extending Mach number regions of applicability, improving accuracy, and replacement of some numerical integration algorithms with closed-form integrations. Key equations used in TAD are summarized and typical TAD outputs are illustrated for a second-stage Tomahawk configuration.

  6. The role of wind tunnels in predicting sounding rocket aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of sounding rockets, in some cases, may be adequately determined by various estimating procedures, however, there are cases where these procedures fail and wind tunnel studies become necessary. The present paper deals with configurations of the latter type, for which the problems of concern include mismatched diameters between stages, mutual fin interference effects, fin alignment and orientation, body deflections between stages, boundary layer growth, and stability changes that occur as stages are dropped. Some characteristics related to separated flow, interference flow fields, and Reynolds number are examined.

  7. Flutter estimation of S-520 sounding rocket fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Masahisa; Onoda, Junjiro; Onojima, Noboru; Nakada, Atsushi; Isogai, Koji

    The flutter margin of the fins, which has been improved for S-520 sounding rocket of ISAS, is estimated by wind tunnel tests and numerical flutter analysis. Both methods require stiffness distribution of the fin. In this paper, a new approach of fitting of FEM model to the measured matrix of influence coefficient is applied in order to eliminate the errors in the measured stiffness data, which may otherwise make the mathematical model nonpositive definite. The results of the wind tunnel tests and numerical flutter analysis using the above fitted FEM model stiffness distribution are compared and discussed.

  8. Weak Equivalence Principle Test on a Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. D.; Patla, B. R.; Popescu, E. M.; Rocco, E.; Thapa, R.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Lorenzini, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    SR-POEM, our principle of equivalence measurement on a sounding rocket, will compare the free fall rate of two substances yielding an uncertainty of 10-16 in the estimate of η. During the past two years, the design concept has matured and we have been working on the required technology, including a laser gauge that is self aligning and able to reach 0.1 {pm/}√ {{Hz}} for periods up to 40 s. We describe the status and plans for this project.

  9. The Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation Sounding Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Kobayashi, K.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper will describe the objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the unique optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. A sounding rocket payload has been developed to test the feasibility of magnetic field measurements in the Sun's transition region. The optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic sensitive lines formed in the transition region (CIV at 1550 A and MgII at 2800 A). This paper will concentrate on the polarization properties SUMI's toroidal varied-line-space (TVLS) gratings and its system level testing as we prepare to launch in the Summer of 2008.

  10. Failure analysis of solid rocket apogee motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis followed five selected motors through initial design, development, test, qualification, manufacture, and final flight reports. An audit was conducted at the manufacturing plants to complement the literature search with firsthand observations of the current philosophies and practices that affect reliability of the motors. A second literature search emphasized acquisition of spacecraft and satellite data bearing on solid motor reliability. It was concluded that present practices at the plants yield highly reliable flight hardware. Reliability can be further improved by new developments of aft-end bonding and initiator/igniter nondestructive test methods, a safe/arm device, and an insulation formulation. Minimum diagnostic instrumentation is recommended for all motor flights. Surplus motors should be used in margin testing. Criteria should be established for pressure and zone curing. The motor contractor should be represented at launch. New design analyses should be made of stretched motors and spacecraft/motor pairs.

  11. Sounding Rockets within Swedish National Balloon and Rocket Programme- Providing Access to Space from Esrange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolander, K.; Karlsson, T.; Lockowandt, C.

    2015-09-01

    Initiated in 2012 by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), a new programme dedicated for Swedish scientists to gain access to space using balloons and sounding rockets was started. This programme promotes the possibility to ensure continuity in both the science and the technology used. The sounding rocket part of this national programme started with three possible missions. SPIDER (Small Payloads for Investigation of Disturbances in Electrojet by Rockets) from the Space and Plasma physics department of KTH, 0-STATES (Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky) from the Department of Meteorology Stockholm University (MISU) and LEEWAVES (Local Excitation and Effects of Waves on Atmospheric VErtical Structure) that is collaboration between KTH and MISU. These three missions were planned for launches in 2015 and 2016. SSc has been contracted on a launch ticket basis to provide the launch and service to the scientific instrumentation. This paper presents the SPIDER, 0-STATES and LEEWAVES missions focussing on a mission related technical solutions perspective.

  12. Welded Titanium Case for Space-Probe Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brothers, A. J.; Boundy, R. A.; Martens, H. E.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1959-01-01

    The high strength-to-weight ratio of titanium alloys suggests their use for solid-propellant rocket-motor cases for high-performance orbiting or space-probe vehicles. The paper describes the fabrication of a 6-in.-diam., 0.025-in.-wall rocket-motor from the 6A1-4V titanium alloy. The rocket-motor case, used in the fourth stage of a successful JPL-NASA lunar-probe flight, was constructed using a design previously proven satisfactory for Type 410 stainless steel. The nature and scope of the problems peculiar to the use of the titanium alloy, which effected an average weight saving of 34%, are described.

  13. Musical Sounds, Motor Resonance, and Detectable Agency

    PubMed Central

    LAUNAY, JACQUES

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the paradox that while human music making evolved and spread in an environment where it could only occur in groups, it is now often apparently an enjoyable asocial phenomenon. Here I argue that music is, by definition, sound that we believe has been in some way organized by a human agent, meaning that listening to any musical sounds can be a social experience. There are a number of distinct mechanisms by which we might associate musical sound with agency. While some of these mechanisms involve learning motor associations with that sound, it is also possible to have a more direct relationship from musical sound to agency, and the relative importance of these potentially independent mechanisms should be further explored. Overall, I conclude that the apparent paradox of solipsistic musical engagement is in fact unproblematic, because the way that we perceive and experience musical sounds is inherently social. PMID:27122999

  14. Miniature Rocket Motor for Aircraft Stall/Spin Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    Design accommodates different thrust levels and burn times with minimum weight. Different thrust levels achieved by substituting other propellants of different diameter and burn-rate characteristics. Different burn times achieved by simply changing length of grain/tube assembly. Grain bond material also acts as insulator for fiberglass tube. Rocket motor attached to aircraft model and ignited from radio-controlled 4.8-volt power source. Device provides more than twice energy available in previous designs at only 60 percent of weight. Rocket motor used to identify energy requirements for aircraft stall/spin recovery positive propulsion system.

  15. Electromechanical actuator (AMA) rocket motor controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkow, Zygmunt

    An Internal Research and Design effort of Honeywell Space Systems Group to develop and test electromechanical actuator (EMA) systems for use in first and second stage thrust vector control of rocket engines is presented. An overview of the test program is included.

  16. Combustion Stability Assessments of the Black Brant Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The Black Brant variation of the Standard Brant developed in the 1960's has been a workhorse motor of the NASA Sounding Rocket Project Office (SRPO) since the 1970's. In March 2012, the Black Brant Mk1 used on mission 36.277 experienced combustion instability during a flight at White Sands Missile Range, the third event in the last four years, the first occurring in November, 2009, the second in April 2010. After the 2010 event the program has been increasing the motor's throat diameter post-delivery with the goal of lowering the chamber pressure and increasing the margin against combustion instability. During the most recent combustion instability event, the vibrations exceeded the qualification levels for the Flight Termination System. The present study utilizes data generated from T-burner testing of multiple Black Brant propellants at the Naval Air Warfare Center at China Lake, to improve the combustion stability predictions for the Black Brant Mk1 and to generate new predictions for the Mk2. Three unique one dimensional (1-D) stability models were generated, representing distinct Black Brant flights, two of which experienced instabilities. The individual models allowed for comparison of stability characteristics between various nozzle configurations. A long standing "rule of thumb" states that increased stability margin is gained by increasing the throat diameter. In contradiction to this experience based rule, the analysis shows that little or no margin is gained from a larger throat diameter. The present analysis demonstrates competing effects resulting from an increased throat diameter accompanying a large response function. As is expected, more acoustic energy was expelled through the nozzle, but conversely more acoustic energy was generated due to larger gas velocities near the propellant surfaces.

  17. Multiple-wavelength transmission measurements in rocket motor plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hong-On

    1991-09-01

    Multiple-wavelength light transmission measurements were used to measure the mean particle size (d(sub 32)), index of refraction (m), and standard deviation of the small particles in the edge of the plume of a small solid propellant rocket motor. The results have shown that the multiple-wavelength light transmission measurement technique can be used to obtain these variables. The technique was shown to be more sensitive to changes in d(sub 32) and standard deviation (sigma) than to m. A GAP/AP/4.7 percent aluminum propellant burned at 25 atm produced particles with d32 = 0.150 +/- 0.006 microns, standard deviation = 1.50 +/- 0.04 and m = 1.63 +/- 0.13. The good correlation of the data indicated that only submicron particles were present in the edge of the plume. In today's budget conscious industry, the solid propellant rocket motor is an ideal propulsion system due to its low cost and simplicity. The major obstacle for solid rocket motors, however, is their limited specific impulse compared to airbreathing motors. One way to help overcome this limitation is to utilize metal fuel additives. Solid propellant rocket motors can achieve high specific impulse with metal fuel additives such as aluminum. Aluminum propellants also increase propellant densities and suppress transverse modes of combustion oscillations by damping the oscillations with the aluminum agglomerates in the combustion chamber.

  18. Near noise field characteristics of Nike rocket motors for application to space vehicle payload acoustic qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Bruton, D.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a series of noise measurements that were made under controlled conditions during the static firing of two Nike solid propellant rocket motors are presented. The usefulness of these motors as sources for general spacecraft noise testing was assessed, and the noise expected in the cargo bay of the orbiter was reproduced. Brief descriptions of the Nike motor, the general procedures utilized for the noise tests, and representative noise data including overall sound pressure levels, one third octave band spectra, and octave band spectra were reviewed. Data are presented on two motors of different ages in order to show the similarity between noise measurements made on motors having different loading dates. The measured noise from these tests is then compared to that estimated for the space shuttle orbiter cargo bay.

  19. Scientific Experiences Using Argentinean Sounding Rockets in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Peña, Miguel

    2000-07-01

    Argentina in the sixties and seventies, had experience for developing and for using sounding rockets and payloads to perform scientific space experiments. Besides they have several bases in Antarctica with adequate premises and installations, also duly equipped aircrafts and trained crews to flight to the white continent. In February 1965, scientists and technical people from the "Instituto de Investigacion Aeronáutica y Espacial" (I.I.A.E.) with the cooperation of the Air Force and the Tucuman University, conducted the "Matienzo Operation" to measure X radiation and temperature in the upper atmosphere, using the Gamma Centauro rocket and also using big balloons. The people involved in the experience, the launcher, other material and equipment flew from the south tip of Argentina to the Matienzo base in Antarctica, in a C-47 aircraft equipped with skies an additional jet engine Marbore 2-C. Other experience was performed in 1975 in the "Marambio" Antartic Base, using the two stages solid propellent sounding rocket Castor, developed in Argentina. The payload was developed in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute of Germany. It consist of a special mixture including a shape charge to form a ionized cloud producing a jet of electrons travelling from Marambio base to the conjugate point in the Northern hemisphere. The cloud was observed by several ground stations in Argentina and also by a NASA aircraft with TV cameras, flying at East of New York. The objective of this experience was to study the electric and magnetic fields in altitude, the neutral points, the temperature and electrons profile. The objectives of both experiments were accomplished satisfactorily.

  20. Expendable solid rocket motor upper stages for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.; Jones, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A family of expendable solid rocket motor upper stages has been conceptually defined to provide the payloads for the Space Shuttle with performance capability beyond the low earth operational range of the Shuttle Orbiter. In this concept-feasibility assessment, three new solid rocket motors of fixed impulse are defined for use with payloads requiring levels of higher energy. The conceptual design of these motors is constrained to limit thrusting loads into the payloads and to conserve payload bay length. These motors are combined in various vehicle configurations with stage components derived from other programs for the performance of a broad range of upper-stage missions from spin-stabilized, single-stage transfers to three-axis stabilized, multistage insertions. Estimated payload delivery performance and combined payload mission loading configurations are provided for the upper-stage configurations.

  1. Expendable solid rocket motor upper stages for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.; Jones, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A family of expendable solid rocket motor upper stages has been conceptually defined to provide the payloads for the Space Shuttle with performance capability beyond the low earth operational range of the Shuttle Orbiter. In this concept-feasibility assessment, three new solid rocket motors of fixed impulse are defined for use with payloads requiring levels of higher energy. The conceptual design of these motors is constrained to limit thrusting loads into the payloads and to conserve payload bay length. These motors are combined in various vehicle configurations with stage components derived from other programs for the performance of a broad range of upper-stage missions from spin-stabilized, single-stage transfers to three-axis stabilized, multistage insertions. Estimated payload delivery performance and combined payload mission loading configurations are provided for the upper-stage configurations.

  2. Rocket motors incorporating basalt fiber and nanoclay compositions and methods of insulating a rocket motor with the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber, basalt fibers, and nanoclay is disclosed. Further disclosed is an insulation composition that comprises polybenzimidazole fibers, basalt fibers, and nanoclay. The basalt fibers may be present in the insulation compositions in a range of from approximately 1% by weight to approximately 6% by weight of the total weight of the insulation composition. The nanoclay may be present in the insulation compositions in a range of from approximately 5% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of the total weight of the insulation composition. Rocket motors including the insulation compositions and methods of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  3. Production of Nitrous Oxide in a Rocket Motor Exhaust.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Standard Atmosphere, 1962. NASA , USAF and United States Weather Bureau, 1962. 2 Jensen, D.E. Prediction of Rocket Exhaust Flame Properties. Wilson, A.S...are made of concentrations of N20 produced within the exhaust of a double-base propellant rocet motor. Typical concentrations produced are predicted to

  4. Post-impact behavior of composite solid rocket motor cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highsmith, Alton L.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, composite materials have seen increasing use in advanced structural applications because of the significant weight savings they offer when compared to more traditional engineering materials. The higher cost of composites must be offset by the increased performance that results from reduced structural weight if these new materials are to be used effectively. At present, there is considerable interest in fabricating solid rocket motor cases out of composite materials, and capitalizing on the reduced structural weight to increase rocket performance. However, one of the difficulties that arises when composite materials are used is that composites can develop significant amounts of internal damage during low velocity impacts. Such low velocity impacts may be encountered in routine handling of a structural component like a rocket motor case. The ability to assess the reduction in structural integrity of composite motor cases that experience accidental impacts is essential if composite rocket motor cases are to be certified for manned flight. The study described herein was an initial investigation of damage development and reduction of tensile strength in an idealized composite subjected to low velocity impacts.

  5. Ice nuclei measurements from solid rocket motor effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E., II

    1980-01-01

    The ice crystal forming nuclei (IN) measured in solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products is discussed in relation to space shuttle exhaust. Preliminary results from laboratory investigations and flight preparations for March 1978 Titan launch are discussed. The work necessary to provide adequate measurements of IN and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the stabilized ground clouds from SRM's is studied.

  6. The Skylark sounding rocket program and future launcher developments by British Aerospace (Space Systems) Ltd.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. A.

    1989-06-01

    The past history of the Skylark sounding rocket, is reported. A background to the rationalization of the variations of rocket now available, is provided. The last two years launch program, with a summary of future scheduled programs, is listed. The future interests of British Aerospace in rocket launchers, in particular LittLEO (the small launcher for payloads into low earth orbit), are described.

  7. Launch summary for 1978 - 1982. [sounding rockets, space probes, and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hills, H. K.

    1984-01-01

    Data pertinent to the launching of space probes, soundings rockets, and satellites presented in tables include launch date, time, and site; agency rocket identification; sponsoring country or countries; instruments carried for experiments; the peak altitude achieved by the rockets; and the apoapsis and periapsis for satellites. The experimenter or institution involved in the launching is also cited.

  8. Summary of the 1957-1982 UK scientific research sounding rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delury, J. T.

    1983-06-01

    The Skylark, Petrel, Fulmar and Skua sounding rockets are described and over 750 flights using these rockets are summarized. Astrophysical and solar-terrestrial physics phenomena; the magnetosphere; space plasmas; and neutral winds were studied. Rockets were also used for X-ray astronomy.

  9. Development of Thermal Barriers for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed using conventional 0-ring seals. The 5500+F combustion gases are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of insulation. Special joint-fill compounds are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flowpath to the seals. On a number of occasions. NASA has observed in several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints hot gas penetration through defects in the joint- fill compound. The current nozzle-to-case joint design incorporates primary, secondary and wiper (inner-most) 0-rings and polysulfide joint-fill compound. In the current design, 1 out of 7 motors experience hot gas to the wiper 0-ring. Though the condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas to the wiper 0-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. NASA and solid rocket motor manufacturer Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and a thermal barrier, This paper presents burn-resistance, temperature drop, flow and resiliency test results for several types of NASA braided carbon-fiber thermal barriers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the thermal barriers when exposed to the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Thermal barriers braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over 6 minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Tests were performed on two thermal barrier braid architectures, denoted Carbon-3 and Carbon-6, to measure the temperature drop across and along the barrier in a compressed state when subjected to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch. Carbon-3 and Carbon-6 thermal barriers were excellent insulators causing temperature drops through their diameter of up to a 2800 and 2560 F. respectively. Gas temperature 1/4" downstream of the thermal barrier were within the

  10. Space Shuttle solid rocket motor exposure monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    During the processing of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), segments at the Kennedy Space Center, an odor was detected around the solid propellant. An Industrial Hygiene survey was conducted to determine the chemical identity of the SRB offgassing constituents. Air samples were collected inside a forward SRB segment and analyzed to determine chemical composition. Specific chemical analysis for suspected offgassing constituents of the propellant indicated ammonia to be present. A gas chromatograph mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of the air samples detected numerous high molecular weight hydrocarbons.

  11. Sounding Rockets as a Real Flight Platform for Aerothermodynamic Cfd Validation of Hypersonic Flight Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamminger, A.; Turner, J.; Hörschgen, M.; Jung, W.

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes the possibilities of sounding rockets to provide a platform for flight experiments in hypersonic conditions as a supplement to wind tunnel tests. Real flight data from measurement durations longer than 30 seconds can be compared with predictions from CFD calculations. This paper will regard projects flown on sounding rockets, but mainly describe the current efforts at Mobile Rocket Base, DLR on the SHarp Edge Flight EXperiment SHEFEX.

  12. Solid rocket motor case insulation bond nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas K.

    1990-01-01

    An effective insulator is needed to isolate the motor case from the hot combustion gases in such large solid rocket motors (SRMs) as those of the Space Shuttle, in order to preserve motor case integrity. An account is presently given of the ultrasonic NDE techniques employed to characterize the Space Shuttle's redesigned SRM. It is noted that current inspection procedures are sensitive to conditions that could result in anomalous ultrasonic indications; these conditions encompass (1) inner-outer surface nonparallelism, (2) sensor-surface nonparallelism, (3) contact pressure variation, (4) transducer coupling shoe wear, and (5) surface waviness. Both short-term and long-term NDE procedure recommendations are made.

  13. Prediction of finite pressure oscillations in stable rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hessler, R. O.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is outlined for predicting the amplitude of forced vibrations in the acoustic cavity of a solid rocket motor. The equation for forced vibration of the motor cavity acoustic system is written by parallel with the acoustic mechanical analogy. Acoustic and aeroacoustic theory are used to predict the frequency and intensity of vortex systems or turbulence created by passage of the mean flow over geometric discontinuities in the motor port. Approximate methods are presented for coupling the acoustic field due to the flow noise with the chamber acoustics and for summing the effect upon the multiple acoustic modes.

  14. Star 48 solid rocket motor nozzle analyses and instrumented firings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The analyses and testing performed by NASA in support of an expanded and improved nozzle design data base for use by the U.S. solid rocket motor industry is presented. A production nozzle with a history of one ground failure and two flight failures was selected for analyses and testing. The stress analysis was performed with the Champion computer code developed by the U.S. Navy. Several improvements were made to the code. Strain predictions were made and compared to test data. Two short duration motor firings were conducted with highly instrumented nozzles. The first nozzle had 58 thermocouples, 66 strain gages, and 8 bondline pressure measurements. The second nozzle had 59 thermocouples, 68 strain measurements, and 8 bondline pressure measurements. Most of this instrumentation was on the nonmetallic parts, and provided significantly more thermal and strain data on the nonmetallic components of a nozzle than has been accumulated in a solid rocket motor test to date.

  15. Solar X-ray Astronomy Sounding Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, J. Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Several broad objectives were pursued by the development and flight of the High Resolution Soft X-Ray Imaging Sounding Rocket Payload, followed by the analysis of the resulting data and by comparison with both ground based and space based observations from other investigators. The scientific objectives were: to study the thermal equilibrium of active region loop systems by analyzing the X-ray observations to determine electron temperatures, densities, and pressures; by recording the changes in the large scale coronal structures from the maximum and descending phases of Cycle 21 to the ascending phase of Cycle 22; and to extend the study of small scale coronal structures through the minimum of Cycle 21 with new emphasis on correlative observations.

  16. Sounding rocket flight report, MUMP 9 and MUMP 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grassl, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the launching of two-Marshall-University of Michigan Probes (MUMP 9 and MUMP 10), Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket payloads, are summarized. The MUMP is similar to the thermosphere probe, an ejectable instrument package for studying the variability of the earth's atmospheric parameters. The MUMP 9 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, a molecular fluorescence densitometer, a mini-tilty filter, and a lunar position sensor. This complement of instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 143 to 297 km over Wallops Island, Virginia, during January 1971. The MUMP 10 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, an electron temperature probe, a cryogenic densitometer, and a solar position sensor. These instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature and the charged particle density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 145 to 290 km over Wallops Island during the afternoon preceding the MUMP 9 launch.

  17. Tether dynamics investigations for the Canadian OEDIPUS sounding rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, G.; Modi, V. J.; Han, R. P. S.; Misra, A. K.; Vigneron, F. R.; Berry, T. G.

    1992-08-01

    Results of an investigation of the postflight dynamics of the first flight of the Canadian Space Agency's OEDIPUS-A sounding rocket system launched in January 1989 are presented. The tether interaction with the subpayload was found to be the likely cause of the observed dynamic behavior. Based on these results and on the fact that tethered space systems of this configuration have not been previously studied, a comprehensive tether dynamics experiment has been included in the second OEDIPUS mission, scheduled for the winter of 1994. The various elements of this experiment, which include detailed analytical investigations, ground testing, development of instruments to obtain flight dynamics data, and postflight analyses, are discussed. The primary objective of this experiment is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of a momentum-stabilized, tethered, two-body system with flexible end bodies which will be useful in the development of future tethered space systems.

  18. Sounding Rocket Instrument Development at UAHuntsville/NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Savage, Sabrina; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Kuzin, Sergei; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig; DePontieu, Bart; Title, Alan; Podgorski, William; Kano, Ryouhei; Narukage, Noriyuki; Trujillo-Bueno, Javier

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of solar sounding rocket instruments developed jointly by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) is an EUV (19.3 nm) imaging telescope which was flown successfully in July 2012. The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a Lyman Alpha (121.6 nm) spectropolarimeter developed jointly with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and scheduled for launch in 2015. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrograph is a soft X-ray (0.5-1.2 keV) stigmatic spectrograph designed to achieve 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along the slit.

  19. CANSAT: Design of a Small Autonomous Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Joshua; Duda, Michael; Garnand-Royo, Jeff; Jones, Alexa; Pickering, Todd; Tutko, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    CanSat is an international student design-build-launch competition organized by the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The competition is also sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), AGI, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Praxis Incorporated, and SolidWorks. Specifically, the 2009 Virginia Tech CanSat Team is funded by BAE Systems, Incorporated of Manassas, Virginia. The objective of the 2009 CanSat competition is to complete remote sensing missions by designing a small autonomous sounding rocket payload. The payload designed will follow and perform to a specific set of mission requirements for the 2009 competition. The competition encompasses a complete life-cycle of one year which includes all phases of design, integration, testing, reviews, and launch.

  20. First results from the OGRESS sounding rocket payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, T.; Schultz, T.; McCoy, J.; Miles, D.; Tutt, J.; McEntaffer, R.

    2015-09-01

    We present the first results from the Off-plane Grating Rocket for Extended Source Spectroscopy (OGRESS) sounding rocket payload based at the University of Iowa. OGRESS is designed to perform moderate resolution (R~10- 40) spectroscopy of diffuse celestial x-ray sources between 0.3 - 1.2 keV. A wire grid focuser constrains light from diffuse sources into a converging beam that feeds an array of off-plane diffraction gratings. The spectrum is focused onto Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. OGRESS launched on the morning of May 2, 2015 and collected data for ~5 minutes before returning via parachute. OGRESS observed the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant with the goal of obtaining the most accurate physical diagnostics thus far recorded. During the flight, OGRESS had an unexpectedly high count rate which manifested as a highly uniform signal across the active area of the detector, swamping the expected spectrum from Cygnus. Efforts are still in progress to identify the source of this uniform signal and to discover if a usable spectrum can be extracted from the raw flight data.

  1. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) sounding-rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidotti, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    An overall introduction to the NASA sounding rocket program as managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. The various sounding rockets, auxiliary systems (telemetry, guidance, etc.), launch sites, and services which NASA can provide are briefly described.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow in Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attili, A.; Favini, B.; Di Giacinto, M.; Serraglia, F.

    2009-01-01

    In the paper a general mathematical description of the flow in the internal chamber of solid rocket motors is presented. The formulation adopted take into account the multi-species and multiphase, reactive, multidimensional characteristics of the flow. The grain combustion is described by a pressure dependent law; aluminum droplet are modelled by a Lagrangian approach, coupled with the Eulerian formulation adopted for the gas phase. The mathematical model has been implemented in a simulation code and several simulations have been performed; in particular in the paper the re- sults for two geometries are described: a simple cylindrical port-area rocket and the Zefiro 9 SRM.

  3. An example of successful international cooperation in rocket motor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Russell A.; Berdoyes, Michel

    2002-07-01

    The history of over 25 years of cooperation between Pratt & Whitney, San Jose, CA, USA and Snecma Moteurs, Le Haillan, France in solid rocket motor and, in one case, liquid rocket engine technology is presented. Cooperative efforts resulted in achievements that likely would not have been realized individually. The combination of resources and technologies resulted in synergistic benefits and advancement of the state of the art in rocket motors and components. Discussions begun between the two companies in the early 1970's led to the first cooperative project, demonstration of an advanced apogee motor nozzle, during the mid 1970's. Shortly thereafter advanced carboncarbon (CC) throat materials from Snecma were comparatively tested with other materials in a P&W program funded by the USAF. Use of Snecma throat materials in CSD Tomahawk boosters followed. Advanced space motors were jointly demonstrated in company-funded joint programs in the late 1970's and early 1980's: an advanced space motor with an extendible exit cone and an all-composite advanced space motor that included a composite chamber polar adapter. Eight integral-throat entrances (ITEs) of 4D and 6D construction were tested by P&W for Snecma in 1982. Other joint programs in the 1980's included test firing of a "membrane" CC exit cone, and integral throat and exit cone (ITEC) nozzle incorporating NOVOLTEX® SEPCARB® material. A variation of this same material was demonstrated as a chamber aft polar boss in motor firings that included demonstration of composite material hot gas valve thrust vector control (TVC). In the 1990's a supersonic splitline flexseal nozzle was successfully demonstrated by the two companies as part of a US Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) program effort. Also in the mid-1990s the NOVOLTEX® SEPCARB® material, so successful in solid rocket motor application, was successfully applied to a liquid engine nozzle extension. The first cooperative

  4. Determination of failure limits for sterilizable solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, W. L.; Mastrolia, E. J.; Mcconnell, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A structural evaluation to establish probable failure limits and a series of environmental tests involving temperature cycling, sustained acceleration, and vibration were conducted on an 18-inch diameter solid rocket motor. Despite the fact that thermal, acceleration and vibration loads representing a severe overtest of conventional environmental requirements were imposed on the sterilizable motor, no structural failure of the grain or flexible support system was detected. The following significant conclusions are considered justified. It is concluded that: (1) the flexible grain retention system, which permitted heat sterilization at 275 F on the test motor, can readily be adopted to meet the environmental requirements of an operational motor design, and (2) if further substantiation of structural integrity is desired, the motor used is considered acceptable for static firing.

  5. Development of Thermal Barriers For Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Joints in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors are sealed by O-rings to contain combustion gases inside the rocket that reach pressures of up to 900 psi and temperatures of up to 5500 F. To provide protection for the O-rings, the motors are insulated with either phenolic or rubber insulation. Gaps in the joints leading up to the O-rings are filled with polysulfide joint-fill compounds as an additional level of protection. The current RSRM nozzle-to-case joint design incorporating primary, secondary, and wiper O-rings experiences gas paths through the joint-fill compound to the innermost wiper O-ring in about one out of every seven motors. Although this does not pose a safety hazard to the motor, it is an undesirable condition that NASA and rocket manufacturer Thiokol want to eliminate. Each nozzle-to-case joint gas path results in extensive reviews and evaluation before flights can be resumed. Thiokol and NASA Marshall are currently working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design that has been used successfully in the field and igniter joint. They are also planning to incorporate the NASA Glenn braided carbon fiber thermal barrier into the joint. The thermal barrier would act as an additional level of protection for the O-rings and allow the elimination of the joint-fill compound from the joint.

  6. Thermal Barriers Developed for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Space shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed with conventional O-ring seals that are shielded from 5500 F combustion gases by thick layers of insulation and by special joint-fill compounds that fill assembly splitlines in the insulation. On a number of occasions, NASA has observed hot gas penetration through defects in the joint-fill compound of several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints. In the current nozzle-to-case joint, NASA has observed penetration of hot combustion gases through the joint-fill compound to the inboard wiper O-ring in one out of seven motors. Although this condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas penetration to the wiper O-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. The solid rocket motor manufacturer (Thiokol) approached the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field about the possibility of applying Glenn's braided fiber preform seal as a thermal barrier to protect the O-ring seals. Glenn and Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and by using a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier that would resist any hot gases that the J-leg does not block.

  7. Studies of the exhaust products from solid propellant rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawbarn, R.; Kinslow, M.

    1976-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of conducting environmental chamber tests on the physical processes which occur when a solid rocket motor exhaust mixes with the ambient atmosphere. Of particular interest was the interaction between hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, and water vapor. The program consisted of three phases: (1) building a small rocket motor and using it to provide the exhaust species in a controlled environment; (2) evaluating instruments used to detect and measure HCl concentrations and if possible determining whether the HCl existed in the gaseous state or as an acid aerosol; (3) monitoring a series of 6.4-percent scale space shuttle motor tests and comparing the results to the environmental chamber studies. Eighteen firings were conducted in an environmental chamber with the initial ambient relative humidity set at values from 29 to 100 percent. Two additional firings were made in a large shed, and four were made on an open concrete apron. Six test firings at MSFC were monitored, and the ground level concentrations are reported. Evidence is presented which shows that the larger Al2O3 (5 to 50 micrometers) particles from the rocket motor can act as condensation nuclei. Under appropriate ambient conditions where there is sufficient water vapor this results in the formation of an acid aerosol. Droplets of this acid were detected both in the environmental chamber and in the scaled shuttle engine tests.

  8. World Data Center A (rockets and satellites) catalogue of data. Volume 1, part A: Sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A cumulative listing of all scientifically successful rockets that have been identified from various sources is presented. The listing starts with the V-2 rocket launched on 7 March 1947 and contains all rockets identified up to 31 December 1971.

  9. FIRE: Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment: a sounding rocket telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantner, Brennan; Green, James; Beasley, Matthew; Kane, Robert; Lairson, Bruce; Lopez, Heidi; Grove, David; Franetic, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    FIRE (Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment) is a sounding rocket payload telescope designed to image between 900-1100Å. It is scheduled to launch on January 29th, 2011 from the Poker Flats complex in northern Alaska. For its first flight, it will target G191B2B, a white dwarf calibration source, and M51 (the Whirlpool Galaxy), the science target, to help determine the number of hot, young O stars, as well as the intervening dust attenuation. FIRE primary consists of a single primary mirror coated in silicon carbide, a 2000Å thick indium filter and a micro-channel plate detector coated with rubidium bromide. Combined, these create a passband of 900-1100Å for the system and reject the hydrogen Lyman-α to approximately a factor of 10-4. To ensure that the filter survives the launch, a small vacuum chamber has been built around it to keep the pressure at 10-8 torr or lower.

  10. Radiation/convection coupling in rocket motors and plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R. C.; Saladino, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    The three commonly used propellant systems - H2/O2, RP-1/O2, and solid propellants - primarily radiate as molecular emitters, non-scattering small particles, and scattering larger particles, respectively. Present technology has accepted the uncoupling of the radiation analysis from that of the flowfield. This approximation becomes increasingly inaccurate as one considers plumes, interior rocket chambers, and nuclear rocket propulsion devices. This study will develop a hierarchy of methods which will address radiation/convection coupling in all of the aforementioned propulsion systems. The nature of the radiation/convection coupled problem is that the divergence of the radiative heat flux must be included in the energy equation and that the local, volume-averaged intensity of the radiation must be determined by a solution of the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The intensity is approximated by solving the RTE along several lines of sight (LOS) for each point in the flowfield. Such a procedure is extremely costly; therefore, further approximations are needed. Modified differential approximations are being developed for this purpose. It is not obvious which order of approximations are required for a given rocket motor analysis. Therefore, LOS calculations have been made for typical rocket motor operating conditions in order to select the type approximations required. The results of these radiation calculations, and the interpretation of these intensity predictions are presented herein.

  11. Reusable solid rocket motor case - Optimum probabilistic fracture control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanagud, S.; Uppaluri, B.

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for the reliability analysis of a reusable solid rocket motor case is discussed in this paper. The analysis is based on probabilistic fracture mechanics and probability distribution for initial flaw sizes. The developed reliability analysis can be used to select the structural design variables of the solid rocket motor case on the basis of minimum expected cost and specified reliability bounds during the projected design life of the case. Effects on failure prevention plans such as nondestructive inspection and the material erosion between missions can also be considered in the developed procedure for selection of design variables. The reliability-based procedure that has been discussed in this paper can easily be modified to consider other similar structures of reusable space vehicle systems with different fracture control plans.

  12. Reusable solid rocket motor case - Optimum probabilistic fracture control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanagud, S.; Uppaluri, B.

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for the reliability analysis of a reusable solid rocket motor case is discussed in this paper. The analysis is based on probabilistic fracture mechanics and probability distribution for initial flaw sizes. The developed reliability analysis can be used to select the structural design variables of the solid rocket motor case on the basis of minimum expected cost and specified reliability bounds during the projected design life of the case. Effects on failure prevention plans such as nondestructive inspection and the material erosion between missions can also be considered in the developed procedure for selection of design variables. The reliability-based procedure that has been discussed in this paper can easily be modified to consider other similar structures of reusable space vehicle systems with different fracture control plans.

  13. Molded composite pyrogen igniter for rocket motors. [solid propellant ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C.; Lucy, M. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A lightweight pyrogen igniter assembly including an elongated molded plastic tube adapted to contain a pyrogen charge was designed for insertion into a rocket motor casing for ignition of the rocket motor charge. A molded plastic closure cap provided for the elongated tube includes an ignition charge for igniting the pyrogen charge and an electrically actuated ignition squib for igniting the ignition charge. The ignition charge is contained within a portion of the closure cap, and it is retained therein by a noncorrosive ignition pellet retainer or screen which is adapted to rest on a shoulder of the elongated tube when the closure cap and tube are assembled together. A circumferentially disposed metal ring is provided along the external circumference of the closure cap and is molded or captured within the plastic cap in the molding process to provide, along with O-ring seals, a leakproof rotary joint.

