Science.gov

Sample records for soundness metric development

  1. Conceptual Soundness, Metric Development, Benchmarking, and Targeting for PATH Subprogram Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey. G.; Doris, E.; Coggeshall, C.; Antes, M.; Ruch, J.; Mortensen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the conceptual soundness of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) program's revised goals and establish and apply a framework to identify and recommend metrics that are the most useful for measuring PATH's progress. This report provides an evaluative review of PATH's revised goals, outlines a structured method for identifying and selecting metrics, proposes metrics and benchmarks for a sampling of individual PATH programs, and discusses other metrics that potentially could be developed that may add value to the evaluation process. The framework and individual program metrics can be used for ongoing management improvement efforts and to inform broader program-level metrics for government reporting requirements.

  2. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  3. Interaction Metrics for Feedback Control of Sound Radiation from Stiffened Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction metrics developed for the process control industry are used to evaluate decentralized control of sound radiation from bays on an aircraft fuselage. The metrics are applied to experimentally measured frequency response data from a model of an aircraft fuselage. The purpose is to understand how coupling between multiple bays of the fuselage can destabilize or limit the performance of a decentralized active noise control system. The metrics quantitatively verify observations from a previous experiment, in which decentralized controllers performed worse than centralized controllers. The metrics do not appear to be useful for explaining control spillover which was observed in a previous experiment.

  4. Is Sound Exposure Level a Convenient Metric to Characterize Fatiguing Sounds? A Study in Beluga Whales.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander; Popov, Vladimir; Nechaev, Dmitry; Sysueva, Evgenia; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav

    2016-01-01

    Both the level and duration of fatiguing sounds influence temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) in odontocetes. These two parameters were combined into a sound exposure level (SEL). In the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas, TTSs were investigated at various sound pressure level (SPL)-to-duration ratios at a specific SEL. At low SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was positive: shorter high-level sounds produced greater TTSs than long low-level sounds of the same SEL. At high SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was negative: long low-level sounds produced greater TTSs than short high-level sounds of the same SEL. Thus, the validity of SEL as a metric for fatiguing sound efficiency is limited.

  5. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  6. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of highly accurate and useful system.

  7. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of highly accurate and useful system.

  8. Objective evaluation of interior noise booming in a passenger car based on sound metrics and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2009-09-01

    Booming sound is one of the important sounds in a passenger car. The aim of the paper is to develop the objective evaluation method of interior booming sound. The development method is based on the sound metrics and ANN (artificial neural network). The developed method is called the booming index. Previous work maintained that booming sound quality is related to loudness and sharpness--the sound metrics used in psychoacoustics--and that the booming index is developed by using the loudness and sharpness for a signal within whole frequency between 20 Hz and 20 kHz. In the present paper, the booming sound quality was found to be effectively related to the loudness at frequencies below 200 Hz; thus the booming index is updated by using the loudness of the signal filtered by the low pass filter at frequency under 200 Hz. The relationship between the booming index and sound metric is identified by an ANN. The updated booming index has been successfully applied to the objective evaluation of the booming sound quality of mass-produced passenger cars.

  9. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place In the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is managed by personnel from Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, either from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia, Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico or from Canada, Norway and Sweden. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requi6ng considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of a high accurate and useful system.

  10. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place In the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is managed by personnel from Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, either from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia, Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico or from Canada, Norway and Sweden. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requi6ng considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of a high accurate and useful system.

  11. Compressed Sensing for Metrics Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, R. L.; Giangrande, S. E.; Liu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Models by their very nature tend to be sparse in the sense that they are designed, with a few optimally selected key parameters, to provide simple yet faithful representations of a complex observational dataset or computer simulation output. This paper seeks to apply methods from compressed sensing (CS), a new area of applied mathematics currently undergoing a very rapid development (see for example Candes et al., 2006), to FASTER needs for new approaches to model evaluation and metrics development. The CS approach will be illustrated for a time series generated using a few-parameter (i.e. sparse) model. A seemingly incomplete set of measurements, taken at a just few random sampling times, is then used to recover the hidden model parameters. Remarkably there is a sharp transition in the number of required measurements, beyond which both the model parameters and time series are recovered exactly. Applications to data compression, data sampling/collection strategies, and to the development of metrics for model evaluation by comparison with observation (e.g. evaluation of model predictions of cloud fraction using cloud radar observations) are presented and discussed in context of the CS approach. Cited reference: Candes, E. J., Romberg, J., and Tao, T. (2006), Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 52, 489-509.

  12. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed.

  13. Aquatic acoustic metrics interface utility for underwater sound monitoring and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huiying; Halvorsen, Michele B; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Carlson, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, the Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI), specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame. The features of the AAMI software are discussed, and several case studies are presented to illustrate its functionality.

  14. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Huiying; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, the Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI), specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame. The features of the AAMI software are discussed, and several case studies are presented to illustrate its functionality. PMID:22969353

  15. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  16. An Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Huiying; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-05-31

    Fishes and other marine mammals suffer a range of potential effects from intense sound sources generated by anthropogenic underwater processes such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording devices (USR) were built to monitor the acoustic sound pressure waves generated by those anthropogenic underwater activities, so the relevant processing software becomes indispensable for analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. However, existing software packages did not meet performance and flexibility requirements. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, named Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI), which is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed for underwater sound monitoring and analysis. In addition to the general functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs, the software can compute a series of acoustic metrics in physical units, monitor the sound's influence on fish hearing according to audiograms from different species of fishes and marine mammals, and batch process the sound files. The detailed applications of the software AAMI will be discussed along with several test case scenarios to illustrate its functionality.

  17. Development of testing metrics for military robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resendes, Raymond J.

    1993-05-01

    The use of robotics or unmanned systems offers significant benefits to the military user by enhancing mobility, logistics, material handling, command and control, reconnaissance, and protection. The evaluation and selection process for the procurement of an unmanned robotic system involves comparison of performance and physical characteristics such as operating environment, application, payloads and performance criteria. Testing an unmanned system for operation in an unstructured environment using emerging technologies, which have not yet been fully tested, presents unique challenges for the testing community. Standard metrics, test procedures, terminologies, and methodologies simplify comparison of different systems. A procedure was developed to standardize the test and evaluation process for UGVs. This procedure breaks the UGV into three components: the platform, the payload, and the command and control link. Standardized metrics were developed for these components which permit unbiased comparison of different systems. The development of these metrics and their application will be presented.

  18. Understanding Acceptance of Software Metrics--A Developer Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umarji, Medha

    2009-01-01

    Software metrics are measures of software products and processes. Metrics are widely used by software organizations to help manage projects, improve product quality and increase efficiency of the software development process. However, metrics programs tend to have a high failure rate in organizations, and developer pushback is one of the sources…

  19. Metrics. [measurement for effective software development and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank

    1991-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for practical software performance measurement, or 'metrics', in which major innovations have recently occurred. Metrics address such aspects of software performance as whether a software project is on schedule, how many errors can be expected from it, whether the methodology being used is effective and the relative quality of the software employed. Metrics may be characterized as explicit, analytical, and subjective. Attention is given to the bases for standards and the conduct of metrics research.

  20. Developing a Security Metrics Scorecard for Healthcare Organizations.

    PubMed

    Elrefaey, Heba; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In healthcare, information security is a key aspect of protecting a patient's privacy and ensuring systems availability to support patient care. Security managers need to measure the performance of security systems and this can be achieved by using evidence-based metrics. In this paper, we describe the development of an evidence-based security metrics scorecard specific to healthcare organizations. Study participants were asked to comment on the usability and usefulness of a prototype of a security metrics scorecard that was developed based on current research in the area of general security metrics. Study findings revealed that scorecards need to be customized for the healthcare setting in order for the security information to be useful and usable in healthcare organizations. The study findings resulted in the development of a security metrics scorecard that matches the healthcare security experts' information requirements.

  1. Developing Metrics in Systems Integration (ISS Program COTS Integration Model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the complications in developing metrics for systems integration. Specifically it reviews a case study of how two programs within NASA try to develop and measure performance while meeting the encompassing organizational goals.

  2. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Metric is one of several measures employed by the NASA to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2004. The values are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. For Fiscal Year 2004, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 2.03 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.62 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  3. The Development and Demonstration of The Metric Assessment Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    APIT/GCM/LAS/93S-3 A04 Ai 7.5 4 . " . THE DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE METRIC ASSESSMENT TOOL THESIS Cynthia A. Campbell, GS-13, USAF and...Av•JI:a)iity Ccdes Avaii "•tc, or Dist 6pi-claI * iiV AFIT/GCM/LAS/93S-3 THE DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE METRIC ASSESSMENT TOOL THESIS...thesis was to develop and demonstrate a Metric Assessment Tool for the purpose of evaluating and improving process measurements. We narrowed our study

  4. The development and demonstration of the metric assessment tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Cynthia A.; Gutterman, Gregory M.

    1993-09-01

    This study reflects the development and demonstration of the metric assessment tool. The purpose of the tool was to provide individuals the means to assess metrics and make improvements to the process measurement. The tool was developed using two critical attributes: customer satisfaction and process improvement. Once the tool was developed, a metric assessment process was designed to demonstrate the tool. Two metrics were selected from the Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC) and individuals with a working knowledge of the metric and process were selected for the demonstrations. Using a group support system at Armstrong Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, the group was asked to identify behaviors which might be motivated from the metric. Once the behaviors were identified, the group evaluated the behaviors against the critical attributes. From this assessment, behaviors were placed on the metric assessment tool. This tool clearly identified deficient behaviors and how they might distort the process measurement. From this information, the group was asked to generate improvement actions which would serve to eliminate or control deficient behaviors. With the elimination or control of deficient behaviors, the process measurement is improved and the organizational objective is better served.

  5. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  6. Sound quality prediction based on systematic metric selection and shrinkage: Comparison of stepwise, lasso, and elastic-net algorithms and clustering preprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Scullion, William; Berry, Alain

    2017-07-01

    Sound quality is the impression of quality that is transmitted by the sound of a device. Its importance in sound and acoustical design of consumer products no longer needs to be demonstrated. One of the challenges is the creation of a prediction model that is able to predict the results of a listening test while using metrics derived from the sound stimuli. Often, these models are either derived using linear regression on a limited set of experimenter-selected metrics, or using more complex algorithms such as neural networks. In the former case, the user-selected metrics can bias the model and reflect the engineer pre-conceived idea of sound quality while missing potential features. In the latter case, although prediction might be efficient, the model is often in the form of a black-box which is difficult to use as a sound design guideline for engineers. In this paper, preprocessing by participants clustering and three different algorithms are compared in order to construct a sound quality prediction model that does not suffer from these limitations. The lasso, elastic-net and stepwise algorithms are tested for listening tests of consumer product for which 91 metrics are used as potential predictors. Based on the reported results, it is shown that the most promising algorithm is the lasso which is able to (1) efficiently limit the number of metrics, (2) most accurately predict the results of listening tests, and (3) provide a meaningful model that can be used as understandable design guidelines.

  7. Developing Sound Exposure Criteria for Fishes.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Anthony D; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-01-01

    In assessing the impact of aquatic developments, it is important to evaluate whether accompanying underwater sounds might have adverse effects on fishes. Risk assessment can then be used to evaluate new and existing technologies for effective prevention, control, or mitigation of impacts. It is necessary to know the levels of sound that may cause potential harm to different species from different sources as well as those levels that are likely to be of no consequence. The development and use of impact criteria are still at an early stage for fishes.

  8. Development of Quality Metrics in Ambulatory Pediatric Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Devyani; Gurvitz, Michelle; Marelli, Ariane; Anderson, Jeffrey; Baker-Smith, Carissa; Diab, Karim A; Edwards, Thomas C; Hougen, Tom; Jedeikin, Roy; Johnson, Jonathan N; Karpawich, Peter; Lai, Wyman; Lu, Jimmy C; Mitchell, Stephanie; Newburger, Jane W; Penny, Daniel J; Portman, Michael A; Satou, Gary; Teitel, David; Villafane, Juan; Williams, Roberta; Jenkins, Kathy

    2017-02-07

    The American College of Cardiology Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology (ACPC) Section had attempted to create quality metrics (QM) for ambulatory pediatric practice, but limited evidence made the process difficult. The ACPC sought to develop QMs for ambulatory pediatric cardiology practice. Five areas of interest were identified, and QMs were developed in a 2-step review process. In the first step, an expert panel, using the modified RAND-UCLA methodology, rated each QM for feasibility and validity. The second step sought input from ACPC Section members; final approval was by a vote of the ACPC Council. Work groups proposed a total of 44 QMs. Thirty-one metrics passed the RAND process and, after the open comment period, the ACPC council approved 18 metrics. The project resulted in successful development of QMs in ambulatory pediatric cardiology for a range of ambulatory domains. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing Metrics for Managing Soybean Aphids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stage-specific economic injury levels form the basis of integrated pest management for soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) in soybean (Glycine max L.). Experimental objectives were to develop a procedure for calculating economic injury levels of the soybean aphid specific to the R2 (full bloom...

  10. Setting Foundations for Developing Disaster Response Metrics.

    PubMed

    Abir, Mahshid; Bell, Sue Anne; Puppala, Neha; Awad, Osama; Moore, Melinda

    2017-02-06

    There are few reported efforts to define universal disaster response performance measures. Careful examination of responses to past disasters can inform the development of such measures. As a first step toward this goal, we conducted a literature review to identify key factors in responses to 3 recent events with significant loss of human life and economic impact: the 2003 Bam, Iran, earthquake; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami; and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Using the PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) database, we identified 710 articles and retained 124 after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seventy-two articles pertained to the Haiti earthquake, 38 to the Indian Ocean tsunami, and 14 to the Bam earthquake. On the basis of this review, we developed an organizational framework for disaster response performance measurement with 5 key disaster response categories: (1) personnel, (2) supplies and equipment, (3) transportation, (4) timeliness and efficiency, and (5) interagency cooperation. Under each of these, and again informed by the literature, we identified subcategories and specific items that could be developed into standardized performance measures. The validity and comprehensiveness of these measures can be tested by applying them to other recent and future disaster responses, after which standardized performance measures can be developed through a consensus process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 5).

  11. Proposed Consent Agreement and Final Order: Norton Sound Economic Development Corporation dba Norton Sound Seafood Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's proposed administrative penalty settlement with Norton Sound Economic Development Corporation d/b/a Norton Sound Seafood Products for violations of the Clean Water Act at its facility located in Nome, Alaska.

  12. Measures and metrics for software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The evaluations of and recommendations for the use of software development measures based on the practical and analytical experience of the Software Engineering Laboratory are discussed. The basic concepts of measurement and system of classification for measures are described. The principal classes of measures defined are explicit, analytic, and subjective. Some of the major software measurement schemes appearing in the literature are derived. The applications of specific measures in a production environment are explained. These applications include prediction and planning, review and assessment, and evaluation and selection.

  13. The Applicability of Proposed Object-Oriented Metrics to Developer Feedback in Time to Impact Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper looks closely at each of the software metrics generated by the McCabe object-Oriented Tool(TM) and its ability to convey timely information to developers. The metrics are examined for meaningfulness in terms of the scale assignable to the metric by the rules of measurement theory and the software dimension being measured. Recommendations are made as to the proper use of each metric and its ability to influence development at an early stage. The metrics of the McCabe Object-Oriented Tool(TM) set were selected because of the tool's use in a couple of NASA IV&V projects.

  14. The Development of Stereophonic Sound in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezina, Pavol

    2011-11-01

    The development of stereophonic sound in Slovakia in the late sixties had a profound impact on the quality of recorded music in all areas of artificial and non-artificial music and it also played an important role in composing music for radio plays. However, the Czechoslovak Radio in Bratislava was at that time the only technically equipped institute in Slovakia where a stereophonic record could be created. Therefore our research studies have particularly been concerned with examining the archives of this institution as well as the valuable information on implementation of the recordings we have collected through interviews with the former staff of the broadcasting organization. Our research focuses for the first time on the period of the beginnings of stereophonic sound in Slovakia, hence the purpose of this article is to summarize the research results.

  15. Detection and boundary identification of phonocardiogram sounds using an expert frequency-energy based metric.

    PubMed

    Naseri, H; Homaeinezhad, M R

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a new method to detect and to delineate phonocardiogram (PCG) sounds. Toward this objective, after preprocessing the PCG signal, two windows were moved on the preprocessed signal, and in each analysis window, two frequency-and amplitude-based features were calculated from the excerpted segment. Then, a synthetic decision making basis was devised by combining these two features for being used as an efficient detection-delineation decision statistic, (DS). Next, local extremums and locations of minimum slopes of the DS were determined by conducting forward-backward local investigations with the purpose of detecting sound incidences and their boundaries. In order to recognize the delineated PCG sounds, first, S1 and S2 were detected. Then, a new DS was regenerated from the signal whose S1 and S2 were eliminated to detect occasional S3 and S4 sounds. Finally, probable murmurs and souffles were spotted. The proposed algorithm was applied to 52 min PCG signals gathered from patients with different valve diseases. The provided database was annotated by some cardiology experts equipped by echocardiography and appropriate computer interfaces. The acquisition landmarks were in 2R (aortic), 2L (pulmonic), 4R (apex) and 4L (tricuspid) positions. The acquisition sensor was an electronic stethoscope (3 M Littmann® 3200, 4 kHz sampling frequency). The operating characteristics of the proposed method have an average sensitivity Se = 99.00% and positive predictive value PPV = 98.60% for sound type recognition (i.e., S1, S2, S3 or S4).

  16. Development of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metrics and Risk Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Anderson, K. K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Lansing, Carina

    2012-10-01

    This is an internal project milestone report to document the CCSI Element 7 team's progress on developing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) metrics and risk measures. In this report, we provide a brief overview of the current technology readiness assessment research, document the development of technology readiness levels (TRLs) specific to carbon capture technologies, describe the risk measures and uncertainty quantification approaches used in our research, and conclude by discussing the next steps that the CCSI Task 7 team aims to accomplish.

  17. Ex Vivo Metrics, a preclinical tool in new drug development.

    PubMed

    Curtis, C Gerald; Bilyard, Kevin; Stephenson, Hugo

    2008-01-23

    Among the challenges facing translational medicine today is the need for greater productivity and safety during the drug development process. To meet this need, practitioners of translational medicine are developing new technologies that can facilitate decision making during the early stages of drug discovery and clinical development. Ex Vivo Metrics is an emerging technology that addresses this need by using intact human organs ethically donated for research. After hypothermic storage, the organs are reanimated by blood perfusion, providing physiologically and biochemically stable preparations. In terms of emulating human exposure to drugs, Ex Vivo Metrics is the closest biological system available for clinical trials. Early application of this tool for evaluating drug targeting, efficacy, and toxicity could result in better selection among promising drug candidates, greater drug productivity, and increased safety.

  18. Development of Metrics to Evaluate Effectiveness of Emergency Response Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Metrics to Evaluate Efectiveness of Emergency Response Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...population and/or property. Furthermore, the disaster will be characterized as being large enough that the resources the community has to mitigate the...disaster are stretched beyond the limits of their capacity. Such events that a community can readily cope with, such as small fires, individual

  19. Development of Management Metrics for Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheskin, Theodore J.

    2003-01-01

    Professor Ted Sheskin from CSU will be tasked to research and investigate metrics that can be used to determine the technical progress for advanced development and research tasks. These metrics will be implemented in a software environment that hosts engineering design, analysis and management tools to be used to support power system and component research work at GRC. Professor Sheskin is an Industrial Engineer and has been involved in issues related to management of engineering tasks and will use his knowledge from this area to allow extrapolation into the research and technology management area. Over the course of the summer, Professor Sheskin will develop a bibliography of management papers covering current management methods that may be applicable to research management. At the completion of the summer work we expect to have him recommend a metric system to be reviewed prior to implementation in the software environment. This task has been discussed with Professor Sheskin and some review material has already been given to him.

  20. Development of Management Metrics for Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheskin, Theodore J.

    2003-01-01

    Professor Ted Sheskin from CSU will be tasked to research and investigate metrics that can be used to determine the technical progress for advanced development and research tasks. These metrics will be implemented in a software environment that hosts engineering design, analysis and management tools to be used to support power system and component research work at GRC. Professor Sheskin is an Industrial Engineer and has been involved in issues related to management of engineering tasks and will use his knowledge from this area to allow extrapolation into the research and technology management area. Over the course of the summer, Professor Sheskin will develop a bibliography of management papers covering current management methods that may be applicable to research management. At the completion of the summer work we expect to have him recommend a metric system to be reviewed prior to implementation in the software environment. This task has been discussed with Professor Sheskin and some review material has already been given to him.

  1. Pragmatic quality metrics for evolutionary software development models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royce, Walker

    1990-01-01

    Due to the large number of product, project, and people parameters which impact large custom software development efforts, measurement of software product quality is a complex undertaking. Furthermore, the absolute perspective from which quality is measured (customer satisfaction) is intangible. While we probably can't say what the absolute quality of a software product is, we can determine the relative quality, the adequacy of this quality with respect to pragmatic considerations, and identify good and bad trends during development. While no two software engineers will ever agree on an optimum definition of software quality, they will agree that the most important perspective of software quality is its ease of change. We can call this flexibility, adaptability, or some other vague term, but the critical characteristic of software is that it is soft. The easier the product is to modify, the easier it is to achieve any other software quality perspective. This paper presents objective quality metrics derived from consistent lifecycle perspectives of rework which, when used in concert with an evolutionary development approach, can provide useful insight to produce better quality per unit cost/schedule or to achieve adequate quality more efficiently. The usefulness of these metrics is evaluated by applying them to a large, real world, Ada project.

  2. The limits of applicability of the sound exposure level (SEL) metric to temporal threshold shifts (TTS) in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V

    2014-05-15

    The influence of fatiguing sound level and duration on post-exposure temporary threshold shift (TTS) was investigated in two beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The fatiguing sound was half-octave noise with a center frequency of 22.5 kHz. TTS was measured at a test frequency of 32 kHz. Thresholds were measured by recording rhythmic evoked potentials (the envelope following response) to a test series of short (eight cycles) tone pips with a pip rate of 1000 s(-1). TTS increased approximately proportionally to the dB measure of both sound pressure (sound pressure level, SPL) and duration of the fatiguing noise, as a product of these two variables. In particular, when the noise parameters varied in a manner that maintained the product of squared sound pressure and time (sound exposure level, SEL, which is equivalent to the overall noise energy) at a constant level, TTS was not constant. Keeping SEL constant, the highest TTS appeared at an intermediate ratio of SPL to sound duration and decreased at both higher and lower ratios. Multiplication (SPL multiplied by log duration) better described the experimental data than an equal-energy (equal SEL) model. The use of SEL as a sole universal metric may result in an implausible assessment of the impact of a fatiguing sound on hearing thresholds in odontocetes, including under-evaluation of potential risks. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE QUALIS OF SOFTWARE TECHNICAL PRODUCTION.