  14. Post-launch analysis of the deployment dynamics of a space web sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Huina; Sinn, Thomas; Vasile, Massimiliano; Tibert, Gunnar

    2016-10-01

    Lightweight deployable space webs have been proposed as platforms or frames for a construction of structures in space where centrifugal forces enable deployment and stabilization. The Suaineadh project was aimed to deploy a 2 × 2m2 space web by centrifugal forces in milli-gravity conditions and act as a test bed for the space web technology. Data from former sounding rocket experiments, ground tests and simulations were used to design the structure, the folding pattern and control parameters. A developed control law and a reaction wheel were used to control the deployment. After ejection from the rocket, the web was deployed but entanglements occurred since the web did not start to deploy at the specified angular velocity. The deployment dynamics was reconstructed from the information recorded in inertial measurement units and cameras. The nonlinear torque of the motor used to drive the reaction wheel was calculated from the results. Simulations show that if the Suaineadh started to deploy at the specified angular velocity, the web would most likely have been deployed and stabilized in space by the motor, reaction wheel and controller used in the experiment.

  15. Some problems of nonlinear waves in solid propellant rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culick, F. E. C.

    1979-01-01

    An approximate technique for analyzing nonlinear waves in solid propellant rocket motors is presented which inexpensively provides accurate results up to amplitudes of ten percent. The connection with linear stability analysis is shown. The method is extended to third order in the amplitude of wave motion in order to study nonlinear stability, or triggering. Application of the approximate method to the behavior of pulses is described.

  16. Extinction of solid rocket motor by liquid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jinqi; Li, Baoxiun; Wang, Kexiu; Wu, Xinping; Zhang, Baoqing; Su, Guangshou

    1992-10-01

    An empirical data-based theoretical model is presented for liquid quenching of a solid rocket motor, taking into account the details of internal-ballistics coupling effects, solid propellant transient burning, liquid drop evaporation, and heat transfer via liquid-jet boiling. The exceeding of a critical injection pressure drop value is found to be required for effective quenching; as the injection pressure drop increases, the volume of the liquid required for reliable extinction decreases. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained.

  17. Aluminum Agglomeration and Trajectory in Solid Rocket Motors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-30

    cinematography data from China Lake. Task 2.2, Aluminum Agglomeration Model Selection (SEA/BYU/ATK Task) Part of the model selection task has already been... Manual . Software and Engineering Associates, Inc. 1802 N. Carson Street, Suite 200, Carson City, NV 89701. 2005. [DCF-2005b] S. S. Dunn, D. E. Coats, and J...C. French, SPP󈧈 Standard Stability Prediction Method for Solid Rocket Motors; Axial Mode Computer Program User’s Manual . Software and Engineering

  18. Thrust Augmentation in Solid Rocket Motors Using Beamed Microwave Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-13

    3) energy coupling via plasma formation. This analysis will look at directly coupling microwave energy to the effluents of a solid rocket motor in...developed a concept for a “ Microwave Thermal Thruster ” which involved beaming microwave power to a heat exchanger attached to the launch vehicle. The...concept utilizing beamed microwave energy to produce plasma near the focal point of the directed beam.6,7 The formed plasma then absorbs the remaining

  19. Initial Ion Results from the RENU2 Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, M.; Lessard, M.; Lynch, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    RENU2 (Rocket Experiment for Neutral Upwelling 2) is a multiple investigator sounding rocket campaign that was designed to transit the cusp region between 200 and 600 km and study particle processes during a neutral upwelling event. The RENU2 payload dayside observations will be compared with measurements made by the EISCAT Svalbard radars. This project aims to investigate the connection between ion upflows and outflows, and neutral upwelling from the topside ionosphere. Low-earth orbiting satellites are affected by these regions of enhanced neutral densities which decay their orbits due to satellite drag. Three electrostatic analyzers were flown to measure 2D ion distribution functions, providing observations of temperature enhancements, bulk velocity moments, anisotropy and conics. The thermal energy ion detector (HT) sweeps over an energy range of .12 to 22 eV and the medium energy detector (HM) has an energy range from 3.6 to 790 eV. The thermal mass ion detector (BPS) sweeps over the same energy range as the thermal energy detector, but also has a crude mass discriminator separating atomic oxygen from hydrogen. All of the detectors provide two dimensional phase space distributions; the thermal detectors have a cadence of 128 ms while the medium energy detector provides a distribution every 64 ms. These measurements of the upwelling process will be used as input for coupled models or be used as a metric to compare to what the models predict. During initial data analysis, we found nongyrotropy in the medium energy ions, a proton enhancement during an otherwise uneventful region, and three ion upflow events which will be further investigated.

  20. Auroral Microphysics Rocket (AMICIST) and Reflight of the Phaze Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy Roger L.

    1998-01-01

    This grant was originally awarded for the flight of the AMICIST sounding rocket. However, upon launch failure of the PHAZE rocket, additional resources were placed in this grant to cover the launch of the PHAZE II rocket. AMICIST was successfully launched from the Poker Flat Range on February 24, 1995, and the PHAZE II was successfully launched also from the Poker Flat Range on February 10, 1997. The major objective of the AMICIST flight was to investigate the bursts of transverse ion acceleration occurring during aurora, commonly known as Lower Hybrid Solitary Structures, with the flight of two scientific payloads to unravel space from time effects. The data clearly showed that the structures of ion acceleration were a spatial phenomena having a scale size transverse to the local magnetic field of about 100 m. On the other hand, structures in the auroral electrons were generally observed on this flight to be temporal features that occurred at the same time at the two payloads separated by a few kilometers. The primary objective of the PHAZE rocket flight was to further study the temporal features of auroral electron precipitation having many electron detectors, some fixed in energy, that could study the distribution function of the auroral electrons on time scales of a fraction of a millisecond. A important paper on this topic has just been submitted for publication which uses the PHAZE data to show that the potential structure (electric field parallel to the magnetic field) that accelerates the auroral electrons within one Earth radius of the ground, is not static, but rather fluctuates with frequencies close to the local proton and hydrogen gyrofrequencies. The fluctuation appears to be an actual turning on and off of the electric field at these frequencies. When the potential is turned off, ambient electrons can enter the region and be accelerated along B when the potential is on creating field- aligned bursts which manifest themselves as flickering aurora seen

  1. On Nonlinear Combustion Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.

    2004-01-01

    All liquid propellant rocket instability calculations in current use have limited value in the predictive sense and serve mainly as a correlating framework for the available data sets. The well-known n-t model first introduced by Crocco and Cheng in 1956 is still used as the primary analytical tool of this type. A multitude of attempts to establish practical analytical methods have achieved only limited success. These methods usually produce only stability boundary maps that are of little use in making critical design decisions in new motor development programs. Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of combustion instability in solid propellant rockets"' provides a firm foundation for a new approach to prediction, diagnosis, and correction of the closely related problems in liquid motor instability. For predictive tools to be useful in the motor design process, they must have the capability to accurately determine: 1) time evolution of the pressure oscillations and limit amplitude, 2) critical triggering pulse amplitude, and 3) unsteady heat transfer rates at injector surfaces and chamber walls. The method described in this paper relates these critical motor characteristics directly to system design parameters. Inclusion of mechanisms such as wave steepening, vorticity production and transport, and unsteady detonation wave phenomena greatly enhance the representation of key features of motor chamber oscillatory behavior. The basic theoretical model is described and preliminary computations are compared to experimental data. A plan to develop the new predictive method into a comprehensive analysis tool is also described.

  2. Five-Segment Solid Rocket Motor Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priskos, Alex S.

    2012-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing a new, more powerful solid rocket motor for space launch applications. To minimize technical risks and development costs, NASA chose to use the Space Shuttle s solid rocket boosters as a starting point in the design and development. The new, five segment motor provides a greater total impulse with improved, more environmentally friendly materials. To meet the mass and trajectory requirements, the motor incorporates substantial design and system upgrades, including new propellant grain geometry with an additional segment, new internal insulation system, and a state-of-the art avionics system. Significant progress has been made in the design, development and testing of the propulsion, and avionics systems. To date, three development motors (one each in 2009, 2010, and 2011) have been successfully static tested by NASA and ATK s Launch Systems Group in Promontory, UT. These development motor tests have validated much of the engineering with substantial data collected, analyzed, and utilized to improve the design. This paper provides an overview of the development progress on the first stage propulsion system.

  3. Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program Overview and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Stan R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program is provided with a summary of lessons learned since the first test firing in 1977. Fifteen different lessons learned are discussed that fundamentally changed the motor's design, processing, and RSRM program risk management systems. The evolution of the rocket motor design is presented including the baseline or High Performance Solid Rocket Motor (HPM), the Filament Wound Case (FWC), the RSRM, and the proposed Five-Segment Booster (FSB).

  4. Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program Overview and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Stan R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program is provided with a summary of lessons learned since the first test firing in 1977. Fifteen different lessons learned are discussed that fundamentally changed the motor's design, processing, and RSRM program risk management systems. The evolution of the rocket motor design is presented including the baseline or High Performance Solid Rocket Motor (HPM), the Filament Wound Case (FWC), the RSRM, and the proposed Five-Segment Booster (FSB).

  5. Ignition transient calculations in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Rhonald M.; Foster, Winfred A., Jr.

    1993-07-01

    The work presented is part of an effort to develop a multidimensional ignition transient model for large solid propellant rocket motors. On the Space Shuttle, the ignition transient in the slot is induced when the igniter, itself a small rocket motor, is fired into the head-end portion of the main rocket motor. The computational results presented in this paper consider two different igniter configurations. The first configuration is a simulated Space Shuttle RSRM igniter which has one central nozzle that is parallel to the centerline of the motor. The second igniter configuration has a nozzle which is canted at an angle of 45 deg from the centerline of the motor. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of certain flow field characteristics inside the solid propellant star grain slot of the Space Shuttle during the ignition transient period of operation for each igniter configuration. The majority of studies made to date regarding ignition transient performance in solid rocket motors have concluded that the key parameter to be determined is the heat transfer rate to the propellant surface and hence the heat transfer coefficient between the gas and the propellant. In this paper the heat transfer coefficients, pressure and velocity distributions are calculated in the star slot. In order to validate the computational method and to attempt to establish a correlation between the flow field characteristics and the heat transfer rates a series of cold flow experimental investigations were conducted. The results of these experiments show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the pressure and velocity distributions obtained from the CFD analysis. The CFD analysis utilized a classical pipe flow type correlation for the heat transfer rates. The experimental results provide an excellent qualitative comparison with regard to spatial distribution of the heat transfer rates as a function of nozzle configuration and igniter pressure. The

  6. Ignition Transient Calculations in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Rhonald M.; Foster, Winfred A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The work presented is part of an effort to develop a multidimensional ignition transient model for large solid propellant rocket motors. On the Space Shuttle, the ignition transient in the slot is induced when the igniter, itself a small rocket motor, is fired into the head-end portion of the main rocket motor. The computational results presented in this paper consider two different igniter configurations. The first configuration is a simulated Space Shuttle RSRM igniter which has one central nozzle that is parallel to the centerline of the motor. The second igniter configuration has a nozzle which is canted at an angle of 45 deg from the centerline of the motor. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of certain flow field characteristics inside the solid propellant star grain slot of the Space Shuttle during the ignition transient period of operation for each igniter configuration. The majority of studies made to date regarding ignition transient performance in solid rocket motors have concluded that the key parameter to be determined is the heat transfer rate to the propellant surface and hence the heat transfer coefficient between the gas and the propellant. In this paper the heat transfer coefficients, pressure and velocity distributions are calculated in the star slot. In order to validate the computational method and to attempt to establish a correlation between the flow field characteristics and the heat transfer rates a series of cold flow experimental investigations were conducted. The results of these experiments show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the pressure and velocity distributions obtained from the CFD analysis. The CFD analysis utilized a classical pipe flow type correlation for the heat transfer rates. The experimental results provide an excellent qualitative comparison with regard to spatial distribution of the heat transfer rates as a function of nozzle configuration and igniter pressure. The

  7. Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchus, D. L.; Hill, O. E.; Whitesides, R. Harold

    1992-02-01

    A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for the new facility. This facility design includes the basic components of air storage tanks, heater, submicron filter, quiet control valve, venturi, model inlet plenum chamber, solid rocket motor (SRM) model, exhaust diffuser, and exhaust silencer. The facility was designed to accommodate a wide range of motor types and sizes from small tactical motors to large space launch boosters. This facility has the unique capability of testing ten percent scale models of large boosters such as the new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), at full scale motor Reynolds numbers. Previous investigators have established the validity of studying basic features of solid rocket motor development programs include the acquisition of data to (1) directly evaluate and optimize the design configuration of the propellant grain, insulation, and nozzle; and (2) provide data for validation of the computational fluid dynamics, (CFD), analysis codes and the performance analysis codes. A facility checkout model was designed, constructed, and utilized to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new facility. This model consists of a cylindrical chamber and converging/diverging nozzle with appropriate manifolding to connect it to the facility air supply. It was designed using chamber and nozzle dimensions to simulate the flow in a 10 percent scale model of the ASRM. The checkout model was recently tested over the entire range of facility flow conditions which include flow rates from 9.07 to 145 kg/sec (20 to 320 Ibm/sec) and supply pressure from 5.17 x 10 exp 5 to 8.27 x 10 exp 6 Pa. The

  8. Fabrication of X-ray telescopes for sounding rocket flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Two X-ray telescopes and two detector systems were fabricated, and one of the telescopes (15 in. diameter, Wolter type I telescope) was flown on two sounding rocket flights. The telescopes were fabricated using the diamond point technique which provided the accurate figure of the mirrors to about a focal plane blur of 0.5 arc minutes. The 15 in. telescope mirrors were polished using standard polishing techniques to remove tooling marks from the diamond turning, then chemically polished to bring the X-ray reflectivity up to nearly the theoretical values. The optical image formed by the 15 in. telescope was found to produce a blur of about 40 arc seconds for a parallel beam of incoming laser light. The first flight of the telescope produced an X-ray image of Capella which indicated that the X-ray image was blurred to the extent of about 2 arc minutes. This additional image degradation was due to a slight error in focusing the X-ray image onto the detector.

  9. DAQ: Software Architecture for Data Acquisition in Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Tran, Thanh; Nichols, Heidi; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    A multithreaded software application was developed by Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) to collect a set of correlated imagery, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and GPS data for a Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) sounding rocket flight. The data set will be used to advance Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) technology algorithms being researched at JPL. This paper describes the software architecture and the tests used to meet the timing and data rate requirements for the software used to collect the dataset. Also discussed are the challenges of using commercial off the shelf (COTS) flight hardware and open source software. This includes multiple Camera Link (C-link) based cameras, a Pentium-M based computer, and Linux Fedora 11 operating system. Additionally, the paper talks about the history of the software architecture's usage in other JPL projects and its applicability for future missions, such as cubesats, UAVs, and research planes/balloons. Also talked about will be the human aspect of project especially JPL's Phaeton program and the results of the launch.

  10. Atom Interferometry on Sounding Rockets with Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Stephan T.; Becker, Dennis; Lachmann, Maike D.; Herr, Waldemar; Rasel, Ernst M.; Quantus Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    One of the fundamental postulates of our description of nature is the universality of free fall, stating that the force exerted upon an object due to gravity is independent of its constitution. A precise test of this assumption is the comparison of the free fall of two ultra-cold clouds of different atomic species via atom interferometry. Since the sensitivity of the measurement is proportional to the square of the propagation time in the interferometer, it can be increased by performing the experiments in microgravity. In order to fully utilize the potential of the experiments the usage of a Bose-Einstein-Condensate as the initial state is necessary, because it is characterized by a small initial size and a low expansion velocity. As a step towards the transfer of such a system into space three sounding rocket missions with atom interferometers are currently being prepared. The launch of the first mission, aimed at the first demonstration of a Bose-Einstein-Condensate in space and an atom interferometer based on it is planned for 2016 from ESRANGE, Sweden. It will be followed by two more missions that extend the scientific goals to the creation of degenerate mixtures and dual-species atom interferometry. This research is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under Grant Number DLR 50 1131-37.

  11. Development of the S-520 single stage sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, H.; Kohno, M.; Onoda, J.; Kawashima, T.; Murakami, T.; Onojima, N.

    1981-09-01

    The S-520 single stage sounding rocket was developed by ISAS in an attempt to replace the two stage system, thereby increasing safety and operational reliability as well as reducing launch costs. The S-520 has a 0.52 m diameter and a weight of 2100 kg. A reduction in inert mass was achieved by using FRP nose fairing and fins. The S-520 thrust profile consists of two phases to maximize summit altitude: an initial high thrust phase and a following sustaining phase. This was achieved by a grain design which combined a wagon wheel forward section and a tubular aft section. Two static firing tests (1981) showed stable combustion without the instabilities due to longitudinal waves. A twisted-fin spin helped to prevent the lock-in phenomena and to maintain the exo-atmospheric attitude stability. In the most recent experiment, the S-520 lifted 260 kg of gross payload to a 320 km altitude at an 80 deg launch elevation angle. The spin rate history was similar to those programmed, and the final coning angle was reasonably small.

  12. Modified modular imaging system designed for a sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veach, Todd J.; Scowen, Paul A.; Beasley, Matthew; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2012-09-01

    We present the design and system calibration results from the fabrication of a charge-coupled device (CCD) based imaging system designed using a modified modular imager cell (MIC) used in an ultraviolet sounding rocket mission. The heart of the imaging system is the MIC, which provides the video pre-amplifier circuitry and CCD clock level filtering. The MIC is designed with standard four-layer FR4 printed circuit board (PCB) with surface mount and through-hole components for ease of testing and lower fabrication cost. The imager is a 3.5k by 3.5k LBNL p-channel CCD with enhanced quantum efficiency response in the UV using delta-doping technology at JPL. The recently released PCIe/104 Small-Cam CCD controller from Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc (ARC) performs readout of the detector. The PCIe/104 Small-Cam system has the same capabilities as its larger PCI brethren, but in a smaller form factor, which makes it ideally suited for sub-orbital ballistic missions. The overall control is then accomplished using a PCIe/104 computer from RTD Embedded Technologies, Inc. The design, fabrication, and testing was done at the Laboratory for Astronomical and Space Instrumentation (LASI) at Arizona State University. Integration and flight calibration are to be completed at the University of Colorado Boulder before integration into CHESS.

  13. Towards a matter wave interferometer on a sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zoest, Tim; Peters, Achim; Ahlers, Holger; Wicht, Andreas; Vogel, Anika; Wenzlawski, Anderas; Deutsch, Christian; Kajari, Endre; Gaaloul, Naceur; Dittus, Hansjürg; Hartwig, Jonas; Herr, Waldemar; Herrmann, Sven; Reichel, Jakob; Bongs, Kai; Koenemann, Thorben; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, Wojtek; Schiemangk, Max; Müntinga, Hauke; Meyer, Nadine; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Walser, Reinhold; Resch, Andreas; Rode, Christina; Seidel, Stephan; Sengstock, Klaus; Singh, Yeshpal; Schleich, Wolfgang; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rosenbusch, Peter; Wilken, Tobias; Goeklue, Ertan

    Applications of coherent matter waves are high resolution interferometers for measuring inertial and gravitational forces as well as testing fundamental physics, for which they may serve as a laser like source with mesoscopic quantum features. Out of possible applications, the test of the principle of equivalence in the quantum domain is selected as a target with the highest scientific interest on timescales of a microgravity experiment at the ISS or on a free flyer (ATV, FOTON or other satellites). The QUANTUS project demonstrated the technological feasibil-ity of coherent matter waves in microgravity. As a next step, the consortium will prepare and procure a sounding rocket mission to demonstrate technologies for matter wave interferome-try based on the broad experience of former developments with experiments in the droptower. Therefore, the experiment has to withstand strong requirements concerning environmental con-ditions (Temperature, shock, environmental pressure, etc.) and needs to be designed to fit in a 600 l volume (diameter 35 cm, length 160 cm). It is considered as an important step towards the technology required for the ISS and other platforms. These experiments will give further insights on the potential of inertial sensors based on atom interferometers and the technology is for example of interest for applications in earth observation and geodesy. They could replace classical techniques relying on test masses and promise a further improvement in the accuracy of such devices.

  14. A Sounding Rocket Payload to Test the Weak Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.; Phillips, James D.

    2014-03-01

    We are developing SR-POEM, a payload for detecting a possible violation of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) while on a sounding rocket's free-fall trajectory. We estimate an uncertainty of σ (η) <=10-17 from a single flight. The experiment consists of calibration maneuvers plus eight 120 s drops of the two test masses (TMs). The instrument orientation will be reversed between successive drops, which reverses the signal but leaves most systematic errors unchanged. Each TM comprises three bars and a Y-shaped connector. The six bars are in a hexagonal housing and stand in a plane perpendicular to the symmetry axis (Z axis) of the payload and close to its CM. At a distance of 0.3 m along the Z axis, there is a highly stable plate that holds six of our tracking frequency laser gauges (TFGs), which measure the distances to the bars. The TMs are surrounded by capacitance plates, which allow both measurement and control of TM position and orientation. A central theme of the design is the prevention and correction of systematic error. Temperature stability of the instrument is essential and, during the brief night-time flight, it is achieved passively. This work was supported in part by NASA grant NNX08AO04G.

  15. Sounding rocket flight report: MUMP 9 and MUMP 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grassl, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the launching of two Marshall-University of Michigan Probes (MUMP 9 and MUMP 10), Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket payloads, are summarized. The MUMP 9 paylaod included an omegatron mass analyzer, a molecular fluorescence densitometer, a mini-tilty filter, and a lunar position sensor. This complement of instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 143 to 297 km over Wallops Island, Virginia, during January 1971. The MUMP 10 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, an electron temperature probe (Spencer, Brace, and Carignan, 1962), a cryogenic densitometer, and a solar position sensor. This complement of instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature and the charged particle density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 145 to 290 km over Wallops Island, Virginia, during the afternoon preceding the MUMP 9 launch in January 1971. A general description of the payload kinematics, orientation analysis, and the technique for the reduction and analysis of the data is given.

  16. The Study on Flexible Carbon Fiber Boom Research for Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Ma, X.; Zheng, L.; Guan, X.

    2015-09-01

    To accommodate the requirements of the sounding rocket that will be launched soon, this paper develops a new boom, which makes six new contributions: its deployment doesn't need proper centrifugal force generated by rocket anymore, suitable for the requirement that the sounding rocket is controlled not to rotate when rising; it is made by the flexible carbon fiber material and thus has a light weight; its deployment is driven by the bending elastic potential energy, more reliable and safer; due to its light weight, the effects on the rocket posture of its deployment are minor; its locking is done by itself but not by the rocket, which effectively avoids the interference of the separation of the rocket arrow and body with its deployment and enhances the reliability of its deployment; its unlocking is done by a fuse, more economic and more reliable.

  17. The resolution of temporal and spatial variations in auroral particle measurements from sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnstone, A. D.; Davis, T. N.

    1973-01-01

    The problems involved in the resolution of the temporal/spatial ambiguity in sounding rocket observations are discussed with reference to an experiment involving a mother-daughter rocket combination, together with a flashing light beacon on the rocket and television cameras on the ground. The ambiguity was successfully removed, enabling a proper interpretation of the observations of precipitating low energy electrons to be made.

  18. Ionospheric Results with Sounding Rockets and the Explorer VIII Satellite (1960 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdeau, R. E.

    1961-01-01

    A review is made of ionospheric data reported since the IGY from rocket and satellite-borne ionospheric experiments. These include rocket results on electron density (RF impedance probe), D-region conductivity (Gerdien condenser), and electron temperature (Langmuir probe). Also included are data in the 1000 kilometer region on ion concentration (ion current monitor) and electron temperature from the Explorer VIII Satellite (1960 xi). The review includes suggestions for second generation experiments and combinations thereof particularly suited for small sounding rockets.

  19. Draft Environmental Statement For Physics and Astronomy Sounding Rocket, Balloon, and Airborne Research Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This document is a draft of an environmental impact statement, evaluating the effect on the environment of the use of sounding rockets, balloons and air borne research programs in studying the atmosphere.

  20. GOES-R Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Lift and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    A United Launch Alliance (ULA) technician inspects the solid rocket motor for the ULA Atlas V rocket on its transporter near the Vertical Integration Facility at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The solid rocket motor will be lifted and mated to the rocket in preparation for the launch of NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) this month. GOES-R is the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites.

  1. A Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The following two papers, summarizing scientific results from the NIXT rocket program, are presented: (1) 'The Solar X-ray Corona,' - an introduction to the physics of the solar corona, with a major portion concerning a summary of results from the series of NIXT sounding rocket flights; and (2) 'Difficulties in Observing Coronal Structure.'

  2. Demonstration of a sterilizable solid rocket motor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrolia, E. J.; Santerre, G. M.; Lambert, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A solid propellant rocket motor containing 60.9 Kg (134-lb) of propellant was successfully static fired after being subjected to eight heat sterilization cycles (three 54-hour cycles plus five 40-hour cycles) at 125 C (257 F). The test motor, a modified SVM-3 chamber, incorporated a flexible grain retention system of EPR rubber to relieve thermal shrinkage stresses. The propellant used in the motor was ANB-3438, and 84 wt% solids system (18 wt% aluminum) containing 66 wt% stabilized ammonium perchlorate oxidizer and a saturated hydroxylterminated polybutadiene binder. Bonding of the propellant to the EPR insulation (GenGard V-4030) was provided by the use of SD-886, an epoxy urethane restriction.

  3. Mechanical and Thermal Design and Qualification of an Atom Interferometer Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, J.; Seidel, S. T.; Krutzik, M.; Wendrich, T.; Stamminger, A.; Scharringhausen, M.; Quantus Consortium

    2015-09-01

    The MAIUS-1 experiment is a pathfinder quantum optics experiment about to fly on a VSB-30 sounding rocket in November 2015. The scientific objective of the mission is to demonstrate the feasibility of creating a Bose-Einstein Condensate and performing atom interferometry aboard a sounding rocket with Rubidium 87atoms. This paper will summarize the thermal and mechanical design of the payload and its (sub)systems. Moreover the qualification procedures and the results of the qualification test will be presented.

  4. Test of Re-Entry Systems at Estrange Using Sounding Rockets and Stratospheric Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockowandt, C.; Abrahamsson, M.; Florin, G.

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets can provide an ideal in-flight platform for performing re-entry and other high speed tests off different types of vehicles and techniques. They are also ideal platforms for testing different types of recovery systems such as airbrakes and parachutes. This paper expands on some examples of platforms and missions for drop tests from balloons as well as sounding rockets launched from Esrange Space Center, a facility run by Swedish Space Corporation SSC in northern Sweden.

  5. A Low Cost GPS System for Real-Time Tracking of Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markgraf, M.; Montenbruck, O.; Hassenpflug, F.; Turner, P.; Bull, B.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the need for costly, complex, tracking radars, the German Space Operations Center has set up a research project for GPS based tracking of sounding rockets. As part of this project, a GPS receiver based on commercial technology for terrestrial applications has been modified to allow its use under the highly dynamical conditions of a sounding rocket flight. In addition, new antenna concepts are studied as an alternative to proven but costly wrap-around antennas.

  6. Solid Rocket Motor Combustion Instability Modeling in COMSOL Multiphysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability modeling of Solid Rocket Motors (SRM) remains a topic of active research. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process, acoustics, and steady-state gas dynamics. Recent advances in defining the energy transport of disturbances within steady flow-fields have been applied by combustion stability modelers to improve the analysis framework. Employing this more accurate global energy balance requires a higher fidelity model of the SRM flow-field and acoustic mode shapes. The current industry standard analysis tool utilizes a one dimensional analysis of the time dependent fluid dynamics along with a quasi-three dimensional propellant grain regression model to determine the SRM ballistics. The code then couples with another application that calculates the eigenvalues of the one dimensional homogenous wave equation. The mean flow parameters and acoustic normal modes are coupled to evaluate the stability theory developed and popularized by Culick. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The current study employs the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element framework to model the steady flow-field parameters and acoustic normal modes of a generic SRM. This work builds upon previous efforts to verify the use of the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) laid out by Campos. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, del squared psi - (lambda/c) squared psi - M x [M x del((del)(psi))] - 2((lambda)(M)/c + M x del(M) x (del)(psi) - 2(lambda)(psi)[M x del(1/c)] = 0. with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and ? as the complex eigenvalue. The study requires one way coupling of the CFD High Mach Number Flow (HMNF

  7. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  8. The O-STATES Sounding Rocket Project - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, J.

    2015-12-01

    In October 2015, the sounding rocket project O-STATES was conducted from Esrange Space Center (67.9°N, 21.1°E) in northern Sweden. The acronym O-STATES stands for "Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky" and the basic idea is that comprehensive information on the composition, specifically atomic oxygen in the ground state O and first excited state O(1D), and temperature of the lower thermosphere can be obtained from a limited set of optical measurements. Starting point for the analysis are daytime measurements of the O2(b1∑g+ - X3∑g-) Atmospheric Band system in the spectral region 755-780 nm and the O(1D-3P) Red Line at 630 nm. In the daytime lower thermosphere O(1D) is produced by O2 photolysis and the excited O2(b) state is mainly produced by energy transfer from O(1D) to the O2(X) ground state. In addition to O2 photolysis, both electron impact on O and dissociative recombination of O2+ are major sources of O(1D) in the thermosphere. Recent laboratory studies at SRI demonstrate that the O2(b) production populates the vibrational levels v=1 and v=0 in a ratio of ~4. While O2(b, v=0) is essentially unquenched, O2(b, v=1) is subject to collisional quenching that is dominated by O at altitudes above 160 km. Hence, the ratio of the Atmospheric Band emission from O2(b, v=1) and O2(b, v=0) is a measure of the O density. Finally, the spectral shape of the O2 Atmospheric Band is temperature dependent and spectrally resolved measurements of the Atmospheric Bands thus provide a measure of atmospheric temperature. This O2 Atmospheric Band analysis has been advocated as a technique for thermospheric remote sensing under the name Global Oxygen and Temperature (GOAT) Mapping. With O-STATES we want to characterize the GOAT technique by in-situ analysis of the O2 Atmospheric Band airglow and the underlying excitation mechanisms. By performing this dayglow analysis from a rocket payload, detailed local altitude profiles of the relevant emissions and

  9. Measurement and Characterization of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Plume Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Robert Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    NASA's current models to predict lift-off acoustics for launch vehicles are currently being updated using several numerical and empirical inputs. One empirical input comes from free-field acoustic data measured at three Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) static firings. The measurements were collected by a joint collaboration between NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center, Wyle Labs, and ATK Launch Systems. For the first time NASA measured large-thrust solid rocket motor plume acoustics for evaluation of both noise sources and acoustic radiation properties. Over sixty acoustic free-field measurements were taken over the three static firings to support evaluation of acoustic radiation near the rocket plume, far-field acoustic radiation patterns, plume acoustic power efficiencies, and apparent noise source locations within the plume. At approximately 67 m off nozzle centerline and 70 m downstream of the nozzle exit plan, the measured overall sound pressure level of the RSRM was 155 dB. Peak overall levels in the far field were over 140 dB at 300 m and 50-deg off of the RSRM thrust centerline. The successful collaboration has yielded valuable data that are being implemented into NASA's lift-off acoustic models, which will then be used to update predictions for Ares I and Ares V liftoff acoustic environments.

  10. Environmental Effects of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Exhaust Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, B.; Pergament, H. S.

    1976-01-01

    The deposition of NOx and HCl in the stratosphere from the space shuttle solid rocket motors (SRM) and exhaust plume is discussed. A detailed comparison between stratospheric deposition rates using the baseline SRM propellant and an alternate propellant, which replaces ammonium perchlorate by ammonium nitrate, shows the total NOx deposition rate to be approximately the same for each propellant. For both propellants the ratio of the deposition rates of NOx to total chlorine-containing species is negligibly small. Rocket exhaust ground cloud transport processes in the troposphere are also examined. A brief critique of the multilayer diffusion models (presently used for predicting pollutant deposition in the troposphere) is presented, and some detailed cloud rise calculations are compared with data for Titan 3C launches. The results show that, when launch time meteorological data are used as input, the model can reasonably predict measured cloud stabilization heights.

  11. Multiple Changes to Reusable Solid Rocket Motors, Identifying Hidden Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhalgh, Phillip O.; McCann, Bradley Q.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) baseline is subject to various changes. Changes are necessary due to safety and quality improvements, environmental considerations, vendor changes, obsolescence issues, etc. The RSRM program has a goal to test changes on full-scale static test motors prior to flight due to the unique RSRM operating environment. Each static test motor incorporates several significant changes and numerous minor changes. Flight motors often implement multiple changes simultaneously. While each change is individually verified and assessed, the potential for changes to interact constitutes additional hidden risk. Mitigating this risk depends upon identification of potential interactions. Therefore, the ATK Thiokol Propulsion System Safety organization initiated the use of a risk interaction matrix to identify potential interactions that compound risk. Identifying risk interactions supports flight and test motor decisions. Uncovering hidden risks of a full-scale static test motor gives a broader perspective of the changes being tested. This broader perspective compels the program to focus on solutions for implementing RSRM changes with minimal/mitigated risk. This paper discusses use of a change risk interaction matrix to identify test challenges and uncover hidden risks to the RSRM program.

  12. Optical Measurements on Solid Specimens of Solid Rocket Motor Exhaust and Solid Rocket Motor Slag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, F. E., III

    1991-01-01

    Samples of aluminum slag were investigated to aid the Earth Science and Applications Division at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Alumina from space motor propellant exhaust and space motor propellant slag was examined as a component of space refuse. Thermal emittance and solar absorptivity measurements were taken to support their comparison with reflectance measurements derived from actual debris. To determine the similarity between the samples and space motor exhaust or space motor slag, emittance and absorbance results were correlated with an examination of specimen morphology.

  13. Environmental impact statement Space Shuttle advanced solid rocket motor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site. Sites being considered for the new facilities include John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi; the Yellow Creek site in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, which is currently in the custody and control of the Tennessee Valley Authority; and John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida. TVA proposes to transfer its site to the custody and control of NASA if it is the selected site. All facilities need not be located at the same site. Existing facilities which may provide support for the program include Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans Parish, Louisiana; and Slidell Computer Center, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. NASA's preferred production location is the Yellow Creek site, and the preferred test location is the Stennis Space Center.