    PubMed

    Scarpi, Marinho Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To recommend metrics to qualify software production and to propose guidelines for the CAPES quadrennial evaluation of the Post-Graduation Programs of Medicine III about this issue. Identification of the development process quality features, of the product attributes and of the software use, determined by Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT), International Organization Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical (IEC), important in the perspective of the CAPES Medicine III Area correlate users, basing the creation proposal of metrics aiming to be used on four-year evaluation of Medicine III. The in use software quality perception by the user results from the provided effectiveness, productivity, security and satisfaction that originate from its characteristics of functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability and portability (in use metrics quality). This perception depends on the specific use scenario. The software metrics should be included in the intellectual production of the program, considering the system behavior measurements results obtained by users' performance evaluation through out the favorable responses punctuation sum for the six in use metrics quality (27 sub-items, 0 to 2 points each) and for quality perception proof (four items, 0 to 10 points each). It will be considered as very good (VG) 85 to 94 points; good (G) 75 to 84 points; regular (R) 65 to 74 points; weak (W) 55 to 64 points; poor (P) <55 points. Recomendar métrica para qualificar a produção de software propondo diretrizes para a avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Medicina III. Identificação das características de qualidade para o processo de desenvolvimento, para os atributos do produto e para o uso de software, determinadas pela Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT), International Organization Standardization (ISO) e International Electrotechnical (IEC), importantes na perspectiva dos usuários correlatos

  4. Developing a Metrics-Based Online Strategy for Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to the various web metrics tools that are available, and to indicate how these might be used in libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes ways in which web metrics can be used to inform strategic decision making in libraries. Findings: A framework of possible web…

  5. Developing a Metrics-Based Online Strategy for Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to the various web metrics tools that are available, and to indicate how these might be used in libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes ways in which web metrics can be used to inform strategic decision making in libraries. Findings: A framework of possible web…

  6. Developing a Common Metric in Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Martha L.; Lord, Frederic M.

    A common problem arises in scale transformation when independent estimates of item parameters from two separate data sets must be expressed in the same metric. These item parameter estimates will be different because the metric or scale defined by each independent calibration of the items is different. The problem is frequently confronted in…

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF METRICS FOR PROTOCOLS AND OTHER TECHNICAL PRODUCTS.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for protocols and other technical products to be applied in assessing the Postgraduate Programs of Medicine III - Capes. The 2013 area documents of all the 48 Capes areas were read. From the analysis of the criteria used by the areas at the 2013's Triennal Assessment, a proposal for metrics for protocols and other technical products was developed to be applied in assessing the Postgraduate Programs of Medicine III. This proposal was based on the criteria of Biological Sciences I and Interdisciplinary areas. Only seven areas have described a scoring system for technical products. The products considered and the scoring varied widely. Due to the wide range of different technical products which could be considered relevant, and that would not be punctuated if they were not previously specified, it was developed, for the Medicine III, a proposal for metrics in which five specific criteria to be analyzed: Demand, Relevance/Impact, Scope, Complexity and Adherence to the Program. Based on these criteria, each product can receive 10 to 100 points. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection "Technical production, patents and other relevant production". The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches mean ≥150 points/permanent professor/quadrennium; Good, mean between 100 and 149 points; Regular, mean between 60 and 99 points; Weak mean between 30 and 59 points; Insufficient, up to 29 points/permanent professor/quadrennium. Desenvolver proposta de métricas para protocolos e outras produções técnicas a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III da Capes. Foram lidos os documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes. A partir da análise dos critérios utilizados por elas na avaliação trienal 2013, foi desenvolvida uma proposta de métricas para protocolos e outras produções técnicas. Esta proposta foi baseada

  8. Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) Website Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-04

    life affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How will ocean acidification affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound...Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How does shipping affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How does marine

  9. Development of a Broadband Underwater Sound Projector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    classification systems use existing transducer designs, such as the tonpilz (piston) transducers . This type of design has been selected to provide a maximum...source level at 20 kHz with high efficiency and reliability as well as excellent directivity responses. The manufacturing of the tonpilz transducer is...an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The transducer is resonant at 100 kHz but has been designed to deliver high sound pressure levels without

  10. Metrics Evolution in an Energy Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Dixon

    2011-08-01

    All technology programs progress through three phases: Discovery, Definition, and Deployment. The form and application of program metrics needs to evolve with each phase. During the discovery phase, the program determines what is achievable. A set of tools is needed to define program goals, to analyze credible technical options, and to ensure that the options are compatible and meet the program objectives. A metrics system that scores the potential performance of technical options is part of this system of tools, supporting screening of concepts and aiding in the overall definition of objectives. During the definition phase, the program defines what specifically is wanted. What is achievable is translated into specific systems and specific technical options are selected and optimized. A metrics system can help with the identification of options for optimization and the selection of the option for deployment. During the deployment phase, the program shows that the selected system works. Demonstration projects are established and classical systems engineering is employed. During this phase, the metrics communicate system performance. This paper discusses an approach to metrics evolution within the Department of Energy's Nuclear Fuel Cycle R&D Program, which is working to improve the sustainability of nuclear energy.

  11. Developing image processing meta-algorithms with data mining of multiple metrics.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kelvin; Cunha, Alexandre; Toga, A W; Parker, D Stott

    2014-01-01

    People often use multiple metrics in image processing, but here we take a novel approach of mining the values of batteries of metrics on image processing results. We present a case for extending image processing methods to incorporate automated mining of multiple image metric values. Here by a metric we mean any image similarity or distance measure, and in this paper we consider intensity-based and statistical image measures and focus on registration as an image processing problem. We show how it is possible to develop meta-algorithms that evaluate different image processing results with a number of different metrics and mine the results in an automated fashion so as to select the best results. We show that the mining of multiple metrics offers a variety of potential benefits for many image processing problems, including improved robustness and validation.

  12. Developing Image Processing Meta-Algorithms with Data Mining of Multiple Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Alexandre; Toga, A. W.; Parker, D. Stott

    2014-01-01

    People often use multiple metrics in image processing, but here we take a novel approach of mining the values of batteries of metrics on image processing results. We present a case for extending image processing methods to incorporate automated mining of multiple image metric values. Here by a metric we mean any image similarity or distance measure, and in this paper we consider intensity-based and statistical image measures and focus on registration as an image processing problem. We show how it is possible to develop meta-algorithms that evaluate different image processing results with a number of different metrics and mine the results in an automated fashion so as to select the best results. We show that the mining of multiple metrics offers a variety of potential benefits for many image processing problems, including improved robustness and validation. PMID:24653748

  13. Development of auditory phase-locked activity for music sounds.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Antoine J; Trainor, Laurel J; Roberts, Larry E; Backer, Kristina C; Miller, Lee M

    2010-01-01

    The auditory cortex undergoes functional and anatomical development that reflects specialization for learned sounds. In humans, auditory maturation is evident in transient auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited by speech or music. However, neural oscillations at specific frequencies are also known to play an important role in perceptual processing. We hypothesized that, if oscillatory activity in different frequency bands reflects different aspects of sound processing, the development of phase-locking to stimulus attributes at these frequencies may have different trajectories. We examined the development of phase-locking of oscillatory responses to music sounds and to pure tones matched to the fundamental frequency of the music sounds. Phase-locking for theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-14 Hz), lower-to-mid beta (14-25 Hz), and upper-beta and gamma (25-70 Hz) bands strengthened with age. Phase-locking in the upper-beta and gamma range matured later than in lower frequencies and was stronger for music sounds than for pure tones, likely reflecting the maturation of neural networks that code spectral complexity. Phase-locking for theta, alpha, and lower-to-mid beta was sensitive to temporal onset (rise time) sound characteristics. The data were also consistent with phase-locked oscillatory effects of acoustic (spectrotemporal) complexity and timbre familiarity. Future studies are called for to evaluate developmental trajectories for oscillatory activity, using stimuli selected to address hypotheses related to familiarity and spectral and temporal encoding suggested by the current findings.

  14. Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capstick, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    1. The nature of sound; 2. Elasticity and vibrations; 3. Transverse waves; 4. Longitudinal waves; 5. Velocity of longitudinal waves; 6. Reflection and refraction. Doppler's principle; 7. Interference. Beats. Combination tones; 8. Resonance and forced vibrations; 9. Quality of musical notes; 10. Organ pipes; 11. Rods. Plates. Bells; 12. Acoustical measurements; 13. The phonograph, microphone and telephone; 14. Consonance; 15. Definition of intervals. Scales. Temperament; 16. Musical instruments; 17. Application of acoustical principles to military purposes; Questions; Answers to questions; Index.

  15. Development of a Student-Centered Instrument to Assess Middle School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and field test of the Sound Concept Inventory Instrument (SCII), designed to measure middle school students' concepts of sound. The instrument was designed based on known students' difficulties in understanding sound and the history of science related to sound and focuses on two main aspects of sound: sound…

  16. Development of a Student-Centered Instrument to Assess Middle School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and field test of the Sound Concept Inventory Instrument (SCII), designed to measure middle school students' concepts of sound. The instrument was designed based on known students' difficulties in understanding sound and the history of science related to sound and focuses on two main aspects of sound: sound…

  17. Development of a perceptually calibrated objective metric of noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keelan, Brian W.; Jin, Elaine W.; Prokushkin, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    A system simulation model was used to create scene-dependent noise masks that reflect current performance of mobile phone cameras. Stimuli with different overall magnitudes of noise and with varying mixtures of red, green, blue, and luminance noises were included in the study. Eleven treatments in each of ten pictorial scenes were evaluated by twenty observers using the softcopy ruler method. In addition to determining the quality loss function in just noticeable differences (JNDs) for the average observer and scene, transformations for different combinations of observer sensitivity and scene susceptibility were derived. The psychophysical results were used to optimize an objective metric of isotropic noise based on system noise power spectra (NPS), which were integrated over a visual frequency weighting function to yield perceptually relevant variances and covariances in CIE L*a*b* space. Because the frequency weighting function is expressed in terms of cycles per degree at the retina, it accounts for display pixel size and viewing distance effects, so application-specific predictions can be made. Excellent results were obtained using only L* and a* variances and L*a* covariance, with relative weights of 100, 5, and 12, respectively. The positive a* weight suggests that the luminance (photopic) weighting is slightly narrow on the long wavelength side for predicting perceived noisiness. The L*a* covariance term, which is normally negative, reflects masking between L* and a* noise, as confirmed in informal evaluations. Test targets in linear sRGB and rendered L*a*b* spaces for each treatment are available at http://www.aptina.com/ImArch/ to enable other researchers to test metrics of their own design and calibrate them to JNDs of quality loss without performing additional observer experiments. Such JND-calibrated noise metrics are particularly valuable for comparing the impact of noise and other attributes, and for computing overall image quality.

  18. Performance metric development for a group state estimator in airborne UHF GMTI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwell, Ryan A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of evaluation metrics for group state estimator (GSE, i.e. group tracking) algorithms. Key differences between group tracker metrics and individual tracker metrics are the method used for track-to-truth association and the characterization of group raid size. Another significant contribution of this work is the incorporation of measured radar performance in assessing tracker performance. The result of this work is a set of measures of performance derived from canonical individual target tracker metrics, extended to characterize the additional information provided by a group tracker. The paper discusses additional considerations in group tracker evaluation, including the definition of a group and group-to-group confusion. Metrics are computed on real field data to provide examples of real-world analysis, demonstrating an approach which provides characterization of group tracker performance, independent of the sensor's performance.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF METRICS FOR ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN PROFESSIONAL MASTER'S COURSE.

    PubMed

    Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Propose metric to qualify the production conveyed through articles published in Professional Master's Programs and, from there, to establish guidance for the evaluation of postgraduate programs of Medicine III. Analysis of the documents of 2013 area graduate programs strict sense concerning the application and measurement of score the articles published, and creation of proposal for metric of the theme with the quadrennial review of Medicine III. Were evaluated the medicines area documents I, II and III; Biological Sciences (I) and Interdisciplinary, as well as the 2013 reports of CAPES. All programs establish metrics for "Classification of Published Articles" within its bibliographic production although with different percentages respecting its specificities. With these data collected and correlating their relevance with the surgical areas, was drafted proposal for quantification of the quality of the published articles to "Professional Postgraduate Programs" at surgical area that have specific characteristics according to their guidelines, directing their scientific production to technique journals preferably. The metric suggested for published articles, that should be included in intellectual production of the Area Document, should be considered for the extract A1 = 100 points; A2 = 85 points; B1 = 80 points; B2 = 70 points; B3 = 60 points; B4 = 40 points and B5 = 20 points. Propor métrica para qualificar a produção veiculada através de artigos publicados em programas de mestrado profissional e, a partir daí, estabelecer orientação para a avaliação dos programas de pós-graduação da Medicina III. Análise dos documentos de área de 2013 dos programas de pós-graduação senso estrito no que concerne à aplicação e mensuração de pontuação a artigos publicados, e criação de proposta para métrica do tema com vistas à avaliação quadrienal da Medicina III. Foram avaliados os documentos de área das Medicinas I, II e III; Ciências Biológicas I

  20. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric: Fiscal Year 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2003. As such, the values herein are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. The Metric is one of several measures employed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). More specifically, the Metric is the ratio defined by the equivalent system mass (ESM) of a life support system for a specific mission using the ISS ECLSS technologies divided by the ESM for an equivalent life support system using the best ALS technologies. As defined, the Metric should increase in value as the ALS technologies become lighter, less power intensive, and require less volume. For Fiscal Year 2003, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 1.47 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.36 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  1. Developing a Weighted Measure of Speech Sound Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Edwards, Mary Louise; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a system for numerically quantifying a speaker's phonetic accuracy through transcription-based measures. With a focus on normal and disordered speech in children, the authors describe a system for differentially weighting speech sound errors on the basis of various levels of phonetic accuracy using a Weighted Speech Sound…

  2. Developing a Weighted Measure of Speech Sound Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Edwards, Mary Louise; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a system for numerically quantifying a speaker's phonetic accuracy through transcription-based measures. With a focus on normal and disordered speech in children, the authors describe a system for differentially weighting speech sound errors on the basis of various levels of phonetic accuracy using a Weighted Speech Sound…

  3. Developing Common Metrics for the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs): Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Doris M; Blank, Arthur E; Dozier, Ann; Hites, Lisle; Gilliam, Victoria A; Hunt, Joe; Rainwater, Julie; Trochim, William M

    2015-10-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research initiative, funded by the NIH Common Fund and offered through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, developed more than 60 unique models for achieving the NIH goal of accelerating discoveries toward better public health. The variety of these models enabled participating academic centers to experiment with different approaches to fit their research environment. A central challenge related to the diversity of approaches is the ability to determine the success and contribution of each model. This paper describes the effort by the Evaluation Key Function Committee to develop and test a methodology for identifying a set of common metrics to assess the efficiency of clinical research processes and for pilot testing these processes for collecting and analyzing metrics. The project involved more than one-fourth of all CTSAs and resulted in useful information regarding the challenges in developing common metrics, the complexity and costs of acquiring data for the metrics, and limitations on the utility of the metrics in assessing clinical research performance. The results of this process led to the identification of lessons learned and recommendations for development and use of common metrics to evaluate the CTSA effort. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development and Implementation of a Design Metric for Systems Containing Long-Term Fluid Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.

    2016-01-01

    John Steele, a chemist and technical fellow from United Technologies Corporation, provided a water quality module to assist engineers and scientists with a metric tool to evaluate risks associated with the design of space systems with fluid loops. This design metric is a methodical, quantitative, lessons-learned based means to evaluate the robustness of a long-term fluid loop system design. The tool was developed by a cross-section of engineering disciplines who had decades of experience and problem resolution.

  5. Metrics for Developing an Endorsed Set of Radiographic Threat Surrogates for JINII/CAARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, R; Walston, S; Dietrich, D; Martz, H

    2009-02-11

    CAARS (Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System) is developing x-ray dual energy and x-ray backscatter methods to automatically detect materials that are greater than Z=72 (hafnium). This works well for simple geometry materials, where most of the radiographic path is through one material. However, this is usually not the case. Instead, the radiographic path includes many materials of different lengths. Single energy can be used to compute {mu}y{sub l} which is related to areal density (mass per unit area) while dual energy yields more information. This report describes a set of metrics suitable and sufficient for characterizing the appearance of assemblies as detected by x-ray radiographic imaging systems, such as those being tested by Joint Integrated Non-Intrusive Inspection (JINII) or developed under CAARS. These metrics will be simulated both for threat assemblies and surrogate threat assemblies (such as are found in Roney et al. 2007) using geometrical and compositional information of the assemblies. The imaging systems are intended to distinguish assemblies containing high-Z material from those containing low-Z material, regardless of thickness, density, or compounds and mixtures. The systems in question operate on the principle of comparing images obtained by using two different x-ray end-point energies--so-called 'dual energy' imaging systems. At the direction of the DHS JINII sponsor, this report does not cover metrics that implement scattering, in the form of either forward-scattered radiation or high-Z detection systems operating on the principle of backscatter detection. Such methods and effects will be covered in a later report. The metrics described here are to be used to compare assemblies and not x-ray radiography systems. We intend to use these metrics to determine whether two assemblies do or do not look the same. We are tasked to develop a set of assemblies whose appearance using this class of detection systems is indistinguishable from the

  6. Development of a Shoreline Environmental Impact Index (SEII): An analysis of landscape pattern and structure metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Mark Wadley

    The goal of this study was to develop a Shoreline Environmental Impact Index (SEII) based upon landscape ecology pattern and structure metrics calculated from high resolution remotely sensed imagery This SEII would provide a tool for monitoring freshwater lakes and reservoirs in areas of rapid development. The land use/land cover information for the study was derived from National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) imagery of a portion of Lake Murray, South Carolina shoreline scanned to simulate high resolution remotely sensed imagery. The shoreline in the study area was divided into 400 landscape units. Common landscape ecology metrics were calculated for these landscape units. They were also rated on a scale from 1 to 10 by expert visual interpretation with a rating of 1 indicating no environmental impact and 10 meaning the shoreline had been severely impacted and was in need of in situ monitoring. Factor analysis of the landscape metrics calculated support previous work indicating a small number of independent, orthogonal factors are being measured by the landscape metrics (Riitters et al., 1995, Cain et al., 1997). Methods of combining landscape ecology metrics to create a meaningful Shoreline Environmental Impact Index (SEII) included multiple linear regression, multiple discriminant analysis, genetic neural networks, standard feed forward back propagation neural networks and manual combination. The ratings produced by the SEII's generated using these methods were then compared to the ratings by the experts. There was very little difference in the performance of several SEII's generated despite some differences in metrics and weighting chosen by the different methods. The ratings from all methods showed their ability to reflect the expert ratings in general. Conclusions indicate that the ability of the landscape metrics to discriminate between levels of shoreline degradation is contained within a relatively few metrics. In any of the current forms the SEII is

  7. Safety, codes and standards for hydrogen installations. Metrics development and benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Aaron P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2014-04-01

    Automakers and fuel providers have made public commitments to commercialize light duty fuel cell electric vehicles and fueling infrastructure in select US regions beginning in 2014. The development, implementation, and advancement of meaningful codes and standards is critical to enable the effective deployment of clean and efficient fuel cell and hydrogen solutions in the energy technology marketplace. Metrics pertaining to the development and implementation of safety knowledge, codes, and standards are important to communicate progress and inform future R&D investments. This document describes the development and benchmarking of metrics specific to the development of hydrogen specific codes relevant for hydrogen refueling stations. These metrics will be most useful as the hydrogen fuel market transitions from pre-commercial to early-commercial phases. The target regions in California will serve as benchmarking case studies to quantify the success of past investments in research and development supporting safety codes and standards R&D.

  8. Development and comparison of metrics for evaluating climate models and estimation of projection uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Christoph; Pollinger, Felix; Kaspar-Ott, Irena; Hertig, Elke; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Paeth, Heiko

    2017-04-01

    The COMEPRO project (Comparison of Metrics for Probabilistic Climate Change Projections of Mediterranean Precipitation), funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), is dedicated to the development of new evaluation metrics for state-of-the-art climate models. Further, we analyze implications for probabilistic projections of climate change. This study focuses on the results of 4-field matrix metrics. Here, six different approaches are compared. We evaluate 24 models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3), 40 of CMIP5 and 18 of the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). In addition to the annual and seasonal precipitation the mean temperature is analysed. We consider both 50-year trend and climatological mean for the second half of the 20th century. For the probabilistic projections of climate change A1b, A2 (CMIP3) and RCP4.5, RCP8.5 (CMIP5,CORDEX) scenarios are used. The eight main study areas are located in the Mediterranean. However, we apply our metrics to globally distributed regions as well. The metrics show high simulation quality of temperature trend and both precipitation and temperature mean for most climate models and study areas. In addition, we find high potential for model weighting in order to reduce uncertainty. These results are in line with other accepted evaluation metrics and studies. The comparison of the different 4-field approaches reveals high correlations for most metrics. The results of the metric-weighted probabilistic density functions of climate change are heterogeneous. We find for different regions and seasons both increases and decreases of uncertainty. The analysis of global study areas is consistent with the regional study areas of the Medeiterrenean.

  9. Using Web Metric Software to Drive: Mobile Website Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidal, Junior

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have developed mobile versions of their websites. In order to understand their users, web developers have conducted both usability tests and focus groups, yet analytical software and web server logs can also be used to better understand users. Using data collected from these tools, the Ursula C. Schwerin Library has made informed…

  10. Using Web Metric Software to Drive: Mobile Website Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidal, Junior

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have developed mobile versions of their websites. In order to understand their users, web developers have conducted both usability tests and focus groups, yet analytical software and web server logs can also be used to better understand users. Using data collected from these tools, the Ursula C. Schwerin Library has made informed…

  11. Learning words and learning sounds: Advances in language development.

    PubMed

    Vihman, Marilyn M

    2017-02-01

    Phonological development is sometimes seen as a process of learning sounds, or forming phonological categories, and then combining sounds to build words, with the evidence taken largely from studies demonstrating 'perceptual narrowing' in infant speech perception over the first year of life. In contrast, studies of early word production have long provided evidence that holistic word learning may precede the formation of phonological categories. In that account, children begin by matching their existing vocal patterns to adult words, with knowledge of the phonological system emerging from the network of related word forms. Here I review evidence from production and then consider how the implicit and explicit learning mechanisms assumed by the complementary memory systems model might be understood as reconciling the two approaches. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) Web Site Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-20

    sound on marine life. It includes information on the science of sound in the sea, on how people and marine life use sound in the sea, and on the effects...of anthropogenic sound on marine life. The DOSITS site, which was launched in November 2002, has been remarkably successful. Fig. 1 shows the number

  13. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  14. Development of a student-centered instrument to assess middle school students' conceptual understanding of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the development and field test of the Sound Concept Inventory Instrument (SCII), designed to measure middle school students' concepts of sound. The instrument was designed based on known students' difficulties in understanding sound and the history of science related to sound and focuses on two main aspects of sound: sound has material properties, and sound has process properties. The final SCII consists of 71 statements that respondents rate as either true or false and also indicate their confidence on a five-point scale. Administration to 355 middle school students resulted in a Cronbach alpha of 0.906, suggesting a high reliability. In addition, the average percentage of students' answers to statements that associate sound with material properties is significantly higher than the average percentage of statements associating sound with process properties (p <0.001). The SCII is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to determine students' conceptions of sound.

  15. Development of an Objective Space Suit Mobility Performance Metric Using Metabolic Cost and Functional Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating EVA suit performance and mobility have historically concentrated on isolated joint range of motion and torque. However, these techniques do little to evaluate how well a suited crewmember can actually perform during an EVA. An alternative method of characterizing suited mobility through measurement of metabolic cost to the wearer has been evaluated at Johnson Space Center over the past several years. The most recent study involved six test subjects completing multiple trials of various functional tasks in each of three different space suits; the results indicated it was often possible to discern between different suit designs on the basis of metabolic cost alone. However, other variables may have an effect on real-world suited performance; namely, completion time of the task, the gravity field in which the task is completed, etc. While previous results have analyzed completion time, metabolic cost, and metabolic cost normalized to system mass individually, it is desirable to develop a single metric comprising these (and potentially other) performance metrics. This paper outlines the background upon which this single-score metric is determined to be feasible, and initial efforts to develop such a metric. Forward work includes variable coefficient determination and verification of the metric through repeated testing.

  16. Developing Attitudinal Metrics for Induction-Year Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; McKim, Billy R.; Lawrence, Shannon; Stair, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    This study was part of a larger regional study of induction-year agricultural education teachers in three Western states. Studies have purported that attitude toward teaching is important for understanding and helping induction-year teachers. Thus, developing an instrument to assess induction-year agricultural education teachers' attitudes toward…

  17. Developing Attitudinal Metrics for Induction-Year Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; McKim, Billy R.; Lawrence, Shannon; Stair, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    This study was part of a larger regional study of induction-year agricultural education teachers in three Western states. Studies have purported that attitude toward teaching is important for understanding and helping induction-year teachers. Thus, developing an instrument to assess induction-year agricultural education teachers' attitudes toward…

  18. Development of Performance and Effectiveness Metrics For Mechanical Diagnostic Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-05

    this need , a virtual test bench is under development by the Navy for assessing the performance and effectiveness of machinery diagnostic systems. The...benefits of mechanical machinery diagnostic technologies does not currently exist. In response to this need , a virtual test bench is 375 under...thermocouples, acoustic emission sensors, and oil debris sensors. Tests are run at various load and speed profiles while 381 logging measurement signals for

  19. Sound symbolism scaffolds language development in preverbal infants.

    PubMed

    Asano, Michiko; Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    A fundamental question in language development is how infants start to assign meaning to words. Here, using three Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based measures of brain activity, we establish that preverbal 11-month-old infants are sensitive to the non-arbitrary correspondences between language sounds and concepts, that is, to sound symbolism. In each trial, infant participants were presented with a visual stimulus (e.g., a round shape) followed by a novel spoken word that either sound-symbolically matched ("moma") or mismatched ("kipi") the shape. Amplitude increase in the gamma band showed perceptual integration of visual and auditory stimuli in the match condition within 300 msec of word onset. Furthermore, phase synchronization between electrodes at around 400 msec revealed intensified large-scale, left-hemispheric communication between brain regions in the mismatch condition as compared to the match condition, indicating heightened processing effort when integration was more demanding. Finally, event-related brain potentials showed an increased adult-like N400 response - an index of semantic integration difficulty - in the mismatch as compared to the match condition. Together, these findings suggest that 11-month-old infants spontaneously map auditory language onto visual experience by recruiting a cross-modal perceptual processing system and a nascent semantic network within the first year of life. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of the Astrobee F sounding rocket system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. B.; Taylor, J. P.; Honecker, H. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The development of the Astrobee F sounding rocket vehicle through the first flight test at NASA-Wallops Station is described. Design and development of a 15 in. diameter, dual thrust, solid propellant motor demonstrating several new technology features provided the basis for the flight vehicle. The 'F' motor test program described demonstrated the following advanced propulsion technology: tandem dual grain configuration, low burning rate HTPB case-bonded propellant, and molded plastic nozzle. The resultant motor integrated into a flight vehicle was successfully flown with extensive diagnostic instrumentation.-

  1. Defining Exercise Performance Metrics for Flight Hardware Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyene, Nahon M.