  14. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  15. The "Rocket Experiment for Neutral Upwelling 2 (RENU2)" Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, M.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Clemmons, J. H.; Crowley, G.; Ellingsen, P. G.; Fritz, B.; Harrington, M. I.; Hatch, S.; Hecht, J. H.; Hysell, D. L.; Kenward, D. R.; Labelle, J. W.; Lynch, K. A.; Moen, J.; Oksavik, K.; Otto, A.; Partamies, N.; Powell, S. P.; Sadler, B.; Sigernes, F.; Syrjäsuo, M.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2016-12-01

    Thermospheric upwelling has been known to exist since the earliestdays of the space program, when observers noted increased satellite dragassociated with solar activity. Scientists quickly attributed the upwelling toJoule heating effects, explaining that increased solar activity results inincreased Joule heating, which can couple energy to the ambient neutral gasesto cause the upwelling. Observations by the CHAMP satellite, however, haveshown that neutral upwelling often occurs on much smaller scales and is highlycorrelated with small-scale field-aligned currents in the vicinity of the cuspregion. Several theories have since been put forward that seek to explain thisphenomenon. Motivated by these competing theories and outfitted with acomprehensive suite of instruments, the RENU2 sounding rocket was launched intoa Poleward Moving Auroral Form (PMAF) in the cusp region on December 13, 2015.In this highly successful mission, instruments on the payload did, in fact,record neutral atomic oxygen above the payload at 350 km as it passed throughthe PMAF. In addition, signatures of N2+ ions also appeared above the PMAF,evidence of so-called "sunlit aurora". In this presentation, initial resultswill be presented from this mission and discussed in the context describedabove.

  16. HESTIA Commodities Exchange Pallet and Sounding Rocket Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaparro, Javier

    2013-01-01

    During my Spring 2016 internship, my two major contributions were the design of the Commodities Exchange Pallet and the design of a test stand for a 100 pounds-thrust sounding rocket. The Commodities Exchange Pallet is a prototype developed for the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) program. Under the HESTIA initiative the Commodities Exchange Pallet was developed as a method for demonstrating multi-system integration thru the transportation of In-Situ Resource Utilization produced oxygen and water to a human habitat. Ultimately, this prototype's performance will allow for future evaluation of integration, which may lead to the development of a flight capable pallet for future deep-space exploration missions. For HESTIA, my main task was to design the Commodities Exchange Pallet system to be used for completing an integration demonstration. Under the guidance of my mentor, I designed, both, the structural frame and fluid delivery system for the commodities pallet. The fluid delivery system includes a liquid-oxygen to gaseous-oxygen system, a water delivery system, and a carbon-dioxide compressors system. The structural frame is designed to meet safety and transportation requirements, as well as the ability to interface with the ER division's Portable Utility Pallet. The commodities pallet structure also includes independent instrumentation oxygen/water panels for operation and system monitoring. My major accomplishments for the commodities exchange pallet were the completion of the fluid delivery systems and the structural frame designs. In addition, parts selection was completed in order to expedite construction of the prototype, scheduled to begin in May of 2016. Once the commodities pallet is assembled and tested it is expected to complete a fully integrated transfer demonstration with the ISRU unit and the Environmental Control and Life Support System test chamber in September of 2016. In addition to the development of

  17. THE ADIABATIC DEMAGNETIZATION REFRIGERATOR FOR THE MICRO-X SOUNDING ROCKET TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Wikus, P.; Bagdasarova, Y.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Leman, S. W.; Rutherford, J. M.; Trowbridge, S. N.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Eckart, M. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Doriese, W. B.; McCammon, D.

    2010-04-09

    The Micro-X Imaging X-ray Spectrometer is a sounding rocket payload slated for launch in 2011. An array of Transition Edge Sensors, which is operated at a bath temperature of 50 mK, will be used to obtain a high resolution spectrum of the Puppis-A supernova remnant. An Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) with a 75 gram Ferric Ammonium Alum (FAA) salt pill in the bore of a 4 T superconducting magnet provides a stable heat sink for the detector array only a few seconds after burnout of the rocket motors. This requires a cold stage design with very short thermal time constants. A suspension made from Kevlar strings holds the 255 gram cold stage in place. It is capable of withstanding loads in excess of 200 g. Stable operation of the TES array in proximity to the ADR magnet is ensured by a three-stage magnetic shielding system which consists of a superconducting can, a high-permeability shield and a bucking coil. The development and testing of the Micro-X payload is well underway.

  18. The Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator for the Micro-X Sounding Rocket Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikus, P.; Adams, J. S.; Bagdasarova, Y.; Bandler, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Eckart, M. E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leman, S. W.; McCammon, D.; Porter, F. S.; Rutherford, J. M.; Trowbridge, S. N.

    2010-04-01

    The Micro-X Imaging X-ray Spectrometer is a sounding rocket payload slated for launch in 2011. An array of Transition Edge Sensors, which is operated at a bath temperature of 50 mK, will be used to obtain a high resolution spectrum of the Puppis-A supernova remnant. An Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) with a 75 gram Ferric Ammonium Alum (FAA) salt pill in the bore of a 4 T superconducting magnet provides a stable heat sink for the detector array only a few seconds after burnout of the rocket motors. This requires a cold stage design with very short thermal time constants. A suspension made from Kevlar strings holds the 255 gram cold stage in place. It is capable of withstanding loads in excess of 200 g. Stable operation of the TES array in proximity to the ADR magnet is ensured by a three-stage magnetic shielding system which consists of a superconducting can, a high-permeability shield and a bucking coil. The development and testing of the Micro-X payload is well underway.

  19. Optical Design of the MOSES Sounding Rocket Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Roger J.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) is a sounding rocket payload now being developed by Montana State University in collaboration with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, and Mullard Space Science Laboratory. The instrument utilizes a unique optical design to provide solar EUV measurements with true 2-pixel resolutions of 1.0 arcsec and 60 mA over a full two-dimensional field of view of 1056 x 528 arcsec, all at a time cadence of 10 s. This unprecedented capability is achieved by means of an objective spherical grating 100 mm in diameter, ruled at 833 gr/mm. The concave grating focuses spectrally dispersed solar radiation onto three separate detectors, simultaneously recording the zero-order as well as the plus and minus first-spectral-order images. Data analysis procedures, similar to those used in X-ray tomography reconstructions, can then disentangle the mixed spatial and spectral information recorded by the multiple detectors. A flat folding mirror permits an imaging focal length of 4.74 m to be packaged within the payload's physical length of 2.82 m. Both the objective grating and folding flat have specialized, closely matched, multilayer coatings that strongly enhance their EUV reflectance while also suppressing off-band radiation that would otherwise complicate data inversion. Although the spectral bandpass is rather narrow, several candidate wavelength intervals are available to carry out truly unique scientific studies of the outer solar atmosphere. Initial flights of MOSES, scheduled to begin in 2004, will observe a 10 Angstrom band that covers very strong emission lines characteristic of both the sun's corona (Si XI 303 Angstroms) and transition-region (He II 304 Angstroms). The MOSES program is supported by a grant from NASA's Office of Space Science.

  20. Optical Design of the MOSES Sounding Rocket Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Kankelborg, C. C.

    2001-12-01

    The Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) is a sounding rocket payload now being developed by Montana State University in collaboration with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, and Mullard Space Science Laboratory. The instrument utilizes a unique optical design to provide solar EUV measurements with true 2-pixel resolutions of 1.0 arcsec and 60 mÅ over a full two-dimensional field of view of 1056 x 528 arcsec, all at a time cadence of 10 s. This unprecedented capability is achieved by means of an objective spherical grating 100 mm in diameter, ruled at 833 gr/mm. The concave grating focuses spectrally dispersed solar radiation onto three separate detectors, simultaneously recording the zero-order as well as the plus and minus first-spectral-order images. Data analysis procedures, similar to those used in X-ray tomography reconstructions, can then disentangle the mixed spatial and spectral information recorded by the multiple detectors. A flat folding mirror permits an imaging focal length of 4.74 m to be packaged within the payload's physical length of 2.82 m. Both the objective grating and folding flat have specialized, closely matched, multilayer coatings that strongly enhance their EUV reflectance while also suppressing off-band radiation that would otherwise complicate data inversion. Although the spectral bandpass is rather narrow, several candidate wavelength intervals are available to carry out truly unique scientific studies of the outer solar atmosphere. Initial flights of MOSES, scheduled to begin in 2004, will observe a 10 Å band that covers very strong emission lines characteristic of both the sun's corona (Si XI 303 Å) and transition-region (He II 304 Å). The MOSES program is supported by a grant from NASA's Office of Space Science.

  1. Stochastic Estimation Applied to the Land Speed of Sound Record Attempt by a Rocket Car.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    STOCHASTIC ESTIMATION APPLIED TO THE LAND SPEED OF SOUND RECORD ATTEMPT BY A ROCKET CAR THESIS David A. Reinholz Captain, USAF 0.-- AFIT/GAE/AA/83DZ24 I...ESTIMATION APPLIED TO THE LAND SPEED OF SOUND RECORD ATTEMPT BY A ROCKET CAR THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force...first to interest me in the Budweiser Rocket Car and helped provide guidance throughout my work. The person with the most "corporate knowledge" about

  2. A Review of Large Solid Rocket Motor Free Field Acoustics, Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Debbie; Kenny, Robert Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    At the ATK facility in Utah, large full scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five segment version of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor, which is for use on future launch vehicles. Since 2006, Acoustic measurements have been taken on large solid rocket motors at ATK. Both the four segment RSRM and the five segment RSRMV have been instrumented. Measurements are used to update acoustic prediction models and to correlate against vibration responses of the motor. Presentation focuses on two major sections: Part I) Unique challenges associated with measuring rocket acoustics Part II) Acoustic measurements summary over past five years

  3. SRM (Solid Rocket Motor) propellant and polymer materials structural modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Carleton J.

    1988-01-01

    The following investigation reviews and evaluates the use of stress relaxation test data for the structural analysis of Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) propellants and other polymer materials used for liners, insulators, inhibitors, and seals. The stress relaxation data is examined and a new mathematical structural model is proposed. This model has potentially wide application to structural analysis of polymer materials and other materials generally characterized as being made of viscoelastic materials. A dynamic modulus is derived from the new model for stress relaxation modulus and is compared to the old viscoelastic model and experimental data.

  4. Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

  5. Ice nucleus activity measurements of solid rocket motor exhaust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The ice Nucleus activity of exhaust particles generated from combustion of Space Shuttle propellant in small rocket motors has been measured. The activity at -20 C was substantially lower than that of aerosols generated by unpressurized combustion of propellant samples in previous studies. The activity decays rapidly with time and is decreased further in the presence of moist air. These tests corroborate the low effectivity ice nucleus measurement results obtained in the exhaust ground cloud of the Space Shuttle. Such low ice nucleus activity implies that Space Shuttle induced inadvertent weather modification via an ice phase process is extremely unlikely.

  6. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Program - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccool, A. A.; Ray, W. L.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is given of the most important lessons learned concerning the Space Shuttle's Solid Rocket Motors with respect to flight safety, reuse requirements, system reliability, structural integrity, and hardware damage due to reentry, water impact, and retrieval. Within the major categories of flight safety, performance, and reuse/cost, priorities are identified for implementation of envisioned improvements; schedule and cost considerations are noted to have been substantially downgraded in favor of flight safety. The consequences of the primacy of flight safety are discussed in the areas of primary systems design, redundant systems, manufacturing and assembly processing, and launch constraints.

  7. Structural behavior of solid rocket motor field joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Michael F.; Wingate, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Structural analysis studies conducted on three concepts for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joints are summarized. Deflections and stresses in the Challenger clevis-tang joint are compared with a proposed capture-tang replacement joint and with an alternate bolted joint design. Results indicate deflections and stresses are subsequently reduced in both the capture-tang and bolted joint concepts. The capture-tang and bolted joint designs are respectively 24 and 70 percent heavier than the baseline clevis-tang joint.

  8. Advanced Computer Science on Internal Ballistics of Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Toru; Kato, Kazushige; Sekino, Nobuhiro; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Seike, Yoshio; Fukunaga, Mihoko; Daimon, Yu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Hiroya

    In this paper, described is the development of a numerical simulation system, what we call “Advanced Computer Science on SRM Internal Ballistics (ACSSIB)”, for the purpose of improvement of performance and reliability of solid rocket motors (SRM). The ACSSIB system is consisting of a casting simulation code of solid propellant slurry, correlation database of local burning-rate of cured propellant in terms of local slurry flow characteristics, and a numerical code for the internal ballistics of SRM, as well as relevant hardware. This paper describes mainly the objectives, the contents of this R&D, and the output of the fiscal year of 2008.

  9. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Program - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccool, A. A.; Ray, W. L.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is given of the most important lessons learned concerning the Space Shuttle's Solid Rocket Motors with respect to flight safety, reuse requirements, system reliability, structural integrity, and hardware damage due to reentry, water impact, and retrieval. Within the major categories of flight safety, performance, and reuse/cost, priorities are identified for implementation of envisioned improvements; schedule and cost considerations are noted to have been substantially downgraded in favor of flight safety. The consequences of the primacy of flight safety are discussed in the areas of primary systems design, redundant systems, manufacturing and assembly processing, and launch constraints.

  10. Analysis of advanced solid rocket motor ignition phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the results obtained from an experimental analysis of the flow field in the slots of the star grain section in the head-end of the advanced solid rocket motor during the ignition transient. This work represents an extension of the previous tests and analysis to include the effects of using a center port in conjunction with multiple canted igniter ports. The flow field measurements include oil smear data on the star slot walls, pressure and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the star slot walls and velocity measurements in the star slot.

  11. Thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counter, D. N.; Brinton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Thrust vector control (TVC) for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) is obtained by omniaxis vectoring of the nozzle. The development and integration of the system are under the cognizance of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The nozzle and flexible bearing have been designed and will be built by Thiokol Corporation/Wasatch Division. The vector requirements of the system, the impact of multiple reuse on the components, and the unique problems associated with a large flexible bearing are discussed. The design details of each of the major TVC subcomponents are delineated. The subscale bearing development program and the overall development schedule also are presented.

  12. Analysis of advanced solid rocket motor ignition phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results obtained from an experimental analysis of the flow field in the slots of the star grain section in the head-end of the advanced solid rocket motor during the ignition transient. This work represents an extension of the previous tests and analysis to include the effects of using a center port in conjunction with multiple canted igniter ports. The flow field measurements include oil smear data on the star slot walls, pressure and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the star slot walls and velocity measurements in the star slot.

  13. Solid Rocket Motor Backflow Analysis For CONTOUR Mishap Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2005-05-01

    A procedure developed for free molecule modeling of plume backflow from a STAR™ 30BP solid rocket motor is presented for work performed in support of the Comet Nucleus Tour spacecraft mishap investigation. Good general agreement is established with DSMC flowfield results, with interesting deviations developing as the plume backflow approaches the spacecraft surfaces closely, providing insights regarding characteristics of the surface Knudsen layer. Also, investigation of related free expansion results indicate significant discrepancies exist between the rarefied techniques and the continuum results from which their starting surfaces were created. The nature of these differences suggests that convective fluxes to CONTOUR may have been much higher than the rarefied analyses indicated.

  14. Low-Cost Phased Array Antenna for Sounding Rockets, Missiles, and Expendable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullinix, Daniel; Hall, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Corbin, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost beamformer phased array antenna has been developed for expendable launch vehicles, rockets, and missiles. It utilizes a conformal array antenna of ring or individual radiators (design varies depending on application) that is designed to be fed by the recently developed hybrid electrical/mechanical (vendor-supplied) phased array beamformer. The combination of these new array antennas and the hybrid beamformer results in a conformal phased array antenna that has significantly higher gain than traditional omni antennas, and costs an order of magnitude or more less than traditional phased array designs. Existing omnidirectional antennas for sounding rockets, missiles, and expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) do not have sufficient gain to support the required communication data rates via the space network. Missiles and smaller ELVs are often stabilized in flight by a fast (i.e. 4 Hz) roll rate. This fast roll rate, combined with vehicle attitude changes, greatly increases the complexity of the high-gain antenna beam-tracking problem. Phased arrays for larger ELVs with roll control are prohibitively expensive. Prior techniques involved a traditional fully electronic phased array solution, combined with highly complex and very fast inertial measurement unit phased array beamformers. The functional operation of this phased array is substantially different from traditional phased arrays in that it uses a hybrid electrical/mechanical beamformer that creates the relative time delays for steering the antenna beam via a small physical movement of variable delay lines. This movement is controlled via an innovative antenna control unit that accesses an internal measurement unit for vehicle attitude information, computes a beam-pointing angle to the target, then points the beam via a stepper motor controller. The stepper motor on the beamformer controls the beamformer variable delay lines that apply the appropriate time delays to the individual array elements to properly

  15. Effects of Slag Ejection on Solid Rocket Motor Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Purinton, David C.; Hengel, John E.; Skelley, Stephen E.

    1995-01-01

    In past firings of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) both static test and flight motors have shown small pressure perturbations occurring primarily between 65 and 80 seconds. A joint NASA/Thiokol team investigation concluded that the cause of the pressure perturbations was the periodic ingestion and ejection of molten aluminum oxide slag from the cavity around the submerged nozzle nose which tends to trap and collect individual aluminum oxide droplets from the approach flow. The conclusions of the team were supported by numerous data and observations from special tests including high speed photographic films, real time radiography, plume calorimeters, accelerometers, strain gauges, nozzle TVC system force gauges, and motor pressure and thrust data. A simplistic slag ballistics model was formulated to relate a given pressure perturbation to a required slag quantity. Also, a cold flow model using air and water was developed to provide data on the relationship between the slag flow rate and the chamber pressure increase. Both the motor and the cold flow model exhibited low frequency oscillations in conjunction with periods of slag ejection. Motor and model frequencies were related to scaling parameters. The data indicate that there is a periodicity to the slag entrainment and ejection phenomena which is possibly related to organized oscillations from instabilities in the dividing streamline shear layer which impinges on the underneath surface of the nozzle.

  16. Maturation of Structural Health Management Systems for Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quing, Xinlin; Beard, Shawn; Zhang, Chang

    2011-01-01

    Concepts of an autonomous and automated space-compliant diagnostic system were developed for conditioned-based maintenance (CBM) of rocket motors for space exploration vehicles. The diagnostic system will provide real-time information on the integrity of critical structures on launch vehicles, improve their performance, and greatly increase crew safety while decreasing inspection costs. Using the SMART Layer technology as a basis, detailed procedures and calibration techniques for implementation of the diagnostic system were developed. The diagnostic system is a distributed system, which consists of a sensor network, local data loggers, and a host central processor. The system detects external impact to the structure. The major functions of the system include an estimate of impact location, estimate of impact force at impacted location, and estimate of the structure damage at impacted location. This system consists of a large-area sensor network, dedicated multiple local data loggers with signal processing and data analysis software to allow for real-time, in situ monitoring, and longterm tracking of structural integrity of solid rocket motors. Specifically, the system could provide easy installation of large sensor networks, onboard operation under harsh environments and loading, inspection of inaccessible areas without disassembly, detection of impact events and impact damage in real-time, and monitoring of a large area with local data processing to reduce wiring.

  17. Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, volume 2, book 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A technical analysis of the solid propellant rocket engines for use with the space shuttle is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) solid rocket motor stage recovery, (2) environmental effects, (3) man rating of the solid propellant rocket engines, (4) system safety analysis, (5) ground support equipment, and (6) transportation, assembly, and checkout.

  18. Block 2 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) conceptual design study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Segmented and monolithic Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) design concepts were evaluated with emphasis on joints and seals. Particular attention was directed to eliminating deficiencies in the SRM High Performance Motor (HPM). The selected conceptual design is described and discussed.

  19. Full load of ESA experiments on Maxus-2 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Maxus sounding rockets are built and commercialised by an industrial joint venture, a team comprising of the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and DASA of Germany. ESA is fully funding the scientific payload for this mission. The payload comprises 8 experiments spanning the fields of fluid physics, electrophoresis and cell biology. Scientists from Belgium, France, Germany and Switzerland designed these experiments and the hardware was built by Swedish, German and Italian firms. The experiments are accommodated in 5 autonomous experiment modules and account for an overall mass of about 500 kg out of a total payload of about 800 kg. The first module contains an experiment which aims to check the static and dynamic behaviour of liquids at corners and edges. The second contains a biological experiment on two unicellular organisms (loxodes and paramecium). In their natural habitat (lakes), these organisms make use of the gravity vector for their orientation. Their swimming behaviour in microgravity will be observed on Earth in real time. The third module houses two other biology experiments. One examines the effect of microgravity on particle ingestion of gold beads by human macrophage cells (a type of white blood cell). Macrophage cells digest foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, thereby performing an important function in our immune system. The other experiment investigates the influence of weightlessness on the structure of lymphocytes (white blood cells). The fourth module accommodates three different experiments all dealing with convection phenomena due to surface-tension instabilities (Marangoni convection). Surface tension is that property of liquids which makes raindrops nearly spherical and allows insects to move on water surfaces. These phenomena, which are masked by the effect of gravity on Earth, can be easily studied in microgravity conditions. The fifth module contains an experiment that deals with electrophoresis, i.e. a process which is used to

  20. A Sequential Sounding Rocket Flight Through Nighttime Midlatitude Plasma Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddy, P. A.; Earle, G. D.; Larsen, M. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Swenson, C.; Carlson, C. G.; Bullett, T. W.

    2003-12-01

    A sequential rocket campaign launched out of NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility (37.84N, 75.49W) sent four rockets though Sporadic-E and a suspected intermediate layer during one night in July of this year. The four payloads were launched between the hours of 3:19 and 7:07 GMT. Three of the rockets were mother-daughter payloads equipped with plasma impedance probes supplied by Utah State University and TMA chemical releases from Clemson University. The fourth rocket housed an electric field instrument, an ion mass spectrometer, and the new neutral wind instrument from the University of Texas Dallas along with a set of plasma impedance probes from Utah State University. An overview of the UTD instruments and the ionospheric conditions as derived from these data will be presented herein.

  1. Observations of the global structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere with sounding rockets and with remote sensing techniques from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Krueger, A. J.; Nordberg, W.; Prabhakara, C.; Theon, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the techniques involved in determining the global structure of the mesosphere and stratosphere based on sounding rocket observations and satellite remotely sensed measurements.

  2. Solid rocket motor certification to meet space shuttle requirements from challenge to achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. Q.; Kilminster, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three solid rocket motor (SRM) design requirements for the Space Shuttle were discussed. No existing solid rocket motor experience was available for the requirement for a thrust-time trace, twenty uses for the principle hardware, and a moveable nozzle with an 8 deg. omnivaxial vectoring capability. The solutions to these problems are presented.

  3. Method of fault-tree quantitative analysis for solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baochao; Yang, Yicai; Xie, Weimin

    1993-08-01

    Based on the existing problem in determining the failure probabilities of base events in solid rocket motor fault-tree quantitative analysis, an engineering method of 'Solicitation Opinions to Give Marks' was put forward to determine the failure probability. A satisfactory result was obtained by analyzing the practical example of structure reliability for some solid rocket motors at the test sample stage.

  4. Method of fault-tree quantitative analysis for solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baochao; Yang, Yicai; Xie, Weimin

    1993-08-01

    Based on the existing problem of determining the failure probabilities of base events in solid rocket motor fault tree quantitative analysis, an engineering method of Solicitation Opinions to Give Marks is put forward to determine failure probability. A more satisfactory result is obtained by analyzing the actual example of the structural reliability of solid rocket motors at the test sample stage.

  5. REM-RED Cosmic Radiation Monitoring Experiment On-Board the REXUS-17 Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabori, B.; Gerecs, A.; Hurtonyne Gyovai, A.; Benyei, D.; Naczi, F.; Hurtony, T.

    2015-09-01

    The cosmic radiation field is not well known up to the altitude of the lower orbiting spacecrafts. There are several ways to measure the cosmic radiation in this altitude; however it is not easy to apply them to a sounding rocket. The easiest way is to use Geiger-Muller (GM) counters to quantify the radiation level. The REMRED rocket experiment performed measurements with active radiation instruments (GM counters) in order to quantify the cosmic radiation field from the Earth's surface up to the maximum altitude of the REXUS rocket (about 90 km). The flight of the REM-RED experiment was carried out on the 1 7th of March 201 5 from the ESRANGE Space Center on-board the REXUS-17 student mission sounding rocket.

  6. Theoretical solid-propellant rocket motor internal ballistic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAmis, R. W.; Le, T. V.

    1992-07-01

    Theoretical methods for calculating solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) internal ballistic performance were investigated and demonstrated through application to a full-scale Minuteman III Stage III motor (MM III SIII). The propellant grain burning surface location as a function of time and internal ballistic performance were calculated and compared to experimental data previously acquired at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). Propellant burning surface location as a function of time was calculated using the theoretical code RECESS and compared within 1 sec of previously obtained real-time radiographic data of the propellant burning surface location. Ballistic performance, calculated using the theoretical code VOLFIL, compared within 8 percent of experimental data obtained from the MM III SIII motor test. Both codes provide a firm basis for evaluating nominal SRM performance. Ballistic calculations can be improved simply by coupling ballistics to grain burnback allowing burn rate to vary with pressure. Future work will incorporate coupled solutions among the case and propellant structural response, grain burnback, and ballistics.

  7. Ignition overpressure study from solid rocket motor firings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counter, Douglas D.

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to investigate, through experimental means, the basic mechanisms influencing ignition overpressure and to determine ways to suppress ignition overpressure. Ignition overpressure was studied using solid rocket motors with geometry scaled at 1 percent of the Shuttle's Solid Rocket Boosters. Both water injection and aerosol foam were examined as a mean of reducing ignition overpressure. The results of the water injection tests indicate that a relatively small amount of water is sufficient to provide significant suppression. Of the flow rates tested, the lower water injection flow rates provided the best reduction of the ignition overpressure wave. Also, the test results show there is an optimum water flow rate range that provides the best suppression, and as this range is exceeded the effectiveness of water to reduce ignition overpressure is decreased. Aerosol foam provided very little reduction of ignition overpressure, but only small volumes of foam were used and further testing is necessary to determine its total effectiveness as a means of suppression.

  8. A Low Cost GPS System for Real-Time Tracking of Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markgraf, M.; Montenbruck, O.; Hassenpflug, F.; Turner, P.; Bull, B.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development as well as the on-ground and the in-flight evaluation of a low cost Global Positioning System (GPS) system for real-time tracking of sounding rockets. The flight unit comprises a modified ORION GPS receiver and a newly designed switchable antenna system composed of a helical antenna in the rocket tip and a dual-blade antenna combination attached to the body of the service module. Aside from the flight hardware a PC based terminal program has been developed to monitor the GPS data and graphically displays the rocket's path during the flight. In addition an Instantaneous Impact Point (IIP) prediction is performed based on the received position and velocity information. In preparation for ESA's Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange, Kiruna, on 19 Feb. 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. In addition to the ORION receiver, an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver and a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver, both connected to a wrap-around antenna, have been flown on the same rocket as part of an independent experiment provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center. This allows an in-depth verification and trade-off of different receiver and antenna concepts.

  9. Robotic NDE inspection of advanced solid rocket motor casings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneelege, Glenn E.; Sarantos, Chris

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor program determined the need to inspect ASRM forgings and segments for potentially catastrophic defects. To minimize costs, an automated eddy current inspection system was designed and manufactured for inspection of ASRM forgings in the initial phases of production. This system utilizes custom manipulators and motion control algorithms and integrated six channel eddy current data acquisition and analysis hardware and software. Total system integration is through a personal computer based workcell controller. Segment inspection demands the use of a gantry robot for the EMAT/ET inspection system. The EMAT/ET system utilized similar mechanical compliancy and software logic to accommodate complex part geometries. EMAT provides volumetric inspection capability while eddy current is limited to surface and near surface inspection. Each aspect of the systems are applicable to other industries, such as, inspection of pressure vessels, weld inspection, and traditional ultrasonic inspection applications.

  10. Propellant development for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landers, L. C.; Stanley, C. B.; Ricks, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of a propellant developed for the NASA Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) are described in terms of its composition, performance, and compliance to NASA specifications. The class 1.3 HTPB/AP/A1 propellant employs an ester plasticizer and the content of ballistic solids is set at 88 percent. Ammonia evolution is prevented by the utilization of a neutral bonding agent which allows continuous mixing. The propellant also comprises a bimodal AP blend with one ground fraction, ground AP of at least 20 microns, and ferric oxide to control the burning rate. The propellant's characteristics are discussed in terms of tradeoffs in AP particle size and the types of Al powder, bonding agent, and HTPB polymer. The size and shape of the ballistic solids affect the processability, ballistic properties, and structural properties of the propellant. The revised baseline composition is based on maximizing the robustness of in-process viscosity, structural integrity, and burning-rate tailoring range.

  11. The Effects of Orbital Distribution from Solid Rocket Motor Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Keke; Pang, Baojun; Xiao, Weike

    2013-08-01

    Solid rocket motor (SRM) firings are an important source of space debris environment. The resulting by-products are generally divided into two categories: slag and dust. Dust will re-entry sharply and do not pose a significant hazard. Slag debris can achieve centimeter level, these particles have a serious effect on risk assessment and defend structural design of spacecraft. It is important to understand the size distribution and orbital behavior of slag in order to predict the hazard posed both currently and in the future. Utilizing previous researches on SRM slag and 8-year launch cycle, we have analyzed the orbital distribution of SRM slag. The results indicate that SRM slag is a crucial component of the space debris environment. In order to sustainable utilization outer space, human should forbid the use of SRM in the future, especially for the medium Earth orbit (MEO) and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) regions.

  12. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joint 5 Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, R. C.; Stratton, T. C.; LaMont, D. T.

    2003-01-01

    Torque tension testing of a newly designed Reusable Solid Rocket Motor nozzle bolted assembly was successfully completed. Test results showed that the 3-sigma preload variation was as expected at the required input torque level and the preload relaxation were within the engineering limits. A shim installation technique was demonstrated as a simple process to fill a shear lip gap between nozzle housings in the joint region. A new automated torque system was successfully demonstrated in this test. This torque control tool was found to be very precise and accurate. The bolted assembly performance was further evaluated using the Nozzle Structural Test Bed. Both current socket head cap screw and proposed multiphase alloy bolt configurations were tested. Results indicated that joint skip and bolt bending were significantly reduced with the new multiphase alloy bolt design. This paper summarizes all the test results completed to date.

  13. Two-phase flows in solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Takuji; Shimada, Toru

    Axisymmetric gas-particle two-phase flows in solid-rocket-motor combustion chambers and nozzles with small throat radius of curvature and with submerged configuration are investigated numerically by utilizing a second-order finite-volume method with van Leer's flux-vector splitting in conjunction with a technique of body-fitted cell system. Effects of the particle radius and the particle mass fraction on the two-phase flow, especially on the particle density distribution, the particle-free zone, and the rate of deceleration of the gas are studied. The scheme can capture the particle-free zone with a relatively coarse cell system without numerical oscillation, being benefited by internal dissipative effect which this high-resolution upwind method involves. The validity of the present numerical simulation is thus confirmed.

  14. Radiation/convection coupling in rocket motor and plume analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saladino, A. J.; Farmer, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for describing radiation/convection coupling to a flow field analysis was developed for rocket motors and plumes. The three commonly used propellant systems (H2/O2, RP-1/O2, and solid propellants) radiate primarily as: molecular emitters, non-scattering small particles (soot), and scattering larger particles (Al2O3), respectively. For the required solution, the divergence of the radiation heat flux was included in the energy equation, and the local, volume averaged intensity was determined by a solution to the radiative transfer equation. A rigorous solution to this problem is intractable, therefore, solution methods which use the ordinary and improved differential approximation were developed. This radiation model was being incorporated into the FDNS code, a Navier-Stokes flowfield solver for multiphase, turbulent combusting flows.

  15. The 260: The Largest Solid Rocket Motor Ever Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimmins, P.; Cousineau, M.; Rogers, C.; Shell, V.

    1999-01-01

    Aerojet in the mid 1960s, under contract to NASA, built and static hot fire tested the largest solid rocket motor (SRM) in history for the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of utilizing large SRMs for space exploration. This program successfully fabricated two high strength steel chambers, loaded each with approximately 1,68 million pounds of propellant, and static test fired these giants with their nozzles up from an underground silo located adjacent to the Florida everglades. Maximum thrust and total impulse in excess of 5,000,000 lbf and 3,470,000,000 lbf-sec were achieved. Flames from the second firing, conducted at night, were seen over eighty miles away. For comparative purposes: the thrust developed was nearly 100 times that of a Minuteman III second stage and the 260 in.-dia cross-section was over 3 times that of the Space Shuttle SRM.

  16. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joint 5 Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, R. C.; Stratton, T. C.; LaMont, D. T.

    2003-01-01

    Torque tension testing of a newly designed Reusable Solid Rocket Motor nozzle bolted assembly was successfully completed. Test results showed that the 3-sigma preload variation was as expected at the required input torque level and the preload relaxation were within the engineering limits. A shim installation technique was demonstrated as a simple process to fill a shear lip gap between nozzle housings in the joint region. A new automated torque system was successfully demonstrated in this test. This torque control tool was found to be very precise and accurate. The bolted assembly performance was further evaluated using the Nozzle Structural Test Bed. Both current socket head cap screw and proposed multiphase alloy bolt configurations were tested. Results indicated that joint skip and bolt bending were significantly reduced with the new multiphase alloy bolt design. This paper summarizes all the test results completed to date.

  17. Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzle alternate ablative evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, L. B.; Bailey, R. L.; Morrison, B. H.

    1981-01-01

    A series of subscale tests are shown to suggest that a lower-cost ablative material than the rayon-based carbon ablative currently used in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) may be used as a substitute. Six such ablatives with outstanding performance characteristics, using spun PAN and continuous pitch and PAN fibers instead of the present, continuous rayon, were identified in the course of tests with HTPB/AL/AP solid propellant grains with a burn time of 12 sec. The test nozzle features an initial throat diameter of 2.2 in. and a 6.1 expansion ratio. In addition to nozzle structural feature drawings, extensive test data tables and propellant formulation and properties tables are provided.

  18. Near-simultaneous measurement of low-energy electrons by sounding rocket and satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rearwin, S.; Hones, E. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An auroral sounding rocket was launched from Fort Churchill at 0453 UT on April 24, 1968. At the time of the rocket flight, the Vela 3B satellite was passing through the magnetotail plasma sheet at very nearly the same magnetic local time. Electron spectra obtained from experiments on these vehicles are well described by central Maxwell-Boltzmann populations, with indications of a high-energy tail; the satellite spectra also suggest the presence of a low-energy tail. The higher-temperature spectra measured on the rocket may be derived from the satellite spectra by adiabatic compression.

  19. Spatial and temporal turbulence evolution as inferred from the WADIS sounding rocket project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnikov, Boris; Asmus, Heiner; Latteck, Ralph; Strelnikova, Irina; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Baumgarten, Gerd; Hildebrand, Jens; Höffner, Josef; Wörl, Raimund; Rapp, Markus; Friedrich, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The WADIS project (Wave propagation and dissipation in the middle atmosphere: energy budget and distribution of trace constituents) aimed at studying waves, their dissipation, and effects on trace constituents. The project comprised two sounding rocket campaigns conducted at the Andøya Space Center (69 °N, 16 °E). One sounding rocket was launched in summer 2013 and one in winter 2015. The WADIS-1 sounding rocket was launched on 27 of June 2013 into Polar Mesosphere Summer Echo (PMSE). Ground based PMSE observations were conducted using the MAARSY VHF- and the EISCAT-Tromsø radars. IAP RMR-lidar observed NLC colocated with PMSE. The WADIS-2 sounding rocket was launched on 5 of March of 2015 and had the same instrumentation on board. ALOMAR RMR- and IAP Fe-lidars and SAURA-MF radar measured mesospheric temperatures and winds throughout the launch window. In-situ measurements delivered high resolution altitude-profiles of neutral and plasma densities, neutral air temperature and turbulence. Extensive turbulence measurements were conducted employing different techniques. In-situ measurements were done on both upleg and downleg, implying that two profiles of each quantity were near simultaneously measured with high altitude resolution at ˜30 km horizontal distance. The measurements with MAARSY cover both up- and downleg parts of the rocket trajectory and the EISCAT-Tromsø radar is located 100 km away of the launch site. We discuss these turbulence measurements and its spatial and time evolution.