    2004-01-01

    The space industry has prevailed over numerous design challenges in the spirit of exploration. Manned space flight entails creating products for use by humans and the Johnson Space Center has pioneered this effort as NASA's center for manned space flight. NASA Astronauts use a suite of flight exercise hardware to maintain strength for extravehicular activities and to minimize losses in muscle mass and bone mineral density. With a cycle ergometer, treadmill, and the Resistive Exercise Device available on the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Medicine community aspires to reproduce physical loading schemes that match exercise performance in Earth s gravity. The resistive exercise device presents the greatest challenge with the duty of accommodating 20 different exercises and many variations on the core set of exercises. This paper presents a methodology for capturing engineering parameters that can quantify proper resistive exercise performance techniques. For each specified exercise, the method provides engineering parameters on hand spacing, foot spacing, and positions of the point of load application at the starting point, midpoint, and end point of the exercise. As humans vary in height and fitness levels, the methodology presents values as ranges. In addition, this method shows engineers the proper load application regions on the human body. The methodology applies to resistive exercise in general and is in use for the current development of a Resistive Exercise Device. Exercise hardware systems must remain available for use and conducive to proper exercise performance as a contributor to mission success. The astronauts depend on exercise hardware to support extended stays aboard the ISS. Future plans towards exploration of Mars and beyond acknowledge the necessity of exercise. Continuous improvement in technology and our understanding of human health maintenance in space will allow us to support the exploration of Mars and the future of space

  2. USING BROAD-SCALE METRICS TO DEVELOP INDICATORS OF WATERSHED VULNERABILITY IN THE OZARK MOUNTAINS (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple broad-scale landscape metrics were tested as potential indicators of total phosphorus (TP) concentration, total ammonia (TA) concentration, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria count, among 244 sub-watersheds in the Ozark Mountains (USA). Indicator models were develop...

  3. Development of PE Metrics Elementary Assessments for National Physical Education Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Ben; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Rink, Judy; Zhu, Weimo; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Fox, Connie; Raynes, De; Park, Youngsik

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how assessments in PE Metrics were developed following six steps: (a) determining test blueprint, (b) writing assessment tasks and scoring rubrics, (c) establishing content validity, (d) piloting assessments, (e) conducting item analysis, and (f) modifying the assessments based on analysis and expert opinion. A task force,…

  4. USING BROAD-SCALE METRICS TO DEVELOP INDICATORS OF WATERSHED VULNERABILITY IN THE OZARK MOUNTAINS (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple broad-scale landscape metrics were tested as potential indicators of total phosphorus (TP) concentration, total ammonia (TA) concentration, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria count, among 244 sub-watersheds in the Ozark Mountains (USA). Indicator models were develop...

  5. IBI METRIC DEVELOPMENT FOR STREAMS AND RIVERS IN WESTERN FORESTED MOUNTAINS AND ARID LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the western USA, development of metrics and indices of vertebrate assemblage condition in streams and rivers is challenged by low species richness, by strong natural gradients, by human impact gradients that co-vary with natural gradients, and by a shortage of minimally-distur...

  6. Performation Metrics Development Analysis for Information and Communications Technology Outsourcing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, James L., III

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how and to what extent the development and use of the OV-5a operational architecture decomposition tree (OADT) from the Department of Defense (DoD) Architecture Framework (DoDAF) affects requirements analysis with respect to complete performance metrics for performance-based services acquisition of ICT under rigid…

  7. Performation Metrics Development Analysis for Information and Communications Technology Outsourcing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, James L., III

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how and to what extent the development and use of the OV-5a operational architecture decomposition tree (OADT) from the Department of Defense (DoD) Architecture Framework (DoDAF) affects requirements analysis with respect to complete performance metrics for performance-based services acquisition of ICT under rigid…

  8. Newborns' Orientation toward Sound: Possible Implications for Cortical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Rachel K.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Newborns were presented with a tape-recorded rattle sound through a single loudspeaker, through two loudspeakers with one onset leading the other by seven msecs., and through two loudspeakers simultaneously. Newborns turned toward the single source sound, but not toward either of the dual source sounds. (Author/RH)

  9. Newborns' Orientation toward Sound: Possible Implications for Cortical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Rachel K.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Newborns were presented with a tape-recorded rattle sound through a single loudspeaker, through two loudspeakers with one onset leading the other by seven msecs., and through two loudspeakers simultaneously. Newborns turned toward the single source sound, but not toward either of the dual source sounds. (Author/RH)

  10. Development of the Hawk/Nike Hawk sounding rocket vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A new sounding rocket family, the Hawk and Nike-Hawk Vehicles, have been developed, flight tested and added to the NASA Sounding Rocket Vehicle Stable. The Hawk is a single-stage vehicle that will carry 35.6 cm diameter payloads weighing 45.5 kg to 91 kg to altitudes of 78 km to 56 km, respectively. The two-stage Nike-Hawk will carry payloads weighing 68 kg to 136 kg to altitudes of 118 km to 113 km, respectively. Both vehicles utilize the XM22E8 Hawk rocket motor which is available in large numbers as a surplus item from the U.S. Army. The Hawk fin and tail can hardware were designed in-house. The Nike tail can and fin hardware are surplus Nike-Ajax booster hardware. Development objectives were to provide a vehicle family with a larger diameter, larger volume payload capability than the Nike-Apache and Nike-Tomahawk vehicles at comparable cost. Both vehicles performed nominally in flight tests.

  11. Measuring Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge: Development and Validation of Brief Letter-Sound Knowledge Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Phillips, Beth M.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are increasingly encouraged to support children's development of letter-sound abilities. Assessment of letter-sound knowledge is key in planning for effective instruction, yet the letter-sound knowledge assessments currently available and suitable for preschool-age children demonstrate significant limitations. The purpose…

  12. Measuring Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge: Development and Validation of Brief Letter-Sound Knowledge Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Phillips, Beth M.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are increasingly encouraged to support children's development of letter-sound abilities. Assessment of letter-sound knowledge is key in planning for effective instruction, yet the letter-sound knowledge assessments currently available and suitable for preschool-age children demonstrate significant limitations. The purpose…

  13. The relationship between settlement population size and sustainable development measured by two sustainability metrics

    SciTech Connect

    O'Regan, Bernadette Morrissey, John; Foley, Walter; Moles, Richard

    2009-04-15

    This paper reports on a study of the relative sustainability of 79 Irish villages, towns and a small city (collectively called 'settlements') classified by population size. Quantitative data on more than 300 economic, social and environmental attributes of each settlement were assembled into a database. Two aggregated metrics were selected to model the relative sustainability of settlements: Ecological Footprint (EF) and Sustainable Development Index (SDI). Subsequently these were aggregated to create a single Combined Sustainable Development Index. Creation of this database meant that metric calculations did not rely on proxies, and were therefore considered to be robust. Methods employed provided values for indicators at various stages of the aggregation process. This allowed both the first reported empirical analysis of the relationship between settlement sustainability and population size, and the elucidation of information provided at different stages of aggregation. At the highest level of aggregation, settlement sustainability increased with population size, but important differences amongst individual settlements were masked by aggregation. EF and SDI metrics ranked settlements in differing orders of relative sustainability. Aggregation of indicators to provide Ecological Footprint values was found to be especially problematic, and this metric was inadequately sensitive to distinguish amongst the relative sustainability achieved by all settlements. Many authors have argued that, for policy makers to be able to inform planning decisions using sustainability indicators, it is necessary that they adopt a toolkit of aggregated indicators. Here it is argued that to interpret correctly each aggregated metric value, policy makers also require a hierarchy of disaggregated component indicator values, each explained fully. Possible implications for urban planning are briefly reviewed.

  14. Developing New Predictive Alarms Based on ECG Metrics for Bradyasystolic Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Quan; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Mortara, David; Do, Duc; Boyle, Noel G.; Pelter, Michele M.; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We investigated 17 metrics derived from four leads of electrocardiographic (ECG) signals from hospital patient monitors to develop new ECG alarms for predicting adult bradyasystolic cardiac arrest events. Methods A retrospective case-control study was designed to analyze 17 ECG metrics from 27 adult bradyasystolic and 304 control patients. The 17 metrics consisted of PR interval (PR), P-wave duration (Pdur), QRS duration (QRSdur), RR interval (RR), QT interval (QT), estimate of serum K+ using only frontal leads (SerumK2), T-wave complexity (T Complex), ST segment levels for leads I, II, V (ST I, ST II, ST V), and 7 heart rate variability (HRV) metrics. These 7 HRV metrics were standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), total power, very low frequency power, low frequency power, high frequency power, normalized low frequency power, and normalized high frequency power. Controls were matched by gender, age (± 5 years), admission to the same hospital unit within the same month, and the same major diagnostic category. A research ECG analysis software program developed by co-author Mortara D was used to automatically extract the metrics. The absolute value for each ECG metric, and the duration, terminal value, and slope of the dominant trend for each ECG metric, were derived and tested as the alarm conditions. The maximal true positive rate (TPR) of detecting cardiac arrest at a prescribed maximal false positive rate (FPR) based on the trending conditions was reported. Lead time was also recorded as the time between the first time alarm condition was triggered and the event of cardiac arrest. Results While conditions based on the absolute values of ECG metrics do not provide discriminative information to predict bradyasystolic cardiac arrest, the trending conditions can be useful. For example, with a max FPR = 5.0%, some derived alarms conditions are: trend duration of PR > 2.8 hours (TPR = 48.2%, lead time = 10.0 ± 6.6 hours), trend duration

  15. Sounding Rocket Instrument Development at UAHuntsville/NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Savage, Sabrina; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Kuzin, Sergei; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig; DePontieu, Bart; Title, Alan; Podgorski, William; Kano, Ryouhei; Narukage, Noriyuki; Trujillo-Bueno, Javier

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of solar sounding rocket instruments developed jointly by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) is an EUV (19.3 nm) imaging telescope which was flown successfully in July 2012. The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a Lyman Alpha (121.6 nm) spectropolarimeter developed jointly with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and scheduled for launch in 2015. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrograph is a soft X-ray (0.5-1.2 keV) stigmatic spectrograph designed to achieve 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along the slit.

  16. Development and validation of trauma surgical skills metrics: Preliminary assessment of performance after training.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Stacy; Garofalo, Evan; Shalin, Valerie; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin F

    2015-07-01

    Maintaining trauma-specific surgical skills is an ongoing challenge for surgical training programs. An objective assessment of surgical skills is needed. We hypothesized that a validated surgical performance assessment tool could detect differences following a training intervention. We developed surgical performance assessment metrics based on discussion with expert trauma surgeons, video review of 10 experts and 10 novice surgeons performing three vascular exposure procedures and lower extremity fasciotomy on cadavers, and validated the metrics with interrater reliability testing by five reviewers blinded to level of expertise and a consensus conference. We tested these performance metrics in 12 surgical residents (Year 3-7) before and 2 weeks after vascular exposure skills training in the Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) course. Performance was assessed in three areas as follows: knowledge (anatomic, management), procedure steps, and technical skills. Time to completion of procedures was recorded, and these metrics were combined into a single performance score, the Trauma Readiness Index (TRI). Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test compared pretraining/posttraining effects. Mean time to complete procedures decreased by 4.3 minutes (from 13.4 minutes to 9.1 minutes). The performance component most improved by the 1-day skills training was procedure steps, completion of which increased by 21%. Technical skill scores improved by 12%. Overall knowledge improved by 3%, with 18% improvement in anatomic knowledge. TRI increased significantly from 50% to 64% with ASSET training. Interrater reliability of the surgical performance assessment metrics was validated with single intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.7 to 0.98. A trauma-relevant surgical performance assessment detected improvements in specific procedure steps and anatomic knowledge taught during a 1-day course, quantified by the TRI. ASSET training reduced time to complete vascular

  17. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  18. Development of Maintenance METRICS to Forecast Resource Demands of Weapon Systems. (Analysis and Results of Metrics and Weightings). Revision A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    ETC (U) NCASFE 4 09NOV A0 D K HINUES. S A WALKER, D H WILSON F33615-77-C-0075 UNCLASSIFIED D194- 1089 -4_. .~~~. i.E EEnhhEEmhhh1h LEV.E 0 IDEVELOPMENT...9.2 CS LU.0 - - m m m LU31 DU 94- 1089 - These experiments were designed to test the new metrics equations within the context of an aircraft type...ih -M 1 - 19; Id 1 I. ai a;C; 11;0 ;I o I - 444 I 1 1411138 D19- 1089 - -00 NNO0 N r CN !c ’lfl ll 0! N C : f < 000 N N N l )wc " -~~2I S- mNNJN 1.N0

  19. Development and Analysis of Psychomotor Skills Metrics for Procedural Skills Decay.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Chembian; Ray, Rebecca; Rutherford, Drew; Zinn, Mike; Pugh, Carla

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop and analyze the metrics associated with a force production task involving a stationary target with the help of advanced VR and Force Dimension Omega 6 haptic device. We study the effects of force magnitude and direction on the various metrics namely path length, movement smoothness, velocity and acceleration patterns, reaction time and overall error in achieving the target. Data was collected from 47 participants who were residents. Results show a positive correlation between the maximum force applied and the deflection error, velocity while reducing the path length and increasing smoothness with a force of higher magnitude showing the stabilizing characteristics of higher magnitude forces. This approach paves a way to assess and model procedural skills decay.

  20. A newly developed dispersal metric indicates the succession of benthic invertebrates in restored rivers.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengqing; Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode. Second, we tested this metric using benthic invertebrate community data from a) 23 large restored river sites with substantial improvements of river bottom habitats dating back 1 to 10years, b) 23 unrestored sites very close to the restored sites, and c) 298 adjacent surrounding sites (mean±standard deviation: 13.0±9.5 per site) within a distance of up to 5km for each restored site in the low mountain and lowland areas of Germany. We hypothesize that our metric will reflect the temporal succession process of benthic invertebrate communities colonizing the restored sites, whereas no temporal changes are expected in the unrestored and surrounding sites. By applying our metric to these three river treatment categories, we found that the average dispersal capacity of benthic invertebrate communities in the restored sites significantly decreased in the early years following restoration, whereas there were no changes in either the unrestored or the surrounding sites. After all taxa had been divided into quartiles representing weak to strong dispersers, this pattern became even more obvious; strong dispersers colonized the restored sites during the first year after restoration and then significantly decreased over time, whereas weak dispersers continued to increase

  1. Development of the sound localization cues in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollin, Daniel J.

    2004-05-01

    Cats are a common model for developmental studies of the psychophysical and physiological mechanisms of sound localization. Yet, there are few studies on the development of the acoustical cues to location in cats. The magnitude of the three main cues, interaural differences in time (ITDs) and level (ILDs), and monaural spectral shape cues, vary with location in adults. However, the increasing interaural distance associated with a growing head and pinnae during development will result in cues that change continuously until maturation is complete. Here, we report measurements, in cats aged 1 week to adulthood, of the physical dimensions of the head and pinnae and the localization cues, computed from measurements of directional transfer functions. At 1 week, ILD depended little on azimuth for frequencies <6-7 kHz, maximum ITD was 175 μs, and for sources varying in elevation, a prominent spectral notch was located at higher frequencies than in the older cats. As cats develop, the spectral cues and the frequencies at which ILDs become substantial (>10 dB) shift to lower frequencies, and the maximum ITD increases to nearly 370 μs. Changes in the cues are correlated with the increasing size of the head and pinnae. [Work supported by NIDCD DC05122.

  2. Deriving phenological metrics from NDVI through an open source tool developed in QGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Lia; Teodoro, A. C.; Gonçalves, Hernãni

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation indices have been commonly used over the past 30 years for studying vegetation characteristics using images collected by remote sensing satellites. One of the most commonly used is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The various stages that green vegetation undergoes during a complete growing season can be summarized through time-series analysis of NDVI data. The analysis of such time-series allow for extracting key phenological variables or metrics of a particular season. These characteristics may not necessarily correspond directly to conventional, ground-based phenological events, but do provide indications of ecosystem dynamics. A complete list of the phenological metrics that can be extracted from smoothed, time-series NDVI data is available in the USGS online resources (http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/methods_deriving.php).This work aims to develop an open source application to automatically extract these phenological metrics from a set of satellite input data. The main advantage of QGIS for this specific application relies on the easiness and quickness in developing new plug-ins, using Python language, based on the experience of the research group in other related works. QGIS has its own application programming interface (API) with functionalities and programs to develop new features. The toolbar developed for this application was implemented using the plug-in NDVIToolbar.py. The user introduces the raster files as input and obtains a plot and a report with the metrics. The report includes the following eight metrics: SOST (Start Of Season - Time) corresponding to the day of the year identified as having a consistent upward trend in the NDVI time series; SOSN (Start Of Season - NDVI) corresponding to the NDVI value associated with SOST; EOST (End of Season - Time) which corresponds to the day of year identified at the end of a consistent downward trend in the NDVI time series; EOSN (End of Season - NDVI) corresponding to the NDVI value

  3. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  4. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  5. Development of Sediment Quality Values for Puget Sound. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Everett Harbor A-138 Table A-8 Duwamish River II A-140 Figure A-i Locations of Commencement Bay stations sampled for benthic macroinvertebrates and sediment...As noted in "Recommended protocols for sampling and analyzing subtidal benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in Puget Sound" [Puget Sound Estuary...Example confidence limits for benthic AET determined for lead 102 v vt i ... I, TABLES Number Page 1 Approaches reviewed for establishing sediment quality

  6. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed

    Tatem, Andrew J; Garcia, Andres J; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Gaughan, Andrea E; Gilbert, Marius; Linard, Catherine

    2013-07-23

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments.Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation.Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the

  7. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the

  8. Developing a confidence metric for the Landsat land surface temperature product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraby, Kelly G.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina

    2016-05-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important Earth system data record that is useful to fields such as change detection, climate research, environmental monitoring, and smaller scale applications such as agriculture. Certain Earth-observing satellites can be used to derive this metric, and it would be extremely useful if such imagery could be used to develop a global product. Through the support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), a LST product for the Landsat series of satellites has been developed. Currently, it has been validated for scenes in North America, with plans to expand to a trusted global product. For ideal atmospheric conditions (e.g. stable atmosphere with no clouds nearby), the LST product underestimates the surface temperature by an average of 0.26 K. When clouds are directly above or near the pixel of interest, however, errors can extend to several Kelvin. As the product approaches public release, our major goal is to develop a quality metric that will provide the user with a per-pixel map of estimated LST errors. There are several sources of error that are involved in the LST calculation process, but performing standard error propagation is a difficult task due to the complexity of the atmospheric propagation component. To circumvent this difficulty, we propose to utilize the relationship between cloud proximity and the error seen in the LST process to help develop a quality metric. This method involves calculating the distance to the nearest cloud from a pixel of interest in a scene, and recording the LST error at that location. Performing this calculation for hundreds of scenes allows us to observe the average LST error for different ranges of distances to the nearest cloud. This paper describes this process in full, and presents results for a large set of Landsat scenes.

  9. Development of the S-520 single stage sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, H.; Kohno, M.; Onoda, J.; Kawashima, T.; Murakami, T.; Onojima, N.

    1981-09-01

    The S-520 single stage sounding rocket was developed by ISAS in an attempt to replace the two stage system, thereby increasing safety and operational reliability as well as reducing launch costs. The S-520 has a 0.52 m diameter and a weight of 2100 kg. A reduction in inert mass was achieved by using FRP nose fairing and fins. The S-520 thrust profile consists of two phases to maximize summit altitude: an initial high thrust phase and a following sustaining phase. This was achieved by a grain design which combined a wagon wheel forward section and a tubular aft section. Two static firing tests (1981) showed stable combustion without the instabilities due to longitudinal waves. A twisted-fin spin helped to prevent the lock-in phenomena and to maintain the exo-atmospheric attitude stability. In the most recent experiment, the S-520 lifted 260 kg of gross payload to a 320 km altitude at an 80 deg launch elevation angle. The spin rate history was similar to those programmed, and the final coning angle was reasonably small.

  10. Coupled Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Sound in Coastal Ocean for Renewable Ocean Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Wen; Jung, Ki Won; Yang, Zhaoqing; Copping, Andrea; Deng, Z. Daniel

    2016-03-01

    An underwater sound model was developed to simulate sound propagation from marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) devices or offshore wind (OSW) energy platforms. Finite difference methods were developed to solve the 3D Helmholtz equation for sound propagation in the coastal environment. A 3D sparse matrix solver with complex coefficients was formed for solving the resulting acoustic pressure field. The Complex Shifted Laplacian Preconditioner (CSLP) method was applied to solve the matrix system iteratively with MPI parallelization using a high performance cluster. The sound model was then coupled with the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) for simulating sound propagation generated by human activities, such as construction of OSW turbines or tidal stream turbine operations, in a range-dependent setting. As a proof of concept, initial validation of the solver is presented for two coastal wedge problems. This sound model can be useful for evaluating impacts on marine mammals due to deployment of MHK devices and OSW energy platforms.

  11. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  12. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  13. Metric Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroon, Cindy D.

    2007-01-01

    Created for a Metric Day activity, Metric Madness is a board game for two to four players. Students review and practice metric vocabulary, measurement, and calculations by playing the game. Playing time is approximately twenty to thirty minutes.

  14. Developing new predictive alarms based on ECG metrics for bradyasystolic cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Ding, Quan; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Mortara, David; Do, Duc; Boyle, Noel G; Pelter, Michele M; Hu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    We investigated 17 metrics derived from four leads of electrocardiographic (ECG) signals from hospital patient monitors to develop new ECG alarms for predicting adult bradyasystolic cardiac arrest events.A retrospective case-control study was designed to analyze 17 ECG metrics from 27 adult bradyasystolic and 304 control patients. The 17 metrics consisted of PR interval (PR), P-wave duration (Pdur), QRS duration (QRSdur), RR interval (RR), QT interval (QT), estimate of serum K  +  using only frontal leads (SerumK2), T-wave complexity (T Complex), ST segment levels for leads I, II, V (ST I, ST II, ST V), and 7 heart rate variability (HRV) metrics. These 7 HRV metrics were standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), total power, very low frequency power, low frequency power, high frequency power, normalized low frequency power, and normalized high frequency power. Controls were matched by gender, age (±5 years), admission to the same hospital unit within the same month, and the same major diagnostic category. A research ECG analysis software program developed by co-author D M was used to automatically extract the metrics. The absolute value for each ECG metric, and the duration, terminal value, and slope of the dominant trend for each ECG metric, were derived and tested as the alarm conditions. The maximal true positive rate (TPR) of detecting cardiac arrest at a prescribed maximal false positive rate (FPR) based on the trending conditions was reported. Lead time was also recorded as the time between the first time alarm condition was triggered and the event of cardiac arrest.While conditions based on the absolute values of ECG metrics do not provide discriminative information to predict bradyasystolic cardiac arrest, the trending conditions can be useful. For example, with a max FPR  =  5.0%, some derived alarms conditions are: trend duration of PR  >  2.8 h (TPR  =  48.2%, lead time  =  10.0  ±  6.6

  15. Development and verification of a taxonomy of assessment metrics for surgical technical skills.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Connie C; DaRosa, Debra; Sullivan, Maura E; Meyerson, Shari; Yoshida, Ken; Korndorffer, James R

    2014-01-01

    To create and empirically verify a taxonomy of metrics for assessing surgical technical skills, and to determine which types of metrics, skills, settings, learners, models, and instruments were most commonly reported in the technical skills assessment literature. In 2011-2012, the authors used a rational analysis of existing and emerging metrics to create the taxonomy, and used PubMed to conduct a systematic literature review (2001-2011) to test the taxonomy's comprehensiveness and verifiability. Using 202 articles identified from the review, the authors classified metrics according to the taxonomy and coded data concerning their context and use. Frequencies (counts, percentages) were calculated for all variables. The taxonomy contained 12 objective and 4 subjective categories. Of 567 metrics identified in the literature, 520 (92%) were classified using the new taxonomy. Process metrics outnumbered outcome metrics by 8:1. The most frequent metrics were "time," "manual techniques" (objective and subjective), "errors," and "procedural steps." Only one new metric, "learning curve," emerged. Assessments of basic motor skills and skills germane to laparoscopic surgery dominated the literature. Novices, beginners, and intermediate learners were the most frequent subjects, and box trainers and virtual reality simulators were the most frequent models used for assessing performance. Metrics convey what is valued in human performance. This taxonomy provides a common nomenclature. It may help educators and researchers in procedurally oriented disciplines to use metrics more precisely and consistently. Future assessments should focus more on bedside tasks and open surgical procedures and should include more outcome metrics.