  20. Elastomeric Thermal Insulation Design Considerations in Long, Aluminized Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Heath T.

    2017-01-01

    An all-new sounding rocket was designed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center that featured an aft finocyl, aluminized solid propellant grain and silica-filled ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (SFEPDM) internal insulation. Upon the initial static firing of the first of this new design, the solid rocket motor (SRM) case failed thermally just upstream of the aft closure early in the burn time. Subsequent fluid modeling indicated that the high-velocity combustion-product jets emanating from the fin-slots in the propellant grain were likely inducing a strongly swirling flow, thus substantially increasing the severity of the convective environment on the exposed portion of the SFEPDM insulation in this region. The aft portion of the fin-slots in another of the motors were filled with propellant to eliminate the possibility of both direct jet impingement on the exposed SFEPDM and the appearance of strongly swirling flow in the aft region of the motor. When static-fired, this motor's case still failed in the same axial location, and, though somewhat later than for the first static firing, still in less than 1/3rd of the desired burn duration. These results indicate that the extreme material decomposition rates of the SFEPDM in this application are not due to gas-phase convection or shear but rather to interactions with burning aluminum or alumina slag. Further comparisons with between SFEPDM performance in this design and that in other hot-fire tests provide insight into the mechanisms of SFEPDM decomposition in SRM aft domes that can guide the upcoming redesign effort, as well as other future SRM designs. These data also highlight the current limitations of modeling elastomeric insulators solely with diffusion-controlled, gas-phase thermochemistry in SRM regions with significant viscous shear and/or condense-phase impingement or flow.

  1. Flight demonstration of flight termination system and solid rocket motor ignition using semiconductor laser initiated ordnance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Maxfield, B.; Boucher, C.

    1995-01-01

    Solid State Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) offers new technology having potential for enhanced safety, reduced costs, and improved operational efficiency. Concerns over the absence of programmatic applications of the technology, which has prevented acceptance by flight programs, should be abated since LIO has now been operationally implemented by the Laser Initiated Ordnance Sounding Rocket Demonstration (LOSRD) Program. The first launch of solid state laser diode LIO at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) occurred on March 15, 1995 with all mission objectives accomplished. This project, Phase 3 of a series of three NASA Headquarters LIO demonstration initiatives, accomplished its objective by the flight of a dedicated, all-LIO sounding rocket mission using a two-stage Nike-Orion launch vehicle. LIO flight hardware, made by The Ensign-Bickford Company under NASA's first Cooperative Agreement with Profit Making Organizations, safely initiated three demanding pyrotechnic sequence events, namely, solid rocket motor ignition from the ground and in flight, and flight termination, i.e., as a Flight Termination System (FTS). A flight LIO system was designed, built, tested, and flown to support the objectives of quickly and inexpensively putting LIO through ground and flight operational paces. The hardware was fully qualified for this mission, including component testing as well as a full-scale system test. The launch accomplished all mission objectives in less than 11 months from proposal receipt. This paper concentrates on accomplishments of the ordnance aspects of the program and on the program's implementation and results. While this program does not generically qualify LIO for all applications, it demonstrated the safety, technical, and operational feasibility of those two most demanding applications, using an all solid state safe and arm system in critical flight applications.

  2. Sounding rocket thermal analysis techniques applied to GAS payloads. [Get Away Special payloads (STS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Simplified analytical techniques of sounding rocket programs are suggested as a means of bringing the cost of thermal analysis of the Get Away Special (GAS) payloads within acceptable bounds. Particular attention is given to two methods adapted from sounding rocket technology - a method in which the container and payload are assumed to be divided in half vertically by a thermal plane of symmetry, and a method which considers the container and its payload to be an analogous one-dimensional unit having the real or correct container top surface area for radiative heat transfer and a fictitious mass and geometry which model the average thermal effects.

  3. Making Ultraviolet Spectro-Polarimetry Polarization Measurements with the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) sounding rocket program. This paper will concentrate on SUMI's VUV optics, and discuss their spectral, spatial and polarization characteristics. While SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria, there are several areas that will be improved for its second and third flights. This paper will emphasize the MgII linear polarization measurements and describe the changes that will be made to the sounding rocket and how those changes will improve the scientific data acquired by SUMI.

  4. Application of boost guidance to NASA sounding rocket launch operations at the White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montag, W. H.; Detwiler, D. F., Jr.; Hall, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the unique problems associated with launching the Black Brant V, VIII, and IX sounding rocket vehicles at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and the significance of the introduction of the S19 to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility sounding rocket program in terms of launch flexibility, improved impact dispersion, higher flight reliability, and reduced program costs. This paper also discusses salient flight results from NASA 36.011UL (the first S19 guided Black Brant launched at WSMR) and the NASA Comet Halley missions (36.010DL and 36.017DL).

  5. Application of boost guidance to NASA sounding rocket launch operations at the White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montag, W. H.; Detwiler, D. F., Jr.; Hall, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the unique problems associated with launching the Black Brant V, VIII, and IX sounding rocket vehicles at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and the significance of the introduction of the S19 to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility sounding rocket program in terms of launch flexibility, improved impact dispersion, higher flight reliability, and reduced program costs. This paper also discusses salient flight results from NASA 36.011UL (the first S19 guided Black Brant launched at WSMR) and the NASA Comet Halley missions (36.010DL and 36.017DL).

  6. The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph: A radial groove grating, sounding rocket-borne, astronomical instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Erik; Green, James C.; Cash, Webster

    1993-01-01

    The design, calibration, and sounding rocket flight performance of a novel spectrograph suitable for moderate-resolution EUV spectroscopy are presented. The sounding rocket-borne instrument uses a radial groove grating to maintain a high system efficiency while controlling the aberrations induced when doing spectroscopy in a converging beam. The instrument has a resolution of approximately 2 A across the 200-330 A bandpass with an average effective area of 2 sq cm. The instrument, called the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph, acquired the first EUV spectra in this wavelength region of the hot white dwarf G191-B2B and the late-type star Capella.

  7. Sounding rocket research Aries/Firewheel, series 22, issue 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozer, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Rocket experiments in ionospheric particle and field research flow in seven programs during the last decade are summarized. Experimental techniques were developed and are discussed including the double-probe field technique. The auroral zone, polar cap, and equatorial spread F were studied.

  8. CFD Analysis of the 24-inch JIRAD Hybrid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Ungewitter, Ronald; Claflin, Scott

    1996-01-01

    A series of multispecies, multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the 24-inch diameter joint government industry industrial research and development (JIRAD) hybrid rocket motor is described. The 24-inch JIRAD hybrid motor operates by injection of liquid oxygen (LOX) into a vaporization plenum chamber upstream of ports in the hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) solid fuel. The injector spray pattern had a strong influence on combustion stability of the JIRAD motor so a CFD study was initiated to define the injector end flow field under different oxidizer spray patterns and operating conditions. By using CFD to gain a clear picture of the flow field and temperature distribution within the JIRAD motor, it is hoped that the fundamental mechanisms of hybrid combustion instability may be identified and then suppressed by simple alterations to the oxidizer injection parameters such as injection angle and velocity. The simulations in this study were carried out using the General Algorithm for Analysis of Combustion SYstems (GALACSY) multiphase combustion codes. GALACSY consists of a comprehensive set of droplet dynamic submodels (atomization, evaporation, etc.) and a computationally efficient hydrocarbon chemistry package built around a robust Navier-Stokes solver optimized for low Mach number flows. Lagrangian tracking of dispersed particles describes a closely coupled spray phase. The CFD cases described in this paper represent various levels of simplification of the problem. They include: (A) gaseous oxygen with combusting fuel vapor blowing off the walls at various oxidizer injection angles and velocities, (B) gaseous oxygen with combusting fuel vapor blowing off the walls, and (C) liquid oxygen with combusting fuel vapor blowing off the walls. The study used an axisymmetric model and the results indicate that the injector design significantly effects the flow field in the injector end of the motor. Markedly different recirculation patterns are

  9. The auditory representation of speech sounds in human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Connie; Hamiton, Liberty S; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F

    2016-03-04

    In humans, listening to speech evokes neural responses in the motor cortex. This has been controversially interpreted as evidence that speech sounds are processed as articulatory gestures. However, it is unclear what information is actually encoded by such neural activity. We used high-density direct human cortical recordings while participants spoke and listened to speech sounds. Motor cortex neural patterns during listening were substantially different than during articulation of the same sounds. During listening, we observed neural activity in the superior and inferior regions of ventral motor cortex. During speaking, responses were distributed throughout somatotopic representations of speech articulators in motor cortex. The structure of responses in motor cortex during listening was organized along acoustic features similar to auditory cortex, rather than along articulatory features as during speaking. Motor cortex does not contain articulatory representations of perceived actions in speech, but rather, represents auditory vocal information.

  10. Two recently developed guidance and control systems for sounding rockets and similar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljunge, Lars

    2003-08-01

    Saab Ericsson Space has continued its development of digital control systems, based on its previous experiences from the Maxus GCS and DS19. Two new systems now exist: The S19D guidance and control system, which uses DS19 hardware to execute S19 type guidance and control. The GCS/DMARS guidance, navigation and control system, which is a modernisation of the GCS/RIINS. The family of guidance systems provided by Saab Ericsson Space now includes: The analog S19 and the digital S19D for constant attitude guidance during the first part of a sounding rocket's powered flight. The DS19, that controls the attitude throughout the motor burn phase and navigates the vehicle to a pre-set impact point. The (Maxus) GCS with the same function as the DS19, but using thrust vector control via moveable nozzles instead of canard control. The SPINRAC and the RACS, providing exo-atmospheric impact point and attitude control by on-board thrusters.

  11. Observations of Poleward Moving Auroral Forms by the Rocket Experiment for Neutral Upwelling 2 (RENU2) Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, M.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Clemmons, J. H.; Cohen, I.; Ellingsen, P. G.; Farrugia, C. J.; Fritz, B.; Harrington, M.; Hatch, S.; Hecht, J. H.; Hysell, D. L.; Kenward, D. R.; Labelle, J. W.; Lynch, K. A.; Moen, J. I.; Oksavik, K.; Partamies, N.; Powell, S. P.; Sadler, B.; Sigernes, F.; Syrjäsuo, M.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2016-12-01

    Poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs) are thought to be associated with flux transfer events (FTEs), driven by pulsed reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. The RENU2 sounding rocket, hosting a comprehensive suite of plasma, field and optical instruments, was launched into a PMAF in the cusp region on December 13, 2015. In-situ measurements on the rocket were complemented with extensive ground-based observations from high-quality optical, radar and other instruments. Onboard the payload, the PMAF was characterized by occurrences of small-scale ( 1 km) soft electron precipitation, counter-streaming flow channels and other plasma dynamics; from the ground, optical and radar signatures show numerous thin (but elongated) dynamic auroral forms.

  12. Engineering aspect of the microwave ionosphere nonlinear interaction experiment (MINIX) with a sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Makoto; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    The Microwave Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment (MINIX) is a sounding rocket experiment to study possible effects of strong microwave fields in case it is used for energy transmission from the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) upon the Earth's atmosphere. Its secondary objective is to develop high power microwave technology for space use. Two rocket-borne magnetrons were used to emit 2.45 GHz microwave in order to make a simulated condition of power transmission from an SPS to a ground station. Sounding of the environment radiated by microwave was conducted by the diagnostic package onboard the daughter unit which was separated slowly from the mother unit. The main design drivers of this experiment were to build such high power equipments in a standard type of sounding rocket, to keep the cost within the budget and to perform a series of experiments without complete loss of the mission. The key technology for this experiment is a rocket-borne magnetron and high voltage converter. Location of position of the daughter unit relative to the mother unit was a difficult requirement for a spin-stabilized rocket. These problems were solved by application of such a low cost commercial products as a magnetron for microwave oven and a video tape recorder and camera.

  13. Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor aluminum oxide investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomshield, Fred S.; Kraeutle, Karl J.; Stalnaker, Richard A.

    1994-10-01

    During the launch of STS-54, a 15 psi pressure blip was observed in the ballistic pressure trace of one of the two Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM). One possible scenario for the observed pressure increase deals with aluminum oxide slag formation in the RSRM. The purpose of this investigation was to examine changes which may have occurred in the aluminum oxide formation in shuttle solid propellant due to changes in the ammonium perchlorate. Aluminum oxide formation from three propellants, all having the same formulation, but containing ammonium perchlorate from different manufacturers, will be compared. Three methods have been used to look for possible differences among the propellants. The first method was to examine window bomb movies of the propellants burning at 100, 300 and 600 psia. The motor operating pressure during the pressure blip was around 600 psia. The second method used small samples of propellant which were fired in a combustion bomb which quenched the burning aluminum particles soon after they left the propellant surface. The bomb was fired in both argon and Nitrogen atmospheres at various pressures. Products from this device were examined by optical microscopy. The third method used larger propellant samples fired into a particle collection device which allowed the aluminum to react and combust more completely. This device was pressurized with Nitrogen to motor operating pressures. The collected products were subdivided into size fractions by screening and sedimentation and analyzed optically with an optical microscope. the results from all three methods indicate very small changes in the size distribution of combustion products.

  14. Development of a new generation solid rocket motor ignition computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.; Ciucci, Alessandro; Johnson, Shelby D.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of experimental and numerical investigations of the flow field in the head-end star grain slots of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. This work provided the basis for the development of an improved solid rocket motor ignition transient code which is also described in this report. The correlation between the experimental and numerical results is excellent and provides a firm basis for the development of a fully three-dimensional solid rocket motor ignition transient computer code.

  15. Welded Titanium Case for Space-Probe Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brothers, A. J.; Boundy, R. A.; Martens, H. E.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1959-01-01

    Early in 1958, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology was requested to participate in a lunar-probe mission code-named Juno II which would place a 15-lb Instrumented payload (Pioneer IV) in the vicinity of the moon. The vehicle was to use the same high-speed upper-stage assembly as flown on the successful Jupiter-C configuration; however, the first-stage booster was to be a Jupiter rather than a Redstone. An analysis of the intended flight and payload configuration Indicated that the feasibility of accomplishing the mission was questionable and that additional performance would have to be obtained if the mission was to be feasible. Since the most efficient way of Increasing the performance of a staged vehicle is to increase the performance of the last stage, a study of possible ways of doing this was made.. Because of the time schedule placed on this effort It was decided to reduce the weight of the fourth-stage rocket-motor case by substituting the annealed 6Al--4V titanium alloy for the Type 410 stainless steel. Although this introduced an unfamiliar material, It reduced the changes in design and fabrication techniques. This particular titanium alloy was chosen on the basis of previous tests which proved the suitability of the alloy as a pressure-vessel material when used at an annealed yield strength of about 120, 000 psi. The titanium-case fourth stage of Juno U is shown with the payload and on the missile in Fig. 1; the stainless-steel motor cases used in the Jupiter-C vehicle are shown in Fig. 2. The fourth-stage motor case has a diameter of 6 in., a length of approximately 38 in. center dot and a nominal cylindrical wall thickness of 0.025 in. As shown in Fig. 1, the case serves as the structural support of the payload and is aligned to the upper stage assembly through an alignment ring. The nozzle is threaded into the end of the motor case, and is of the ceramic-coated steel design. Figure 3 shows a comparison of the

  16. First results from the energetic particle instrument on the OEDIPUS-C sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, M. P.; Hardy, D. A.; James, H. G.

    The Canadian / US OEDIPUS-C rocket was flown from the Poker Flat Rocket Range November 6th 1995 as a mother-son sounding rocket. It was designed to study auroral ionospheric plasma physics using active wave sounding and prove tether technology. The payload separated into two sections reaching a separation of 1200m along the Earth's magnetic field. One section included a frequency stepped HF transmitter and the other included a synchronised HF receiver. Both sections included Energetic Particle Instruments, EPI, stepped in energy synchronously with the transmitter steps. On-board EPI particle processing in both payloads provided direct measurements of electron heating, wave-particle interactions via particle correlators, and a high resolution measurement of wave induced particle heating via transmitter synchronised fast sampling. Strong electron heating was observed at times when the HF transmitter frequency was equal to a harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency, f_ce, or equal to the upper hybrid frequency, f_uh.

  17. Space fireworks for upper atmospheric wind measurements by sounding rocket experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial meteor trains generated by chemical releases by using sounding rockets flown in upper atmosphere were successfully observed by multiple sites on ground and from an aircraft. We have started the rocket experiment campaign since 2007 and call it "Space fireworks" as it illuminates resonance scattering light from the released gas under sunlit/moonlit condition. By using this method, we have acquired a new technique to derive upper atmospheric wind profiles in twilight condition as well as in moonlit night and even in daytime. Magnificent artificial meteor train images with the surrounding physics and dynamics in the upper atmosphere where the meteors usually appear will be introduced by using fruitful results by the "Space firework" sounding rocket experiments in this decade.

  18. Status Update Report for the Peregrine 100km Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, Jonny; Zilliac, Greg; Doran, Eric; Marzona, Mark Thadeus; Lohner, Kevin; Karlik, Evan; Cantwell, Brian; Karabeyoglu, Arif

    2008-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of liquifying hybrid technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, test and y a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked o in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. Two virtually identical vehicles will be constructed and own out of the NASA Sounding Rocket Facility at Wallops Island. This paper presents the current status of the project as of June 2008. For background on the project, the reader is referred to last year's paper.

  19. 77 FR 61642 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research... Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act, as... addressed to Joshua Bundick, Manager, Poker Flat Research Range EIS, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's...

  20. Spread Across Liquids: The World's First Microgravity Combustion Experiment on a Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Spread Across Liquids (SAL) experiment characterizes how flames spread over liquid pools in a low-gravity environment in comparison to test data at Earth's gravity and with numerical models. The modeling and experimental data provide a more complete understanding of flame spread, an area of textbook interest, and add to our knowledge about on-orbit and Earthbound fire behavior and fire hazards. The experiment was performed on a sounding rocket to obtain the necessary microgravity period. Such crewless sounding rockets provide a comparatively inexpensive means to fly very complex, and potentially hazardous, experiments and perform reflights at a very low additional cost. SAL was the first sounding-rocket-based, microgravity combustion experiment in the world. It was expected that gravity would affect ignition susceptibility and flame spread through buoyant convection in both the liquid pool and the gas above the pool. Prior to these sounding rocket tests, however, it was not clear whether the fuel would ignite readily and whether a flame would be sustained in microgravity. It also was not clear whether the flame spread rate would be faster or slower than in Earth's gravity.

  1. GPS Sounding Rocket Development at NASA with Simultaneous Multi-Payload Tracking Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Martel, Hugh

    2000-01-01

    An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket use which includes the flight unit and a ground station capable of extracting GPS data from sounding rocket telemetry, performing a real time differential solution and graphically displaying the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. Accuracy has been proven to within less than 10 meters. Postprocessing has increased the precision to within 10 - 20 centimeters. The system has been successfully flown several times and delivered to the Sounding Program Office for routine field use. In addition to providing position, velocity and time GPS data has been used on sounding rockets for vehicle performance analysis, effecting a one hundred fold improvement in data time tagging, and steering an optical tracking device to intercept payloads launched from over the horizon. Precise velocity separation information and timing has been provided to multiple payload systems. Future plans include its use for Range Safety and enabling of interferometric techniques. The technology and software developed also has potential application to small satellite navigation and formation flying.

  2. A Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1996-01-01

    During the past year the changeover from the normal incidence X ray telescope (NIXT) program to the new TXI sounding rocket program was completed. The NIXT effort, aimed at evaluating the viability of the remaining portions of the NIXT hardware and design has been finished and the portions of the NIXT which are viable and flightworthy, such as filters, mirror mounting hardware, electronic and telemetry interface systems, are now part of the new rocket payload. The backup NIXT multilayer-coated X ray telescope and its mounting hardware have been completely fabricated and are being stored for possible future use in the TXI rocket. The h-alpha camera design is being utilized in the TXI program for real-time pointing verification and control via telemetry. Two papers, summarizing scientific results from the NIXT rocket program were published this year.

  3. GOES-R Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Lift and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    Technicians with United Launch Alliance (ULA) monitor the progress as the solid rocket motor is mated to the ULA Atlas V rocket in the Vertical Integration Facility at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will launch aboard the Atlas V rocket this month. GOES-R is the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites.

  4. GOES-R Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Lift and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    Preparations are underway to lift the solid rocket motor up from its transporter for mating to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in the Vertical Integration Facility at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will launch aboard the Atlas V rocket this month. GOES-R is the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites.

  5. GOES-R Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Lift and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    The solid rocket motor is lifted on its transporter for mating to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in the Vertical Integration Facility at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will launch aboard the Atlas V rocket this month. GOES-R is the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites.

  6. GOES-R Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Lift and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    Inside the Vertical Integration Facility at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, the solid rocket motor is mated to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket for its upcoming launch. NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will launch aboard the Atlas V rocket this month. GOES-R is the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites.

  7. GOES-R Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Lift and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    The solid rocket motor has been lifted to the vertical position for mating to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in the Vertical Integration Facility at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will launch aboard the Atlas V rocket this month. GOES-R is the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites.

  8. GOES-R Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Lift and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    Technicians with United Launch Alliance (ULA) assist as the solid rocket motor is mated to the ULA Atlas V rocket in the Vertical Integration Facility at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will launch aboard the Atlas V rocket this month. GOES-R is the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites.

  9. GOES-R Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Lift and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    Inside the Vertical Integration Facility at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, the solid rocket motor is being mated to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket for its upcoming launch. NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will launch aboard the Atlas V rocket this month. GOES-R is the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites.

  10. GOES-R Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Lift and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    The solid rocket motor has been lifted to the vertical position on its transporter for mating to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in the Vertical Integration Facility at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will launch aboard the Atlas V rocket this month. GOES-R is the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites.

  11. GOES-R Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Lift and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    The solid rocket motor has been lifted to the vertical position and moved into the Vertical Integration Facility at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida for mating to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket. NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will launch aboard the Atlas V rocket this month. GOES-R is the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites.

  12. Magnetic Bubble Memories for Data Collection in Sounding Rockets,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-29

    AD-AlI 106 NEW MEXICO STATE UIIV LAS CRUCES PHYSICAL SCIENCE LAS F/B 9/2 MAGNETIC BUBBLE MEMORIES FOR DATA COLLECTION IN SOUNDING ROCET -(ETC(UI JAN...awarded by the Department oif Defense and NASA , the project is to develop new bubble technologies for use i! mil itm.rv and space systems. In Japan

  13. Numerical and experimental analysis of heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guobiao; Li, Chengen; Tian, Hui

    2016-11-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor by two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulations and full-scale firing tests. Long-time working, which is an advantage of hybrid rocket motor over conventional solid rocket motor, puts forward new challenges for thermal protection. Thermal environments of full-scale hybrid rocket motors designed for long-time firing tests are studied through steady-state coupled numerical simulations of flow field and heat transfer in chamber head. The motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide (98HP) oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) based fuel as the propellants. Simulation results reveal that flowing liquid 98HP in head oxidizer chamber could cool the injector plate of the motor. The cooling of 98HP is similar to the regenerative cooling in liquid rocket engines. However, the temperature of the 98HP in periphery portion of the head oxidizer chamber is higher than its boiling point. In order to prevent the liquid 98HP from unexpected decomposition, a thermal protection method for chamber head utilizing silica-phenolics annular insulating board is proposed. The simulation results show that the annular insulating board could effectively decrease the temperature of the 98HP in head oxidizer chamber. Besides, the thermal protection method for long-time working hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor is verified through full-scale firing tests. The ablation of the insulating board in oxygen-rich environment is also analyzed.

  14. Block 2 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) conceptual design study. Volume 1: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The design studies task implements the primary objective of developing a Block II Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) design offering improved flight safety and reliability. The SRM literature was reviewed. The Preliminary Development and Validation Plan is presented.

  15. Analysis of the measured effects of the principal exhaust effluents from solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawbarn, R.; Kinslow, M.; Watson, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of conducting environmental chamber tests using a small rocket motor to study the physical processes which occur when the exhaust products from solid motors mix with the ambient atmosphere was investigated. Of particular interest was the interaction between hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, and water vapor. Several types of instruments for measuring HCl concentrations were evaluated. Under some conditions it was noted that acid aerosols were formed in the ground cloud. These droplets condensed on Al2O3 nuclei and were associated with the rocket exhaust cooling during the period of plume rise to stabilization. Outdoor firings of the solid rocket motors of a 6.4 percent scaled model of the space shuttle were monitored to study the interaction of the exhaust effluents with vegetation downwind of the test site. Data concerning aluminum oxide particles produced by solid rocket motors were evaluated.

  16. Reliability of solid rocket motor cases and nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crose, James G.

    1993-01-01

    A recent article in Aerospace America claims that 'the average success ratio of the current U.S. stable of launch vehicles, including upper stages, is about 92 percent (without upper stages it is close to 95 percent). The 8 percent failure probability implies an expected loss of $12M per flight, not including the lost opportunity costs'. Since payload costs are likely to be much greater than launch costs and even more so for the new launch vehicles for the Advanced Launch Development Program (ALDP), the cost of rocket motor unreliability at the current 8 percent rate can run into billions of dollars if expected increases in demand are realized. At an 8 percent failure rate, it is extremely unlikely that failure will occur during the first few ground tests of a new system. At that time, most of the design, analysis and tooling costs of the program have not expended. Since most systems are expected to be used ten to a hundred or more times, the likelihood of one or more failures is very large, and it can be expected that the above losses will be realized in the future. This will occur unless the problems are addressed and remedied. Recent trends suggest the problem is not being addressed adequately.

  17. Reliability of solid rocket motor cases and nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crose, James G.

    1993-02-01

    A recent article in Aerospace America claims that 'the average success ratio of the current U.S. stable of launch vehicles, including upper stages, is about 92 percent (without upper stages it is close to 95 percent). The 8 percent failure probability implies an expected loss of $12M per flight, not including the lost opportunity costs'. Since payload costs are likely to be much greater than launch costs and even more so for the new launch vehicles for the Advanced Launch Development Program (ALDP), the cost of rocket motor unreliability at the current 8 percent rate can run into billions of dollars if expected increases in demand are realized. At an 8 percent failure rate, it is extremely unlikely that failure will occur during the first few ground tests of a new system. At that time, most of the design, analysis and tooling costs of the program have not expended. Since most systems are expected to be used ten to a hundred or more times, the likelihood of one or more failures is very large, and it can be expected that the above losses will be realized in the future. This will occur unless the problems are addressed and remedied. Recent trends suggest the problem is not being addressed adequately.

  18. Solid-propellant rocket motor ballistic performance variation analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sforzini, R. H.; Foster, W. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of research aimed at improving the assessment of off-nominal internal ballistic performance including tailoff and thrust imbalance of two large solid-rocket motors (SRMs) firing in parallel. Previous analyses using the Monte Carlo technique were refined to permit evaluation of the effects of radial and circumferential propellant temperature gradients. Sample evaluations of the effect of the temperature gradients are presented. A separate theoretical investigation of the effect of strain rate on the burning rate of propellant indicates that the thermoelastic coupling may cause substantial variations in burning rate during highly transient operating conditions. The Monte Carlo approach was also modified to permit the effects on performance of variation in the characteristics between lots of propellants and other materials to be evaluated. This permits the variabilities for the total SRM population to be determined. A sample case shows, however, that the effect of these between-lot variations on thrust imbalances within pairs of SRMs is minor in compariosn to the effect of the within-lot variations. The revised Monte Carlo and design analysis computer programs along with instructions including format requirements for preparation of input data and illustrative examples are presented.

  19. NDE of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.

    One of the most critical areas for inspection in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors is the bond between the steel case and rubber insulation in the region of the field joints. The tang-and-clevis geometry of the field joints is sufficiently complex to prohibit the use of resonance-based techniques. One approach we are investigating is to interrogate the steel-insulation bondline in the tang and clevis regions using surface-travelling waves. A low-frequency contact surface wave transmitting array transducer is under development at our laboratory for this purpose. The array is placed in acoustic contact with the steel and surface waves are launched on the inside surface or the clevis leg which propagate along the steel-insulation interface. As these surface waves propagate along the bonded surface, the magnitude of the ultrasonic energy leaking into the steel is monitored on the outer surface of the case. Our working hypothesis is that the magnitude of energy received at the outer surface of the case is dependent upon the integrity of the case-insulation bond, with less attenuation for propagation along a disbond due to imperfect acoustic coupling between the steel and rubber. Measurements on test specimens indicate a linear relationship between received signal amplitude and the length of good bend between the transmitter and receiver, suggesting the validity of this working hypothesis.

  20. Solid rocket motor aft field joint flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabnis, Jayant S.; Gibeling, Edward J.; Mcdonald, Henry

    1987-01-01

    An efficient Navier-Stokes analysis was successfully applied to simulate the complex flow field in the vicinity of a slot in a solid rocket motor with segment joints. The capability of the computer code to resolve the flow near solid surfaces without using a wall function assumption was demonstrated. In view of the complex nature of the flow field in the vicinity of the slot, this approach is considered essential. The results obtained from these calculations provide valuable design information, which would otherwise be extremely difficult to obtain. The results of the axisymmetric calculations indicate the presence of a region of reversed axial flow at the aft-edge of the slot and show the over-pressure in the slot to be only about 10 psi. The results of the asymmetric calculations indicate that a pressure asymmetry more than two diameters downstream of the slot has no noticeable effect on the flow field in the slot. They also indicate that the circumferential pressure differential caused in the slot due to failure of a 15 deg section of the castable inhibitor will be approximately 1 psi.

  1. NDE of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most critical areas for inspection in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors is the bond between the steel case and rubber insulation in the region of the field joints. The tang-and-clevis geometry of the field joints is sufficiently complex to prohibit the use of resonance-based techniques. One approach we are investigating is to interrogate the steel-insulation bondline in the tang and clevis regions using surface-travelling waves. A low-frequency contact surface wave transmitting array transducer is under development at our laboratory for this purpose. The array is placed in acoustic contact with the steel and surface waves are launched on the inside surface or the clevis leg which propagate along the steel-insulation interface. As these surface waves propagate along the bonded surface, the magnitude of the ultrasonic energy leaking into the steel is monitored on the outer surface of the case. Our working hypothesis is that the magnitude of energy received at the outer surface of the case is dependent upon the integrity of the case-insulation bond, with less attenuation for propagation along a disbond due to imperfect acoustic coupling between the steel and rubber. Measurements on test specimens indicate a linear relationship between received signal amplitude and the length of good bend between the transmitter and receiver, suggesting the validity of this working hypothesis.

  2. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joint-4 Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. Louie

    2001-01-01

    This study provides for development and test verification of a thermal model used for prediction of joint heating environments, structural temperatures and seal erosions in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzle Joint-4. The heating environments are a result of rapid pressurization of the joint free volume assuming a leak path has occurred in the filler material used for assembly gap close out. Combustion gases flow along the leak path from nozzle environment to joint O-ring gland resulting in local heating to the metal housing and erosion of seal materials. Analysis of this condition was based on usage of the NASA Joint Pressurization Routine (JPR) for environment determination and the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) for structural temperature prediction. Model generated temperatures, pressures and seal erosions are compared to hot fire test data for several different leak path situations. Investigated in the hot fire test program were nozzle joint-4 O-ring erosion sensitivities to leak path width in both open and confined joint geometries. Model predictions were in generally good agreement with the test data for the confined leak path cases. Worst case flight predictions are provided using the test-calibrated model. Analysis issues are discussed based on model calibration procedures.

  3. Recovery system of sounding rocket S-520 type of ISAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinada, M.; Hayashi, T.; Matsuo, H.; Tsukamoto, S.; Ohshima, T.; Maeda, Y.; Kamata, Y.

    The design, performance, equipment, and initial flight test results for the S-520 solid fueled rocket are described. The S-520 carries a 408 kg payload, delivers 28,000 lb thrust, has a specific impulse of 29 sec, attains a velocity of 2.13 km/sec, and can reach 232 km altitude. The first S-520 was 9 m long and 0.524 m in diameter and had a three-stage configuration: engine, recovery test unit (RCU), and scientific instruments. The RTU contained parachute and flotation systems and a Loran-C locator beacon. The initial flight in September 1981 resulted in a splashdown 320 km downrange, with recovery accomplished within 4 hr of launch. Further flight tests and design upgrades are planned.

  4. Remote sensing of atmospheric oxygen from a sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Cotton, D. M.; Lampton, M.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Link, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a rocket experiment to investigate mechanisms governing the interactions between two of the fundamental components of the solar-terrestrial system: the solar ionizing radiation and the earth's upper atmosphere. The aim is to characterize the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions resulting from these interactions in terms of physical parameters so that EUV remote sensing can be gainfully employed as a quantitative diagnostic of the terrestrial atmosphere and plasma environment. The payload consists of a high-resolution (about 0.5 A) spectrometer to measure the EUV emissions (980-1360 A) of the earth's dayglow, a moderate resolution (about 15 A) EUV spectrometer (250-1450 A) to measure the solar irradiation responsible for the photoelectron production, and a hydrogen Lyman Alpha photometer to monitor the solar irradiance and geocoronal emissions.

  5. A normal incidence X-ray telescope sounding rocket payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1985-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following major activities on the X-ray telescope: (1) complete design of the entire telescope assembly and fabrication of all front-end components was completed; (2) all rocket skin sections, including bulkheads, feedthroughs and access door, were specified; (3) fabrication, curing and delivery of the large graphite-epoxy telescope tube were completed; (4) an engineering analysis of the primary mirror vibration test was completed and a decision made to redesign the mirror attachment system to a kinematic three-point mount; (5) detail design of the camera control, payload and housekeeping electronics were completed; and (6) multilayer mirror plates with 2d spacings of 50 A and 60 A were produced.

  6. A normal incidence X-ray telescope sounding rocket payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, L.

    1985-09-01

    Progress is reported on the following major activities on the X-ray telescope: (1) complete design of the entire telescope assembly and fabrication of all front-end components was completed; (2) all rocket skin sections, including bulkheads, feedthroughs and access door, were specified; (3) fabrication, curing and delivery of the large graphite-epoxy telescope tube were completed; (4) an engineering analysis of the primary mirror vibration test was completed and a decision made to redesign the mirror attachment system to a kinematic three-point mount; (5) detail design of the camera control, payload and housekeeping electronics were completed; and (6) multilayer mirror plates with 2d spacings of 50 A and 60 A were produced.

  7. Health Monitoring and Diagnosis of Solid Rocket Motors with Bore Cracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Engineering Education (ASEE). The authors gratefully acknowledge technical assistance from Jim Buswell and Herb Chelner of Micron Instruments in...for solid rocket motor health monitoring. In: Proceedings of 37th Annual Conference of Fraunhofer-Institute for Chemical Technology ( ICT ), Karlsruhe...Germany, 1- 12. 3. McDonald, A.J. (2010). Solid rocket motor failure. In: Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering , Vol. 2, Wiley and Sons, NY, 1123

  8. Subscale Fast Cookoff Testing and Modeling for the Hazard Assessment of Large Rocket Motors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    and other miscellaneous full-scale test results with solid rocket motors containing high-energy propellants . 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...Environmental tests Scale models 60 Fire hazards Solid propellant rocket engines 16. PRICE CODE Hazards Test and evaluation Model tests Test methods Safety...similar failure modes. The possible correlation between propellant properties and motor system hazards, especially for high-energy (small critical

  9. Advanced solid rocket motor nozzle thrust vector control flexseal development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prins, William S.; Meyer, Scott A.; Cox, Paul D.

    1992-07-01

    The advanced solid rocket motor (ASRM) flexseal development status is reviewed focusing on design goals and requirements, design configuration, analysis activities, and verification tests. It is concluded that the ASRM flexseal incorporates flight-proven materials in an innovative design configuration. Variable thickness shims and efficient packaging of the flexseal make it possible to achieve a significant weight reduction. A flexseal insulator design derived from strategic solid rocket motor experience will provide the necessary bearing thermal protection while minimizing vectoring torque variability.

  10. A three-layer magnetic shielding for the MAIUS-1 mission on a sounding rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Kubelka-Lange, André Herrmann, Sven; Grosse, Jens; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Rasel, Ernst M.; Braxmaier, Claus

    2016-06-15

    Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BECs) can be used as a very sensitive tool for experiments on fundamental questions in physics like testing the equivalence principle using matter wave interferometry. Since the sensitivity of these experiments in ground-based environments is limited by the available free fall time, the QUANTUS project started to perform BEC interferometry experiments in micro-gravity. After successful campaigns in the drop tower, the next step is a space-borne experiment. The MAIUS-mission will be an atom-optical experiment that will show the feasibility of experiments with ultra-cold quantum gases in microgravity in a sounding rocket. The experiment will create a BEC of 10{sup 5} {sup 87}Rb-atoms in less than 5 s and will demonstrate application of basic atom interferometer techniques over a flight time of 6 min. The hardware is specifically designed to match the requirements of a sounding rocket mission. Special attention is thereby spent on the appropriate magnetic shielding from varying magnetic fields during the rocket flight, since the experiment procedures are very sensitive to external magnetic fields. A three-layer magnetic shielding provides a high shielding effectiveness factor of at least 1000 for an undisturbed operation of the experiment. The design of this magnetic shielding, the magnetic properties, simulations, and tests of its suitability for a sounding rocket flight are presented in this article.

  11. A three-layer magnetic shielding for the MAIUS-1 mission on a sounding rocket.

    PubMed

    Kubelka-Lange, André; Herrmann, Sven; Grosse, Jens; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Rasel, Ernst M; Braxmaier, Claus

    2016-06-01

    Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BECs) can be used as a very sensitive tool for experiments on fundamental questions in physics like testing the equivalence principle using matter wave interferometry. Since the sensitivity of these experiments in ground-based environments is limited by the available free fall time, the QUANTUS project started to perform BEC interferometry experiments in micro-gravity. After successful campaigns in the drop tower, the next step is a space-borne experiment. The MAIUS-mission will be an atom-optical experiment that will show the feasibility of experiments with ultra-cold quantum gases in microgravity in a sounding rocket. The experiment will create a BEC of 10(5) (87)Rb-atoms in less than 5 s and will demonstrate application of basic atom interferometer techniques over a flight time of 6 min. The hardware is specifically designed to match the requirements of a sounding rocket mission. Special attention is thereby spent on the appropriate magnetic shielding from varying magnetic fields during the rocket flight, since the experiment procedures are very sensitive to external magnetic fields. A three-layer magnetic shielding provides a high shielding effectiveness factor of at least 1000 for an undisturbed operation of the experiment. The design of this magnetic shielding, the magnetic properties, simulations, and tests of its suitability for a sounding rocket flight are presented in this article.

  12. Ram-wake measurements obtained from the ionospheric sounding rocket MAIMIK

    SciTech Connect

    Svenes, K.R.; Troim, J.; Maehlum, B.N.; Friedrich, M.; Torkar, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Results of plasma measurements from the ionospheric sounding rocket MAIMIK are reported. Data obtained by high-resolution plasma probes show distinct classical wake signatures during the entire flight. That is, the electron temperature was enhanced behind the rocket in a region where both the electron and ion density were well below the ambient values. In addition, electron temperature enhancements were also detected in the ram (forward) direction on the downleg. The measurements are presented and discussed in relation to the prevailing ionospheric conditions.

  13. Sounding rocket attitude determination from on board magnetometer and telemetry signal polarisation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, D. P.; Greer, R. G. H.; McDade, I. C.

    1983-06-01

    The attitude of Petrel sounding rockets was determined from on-board magnetometer information and p band telemetry signal strength data from a polarized ground station antenna. Sky background information from the photometric payloads was compared to backgrounds reconstructed from satellite maps to assess the accuracy of the method. The result is consistant with other information available (sky background modulation) within the experimental constraints such as magnetometer calibration and light tables, and does not require extra hardware on the rocket. Accuracy can be improved by machine computation of the phase angles and a closer analysis of the whole flight especially around turnover on reentry.

  14. Flight safety programs and enhancements for sounding rockets at Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balach, Dean

    1995-01-01

    Sounding rocket programs are becoming larger and more complex, thus range safety personnel are required to be central to vehicle and mission design and operations planning. In response to this, the Wallops Flight Facility (VA), is upgrading range facilities, tracking systems, mobile systems and real-time safety systems. These enhancements will improve safety and reliability while augmenting mission success. Flight safety requirements and responsibilities are summarized, and the range safety's future upgrades for wind weighting, real-time analysis and displays, and the mobile safety systems for rocket programs, are considered.

  15. Solid Rocket Motor Combustion Instability Modeling in COMSOL Multiphysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability modeling of Solid Rocket Motors (SRM) remains a topic of active research. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process, acoustics, and steady-state gas dynamics. Recent advances in defining the energy transport of disturbances within steady flow-fields have been applied by combustion stability modelers to improve the analysis framework [1, 2, 3]. Employing this more accurate global energy balance requires a higher fidelity model of the SRM flow-field and acoustic mode shapes. The current industry standard analysis tool utilizes a one dimensional analysis of the time dependent fluid dynamics along with a quasi-three dimensional propellant grain regression model to determine the SRM ballistics. The code then couples with another application that calculates the eigenvalues of the one dimensional homogenous wave equation. The mean flow parameters and acoustic normal modes are coupled to evaluate the stability theory developed and popularized by Culick [4, 5]. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The current study employs the COMSOL multiphysics finite element framework to model the steady flow-field parameters and acoustic normal modes of a generic SRM. The study requires one way coupling of the CFD High Mach Number Flow (HMNF) and mathematics module. The HMNF module evaluates the gas flow inside of a SRM using St. Robert's law to model the solid propellant burn rate, no slip boundary conditions, and the hybrid outflow condition. Results from the HMNF model are verified by comparing the pertinent ballistics parameters with the industry standard code outputs (i.e. pressure drop, thrust, ect.). These results are then used by the coefficient form of the mathematics module to determine the complex eigenvalues of the

  16. The sounding rocket as pedagogical tool: a report from ten years of experience with the S.P.I.R.T. undergraduate sounding rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Timothy F.

    2005-08-01

    The Student Projects Involving Rocket Investigation Techniques (SPIRIT) program is a long-term, experimential learning, project-based program for undergraduates at Penn State University. Students in 5 functional teams design and build the experiments, but also the structure and rocket systems of a scientific payload. The payloads that emerge from three years of student work show extraordinary creativity. The scientific results, however, have been uneven. This suggests that the highest value of the program is in its educational impact and in the opportunity it provides for development of sounding rocket instruments and research techniques. In this paper, we review the goals and the results of the program from a teaching perspective. We report the results of past and ongoing assessments and present conclusions as to the value and limitations of the program. The SPIRIT program has been popular with students and the university administration. It is relatively inexpensive to run. The willingness of NASA Wallops Island personnel to mentor young students has been critical to the educational success of the program.

  17. Ballistic anomalies in solid rocket motors due to migration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pröbster, M.; Schmucker, R. H.

    Double base and composite propellants are generally used for rocket motors, whereby double base propellants basically consist of nitrocellulose plasticized with an explosive plasticizer, mostly nitroglycerine, and in some cases with an additional inert plasticizer and ballistic additives. Composite propellants consist of an oxidizer like ammonium perchlorate and of aluminum, binder and plasticizer and often contain liquid or solid burning rate catalysts. A common feature of both propellants is that they contain smaller or larger amounts of chemically unbonded liquid species which tend to migrate. If these propellants loose part of the plasticizer by migration into the insulation layer, not only will there be a change in mechanical propellant properties but also the bond between propellant and insulation may degrade. However, depending on the severity of these effects, the change in the ballistic properties of the propellant grain caused by plasticizer migration may be of even more importance. In the past, most emphasis was placed on the behaviour of end-burning configurations. However, more recent theoretical and experimental studies revealed that not only for end-burning grain configurations but also for internal burning configurations there is a common effect which is responsible for ballistic anomalies: migration of liquid species from the propellant into the insulation. By using a plasticizer equilibrated insulation in an internal burning configuration the liquid species migration and thus the previously observed ballistic anomalies are avoided. Using this approach for end-burning configurations provides similar positive results. The various factors affecting plasticizer migration are studied and discussed, and several methods to prevent liquid species migration are described as well as methods to obtain plasticizer resistant insulations.

  18. Solid rocket motor fire tests: Phases 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Hunter, Lawrence W.; Han, David K.; Thomas, Michael E.; Cain, Russell P.; Lennon, Andrew M.

    2002-01-01

    JHU/APL conducted a series of open-air burns of small blocks (3 to 10 kg) of solid rocket motor (SRM) propellant at the Thiokol Elkton MD facility to elucidate the thermal environment under burning propellant. The propellant was TP-H-3340A for the STAR 48 motor, with a weight ratio of 71/18/11 for the ammonium perchlorate, aluminum, and HTPB binder. Combustion inhibitor applied on the blocks allowed burning on the bottom and/or sides only. Burns were conducted on sand and concrete to simulate near-launch pad surfaces, and on graphite to simulate a low-recession surface. Unique test fixturing allowed propellant self-levitation while constraining lateral motion. Optics instrumentation consisted of a longwave infrared imaging pyrometer, a midwave spectroradiometer, and a UV/visible spectroradiometer. In-situ instrumentation consisted of rod calorimeters, Gardon gauges, elevated thermocouples, flush thermocouples, a two-color pyrometer, and Knudsen cells. Witness materials consisted of yttria, ceria, alumina, tungsten, iridium, and platinum/rhodium. Objectives of the tests were to determine propellant burn characteristics such as burn rate and self-levitation, to determine heat fluxes and temperatures, and to carry out materials analyses. A summary of qualitative results: alumina coated almost all surfaces, the concrete spalled, sand moisture content matters, the propellant self-levitated, the test fixtures worked as designed, and bottom-burning propellant does not self-extinguish. A summary of quantitative results: burn rate averaged 1.15 mm/s, thermocouples peaked at 2070 C, pyrometer readings matched MWIR data at about 2400 C, the volume-averaged plume temperatures were 2300-2400 C with peaks of 2400-2600 C, and the heat fluxes peaked at 125 W/cm2. These results are higher than other researchers' measurements of top-burning propellant in chimneys, and will be used, along with Phase 3 test results, to analyze hardware response to these environments, including General

  19. Observations of LHR noise with banded structure by the sounding rocket S29 barium-GEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskinen, H. E. J.; Holmgren, G.; Kintner, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of electrostatic noise near the lower hybrid frequency made by the sounding rocket S29 barium-GEOS is reported. The noise is related to the spin of the rocket and reaches well below the local lower hybrid resonance frequency. Above the altitude of 300 km the noise shows banded structure roughly organized by the hydrogen cyclotron frequency. Simultaneously with the banded structure a signal near the hydrogen cyclotron frequency is detected. This signal is also spin modulated. The character of the noise strongly suggests that it is locally generated by the rocket payload disturbing the plasma. If this interpretation is correct, plasma wave experiments on other spacecrafts are expected to observe similar phenomena.

  20. A program of high resolution X-ray astronomy using sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Two Aerobee 170 sounding rocket payloads were flown at the White Sands Missile Range: (1) a focusing X-ray collector on 31 March 1972; and (2) a high resolution telescope on 4 August 1972. Data has been reduced from each of these flights. In the first flight both the rocket and the experiment instrumentation performed adequately, and it is clear that at least the minimum scientific objectives were attained. In the second flight the attitude control system failed to point the telescope at the target for a sufficient length of time. However examination of final preflight checkout data and some flight data indicate that the instrumentation for this rocket payload was functioning according to expectations.

  1. Finite Element Simulation of Solid Rocket Booster Separation Motors During Motor Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu. Weiping; Crane, Debora J.

    2007-01-01

    One of the toughest challenges facing Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) engineers is to ensure that any design changes made to the Shuttle-Derived Booster Separation Motors (BSM) for future space exploration vehicles is able to withstand the increasingly hostile motor firing environment without cracking its critical component - the graphite throat. This paper presents a critical analysis methodology and techniques for assessing effects of BSM design changes with great accuracy and precision. For current Space Shuttle operation, the motor firing occurs at SRB separation - approximately 125 seconds after Shuttle launch at an altitude of about 28 miles. The motor operation event lasts about two seconds, however, the surface temperature of the graphite throat increases approximately 3400 F in less than one second with a corresponding increase in surface pressure of approximately 2200 pounds per square inch (psi) in less than one-tenth of a second. To capture this process fully and accurately, a two-phase sequentially coupled thermal-mechanical finite element approach was developed. This method allows the time- and location-dependent pressure fields to interact with the spatial-temporal thermal fields throughout the operation. The material properties of graphite throat are orthotropic and temperature-dependent. The analysis involves preload and multiple body contacts.

  2. Flight Performance Evaluation of Three GPS Receivers for Sounding Rocket Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Diehl, James; Montenbruck, Oliver; Markgraf, Markus; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In preparation for the European Space Agency Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange,, near Kiruna, Sweden on February 19, 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. The receivers included an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver, a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver and a Mitel Orion receiver. All of them provide CIA code tracking on the L1 frequency to determine the user position and make use of Doppler measurements to derive the instantaneous velocity. Among the receivers, the G12 has been optimized for use under highly dynamic conditions and has earlier been flown successfully on NASA sounding rockets [Bull, ION-GPS-2000]. The Allstar is representative of common single frequency receivers for terrestrial applications and received no particular modification, except for the disabling of the common altitude and velocity constraints that would otherwise inhibit its use for space application. The Orion receiver, finally, employs the same Mitel chipset as the Allstar, but has received various firmware modifications by DLR to safeguard it against signal losses and improve its tracking performance [Montenbruck et al., ION-GPS-2000]. While the two NASA receivers were driven by a common wrap-around antenna, the DLR experiment made use of a switchable antenna system comprising a helical antenna in the tip of the rocket and two blade antennas attached to the body of the vehicle. During the boost a peak acceleration of roughly 17g's was achieved which resulted in a velocity of about 1100 m/s at the end of the burn. At apogee, the rocket reached a maximum altitude of over 80 km. A detailed analysis of the attained flight data will be given in the paper together with a evaluation of different receiver designs and antenna concepts.

  3. Flight Performance Evaluation of Three GPS Receivers for Sounding Rocket Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Diehl, James; Montenbruck, Oliver; Markgraf, Markus; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In preparation for the European Space Agency Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange, near Kiruna, Sweden on February 19, 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. The receivers included an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver, a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver and a Mitel Orion receiver. All of them provide C/A code tracking on the L1 frequency to determine the user position and make use of Doppler measurements to derive the instantaneous velocity. Among the receivers, the G12 has been optimized for use under highly dynamic conditions and has earlier been flown successfully on NASA sounding rockets. The Allstar is representative of common single frequency receivers for terrestrial applications and received no particular modification, except for the disabling of the common altitude and velocity constraints that would otherwise inhibit its use for space application. The Orion receiver, finally, employs the same Mitel chipset as the Allstar, but has received various firmware modifications by DLR to safeguard it against signal losses and improve its tracking performance. While the two NASA receivers were driven by a common wrap-around antenna, the DLR experiment made use of a switchable antenna system comprising a helical antenna in the tip of the rocket and two blade antennas attached to the body of the vehicle. During the boost a peak acceleration of roughly l7g's was achieved which resulted in a velocity of about 1100 m/s at the end of the burn. At apogee, the rocket reached an altitude of over 80 km. A detailed analysis of the attained flight data is given together with a evaluation of different receiver designs and antenna concepts.

  4. Flight Performance Evaluation of Three GPS Receivers for Sounding Rocket Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Diehl, James; Montenbruck, Oliver; Markgraf, Markus; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In preparation for the European Space Agency Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange,, near Kiruna, Sweden on February 19, 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. The receivers included an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver, a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver and a Mitel Orion receiver. All of them provide CIA code tracking on the L1 frequency to determine the user position and make use of Doppler measurements to derive the instantaneous velocity. Among the receivers, the G12 has been optimized for use under highly dynamic conditions and has earlier been flown successfully on NASA sounding rockets [Bull, ION-GPS-2000]. The Allstar is representative of common single frequency receivers for terrestrial applications and received no particular modification, except for the disabling of the common altitude and velocity constraints that would otherwise inhibit its use for space application. The Orion receiver, finally, employs the same Mitel chipset as the Allstar, but has received various firmware modifications by DLR to safeguard it against signal losses and improve its tracking performance [Montenbruck et al., ION-GPS-2000]. While the two NASA receivers were driven by a common wrap-around antenna, the DLR experiment made use of a switchable antenna system comprising a helical antenna in the tip of the rocket and two blade antennas attached to the body of the vehicle. During the boost a peak acceleration of roughly 17g's was achieved which resulted in a velocity of about 1100 m/s at the end of the burn. At apogee, the rocket reached a maximum altitude of over 80 km. A detailed analysis of the attained flight data will be given in the paper together with a evaluation of different receiver designs and antenna concepts.

  5. Utilization of sounding rockets and balloons in the German Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preu, Peter; Friker, Achim; Frings, Wolfgang; Püttmann, Norbert

    2005-08-01

    Sounding rockets and balloons are important tools of Germany's Space Programme. DLR manages these activities and promotes scientific experiments and validation programmes within (1) Space Science, (2) Earth Observation, (3) Microgravity Research and (4) Re-entry Technologies (SHEFEX). In Space Science the present focus is at atmospheric research. Concerning Earth Observation balloon-borne measurements play a key role in the validation of atmospheric satellite sounders (ENVISAT). TEXUS and MAXUS sounding rockets are successfully used for short duration microgravity experiments. The Sharp Edge Flight Experiment SHEFEX will deliver data from a hypersonic flight for the validation of a new Thermal Protection System (TPS), wind tunnel testing and numerical analysis of aerothermodynamics. Signing the Revised Esrange and Andøya Special Project (EASP) Agreement 2006-2010 in June 2004 Germany has made an essential contribution to the long-term availability of the Scandinavian ranges for the European science community.

  6. Temperature and turbulence measurements during the ECOMA sounding rocket campaign 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnikov, Boris; Rapp, Markus; Singer, Werner; Baumgarten, Gerd; Williams, Bifford

    Two instrumented rockets were launched at Andøya (69 ° N) during the ECOMA sounding rocket campaign in September 2006. A comprehensive set of different data was measured insitu and by ground-based instruments. Temperature measurements were done by rocketborne instruments (ionization gauge and two Pirani gauges on each payload) and the ALOMAR RMR- and Weber Na-lidars. Simultaneously, turbulence measurements were done both in-situ using ionization gauges and using remote soundings with the SAURA MF radar. Measurements show a pronounced temperature inversion of about 30 K in the region from 80 to 100 km which coincides with a broad layer of neutral turbulence. From the morphology of the turbulence layer it can be attributed as likely originating from a wind shear.

  7. Testing the Equivalence Principle 10,000 Times Better on a Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. D.; Reasenberg, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    The Sounding-Rocket Principle Of Equivalence Measurement (SR-POEM) will test the weak equivalence principle (WEP) to 2 × 10-17 g in an experiment launched into free fall by a sounding rocket. The high sensitivity is possible in a short time because: (1) our laser distance gauges measure to 0.1 pm in 1 second; (2) the high measurement speed allows us to keep the temperature of the critical region stable to within a few μK using two cascaded thermal low-pass filters; (3) the spacing between the physics package and the test masses is kept constant by virtue of a servo (but not a drag-free satellite); (4) the test masses (TMs) are unconstrained during drops, avoiding constraint-force imperfections; and (5) the position measurement is to a plate that is almost stationary with respect to the TMs (by virtue of the position servo and the initialization of the TMs).

  8. Qualification of the 4th stage propulsor of the Brazilian launcher. SLV: A new sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscov, Jayme; Toyama, Wilson Katsumi

    1989-06-01

    The development of the Satellite Launcher Vehicle (SLV) is presented. In particular, the attention is focused on the acquisition of the propulsion parameters of the 4th stage propulsor. The device feasibility analysis is considered. The system consists of a two staged sounding rocket. Its second stage contains the SVL, which can be launched by the 4th stage propulsor to a height range of about 50 to 60 km.

  9. Determination of sounding rocket position and attitude from radar and magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques are described that were used to determine the trajectories and orientations of three sounding rockets instrumented to study the aurora. The radar plot board data were fitted to a near earth expansion of the force of gravity to determine the trajectory. Only onboard magnetometer data were used to determine the attitude of the payload with respect to the earth's magnetic field. Computer programs in the FORTRAN language are available which generate the trajectory and attitude parameters.

  10. Ultraviolet astronomy instrumentation for sounding rocket and Shuttle/Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with an electrographic Schmidt camera for wide-field imaging and objective-spectrographic sky surveys, and with a nebula spectrograph designed to obtain slit spectra of nebulae and other diffuse sources. Each of these ultraviolet astronomy instruments has been successfully used in sounding rocket flights. It is seen that, with some minor modifications, both instruments should be readily adaptable to Spacelab missions.

  11. MgII Linear Polarization Measurements Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) sounding rocket program, with emphasis on the polarization characteristics of the VUV optics and their spectral, spatial and polarization resolution. SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria and this paper will describe the data that was acquired with emphasis on the MgII linear polarization measurements.

  12. Wavefront sensing in space from the PICTURE-B sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Cook, Timothy A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2016-07-01

    A NASA sounding rocket for high contrast imaging with a visible nulling coronagraph, the Planet Imaging Coronagraphic Technology Using a Reconfigurable Experimental Base (PICTURE-B) payload has made two suborbital attempts to observe the warm dust disk inferred around Epsilon Eridani. We present results from the November 2015 launch demonstrating active wavefront sensing in space with a piezoelectric mirror stage and a micromachine deformable mirror along with precision pointing and lightweight optics in space.

  13. Detailed modal testing of a solid rocket motor using a portable test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glozman, Vladimir; Brillhart, Ralph D.

    1990-01-01

    Modern analytical techniques have expended the ability to evaluate solid rocket motors used in launch vehicles. As more detailed models of solid rocket motors were developed, testing methods were required to verify the models. Experimental modal analysis (modal testing) of space structures and launch vehicles has been a requirement for model validation for many years. However, previous testing of solid rocket motors has not typically involved dynamic modal testing of full scale motors for verification of solid propellant or system assembly properties. Innovative approaches to the testing of solid rocket motors were developed and modal testing of a full scale, two segment Titan 34D Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) was performed to validate detailed computer modeling. Special modifications were made to convert an existing facility into a temporary modal test facility which would accommodate the test article. The assembly of conventional data acquisition equipment into a multiple channel count portable system has made modal testing in the field feasible. Special purpose hydraulic exciters were configured to apply the dynamic driving forces required. All instrumentation and data collection equipment were installed at the test site for the duration of the test program and removed upon completion. Conversion of an existing test facility into a temporary modal test facility, and use of a multiple channel count portable test data acquisition system allowed all test objectives to be met and resulted in validation of the computer model in a minimum time.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF FLEXIBLE POLYMERS AS THERMAL INSULATION IN SOLID-PROPELLANT ROCKET MOTORS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    insulation in solid-propellant rocket motors. During the report period, efforts were concentrated on: (1) the internal flexibilization of epoxy, melamine ...and furan resins , (2) the investigation of other fillers besides asbestos fibers, (3) mechanical testing of aged, externally plasticized epoxy resins ...4) oxyacetylene torch testing of filled epoxy resins , and (5) static motor testing of filled flexible phenolic resins . (Author)

  15. Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

  16. Modulations of MLT turbulence by waves observed during the WADIS sounding rocket project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnikov, Boris; Latteck, Ralph; Strelnikova, Irina; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Baumgarten, Gerd; Rapp, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The WADIS project (WAve propagation and DISsipation in the middle atmosphere) aimed at studying waves, their dissipation, and effects on trace constituents. Among other things, it addressed the question of the variability of MLT turbulence, both in time and space. A unique feature of the WADIS project was multi-point turbulence sounding applying different measurement techniques including rocket-borne ionization gauges, VHF MAARSY radar, and VHF EISCAT radar in Tromsø. The project comprised two sounding rocket campaigns conducted at the Andøya Space Center (69 °N, 16 °E). One sounding rocket was launched in summer 2013 and one in winter 2015. The joint in-situ and ground-based observations showed horizontal variability of the turbulence field in the MLT at scales from a few to 100 km. We found that the turbulence dissipation rate varied in space in a wave-like manner both horizontally and in the vertical direction. This wave-like modulation reveals the same vertical wavelengths as those seen in gravity waves. We also found that vertical mean value of radar turbulence observations reveals wave-like modulation in time domain. This time variability results in up to two orders of magnitude change of the energy dissipation values with periods of 24 h. It also shows 12 h and shorter ( hours) modulations resulting in one decade variation. In this paper we present recent measurement results of turbulence-mean flow interaction and discuss possible reasons of the observed modulations.

  17. Assessment of future solid rocket motor flight instrumentation/data needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, W. L.

    1981-07-01

    Results of an assessment of a designer's data needs for solid rocket motor instrumentation is described, along with the state-of-the-art and specialized instrumentation used to date. It is determined that solid rocket motor data obtained during static testing does not always agree with flight test data, and more quantitative data is necessary for motor design. The most promising new flight test instrumentation/data techniques for future flight programs are presented: microwave horns, ultrasonics, thermovision, in situ transensors, isotopes, and parachute recovery of flight hardware. It is noted that a development effort (minimum one to two years) and adequate funding will be required to have these concepts available for the design of future solid rocket motors.

  18. National Report Switzerland: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Activities and Related Research in Switzerland 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    During the period from 2013 to 2015, many Swiss researchers conducted studies on research platforms such as balloons or sounding rockets, or at the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat. Researchers ‘ increased interest in sounding rockets during the two-year period is especially noteworthy. The use of the high altitude research stations, in contrast, has a long tradition in Switzerland and is, thus, frequently occupied by scientists. An advantage of these stations is the ideal set-up for researchers interested in the long-term measurement of the upper atmosphere, for example. Therefore, numcrous experiments in this particular research field were conducted and published in scientific journals. After a pause, several Swiss scientists became engaged in sounding rocket experiments. RUAG Space in Nyon, for instance, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and University of Freiburg, is focusing on the effect of gravity on plant roots. In order to investigate a gravity-dependent influence, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings are being planned for execution during the upcoming MASTER 1 3 campaign. A team of students from HES-SO Geneva were chosen to participate in the REXUS program with their experiment called CAESAR. A new concept of a propellant management device for space vehicles was introduced and tested on the REXUS 14 rocket by the team from Geneva in the spring of 20 1 3 . Last year, another student team, now from the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, was selected to fly their experiment on another REXUS rocket. Their proposed biological study is called CEMIOS and pertains to biochemical properties of the cell membrane. Once more the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat welcomed many national—as well as international—scientists in the past two years. The hours that the researchers spent in either station reached a record high despite the poor weather conditions

  19. Peregrine Rocket Motor Test at the Ames Outdoor Aerodynamic Rese

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Ashley Karp, NASA JPL (Left) and Hunjoo Kim, NASA JPL (Right) attaching heat sensors the Peregrine Hybrid Rocket Engine prior to its test at the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility (OARF, N-249) at NASA's Ames Research Center.

  20. Peregrine Rocket Motor Test at the Ames Outdoor Aerodynamic Rese

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Hunjoo Kim, NASA JPL (Left) and Ashley Karp, NASA JPL (Right) attaching heat sensors the Peregrine Hybrid Rocket Engine prior to its test at the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility (OARF, N-249) at NASA’s Ames Research Center.

  1. Peregrine Rocket Motor Test at the Ames Outdoor Aerodynamic Rese

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    (Left): Kyle Botteon (front) and Hunjpp Kim (Behind), NASA JPL. (Right): Gregory Zilliac, Advance Propulsion Technician. NASA Ames, preparing the Peregrine Hybrid Rocket Engine at the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility (OARF, N-249).

  2. Nightside sounding rocket study of precipitating ions in a Poleward Boundary Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mella, M. R.; Lynch, K. A.; Lundberg, E. T.; Lessard, M.; Hampton, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    The sounding rocket Cascades-2 launched on 20 March 2009 from the Poker Flat Research Range at 11:04:00 UT. The rocket initially crosses a diffuse arc, then crosses a streamer, which is the equatorward extent of one PBI (poleward boundary intensification), and finally crosses the initiation of a separate PBI before entering the polar cap. In this presentation we examine the in situ ion signatures at various times in the flight. At the poleward edge of the electron precipitation, as the rocket crosses the PBI, medium energy (between 10 eV and 800 eV), precipitating ions are observed. This population is not present at the time of the streamer or earlier in the flight. We hypothesize that the precipitating ions are drifting into the auroral region from the polar cap, which is why they are observed at the poleward boundary of the auroral oval. There they encounter the Alfvenic activity which is creating the soft electron precipitation of the PBI. This Alfvenic activity accelerates them down the field to the observation point, with dispersion signatures indicating wave-particle interactions at similar altitudes to those of the field-aligned electron bursts. The precipitating ion population is depleted in the poleward boundary region, and thus not observed in the more equatorward streamer. Similar signatures have been observed on previous nightside auroral sounding rockets at the poleward boundary by Lynch et al. [Annales Geophysicae, 2007]. In this presentation we examine the rocket data along with various scenarios for ion source regions to check the plausibility of our hypothesis. In particular we consider the scenario by which the source of these ions is the dayside cusp/cleft ion fountain upflow region.

  3. The auditory representation of speech sounds in human motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Connie; Hamilton, Liberty S; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F

    2016-01-01

    In humans, listening to speech evokes neural responses in the motor cortex. This has been controversially interpreted as evidence that speech sounds are processed as articulatory gestures. However, it is unclear what information is actually encoded by such neural activity. We used high-density direct human cortical recordings while participants spoke and listened to speech sounds. Motor cortex neural patterns during listening were substantially different than during articulation of the same sounds. During listening, we observed neural activity in the superior and inferior regions of ventral motor cortex. During speaking, responses were distributed throughout somatotopic representations of speech articulators in motor cortex. The structure of responses in motor cortex during listening was organized along acoustic features similar to auditory cortex, rather than along articulatory features as during speaking. Motor cortex does not contain articulatory representations of perceived actions in speech, but rather, represents auditory vocal information. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12577.001 PMID:26943778

  4. Delta II JPSS-1 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Hoist and Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-19

    At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, a solid rocket motor is lifted at Space Launch Complex 2 to be attached to a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket. Preparations are continuing for launch of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1) spacecraft on March 27, 2017. JPSS-1 is part of the next-generation environmental satellite system, a collaborative program between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA.

  5. A compact and robust diode laser system for atom interferometry on a sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schkolnik, V.; Hellmig, O.; Wenzlawski, A.; Grosse, J.; Kohfeldt, A.; Döringshoff, K.; Wicht, A.; Windpassinger, P.; Sengstock, K.; Braxmaier, C.; Krutzik, M.; Peters, A.

    2016-08-01

    We present a diode laser system optimized for laser cooling and atom interferometry with ultra-cold rubidium atoms aboard sounding rockets as an important milestone toward space-borne quantum sensors. Design, assembly and qualification of the system, combing micro-integrated distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser modules and free space optical bench technology, is presented in the context of the MAIUS (Matter-wave Interferometry in Microgravity) mission. This laser system, with a volume of 21 l and total mass of 27 kg, passed all qualification tests for operation on sounding rockets and is currently used in the integrated MAIUS flight system producing Bose-Einstein condensates and performing atom interferometry based on Bragg diffraction. The MAIUS payload is being prepared for launch in fall 2016. We further report on a reference laser system, comprising a rubidium stabilized DFB laser, which was operated successfully on the TEXUS 51 mission in April 2015. The system demonstrated a high level of technological maturity by remaining frequency stabilized throughout the mission including the rocket's boost phase.

  6. Numerical flow simulation of a reusable sounding rocket during nose-up rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuu, Kazuto; Kitamura, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Shima, Eiji

    2010-11-01

    Flow around a reusable sounding rocket during nose-up rotation is simulated using unstructured compressible CFD code. While a reusable sounding rocket is expected to reduce the cost of the flight management, it is demanded that this rocket has good performance for wide range of flight conditions from vertical take-off to vertical landing. A rotating body, which corresponds to a vehicle's motion just before vertical landing, is one of flight environments that largely affect its aerodynamic design. Unlike landing of the space shuttle, this vehicle must rotate from gliding position to vertical landing position in nose-up direction. During this rotation, the vehicle generates massive separations in the wake. As a result, induced flow becomes unsteady and could have influence on aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. In this study, we focus on the analysis of such dynamic characteristics of the rotating vehicle. An employed numerical code is based on a cell-centered finite volume compressible flow solver applied to a moving grid system. The moving grid is introduced for the analysis of rotating motion. Furthermore, in order to estimate an unsteady turbulence, we employed DDES method as a turbulence model. In this simulation, flight velocity is subsonic. Through this simulation, we discuss the effect on aerodynamic characteristics of a vehicle's shape and motion.

  7. Moving sounds within the peripersonal space modulate the motor system.

    PubMed

    Finisguerra, Alessandra; Canzoneri, Elisa; Serino, Andrea; Pozzo, Thierry; Bassolino, Michela

    2015-04-01

    Interactions between ourselves and the external world are mediated by a multisensory representation of the space surrounding the body, i.e. the peripersonal space (PPS). In particular, a special interplay is observed among tactile stimuli delivered on a body part, e.g. the hand, and visual or auditory external inputs presented close, but not far, from the same body part, e.g. within hand PPS. This coding of multisensory stimuli as a function of their distance from the hand has a role in upper limb actions. However, it remains unclear whether PPS representation affects the motor system only when stimuli occur specifically at the hand location or when they move within a continuous portion of space where the hand can potentially act. Here, in order to study these two alternatively hypotheses, we assessed the critical distance at which moving sounds have a direct effect on hand corticospinal excitability by using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Specifically, TMS single pulses were delivered when a sound source was perceived at six different positions in space: from very close to subjects' hand (15 cm) to far away (90 cm). Moreover, sound direction was manipulated to test if stimuli approaching and receding from the hand might have the same relevance for the motor system. MEPs amplitude was enhanced when sounds were delivered within a limited distance from the hand (around 60 cm) as compared to when the sounds were beyond this space. This effect captures the spatial boundaries within which PPS representation modulates hand cortico-motor excitability. This spatially-dependent modulation of corticospinal activity was not further affected by the sound direction. Such findings support a strict link between the multisensory representation of the space around the body and the motor representation of potential approaching or defensive acts within that space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  9. Development of carbon-carbon nozzle extension for liquid fuel rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovsky, M. I.; Petukhov, S. N.; Semyonov, Yu. P.; Sokolov, B. A.