  16. Development of Methodologies, Metrics, and Tools for Investigating Human-Robot Interaction in Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezer, Neta; Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis; Sandor, Aniko; Boyer, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Robonaut, and Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV), as well as interviews with robotics trainers, robot operators, and developers of gesture interfaces. A survey of methods and metrics used in HRI was completed to identify those most applicable to space robotics. These methods and metrics included techniques and tools associated with task performance, the quantification of human-robot interactions and communication, usability, human workload, and situation awareness. The need for more research in areas such as natural interfaces, compensations for loss of signal and poor video quality, psycho-physiological feedback, and common HRI testbeds were identified. The initial findings from these activities and planned future research are discussed. Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator

  17. Performance of a Solidification Furnace Developed for Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chen Y.; Boschetti, Cesar; Ribeiro, Manuel F.; Toledo, Rafael C.; Freitas, Filipe E.; Bandeira, Iraja N.

    2011-11-01

    Brazil has a Microgravity Program mainly based on experiments using sounding rockets. This paper presents a brief account of the Program and the experiments made on the Brazilian rockets. Up to now three missions carrying a total of 26 experiments were made. In all flights a fast solidification furnace, capable of producing temperatures up to 900°C, was tested with semiconductor and metal alloys. This paper describes the construction and the performance of that furnace during the last parabolic flight, occurred in 2010. The solidification furnace is now qualified and ready to be used by other institutions in sounding rocket flights.

  18. Developing a composite weighted quality metric to reflect the total benefit conferred by a health plan.

    PubMed

    Taskler, Glen B; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2015-03-01

    To improve individual health quality measures, which are associated with varying degrees of health benefit, and composite quality metrics, which weight individual measures identically. We developed a health-weighted composite quality measure reflecting the total health benefit conferred by a health plan annually, using preventive care as a test case. Using national disease prevalence, we simulated a hypothetical insurance panel of individuals aged 25 to 84 years. For each individual, we estimated the gain in life expectancy associated with 1 year of health system exposure to encourage adherence to major preventive care guidelines, controlling for patient characteristics (age, race, gender, comorbidity) and variation in individual adherence rates. This personalized gain in life expectancy was used to proxy for the amount of health benefit conferred by a health plan annually to its members, and formed weights in our health-weighted composite quality measure. We aggregated health benefits across the health insurance membership panel to analyze total health system performance. Our composite quality metric gave the highest weights to health plans that succeeded in implementing tobacco cessation and weight loss. One year of compliance with these goals was associated with 2 to 10 times as much health benefit as compliance with easier-to-follow preventive care services, such as mammography, aspirin, and antihypertensives. For example, for women aged 55 to 64 years, successful interventions to encourage weight loss were associated with 2.1 times the health benefit of blood pressure reduction and 3.9 times the health benefit of increasing adherence with screening mammography. A single health-weighted quality metric may inform measurement of total health system performance.

  19. Development and psychometric properties of the sound preference and hearing habits questionnaire (SP-HHQ).

    PubMed

    Meis, Markus; Huber, Rainer; Fischer, Rosa-Linde; Schulte, Michael; Spilski, Jan; Meister, Hartmut

    2016-11-22

    The aim of the study was, based on the individualisation of hearing aids (HA) and pre-sets for audio devices, to develop a questionnaire to determine the basis for profiling sound preferences and hearing habits to gather additional information usable for HA fitting and adjustment tools for audio-devices. We developed a questionnaire consisting of 46 items. A postal survey was conducted with N = 622 users with a mean age of 66 years (47.9% aided with HA, 45.7% female). Seven factors were identified by means of Explanatory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses: F1: 'Annoyance/distraction by background noise', F2: 'Importance of sound quality', F3: 'Noise Sensitivity', F4: 'Avoidance of unpredictable sounds', F5: 'Openness towards loud/new sounds', F6: 'Preferences for warm sounds', and F7: 'Details of environmental sounds/music'. Only the first of these factors was related to the audiogram of the user. No difference with any of the factors could be observed with HA use/non-use. In contrast, gender effects were found with female respondents preferring warm sounds and being more sensitive to noise. The sound preference and hearing habits questionnaire (SP-HHQ) is a usable tool for profiling the users with respect to sound preferences relevant for HA fitting and pre-sets for audio devices.

  20. Development of genodynamic metrics for exploring the biophysics of DNA polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Lindesay, James; Mason, Tshela E; Hercules, William; Dunston, Georgia M

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent an important type of dynamic sites within the human genome. These common variants often locally correlate within more complex multi-SNP haploblocks that are maintained throughout generations in a stable population. Information encoded in the structure of SNPs and SNP haploblock variation can be characterized through a normalized information content metric. Genodynamics is being developed as the analogous “thermodynamics” characterizing the state variables for genomic populations that are stable under stochastic environmental stresses. Since living systems have not been found to develop in the absence of environmental influences, this paper describes the analogous genomic free energy metrics in a given environment. SNP haploblocks were constructed by Haploview v4.2 for five chromosomes from phase III HapMap data, and the genomic state variables for each chromosome were calculated. An in silico analysis was performed on SNP haploblocks with the lowest genomic energy measures. Highly favorable genomic energy measures were found to correlate with highly conserved SNP haploblocks. Moreover, the most conserved haploblocks were associated with an evolutionarily conserved regulatory element and domain. PMID:25642351

  1. Developing and Presenting Auditory Demonstrations: Two Sound Editor Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firment, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiencing examples of auditory phenomena can clarify textbook and lecture explanations. The addition of visual displays to auditory demonstrations can make them more understandable. Two sound editor programs, Audacity[R] and Adobe Audition Pro 2.0[R], provide excellent capabilities for the display and authoring of auditory demonstrations.…

  2. Multidimensional Approach to the Development of a Mandarin Chinese-Oriented Sound Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Yu-Chen; Lin, Chun-Yi; Tsai, Li-Chiun; Lee, Ya-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Because the Ling six-sound test is based on American English phonemes, it can yield unreliable results when administered to non-English speakers. In this study, we aimed to improve specifically the diagnostic palette for Mandarin Chinese users by developing an adapted version of the Ling six-sound test. Method: To determine the set of…

  3. Multidimensional Approach to the Development of a Mandarin Chinese-Oriented Sound Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Yu-Chen; Lin, Chun-Yi; Tsai, Li-Chiun; Lee, Ya-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Because the Ling six-sound test is based on American English phonemes, it can yield unreliable results when administered to non-English speakers. In this study, we aimed to improve specifically the diagnostic palette for Mandarin Chinese users by developing an adapted version of the Ling six-sound test. Method: To determine the set of…

  4. Development and evaluation of aperture-based complexity metrics using film and EPID measurements of static MLC openings

    SciTech Connect

    Götstedt, Julia; Karlsson Hauer, Anna; Bäck, Anna

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Complexity metrics have been suggested as a complement to measurement-based quality assurance for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). However, these metrics have not yet been sufficiently validated. This study develops and evaluates new aperture-based complexity metrics in the context of static multileaf collimator (MLC) openings and compares them to previously published metrics. Methods: This study develops the converted aperture metric and the edge area metric. The converted aperture metric is based on small and irregular parts within the MLC opening that are quantified as measured distances between MLC leaves. The edge area metric is based on the relative size of the region around the edges defined by the MLC. Another metric suggested in this study is the circumference/area ratio. Earlier defined aperture-based complexity metrics—the modulation complexity score, the edge metric, the ratio monitor units (MU)/Gy, the aperture area, and the aperture irregularity—are compared to the newly proposed metrics. A set of small and irregular static MLC openings are created which simulate individual IMRT/VMAT control points of various complexities. These are measured with both an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device and EBT3 film. The differences between calculated and measured dose distributions are evaluated using a pixel-by-pixel comparison with two global dose difference criteria of 3% and 5%. The extent of the dose differences, expressed in terms of pass rate, is used as a measure of the complexity of the MLC openings and used for the evaluation of the metrics compared in this study. The different complexity scores are calculated for each created static MLC opening. The correlation between the calculated complexity scores and the extent of the dose differences (pass rate) are analyzed in scatter plots and using Pearson’s r-values. Results: The complexity scores calculated by the edge

  5. Development of a Smartphone App for Visualizing Heart Sounds and Murmurs.

    PubMed

    Mamorita, Noritaka; Arisaka, Naoya; Isonaka, Risa; Kawakami, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Akihiro

    2017-01-01

    Auscultation is one of the basic techniques for the diagnosis of heart disease. However, the interpretation of heart sounds and murmurs is a highly subjective and difficult skill. To assist the auscultation skill at the bedside, a handy phonocardiogram was developed using a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy J, Android OS 4.4.2) and an external microphone attached to a stethoscope. The Android app used Java classes, "AudioRecord," "AudioTrack," and "View," that recorded sounds, replayed sounds, and plotted sound waves, respectively. Sound waves were visualized in real-time, simultaneously replayed on the smartphone, and saved to WAV files. To confirm the availability of the app, 26 kinds of heart sounds and murmurs sounded on a human patient simulator were recorded using three different methods: a bell-type stethoscope, a diaphragm-type stethoscope, and a direct external microphone without a stethoscope. The recorded waveforms were subjectively confirmed and were found to be similar to the reference waveforms. The real-time visualization of the sound waves on the smartphone may help novices to readily recognize and learn to distinguish the various heart sounds and murmurs in real-time. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Development of a ratio of emergent to total hernia repairs as a surgical capacity metric.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jonathan C; Tyson, Anna F; Mabedi, Charles; Mulima, Gift; Cairns, Bruce A; Varela, Carlos; Charles, Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases including surgical conditions are gaining attention in developing countries. Despite this there are few metrics for surgical capacity. We hypothesized that (a) the ratio of emergent to total hernia repairs (E/TH) would correlate with per capita health care expenditures for any given country, and (b) the E/TH is easy to obtain in resource-poor settings. We performed a systematic review to identify the E/TH for as many countries as possible (Prospero registry CRD42013004645). We screened 1285 English language publications since 1990; 23 met inclusion criteria. Primary data was also collected from Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH) in Lilongwe, Malawi. A total of 13 countries were represented. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between per capita health care spending and the E/TH. There is a strong correlation between the log values of the ratio emergent to total groin hernias and the per capita health care spending that is robust across country income levels (R(2) = 0.823). Primary data from KCH was easily obtained and demonstrated a similar correlation. The ratio of emergent to total groin hernias is a potential measure of surgical capacity using data that is easily attainable. Further studies should validate this metric against other accepted health care capacity indicators. Systematic review registered with Prospero (CRD42013004645). Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Korean speech sound development in children from bilingual Japanese-Korean environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeoung Suk; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Yoon Mi; Kim, Hyun Gi; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Sun Jun

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates Korean speech sound development, including articulatory error patterns, among the Japanese-Korean children whose mothers are Japanese immigrants to Korea. The subjects were 28 Japanese-Korean children with normal development born to Japanese women immigrants who lived in Jeonbuk province, Korea. They were assessed through Computerized Speech Lab 4500. The control group consisted of 15 Korean children who lived in the same area. The values of the voice onset time of consonants /p(h)/, /t/, /t(h)/, and /k(*)/ among the children were prolonged. The children replaced the lenis sounds with aspirated or fortis sounds rather than replacing the fortis sounds with lenis or aspirated sounds, which are typical among Japanese immigrants. The children showed numerous articulatory errors for /c/ and /l/ sounds (similar to Koreans) rather than errors on /p/ sounds, which are more frequent among Japanese immigrants. The vowel formants of the children showed a significantly prolonged vowel /o/ as compared to that of Korean children (P<0.05). The Japanese immigrants and their children showed a similar substitution /n/ for /ɧ/ [Japanese immigrants (62.5%) vs Japanese-Korean children (14.3%)], which is rarely seen among Koreans. The findings suggest that Korean speech sound development among Japanese-Korean children is influenced not only by the Korean language environment but also by their maternal language. Therefore, appropriate language education programs may be warranted not only or immigrant women but also for their children.

  8. Development of a Computer Program for Analyzing Preliminary Aircraft Configurations in Relationship to Emerging Agility Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Brent

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a FORTRAN computer code to perform agility analysis on aircraft configurations. This code is to be part of the NASA-Ames ACSYNT (AirCraft SYNThesis) design code. This paper begins with a discussion of contemporary agility research in the aircraft industry and a survey of a few agility metrics. The methodology, techniques and models developed for the code are then presented. Finally, example trade studies using the agility module along with ACSYNT are illustrated. These trade studies were conducted using a Northrop F-20 Tigershark aircraft model. The studies show that the agility module is effective in analyzing the influence of common parameters such as thrust-to-weight ratio and wing loading on agility criteria. The module can compare the agility potential between different configurations. In addition, one study illustrates the module's ability to optimize a configuration's agility performance.

  9. Software development predictors, error analysis, reliability models and software metric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor

    1983-01-01

    The use of dynamic characteristics as predictors for software development was studied. It was found that there are some significant factors that could be useful as predictors. From a study on software errors and complexity, it was shown that meaningful results can be obtained which allow insight into software traits and the environment in which it is developed. Reliability models were studied. The research included the field of program testing because the validity of some reliability models depends on the answers to some unanswered questions about testing. In studying software metrics, data collected from seven software engineering laboratory (FORTRAN) projects were examined and three effort reporting accuracy checks were applied to demonstrate the need to validate a data base. Results are discussed.

  10. Ontogenetic development of auditory sensitivity and sound production in the squeaker catfish Synodontis schoutedeni

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Surveys of ontogenetic development of hearing and sound production in fish are scarce, and the ontogenetic development of acoustic communication has been investigated in only two fish species so far. Studies on the labyrinth fish Trichopsis vittata and the toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus show that the ability to detect conspecific sounds develops during growth. In otophysine fish, which are characterized by Weberian ossicles and improved hearing sensitivities, the ontogenetic development of sound communication has never been investigated. We analysed the ontogeny of the auditory sensitivity and vocalizations in the mochokid catfish Synodontis schoutedeni. Mochokid catfishes of the genus Synodontis are commonly called squeakers because they produce broadband stridulation sounds during abduction and adduction of pectoral fin spines. Fish from six different size groups - from 22 mm standard length to 126 mm - were studied. Hearing thresholds were measured between 50 Hz and 6 kHz using the auditory evoked potentials recording technique; stridulation sounds were recorded and their sound pressure levels determined. Finally, absolute sound power spectra were compared to auditory sensitivity curves within each size group. Results The smallest juveniles showed the poorest hearing abilities of all size groups between 50 and 1,000 Hz and highest hearing sensitivity at 5 and 6 kHz. The duration of abduction and adduction sounds and the pulse period increased and sound pressure level (in animals smaller than 58 mm) increased, while the dominant frequency of sounds decreased with size in animals larger than 37 mm. Comparisons between audiograms and sound spectra revealed that the most sensitive frequencies correlate with the dominant frequencies of stridulation sounds in all S. schoutedeni size groups and that all specimens are able to detect sounds of all size groups. Conclusions This study on the squeaker catfish S. schoutedeni is the first to demonstrate that

  11. An overview of climate change metrics, latest developments and links with air quality (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, P.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) metrics underpin most climate policies by allowing emissions of different GHGs and other forcing agents to be expressed in a common unit. They have potentially benefited climate policy by allowing substitution among different gases ( a so called 'basket approach'). The choice of metric and especially its time horizon depend on the policy context and there is no perfect metric as no single metric can capture all the nuances of the climate and/or air quality effects policy makers maybe interested in addressing. This is especially true when considering regional effects. We will discuss case studies for aviation emissions and black carbon emissions to test specific situations where pragmatic metric choice can guide sensible policy decisions. We give several examples of clear win-win situations for both air quality and climate, where decisions would be relatively insensitive to metric choice.

  12. Hospital readiness for health information exchange: development of metrics associated with successful collaboration for quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Korst, Lisa M.; Aydin, Carolyn E.; Signer, Jordana M. K.; Fink, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    Objective The development of readiness metrics for organizational participation in health information exchange is critical for monitoring progress toward, and achievement of, successful inter-organizational collaboration. In preparation for the development of a tool to measure readiness for data-sharing, we tested whether organizational capacities known to be related to readiness were associated with successful participation in an American data-sharing collaborative for quality improvement. Design Cross-sectional design, using an on-line survey of hospitals in a large, mature data-sharing collaborative organized for benchmarking and improvement in nursing care quality. Measurements Factor analysis was used to identify salient constructs, and identified factors were analyzed with respect to “successful” participation. “Success” was defined as the incorporation of comparative performance data into the hospital dashboard. Results The most important factor in predicting success included survey items measuring the strength of organizational leadership in fostering a culture of quality improvement (QI Leadership): 1) presence of a supportive hospital executive; 2) the extent to which a hospital values data; 3) the presence of leaders’ vision for how the collaborative advances the hospital’s strategic goals; 4) hospital use of the collaborative data to track quality outcomes; and 5) staff recognition of a strong mandate for collaborative participation (α = 0.84, correlation with Success 0.68 [P < 0.0001]). Conclusion The data emphasize the importance of hospital QI Leadership in collaboratives that aim to share data for QI or safety purposes. Such metrics should prove useful in the planning and development of this complex form of inter-organizational collaboration. PMID:21330191

  13. Toward the Development of Cognitive Task Difficulty Metrics to Support Intelligence Analysis Research

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2005-08-08

    Intelligence analysis is a cognitively complex task that is the subject of considerable research aimed at developing methods and tools to aid the analysis process. To support such research, it is necessary to characterize the difficulty or complexity of intelligence analysis tasks in order to facilitate assessments of the impact or effectiveness of tools that are being considered for deployment. A number of informal accounts of ''What makes intelligence analysis hard'' are available, but there has been no attempt to establish a more rigorous characterization with well-defined difficulty factors or dimensions. This paper takes an initial step in this direction by describing a set of proposed difficulty metrics based on cognitive principles.

  14. Development of a metric half-span model for interference free testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corlett, W. A.; Shaw, D. S.; Covell, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A metric half-span model has been developed which allows measurement of aerodynamic forces and moments without support interference or model distortion. This is accomplished by combining the best features of the conventional sting/balance and half-span splitter plate supports, For example, forces and moments are measured on one-half of a symmetrical model which is mechanically supported by a sting on the nonmetric half. Tests were performed in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel over a Mach range of 1.60 to 2.70 and an angle-of-attack range of 04 deg to 20 deg. Preliminary results on concept evaluation, and effect of fuselage modification to house a conventional balance and sting are presented.

  15. Research using Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells: quality metric towards developing a reference material

    PubMed Central

    Tanavde, Vivek; Vaz, Candida; Rao, Mahendra S; Vemuri, Mohan C; Pochampally, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated for their regenerative, immune-modulatory, and wound healing properties. While the laboratory studies have suggested that MSC’s have a unique potential for modulating the etiopathology of multiple diseases, the results from clinical trials have not been encouraging or reproducible. One of the explanations for such variability is explained by the “art” of isolating and propagating MSCs. Therefore, establishing more than minimal criteria to define MSC would help understand best protocols to isolate, propagate and deliver MSCs. Developing a calibration standard, a database and a set of functional tests would be a better quality metric for MSCs. In this review, we discuss the importance of selecting a standard, issues associated with coming up with such a standard and how these issues can be mitigated. PMID:26276001

  16. Related Critical Psychometric Issues and Their Resolutions during Development of PE Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Connie; Zhu, Weimo; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Graber, Kim C.; Dyson, Ben; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    In addition to validity and reliability evidence, other psychometric qualities of the PE Metrics assessments needed to be examined. This article describes how those critical psychometric issues were addressed during the PE Metrics assessment bank construction. Specifically, issues included (a) number of items or assessments needed, (b) training…

  17. Development and Implementation of a Metric Inservice Program for Teachers at Samuel Morse Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Thelma R.

    A model for organizing an introductory in-service workshop for elementary school teachers in the basic fundamentals and contents of the metric system is presented. Data collected from various questionnaires and tests suggest that the program improved the teacher's performance in presenting the metric system and that this improvement had a positive…

  18. A Sequential Development of Metric Measurement Activities for Middle School Students Using the Outdoor Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Thomas E.; Morford, Catherine A.

    1980-01-01

    Using an adaptation of a measurement model suggested by the California State Department of Education, the following components are synthesized into the middle school curriculum: measurement, metric system, outdoor education, mathematics, and science. Seasonal outdoor metric measurement activities for grades five through eight are presented.…

  19. Related Critical Psychometric Issues and Their Resolutions during Development of PE Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Connie; Zhu, Weimo; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Graber, Kim C.; Dyson, Ben; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    In addition to validity and reliability evidence, other psychometric qualities of the PE Metrics assessments needed to be examined. This article describes how those critical psychometric issues were addressed during the PE Metrics assessment bank construction. Specifically, issues included (a) number of items or assessments needed, (b) training…

  20. Subsystem Details for the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides values at the assembly level for the subsystems described in the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric (Hanford, 2004). Hanford (2004) summarizes the subordinate computational values for the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development (ALS R&TD) Metric at the subsystem level, while this manuscript provides a summary at the assembly level. Hanford (2004) lists mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime for each mission examined by the ALS R&TD Metric according to the nominal organization for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) elements. The values in the tables below, Table 2.1 through Table 2.8, list the assemblies, using the organization and names within the Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) for each ALS element. These tables specifically detail mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime. Additionally, mass and volume are designated in terms of values associated with initial hardware and resupplied hardware just as they are within ALSSAT. The overall subsystem values are listed on the line following each subsystem entry. These values are consistent with those reported in Hanford (2004) for each listed mission. Any deviations between these values and those in Hanford (2004) arise from differences in when individual numerical values are rounded within each report, and therefore the resulting minor differences should not concern even a careful reader. Hanford (2004) u es the uni ts kW(sub e) and kW(sub th) for power and cooling, respectively, while the nomenclature below uses W(sub e) and W(sub th), which is consistent with the native units within ALSSAT. The assemblies, as specified within ALSSAT, are listed in bold below their respective subsystems. When recognizable assembly components are not listed within ALSSAT, a summary of the assembly is provided on the same line as the entry for the assembly. Assemblies with one or more recognizable components are further

  1. A Comparison of Metrics for Scoring Beginning Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Coker, David L., Jr.; McCraw, Sara B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated four spelling scoring metrics: total words correct, correct letter sequences, correct sounds, and phonological coding scoring (developed by Tangel and Blachman) across two studies with children in kindergarten. The relationships between spelling scores and measures of reading, phonological awareness, and writing skills…

  2. Evaluation of Two Crew Module Boilerplate Tests Using Newly Developed Calibration Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses a application of multi-dimensional calibration metrics to evaluate pressure data from water drop tests of the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) crew module boilerplate. Specifically, three metrics are discussed: 1) a metric to assess the probability of enveloping the measured data with the model, 2) a multi-dimensional orthogonality metric to assess model adequacy between test and analysis, and 3) a prediction error metric to conduct sensor placement to minimize pressure prediction errors. Data from similar (nearly repeated) capsule drop tests shows significant variability in the measured pressure responses. When compared to expected variability using model predictions, it is demonstrated that the measured variability cannot be explained by the model under the current uncertainty assumptions.

  3. Analysis of urban development by means of multi-temporal fragmentation metrics from LULC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapena, M.; Ruiz, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    The monitoring and modelling of the evolution of urban areas is increasingly attracting the attention of land managers and administration. New data, tools and methods are being developed and made available for a better understanding of these dynamic areas. We study and analyse the concept of landscape fragmentation by means of GIS and remote sensing techniques, particularly focused on urban areas. Using LULC data obtained from the European Urban Atlas dataset developed by the local component of Copernicus Land Monitoring Services (scale 1:10,000), the urban fragmentation of the province of Rome is studied at 2006 and 2012. A selection of indices that are able to measure the land cover fragmentation level in the landscape are obtained employing a tool called IndiFrag, using as input data LULC data in vector format. In order to monitor the urban morphological changes and growth patterns, a new module with additional multi-temporal metrics has been developed for this purpose. These urban fragmentation and multi-temporal indices have been applied to the municipalities and districts of Rome, analysed and interpreted to characterise quantity, spatial distribution and structure of the urban change. This methodology is applicable to different regions, affording a dynamic quantification of urban spatial patterns and urban sprawl. The results show that urban form monitoring with multi-temporal data using these techniques highlights urbanization trends, having a great potential to quantify and model geographic development of metropolitan areas and to analyse its relationship with socioeconomic factors through the time.

  4. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate-Scale Hydrodynamic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Labiosa, Rochelle G.; Kim, Taeyun

    2010-11-30

    The Washington State Department of Ecology contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop an intermediate-scale hydrodynamic and water quality model to study dissolved oxygen and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound and to help define potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies and decisions. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or dominate human impacts to dissolved oxygen levels in the sensitive areas. In this study, an intermediate-scale hydrodynamic model of Puget Sound was developed to simulate the hydrodynamics of Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits for the year 2006. The model was constructed using the unstructured Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model. The overall model grid resolution within Puget Sound in its present configuration is about 880 m. The model was driven by tides, river inflows, and meteorological forcing (wind and net heat flux) and simulated tidal circulations, temperature, and salinity distributions in Puget Sound. The model was validated against observed data of water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity at various stations within the study domain. Model validation indicated that the model simulates tidal elevations and currents in Puget Sound well and reproduces the general patterns of the temperature and salinity distributions.