    2008-12-01

    Successful experience of RSC “Energy” and SPA “Iskra” in the development of carbon-carbon extension for oxygen-kerosene liquid fuel rocket motor has been summarized. Methodological approach that served to completion of carbon-carbon extension development in full and at comparatively small expenses has been described. Results of practical application of carbon-carbon extension for liquid fuel rocket motor 11D58M have been presented within the framework of International Space Program “Sea Launch”.

  10. Studying the Hot ISM with the X-ray Quantum Calorimeter Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Kelsey; Jaeckel, Felix; McCammon, Dan; Wulf, Dallas; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele; Uprety, Youaraj

    2014-08-01

    The X-ray Quantum Calorimeter sounding rocket instrument is a 36-pixel microcalorimeter array with a 1 sr field of view and 8-10 eV FWHM resolution in the 0.1-1.5 keV energy range. XQC has made 6 flights from White Sands Missile Range between 1995 and 2013 to obtain high resolution spectra of the soft diffuse X-ray background. With these spectra we have gained insight into some of the key open questions about the hot interstellar medium in our Galaxy, such as the contribution of Solar Wind Charge Exchange to the observed diffuse background and the extent of iron depletion in the Local Cavity, and even placed constraints on certain types of dark matter. I will present results from previous flights, discuss the current state of data analysis from our most recent flight, and share our outlook for future rocket missions.

  11. Peregrine Rocket Motor Test at the Ames Outdoor Aerodynamic Rese

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    From Left to Right: Ashley Karp (NASA JPL), Hunjoo Kim (NASA JPL), Brian Schratz (NASA JPL) and Kyle Botteon (NASA JPL) Testing the Peregrine Hybrid Rocket Engine at the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility (building N249, OARF) at NASA’s Ames Research Center.

  12. Peregrine Rocket Motor Test at the Ames Outdoor Aerodynamic Rese

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    From Left to Right: 1. Hunjoo Kim (NASA JPL) 2. Kyle Botteon (NASA JPL) 3. Ashley Karp (NASA JPL) 4. Brian Schratz (NASA JPL) Testing the Peregrine Hybrid Rocket Engine at the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility (building N249, OARF) at Ames Research Center.

  13. Solid Rocket Motor Backflow Analysis For CONTOUR Mishap Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-13

    to thank the members of the CONTOUR MIB, especially Mr. Craig Tooley , NASA/GSFC, for their support. He also appreciates the efforts of Messrs. Lou... Tooley , CONTOUR Mishap Investigation Board, SAI-12-627/MSW-2, 20 May 2003, pp. 1-13. 6. M. Woronowicz, “Development of a Novel Free Molecule Rocket Plume

  14. Enhanced Large Solid Rocket Motor Understanding Through Performance Margin Testing: RSRM Five-Segment Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huppi, Hal; Tobias, Mark; Seiler, James

    2003-01-01

    The Five-Segment Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3) is an extended length reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM) intended to increase motor performance and internal environments above the current four-segment RSRM flight motor. The principal purpose of ETM-3 is to provide a test article for RSRM component margin testing. As the RSRM and Space Shuttle in general continue to age, replacing obsolete materials becomes an ever-increasing issue. Having a five-segment motor that provides environments in excess of normal opera- tion allows a mechanism to subject replacement materials to a more severe environment than experienced in flight. Additionally, ETM-3 offers a second design data point from which to develop and/or validate analytical models that currently have some level of empiricism associated with them. These enhanced models have the potential to further the understanding of RSRM motor performance and solid rocket motor (SRM) propulsion in general. Furthermore, these data could be leveraged to support a five-segment booster (FSB) development program should the Space Shuttle program choose to pursue this option for abort mode enhancements during the ascent phase. A tertiary goal of ETM-3 is to challenge both the ATK Thiokol Propulsion and NASA MSFC technical personnel through the design and analysis of a large solid rocket motor without the benefit of a well-established performance database such as the RSRM. The end result of this undertaking will be a more competent and experienced workforce for both organizations. Of particular interest are the motor design characteristics and the systems engineering approach used to conduct a complex yet successful large motor static test. These aspects of ETM-3 and more will be summarized.

  15. A Real Time Differential GPS Tracking System for NASA Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads to several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including: chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices to be used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in these more expensive missions. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia; Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and from a number of ranges outside the United States. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requiring considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. In order to support these missions, an inverse differential GPS system has been developed. The flight system consists of a small, inexpensive receiver, a preamplifier and a wrap-around antenna. A rugged, compact, portable ground station extracts GPS data from the raw payload telemetry stream, performs a real time differential solution and graphically displays the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. In addition to generating a real time navigation solution, the system has been used for payload recovery, timing, data timetagging, precise tracking of multiple payloads and slaving of optical tracking systems for over the horizon acquisition. This paper discusses, in detail, the flight and ground hardware, as well as data processing and operational aspects of the system, and provides evidence of the system accuracy.

  16. Sounding rocket based investigations of HF waves in the auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, Kristin Lynn

    1999-10-01

    The PHAZE II and Auroral Turbulence II sounding rockets were launched into active, pre-midnight aurora during the February 1997 sounding rocket campaign from Poker Flat, Alaska. Both rockets carried a full complement of plasma intruments including particle detectors and electric field instruments. The high frequency electric field instrument (HFE), flown on both rockets, was designed and built at Dartmouth College. This unusual instrument transmitted the full electric field waveform using a dedicated telemetry link. The unprecedented resolution in both frequency and time yielded the first identifiable observations of several HF wave phenomena. We investigated two of these phenomena, HF chirps in the region when fpe > fce and HF bands at higher altitudes where fpe < fce. HF chirps are extremely narrowband, short-lived emissions which occur when fpe > fce. We propose that these waves are created as Z-modes waves which are quasi- trapped in density cavities. HF bands have long durations and narrowband, constant frequency structure and are observed in regions where the local plasma density is varying. These emissions occur when fpe < fce and the whistler mode connects to the Langmuir mode. They are generated by an electron beam interaction which produces Langmuir waves which then move onto the whistler mode when the local plasma density increases. The HFE also provided a method for determining the local plasma density without relying on Langmuir probes or active plasma experiments. When the frequency cutoff of the background wideband emissions is evident, this cutoff is used as a track of the local plasma frequency, which is dependent on the plasma density. We used this technique to definitively correlate lower hybrid solitary structures with density gradients. The use of the HFE on both flights has allowed us to observe HF wave phenomena which have been inaccessible previously.

  17. A Real Time Differential GPS Tracking System for NASA Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads to several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including: chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices to be used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in these more expensive missions. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia; Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and from a number of ranges outside the United States. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requiring considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. In order to support these missions, an inverse differential GPS system has been developed. The flight system consists of a small, inexpensive receiver, a preamplifier and a wrap-around antenna. A rugged, compact, portable ground station extracts GPS data from the raw payload telemetry stream, performs a real time differential solution and graphically displays the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. In addition to generating a real time navigation solution, the system has been used for payload recovery, timing, data timetagging, precise tracking of multiple payloads and slaving of optical tracking systems for over the horizon acquisition. This paper discusses, in detail, the flight and ground hardware, as well as data processing and operational aspects of the system, and provides evidence of the system accuracy.

  18. An Instrument for Real-Time Measurement of Solid Rocket Motor Insulation Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWhorter, B. B.

    1999-01-01

    An instrument (eroding potentionmeter) has been designed to measure real-time case wall and inhibitor insulation char depth within a rocket motor during firing. Thus measurement can be close to the real-time recession of the insulation surface. The eroding potentionmeter consists of two small (3 mils 9in diameter) twisted resistive wires that are polyimide insulated. The wire pair form an electrical circuit and will recede with the erosion of the rocket motor internal insulation. A constant current applied along the wires will detect the resistance change via a voltage drop across the wires as the wire pair recedes with the decomposition fo the insulation. The eroding potentionmeter, as presently designed, can be an effective tool for real time measurement of internal insulation recession of a solid rocket motor. This tool will provide a way to accurately measure inhibitor performance or to measure flight effects of insulation erosion on a flight test. The eroding potentiometer has been verified on a plasma torch test and two static tests of a small solid rocket motor. There are some irregularities in the measured date, but the data remains useful in determining the real-time performance of internal insulation during a motor firing.

  19. The S19 guided sounding rocket S38 Trigger Optimized Repetition (TOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, L.; Forsell, T.

    The S38 sounding rocket guided by the SSC S19 guidance system measured the impact of sudden local artificial disturbance in the lower ionosphere. The payload consisted of diagnostic instruments, ejectable nosecone, boom systems, service modules, S19 guidance system and recovery system in the mother section, and 2 daughters containing cesium charges. The daughters were separated on the up-leg using high velocity separation systems. An eight-spring separation system was chosen to minimize the tip-off disturbances and the module length. Two artificial clouds were created by detonating the daughters on separate altitudes. The mother flew through the clouds giving measurement values outside and in the clouds.

  20. Solar EUV irradiance derived from a sounding rocket experiment on November 10, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.

    1990-05-01

    Results are presented on the solar EUV irradiance measurements in the range 30-100 nm obtained in a sounding rocket experiment launched from the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on November 10, 1988. The observed solar EUV irradiance was found to be about 20 percent less than the solar EUV flux from a proxy model based on the daily 10.7-cm solar flux and its 81-day mean and the AE-E solar EUV data taken in the 1970s. The November 10 measurement of the solar EUV flux provides a good calibration reference spectrum for the solar EUV instruments on the San Marco satellite.

  1. Solar EUV irradiance derived from a sounding rocket experiment on November 10, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the solar EUV irradiance measurements in the range 30-100 nm obtained in a sounding rocket experiment launched from the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on November 10, 1988. The observed solar EUV irradiance was found to be about 20 percent less than the solar EUV flux from a proxy model based on the daily 10.7-cm solar flux and its 81-day mean and the AE-E solar EUV data taken in the 1970s. The November 10 measurement of the solar EUV flux provides a good calibration reference spectrum for the solar EUV instruments on the San Marco satellite.

  2. Flight Test of the Aerojet 7KS-6000 T-27 Jato Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Aleck C.; Thibodaux, Joseph G., Jr.

    1949-01-01

    A flight test of the Aero jet Engineering Corporation's 7KS-6000 T-27 Jato rocket motor was conducted at the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va, to determine the flight performance characteristics of the motor. The flight test imposed an absolute longitudinal acceleration of 9.8 g upon the rocket motor at 2.8 seconds after launching. The total impulse developed by the motor was 43,400 pound-seconds, and the thrusting time was 7.58 seconds. The maximum thrust was 7200 pounds and occurred at 4.8 seconds after launching. No thrust irregularities attributable to effects of the flight longitudinal acceleration were observed. Certain small thrust irregularities occurred in the flight test which appear to correspond to irregularities observed in static tests conducted elsewhere. A hypothesis regarding the origin of these small irregularities is presented.

  3. Simultaneous in-situ measurements of neutral temperature and oxygen in the mesosphere during the WADIS sounding rocket project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnikov, Boris; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Rapp, Markus; Grygalashvyly, Mykhaylo; Löhle, Stefan; Eberhart, Martin; Fasoulas, Stefanos; Hedin, Jonas; Gumbel, Jörg; Khaplanov, Mikhail; Stegman, Jacek; Friedrich, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The WADIS project (Wave propagation and dissipation in the middle atmosphere: energy budget and distribution of trace constituents) aimed at studying waves, their dissipation, and effects on trace constituents. The project comprised two sounding rocket campaigns conducted at the Andøya Space Center (69 °N, 16 °E). One sounding rocket was launched in summer 2013 and one in winter 2015. In-situ measurements delivered high resolution altitude-profiles of neutral temperature and density, as well as plasma and oxygen densities. Atomic oxygen was measured by two different techniques. Airglow photometers operated by MISU measured emissions from excited molecular oxygen at 1.27 um (daytime summer launch) and 762 nm (night-time winter launch), both of which can be used to infer altitude profiles of atomic oxygen. This is a well-proven technique and has been applied to sounding rocket and satellite measurements in the past. Solid electrolyte sensors (FIPEX) operated by IRS is a new technique for sounding rockets, which yielded atomic oxygen density profiles with a height resolution better than 10 m. The neutral air density and temperature was measured by the CONE instrument also with very heigh altitude resolution and precision. All these instruments were mounted on the same deck of the sounding rocket and, therefore delivered real common volume measurements. In this paper we present simultaneous in-situ temperature and oxygen density measurements and discuss how variability of these quantities may influence temperature derivations from OH airglow observations at mesopause heights.

  4. The space shuttle advanced solid rocket motor: Quality control and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Congressional committees that authorize the activities of NASA requested that the National Research Council (NRC) review the testing and quality assurance programs for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program. The proposed ASRM design incorporates numerous features that are significant departures from the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The NRC review concentrated mainly on these features. Primary among these are the steel case material, welding rather than pinning of case factory joints, a bolted field joint designed to close upon firing the rocket, continuous mixing and casting of the solid propellant in place of the current batch processes, use of asbestos-free insulation, and a lightweight nozzle. The committee's assessment of these and other features of the ASRM are presented in terms of their potential impact on flight safety.

  5. Comparisons Between Stability Prediction and Measurements for the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The Space Transportation System has used the solid rocket boosters for lift-off and ascent propulsion over the history of the program. Part of the structural loads assessment of the assembled vehicle is the contribution due to solid rocket booster thrust oscillations. These thrust oscillations are a consequence of internal motor pressure oscillations active during operation. Understanding of these pressure oscillations is key to predicting the subsequent thrust oscillations and vehicle loading. The pressure oscillation characteristics of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) design are reviewed in this work. Dynamic pressure data from the static test and flight history are shown, with emphasis on amplitude, frequency, and timing of the oscillations. Physical mechanisms that cause these oscillations are described by comparing data observations to predictions made by the Solid Stability Prediction (SSP) code.

  6. Regression rate behaviors of HTPB-based propellant combinations for hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Li, Yuelong; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the regression rate behavior of hybrid rocket motor propellant combinations, using hydrogen peroxide (HP), gaseous oxygen (GOX), nitrous oxide (N2O) as the oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) as the based fuel. In order to complete this research by experiment and simulation, a hybrid rocket motor test system and a numerical simulation model are established. Series of hybrid rocket motor firing tests are conducted burning different propellant combinations, and several of those are used as references for numerical simulations. The numerical simulation model is developed by combining the Navies-Stokes equations with the turbulence model, one-step global reaction model, and solid-gas coupling model. The distribution of regression rate along the axis is determined by applying simulation mode to predict the combustion process and heat transfer inside the hybrid rocket motor. The time-space averaged regression rate has a good agreement between the numerical value and experimental data. The results indicate that the N2O/HTPB and GOX/HTPB propellant combinations have a higher regression rate, since the enhancement effect of latter is significant due to its higher flame temperature. Furthermore, the containing of aluminum (Al) and/or ammonium perchlorate(AP) in the grain does enhance the regression rate, mainly due to the more energy released inside the chamber and heat feedback to the grain surface by the aluminum combustion.

  7. Numerical Modelling of Staged Combustion Aft-Injected Hybrid Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijsse, Jeff

    The staged combustion aft-injected hybrid (SCAIH) rocket motor is a promising design for the future of hybrid rocket propulsion. Advances in computational fluid dynamics and scientific computing have made computational modelling an effective tool in hybrid rocket motor design and development. The focus of this thesis is the numerical modelling of the SCAIH rocket motor in a turbulent combustion, high-speed, reactive flow framework accounting for solid soot transport and radiative heat transfer. The SCAIH motor is modelled with a shear coaxial injector with liquid oxygen injected in the center at sub-critical conditions: 150 K and 150 m/s (Mach ≈ 0.9), and a gas-generator gas-solid mixture of one-third carbon soot by mass injected in the annual opening at 1175 K and 460 m/s (Mach ≈ 0.6). Flow conditions in the near injector region and the flame anchoring mechanism are of particular interest. Overall, the flow is shown to exhibit instabilities and the flame is shown to anchor directly on the injector faceplate with temperatures in excess of 2700 K.

  8. Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Core Flow Sampling at High Altitudes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    16 I L L U S T R A T I O N S Figure I. Photograph of IUS Solid Rocket Motor and J-5 Diffuser ...Installation in Diffuser o f J-5 Test Cell for Core Flow Sampling of IUS Plume before Firing...24 12. Photograph and Histogram of IUS- DSSC Centerline Probe m Bottle 3, 21.5 sec, (A1203

  9. Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Appendix B: Prime item development specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The specifications for the performance, design, development, and test requirements of the P2-156, S3-156, and S6-120 space shuttle booster solid rocket motors are presented. The applicable documents which form a part of the specifications are listed.

  10. Fluid-solid coupled simulation of the ignition transient of solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Peijin; He, Guoqiang

    2015-05-01

    The first period of the solid rocket motor operation is the ignition transient, which involves complex processes and, according to chronological sequence, can be divided into several stages, namely, igniter jet injection, propellant heating and ignition, flame spreading, chamber pressurization and solid propellant deformation. The ignition transient should be comprehensively analyzed because it significantly influences the overall performance of the solid rocket motor. A numerical approach is presented in this paper for simulating the fluid-solid interaction problems in the ignition transient of the solid rocket motor. In the proposed procedure, the time-dependent numerical solutions of the governing equations of internal compressible fluid flow are loosely coupled with those of the geometrical nonlinearity problems to determine the propellant mechanical response and deformation. The well-known Zeldovich-Novozhilov model was employed to model propellant ignition and combustion. The fluid-solid coupling interface data interpolation scheme and coupling instance for different computational agents were also reported. Finally, numerical validation was performed, and the proposed approach was applied to the ignition transient of one laboratory-scale solid rocket motor. For the application, the internal ballistics were obtained from the ground hot firing test, and comparisons were made. Results show that the integrated framework allows us to perform coupled simulations of the propellant ignition, strong unsteady internal fluid flow, and propellant mechanical response in SRMs with satisfactory stability and efficiency and presents a reliable and accurate solution to complex multi-physics problems.

  11. 'Incremental thermocouple probe' for testing insulation erosion on a rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Reginald J.

    1993-01-01

    An incremental thermocouple probe was developed to measure insulation erosion during a solid rocket motor firing. The probe's new and unique design is described along with its theory of operation. Data from an actual firing are reported which show that the probe's performance greatly exceeded predictions and present technology as a temperature measurement device and as an event gage.

  12. Development of improved ablative materials for ASRM. [Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, A.; Armour, W.; Clinton, R.

    1991-01-01

    A program to improve ablative materials for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) is briefly discussed. The main concerns with the baseline material are summarized along with the measures being undertaken to obtain improvements. The materials involved in the program, all of which have been manufactured and are now being evaluated, are mentioned.

  13. Loads analysis and testing of flight configuration solid rocket motor outer boot ring segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq

    1990-01-01

    The loads testing on in-house-fabricated flight configuration Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) outer boot ring segments. The tests determined the bending strength and bending stiffness of these beams and showed that they compared well with the hand analysis. The bending stiffness test results compared very well with the finite element data.

  14. Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Volume 3: Program acquisition planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderesch, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Plans for conducting Phase C/D for a solid rocket motor booster vehicle are presented. Methods for conducting this program with details of scheduling, testing, and program management and control are included. The requirements of the space shuttle program to deliver a minimum cost/maximum reliability booster vehicle are examined.

  15. Measurement and Characterization of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Plume Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Jeremy; Hobbs, Chris; Plotkin, Ken; Pilkey, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    Lift-off acoustic environments generated by the future Ares I launch vehicle are assessed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) acoustics team using several prediction tools. This acoustic environment is directly caused by the Ares I First Stage booster, powered by the five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRMV). The RSRMV is a larger-thrust derivative design from the currently used Space Shuttle solid rocket motor, the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). Lift-off acoustics is an integral part of the composite launch vibration environment affecting the Ares launch vehicle and must be assessed to help generate hardware qualification levels and ensure structural integrity of the vehicle during launch and lift-off. Available prediction tools that use free field noise source spectrums as a starting point for generation of lift-off acoustic environments are described in the monograph NASA SP-8072: "Acoustic Loads Generated by the Propulsion System." This monograph uses a reference database for free field noise source spectrums which consist of subscale rocket motor firings, oriented in horizontal static configurations. The phrase "subscale" is appropriate, since the thrust levels of rockets in the reference database are orders of magnitude lower than the current design thrust for the Ares launch family. Thus, extrapolation is needed to extend the various reference curves to match Ares-scale acoustic levels. This extrapolation process yields a subsequent amount of uncertainty added upon the acoustic environment predictions. As the Ares launch vehicle design schedule progresses, it is important to take every opportunity to lower prediction uncertainty and subsequently increase prediction accuracy. Never before in NASA s history has plume acoustics been measured for large scale solid rocket motors. Approximately twice a year, the RSRM prime vendor, ATK Launch Systems, static fires an assembled RSRM motor in a horizontal configuration at their test facility

  16. Turbulence measurements in the mesosphere during the WADIS-1 sounding rocket campaign: Insight into horizontal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnikov, Boris; Luebken, Franz-Josef; Rapp, Markus; Stober, Gunter; Szewczyk, Artur; Strelnikova, Irina; Chau, Jorge L.; Sommer, Svenja; Latteck, Ralph

    In the frame of the WADIS (Wave propagation and dissipation in the middle atmosphere: energy budget and distribution of trace constituents) project the first sounding rocket campaign was conducted at the Andøya Rocket Range (69 (°) N, 16 (°) E) during June/July 2013. During this campaign, among other things, extensive turbulence measurements were conducted employing different techniques. In situ measurements were done using two CONE instruments mounted on both front and rear decks of the payload, implying that two profiles of turbulence energy dissipation rates were near simultaneously measured with high altitude resolution at ˜30 km horizontal distance. Ground based measurements of the turbulence field were conducted using the MAARSY VHF-, the SAURA MF-, and the EISCAT-radars. The measurements with MAARSY allow to resolve turbulent structures not only vertically, but also horizontally at scales of several kilometers and cover both up- and downleg parts of the rocket trajectory. We discuss these turbulence measurements and estimate the horizontal variability of the turbulent structures.

  17. Mass spectrometric measurements of SF sub 6 chemical releases from sounding rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Hunton, D.E.; Viggiano, A.A.; Swider, W.; Paulson, J.F.; Sherman, C. )

    1987-08-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride was released from a small reservoir on the side of a sounding rocket equipped with a negative ion mass spectrometer. The effects of the release were observed only at altitudes between 100 km and the rocket's apogee at 128 km. Below these altitudes the SF{sub 6} was swept away by the flow of atmospheric gases past the rocket. The maximum ion signals were observed at 115-118 km, where the mean free path equaled the distance form the reservoir to the mass spectrometer. The negative ions that resulted from the SF{sub 6} release were SF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, SF{sub 5}{sup {minus}}, and O{sup {minus}}. At 155 km the relative intensities of these ions were 1.0, 0.3, 0.07, and 0.06, respectively. A large fraction of the SF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}*, and ion-molecule reactions. The mass spectrometer sampled a nonequilibrium distribution of ions in the first milliseconds after they were formed. In addition, the large draw-in field of the mass spectrometer probably altered the identities and relative intensities of the ions. Laboratory measurements with a selected ion flow tube apparatus show that the reaction SF{sub 5}{sup {minus}} + O {yields} F{sup {minus}} + SF{sub 4}O proceeds with rate constant 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1} at 300 K.

  18. The microphysics of particle acceleration in the auroral ionosphere: Why sounding rocket measurements are essential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, Roger L.

    1994-01-01

    Through the combination of attitude controlled, high altitude rockets (altitudes greater than 600 km), high telemetry rates (several megabits/sec), pitch angle imaging particle sensors and interferometric wave measurements giving wavelength in addition to frequency data, the series of TOPAZ flights have uncovered a low altitude acceleration mechanism by which ionospheric ions receive their initial energy transverse to B in order to leave the ionosphere and populate the trapped radiation. The transverse acceleration of oxygen and hydrogen ionospheric ions is the result of Landau resonance of these ions with intense (up to 400 mv/m) lower hybrid waves on the resonance cone within caviton structures. Future work is directed toward trying to measure the size of the solitary wave structures. From a statistical argument, they appear to be the order of 100 m across B and much longer in dimension along B. Important questions remain: are there other low altitude heating mechanisms acting as well; is the dayside ion outflow driven differently. To answer these questions, it is intended to make sounding rocket measurements in the cusp/cleft region. The proposed Norwegian rocket launch facility at Svalbard could play a very important role by providing easy access to the cusp/cleft region.

  19. The microphysics of particle acceleration in the auroral ionosphere: Why sounding rocket measurements are essential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, Roger L.

    1994-01-01

    Through the combination of attitude controlled, high altitude rockets (altitudes greater than 600 km), high telemetry rates (several megabits/sec), pitch angle imaging particle sensors and interferometric wave measurements giving wavelength in addition to frequency data, the series of TOPAZ flights have uncovered a low altitude acceleration mechanism by which ionospheric ions receive their initial energy transverse to B in order to leave the ionosphere and populate the trapped radiation. The transverse acceleration of oxygen and hydrogen ionospheric ions is the result of Landau resonance of these ions with intense (up to 400 mv/m) lower hybrid waves on the resonance cone within caviton structures. Future work is directed toward trying to measure the size of the solitary wave structures. From a statistical argument, they appear to be the order of 100 m across B and much longer in dimension along B. Important questions remain: are there other low altitude heating mechanisms acting as well; is the dayside ion outflow driven differently. To answer these questions, it is intended to make sounding rocket measurements in the cusp/cleft region. The proposed Norwegian rocket launch facility at Svalbard could play a very important role by providing easy access to the cusp/cleft region.

  20. Sounding Rocket Experiments to Investigate Thermal Electron Heating in the Sq Current Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Ishisaka, K.; Kumamoto, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sounding rocket observations in the southern part of Japan suggest that the electron temperature profile occasionally exhibits the local increase by several hundred K at 100-110 km altitudes at 1100-1200 LT in winter. Detailed study of the temperature profiles indicates that such an increase is closely related to the existence of Sq current focus, because it becomes more significant when the measurement is made near the center of Sq focus. In order to understand a general feature of this unusual phenomena occurring in the Sq current focus, the sounding rocket experiment was conducted in Uchinoura of Japan. In this experiment, we launched "S-310-37" rocket equipped with a total of eight science instruments at 11:20 JST on January 16, 2007 after being convinced that the Sq current was approaching to the planned rocket trajectory. The geomagnetic activity had been successively quiet on that day so that we can estimate the position of Sq current focus. Our analysis of the obtained data indicates that the electron temperature was certainly increased by about 500-600 K at the altitude of 97-101 km with respect to the background. Strong electron density perturbation was also observed to exist above 97 km altitude, which corresponds to the lower boundary of the high electron temperatures. It is also noticeable that both the electric field and magnetic field data include unusual variation in the same altitude region as the temperature increase was observed, suggesting a possible connection between the thermal electron heating and variation of the electric and/or magnetic field. Thus, the first experiment in 2007 revealed a general feature of such unusual phenomena in the Sq current focus, and thereby our interest to the generation mechanism for increasing the electron temperature was more and more increased. We will conduct the second rocket experiment to investigate such unusual phenomena in the Sq current focus in January 2016. In this experiment, we will try to measure

  1. CWIS Experiment On Board REXUS-16 Sounding Rocket: Investigation of the Chemical Wave in Binary Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzevelecos, W.; Pugliese, A.; de Filippis, L.; Manzone, S.; Alfano, B.; Mancino, F.; Runge, W.; Desenfans, O.; Galand, Q.; Van Vaerenbergh, S.

    2015-09-01

    Chemical Wave in Soret Effect (CWIS) is an experiment launched in May 2014 on-board a REXUS sounding rocket from Esrange Space Center. The experiment was completely designed and assembled by students from different countries under an international collaboration between the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB) and the University of Naples Federico II. This student program called REXUS/BEXUS allows students to perform experiments in space science applications under the supervision of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objective of the CWIS Team was to visualize the Chemical Wave (CW) during the transient of the Soret effect. The CW is a concentration front that rapidly propagates under thermal gradient in a liquid mixture, and which marks the beginning of the chemical separation phenomenon by thermodiffusion (the separation process is itself named Soret effect, but is usually analyzed statically). The selected mixture was a solution of Ethylene Glycol in Water and concentration variation due to thermal gradients was recorded using a modified Fizeau interferometer, with modifications designed to enlarge a very small region of the test cell using cylindrical squeezing. We recorded more than 100 images with the chemical information and in this paper work we will show the final results of the sounding rocket experiment.

  2. Compact narrow linewidth diode laser modules for precision quantum optics experiments on board of sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohfeldt, Anja; Kürbis, Christian; Luvsandamdin, Erdenetsetseg; Schiemangk, Max; Wicht, Andreas; Peters, Achim; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2016-04-01

    We have realized a laser platform based on GaAs diode lasers that allows for an operation in mobile exper-imental setups in harsh environments, such as on sounding rockets. The platform comes in two versions: a master-oscillator-power-amplifier and an extended cavity diode laser. Our very robust micro-optical bench has a footprint of 80 x 25 mm2. It strictly omits any movable parts. Master-oscillator-power-amplifier systems based on distributed feedback master oscillators for 767 nm and 780 nm narrow linewidth emission have been implemented by now. A continuous wave optical output power of > 1 W with a power conversion efficiency of > 25% could be achieved. The continuous tuning range of these lasers is on the order of 100 GHz, the linewidth at 10 μs is about 1 MHz. For applications demanding a narrower linewidth we have developed an extended cavity diode laser that achieves a linewidth of 100 kHz at 10 μs. These lasers achieve a continuous spectral tuning range of about 50 GHz and an continuous wave optical power up to 30 mW. The modules have been successfully vibration tested up to 29 gRMS along all three axes and passed 1500 g shocks, again along all 3 axes. Both, master-oscillator-power-amplifiers and extended cavity diode lasers, have been employed in sounding rocket experiments.

  3. Extensions to analysis of ignition transients of segmented rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caveny, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    The analytical procedures described in NASA CR-150162 were extended for the purpose of analyzing the data from the first static test of the Solid Rocket Booster for the Space Shuttle. The component of thrust associated with the rapid changes in the internal flow field was calculated. This dynamic thrust component was shown to be prominent during flame spreading. An approach was implemented to account for the close coupling between the igniter and head end segment of the booster. The tips of the star points were ignited first, followed by radial and longitudinal flame spreading.

  4. Modeling of "Stripe" Wave Phenomena Seen by the CHARM II and ACES Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowski, M. P.; Labelle, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Two recent sounding-rocket missions—CHARM II and ACES—have been launched from Poker Flat Research Range, carrying the Dartmouth High-Frequency Experiment (HFE) among their primary instruments. The HFE is a receiver system which effectively yields continuous (100% duty cycle) E-field waveform measurements up to 5 MHz. The CHARM II sounding rocket was launched 9:49 UT on 15 February 2010 into a substorm, while the ACES mission consisted of two rockets, launched into quiet aurora at 9:49 and 9:50 UT on 29 January 2009. At approximately 350 km on CHARM II and the ACES High-Flyer, the HFE detected short (~2s) bursts of broadband (200-500 kHz) noise with a 'stripe' pattern of nulls imposed on it. These nulls have 10 to 20 kHz width and spacing, and many show a regular, non-linear frequency-time relation. These events are different from the 'stripes' discussed by Samara and LaBelle [2006] and Colpitts et al. [2010], because of the density of the stripes, the non-linearity, and the appearance of being an absorptive rather than emissive phenomenon. These events are similar to 'stripe' features reported by Brittain et al. [1983] in the VLF range, explained as an interference pattern between a downward-traveling whistler-mode wave and its reflection off the bottom of the ionosphere. Following their analysis method, we modeled our stripes as higher-frequency interfering whistlers reflecting off of a density gradient. This model predicts the near-hyperbolic frequency-time curves and high density of the nulls, and therefore shows promise at explaining the new observations.

  5. Sounding rocket/ground-based observation campaign to study Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Saito, A.; Otsuka, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Abe, T.; Watanabe, S.; Ishisaka, K.; Saito, S.; Larsen, M.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    An observation campaign is under preparation. It is to launch sounding rockets S-520-27 and S-310-42 from Uchinoura Space Center of JAXA while ground-based instruments measure waves in the ionosphere. It is scheduled in July/August 2013. The main purpose of the experiment is to reveal generation mechanism of Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (MSTID). The MSTID is the ionospheric wave with 1-2 hour periodicity, 100-200 km horizontal wavelength, and southwestward propagation. It is enhanced in the summer nighttime of the mid-latitude ionosphere. The MSTID is not only a simple atmospheric-wave modulation of the ionosphere, but shows similarity to characteristics of the Perkins instability. A problem is that growth rate of the Perkins instability is too small to explain the phenomena. We now hypothesize a generation mechanism that electromagnetic coupling of the F- and E-regions help rapid growth of the MSTID especially at its initial stage. In the observation campaign, we will use the sounding rocket S-520-27 for in-situ measurement of ionospheric parameters, i.e., electron density and electric fields. Wind velocity measurements in both F- and E-regions are very important as well. For the F-region winds, we will conduct Lithium-release experiment under the full-moon condition. This is a big technical challenge. Another rocket S-310-42 will be used for the E-region wind measurement with the TMA release. On the ground, we will use GEONET (Japanese vast GPS receiver network) to monitor horizontal distribution of GPS-TEC on the realtime bases. In the presentation we will show MSTID characteristics and the proposed generation mechanism, and discuss plan and current status of the project.

  6. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - Accomplishments, Lessons, and a Culture of Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Dennis R.; Phelps, Willie J.

    2011-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor represents the largest solid rocket motor ever flown and the only human rated solid motor. Each Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) provides approximately 3-million lb of thrust to lift the integrated Space Shuttle vehicle from the launch pad. The motors burn out approximately 2 minutes later, separate from the vehicle and are recovered and refurbished. The size of the motor and the need for high reliability were challenges. Thrust shaping, via shaping of the propellant grain, was needed to limit structural loads during ascent. The motor design evolved through several block upgrades to increase performance and to increase safety and reliability. A major redesign occurred after STS-51L with the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor. Significant improvements in the joint sealing systems were added. Design improvements continued throughout the Program via block changes with a number of innovations including development of low temperature o-ring materials and incorporation of a unique carbon fiber rope thermal barrier material. Recovery of the motors and post flight inspection improved understanding of hardware performance, and led to key design improvements. Because of the multidecade program duration material obsolescence was addressed, and requalification of materials and vendors was sometimes needed. Thermal protection systems and ablatives were used to protect the motor cases and nozzle structures. Significant understanding of design and manufacturing features of the ablatives was developed during the program resulting in optimization of design features and processing parameters. The project advanced technology in eliminating ozone-depleting materials in manufacturing processes and the development of an asbestos-free case insulation. Manufacturing processes for the large motor components were unique and safety in the manufacturing environment was a special concern. Transportation and handling approaches were also needed for the large

  7. Estimation of Electron Density profile Using the Propagation Characteristics of Radio Waves by S-520-29 Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itaya, K.; Ishisaka, K.; Ashihara, Y.; Abe, T.; Kumamoto, A.; Kurihara, J.

    2015-12-01

    S-520-29 sounding rocket experiment was carried out at Uchinoura Space Center (USC) at 19:10 JST on 17 August, 2014. The purpose of this sounding rocket experiments is observation of sporadic E layer that appears in the lower ionosphere at near 100km. Three methods were used in order to observe the sporadic E layer. The first method is an optical method that observe the light of metal ion emitted by the resonance scattering in sporadic E layer using the imager. The second method is observation of characteristic of radio wave propagation that the LF/MF band radio waves transmitted from the ground. The third method is measuring the electron density in the vicinity of sounding rocket using the fast Langmuir probe and the impedance probe. We analyze the propagation characteristics of radio wave in sporadic E layer appeared from the results of the second method observation. This rocket was equipped with LF/MF band radio receiver for observe the LF/MF band radio waves in rocket flight. Antenna of LF/MF band radio receiver is composed of three axis loop antenna. LF/MF band radio receiver receives three radio waves of 873kHz (JOGB), 666kHz (JOBK), 60kHz (JJY) from the ground. 873kHz and 60kHz radio waves are transmitting from north side, and 666kHz radio waves are transmitting from the east side to the trajectory of the rocket. In the sounding rocket experiment, LF/MF band radio receiver was working properly. We have completed the observation of radio wave intensity. We analyze the observation results using a Doppler shift calculations by frequency analysis. Radio waves received by the sounding rocket include the influences of Doppler shift by polarization and the direction of rocket spin and the magnetic field of the Earth. So received radio waves that are separate into characteristics waves using frequency analysis. Then we calculate the Doppler shift from the separated data. As a result, 873kHz, 666kHz radio waves are reflected by the ionosphere. 60kHz wave was able to

  8. Numerical analysis of combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengen; Cai, Guobiao; Tian, Hui

    2016-06-01

    This paper is aimed to analyse the combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection by simulating the combustion flow field. Numerical combustion flow field and combustion performance parameters are obtained through three-dimensional numerical simulations based on a steady numerical model proposed in this paper. The hybrid rocket motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide and polyethylene as the propellants. Multiple injection sections are set along the axis of the solid fuel grain, and the oxidizer enters the combustion chamber by means of tangential injection via the injector ports in the injection sections. Simulation results indicate that the combustion flow field structure of the hybrid rocket motor could be improved by multi-section swirl injection method. The transformation of the combustion flow field can greatly increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency. The average fuel regression rate of the motor with multi-section swirl injection is improved by 8.37 times compared with that of the motor with conventional head-end irrotational injection. The combustion efficiency is increased to 95.73%. Besides, the simulation results also indicate that (1) the additional injection sections can increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency; (2) the upstream offset of the injection sections reduces the combustion efficiency; and (3) the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency decrease with the reduction of the number of injector ports in each injection section.

  9. Research on combustion instability and application to solid propellant rocket motors. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culick, F. E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of analyses of combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors, citing appropriate measurements and observations. The work discussed has become increasingly important, both for the interpretation of laboratory data and for predicting the transient behavior of disturbances in full-scale motors. Two central questions are considered - namely, linear stability and nonlinear behavior. Several classes of problems are discussed as special cases of a general approach to the analysis of combustion instability. Application to motors, and particularly the limitations presently understood, are stressed.

  10. Research on combustion instability and application to solid propellant rocket motors. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culick, F. E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of analyses of combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors, citing appropriate measurements and observations. The work discussed has become increasingly important, both for the interpretation of laboratory data and for predicting the transient behavior of disturbances in full-scale motors. Two central questions are considered - namely, linear stability and nonlinear behavior. Several classes of problems are discussed as special cases of a general approach to the analysis of combustion instability. Application to motors, and particularly the limitations presently understood, are stressed.

  11. Trend analysis for large solid rocket motors - A program level approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babbitt, Norman E., III

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines a program-level trend analysis effort that can be applied to large solid rocket motors. The effort is especially applicable to large segmented rocket motors such as the Space Transportation System's solid rocket boosters. Five types of trend analysis are discussed for different aspects of a rocket motor program, (performance, reliability, problem, supportability, and programmatic). Ideas are offered for implementing and performing a program-level trend analysis effort by giving suggestions for selecting computer capabilities, choosing parameters, selecting statistical processes, routine screening for trends, analyzing significant trends (for example, looking for related trends and determining if adverse trends are resolved), and reporting results of trend analysis. The use of program-level trending allows for the ability to easily transfer data between organizations and easily use the data to correlate trends from the various organizations to find causal relationships. Efficiency is enhanced from upper level management to the shop floor at vendor locations by using the same trend analysis software and methodology at all organizations.

  12. Internal Flow Analysis of Large L/D Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubacher, Brian A.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) internal ballistic performance has been analyzed and predicted with either zero-dimensional (volume filling) codes or one-dimensional ballistics codes. One dimensional simulation of SRM performance is only necessary for ignition modeling, or for motors that have large length to port diameter ratios which exhibit an axial "pressure drop" during the early burn times. This type of prediction works quite well for many types of motors, however, when motor aspect ratios get large, and port to throat ratios get closer to one, two dimensional effects can become significant. The initial propellant grain configuration for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) was analyzed with 2-D, steady, axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results of the CFD analysis show that the steady-state performance prediction at the initial burn geometry, in general, agrees well with 1-D transient prediction results at an early time, however, significant features of the 2-D flow are captured with the CFD results that would otherwise go unnoticed. Capturing these subtle differences gives a greater confidence to modeling accuracy, and additional insight with which to model secondary internal flow effects like erosive burning. Detailed analysis of the 2-D flowfield has led to the discovery of its hidden 1-D isentropic behavior, and provided the means for a thorough and simplified understanding of internal solid rocket motor flow. Performance parameters such as nozzle stagnation pressure, static pressure drop, characteristic velocity, thrust and specific impulse are discussed in detail and compared for different modeling and prediction methods. The predicted performance using both the 1-D codes and the CFD results are compared with measured data obtained from static tests of the RSRM. The differences and limitations of predictions using ID and 2-D flow fields are discussed and some suggestions for the design of large L/D motors and

  13. Probabilistic Environmental Model for Solid Rocket Motor Life Prediction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    e o•o )e o oo~~oe UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (b7htn Data En.red) READ INSTRUCTIONS REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING...Data Bettered) UNCLASSI F I ED SIECUOITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS I’AS .A. E Wto l n ’... s’ red) (U) Probabilistic Environmental Model for Solid Rocket...N11C’ 4 NCAP’ 8 IF’ 58 DMr,3’ 0.55160E-05 TIMtE’ esqo4. NOCe’ 3 tIeAP’ 2 IF’ 59 DM5’= 0.7343#E-04 TIME= 93679. NIOC’ 3 CeAP ’ 27 ZR’ 60 DM3’= 0

  14. Effect of Cumulative Damage on Rocket Motor Service Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorijević, Nikola; Živković, Saša; Subotić, Sredoje; Rodić, Vesna; Gligorijević, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Two series of antihail rocket propellant grains failed only 3 months after production, due to the appearance of cracks in the grain channel. Structural integrity analysis demonstrated sufficient reliability at the beginning of service life. Further analysis showed that under temperature loads, cumulative damage during the short period in field stocks caused the grain failure, despite the established opinion that such failure can become significant only after lengthy storage. A linear cumulative damage law is evaluated by exposing a number of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) composite propellant specimens to different but constant stress levels. The analysis showed that cumulative damage must not be overlooked at the design stage. Further, a positive correlation between the propellant cumulative damage law and tensile strength is strongly indicated.

  15. NASA-funded sounding rocket to catch aurora in the act

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-21

    The NASA-funded Ground-to-Rocket Electron-Electrodynamics Correlative Experiment, or GREECE, wants to understand aurora. Specifically, it will study classic auroral curls that swirl through the sky like cream in a cup of coffee. The GREECE instruments travel on a sounding rocket that launches for a ten-minute ride right through the heart of the aurora reaching its zenith over the native village of Venetie, Alaska. To study the curl structures, GREECE consists of two parts: ground-based imagers located in Venetie to track the aurora from the ground and the rocket to take measurements from the middle of the aurora itself. At their simplest, auroras are caused when particles from the sun funnel over to Earth's night side, generate electric currents, and trigger a shower of particles that strike oxygen and nitrogen some 60 to 200 miles up in Earth's atmosphere, releasing a flash of light. But the details are always more complicated, of course. Researchers wish to understand the aurora, and movement of plasma in general, at much smaller scales including such things as how different structures are formed there. This is a piece of information, which in turn, helps paint a picture of the sun-Earth connection and how energy and particles from the sun interact with Earth's own magnetic system, the magnetosphere. GREECE is a collaborative effort between SWRI, which developed particle instruments and the ground-based imaging, and the University of California, Berkeley, measuring the electric and magnetic fields. The launch is supported by a sounding rocket team from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. The Poker Flat Research Range is operated by the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Credit: NASA Goddard NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by

  16. NASA-funded sounding rocket to catch aurora in the act

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The NASA-funded Ground-to-Rocket Electron-Electrodynamics Correlative Experiment, or GREECE, wants to understand aurora. Specifically, it will study classic auroral curls that swirl through the sky like cream in a cup of coffee. The GREECE instruments travel on a sounding rocket that launches for a ten-minute ride right through the heart of the aurora reaching its zenith over the native village of Venetie, Alaska. To study the curl structures, GREECE consists of two parts: ground-based imagers located in Venetie to track the aurora from the ground and the rocket to take measurements from the middle of the aurora itself. At their simplest, auroras are caused when particles from the sun funnel over to Earth's night side, generate electric currents, and trigger a shower of particles that strike oxygen and nitrogen some 60 to 200 miles up in Earth's atmosphere, releasing a flash of light. But the details are always more complicated, of course. Researchers wish to understand the aurora, and movement of plasma in general, at much smaller scales including such things as how different structures are formed there. This is a piece of information, which in turn, helps paint a picture of the sun-Earth connection and how energy and particles from the sun interact with Earth's own magnetic system, the magnetosphere. GREECE is a collaborative effort between SWRI, which developed particle instruments and the ground-based imaging, and the University of California, Berkeley, measuring the electric and magnetic fields. The launch is supported by a sounding rocket team from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. The Poker Flat Research Range is operated by the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Credit: NASA Goddard NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing

  17. On the nature of the fragment environment created by the range destruction or random failure of solid rocket motor casings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, M.; Mukunda, M.

    1988-01-01

    Given here are predictions of fragment velocities and azimuths resulting from the Space Transportation System Solid Rocket Motor range destruct, or random failure occurring at any time during the 120 seconds of Solid Rocket Motor burn. Results obtained using the analytical methods described showed good agreement between predictions and observations for two specific events. It was shown that these methods have good potential for use in predicting the fragmentation process of a number of generically similar casing systems. It was concluded that coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian calculational methods of the type described here provide a powerful tool for predicting Solid Rocket Motor response.

  18. Hands-on Space Experiments from Cradle to Grave: The Role of the Sounding Rocket Program in Developing Human Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, S.

    2005-12-01

    Sounding rockets in university research provide a unique opportunity to train future space scientists and engineers. Besides fitting the typical schedule of a student, they allow a small group of students to be involved in all aspects of a space project from its inception through execution to a conclusion involving scientific discovery. Furthermore, universities with sounding rocket programs are cradles of innovations where the interdisciplinary nature of space experimentation is nurtured. These programs have formed the core research of many of the current Principal Investigators of NASA Space Science Missions. Additionally, they typically involve a large number of undergraduate students who gain in-depth experience into well-defined and critical components of a space mission. Researchers involved in sounding rocket experiments typically develop the science payload consisting of one or more instrument with the NASA Sounding Rocket Program Office (SRPO) providing all support necessary to make the science program a success. Unlike satellite missions, the sounding rocket experiments offer an opportunity to take more risks in terms of their science return. Some of these risks come in the form of new technology invention and development. Sounding rockets, with their flexible schedule and fewer formal procedural requirements, thus play an important role in maturing technology and developing new capabilities for satellite missions. The Student Launch Program was designed by NASA to provide a new opportunity where space science took a back seat to education and training. The program required that the proposing team provide components such as the nose cone, power and telemetry systems, which are typically provided to rocket experimenters by SRPO. The students involved in such programs thus gained invaluable experience with "mini-satellite" missions. We believe that they are essential for the long-term vitality of the space program and maintaining a technology

  19. The Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR): Low Cost Science and Technology Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruddace, R. G.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cash, W.; Eberspeaker, P.; Figer, D.; Figueroa, O.; Harris, W.; Kowalski, M.; Maddox, R.; Martin, C.; McCammon, D.; Nordsieck, K.; Polidan, R.; Sanders, W.; Wilkinson, E.; Asrat

    2011-12-01

    The 50-year old NASA sounding rocket (SR) program has been successful in launching scientific payloads into space frequently and at low cost with a 85% success rate. In 2008 the NASA Astrophysics Sounding Rocket Assessment Team (ASRAT), set up to review the future course of the SR program, made four major recommendations, one of which now called Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR). ASRAT recommended a system capable of launching science payloads (up to 420 kg) into low Earth orbit frequently (1/yr) at low cost, with a mission duration of approximately 30 days. Payload selection would be based on meritorious high-value science that can be performed by migrating sub-orbital payloads to orbit. Establishment of this capability is a essential for NASA as it strives to advance technical readiness and lower costs for risk averse Explorers and flagship missions in its pursuit of a balanced and sustainable program and achieve big science goals within a limited fiscal environment. The development of a new generation of small, low-cost launch vehicles (SLV), primarily the SpaceX Falcon 1 and the Orbital Sciences Minotaur I has made this concept conceivable. The NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF)conducted a detailed engineering concept study, aimed at defining the technical characteristics of all phases of a mission, from design, procurement, assembly, test, integration and mission operations. The work was led by Dr. Raymond Cruddace, a veteran of the SR program and the prime mover of the EDSR concept. The team investigated details such as, the "FAA licensed contract" for launch service procurement, with WFF and NASA SMD being responsible for mission assurance which results in a factor of two cost savings over the current approach. These and other creative solutions resulted in a proof-of-concept Class D mission design that could have a sustained launch rate of at least 1/yr, a mission duration of up to about 3 months, and a total cost of $25-30 million for each mission

  20. Development of Displacement Gages Exposed to Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, D. E.; Cook, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) has three non-vented segment-to-segment case field joints. These joints use an interference fit J-joint that is bonded at assembly with a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive (PSA) inboard of redundant O-ring seals. Full-scale motor and sub-scale test article experience has shown that the ability to preclude gas leakage past the J-joint is a function of PSA type, joint moisture from pre-assembly humidity exposure, and the magnitude of joint displacement during motor operation. To more accurately determine the axial displacements at the J-joints, two thermally durable displacement gages (one mechanical and one electrical) were designed and developed. The mechanical displacement gage concept was generated first as a non-electrical, self-contained gage to capture the maximum magnitude of the J-joint motion. When it became feasible, the electrical displacement gage concept was generated second as a real-time linear displacement gage. Both of these gages were refined in development testing that included hot internal solid rocket motor environments and simulated vibration environments. As a result of this gage development effort, joint motions have been measured in static fired RSRM J-joints where intentional venting was produced (Flight Support Motor #8, FSM-8) and nominal non-vented behavior occurred (FSM-9 and FSM-10). This data gives new insight into the nominal characteristics of the three case J-joint positions (forward, center and aft) and characteristics of some case J-joints that became vented during motor operation. The data supports previous structural model predictions. These gages will also be useful in evaluating J-joint motion differences in a five-segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor.

  1. Heat Transfer by Thermo-Capillary Convection. Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a sounding rocket experiment which was partly dedicated to study the heat transfer from a hot wall to a cold liquid with a free surface. Natural or buoyancy-driven convection does not occur in the compensated gravity environment of a ballistic phase. Thermo-capillary convection driven by a temperature gradient along the free surface always occurs if a non-condensable gas is present. This convection increases the heat transfer compared to a pure conductive case. Heat transfer correlations are needed to predict temperature distributions in the tanks of cryogenic upper stages. Future upper stages of the European Ariane V rocket have mission scenarios with multiple ballistic phases. The aims of this paper and of the COMPERE group (French-German research group on propellant behavior in rocket tanks) in general are to provide basic knowledge, correlations and computer models to predict the thermo-fluid behavior of cryogenic propellants for future mission scenarios. Temperature and surface location data from the flight have been compared with numerical calculations to get the heat flux from the wall to the liquid. Since the heat flux measurements along the walls of the transparent test cell were not possible, the analysis of the heat transfer coefficient relies therefore on the numerical modeling which was validated with the flight data. The coincidence between experiment and simulation is fairly good and allows presenting the data in form of a Nusselt number which depends on a characteristic Reynolds number and the Prandtl number. The results are useful for further benchmarking of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as FLOW-3D and FLUENT, and for the design of future upper stage propellant tanks.

  2. Sounding rocket observations of precipitating ions in the morning auroral region

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmons, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The origin of highly-structured ion fluxes measured by a sounding rocket launched into the morning auroral region on January 23, 1985 is investigated. The energy spectra of the precipitating ions exhibit an energy-time dependence in which particles of higher energies arrived at the rocket before those of lower energies. The spectra are interpreted as being due to the impulsive injection of particles onto high-altitude magnetic field lines, followed by their subsequent drift down the field lines to rocket altitudes. The dispersal to low energies with increasing time is explained as a time-of-flight effect in which the slower particles take longer times to traverse the distance. The ion signatures are used to constrain several possible physical models which characterize the source region. Source locations in the nightside magnetopause boundary layer are deduced through the examination of electron energy spectra and the use of a magnetospheric magnetic field model. The modeling efforts indicate that the data are consistent with sources located in the mid-latitude region of the flank boundary layer on the morning side of the magnetosphere, being in the range of 20-30 earth radii down the geomagnetic tail from the earth. Multiple injections of ions are observed, with a deduced quasi-periodicity of 100-200 s. Several candidate injection mechanisms are examined, with a mechanism related to the propagation of waves on the surface of the boundary layer found to be the most plausible explanation for the observations. Comparison is made to similar analyses by others and suggestions for future work are made.

  3. Status of the Micro-X Sounding Rocket X-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfinger, D. C.; Adams, J. S.; Baker, R.; Bandler, S. R.; Danowski, M. E.; Doriese, W. B.; Eckart, M. E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Hilton, G. C.; Hubbard, A. J. F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Micro-X is a sounding rocket borne X-ray telescope that utilizes transition edge sensors to perform imaging spectroscopy with a high level of energy resolution. Its 2.1m focal length X-ray optic has an effective area of 300 sq cm, a field of view of 11.8 arcmin, and a bandpass of 0.12.5 keV. The detector array has 128 pixels and an intrinsic energy resolution of 4.5 eV FWHM. The integration of the system has progressed with functional tests of the detectors and electronics complete, and performance characterization of the detectors is underway. We present an update of ongoing progress in preparation for the upcoming launch of the instrument.

  4. Status of the micro-X sounding rocket x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, D. C.; Adams, J. S.; Baker, R.; Bandler, S. R.; Danowski, M. E.; Doriese, W. B.; Eckart, M. E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Hilton, G. C.; Hubbard, A. J. F.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.; Okajima, T.; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Serlemitsos, P.; Smith, S. J.; Heine, S. N. T.; Wikus, P.

    2016-07-01

    Micro-X is a sounding rocket borne X-ray telescope that utilizes transition edge sensors to perform imaging spectroscopy with a high level of energy resolution. Its 2.1m focal length X-ray optic has an effective area of 300 cm2, a field of view of 11.8 arcmin, and a bandpass of 0.1-2.5 keV. The detector array has 128 pixels and an intrinsic energy resolution of 4.5 eV FWHM. The integration of the system has progressed with functional tests of the detectors and electronics complete, and performance characterization of the detectors is underway. We present an update of ongoing progress in preparation for the upcoming launch of the instrument.

  5. Plasma Impedance Probe: Simulations and Comparison to Sounding Rocket Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, E. A.; Patra, S.

    2013-12-01

    The RF Impedance Probe is a powerful instrument for measurement of ionospheric space plasma properties. We present the theory of the instrument, data from sounding rocket missions, and their interpretation. We will also present some electronics schemes that are used for performing the measurements. A Plasma Fluid Finite Difference Time Domain code (PF-FDTD) is used to match measured data to the fluid theory. The results from the SAL mission and STORMS mission will be discussed. Some of the new data from STORMS suggest difficulties with the fluid based approach to the theory. I will discuss a hybrid kinetic approach that is currently being developed to address the difficulties. We will also present simulations of spacecraft wake and interactions with the surrounding ionospheric plasma that effect the measurements.

  6. Pool Boiling with Non-condensable Gas in Microgravity: Results of a Sounding Rocket Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannengieser, Olivier; Colin, Catherine; Bergez, Wladimir

    2010-09-01

    Pool boiling experiments in microgravity have been performed in the Sounding Rocket Maser 11. A heated plate of 1 cm 2 was located at the bottom of a small cylindrical tank partly filled with a refrigerant Novec HFE7000 pressurized with Nitrogen. Experiments were performed at different reservoir pressures and wall heat fluxes. The wall heat flux and wall temperature were simultaneously measured during the experiment and the behavior of the bubbles on the heater was filmed with a video camera through the transparent wall of the reservoir. The presence of Nitrogen dissolved inside the liquid led to a strong Marangoni convection around the bubble. The effect of Marangoni convection and evaporation on the wall heat transfer is analyzed in function of the relative values of the wall temperature and saturation temperature.

  7. ATLAS-M and Batt-M: development of flight hardware for MAPHEUS sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blochberger, G.; Drescher, J.; Neumann, C.; Penkert, P.; Griesche, A.; Kargl, F.; Meyer, A.

    2011-12-01

    Two modules ATLAS-M and Batt-M were especially developed for application in the MAPHEUS (MAterialPHysikalische Experimente Unter Schwerelosigkeit) sounding rocket campaign. They were manufactured and built at the Institute of Material Physics in Space at the German Aeropsace Center (DLR). ATLAS-M is a furnace for short time diffusion measurements achieving heating rates of 7K/s and cooling rates of 6K/s. Atlas-M is well suited for investigation of interdiffusion coefficients on a time scale of <200s. Batt-M is a rechargeable battery module, supplying a peak power of 12.6kW with a nominal capacity of 4.6 Ah for operation.

  8. Hard X-ray Detector Calibrations for the FOXSI Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, A.; Glesener, L.; Buitrago Casas, J. C.; Han, R.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Christe, S.; Krucker, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the study of high-energy solar flares, detailed X-ray images and spectra of the Sun are required. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment is used to test direct-focusing X-ray telescopes and Double-sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSD) for solar flare study and to further understand coronal heating. The measurement of active region differential emission measures, flare temperatures, and possible quiet-Sun emission requires a precisely calibrated spectral response. This poster describes recent updates in the calibration of FOXSI's DSSDs based on new calibration tests that were performed after the second flight. The gain for each strip was recalculated using additional radioactive sources. Additionally, the varying strip sensitivity across the detectors was investigated and based on these measurements, the flight images were flatfielded. These improvements lead to more precise X-ray data for future FOXSI flights and show promise for these new technologies in imaging the Sun.

  9. Prospects for Sterile Neutrino Observations with the Micro-X Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Antonia; Micro-X Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Micro-X sounding rocket uses a Transition Edge Sensor (TES) array to make X-ray observations. The improved energy resolution of TESs compared to traditional space-based X-ray detectors brings new precision to both supernova observations and the X-ray search for sterile neutrino dark matter. Current X-ray observations disagree over the potential presence of a 3.5 keV X-ray line consistent with a sterile neutrino interaction, and Micro-X is in a unique position to establish or refute the presence of this line. We present the design considerations of the instrument and expectations for flight observations, with special emphasis given to the prospects of sterile neutrino studies.

  10. A Sounding Rocket Experiment for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, M.; Kano, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Tsuneta, S.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, S.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Goto, M.; Holloway, T.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Casini, R.; Auchère, F.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Manso Sainz, R.; Belluzzi, L.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Štěpán, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2014-10-01

    A sounding-rocket experiment called the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is presently under development to measure the linear polarization profiles in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (Lyα) line at 121.567 nm. CLASP is a vacuum-UV (VUV) spectropolarimeter to aim for first detection of the linear polarizations caused by scattering processes and the Hanle effect in the Lyα line with high accuracy (0.1%). This is a fist step for exploration of magnetic fields in the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun. Accurate measurements of the linear polarization signals caused by scattering processes and the Hanle effect in strong UV lines like Lyα are essential to explore with future solar telescopes the strength and structures of the magnetic field in the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun. The CLASP proposal has been accepted by NASA in 2012, and the flight is planned in 2015.

  11. Case Study of the Seeds and Evolution Auroral Ion Upflow From the SIERRA Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. A.; Labelle, J.; Samara, M.; Arnoldy, R.; MacDonald, E.; Klatt, E.; Kintner, P.

    2005-12-01

    The SIERRA nightside auroral sounding rocket made observations of the origins of ion upflow, at low altitudes (below 700 km), low scale height (densities above 20,000/cc), and low energies (10 eV.) Upflowing ions with bulk velocities up to 2 km/s are seen in conjunction with the poleward edge of a nightside substorm arc. The upflow is limited within the poleward edge to a region (a) of northward convection and (b) where Alfvenic and Pedersen conductivities are well-matched, leading to good ionospheric transmission of Alfvenic power. Also throughout the poleward edge, precipitation of moderate-energy (100s of eV) protons and oxygen is observed. This population is interpreted as reflection from a higher altitude field aligned potential of upgoing transversely heated ion conics. Details of this case study observation of the seeds and evolution of auroral ion outflow are presented as an example for testing of models of ionospheric/magnetospheric coupling.

  12. Assessment of the transition strip effect in the transonic flow over the sounding rocket Sonda III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão Filho, J. B. P.; Reis, M. L. C. C.; Francisco, C. P. F.; Silva, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of normalized pressure distribution are carried out over a 1:8 scale half-model of the Sonda III sounding rocket. The objective is to analyze the effect of the implementation of transition devices on the flow over the vehicle. Measurements show that the presence of the transition devices affect pressure distributions in different Mach numbers around the inter-stage region of Sonda III depending on its location and independently of the turbulent transition method employed. The study of these effects plays a significant role for future developments, since transition phenomena and the modification of the boundary layer behaviour due to the expansion can alter the load distributions and the turbulent structures of the flow. Furthermore, the experimental verification of such phenomena is crucial for the correct implementation of computational fluid dynamics calculations, as they might be able to capture the correct flow behaviour in these regions.

  13. The interaction of bubbles with solidification interfaces. [during coasting phase of sounding rocket flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papazian, J. M.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of bubbles at a dendritic solidification interface was studied during the coasting phase of a sounding rocket flight. Sequential photographs of the gradient freeze experiment showed nucleation, growth and coalescence of bubbles at the moving interface during both the low-gravity and one-gravity tests. In the one-gravity test the bubbles were observed to detach from the interface and float to the top of the melt. However, in the low-gravity tests no bubble detachment from the interface or steady state bubble motion occurred and large voids were grown into the crystal. These observations are discussed in terms of the current theory of thermal migration of bubbles and in terms of their implications on the space processing of metals.

  14. Far-ultraviolet spectral images of comet Halley from sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, R. P.; Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.

    1986-01-01

    Far-ultraviolet images of comet Halley obtained from sounding rockets launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on 24 February and 13 March, 1986, are presented. Direct electrographic images of the hydrogen coma of the comet were obtained at the Lyman-alpha wavelength along with objective spectra containing images of the coma at the oxygen, carbon, and sulfur resonance multiplets. Analysis of the Lyman-alpha images yields hydrogen atom production rates of 1.9 x 10 to the 30th/s and 1.4 x 120 to the 30th/s for the two observations. Images of oxygen, carbon, and sulfur emissions obtained with the objective grating spectrograph are presented for the first set of observations and preliminary production rates are derived for these elements.

  15. Trajectory Reconstruction of the ST-9 Sounding Rocket Experiment Using IMU and Landmark Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Ryan S.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Bordi, John J.; Cheng, Yang; Johnson, Andrew J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Lisano, Michael E.; Owen, William M.; Wolf, Aron A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents trajectory reconstruction of the ST-9 sounding rocket experiment using the onboard IMU data and descent imagery. The raw IMU accelerometer measurements are first converted into inertial acceleration and then used in trajectory integration. The descent images are pre-processed using a map-matching algorithm and unique landmarks for each image are created. Using the converted IMU data and descent images, the result from dead-reckoning and the kinematic-fix approaches are first compared with the GPS measurements. Then, both the IMU data and landmarks are processed together using a batch least-squares filter and the position, velocity, stochastic acceleration, and camera orientation of each image are estimated. The reconstructed trajectory is compared with the GPS data and the corresponding formal uncertainties are presented. The result shows that IMU data and descent images processed with a batch filter algorithm provide the trajectory accuracy required for pin-point landing.

  16. The swept angle retarding mass spectrometer: Initial results from the Michigan auroral probe sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Stone, N. H.; Sharp, W. E.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Data from a sounding rocket flight of the swept angle retarding ion mass spectrometer (SARIMS) are presented to demonstrate the capability of the instrument to make measurements of thermal ions which are differential in angle, energy, and mass. The SARIMS was flown on the Michigan auroral probe over regions characterized first by discrete auroral arcs and later by diffuse precipitation. The instrument measured the temperature, densities, and flow velocities of the ions NO(+) and O(+). Measured NO(+) densities ranged from 10 to the 5th power up to 3 x 10 to the 5th power ions/cu cm, while the measured O(+) densities were a factor of 5-10 less. Ion temperatures ranged from 0.15 up to 0.33 eV. Eastward ion flows approximately 0.5 km/sec were measured near the arcs, and the observed flow magnitude decreased markedly inside the arcs.

  17. A quick test of the WEP enabled by a sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.; Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Patla, Biju R.; Phillips, James D.; Popescu, Eugeniu E.; Rocco, Emanuele; Thapa, Rajesh

    2011-05-01

    We describe SR-POEM, a Galilean test of the weak equivalence principle (WEP), which is to be conducted during the free fall portion of a sounding rocket flight. This test of a single pair of substances is aimed at a measurement uncertainty of σ(η) < 10-16 after averaging the results of eight separate drops, each of 40 s duration. The WEP measurement is made with a set of four laser gauges that are expected to achieve 0.1 pm Hz-1/2. We address the two sources of systematic error that are currently of greatest concern: magnetic force and electrostatic (patch effect) force on the test mass assemblies. The discovery of a violation (η ≠ 0) would have profound implications for physics, astrophysics and cosmology.

  18. Design and characteristics of a WEP test in a sounding-rocket payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.; Patla, Biju R.; Phillips, James D.; Thapa, Rajesh

    2012-09-01

    We describe SR-POEM, a Galilean test of the weak equivalence principle that is to be conducted during the free fall portion of the flight of a sounding rocket payload. This test of a single pair of substances will have a measurement uncertainty of σ(η) < 2×10-17 after averaging the results of eight separate drops, each of 120 s duration. The entire payload is inverted between successive drops to cancel potential sources of systematic error. The weak equivalence principle measurement is made with a set of four of the SAO laser gauges, which have achieved an Allan deviation of 0.04 pm for an averaging time of 30 s. We discuss aspects of the current design with an emphasis on those that bear on the accuracy of the determination of η. The discovery of a violation(η ≠ 0) would have profound implications for physics, astrophysics and cosmology.

  19. The Transition-Edge-Sensor Array for the Micro-X Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Busch, Sarah Elizabeth; Chervenak J. A.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porst, J. P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Micro-X sounding rocket program will fly a 128-element array of transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters to enable high-resolution X-ray imaging spectroscopy of the Puppis-A supernova remnant. To match the angular resolution of the optics while maximizing the field-of-view and retaining a high energy resolution (< 4 eV at 1 keV), we have designed the pixels using 600 x 600 sq. micron Au/Bi absorbers, which overhang 140 x 140 sq. micron Mo/Au sensors. The data-rate capabilities of the rocket telemetry system require the pulse decay to be approximately 2 ms to allow a significant portion of the data to be telemetered during flight. Here we report experimental results from the flight array, including measurements of energy resolution, uniformity, and absorber thermalization. In addition, we present studies of test devices that have a variety of absorber contact geometries, as well as a variety of membrane-perforation schemes designed to slow the pulse decay time to match the telemetry requirements. Finally, we describe the reduction in pixel-to-pixel crosstalk afforded by an angle-evaporated Cu backside heatsinking layer, which provides Cu coverage on the four sidewalls of the silicon wells beneath each pixel.

  20. Status of the PICTURE Sounding Rocket to Image the Epsilon Eridani Circumstellar Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Mendillo, Christopher Bernard; Hicks, Brian; Cook, Timothy; Martel, Jason; Finn, Susanna; Polidan, Ronald S.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2014-06-01

    The PICTURE (Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment) sounding rocket will use a visible nulling interferometer to characterize the exozodiacal dust disk of Epsilon Eridani (K2V, 3.22 pc) in reflected visible light to an inner radius of 1.5 AU (0.5”) from the star. Launch is scheduled for Fall 2014 and the PICTURE payload is currently undergoing re-integration. The first launch of PICTURE suffered a science telemetry failure and the primary mirror was shattered upon landing, the second launch will fly a new SiC primary mirror and onboard data storage. PICTURE visible light observations will constrain scattering properties of the Epsilon Eridani exozodiacal dust disk from 600nm to 750 nm, measuring the background brightness which must be overcome for future exoplanet observations. Additionally, PICTURE will demonstrate operation of a MEMS deformable mirror and a visible nulling coronagraph in space. We will present the latest measurements of integrated telescope and interferometer performance.

  1. Sounding rocket measurement of the absolute solar EUV flux utilizing a silicon photodiode

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, H.S.; McMullin, D.; Judge, D.L. ); Canfield, L.R. )

    1990-04-01

    A newly developed stable and high quantum efficiency silicon photodiode was used to obtain an accurate measurement of the integrated absolute magnitude of the solar extreme ultraviolet photon flux in the spectral region between 50 and 800 {angstrom}. The detector was flown aboard a solar point sounding rocket launched from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico on October 24, 1988. The adjusted daily 10.7-cm solar radio flux and sunspot number were 168.4 and 121, respectively. The unattenuated absolute value of the solar EUV flux at 1 AU in the specified wavelength region was 6.81 {times} 10{sup 10} photons cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. Based on a nominal probable error of 7% for National Institute of Standards and Technology detector efficiency measurements in the 50- to 500-{angstrom} region (5% on longer wavelength measurements between 500 and 1216 {angstrom}), and based on experimental errors associated with their rocket instrumentation and analysis, a conservative total error estimate of {approximately}14% is assigned to the absolute integral solar flux obtained.