  5. Color Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…

  6. Color Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…

  7. Towards better metrics and policymaking for seed system development: Insights from Asia's seed industry.

    PubMed

    Spielman, David J; Kennedy, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1980s, many developing countries have introduced policies to promote seed industry growth and improve the delivery of modern science to farmers, often with a long-term goal of increasing agricultural productivity in smallholder farming systems. Public, private, and civil society actors involved in shaping policy designs have, in turn, developed competing narratives around how best to build an innovative and sustainable seed system, each with varying goals, values, and levels of influence. Efforts to strike a balance between these narratives have often played out in passionate discourses surrounding seed rules and regulations. As a result, however, policymakers in many countries have expressed impatience with the slow progress on enhancing the contribution of a modern seed industry to the overarching goal of increasing agricultural productivity growth. One reason for this slow progress may be that policymakers are insufficiently cognizant of the trade-offs associated with rules and regulations required to effectively govern a modern seed industry. This suggests the need for new data and analysis to improve the understanding of how seed systems function. This paper explores these issues in the context of Asia's rapidly growing seed industry, with illustrations from seed markets for maize and several other crops, to highlight current gaps in the metrics used to analyze performance, competition, and innovation. The paper provides a finite set of indicators to inform policymaking on seed system design and monitoring, and explores how these indicators can be used to inform current policy debates in the region.

  8. Area of Concern: a new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplac...

  9. Area of Concern: a new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplac...

  10. Development of the new shape PZT ceramics sounder suitable for a sound source of artificial larynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Kanetake, Ryota; Sugio, Yuuichi; Tanaka, Akimitsu

    2007-12-01

    Various speech production substitutes, which aim to reconstruct speech functions, have been developed and used practically by speech impaired individuals. However, conventional speech production substitutes have various drawbacks; therefore, perfect speech production substitutes are expected to be developed. We focused on the PZT ceramics sounder as a sound source in an electric drive artificial larynx. We first developed the artificial larynx that uses a PZT ceramic sounder and then evaluated its performance. The vocalized sound of the artificial larynx user shows good characteristics at the formant frequency, which is important for vowel discrimination. The characteristic feature of our artificial larynx is its individual structure, and this typical structure implies that the sound source and the implant are separated. This structure facilitates a high biocompatibility in our artificial larynx. In our previous work, the improvement in the acoustic characteristics of the sound source was described. The improvement is achieved by the optimization of the electric control and its structure. In this paper, we present the results of shape optimization and new shape PZT ceramics sounder evaluation. The optimized shape is decided on FEM analysis, and prototype PZT ceramics sounder based on above analysis is manufactured by way of trial. Additionally, the performance of prototype sounder is evaluated by acoustic analysis. Until now, we have researched about the immobilization of biomolecules onto the metal surface. It is believed that biomolecular immobilization on the sound source surface improves its biocompatibility. In the future, we aim to realize implantable sound sources that employ biomolecular immobilization technology.

  11. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Jean-Paul; Guttromson, Ross; Silva-Monroy, Cesar; Jeffers, Robert; Jones, Katherine; Ellison, James; Rath, Charles; Gearhart, Jared; Jones, Dean; Corbet, Tom; Hanley, Charles; Walker, La Tonya

    2014-09-01

    This report has been written for the Department of Energy’s Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Office to inform their writing of the Quadrennial Energy Review in the area of energy resilience. The topics of measuring and increasing energy resilience are addressed, including definitions, means of measuring, and analytic methodologies that can be used to make decisions for policy, infrastructure planning, and operations. A risk-based framework is presented which provides a standard definition of a resilience metric. Additionally, a process is identified which explains how the metrics can be applied. Research and development is articulated that will further accelerate the resilience of energy infrastructures.

  12. A Strategy for Developing a Common Metric in Item Response Theory when Parameter Posterior Distributions Are Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Growing interest in fully Bayesian item response models begs the question: To what extent can model parameter posterior draws enhance existing practices? One practice that has traditionally relied on model parameter point estimates but may be improved by using posterior draws is the development of a common metric for two independently calibrated…

  13. Design and development of a synthetic acoustic antenna for highly directional sound measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Rinus

    1987-12-01

    A SYNThetic ACoustic ANtenna (SYNTACAN) for highly directional sound measurements with an average resolving power of 1.5 deg in the frequency range from 89 to 1413 Hz (4 octave bands) with resolution of 1/12 octave, was developed for measurement of sound emissions from individual sources on industrial areas. The applicability of SYNTACAN is illustrated with a large number of test measurements concerning resolution, focussing, correlations, screening, and coherence loss. Measurements of sound from large factories, sound radiation from rotor blades of wind turbines, and the estimation of the source height of passing vehicles are described. Similarity between the imaging technique of SYNTACAN and techniques in optical and radioastronomy, sonar, radar, and seismology is discussed. The influence of the finite length of the antenna and the disturbance of the wave propagation by turbulence in the medium, causing finite beam patterns and thus unsharp source images is considered.

  14. Development of multichannel analyzer using sound card ADC for nuclear spectroscopy system

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Lombigit, Lojius; Rahman, Nur Aira Abdul; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2014-02-12

    This paper describes the development of Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) using sound card analogue to digital converter (ADC) for nuclear spectroscopy system. The system was divided into a hardware module and a software module. Hardware module consist of detector NaI (Tl) 2” by 2”, Pulse Shaping Amplifier (PSA) and a build in ADC chip from readily available in any computers’ sound system. The software module is divided into two parts which are a pre-processing of raw digital input and the development of the MCA software. Band-pass filter and baseline stabilization and correction were implemented for the pre-processing. For the MCA development, the pulse height analysis method was used to process the signal before displaying it using histogram technique. The development and tested result for using the sound card as an MCA are discussed.

  15. Development of multichannel analyzer using sound card ADC for nuclear spectroscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Lombigit, Lojius; Rahman, Nur Aira Abdul; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the development of Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) using sound card analogue to digital converter (ADC) for nuclear spectroscopy system. The system was divided into a hardware module and a software module. Hardware module consist of detector NaI (Tl) 2" by 2", Pulse Shaping Amplifier (PSA) and a build in ADC chip from readily available in any computers' sound system. The software module is divided into two parts which are a pre-processing of raw digital input and the development of the MCA software. Band-pass filter and baseline stabilization and correction were implemented for the pre-processing. For the MCA development, the pulse height analysis method was used to process the signal before displaying it using histogram technique. The development and tested result for using the sound card as an MCA are discussed.

  16. Development of tinnitus in CBA/CaJ mice following sound exposure.

    PubMed

    Longenecker, Ryan J; Galazyuk, Alexander V

    2011-10-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of a sound without an external acoustic source, is a complex perceptual phenomenon affecting the quality of life in 17% of the adult population. Despite its ubiquity and morbidity, the pathophysiology of tinnitus is a work in progress, and there is no generally accepted cure or treatment. Development of a reliable common animal model is crucial for tinnitus research and may advance this field. The goal of this study was to develop a tinnitus mouse model. Tinnitus was induced in an experimental group of mice by an exposure to a loud (116 dB sound pressure level (SPL)) narrow band noise (one octave, centered at 16 kHz) during 1 h under anesthesia. The tinnitus was then assessed behaviorally by measuring gap induced suppression of the acoustic startle reflex. We found that a vast majority of the sound-exposed mice (86%) developed behavioral signs of tinnitus. This was a complex, long lasting, and dynamic process. On the day following exposure, all mice demonstrated signs of acute tinnitus over the entire range of sound frequencies used for testing (10-31 kHz). However, 2-3 months later, a behavioral evidence of tinnitus was evident only at a narrow frequency range (20-31 kHz) representing a presumed chronic condition. Extracellular recordings confirmed a significantly higher rate of spontaneous activity in inferior colliculus neurons in sound-exposed compared to control mice. Surprisingly, unilateral sound exposure suppresses startle responses in mice and they remained suppressed even 3 months post-exposure, whereas auditory brainstem response thresholds were completely recovered during 2 months following exposure. In summary, behavioral evidence of tinnitus can be reliably developed in mice by sound exposure, and tinnitus induction can be assessed by quantifying prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex.

  17. Development of Prototype of Whistling Sound Counter based on Piezoelectric Bone Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Mikio; Ogihara, Mitsuhiro; Kyuu, Ten; Taniguchi, Shuji; Kato, Shozo; Araki, Chikahiro

    Recently, some professional whistlers have set up music schools that teach musical whistling. Similar to singing, in musical whistling, the whistling sound should not be break, even when the whistling goes on for more than 3 min. For this, it is advisable to practice whistling the “Pii” sound, which involves whistling the “Pii” sound continuously 100 times with the same pitch. However, when practicing alone, a whistler finds it difficult to count his/her own whistling sounds. In this paper, we propose a whistling sound counter based on piezoelectric bone conduction. This system consists of five parts. The gain of the amplifier section of this counter is variable, and the center frequency (f0) of the BPF part is also variable. In this study, we developed a prototype of the system and tested it. For this, we simultaneously counted the whistling sounds of nine people using the proposed system. The proposed system showed a good performance in a noisy environment. We also propose an examination system for awarding grades in musical whistling, which enforces the license examination in musical whistling on the personal computer. The proposed system can be used to administer the 5th grade exam for musical whistling.

  18. Development of a new, robust and accurate, spectroscopic metric for scatterer size estimation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassinopoulos, Michalis; Pitris, Costas

    2016-03-01

    The modulations appearing on the backscattering spectrum originating from a scatterer are related to its diameter as described by Mie theory for spherical particles. Many metrics for Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) take advantage of this observation in order to enhance the contrast of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images. However, none of these metrics has achieved high accuracy when calculating the scatterer size. In this work, Mie theory was used to further investigate the relationship between the degree of modulation in the spectrum and the scatterer size. From this study, a new spectroscopic metric, the bandwidth of the Correlation of the Derivative (COD) was developed which is more robust and accurate, compared to previously reported techniques, in the estimation of scatterer size. The self-normalizing nature of the derivative and the robustness of the first minimum of the correlation as a measure of its width, offer significant advantages over other spectral analysis approaches especially for scatterer sizes above 3 μm. The feasibility of this technique was demonstrated using phantom samples containing 6, 10 and 16 μm diameter microspheres as well as images of normal and cancerous human colon. The results are very promising, suggesting that the proposed metric could be implemented in OCT spectral analysis for measuring nuclear size distribution in biological tissues. A technique providing such information would be of great clinical significance since it would allow the detection of nuclear enlargement at the earliest stages of precancerous development.

  19. Topics in Metric Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeb, William Edward

    This thesis develops effective approximations of certain metrics that occur frequently in pure and applied mathematics. We show that distances that often arise in applications, such as the Earth Mover's Distance between two probability measures, can be approximated by easily computed formulas for a wide variety of ground distances. We develop simple and easily computed characterizations both of norms measuring a function's regularity -- such as the Lipschitz norm -- and of their duals. We are particularly concerned with the tensor product of metric spaces, where the natural notion of regularity is not the Lipschitz condition but the mixed Lipschitz condition. A theme that runs throughout this thesis is that snowflake metrics (metrics raised to a power less than 1) are often better-behaved than ordinary metrics. For example, we show that snowflake metrics on finite spaces can be approximated by the average of tree metrics with a distortion bounded by intrinsic geometric characteristics of the space and not the number of points. Many of the metrics for which we characterize the Lipschitz space and its dual are snowflake metrics. We also present applications of the characterization of certain regularity norms to the problem of recovering a matrix that has been corrupted by noise. We are able to achieve an optimal rate of recovery for certain families of matrices by exploiting the relationship between mixed-variable regularity conditions and the decay of a function's coefficients in a certain orthonormal basis.

  20. Developing an Achievement Test for the Subject of Sound in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözen, Merve; Bolat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an achievement test which includes the basic concepts about the subject of sound and its properties in middle school science lessons and which at the same time aims to reveal the alternative concepts that the students already have. During the process of the development of the test, studies in the field and…

  1. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  2. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  3. Development and construct validation of performance metrics for multivessel coronary interventions on the VIST virtual reality simulator at PCR2005.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Renkin, Jean; Buyl, Hans; Lambert, Hendrik; Marco, Jean

    2006-05-01

    The first aim of this study was the development of performance metrics in a virtual reality simulation for interventional procedure in a real case of multivessel coronary disease. A second aim was to assess the construct validity of these metrics by comparing the performance of interventional cardiologists with different levels of experience. Ninety-four practicing interventional cardiologists attending the EuroPCR 2005 in Paris, France participated in this study. Complete data was available on eighty-nine participants (95%). Participants were divided into three categories depending on experience. Group 1 (novices): N = 33, < 1 years experience; Group 2 (intermediate experience): N = 14, >50 cases per year for the last two years and Group 3 (master physicians): N = 42 participants completed > 100 cases per year during the last five years. Over a period of months during 2004-2005 we identified potential performance metrics for cases of coronary artery disease which were then applied to a case of a patient admitted because of stable angina (class 1) with multivessel coronary disease. Patient's coronary anatomy and lesions were then reconstructed and implemented for the VIST virtual reality simulator. All participants were required to perform this case. Overall, experienced interventional cardiologists performed significantly better than the novices for traditional metrics such as time (p = 0.03), contrast fluid (p = 0.0008) and Fluroscopy time (p = 0.005). Master physicians performed significantly better than the other two groups on metrics which assessed technical performance e.g., time to ascend the aorta (p = 0.0004) and stent placement accuracy (p = 0.02). Furthermore, master physicians made fewer handling errors than the intermediated group who in turn made fewer than the novice group (p = 0.0003). Performance consistency was also a linear function of experience. Novel performance metrics developed for the assessment of technical skills for a simulated

  4. Forensic Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important review topics the author teaches in middle school is the use of metric measurement for problem solving and inquiry. For many years, she had students measuring various objects around the room using the tools of metric measurement. She dutifully taught hypothesizing, data collecting, and drawing conclusions. It was…

  5. Primary Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Karen; And Others

    These 55 activity cards were created to help teachers implement a unit on metric measurement. They were designed for students aged 5 to 10, but could be used with older students. Cards are color-coded in terms of activities on basic metric terms, prefixes, length, and other measures. Both individual and small-group games and ideas are included.…

  6. Mastering Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, Annette M.

    2005-01-01

    By the time students reach a middle school science course, they are expected to make measurements using the metric system. However, most are not practiced in its use, as their experience in metrics is often limited to one unit they were taught in elementary school. This lack of knowledge is not wholly the fault of formal education. Although the…

  7. Mastering Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, Annette M.

    2005-01-01

    By the time students reach a middle school science course, they are expected to make measurements using the metric system. However, most are not practiced in its use, as their experience in metrics is often limited to one unit they were taught in elementary school. This lack of knowledge is not wholly the fault of formal education. Although the…

  8. Forensic Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important review topics the author teaches in middle school is the use of metric measurement for problem solving and inquiry. For many years, she had students measuring various objects around the room using the tools of metric measurement. She dutifully taught hypothesizing, data collecting, and drawing conclusions. It was…

  9. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Metric Development and Score Reporting in Rasch Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Everett V., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Describes problems in score reporting with the True Score model, defines the Rasch measurement unit (the logit), reviews transformations of the logit metric, and provides examples of score reporting procedures. Uses dichotomous data from an examination taken by 126 Ph.D. students and polychotomous data from a self-efficacy assessment completed by…

  10. Development of Maintenance METRICS To Forecast Resource Demands of Weapon Systems (Analysis and Evaluation). Revision A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    practical, and proved to be the most economical and expeditious method to gather all the data. 8. BASE VISITS At each base as depicted in Figure 9, it was...C) 137 D194-10089-1 A METRICS I ENVIROMENTAL A(PARAIETERS BY BASE) ALTITUDE OF BASE? GEOGRAPHY OF AREA. A) HILLY B) FLAT C) DESERT D) ETC

  11. Numerical studies and metric development for validation of magnetohydrodynamic models on the HIT-SI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.; Victor, B.; Morgan, K.; Hossack, A.; Sutherland, D.; Jarboe, T.; Nelson, B. A.; Marklin, G.

    2015-05-15

    We present application of three scalar metrics derived from the Biorthogonal Decomposition (BD) technique to evaluate the level of agreement between macroscopic plasma dynamics in different data sets. BD decomposes large data sets, as produced by distributed diagnostic arrays, into principal mode structures without assumptions on spatial or temporal structure. These metrics have been applied to validation of the Hall-MHD model using experimental data from the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection experiment. Each metric provides a measure of correlation between mode structures extracted from experimental data and simulations for an array of 192 surface-mounted magnetic probes. Numerical validation studies have been performed using the NIMROD code, where the injectors are modeled as boundary conditions on the flux conserver, and the PSI-TET code, where the entire plasma volume is treated. Initial results from a comprehensive validation study of high performance operation with different injector frequencies are presented, illustrating application of the BD method. Using a simplified (constant, uniform density and temperature) Hall-MHD model, simulation results agree with experimental observation for two of the three defined metrics when the injectors are driven with a frequency of 14.5 kHz.

  12. Numerical studies and metric development for validation of magnetohydrodynamic models on the HIT-SI experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C.; Victor, B.; Morgan, K.; Jarboe, T.; Hossack, A.; Marklin, G.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D.

    2015-05-01

    We present application of three scalar metrics derived from the Biorthogonal Decomposition (BD) technique to evaluate the level of agreement between macroscopic plasma dynamics in different data sets. BD decomposes large data sets, as produced by distributed diagnostic arrays, into principal mode structures without assumptions on spatial or temporal structure. These metrics have been applied to validation of the Hall-MHD model using experimental data from the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection experiment. Each metric provides a measure of correlation between mode structures extracted from experimental data and simulations for an array of 192 surface-mounted magnetic probes. Numerical validation studies have been performed using the NIMROD code, where the injectors are modeled as boundary conditions on the flux conserver, and the PSI-TET code, where the entire plasma volume is treated. Initial results from a comprehensive validation study of high performance operation with different injector frequencies are presented, illustrating application of the BD method. Using a simplified (constant, uniform density and temperature) Hall-MHD model, simulation results agree with experimental observation for two of the three defined metrics when the injectors are driven with a frequency of 14.5 kHz.

  13. Long-term trajectories of the development of speech sound production in pediatric cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Tomblin, J Bruce; Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J; Lu, Nelson

    2008-10-01

    This study characterized the development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children with a minimum of 8 years of cochlear implant (CI) experience. Twenty-seven pediatric CI recipients' spontaneous speech samples from annual evaluation sessions were phonemically transcribed. Accuracy for these speech samples was evaluated in piecewise regression models. As a group, pediatric CI recipients showed steady improvement in speech sound production following implantation, but the improvement rate declined after 6 years of device experience. Piecewise regression models indicated that the slope estimating the participants' improvement rate was statistically greater than 0 during the first 6 years postimplantation, but not after 6 years. The group of pediatric CI recipients' accuracy of speech sound production after 4 years of device experience reasonably predicts their speech sound production after 5-10 years of device experience. The development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children stabilizes after 6 years of device experience, and typically approaches a plateau by 8 years of device use. Early growth in speech before 4 years of device experience did not predict later rates of growth or levels of achievement. However, good predictions could be made after 4 years of device use.

  14. Long-Term Trajectories of the Development of Speech Sound Production in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Lu, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study characterized the development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children with a minimum of 8 years of cochlear implant (CI) experience. Method Twenty-seven pediatric CI recipients' spontaneous speech samples from annual evaluation sessions were phonemically transcribed. Accuracy for these speech samples was evaluated in piecewise regression models. Results As a group, pediatric CI recipients showed steady improvement in speech sound production following implantation, but the improvement rate declined after 6 years of device experience. Piecewise regression models indicated that the slope estimating the participants' improvement rate was statistically greater than 0 during the first 6 years postimplantation, but not after 6 years. The group of pediatric CI recipients' accuracy of speech sound production after 4 years of device experience reasonably predicts their speech sound production after 5–10 years of device experience. Conclusions The development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children stabilizes after 6 years of device experience, and typically approaches a plateau by 8 years of device use. Early growth in speech before 4 years of device experience did not predict later rates of growth or levels of achievement. However, good predictions could be made after 4 years of device use. PMID:18695018

  15. A Pedagogically Sound Approach to the Development of Editing Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Caridad; And Others

    A project followed the development of a curriculum of editing assignments used to bridge the gap between Miami-Dade Community College students' passive command of grammatical rules and active use of them in their writing. Assumptions and strategies used in developing the curriculum included: (1) the idea that editing must be seen as a part of the…

  16. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Brinke, JoAnn

    1995-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suspected to contribute significantly to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' (SBS), a complex of subchronic symptoms that occurs during and in general decreases away from occupancy of the building in question. A new approach takes into account individual VOC potencies, as well as the highly correlated nature of the complex VOC mixtures found indoors. The new VOC metrics are statistically significant predictors of symptom outcomes from the California Healthy Buildings Study data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that a summary measure of the VOC mixture, other risk factors, and covariates for each worker will lead to better prediction of symptom outcome. VOC metrics based on animal irritancy measures and principal component analysis had the most influence in the prediction of eye, dermal, and nasal symptoms. After adjustment, a water-based paints and solvents source was found to be associated with dermal and eye irritation. The more typical VOC exposure metrics used in prior analyses were not useful in symptom prediction in the adjusted model (total VOC (TVOC), or sum of individually identified VOCs (ΣVOCi)). Also not useful were three other VOC metrics that took into account potency, but did not adjust for the highly correlated nature of the data set, or the presence of VOCs that were not measured. High TVOC values (2--7 mg m-3) due to the presence of liquid-process photocopiers observed in several study spaces significantly influenced symptoms. Analyses without the high TVOC values reduced, but did not eliminate the ability of the VOC exposure metric based on irritancy and principal component analysis to explain symptom outcome.

  17. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  18. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  19. Development of a clinician reputation metric to identify appropriate problem-medication pairs in a crowdsourced knowledge base.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Allison B; Wright, Adam; Rogith, Deevakar; Fathiamini, Safa; Ottenbacher, Allison J; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-04-01

    Correlation of data within electronic health records is necessary for implementation of various clinical decision support functions, including patient summarization. A key type of correlation is linking medications to clinical problems; while some databases of problem-medication links are available, they are not robust and depend on problems and medications being encoded in particular terminologies. Crowdsourcing represents one approach to generating robust knowledge bases across a variety of terminologies, but more sophisticated approaches are necessary to improve accuracy and reduce manual data review requirements. We sought to develop and evaluate a clinician reputation metric to facilitate the identification of appropriate problem-medication pairs through crowdsourcing without requiring extensive manual review. We retrieved medications from our clinical data warehouse that had been prescribed and manually linked to one or more problems by clinicians during e-prescribing between June 1, 2010 and May 31, 2011. We identified measures likely to be associated with the percentage of accurate problem-medication links made by clinicians. Using logistic regression, we created a metric for identifying clinicians who had made greater than or equal to 95% appropriate links. We evaluated the accuracy of the approach by comparing links made by those physicians identified as having appropriate links to a previously manually validated subset of problem-medication pairs. Of 867 clinicians who asserted a total of 237,748 problem-medication links during the study period, 125 had a reputation metric that predicted the percentage of appropriate links greater than or equal to 95%. These clinicians asserted a total of 2464 linked problem-medication pairs (983 distinct pairs). Compared to a previously validated set of problem-medication pairs, the reputation metric achieved a specificity of 99.5% and marginally improved the sensitivity of previously described knowledge bases. A

  20. Development of a clinician reputation metric to identify appropriate problem-medication pairs in a crowdsourced knowledge base

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Allison B.; Wright, Adam; Rogith, Deevakar; Fathiamini, Safa; Ottenbacher, Allison J.; Sittig, Dean F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Correlation of data within electronic health records is necessary for implementation of various clinical decision support functions, including patient summarization. A key type of correlation is linking medications to clinical problems; while some databases of problem-medication links are available, they are not robust and depend on problems and medications being encoded in particular terminologies. Crowdsourcing represents one approach to generating robust knowledge bases across a variety of terminologies, but more sophisticated approaches are necessary to improve accuracy and reduce manual data review requirements. Objective We sought to develop and evaluate a clinician reputation metric to facilitate the identification of appropriate problem-medication pairs through crowdsourcing without requiring extensive manual review. Approach We retrieved medications from our clinical data warehouse that had been prescribed and manually linked to one or more problems by clinicians during e-prescribing between June 1, 2010 and May 31, 2011. We identified measures likely to be associated with the percentage of accurate problem-medication links made by clinicians. Using logistic regression, we created a metric for identifying clinicians who had made greater than or equal to 95% appropriate links. We evaluated the accuracy of the approach by comparing links made by those physicians identified as having appropriate links to a previously manually validated subset of problem-medication pairs. Results Of 867 clinicians who asserted a total of 237,748 problem-medication links during the study period, 125 had a reputation metric that predicted the percentage of appropriate links greater than or equal to 95%. These clinicians asserted a total of 2464 linked problem-medication pairs (983 distinct pairs). Compared to a previously validated set of problem-medication pairs, the reputation metric achieved a specificity of 99.5% and marginally improved the sensitivity of

  1. Metrication in a global environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberg, J.

    1994-01-01

    A brief history about the development of the metric system of measurement is given. The need for the U.S. to implement the 'SI' metric system in the international markets, especially in the aerospace and general trade, is discussed. Development of metric implementation and experiences locally, nationally, and internationally are included.