  2. Second flight of the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager sounding rocket [FOXSI-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitrago-Casas, J. C.; Krucker, S.; Christe, S.; Glesener, L.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Ramsey, B.; Foster, N. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket experiment that has flown twice to test a direct focusing method for measuring solar hard X-rays (HXRs). These HXRs are associated with particle acceleration mechanisms at work in powering solar flares and aid us in investigating the role of nanoflares in heating the solar corona. FOXSI-1 successfully flew for the first time on November 2, 2012. After some upgrades including the addition of extra mirrors to two optics modules and the inclusion of new fine-pitch CdTe strip detectors, in addition to the Si detectors from FOXSI-1, the FOXSI-2 payload flew successfully again on December 11, 2014. During the second flight four targets on the Sun were observed, including at least three active regions, two microflares, and ~1 minute of quiet Sun observation. This work is focused in giving an overview of the FOXSI rocket program and a detailed description of the upgrades for the second flight. In addition, we show images and spectra investigating the presence of no thermal emission for each of the flaring targets that we observed during the second flight.

  3. X-ray CCD Sounding Rocket Observation of the North Polar Spur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawley, L. J.; Burrows, D. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Mendenhall, J. A.

    1997-12-01

    A X-ray CCD camera aboard a sounding rocket was used to observe the North Polar Spur, an enhanced feature of the Soft X-ray Background. The flight took place on May 2, 1997 from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The target center was (l=20, b=+45) with a 60 x 20 degree field of view aligned along the North Polar Spur SXRB feature seen in 3/4 KeV maps of the Rosat All-Sky Survey. [Snowden et al. 1995] The goal was to examine the NPS with high spectral energy resolution. To that end, we utilized a three-phase CCD with thinned poly gates made by EEV. This device was designed to improve quantum efficiency in the soft X-ray band, i.e. below 1 KeV. We present trajectory and aspect solutions for this rocket flight. We discuss the amount of data contamination from cosmic rays, energetic particles and scattered solar X-rays, as well as atmospheric absorption corrections. We present our corrected spectrum for the NPS and the preliminary results of spectral fits with Raymond and Smith thermal plasma models. Finally we compare the results for the North Polar Spur with results from our previous observation of a similar enhanced feature of the SXRB in the galactic center. [Mendenhall, 1997

  4. An experimental study on the aerodynamic feasibility of a roll-controllable sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirouzu, M.; Soga, K.; Shibato, Y.

    1986-02-01

    The aerodynamic feasibility of a roll-controllable two-stage sounding rocket is investigated experimentally. The rocket has ailerons on front-fins to generate the rolling moment for the control and free-rolling tail-fins to prevent the induced rolling moment on the tail-fins from transmitting to the fuselage. Wind tunnel tests were made at free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 and alpha = 0 deg, 4 deg, and 8 deg varying the deflection angle of the ailerons for the models with fixed tail-fins, with free-rolling tail-fins and without tail-fins. Aerodynamic characteristics were measured by using a six-component balance. The effectiveness of the free-rolling tail-fins for the elimination of the influence of the induced rolling moment is confirmed. It is concluded that the characteristics of the rolling moment generated by the ailerons are desirable for the control, and the rotation of the tail-fins would not raise mechanical and other aerodynamic problems.

  5. Auroral Current and Electrodynamics Structure Measured by Two SOunding Rockets in Flight Simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounds, Scott R.; Kaeppler, Steve; Kletzing, Craig; Lessard, Marc; Cohen, Ian J.; Jones, Sarah; Pfaff, Robert F.; Rowland, Douglas E.; Anderson, Brian Jay; Gjerloev, Jesper W.; Labelle, James W.; Dombrowski, Micah P.; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Heinselman, Craig J.

    2011-01-01

    On January 29, 2009, two identically instrumented sounding rockets were launched into a sub-storm auroral arc from Poker Flat Alaska. Labeled the Auroral Currents and Electrodynamics Structure (ACES) mission, the payloads were launched to different apogees (approx.350km and approx.120km) and staggered in time so as to optimize their magnetic conjunctions. The different altitudes provided simultaneous in-situ measurements of magnetospheric input and output to the ionosphere and the ionospheric response in the lower F and E region. Measurements included 3-axis magnetic field, 2-axis electric field nominally perpendicular to the magnetic field, energetic particles, electron and ion, up to 15keV, cold plasma temperature and density. In addition, PFISR was also operating in a special designed mode to measure electric field and density profiles in the plane defined by the rocket trajectories and laterally to either side of the trajectories. Observation of the measured currents and electrodynamics structure of the auroral form encountered are presented in the context of standard auroral models and the temporal/spatial limitations of mission designs.

  6. Quiet-sun and non-flaring active region measurements from the FOXSI-2 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitrago-Casas, J. C.; Glesener, L.; Christe, S.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Narukage, N.; Krucker, S.; Bale, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Solar hard X-ray (HXR) emissions are a cornerstone for understanding particle acceleration and energy release in the corona. These phenomena are present at different size scales and intensities, from large eruptive events down to the smallest flares. The presence of HXRs in small, unresolved flares would provide direct evidence of small reconnection events, i.e. nano-flares, that are thought to be be important for the unsolved coronal heating problem. Currently operating solar-dedicated instruments that observe HXRs from the Sun do not have the dynamic range, nor the sensitivity, crucial to observe the faintest solar HXRs. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload is a novel experiment that develops and applies direct focusing optics coupled with semiconductor detectors to observe faint HXRs from the Sun. The FOXSI rocket has successfully completed two flights, observing areas of the quiet-Sun, active regions and micro-flares. We present recent data analysis to test the presence of hot plasma in and outside of active regions observed during the two flights, focusing on the differential emission measure distribution of the non-flaring corona.

  7. The hydrogen coma of Comet P/Halley observed in Lyman-alpha using sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, R. P.; Meier, R. R.; Keller, H. U.; Opal, C. B.; Carruthers, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm) images of Comet P/Halley were obtained using sounding rockets launched from White Sands Missile Range on 24.5 February and 13.5 March 1986. The second rocket was launched 13 hours before the fly-by of the Giotto spacecraft. An electrographic camera on both flights provided Lyman-alpha images covering a 20 field of view with 3 arcmin resolution. The data from both flights have been compared with a time-dependent model of hydrogen kinetics. To match the measured isophote contours, hydrogen sources with velocity components of 8 km/s and 20 km/s (from OH and H2O respectively) as well as a low velocity component (about 2 km/s) are required. This low velocity component is thought to result from thermalization of fast hydrogen atoms within the collision zone, providing an important diagnostic of temperature and density near the nucleus. Hydrogen production rates of 3.8 x 10 exp 30/s and 1.7 x 10 exp 30/s have been obtained for the two observations.

  8. Kinetic modeling of auroral ion Outflows observed by the VISIONS sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarran, R. M.; Zettergren, M. D.; Rowland, D. E.; Klenzing, J.; Clemmons, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    The VISIONS (VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm) sounding rocket was launched on Feb. 7, 2013 at 8:21 UTC from Poker Flat, Alaska, into an auroral substorm with the objective of identifying the drivers and dynamics of the ion outflow below 1000km. Energetic ion data from the VISIONS polar cap boundary crossing show evidence of an ion "pressure cooker" effect whereby ions energized via transverse heating in the topside ionosphere travel upward and are impeded by a parallel potential structure at higher altitudes. VISIONS was also instrumented with an energetic neutral atom (ENA) detector which measured neutral particles ( 50-100 eV energy) presumably produced by charge-exchange with the energized outflowing ions. Hence, inferences about ion outflow may be made via remotely-sensing measurements of ENAs. This investigation focuses on modeling energetic outflowing ion distributions observed by VISIONS using a kinetic model. This kinetic model traces large numbers of individual particles, using a guiding-center approximation, in order to allow calculation of ion distribution functions and moments. For the present study we include mirror and parallel electric field forces, and a source of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) wave heating, thought to be central to the transverse energization of ions. The model is initiated with a steady-state ion density altitude profile and Maxwellian velocity distribution characterizing the initial phase-space conditions for multiple particle trajectories. This project serves to advance our understanding of the drivers and particle dynamics in the auroral ionosphere and to improve data analysis methods for future sounding rocket and satellite missions.

  9. Observing soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium with X-ray calorimeter on a sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, J.; Edwards, B.; Juda, M.; Mccammon, D.; Skinner, M.; Kelley, R.; Moseley, H.; Schoelkopf, R.; Szymkowiak, A.

    1990-01-01

    For an X-ray calorimeter working at 0.1 K, the energy resolution ideally can be as good as one eV for a practical detector. A detector with a resolution of 17 eV FWHM at 6 keV has been constructed. It is expected that this can be improved by a factor of two or more. With X-ray calorimeters flown on a sounding rocket, it should be possible to observe soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium over the energy range 0.07 to 1 keV. Here, a preliminary design for an X-ray calorimeter rocket experiment and the spectrum which might be observed from an equilibrium plasma are presented. For later X-ray calorimeter sounding rocket experiments, it is planned to add an aluminum foil mirror with collecting area of about 400 sq cm to observe line features from bright supernova remnants.

  10. University of Maryland-Republic Terrapin Sounding Rocket H121-2681-I(Terrapin) Model on the Launcher

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1956-10-21

    LAL 95,647 University of Maryland-Republic Terrapin sounding rocket mounted on special launcher, September 21, 1956. Photograph published in A New Dimension Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years by Joseph Shortal. A NASA publication. Page 506.

  11. Determination of the center of brightness of the lunar crescent. [through use of a sounding rocket payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, C.

    1975-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the lunar sensor which was used to point the sounding rocket are discussed briefly. The associated mathematical model of the system is developed and the computer programs which were written to implement the model are described. Data pertinent to the two launches is presented.

  12. Characterization of welded HP 9-4-30 steel for the advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, George William

    1990-01-01

    Solid rocket motor case materials must be high-strength, high-toughness, weldable alloys. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) cases currently being developed will be made from a 9Ni-4Co quench and temper steel called HP 9-4-30. These ultra high-strength steels must be carefully processed to give a very clean material and a fine grained microstructure, which insures excellent ductility and toughness. The HP 9-4-30 steels are vacuum arc remelted and carbon deoxidized to give the cleanliness required. The ASRM case material will be formed into rings and then welded together to form the case segments. Welding is the desired joining technique because it results in a lower weight than other joining techniques. The mechanical and corrosion properties of the weld region material were fully studied.

  13. Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics and Optimum Fracture Control Analytical Procedures for a Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanagud, S.; Uppaluri, B.

    1977-01-01

    A methodology for the reliability analysis of a reusable solid rocket motor case is discussed. The analysis is based on probabilistic fracture mechanics and probability distribution for initial flaw sizes. The developed reliability analysis is used to select the structural design variables of the solid rocket motor case on the basis of minimum expected cost and specified reliability bounds during the projected design life of the case. Effects of failure prevention plans such as nondestructive inspection and the material erosion between missions are also considered in the developed procedure for selection of design variables. The reliability-based procedure can be modified to consider other similar structures of reusable space vehicle systems with different failure prevention plans.

  14. The historical contribution of solid rocket motors to the one centimeter debris population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Albert; Eichler, Peter; Reynolds, Robert; Potter, Andrew; Johnson, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    The measured small particle population in earth orbit contains cm-sized objects that are not accounted for by breakup fragments. It was proposed that slag ejection during solid rocket motor burn is a contributor to this population. The direct evidence for such slag ejection follows from: observations of the exhausts of vehicles in flight, and engineering data from static firings. A source model is presented to account for the contribution of slag expulsion from solid rocket motors to the debris population. The mass and velocity distribution of the slag effluents are taken into account and used as a source term in the debris environment model. The model is based on the available observation data and on models for slag development and ejection.

  15. A computer simulation of the afterburning processes occurring within solid rocket motor plumes in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomberg, R. I.; Stewart, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a continuing study of the environmental effects of solid rocket motor (SRM) operations in the troposphere, a numerical model was used to simulate the afterburning processes occurring in solid rocket motor plumes and to predict the quantities of potentially harmful chemical species which are created. The calculations include the effects of finite-rate chemistry and turbulent mixing. It is found that the amount of NO produced is much less than the amount of HCl present in the plume, that chlorine will appear predominantly in the form of HCl although some molecular chlorine is present, and that combustion is complete as is evident from the predominance of carbon dioxide over carbon monoxide.

  16. Contamination Control Changes to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program: A Ten Year Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushman, David M.

    1998-01-01

    During the post Challenger period, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Thiokol implemented changes to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) contract to include provisions for contamination control to enhance the production environment. During the ten years since those agreements for contamination controls were made, many changes have taken place in the production facilities at Thiokol. These changes have led to the production of much higher quality shuttle solid rocket motors and improved cleanliness and safety of operations in the production facilities. The experience in contamination control over this past decade highlights the value these changes have brought to the RSRM program, and how the system can be improved to meet the challenges the program will face in the next ten years.

  17. A comparison of two methods of measuring particle size of Al2O3 produced by a small rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobbins, R. A.; Strand, L. D.

    1969-01-01

    The size of aluminum oxide particles produced by small rocket motors is determined by tank collection and spectrophotometry. The size of the particulate determines loss in thrust due to particle lag, particulate radiant heat transfer, acoustic attenuation and impingement and rocket plume structure and properties.

  18. Methyl Chloroform Elimination from the Production of Space Shuttle Sold Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golde, Rick P.; Burt, Rick; Key, Leigh

    1997-01-01

    Thiokol Space Operations manufactures the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors used to launch America's fleet of Space Shuttles. In 1989, Thiokol used more than 1.4 Mlb of methyl chloroform to produce rocket motors. The ban placed by the Environmental Protection Agency on the sale of methyl chloroform had a significant effect on future Reusable Solid Rocket Motor production. As a result, changes in the materials and processes became necessary. A multiphased plan was established by Thiokol in partnership with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to eliminate the use of methyl chloroform in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor production process. Because of the extensive scope of this effort, the plan was phased to target the elimination of the majority of methyl chloroform use (90 percent) by January 1, 1996, the 3 Environmental Protection Agency deadline. Referred to as Phase I, this effort includes the elimination of two large vapor degreasers, grease diluent processes, and propellant tooling handcleaning using methyl chloroform. Meanwhile, a request was made for an essential use exemption to allow the continued use of the remaining 10 percent of methyl chloroform after the 1996 deadline, while total elimination was pursued for this final, critical phase (Phase II). This paper provides an update to three previous presentations prepared for the 1993, 1994, and 1995 CFC/Halon Alternative Conferences, and will outline the overall Ozone Depleting Compounds Elimination Program from the initial phases through the final testing and implementation phases, including facility and equipment development. Processes and materials to be discussed include low-pressure aqueous wash systems, high-pressure water blast systems- environmental shipping containers, aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning solutions, and bond integrity and inspection criteria. Progress toward completion of facility implementation and lessons learned during the scope of the program, as well as the current development efforts

  19. Plasma torch testing for thermostructural evaluation of rocket motor nozzle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Andrew S.; Bunker, Robert C.; Lawrence, Tim

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents data from the thermostructural testing of tape-wrapped carbon phenolic. This work has been performed with the use of a plasma torch and loading device in an effort to study the anomalous erosion characteristicfs of that seen in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle STS-8A. Testing is conducted in an effort to determine conditions or parameters involved in this mode of failure.

  20. Space shuttle redesigned solid rocket motor Certificate of Qualification (COQ) data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duersch, Fred, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Certification Program provides confidence that the RSRM and its components/subsystems meet or exceed Mission Oriented Requirements when manufactured per design requirements and specified/approved processes. Certification is based on documented results of tests, analyses, inspections, similarity, and demonstrations. Evidencing information is provided to certify that each RSRM component/subsystem satisfies design, mission related requirements and objectives.

  1. Model of Chlorocarbon (CFC-12) Chemisorption on Solid Rocket Motor Alumina Exhaust Particles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    propellant for solid rocket motors currently used in the United States is a mixture commonly known as ammonium per chlorate, or AP. The three main...chamber, the sodium ions 23 scavenge most of the chloride ions , forming NaCL thus preventing the chloride ions from forming HC1. Laboratory...an accurate quantification of the acid reducing capability of the scavenged propellants during an open ah test has not yet been made.33 The sodium

  2. Multi-Dimensional Combustion Instability Analysis of Solid Propellant Rocket Motors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    that vortex shedding may lead to an instability in solid propellant rocket motors. It is quite possible that high speed mean flows also affect the...significant [7-13]. Although it can be ar- gued that the hydrodynamic instability may not occur in high Reynolds numbers, the turbulent shear layer...can be significant [7-13]. Although it -(U + ] u 0 (2) can be argued that the hydrodynamic instability may Re i,jj 3 jji not occur in high Reynolds

  3. Plasma torch testing for thermostructural evaluation of rocket motor nozzle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Andrew S.; Bunker, Robert C.; Lawrence, Tim

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents data from the thermostructural testing of tape-wrapped carbon phenolic. This work has been performed with the use of a plasma torch and loading device in an effort to study the anomalous erosion characteristicfs of that seen in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle STS-8A. Testing is conducted in an effort to determine conditions or parameters involved in this mode of failure.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Polymer Nanocomposites for Solid Rocket Motor Internal Insulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    a modeling framework for simulating the insulative behavior of thermoplastic Polyurethane elastomer nanocomposites (TPUNs) for solid rocket motors...Nanophase, Thermoplastic Elastomer, EPDM Rubber, Surface Modified MMT Clay, Carbon Nanofibers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT u b. ABSTRACT U...Third Year Program Tasks 7 4. Description of Polymer Nanocomposites 7 4.1 Thermoplastic Elastomer 7 4.2 Montmorilonite Nanoclays 7 4.3 Carbon

  5. Methyl Chloroform Elimination from the Production of Space Shuttle Sold Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golde, Rick P.; Burt, Rick; Key, Leigh

    1997-01-01

    Thiokol Space Operations manufactures the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors used to launch America's fleet of Space Shuttles. In 1989, Thiokol used more than 1.4 Mlb of methyl chloroform to produce rocket motors. The ban placed by the Environmental Protection Agency on the sale of methyl chloroform had a significant effect on future Reusable Solid Rocket Motor production. As a result, changes in the materials and processes became necessary. A multiphased plan was established by Thiokol in partnership with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to eliminate the use of methyl chloroform in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor production process. Because of the extensive scope of this effort, the plan was phased to target the elimination of the majority of methyl chloroform use (90 percent) by January 1, 1996, the 3 Environmental Protection Agency deadline. Referred to as Phase I, this effort includes the elimination of two large vapor degreasers, grease diluent processes, and propellant tooling handcleaning using methyl chloroform. Meanwhile, a request was made for an essential use exemption to allow the continued use of the remaining 10 percent of methyl chloroform after the 1996 deadline, while total elimination was pursued for this final, critical phase (Phase II). This paper provides an update to three previous presentations prepared for the 1993, 1994, and 1995 CFC/Halon Alternative Conferences, and will outline the overall Ozone Depleting Compounds Elimination Program from the initial phases through the final testing and implementation phases, including facility and equipment development. Processes and materials to be discussed include low-pressure aqueous wash systems, high-pressure water blast systems- environmental shipping containers, aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning solutions, and bond integrity and inspection criteria. Progress toward completion of facility implementation and lessons learned during the scope of the program, as well as the current development efforts

  6. Sounding-Rocket Studies of Langmuir-Wave Microphysics in the Auroral Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowski, Micah P.

    Since their discovery in laboratory plasmas in the 1920s, Langmuir waves have been observed to be ubiquitous in plasma environments, particularly in space plasmas. From the greater solar wind to planetary foreshocks and the auroral ionosphere, Langmuir waves are a key factor mediating electron temperature, and controlling electron beam propagation and beam-plasma energy transfer. Because they are so important, Langmuir waves in the space environment have been intensively investigated; however, there remain two challenging types of experiments that are relatively lacking: three-dimensional measurements of Langmuir-wave fields, and measurements of Langmuir wave-electron correlations. This thesis works on filling these two gaps, plus development of new Langmuir-wave instrumentation. The CHARM-II wave-particle Correlator instrument was designed to study the energy transfer between electron beams and plasmas via the sorting of incoming particles by concurrent Langmuir-wave phase, allowing for direct observation of electron bunching. Data from the CHARM-II sounding rocket comprises the first such observations with statistical levels of events, revealing an association between the polarity of the resistive component of the electron phase-bunching and changes in the electron flux at the associated energy, such that a negative resistive component goes with an increase in electron flux, and vice versa, effectively showing energy flow from the beam to the waves, and subsequent enhancements of wave damping. Surprisingly, the results also show comparable amounts of resistive and reactive activity. A test-particle simulation was developed to confirm the details of the theoretical explanation for the observed effect. A three-dimensional Langmuir-wave receiver flown on the TRICE sounding rocket mission reveals the beat signature of the amplitude-modulated 'bursty' form of Langmuir waves which has been observed in many environments. An analysis of the three-dimensional data shows

  7. Heat Transfer by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Michael; Fuhrmann, Eckart

    The sounding rocket COMPERE experiment SOURCE was successfully flown on MASER 11, launched in Kiruna (ESRANGE), May 15th, 2008. SOURCE has been intended to partly ful-fill the scientific objectives of the European Space Agency (ESA) Microgravity Applications Program (MAP) project AO-2004-111 (Convective boiling and condensation). Three parties of principle investigators have been involved to design the experiment set-up: ZARM for thermo-capillary flows, IMFT (Toulouse, France) for boiling studies, EADS Astrium (Bremen, Ger-many) for depressurization. The topic of this paper is to study the effect of wall heat flux on the contact line of the free liquid surface and to obtain a correlation for a convective heat trans-fer coefficient. The experiment has been conducted along a predefined time line. A preheating sequence at ground was the first operation to achieve a well defined temperature evolution within the test cell and its environment inside the rocket. Nearly one minute after launch, the pressurized test cell was filled with the test liquid HFE-7000 until a certain fill level was reached. Then the free surface could be observed for 120 s without distortion. Afterwards, the first depressurization was started to induce subcooled boiling, the second one to start saturated boiling. The data from the flight consists of video images and temperature measurements in the liquid, the solid, and the gaseous phase. Data analysis provides the surface shape versus time and the corresponding apparent contact angle. Computational analysis provides information for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient in a compensated gravity environment where a flow is caused by the temperature difference between the hot wall and the cold liquid. The paper will deliver correlations for the effective contact angle and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the relevant dimensionsless parameters as well as physical explanations for the observed behavior. The data will be used

  8. Laser holographic nondestructive testing of the NASA X-248 rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program to apply holography for nondestructive testing of the X-248 rocket motor was undertaken. The objective was to establish the capability of holography in detecting known unbonding between liner and propellant. Holography was performed employing stressing techniques: (1) acoustical, (2) thermal, (3) radiative, and (4) static loading. Radiative stressing was successful in locating a large area of liner/propellant unbond. The results were correlated with destructive testing. Theoretical analysis provided an understanding of motor case holography in conjunction with radiative stressing.

  9. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of acoustic instability of solid propellant rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, R. M.; Juruf, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    A three dimensional finite element solution of the acoustic vibration problem in a solid propellant rocket motor is presented. The solution yields the natural circular frequencies of vibration and the corresponding acoustic pressure mode shapes, considering the coupled response of the propellant grain to the acoustic oscillations occurring in the motor cavity. The near incompressibility of the solid propellant is taken into account in the formulation. A relatively simple example problem is solved in order to illustrate the applicability of the analysis and the developed computer code.

  10. The NRL Solar Physics Sounding Rocket Program: Trailblazers for the Solar-C and Solar Orbiter Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, D. H.; Korendyke, C.; Vourlidas, A.; Moses, J.; Brown, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Space Science Division (SSD) sounding rocket program enables cutting-edge scientific research through the development of low-cost, short-schedule, highly advanced suborbital payloads. Each sounding rocket campaign provides a low-cost and accordingly low-risk test bed for the technology development of future flight projects. Our approach is to maintain a continuous hardware development program through a successful cycle of concept inception, competition in the NASA LCAS (Low-Cost Access to Space) program, instrument development, launch, and science analysis. Currently, SSD has three active sounding rocket programs. HERSCHEL (HElium Resonance Scattering in the Corona & HELio-sphere) was successfully flown in 2010 and measured the global helium absolute abundance in the solar corona for the first time, linking solar surface and in-situ abundance. The HERSCHEL experiment served as the pathfinder for the METIS coronagraph that will fly on Solar Orbiter. VERIS (VEry high Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) is scheduled for launch in August 2013 and will provide the first spectroscopic observations of the solar atmosphere at spatial scales not yet observed by previous EUV spectrographs. VERIS is the test bed for a flight hardware concept to be proposed to NASA for the upcoming JAXA Solar-C mission. VAULT (Very high Angular resolution Ultraviolet Telescope), scheduled for re-flight in Fall 2013, will provide ultra high-resolution images of the Lyman-alpha layer of the upper chromosphere where much of the energy required for explosive events is stored. Previous VAULT sounding rocket flights provided the first sub-arcsecond solar images from space and led to the development of a Lyman-alpha telescope for the Solar Orbiter mission. Through these next sounding rocket flights NRL SSD will provide scientific leadership in the budding field of upper chromospheric research.

  11. Performance of reinforced polymer ablators exposed to a solid rocket motor exhaust. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, C.; Burgess, T.; Bowen, J.; Deloach, K.; Talmy, I.

    1992-10-01

    Summarized in this report is the effort by the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD) and FMC Corporation (a launcher manufacturer) to identify new high performance ablators suitable for use on Navy guided missile launchers (GML) and ships' structures. The goal is to reduce ablator erosion by 25 to 50 percent compared to that of the existing ablators such as MXBE350 (rubbermodified phenolic containing glass fiber reinforcement). This reduction in erosion would significantly increase the number of new missiles with higher-thrust, longer burn rocket motors that can be launched prior to ablator refurbishment. In fact, there are a number of new Navy missiles being considered for development and introduction into existing GML: e.g., the Antisatellite Missile (ASM) and the Theater High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Missile. The U.S. Navy experimentally evaluated the eight best fiber-reinforced, polymer composites from a possible field of 25 off-the-shelf ablators previously screened by FMC Corporation. They were tested by the Navy in highly aluminized solid rocket motor exhaust plumes to determine their ability to resist erosion and to insulate.... Ablator, Guided Missile Launchers, Erosion, Tactical missiles, Convective heating, Solid rocket motors, Aluminum oxide particles.

  12. Experimental study on multiple-pulse performance characteristics of ammonium perchlorate/aluminum powder rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Hu, Chunbo; Deng, Zhe; Li, Chao; Sun, Haijun; Cai, Yupeng

    2017-04-01

    The performance characteristics of ammonium perchlorate/aluminum powder rocket motor were investigated experimentally based on a powder rocket testing system. Three-pulse experiment with one hour interval and four-pulse experiment with 15 s interval were conducted with a bi-propellant powder feed system. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the powder rocket for the multiple-pulse operation and the synchronization of powder feed method. The multiple-pulse performance characteristics were analyzed accordingly. It shows that the motor initiates steadily with the mass flow rate of 2.5 g/s for oxidizer powder fluidization gas and 2.0 g/s for fuel powder fluidization gas. The relative standard deviation was adopted to describe the repeatability characteristics of the pulses. The relative standard deviation of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum pistons velocity is 0.072 and 0.007, and that of oxidizer-fuel mass feed ratio is 0.052. The motor performed well with good repeatability of combustor pressure, start-up response and combustion efficiency during the multiple-pulse tests. Low frequency combustion pressure oscillations,3.6-4.2 Hz with amplitudes up to 18.7% of mean combustor pressure, were encountered. The phenomenon appeared seriously at first pulse, then alleviated at the following pulses. Further analysis of test results showed that increasing chamber pressure could ameliorate the oscillation.

  13. Numerical investigation on the regression rate of hybrid rocket motor with star swirl fuel grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Hu, Fan; Zhang, Weihua

    2016-10-01

    Although hybrid rocket motor is prospected to have distinct advantages over liquid and solid rocket motor, low regression rate and insufficient efficiency are two major disadvantages which have prevented it from being commercially viable. In recent years, complex fuel grain configurations are attractive in overcoming the disadvantages with the help of Rapid Prototyping technology. In this work, an attempt has been made to numerically investigate the flow field characteristics and local regression rate distribution inside the hybrid rocket motor with complex star swirl grain. A propellant combination with GOX and HTPB has been chosen. The numerical model is established based on the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence, combustion, and coupled gas/solid phase formulations. The calculated fuel regression rate is compared with the experimental data to validate the accuracy of numerical model. The results indicate that, comparing the star swirl grain with the tube grain under the conditions of the same port area and the same grain length, the burning surface area rises about 200%, the spatially averaged regression rate rises as high as about 60%, and the oxidizer can combust sufficiently due to the big vortex around the axis in the aft-mixing chamber. The combustion efficiency of star swirl grain is better and more stable than that of tube grain.

  14. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - Accomplishment, Lessons, and a Culture of Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. R.; Phelps, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) represents the largest solid rocket motor (SRM) ever flown and the only human-rated solid motor. High reliability of the RSRM has been the result of challenges addressed and lessons learned. Advancements have resulted by applying attention to process control, testing, and postflight through timely and thorough communication in dealing with all issues. A structured and disciplined approach was taken to identify and disposition all concerns. Careful consideration and application of alternate opinions was embraced. Focus was placed on process control, ground test programs, and postflight assessment. Process control is mandatory for an SRM, because an acceptance test of the delivered product is not feasible. The RSRM maintained both full-scale and subscale test articles, which enabled continuous improvement of design and evaluation of process control and material behavior. Additionally RSRM reliability was achieved through attention to detail in post flight assessment to observe any shift in performance. The postflight analysis and inspections provided invaluable reliability data as it enables observation of actual flight performance, most of which would not be available if the motors were not recovered. RSRM reusability offered unique opportunities to learn about the hardware. NASA is moving forward with the Space Launch System that incorporates propulsion systems that takes advantage of the heritage Shuttle and Ares solid motor programs. These unique challenges, features of the RSRM, materials and manufacturing issues, and design improvements will be discussed in the paper.

  15. A preliminary analysis of low frequency pressure oscillations in hybrid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Rhonald M.

    1994-10-01

    Past research with hybrid rockets has suggested that certain motor operating conditions are conducive to the formation of pressure oscillations, or flow instabilities, within the motor combustion chamber. These combustion-related vibrations or pressure oscillations may be encountered in virtually any type of rocket motor and typically fall into three frequency ranges: low frequency oscillations (0-300 Hz); intermediate frequency oscillations (400-1000 Hz); and high frequency oscillations (greater than 1000 Hz). In general, combustion instability is characterized by organized pressure oscillations occurring at well-defined intervals with pressure peaks that may maintain themselves, grow, or die out. Usually, such peaks exceed +/- 5% of the mean chamber pressure. For hybrid motors, these oscillations have been observed to grow to a limiting amplitude which may be dependent on factors such as fuel characteristics, oxidizer injector characteristics, average chamber pressure, oxidizer mass flux, combustion chamber length, and grain geometry. The approach taken in the present analysis is to develop a modified chamber length, L, instability theory which accounts for the relationship between pressure and oxidizer to fuel concentration ratio in the motor.

  16. A preliminary analysis of low frequency pressure oscillations in hybrid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Rhonald M.

    1994-01-01

    Past research with hybrid rockets has suggested that certain motor operating conditions are conducive to the formation of pressure oscillations, or flow instabilities, within the motor combustion chamber. These combustion-related vibrations or pressure oscillations may be encountered in virtually any type of rocket motor and typically fall into three frequency ranges: low frequency oscillations (0-300 Hz); intermediate frequency oscillations (400-1000 Hz); and high frequency oscillations (greater than 1000 Hz). In general, combustion instability is characterized by organized pressure oscillations occurring at well-defined intervals with pressure peaks that may maintain themselves, grow, or die out. Usually, such peaks exceed +/- 5% of the mean chamber pressure. For hybrid motors, these oscillations have been observed to grow to a limiting amplitude which may be dependent on factors such as fuel characteristics, oxidizer injector characteristics, average chamber pressure, oxidizer mass flux, combustion chamber length, and grain geometry. The approach taken in the present analysis is to develop a modified chamber length, L, instability theory which accounts for the relationship between pressure and oxidizer to fuel concentration ratio in the motor.

  17. Combustion-Characteristic-Based Active Thrust Modulation of a Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masafumi; Gaspard, Guillaume; Urakawa, Katsuya

    A new concept of thrust modulation of solid propellant rocket motor is proposed. Some propellants cannot burn at intermediate pressure, while they can burn at lower and higher pressures. When one applies such a propellant to a motor, two combustion modes or two thrust levels are attainable without any change of the nozzle configuration. In the experiments different ignition conditions brought independent two combustion modes (low mode and high mode) in the same motor geometry. Some motors showed a natural transition from low mode to high mode. As an example, the alternative thrust levels were 50 N and 180 N. The natural transition was restricted with use of the partitioned grain. An active transition method was explored by exerting pressure perturbation through a vent hole with a ball valve. The valve system worked for the transition from high mode to low mode, but the reverse transition was not achieved well.

  18. When sounds become actions: higher-order representation of newly learned action sounds in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Weiss, Carmen; Casile, Antonino; Waszak, Florian

    2012-02-01

    In the absence of visual information, our brain is able to recognize the actions of others by representing their sounds as a motor event. Previous studies have provided evidence for a somatotopic activation of the listener's motor cortex during perception of the sound of highly familiar motor acts. The present experiments studied (a) how the motor system is activated by action-related sounds that are newly acquired and (b) whether these sounds are represented with reference to extrinsic features related to action goals rather than with respect to lower-level intrinsic parameters related to the specific movements. TMS was used to measure the correspondence between auditory and motor codes in the listener's motor system. We compared the corticomotor excitability in response to the presentation of auditory stimuli void of previous motor meaning before and after a short training period in which these stimuli were associated with voluntary actions. Novel cross-modal representations became manifest very rapidly. By disentangling the representation of the muscle from that of the action's goal, we further showed that passive listening to newly learnt action-related sounds activated a precise motor representation that depended on the variable contexts to which the individual was exposed during testing. Our results suggest that the human brain embodies a higher-order audio-visuo-motor representation of perceived actions, which is muscle-independent and corresponds to the goals of the action.

  19. ROCKETMAS: A sounding-rocket-based remote sensing measurement of mesospheric water vapor and ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croskey, C. L.; Olivero, J. J.; Puliafito, S. E.; Mitchell, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The ROCKETMAS rocketborne technique, based on the shuttle-borne millimeter wave atmospheric sounder (MAS), to obtain water vapor and ozone measurements with vertical resolution, is described. The concentrations of mesospheric water vapor and ozone are not well known, yet both contribute significantly to the chemical and radiative structure of that region. In situ measurements of water vapor are difficult to make because water that was absorbed on the instrument surfaces outgasses in space and contaminates the local environment of the payload. However, a remote sensing technique that uses a long pathlength through the atmosphere greatly reduces the effect of such local contamination. The 183.3 GHz line of water vapor and 184.4 GHz line of ozone are good choices for spaceborne radiometer measurements because one front-end mixer assembly can be used to simultaneously observe both gases. The design of a sounding rocket based millimeter wave radiometer for measuring water vapor and ozone with a height resolution not possible by either ground based or limb sounding techniques is described.

  20. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.