  2. Development of a Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound and Northwest Straits

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-12-10

    The hydrodynamic model used in this study is the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) developed by the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth. The unstructured grid and finite volume framework, as well as the capability of wetting/drying simulation and baroclinic simulation, makes FVCOM a good fit to the modeling needs for nearshore restoration in Puget Sound. The model domain covers the entire Puget Sound, Strait of Juan de Fuca, San Juan Passages, and Georgia Strait at the United States-Canada Border. The model is driven by tide, freshwater discharge, and surface wind. Preliminary model validation was conducted for tides at various locations in the straits and Puget Sound using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide data. The hydrodynamic model was successfully linked to the NOAA oil spill model General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment model (GNOME) to predict particle trajectories at various locations in Puget Sound. Model results demonstrated that the Puget Sound GNOME model is a useful tool to obtain first-hand information for emergency response such as oil spill and fish migration pathways.

  3. Films/Videos: Guidance for Children's Sound and Safe Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle

    1993-01-01

    Three videos for adults chronicle the life works of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget, two giants in the child development field, and three videos for children candidly and sensitively address common problems experienced by children, such as being afraid to read aloud in class, dealing with bullies, and protecting themselves from attack by strangers.…

  4. Plume development in Long Island Sound observed by remote sensing (ERTS-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggles, F. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    As the Connecticut River flows into Long Island Sound, large plumes are developed during the mixing of ocean and estuarine waters. Plumes were delineated for July 28, October 8, October 27, and December 2, 1972, by analyzing ERTS-1 imagery with the SRI electronic satellite image analysis console (ESIAC). Insertion of MSS band 5 into the ESIAC produced the best result in this analysis. The four plumes that have been delineated provide the first input to a time-lapse analysis of circulation patterns at the eastern end of Long Island Sound.

  5. Long-Term Trajectories of the Development of Speech Sound Production in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Lu, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study characterized the development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children with a minimum of 8 years of cochlear implant (CI) experience. Method: Twenty-seven pediatric CI recipients' spontaneous speech samples from annual evaluation sessions were phonemically transcribed. Accuracy for these speech samples was…

  6. Reading Skills of Students with Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skebo, Crysten M.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison Avrich; Stein, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with…

  7. "Sounds of Intent", Phase 2: Gauging the Music Development of Children with Complex Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockelford, A.; Welch, G.; Jewell-Gore, L.; Cheng, E.; Vogiatzoglou, A.; Himonides, E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the latest phase of research in the "Sounds of intent" project, which is seeking, as a long-term goal, to map musical development in children and young people with severe, or profound and multiple learning difficulties (SLD or PMLD). Previous exploratory work had resulted in a framework of six putative…

  8. "Sounds of Intent", Phase 2: Gauging the Music Development of Children with Complex Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockelford, A.; Welch, G.; Jewell-Gore, L.; Cheng, E.; Vogiatzoglou, A.; Himonides, E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the latest phase of research in the "Sounds of intent" project, which is seeking, as a long-term goal, to map musical development in children and young people with severe, or profound and multiple learning difficulties (SLD or PMLD). Previous exploratory work had resulted in a framework of six putative…

  9. Long-Term Trajectories of the Development of Speech Sound Production in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Lu, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study characterized the development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children with a minimum of 8 years of cochlear implant (CI) experience. Method: Twenty-seven pediatric CI recipients' spontaneous speech samples from annual evaluation sessions were phonemically transcribed. Accuracy for these speech samples was…

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF METRICS FOR TECHNICAL PRODUCTION: QUALIS BOOKS AND BOOK CHAPTERS.

    PubMed

    Ribas-Filho, Jurandir Marcondes; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Czeczko, Nicolau Gregori; Ribas, Carmen A P Marcondes; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes

    2015-01-01

    To propose metrics to qualify the publication in books and chapters, and from there, establish guidance for the evaluation of the Medicine III programs. Analysis of some of the 2013 area documents focusing this issue. Were analyzed the following areas: Computer Science; Biotechnology; Biological Sciences I; Public Health; Medicine I. Except for the Medicine I, which has not adopted the metric for books and chapters, all other programs established metrics within the intellectual production, although with unequal percentages. It´s desirable to include metrics for books and book chapters in the intellectual production of post-graduate programs in Area Document with percentage-value of 5% in publications of Medicine III programs. Propor a métrica para qualificar a produção veiculada através de livros e capítulos e, a partir daí, estabelecer orientação para a avaliação dos programas de pós-graduação da Medicina III. Análise dos documentos de área de 2013 dos programas de pós-graduação senso estrito das áreas: Ciência da Computação; Biotecnologia; Ciências Biológicas I; Saúde Coletiva; Medicina I. Excetuando-se o programa da Medicina I, que não adotou a métrica para classificação de livros e capítulos, todos os demais estabeleceram-na dentro da sua produção intelectual, embora com percentuais desiguais. É desejável inserir a métrica de livros e capitulos de livros na produção intelectual do Documento de Área dos programas, ortorgando a ela percentual de 5% das publicações qualificadas dos programas da Medicina III.

  11. Edible Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecca, Christyna E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise that introduces students to scientific measurements using only metric units. At the conclusion of the exercise, students eat the experiment. Requires dried refried beans, crackers or chips, and dried instant powder for lemonade. (DDR)

  12. Think Metric

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    The International System of Units, as the metric system is officially called, provides for a single "language" to describe weights and measures over the world. We in the United States together with the people of Brunei, Burma, and Yemen are the only ones who have not put this convenient system into effect. In the passage of the Metric Conversion Act of 1975, Congress determined that we also will adopt it, but the transition will be voluntary.

  13. Development of a cloud particle sensor for radiosonde sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Masatomo; Sugidachi, Takuji; Arai, Toru; Shimizu, Kensaku; Hayashi, Mayumi; Noma, Yasuhisa; Kawagita, Hideaki; Sagara, Kazuo; Nakagawa, Taro; Okumura, Satoshi; Inai, Yoichi; Shibata, Takashi; Iwasaki, Suginori; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    A meteorological balloon-borne cloud sensor called the cloud particle sensor (CPS) has been developed. The CPS is equipped with a diode laser at ˜ 790 nm and two photodetectors, with a polarization plate in front of one of the detectors, to count the number of particles per second and to obtain the cloud-phase information (i.e. liquid, ice, or mixed). The lower detection limit for particle size was evaluated in laboratory experiments as ˜ 2 µm diameter for water droplets. For the current model the output voltage often saturates for water droplets with diameter equal to or greater than ˜ 80 µm. The upper limit of the directly measured particle number concentration is ˜ 2 cm-3 (2 × 103 L-1), which is determined by the volume of the detection area of the instrument. In a cloud layer with a number concentration higher than this value, particle signal overlap and multiple scattering of light occur within the detection area, resulting in a counting loss, though a partial correction may be possible using the particle signal width data. The CPS is currently interfaced with either a Meisei RS-06G radiosonde or a Meisei RS-11G radiosonde that measures vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity, height, pressure, and horizontal winds. Twenty-five test flights have been made between 2012 and 2015 at midlatitude and tropical sites. In this paper, results from four flights are discussed in detail. A simultaneous flight of two CPSs with different instrumental configurations confirmed the robustness of the technique. At a midlatitude site, a profile containing, from low to high altitude, water clouds, mixed-phase clouds, and ice clouds was successfully obtained. In the tropics, vertically thick cloud layers in the middle to upper troposphere and vertically thin cirrus layers in the upper troposphere were successfully detected in two separate flights. The data quality is much better at night, dusk, and dawn than during the daytime because strong sunlight affects the

  14. GPS Sounding Rocket Development at NASA with Simultaneous Multi-Payload Tracking Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Martel, Hugh

    2000-01-01

    An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket use which includes the flight unit and a ground station capable of extracting GPS data from sounding rocket telemetry, performing a real time differential solution and graphically displaying the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. Accuracy has been proven to within less than 10 meters. Postprocessing has increased the precision to within 10 - 20 centimeters. The system has been successfully flown several times and delivered to the Sounding Program Office for routine field use. In addition to providing position, velocity and time GPS data has been used on sounding rockets for vehicle performance analysis, effecting a one hundred fold improvement in data time tagging, and steering an optical tracking device to intercept payloads launched from over the horizon. Precise velocity separation information and timing has been provided to multiple payload systems. Future plans include its use for Range Safety and enabling of interferometric techniques. The technology and software developed also has potential application to small satellite navigation and formation flying.

  15. Metric Education for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, David L.

    1978-01-01

    The metric education program developed at Okaloosa-Walton Junior College, Niceville, Florida, for students and the community in general consists of three components: a metric measurement course; multimedia labor for independent study; and metric signs located throughout the campus. Instructional approaches for adult students are noted. (MF)

  16. Development and application of an agricultural intensity index to invertebrate and algal metrics from streams at two scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, Ian R.

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted at 28-30 sites within eight study areas across the United States along a gradient of nutrient enrichment/agricultural land use between 2003 and 2007. Objectives were to test the application of an agricultural intensity index (AG-Index) and compare among various invertebrate and algal metrics to determine indicators of nutrient enrichment nationally and within three regions. The agricultural index was based on total nitrogen and phosphorus input to the watershed, percent watershed agriculture, and percent riparian agriculture. Among data sources, agriculture within riparian zone showed significant differences among values generated from remote sensing or from higher resolution orthophotography; median values dropped significantly when estimated by orthophotography. Percent agriculture in the watershed consistently had lower correlations to invertebrate and algal metrics than the developed AG-Index across all regions. Percent agriculture showed fewer pairwise comparisons that were significant than the same comparisons using the AG-Index. Highest correlations to the AG-Index regionally were −0.75 for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera richness (EPTR) and −0.70 for algae Observed/Expected (O/E), nationally the highest was −0.43 for EPTR vs. total nitrogen and −0.62 for algae O/E vs. AG-Index. Results suggest that analysis of metrics at national scale can often detect large differences in disturbance, but more detail and specificity is obtained by analyzing data at regional scales.

  17. Toward Developing a New Occupational Exposure Metric Approach for Characterization of Diesel Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Cauda, Emanuele G.; Ku, Bon Ki; Miller, Arthur L.; Barone, Teresa L.

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of diesel-powered equipment in mines makes the exposure to diesel aerosols a serious occupational issue. The exposure metric currently used in U.S. underground noncoal mines is based on the measurement of total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentration in the air. Recent toxicological evidence suggests that the measurement of mass concentration is not sufficient to correlate ultrafine aerosol exposure with health effects. This urges the evaluation of alternative measurements. In this study, the current exposure metric and two additional metrics, the surface area and the total number concentration, were evaluated by conducting simultaneous measurements of diesel ultrafine aerosols in a laboratory setting. The results showed that the surface area and total number concentration of the particles per unit of mass varied substantially with the engine operating condition. The specific surface area (SSA) and specific number concentration (SNC) normalized with TC varied two and five times, respectively. This implies that miners, whose exposure is measured only as TC, might be exposed to an unknown variable number concentration of diesel particles and commensurate particle surface area. Taken separately, mass, surface area, and number concentration did not completely characterize the aerosols. A comprehensive assessment of diesel aerosol exposure should include all of these elements, but the use of laboratory instruments in underground mines is generally impracticable. The article proposes a new approach to solve this problem. Using SSA and SNC calculated from field-type measurements, the evaluation of additional physical properties can be obtained by using the proposed approach. PMID:26361400

  18. Development in Source Modeling and Sound Propagation for Jet Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leib, Steward

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research carried out under this cooperative agreement was to develop tools that could be used to improve upon the current state of the art in the prediction of noise emitted by turbulent exhaust jets. Both the source modeling and sound propagation aspects of the prediction of jet noise by acoustic analogy were examined with a view toward the development of methods which yield improved predictions over a wider range of operating conditions.

  19. Guidelines for Teaching Metric Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide teachers and other decision-makers with a suggested framework within which sound planning for metric education can be done. Student behavioral objectives are listed by topic. Each objective is coded to indicate grade level, topic, and objective number. A chart is provided to show a kindergarten…

  20. Guidelines for Teaching Metric Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide teachers and other decision-makers with a suggested framework within which sound planning for metric education can be done. Student behavioral objectives are listed by topic. Each objective is coded to indicate grade level, topic, and objective number. A chart is provided to show a kindergarten…

  1. A Web-Based Graphical Food Frequency Assessment System: Design, Development and Usability Metrics.

    PubMed

    Franco, Rodrigo Zenun; Alawadhi, Balqees; Fallaize, Rosalind; Lovegrove, Julie A; Hwang, Faustina

    2017-05-08

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are well established in the nutrition field, but there remain important questions around how to develop online tools in a way that can facilitate wider uptake. Also, FFQ user acceptance and evaluation have not been investigated extensively. This paper presents a Web-based graphical food frequency assessment system that addresses challenges of reproducibility, scalability, mobile friendliness, security, and usability and also presents the utilization metrics and user feedback from a deployment study. The application design employs a single-page application Web architecture with back-end services (database, authentication, and authorization) provided by Google Firebase's free plan. Its design and responsiveness take advantage of the Bootstrap framework. The FFQ was deployed in Kuwait as part of the EatWellQ8 study during 2016. The EatWellQ8 FFQ contains 146 food items (including drinks). Participants were recruited in Kuwait without financial incentive. Completion time was based on browser timestamps and usability was measured using the System Usability Scale (SUS), scoring between 0 and 100. Products with a SUS higher than 70 are considered to be good. A total of 235 participants created accounts in the system, and 163 completed the FFQ. Of those 163 participants, 142 reported their gender (93 female, 49 male) and 144 reported their date of birth (mean age of 35 years, range from 18-65 years). The mean completion time for all FFQs (n=163), excluding periods of interruption, was 14.2 minutes (95% CI 13.3-15.1 minutes). Female participants (n=93) completed in 14.1 minutes (95% CI 12.9-15.3 minutes) and male participants (n=49) completed in 14.3 minutes (95% CI 12.6-15.9 minutes). Participants using laptops or desktops (n=69) completed the FFQ in an average of 13.9 minutes (95% CI 12.6-15.1 minutes) and participants using smartphones or tablets (n=91) completed in an average of 14.5 minutes (95% CI 13.2-15.8 minutes). The median SUS

  2. Development of Sound Localization Strategies in Children with Bilateral Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Godar, Shelly P; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2015-01-01

    Localizing sounds in our environment is one of the fundamental perceptual abilities that enable humans to communicate, and to remain safe. Because the acoustic cues necessary for computing source locations consist of differences between the two ears in signal intensity and arrival time, sound localization is fairly poor when a single ear is available. In adults who become deaf and are fitted with cochlear implants (CIs) sound localization is known to improve when bilateral CIs (BiCIs) are used compared to when a single CI is used. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emergence of spatial hearing sensitivity in children who use BiCIs, with a particular focus on the development of behavioral localization patterns when stimuli are presented in free-field horizontal acoustic space. A new analysis was implemented to quantify patterns observed in children for mapping acoustic space to a spatially relevant perceptual representation. Children with normal hearing were found to distribute their responses in a manner that demonstrated high spatial sensitivity. In contrast, children with BiCIs tended to classify sound source locations to the left and right; with increased bilateral hearing experience, they developed a perceptual map of space that was better aligned with the acoustic space. The results indicate experience-dependent refinement of spatial hearing skills in children with CIs. Localization strategies appear to undergo transitions from sound source categorization strategies to more fine-grained location identification strategies. This may provide evidence for neural plasticity, with implications for training of spatial hearing ability in CI users.

  3. A neural net-based approach to software metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boetticher, G.; Srinivas, Kankanahalli; Eichmann, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Software metrics provide an effective method for characterizing software. Metrics have traditionally been composed through the definition of an equation. This approach is limited by the fact that all the interrelationships among all the parameters be fully understood. This paper explores an alternative, neural network approach to modeling metrics. Experiments performed on two widely accepted metrics, McCabe and Halstead, indicate that the approach is sound, thus serving as the groundwork for further exploration into the analysis and design of software metrics.

  4. Development of a Quantitative Decision Metric for Selecting the Most Suitable Discretization Method for SN Transport Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunert, Sebastian

    In this work we develop a quantitative decision metric for spatial discretization methods of the SN equations. The quantitative decision metric utilizes performance data from selected test problems for computing a fitness score that is used for the selection of the most suitable discretization method for a particular SN transport application. The fitness score is aggregated as a weighted geometric mean of single performance indicators representing various performance aspects relevant to the user. Thus, the fitness function can be adjusted to the particular needs of the code practitioner by adding/removing single performance indicators or changing their importance via the supplied weights. Within this work a special, broad class of methods is considered, referred to as nodal methods. This class is naturally comprised of the DGFEM methods of all function space families. Within this work it is also shown that the Higher Order Diamond Difference (HODD) method is a nodal method. Building on earlier findings that the Arbitrarily High Order Method of the Nodal type (AHOTN) is also a nodal method, a generalized finite-element framework is created to yield as special cases various methods that were developed independently using profoundly different formalisms. A selection of test problems related to a certain performance aspect are considered: an Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) test suite for assessing accuracy and execution time, Lathrop's test problem for assessing resilience against occurrence of negative fluxes, and a simple, homogeneous cube test problem to verify if a method possesses the thick diffusive limit. The contending methods are implemented as efficiently as possible under a common SN transport code framework to level the playing field for a fair comparison of their computational load. Numerical results are presented for all three test problems and a qualitative rating of each method's performance is provided for each aspect: accuracy

  5. Enterprise Sustainment Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Air Force sustainment enterprise does not have metrics that . . . adequately measure key sustainment parameters, according to the 2011 National...Research Council of the National Academies study, Examination of the U.S. Air Force’s Aircraft Sustainment Needs in the Future and Its Strategy to Meet...standardized and do not contribute to the overall assessment of the sustainment enterprise. This paper explores the development of a single metric

  6. Agriculture, nutrition, and health in global development: typology and metrics for integrated interventions and research.

    PubMed

    Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite rhetoric arguing that enhanced agriculture leads to improved nutrition and health, there is scant empirical evidence about potential synergies across sectors or about the mix of actions that best supports all three sectors. The geographic scale and socioeconomic nature of these interventions require integration of previously separate research methods. This paper proposes a typology of interventions and a metric of integration among them to help researchers build on each other's results, facilitating integration in methods to inform the design of multisector interventions. The typology recognizes the importance of regional effect modifiers that are not themselves subject to randomized assignment, and trade-offs in how policies and programs are implemented, evaluated, and scaled. Using this typology could facilitate methodological pluralism, helping researchers in one field use knowledge generated elsewhere, each using the most appropriate method for their situation.

  7. Development of Metric for Measuring the Impact of RD&D Funding on GTO's Geothermal Exploration Goals (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, S.; Young, K. R.; Thorsteinsson, H.

    2013-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. In 2012, NREL was tasked with developing a metric to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration and cost and time improvements could be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Geothermal). The conference paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open EI website for public access (http://en.openei.org).

  8. Manned Mars Mission on-orbit operations metric development. [astronaut and robot performance in spacecraft orbital assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorin, Barney F.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the effort made to develop a scoring system, or metric, for comparing astronaut Extra Vehicular Activity with various robotic options for the on-orbit assembly of a very large spacecraft, such as would be needed for a Manned Mars Mission. All trade studies comparing competing approaches to a specific task involve the use of some consistent and unbiased method for assigning a score, or rating factor, to each concept under consideration. The relative scores generated by the selected rating system provide the tool for deciding which of the approaches is the most desirable.

  9. Early-, middle-, and late-developing sounds in monolingual and bilingual children: an exploratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A

    2010-02-01

    To examine the accuracy of early-, middle-, and late-developing (EML) sounds in Spanish-English bilingual children and their monolingual peers. Twenty-four typically developing children, age 3-4 years, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, 8 monolingual Spanish speakers, and 8 monolingual English speakers. Single-word speech samples were obtained to examine (a) differences on the accuracy of EML sounds between Spanish-English bilingual children and monolingual Spanish and monolingual English children and (b) the developmental trend on the accuracy of EML sounds within languages for Spanish-English bilingual children and monolingual Spanish and monolingual English children. Findings support those of Shriberg (1993) for English-speaking children and suggest possible EML categories for monolingual Spanish-speaking children and bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children. These exploratory findings indicate the need for longitudinal examination of EML categories with a larger cohort of children to observe similarities and differences between monolingual and bilingual development.

  10. The effects of immediate achievement and retention of middle school students involved in a metric unit designed to promote the development of estimating skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael L.; Rowsey, Robert E.

    1990-12-01

    Three hundred nintey-seven seventh-grade students were studied to determine the effect on immediate achievement and retention of a unit designed to promote the development of estimating skills involved in metric measurement. The study involved five teachers with a total of 15 average- or advanced-level classes divided into the reference and treatment groups. A five-day metric unit was designed so that both groups received exactly the same instruction in metric length, mass, and capacity with the exception of the treatment group's participation in activities relating to the development of estimation skills. Data collected from the Metric Application Instrument and analyzed with analysis of covariance indicated that students in the experimental group did retain significantly more of their improved metric application skills than the students in the reference group. The analysis of the main effects of race, sex, and ability indicated that white students achieved significantly more than black students and that males achieved significantly more than females. Analysis of significant race/ability and sex/race interactions indicated that (a) white students in the advanced group attained significantly greater achievement in metric application skills than black students of equal status and (b) white males significantly retained their metric applications achievement when compared to black males or black or white females.

  11. The development and application of composite complexity models and a relative complexity metric in a software maintenance environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.; Sherif, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    A great deal of effort is now being devoted to the study, analysis, prediction, and minimization of software maintenance expected cost, long before software is delivered to users or customers. It has been estimated that, on the average, the effort spent on software maintenance is as costly as the effort spent on all other software costs. Software design methods should be the starting point to aid in alleviating the problems of software maintenance complexity and high costs. Two aspects of maintenance deserve attention: (1) protocols for locating and rectifying defects, and for ensuring that noe new defects are introduced in the development phase of the software process; and (2) protocols for modification, enhancement, and upgrading. This article focuses primarily on the second aspect, the development of protocols to help increase the quality and reduce the costs associated with modifications, enhancements, and upgrades of existing software. This study developed parsimonious models and a relative complexity metric for complexity measurement of software that were used to rank the modules in the system relative to one another. Some success was achieved in using the models and the relative metric to identify maintenance-prone modules.

  12. Development of health risk-based metrics for defining a heatwave: a time series study in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shilu; Wang, Xiao Yu; FitzGerald, Gerry; McRae, David; Neville, Gerard; Tippett, Vivienne; Aitken, Peter; Verrall, Ken

    2014-05-09

    This study attempted to develop health risk-based metrics for defining a heatwave in Brisbane, Australia. Poisson generalised additive model was performed to assess the impact of heatwaves on mortality and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) in Brisbane. In general, the higher the intensity and the longer the duration of a heatwave, the greater the health impacts. There was no apparent difference in EHAs risk during different periods of a warm season. However, there was a greater risk for mortality in the 2nd half of a warm season than that in the 1st half. While elderly (≥75 years) were particularly vulnerable to both the EHA and mortality effects of a heatwave, the risk for EHAs also significantly increased for two other age groups (0-64 years and 65-74 years) during severe heatwaves. Different patterns between cardiorespiratory mortality and EHAs were observed. Based on these findings, we propose the use of a tiered heat warning system based on the health risk of heatwave. Health risk-based metrics are a useful tool for the development of local heatwave definitions. This tool may have significant implications for the assessment of heatwave-related health consequences and development of heatwave response plans and implementation strategies.

  13. Development of health risk-based metrics for defining a heatwave: a time series study in Brisbane, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study attempted to develop health risk-based metrics for defining a heatwave in Brisbane, Australia. Methods Poisson generalised additive model was performed to assess the impact of heatwaves on mortality and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) in Brisbane. Results In general, the higher the intensity and the longer the duration of a heatwave, the greater the health impacts. There was no apparent difference in EHAs risk during different periods of a warm season. However, there was a greater risk for mortality in the 2nd half of a warm season than that in the 1st half. While elderly (≥75 years) were particularly vulnerable to both the EHA and mortality effects of a heatwave, the risk for EHAs also significantly increased for two other age groups (0 – 64 years and 65 – 74 years) during severe heatwaves. Different patterns between cardiorespiratory mortality and EHAs were observed. Based on these findings, we propose the use of a tiered heat warning system based on the health risk of heatwave. Conclusions Health risk-based metrics are a useful tool for the development of local heatwave definitions. This tool may have significant implications for the assessment of heatwave-related health consequences and development of heatwave response plans and implementation strategies. PMID:24885799

  14. Implicit Contractive Mappings in Modular Metric and Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, N.; Salimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    The notion of modular metric spaces being a natural generalization of classical modulars over linear spaces like Lebesgue, Orlicz, Musielak-Orlicz, Lorentz, Orlicz-Lorentz, and Calderon-Lozanovskii spaces was recently introduced. In this paper we investigate the existence of fixed points of generalized α-admissible modular contractive mappings in modular metric spaces. As applications, we derive some new fixed point theorems in partially ordered modular metric spaces, Suzuki type fixed point theorems in modular metric spaces and new fixed point theorems for integral contractions. In last section, we develop an important relation between fuzzy metric and modular metric and deduce certain new fixed point results in triangular fuzzy metric spaces. Moreover, some examples are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results. PMID:25003157

  15. Collaborative Sounding Rocket launch in Alaska and Development of Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Akimasa; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kan, Yuji; Tohyama, Fumio; Nakashino, Kyouichi; Hawkins, Joseph

    Tokai University student rocket project (TSRP) was established in 1995 for a purpose of the space science and engineering hands-on education, consisting of two space programs; the one is sounding rocket experiment collaboration with University of Alaska Fairbanks and the other is development and launch of small hybrid rockets. In January of 2000 and March 2002, two collaborative sounding rockets were successfully launched at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. In 2001, the first Tokai hybrid rocket was successfully launched at Alaska. After that, 11 hybrid rockets were launched to the level of 180-1,000 m high at Hokkaido and Akita in Japan. Currently, Tokai students design and build all parts of the rockets. In addition, they are running the organization and development of the project under the tight budget control. This program has proven to be very effective in providing students with practical, real-engineering design experience and this program also allows students to participate in all phases of a sounding rocket mission. Also students learn scientific, engineering subjects, public affairs and system management through experiences of cooperative teamwork. In this report, we summarize the TSRP's hybrid rocket program and discuss the effectiveness of the program in terms of educational aspects.

  16. Metrication study for large space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creswick, F. A.; Weller, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Various approaches which could be taken in developing a metric-system design for the Large Space Telescope, considering potential penalties on development cost and time, commonality with other satellite programs, and contribution to national goals for conversion to the metric system of units were investigated. Information on the problems, potential approaches, and impacts of metrication was collected from published reports on previous aerospace-industry metrication-impact studies and through numerous telephone interviews. The recommended approach to LST metrication formulated in this study cells for new components and subsystems to be designed in metric-module dimensions, but U.S. customary practice is allowed where U.S. metric standards and metric components are not available or would be unsuitable. Electrical/electronic-system design, which is presently largely metric, is considered exempt from futher metrication. An important guideline is that metric design and fabrication should in no way compromise the effectiveness of the LST equipment.

  17. Implications of Metric Choice for Common Applications of Readmission Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sheryl; Saynina, Olga; Schultz, Ellen; McDonald, Kathryn M; Baker, Laurence C

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the differential impact on hospital performance of three readmission metrics: all-cause readmission (ACR), 3M Potential Preventable Readmission (PPR), and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid 30-day readmission (CMS). Data Sources. 2000–2009 California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development Patient Discharge Data Nonpublic file. Study Design. We calculated 30-day readmission rates using three metrics, for three disease groups: heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and pneumonia. Using each metric, we calculated the absolute change and correlation between performance; the percent of hospitals remaining in extreme deciles and level of agreement; and differences in longitudinal performance. Principal Findings. Average hospital rates for HF patients and the CMS metric were generally higher than for other conditions and metrics. Correlations between the ACR and CMS metrics were highest (r = 0.67–0.84). Rates calculated using the PPR and either ACR or CMS metrics were moderately correlated (r = 0.50–0.67). Between 47 and 75 percent of hospitals in an extreme decile according to one metric remained when using a different metric. Correlations among metrics were modest when measuring hospital longitudinal change. Conclusions. Different approaches to computing readmissions can produce different hospital rankings and impact pay-for-performance. Careful consideration should be placed on readmission metric choice for these applications. PMID:23742056

  18. Cognitive Dimensions in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Normal Elderly: Developing a Common Metric.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert M; Mapstone, Mark; McCrary, John W; Gardner, Margaret N; Bachus, Laura E; Degrush, Elizabeth; Reilly, Lindsey A; Sandoval, Tiffany C; Guillily, Maria D

    2010-01-28

    The aim of this research was to assess similarity in cognitive factor structures underlying neuropsychological test performance of elders belonging to three clinical groups: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and normal elderly. We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to 214 elderly participants in the groups. First, the underlying cognitive structure of a Combined-Set of AD, MCI, and Control subjects was determined by Principal Components Analysis (PCA), including quantitative relationships (loadings) between the test measures and the factors. The PCA resolved 17 neuropsychological test measures into 6 interpretable factors, accounting for 78% of the variance. This cognitive structure was compared with separate cognitive structures from an AD-Set, an MCI-Set, and a Control-Set (different individuals in each set) in additional PCA using Procrustes factor rotation. Analysis of congruence coefficients between each set and the Combined-Set by a bootstrapping statistical procedure supported the factor invariance hypothesis. These close similarities across groups in their underlying neuropsychological dimensions support the use of a common metric system (the factor structure of a Combined-Set) for measuring neuropsychological factors in all these elderly individuals.

  19. Early Warning Look Ahead Metrics: The Percent Milestone Backlog Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Stephen A.; Anderson, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    All complex development projects experience delays and corresponding backlogs of their project control milestones during their acquisition lifecycles. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate (FPD) teamed with The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to develop a collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics that would provide GSFC leadership with some independent indication of the programmatic health of GSFC flight projects. As part of the collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics, the Percent Milestone Backlog metric is particularly revealing, and has utility as a stand-alone execution performance monitoring tool. This paper describes the purpose, development methodology, and utility of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric. The other four Early Warning Look Ahead metrics are also briefly discussed. Finally, an example of the use of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric in providing actionable insight is described, along with examples of its potential use in other commodities.

  20. The Importance of Bottomside and Topside Sounding Measurements for the Development of IRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2008-02-01

    This article reviews the important role that data from ground ionosondes and from satellite topside sounders have played in the development of empirical ionospheric models with special emphasis on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. It will briefly discuss the worldwide database established by these two instruments and point to times and locations not yet well covered requiring more sounding data inputs in the future. In the spirit of this book celebrating the 70th birthday of Bodo Reinisch the paper highlights his involvement in developing these measurements techniques and than using the results to improve the IRI model.

  1. Development for sound velocity and density measurements of liquid metal at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, H.; Nishida, K.; Urakawa, S.; Uesugi, K.; Takubo, Y.; Kuwabara, S.; Nakatsuka, A.; Hoshino, M.; Kono, Y.; Higo, Y.; Kondo, T.

    2012-12-01

    Sound velocity and density of liquid Fe-alloys under high pressure is quite important physical property to estimate the amount of light elements in the terrestrial core from the seismic data. Here, we have developed the system for simultaneous measurement of sound velocity and density combined with X-ray tomography technique at high pressure and temperature. High pressure experiments were performed using 80-ton uni-axial press (Urakawa et al. 2010) installed at X-ray computed micro-tomography (CT) beamline (BL20B2), SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. High pressure was generated using opposed-type cupped anvils. We measured the sound velocity and density of solid FeSi at room temperature and those of solid and liquid Ni-S at high temperature. Experimental pressure was obtained from the volume of h-BN. CT measurement was carried out by rotating the press from 0 to 180o with 0.2-0.3o steps. Monochromatized X-ray of 51 keV was used. Density was determined by using X-ray absorption method based on the X-ray radiograph image. The sample thickness for the X-ray path can be directly obtained from the CT data. This is a big advantage for CT measurement. Sound velocity was measured using pulse-echo overlapping ultrasonic method. P-wave signals were generated and detected by LiNbO3 transducer attached backside of the anvil. We have successfully observed both P-wave and S-wave signals up to 1.5 GPa and 1673 K. We detected change of signal intensity and shape corresponding to melting of Ni-S sample.

  2. Development and use of a spherical microphone array for measurement of spatial properties of reverberant sound fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gover, Bradford Noel

    The problem of hands-free speech pick-up is introduced, and it is identified how details of the spatial properties of the reverberant field may be useful for enhanced design of microphone arrays. From this motivation, a broadly-applicable measurement system has been developed for the analysis of the directional and spatial variations in reverberant sound fields. Two spherical, 32-element arrays of microphones are used to generate narrow beams over two different frequency ranges, together covering 300--3300 Hz. Using an omnidirectional loudspeaker as excitation in a room, the pressure impulse response in each of 60 steering directions is measured. Through analysis of these responses, the variation of arriving energy with direction is studied. The system was first validated in simple sound fields in an anechoic chamber and in a reverberation chamber. The system characterizes these sound fields as expected, both quantitatively through numerical descriptors and qualitatively from plots of the arriving energy versus direction. The system was then used to measure the sound fields in several actual rooms. Through both qualitative and quantitative output, these sound fields were seen to be highly anisotropic, influenced greatly by the direct sound and early-arriving reflections. Furthermore, the rate of sound decay was not independent of direction, sound being absorbed more rapidly in some directions than in others. These results are discussed in the context of the original motivation, and methods for their application to enhanced speech pick-up using microphone arrays are proposed.

  3. Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9% was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04% was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface.

  4. Development of sound localization mechanisms in the mongolian gerbil is shaped by early acoustic experience.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Armin H; Grothe, Benedikt

    2005-08-01

    Sound localization is one of the most important tasks performed by the auditory system. Differences in the arrival time of sound at the two ears are the main cue to localize low-frequency sound in the azimuth. In the mammalian brain, such interaural time differences (ITDs) are encoded in the auditory brain stem; first by the medial superior olive (MSO) and then transferred to higher centers, such as the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), a brain stem nucleus that gets a direct input from the MSO. Here we demonstrate for the first time that ITD sensitivity in gerbils undergoes a developmental maturation after hearing onset. We further show that this development can be disrupted by altering the animal's acoustic experience during a critical period. In animals that had been exposed to omnidirectional white noise during a restricted time period right after hearing onset, ITD tuning did not develop normally. Instead, it was similar to that of juvenile animals 3 days after hearing onset, with the ITD functions not adjusted to the physiological range. Animals that had been exposed to omnidirectional noise as adults did not show equivalent abnormal ITD tuning. The development presented here is in contrast to that of the development of neuronal representation of ITDs in the midbrain of barn owls and interaural intensity differences in ferrets, where the representations are adjusted by an interaction of auditory and visual inputs. The development of ITD tuning presented here most likely depends on normal acoustic experience and may be related to the maturation of inhibitory inputs to the ITD detector itself.

  5. Development and comparison of weighting metrics for probabilistic climate change projections of Mediterranean precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar-Ott, Irena; Hertig, Elke; Pollinger, Felix; Ring, Christoph; Paeth, Heiko; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    Climate protection and adaptive measures require reliable estimates of future climate change. Coupled global circulation models are still the most appropriate tool. However, the climate projections of individual models differ considerably, particularly at the regional scale and with respect to certain climate variables such as precipitation. Significant uncertainties also arise on the part of climate impact research. The model differences result from unknown initial conditions, different resolutions and driving mechanisms, different model parameterizations and emission scenarios. It is very challenging to determine which model simulates proper future climate conditions. By implementing results from all important model runs in probability density functions, the exceeding probabilities with respect to certain thresholds of climate change can be determined. The aim of this study is to derive such probabilistic estimates of future precipitation changes in the Mediterranean region for the multi-model ensemble from CMIP3 and CMIP5. The Mediterranean region represents a so-called hot spot of climate change. The analyses are carried out for the meteorological seasons in eight Mediterranean sub-regions, based on the results of principal component analyses. The methodologically innovative aspect refers mainly to the comparison of different metrics to derive model weights, such as Bayesian statistics, regression models, spatial-temporal filtering, the fingerprinting method and quality criteria for the simulated large-scale circulation. The latter describes the ability of the models to simulate the North Atlantic Oscillation, the East Atlantic pattern, the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern and the Scandinavia pattern, as they are the most important large-scale atmospheric drivers for Mediterranean precipitation. The comparison of observed atmospheric patterns with the modeled patterns leads to specific model weights. They are checked for their temporal consistency in the 20th

  6. Metrics for Occupations. Information Series No. 118.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, John C.

    The metric system is discussed in this information analysis paper with regard to its history, a rationale for the United States' adoption of the metric system, a brief overview of the basic units of the metric system, examples of how the metric system will be used in different occupations, and recommendations for research and development. The…

  7. Assessment of noise metrics for application to rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullen, Andrew L.

    It is anticipated that the use of rotorcraft passenger vehicles for shorter journeys will increase because their use can reduce the time between boarding and take-off. The characteristics of rotorcraft noise are very different to that of fixed wing aircraft. There can be strong tonal components, fluctuations that can also make the noise sound impulsive, and future rotorcraft may produce proportionally more low frequency noise content. Most metrics that are used today to predict noise impact on communities around airports (e.g., Ldn) are just functions of A-weighted sound pressure level. To build a better noise annoyance model that can be applied to assess impact of future and current rotorcraft, it is important to understand the perceived sound attributes and how they influence annoyance. A series of psychoacoustic tests were designed and performed to further our understanding of how rotorcraft sound characteristics affect annoyance as well as evaluate the applicability of existing noise metrics as predictors of annoyance due to rotorcraft noise. The effect of the method used to reproduce sounds in the psychoacoustics tests was also investigated, and so tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Exterior Effects Room using loudspeaker arrays to simulate flyovers and in a double walled sound booth using earphones for playback. A semantic differential test was performed, and analysis of subject responses showed the presence of several independent perceptual factors relating to: loudness, sharpness, roughness, tonality, and impulsiveness. A simulation method was developed to alter tonal components in existing rotorcraft flyover recordings to change the impulsiveness and tonality of the sounds. Flyover recordings and simulations with varied attributes were used as stimuli in an annoyance test. Results showed that EPNL and SELA performed well as predictors of annoyance, but outliers to generate trends have tonal related characteristics that could be contributing to

  8. Development of small solid rocket boosters for the ILR-33 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, Pawel; Okninski, Adam; Pakosz, Michal; Cieslinski, Dawid; Bartkowiak, Bartosz; Wolanski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development of a 6000 Newton-class solid rocket motor for suborbital applications. The design configuration and results of interior ballistics calculations are given. The initial use of the motor as the main propulsion system of the H1 experimental in-flight test platform, within the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program, is presented. Comparisons of theoretical and experimental performance are shown. Both on-ground and in-flight tests are discussed. A novel composite-case manufacturing technology, which enabled to reach high propellant mass fractions, was validated and significant cost-reductions were achieved. This paper focuses on the process of adapting the design for use as the booster stage of the ILR-33 sounding rocket, under development at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw, Poland. Parallel use of two of the flight-proven rocket motors along with the main stage is planned. The process of adapting the rocket motor for booster application consists of stage integration, aerothermodynamics and reliability analyses. The separation mechanism and environmental impact are also discussed within this paper. Detailed performance analysis with focus on propellant grain geometry is provided. The evolution of the design since the first flights of the H1 rocket is covered and modifications of the manufacturing process are described. Issues of simultaneous ignition of two motors and their non-identical performance are discussed. Further applications and potential for future development are outlined. The presented results are based on the initial work done by the Rocketry Group of the Warsaw University of Technology Students' Space Association. The continuation of the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program on a larger scale at the Institute of Aviation proves the value of the outcomes of the initial educational project.

  9. Sound and Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischman, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Claims that in metrical prose, rhythm can convey sense or express and underline what a writer is saying, and sound can be exploited to add a strong aural element that provides pleasure to the ears over and above the pleasure given by the sense of story. (SRT)

  10. Postnatal development of sound pressure transformations by the head and pinnae of the cat: Monaural characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Tollin, Daniel J.; Koka, Kanthaiah

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been many anatomical, physiological, and psychophysical studies of auditory development in cat, there have been no comparable studies of the development of the sound pressured transformations by the cat head and pinnae. Because the physical dimensions of the head and pinnae determine the spectral and temporal transformations of sound, as head and pinnae size increase during development, the magnitude and frequency ranges of these transformations are hypothesized to systematically change. This hypothesis was tested by measuring directional transfer functions (DTFs), the directional components of head-related transfer functions, and the linear dimensions of the head and pinnae in cats from the onset of hearing (∼1.5 weeks) through adulthood. Head and pinnae dimensions increased by factors of ∼2 and ∼2.5, respectively, reaching adult values by ∼23 and ∼16 weeks, respectively. The development of the spectral notch cues to source location, the spatial- and frequency-dependent distributions of DTF amplitude gain (acoustic directionality), maximum gain, and the acoustic axis, and the resonance frequency and associated gain of the ear canal and concha were systematically related to the dimensions of the head and pinnae. These monaural acoustical properties of the head and pinnae in the cat are mature by 16 weeks. PMID:19206874

  11. Postnatal development of sound pressure transformations by the head and pinnae of the cat: monaural characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tollin, Daniel J; Koka, Kanthaiah

    2009-02-01

    Although there have been many anatomical, physiological, and psychophysical studies of auditory development in cat, there have been no comparable studies of the development of the sound pressured transformations by the cat head and pinnae. Because the physical dimensions of the head and pinnae determine the spectral and temporal transformations of sound, as head and pinnae size increase during development, the magnitude and frequency ranges of these transformations are hypothesized to systematically change. This hypothesis was tested by measuring directional transfer functions (DTFs), the directional components of head-related transfer functions, and the linear dimensions of the head and pinnae in cats from the onset of hearing ( approximately 1.5 weeks) through adulthood. Head and pinnae dimensions increased by factors of approximately 2 and approximately 2.5, respectively, reaching adult values by approximately 23 and approximately 16 weeks, respectively. The development of the spectral notch cues to source location, the spatial- and frequency-dependent distributions of DTF amplitude gain (acoustic directionality), maximum gain, and the acoustic axis, and the resonance frequency and associated gain of the ear canal and concha were systematically related to the dimensions of the head and pinnae. These monaural acoustical properties of the head and pinnae in the cat are mature by 16 weeks.

  12. Sound Guard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lubrication technology originally developed for a series of NASA satellites has produced a commercial product for protecting the sound fidelity of phonograph records. Called Sound Guard, the preservative is a spray-on fluid that deposits a microscopically thin protective coating which reduces friction and prevents the hard diamond stylus from wearing away the softer vinyl material of the disc. It is marketed by the Consumer Products Division of Ball Corporation, Muncie, Indiana. The lubricant technology on which Sound Guard is based originated with NASA's Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO), an Earth-orbiting satellite designed and built by Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado, also a division of Ball Corporation. Ball Brothers engineers found a problem early in the OSO program: known lubricants were unsuitable for use on satellite moving parts that would be exposed to the vacuum of space for several months. So the company conducted research on the properties of materials needed for long life in space and developed new lubricants. They worked successfully on seven OSO flights and attracted considerable attention among other aerospace contractors. Ball Brothers now supplies its "Vac Kote" lubricants and coatings to both aerospace and non-aerospace industries and the company has produced several hundred variations of the original technology. Ball Corporation expanded its product line to include consumer products, of which Sound Guard is one of the most recent. In addition to protecting record grooves, Sound Guard's anti-static quality also retards particle accumulation on the stylus. During comparison study by a leading U.S. electronic laboratory, a record not treated by Sound Guard had to be cleaned after 50 plays and the stylus had collected a considerable number of small vinyl particles. The Sound Guard-treated disc was still clean after 100 plays, as was its stylus.

  13. Engineering performance metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delozier, R.; Snyder, N.

    1993-03-01

    Implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to engineering work required the development of a system of metrics which would serve as a meaningful management tool for evaluating effectiveness in accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. A team effort was chartered with the goal of developing a system of engineering performance metrics which would measure customer satisfaction, quality, cost effectiveness, and timeliness. The approach to developing this system involved normal systems design phases including, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation, and integration. The lessons teamed from this effort will be explored in this paper. These lessons learned may provide a starting point for other large engineering organizations seeking to institute a performance measurement system accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. To facilitate this effort, a team was chartered to assist in the development of the metrics system. This team, consisting of customers and Engineering staff members, was utilized to ensure that the needs and views of the customers were considered in the development of performance measurements. The development of a system of metrics is no different than the development of any type of system. It includes the steps of defining performance measurement requirements, measurement process conceptual design, performance measurement and reporting system detailed design, and system implementation and integration.

  14. Catchment controls on water temperature and the development of simple metrics to inform riparian zone management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew; Wilby, Robert

    2015-04-01

    of thermal refuge could be important in the context of future climate change, potentially maintaining populations of animals excluded from other parts of the river during hot summer months. International management strategies to mitigate rising temperatures tend to focus on the protection, enhancement or creation of riparian shade. Simple metrics derived from catchment landscape models, the heat capacity of water, and modelled solar radiation receipt, suggest that approximately 1 km of deep riparian shading is necessary to offset a 1° C rise in temperature in the monitored catchments. A similar value is likely to be obtained for similar sized rivers at similar latitudes. Trees would take 20 years to attain sufficient height to shade the necessary solar angles. However, 1 km of deep riparian shade will have substantial impacts on the hydrological and geomorphological functioning of the river, beyond simply altering the thermal regime. Consequently, successful management of rising water temperature in rivers will require catchment scale consideration, as part of an integrated management plan.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Technological Innovation in Knee Arthroplasty: Using Patent and Publication Metrics to Identify Developments and Trends.

    PubMed

    Dalton, David M; Burke, Thomas P; Kelly, Enda G; Curtin, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    Surgery is in a constant continuum of innovation with refinement of technique and instrumentation. Arthroplasty surgery potentially represents an area with highly innovative process. This study highlights key area of innovation in knee arthroplasty over the past 35 years using patent and publication metrics. Growth rates and patterns are analyzed. Patents are correlated to publications as a measure of scientific support. Electronic patent and publication databases were searched over the interval 1980-2014 for "knee arthroplasty" OR "knee replacement." The resulting patent codes were allocated into technology clusters. Citation analysis was performed to identify any important developments missed on initial analysis. The technology clusters identified were further analyzed, individual repeat searches performed, and growth curves plotted. The initial search revealed 3574 patents and 16,552 publications. The largest technology clusters identified were Unicompartmental, Patient-Specific Instrumentation (PSI), Navigation, and Robotic knee arthroplasties. The growth in patent activity correlated strongly with publication activity (Pearson correlation value 0.892, P < .01), but was growing at a faster rate suggesting a decline in vigilance. PSI, objectively the fastest growing technology in the last 5 years, is currently in a period of exponential growth that began a decade ago. Established technologies in the study have double s-shaped patent curves. Identifying trends in emerging technologies is possible using patent metrics and is useful information for training and regulatory bodies. The decline in ratio of publications to patents and the uninterrupted growth of PSI are developments that may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  17. Aircraft sound quality for passenger comfort and enhanced product image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, Gregory H.; Bultemeier, Eric J.; West, Erik; Angerer, James R.; Bhat, Waman V.

    2005-09-01

    Passenger cabin noise requirements for commercial airplanes are being expanded beyond the traditional focus on noise annoyance and speech intelligibility. There is increasing recognition that the passenger response to the cabin soundscape is much more complex; affecting perceptions of product quality, and impacting fatigue and comfort. Tailoring the soundscape for a preferred cabin environment requires the development of metrics that capture a range of passenger responses. In a preliminary exploration of potential metrics, a series of experiments were undertaken to investigate passenger preference for several classes of stationary and transient sounds within the passenger cabin. The design, implementation, and data analysis for these experiments is discussed, along with the application of results to enhance cabin comfort and to convey product quality. Key findings confirm what has been found in sound quality studies in other industries: sound level alone does not fully account for passenger preference.

  18. SoundSpace Online: The Development of an Online Resource About Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Ng, Zheng Yen; Archbold, Sue; Mayer, Connie; Mulla, Imran

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been a growing source of health information on hearing loss, but the information provided often varies in quality, readability, and usability. Additionally, the information is provided across a wide range of domains, making access challenging to those who need it. This research forum article describes the development of a new website, SoundSpace Online (Ng, Archbold, Mayer, & Mulla, 2014), which aims to tackle these issues and bring together information and resource s f or all those concerned with hearing loss. The SoundSpace Online website’s current developmental state was reached through the following methods: (a) discussions with a group of individuals that included experts in e-learning, education, research, and hearing loss; (b) interviews with different target groups (e.g., users, families, and professionals); and (c) collaboration with contributors. The website is structured to become a g o-to resource on various topics related to hearing loss, providing accurate, comprehensive, and functional information and resources at varying levels of complexity for the intended users. The literature and the range of interest have illustrated the need for an up-to-date website providing information and resources on hearing loss. Challenges include monitoring and keeping the website up to date; in this article, a plan of action is discussed. The website is currently in development, with plans for a launch in the near future.

  19. The Development of Infants’ use of Property-poor Sounds to Individuate Objects

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Teresa; Smith, Tracy R.

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that infants as young as 4.5 months use property-rich but not property-poor sounds as the basis for individuating objects (Wilcox et al., 2006). The current research sought to identify the age at which infants demonstrate the capacity to use property-poor sounds. Using the task of Wilcox et al., infants aged 7 and 9 months were tested. The results revealed that 9- but not 7-month-olds demonstrated sensitivity to property-poor sounds (electronic tones) in an object individuation task. Additional results confirmed that the younger infants were sensitive to property-rich sounds (rattle sounds). These are the first positive results obtained with property-poor sounds in infants and lay the foundation for future research to identify the underlying basis for the developmental hierarchy favoring property-rich over property-poor sounds and possible mechanisms for change. PMID:20701977

  20. The development of infants' use of property-poor sounds to individuate objects.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Teresa; Smith, Tracy R

    2010-12-01

    There is evidence that infants as young as 4.5 months use property-rich but not property-poor sounds as the basis for individuating objects (Wilcox, Woods, Tuggy, & Napoli, 2006). The current research sought to identify the age at which infants demonstrate the capacity to use property-poor sounds. Using the task of Wilcox et al., infants aged 7 and 9 months were tested. The results revealed that 9- but not 7-month-olds demonstrated sensitivity to property-poor sounds (electronic tones) in an object individuation task. Additional results confirmed that the younger infants were sensitive to property-rich sounds (rattle sounds). These are the first positive results obtained with property-poor sounds in infants and lay the foundation for future research to identify the underlying basis for the developmental hierarchy favoring property-rich over property-poor sounds and possible mechanisms for change.

  1. Active sound reduction: A study of recent developments and some future possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, E.

    1983-11-01

    It is suggested that active sound reduction is easiest to implement and most effective at low frequencies and in a duct rather than in a room or a free field. The prospects for success are considerably improved if the sound to be attenuated is periodic. Symmetry of the sound field can sometimes be exploited. The physical mechanisms of sound attenuation include reflection of sound by secondary sources, creation of higher order sources in order to reduce the energy radiated and conversion of acoustic energy. Active techniques can also be applied to prevent transmission of sound or vibrations from one sub-field to another. Microelectronics and digital filtering techniques are expected to greatly influence active sound attenuators.

  2. Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric (GRRM) Developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.

    2015-09-02

    This paper reviews a methodology being developed for reporting geothermal resources and project progress. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of evaluating the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow the GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress and the public. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to develop the relevant geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by the GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for evaluating and reporting on GTO funding according to resource grade (geological, technical and socio-economic) and project progress. This methodology would allow GTO to target funding, measure impact by monitoring the progression of projects, or assess geological potential of targeted areas for development.

  3. The development of spontaneous sound-shape matching in monolingual and bilingual infants during the first year.

    PubMed

    Pejovic, Jovana; Molnar, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Recently it has been proposed that sensitivity to nonarbitrary relationships between speech sounds and objects potentially bootstraps lexical acquisition. However, it is currently unclear whether preverbal infants (e.g., before 6 months of age) with different linguistic profiles are sensitive to such nonarbitrary relationships. Here, the authors assessed 4- and 12-month-old Basque monolingual and Spanish-Basque bilingual infants' sensitivity to cross-modal correspondences between sound symbolic nonwords without syllable repetition (buba, kike) and drawings of rounded and angular shapes. The findings demonstrate that sensitivity to sound-shape correspondences emerge by 12 months of age in both monolinguals and bilinguals. This finding suggests that spontaneous sound-shape matching is likely to be the product of language learning and development and may not be readily available prior to the onset of word learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Gross motor development and reach on sound as critical tools for the development of the blind child.

    PubMed

    Elisa, Fazzi; Josée, Lanners; Oreste, Ferrari-Ginevra; Claudia, Achille; Antonella, Luparia; Sabrina, Signorini; Giovanni, Lanzi

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess early neuromotor development in 20 congenitally blind or severely visually impaired children, nine without (B) and 11 with associated handicaps (B + H), in order to develop a strategy for early intervention in these subjects. The mean age at first observation was 11.4 months (range: 4-30 months). The mean follow-up duration was 16.9 months (range: 3-36 months). Assessment included developmental history, neurological examination, video-recording of spontaneous activity and administration of the Reynell-Zinkin Scales and neuroradiological and neurophysiological investigations. All B children walked independently (mean age 19.8 months) and 55.5% crawled (mean age 15 months); the B + H subjects displayed absence of almost all neuromotor functions, except one who walked at 20 months. All the B and just one (9%) of the B + H children developed satisfactory fine motor abilities. 'Reach on sound' at distance was achieved by all the B children by the age of 14.2 months while in the B + H group it was achieved by only two subjects at a median age of 19.5 months. We conclude that it is possible to describe the profile of neuromotor development in B and B + H children; strategies to help postural-motor development and 'reach on sound' appear to be fundamental in early intervention in these subjects.

  5. Distribution and development of the highly specialized lipids in the sound reception systems of dolphins.

    PubMed

    Zahorodny Duggan, Zoey P; Koopman, Heather N; Budge, Suzanne M

    2009-08-01

    Fat bodies in the heads of toothed whales, which serve to transmit and receive sound, represent extraordinary examples of physiological specialization in adipose tissues among mammals, yet we know surprisingly little about their biochemical composition. We describe the spatial distributions and development of unusual endogenous lipids (branched-chain ["iso"] molecules and wax esters) in the mandibular fat bodies of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) using an ontogenetic series (fetus to adult; n = 10). Although concentrations of iso-acids, iso-alcohols and waxes were lower in younger dolphins than in adults, the same relative spatial arrangement was present in all age classes, implying a set "pattern" of acoustic lipid distribution that is established very early in life. In all age classes, a small region of blubber overlying the lateral region contained unusually high concentrations of iso-acids, exhibiting a tenfold increase over "normal" adjacent blubber. Being chemically more similar to the acoustic fat bodies, this region may serve as an entry point for sound into the head. Developmental accumulations of some iso-acids and iso-alcohols occurred more rapidly than others, implying that not only are the spatial distributions of branched-chain molecules under extremely fine-scale control, but the regulatory mechanisms controlling acoustic lipid synthesis are also highly complex.

  6. Developing brief fatigue short forms calibrated to a common mathematical metric: is content-balancing important?

    PubMed

    Cook, Karon F; Choi, Seung W; Johnson, Kurt L; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-08-01

    There are clinical and research settings in which concerns about respondent burden make the use of longer self-report measures impractical. Though computer adaptive testing provides an efficient strategy for measuring patient reported outcomes, the requirement of a computer interface makes it impractical for some settings. This study evaluated how well brief short forms, constructed from a longer measure of patient reported fatigue, reproduced scores on the full measure. When the items of an item bank are calibrated using an item response theory model, it is assumed that the items are fungible units. Theoretically, there should be no advantage to balancing the content coverage of the items. We compared short forms developed using a random item selection process to short forms developed with consideration of the items relation to subdomains of fatigue (ie, physical and cognitive fatigue). Scores on short forms developed using content balancing more successfully predicted full item bank scores than did scores on short forms developed by random selection of items.

  7. Developing Composite Metrics of Teaching Practice for Mediator Analysis of Program Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, Val; Newman, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy studies of educational programs often involve mediator analyses aimed at testing empirically appropriate theories of action. In particular, in the studies of professional development programs, the intervention targets primarily teachers' pedagogical skills and content knowledge, while the ultimate outcome is the student achievement…

  8. Developing an Aggregate Metric of Teaching Practice for Use in Mediator Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, Valeriy; Newman, Denis; Grossman, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Efficacy studies of educational programs often involve mediator analyses aimed at testing empirically appropriate theories of action. In particular, in the studies of professional teacher development programs, the intervention targets presumably teacher performance while the ultimate outcome is the student achievement measured by a standardized…

  9. Development and Calibration of an Item Bank for PE Metrics Assessments: Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Fox, Connie; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Graber, Kim C.; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and calibrate an assessment system, or bank, using the latest measurement theories and methods to promote valid and reliable student assessment in physical education. Using an anchor-test equating design, a total of 30 items or assessments were administered to 5,021 (2,568 boys and 2,453 girls) students in…

  10. Development and Calibration of an Item Bank for PE Metrics Assessments: Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Fox, Connie; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Graber, Kim C.; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and calibrate an assessment system, or bank, using the latest measurement theories and methods to promote valid and reliable student assessment in physical education. Using an anchor-test equating design, a total of 30 items or assessments were administered to 5,021 (2,568 boys and 2,453 girls) students in…

  11. Metric Development During the Reorganization of the Supply Chain Management Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    This MBA Project documents a case study of an ongoing reorganization effort at the Supply Chain Management Center (SCMC), Marine Corps Logistics...Command (MARCORLOGCOM), and their use of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) Model and the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to develop performance

  12. Percentile-Based Journal Impact Factors: A Neglected Collection Development Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Various normalization techniques to transform journal impact factors (JIFs) into a standard scale or range of values have been reported a number of times in the literature, but have seldom been part of collection development librarians' tool kits. In this paper, JIFs as reported in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database are converted to…

  13. Percentile-Based Journal Impact Factors: A Neglected Collection Development Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Various normalization techniques to transform journal impact factors (JIFs) into a standard scale or range of values have been reported a number of times in the literature, but have seldom been part of collection development librarians' tool kits. In this paper, JIFs as reported in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database are converted to…

  14. Measuring Impact of U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies Office Funding: Considerations for Development of a Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.; Bennett, Mitchell; Segneri, Brittany

    2015-04-25

    This paper reviews existing methodologies and reporting codes used to describe extracted energy resources such as coal and oil and describes a comparable proposed methodology to describe geothermal resources. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of assessing the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow for GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to inform development of a geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and we sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for assessing and reporting on GTO funding according to resource knowledge and resource grade (or quality). This methodology would allow GTO to target funding or measure impact by progression of projects or geological potential for development.

  15. Beyond Human Capital Development: Balanced Safeguards Workforce Metrics and the Next Generation Safeguards Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, Roberta L.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Shergur, Jason M.; Scholz, Melissa A.; Undem, Halvor A.

    2014-03-28

    Since its establishment in 2008, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has achieved a number of objectives under its five pillars: concepts and approaches, policy development and outreach, international nuclear safeguards engagement, technology development, and human capital development (HCD). As a result of these efforts, safeguards has become much more visible as a critical U.S. national security interest across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, limited budgets have since created challenges in a number of areas. Arguably, one of the more serious challenges involves NGSI’s ability to integrate entry-level staff into safeguards projects. Laissez fair management of this issue across the complex can lead to wasteful project implementation and endanger NGSI’s long-term sustainability. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of this problem, focusing on the demographics of the current safeguards workforce and compounding pressures to operate cost-effectively, transfer knowledge to the next generation of safeguards professionals, and sustain NGSI safeguards investments.

  16. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  17. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  18. Metrication: A Guide for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer and Corporate Affairs Dept., Ottawa (Ontario).

    The widespread use of the metric system by most of the major industrial powers of the world has prompted the Canadian government to investigate and consider use of the system. This booklet was developed to aid the consuming public in Canada in gaining some knowledge of metrication and how its application would affect their present economy.…

  19. Numerical Calabi-Yau metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Michael R.; Karp, Robert L.; Lukic, Sergio; Reinbacher, René

    2008-03-01

    We develop numerical methods for approximating Ricci flat metrics on Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in projective spaces. Our approach is based on finding balanced metrics and builds on recent theoretical work by Donaldson. We illustrate our methods in detail for a one parameter family of quintics. We also suggest several ways to extend our results.

  20. Metrication: A Guide for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer and Corporate Affairs Dept., Ottawa (Ontario).

    The widespread use of the metric system by most of the major industrial powers of the world has prompted the Canadian government to investigate and consider use of the system. This booklet was developed to aid the consuming public in Canada in gaining some knowledge of metrication and how its application would affect their present economy.…

  1. Age Estimation of Infants Through Metric Analysis of Developing Anterior Deciduous Teeth.

    PubMed

    Viciano, Joan; De Luca, Stefano; Irurita, Javier; Alemán, Inmaculada

    2017-04-06

    This study provides regression equations for estimation of age of infants from the dimensions of their developing deciduous teeth. The sample comprises 97 individuals of known sex and age (62 boys, 35 girls), aged between 2 days and 1,081 days. The age-estimation equations were obtained for the sexes combined, as well as for each sex separately, thus including "sex" as an independent variable. The values of the correlations and determination coefficients obtained for each regression equation indicate good fits for most of the equations obtained. The "sex" factor was statistically significant when included as an independent variable in seven of the regression equations. However, the "sex" factor provided an advantage for age estimation in only three of the equations, compared to those that did not include "sex" as a factor. These data suggest that the ages of infants can be accurately estimated from measurements of their developing deciduous teeth. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Quality metrics for product defectiveness at KCD

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, J.V.

    1993-07-01

    Metrics are discussed for measuring and tracking product defectiveness at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Three new metrics, the metric (percent defective) that preceded the new metrics, and several alternatives are described. The new metrics, Percent Parts Accepted, Percent Parts Accepted Trouble Free, and Defects Per Million Observations, (denoted by PPA, PATF, and DPMO, respectively) were implemented for KCD-manufactured product and purchased material in November 1992. These metrics replace the percent defective metric that had been used for several years. The PPA and PATF metrics primarily measure quality performance while DPMO measures the effects of continuous improvement activities. The new metrics measure product quality in terms of product defectiveness observed only during the inspection process. The metrics were originally developed for purchased product and were adapted to manufactured product to provide a consistent set of metrics plant- wide. The new metrics provide a meaningful tool to measure the quantity of product defectiveness in terms of the customer`s requirements and expectations for quality. Many valid metrics are available and all will have deficiencies. These three metrics are among the least sensitive to problems and are easily understood. They will serve as good management tools for KCD in the foreseeable future until new flexible data systems and reporting procedures can be implemented that can provide more detailed and accurate metric computations.

  3. Sound Power Determination Using Sound Intensity Measurements: Applications and Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaobo

    1995-01-01

    The determination of sound power using sound intensity measurements is one of the most important developments in acoustics since the advent of digital signal processing techniques and FFT (fast Fourier transform) techniques in 1970's. Sound power determination using sound intensity measurements is the only way to precisely determine the sound power of noise sources in operating conditions when other noise sources are operating simultaneously. Sound power determination from sound intensity measurements largely obviates the need for special purpose test facilities, such as an anechoic room or a reverberation room. The determination of sound power from sound intensity measurements has many distinct advantages over the traditional determination of the sound power from sound pressure, and it will soon become the dominant method in the determination of the sound power of noise sources in-situ. Sound intensity measurements have been successfully applied to the determination of the sound power levels of noise sources in laboratory conditions, and of small machinery noise sources. The full scale application of this new technique to industrial machinery noise sources is certainly of importance for practical purposes. This dissertation mainly describes progress made in research on the application of sound intensity measurements for the determination of the sound power of noise sources. Results concerning the sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the following areas are discussed: sound power determination from sound intensity measurements at low frequency, error analysis of sound intensity estimates at low frequency, and sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the presence of air flow, sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the presence of strong background noise and some practical considerations on the application of the sound intensity technique to in-situ sound power determination.

  4. Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI): scale development and metric properties.

    PubMed

    von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Wilson, Lindsay; Gibbons, Henning; Hawthorne, Graeme; Höfer, Stefan; Schmidt, Silke; Bullinger, Monika; Maas, Andrew; Neugebauer, Edmund; Powell, Jane; von Wild, Klaus; Zitnay, George; Bakx, Wilbert; Christensen, Anne-Lise; Koskinen, Sanna; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Formisano, Rita; Sasse, Nadine; Truelle, Jean-Luc

    2010-07-01

    The consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are poorly investigated, and a TBI-specific instrument has not previously been available. The cross-cultural development of a new measure to assess HRQoL after TBI is described here. An international TBI Task Force derived a conceptual model from previous work, constructed an initial item bank of 148 items, and then reduced the item set through two successive multicenter validation studies. The first study, with eight language versions of the QOLIBRI, recruited 1528 participants with TBI, and the second with six language versions, recruited 921 participants. The data from 795 participants from the second study who had complete Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) data were used to finalize the instrument. The final version of the QOLIBRI consists of 37 items in six scales (see Appendix ). Satisfaction is assessed in the areas of "Cognition," "Self," "Daily Life and Autonomy," and "Social Relationships," and feeling bothered by "Emotions," and "Physical Problems." The QOLIBRI scales meet standard psychometric criteria (internal consistency, alpha = 0.75-0.89, test-retest reliability, r(tt) = 0.78-0.85). Test-retest reliability (r(tt) = 0.68-0.87) as well as internal consistency (alpha = 0.81-0.91) were also good in a subgroup of participants with lower cognitive performance. Although there is one strong HRQoL factor, a six-scale structure explaining additional variance was validated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and with Rasch modeling. The QOLIBRI is a new cross-culturally developed instrument for assessing HRQoL after TBI that fulfills standard psychometric criteria. It is potentially useful for clinicians and researchers conducting clinical trials, for assessing the impact of rehabilitation or other interventions, and for carrying out epidemiological surveys.

  5. Using TRACI for Sustainability Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, has been developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, and product and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sustainable products, processes,...

  6. Using TRACI for Sustainability Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, has been developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, and product and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sustainable products, processes,...

  7. C-17A Sustainment Performance Metrics Assessment: Repair Source Impact on Sustainment for Future Business Case Analysis Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Maintenance Depots. June 10, 2010. Report No. D-2010-067. Kaplan , Robert S., Norton , David P., Putting the Balances Scorecard to Work. Harvard...metrics. Most applicably, a recognized “best practice”, as advocated by Kaplan (1993), used a balanced scorecard to assess cross-functional areas...strategic model to measure the balanced scorecard as cited in Graham (1996). Both Kaplan and Brown viewed performance metrics as the key success

  8. Sustainability Assessment of a Military Installation: A Template for Developing a Mission Sustainability Framework, Goals, Metrics and Reporting System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    integration across base MSF Category: Neighbors and Stakeholders (NS) No. Conceptual Metric No. Conceptual Metric NS1 “ Walkable ” on-base community...quality of key off-base community relationships o Interface with local government ( City /County) Sustainability Assessment of a Military Installation...34 Walkable " on- base community design 1 " Walkable " community Design – on-base: clustering of facilities, presence of sidewalks, need for car

  9. Estuarine and coastal water dynamics controlling sediment movement and plume development in Long Island Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggles, F. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. As the Connecticut River flows into Long Island Sound, large plumes develop during the mixing of ocean and estuarine waters. Plumes were delineated for July 28, October 8, October 27, and December 2, 1972, by analyzing ERTS-1 imagery with the SRI Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC). Because the chemical and physical composition of the plume and ocean water were not too different, the ESIAC was utilized to expand the scenes and subject the transparencies to varying combinations of viewing techniques to identify and delineate the plumes. Best results were obtained when band 5 transparencies were used. Indications are, when the scene being analyzed is predominantly in the first two steps of the gray scale, it is best to use the negative transparencies. When the analysis is being done above the first two steps of the gray scale, it is best to use the positive transparencies.

  10. ATLAS-M and Batt-M: development of flight hardware for MAPHEUS sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blochberger, G.; Drescher, J.; Neumann, C.; Penkert, P.; Griesche, A.; Kargl, F.; Meyer, A.

    2011-12-01

    Two modules ATLAS-M and Batt-M were especially developed for application in the MAPHEUS (MAterialPHysikalische Experimente Unter Schwerelosigkeit) sounding rocket campaign. They were manufactured and built at the Institute of Material Physics in Space at the German Aeropsace Center (DLR). ATLAS-M is a furnace for short time diffusion measurements achieving heating rates of 7K/s and cooling rates of 6K/s. Atlas-M is well suited for investigation of interdiffusion coefficients on a time scale of <200s. Batt-M is a rechargeable battery module, supplying a peak power of 12.6kW with a nominal capacity of 4.6 Ah for operation.

  11. Make It Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Thomas

    Measurement is perhaps the most frequently used form of mathematics. This book presents activities for learning about the metric system designed for upper intermediate and junior high levels. Discussions include: why metrics, history of metrics, changing to a metric world, teaching tips, and formulas. Activities presented are: metrics all around…

  12. Bioprospecting of Evaporative Lakes for Development of a Novel Paleo-aridity Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, D. B.; Snoeyenbos-West, O.; Pratt, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    %). Notably, even in deeper and wetter parts of the mat, these groups are abundant members of the microbial community (62%) suggesting their role as keystone taxa in this harsh habitat. Using our culture-independent phylogenetic data as a guide, we are now developing culturing methods to target and isolate these desiccation-tolerant microbes and their associated metabolites for extraction and further biogeochemical study. These data will have applicability as potential paleo-aridity indicators in the rock record.

  13. Considerations in the Development of a Sound Tolerance Interview and Questionnaire Instrument.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, LaGuinn P; Formby, Craig

    2017-02-01

    Most clinicians approach the objective fitting of hearing aids with three goals in mind: audibility, comfort, and tolerance. When these three amplification goals have been met, the hearing aid user is more likely to adapt to and perceive benefit from hearing aid use. However, problems related to the loudness of sounds and reduced sound tolerance, which may or may not be reported by the aided user, can adversely impact adaptation to amplification and the individual's quality of life. Although there are several standardized questionnaires available to evaluate hearing aid benefit and satisfaction, there is no standardized questionnaire or interview tool for evaluating reduced sound tolerance and the related impact on hearing aid use. We describe a 36-item tool, the Sound Tolerance Questionnaire (STQ), consisting of six sections, including experience with hearing aids, sound sensitivity/intolerance, medical and noise exposure histories, coexisting tinnitus problems, and a final question to differentiate the primary and secondary problems related to sound intolerance, tinnitus, and hearing loss. In its current format as a research tool, the STQ was sensitive in pinpointing vague sound tolerance complaints not reported by the study participants in eligibility screening by Formby et al. A refined version of the STQ, the Sound Tolerance Interview and Questionnaire Instrument (STIQI), structured as a two-part tool, is presented in the appendix for prospective clinical use. The STIQI has potential utility to delineate factors contributing to loudness complaints and/or reduced sound tolerance in individuals considering hearing aid use, as well as those who have been unsuccessful hearing aid users secondary to loudness complaints or sound intolerance. The STIQI, when validated and refined, also may hold promise for predicting hearing aid benefit and/or assessing treatment-related change over time of hearing aid use or interventions designed to remediate problems of loudness

  14. Puget Sound Tidal Energy In-Water Testing and Development Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collar, Craig W

    2012-11-16

    Tidal energy represents potential for the generation of renewable, emission free, environmentally benign, and cost effective energy from tidal flows. A successful tidal energy demonstration project in Puget Sound, Washington may enable significant commercial development resulting in important benefits for the northwest region and the nation. This project promoted the United States Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program's goals of advancing the commercial viability, cost-competitiveness, and market acceptance of marine hydrokinetic systems. The objective of the Puget Sound Tidal Energy Demonstration Project is to conduct in-water testing and evaluation of tidal energy technology as a first step toward potential construction of a commercial-scale tidal energy power plant. The specific goal of the project phase covered by this award was to conduct all activities necessary to complete engineering design and obtain construction approvals for a pilot demonstration plant in the Admiralty Inlet region of the Puget Sound. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County (The District) accomplished the objectives of this award through four tasks: Detailed Admiralty Inlet Site Studies, Plant Design and Construction Planning, Environmental and Regulatory Activities, and Management and Reporting. Pre-Installation studies completed under this award provided invaluable data used for site selection, environmental evaluation and permitting, plant design, and construction planning. However, these data gathering efforts are not only important to the Admiralty Inlet pilot project. Lessons learned, in particular environmental data gathering methods, can be applied to future tidal energy projects in the United States and other parts of the world. The District collaborated extensively with project stakeholders to complete the tasks for this award. This included Federal, State, and local government agencies, tribal governments, environmental groups, and others

  15. Intelligent Systems Approaches to Product Sound Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietila, Glenn M.

    As a product market becomes more competitive, consumers become more discriminating in the way in which they differentiate between engineered products. The consumer often makes a purchasing decision based on the sound emitted from the product during operation by using the sound to judge quality or annoyance. Therefore, in recent years, many sound quality analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the consumer preference as it relates to a product sound and to quantify this preference based on objective measurements. This understanding can be used to direct a product design process in order to help differentiate the product from competitive products or to establish an impression on consumers regarding a product's quality or robustness. The sound quality process is typically a statistical tool that is used to model subjective preference, or merit score, based on objective measurements, or metrics. In this way, new product developments can be evaluated in an objective manner without the laborious process of gathering a sample population of consumers for subjective studies each time. The most common model used today is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), although recently non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches are gaining popularity. This dissertation will review publicly available published literature and present additional intelligent systems approaches that can be used to improve on the current sound quality process. The focus of this work is to address shortcomings in the current paired comparison approach to sound quality analysis. This research will propose a framework for an adaptive jury analysis approach as an alternative to the current Bradley-Terry model. The adaptive jury framework uses statistical hypothesis testing to focus on sound pairings that are most interesting and is expected to address some of the restrictions required by the Bradley-Terry model. It will also provide a more amicable framework for an intelligent systems approach

  16. The Long Road to Automation: Neurocognitive Development of Letter-Speech Sound Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froyen, Dries J. W.; Bonte, Milene L.; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Blomert, Leo

    2009-01-01

    In transparent alphabetic languages, the expected standard for complete acquisition of letter-speech sound associations is within one year of reading instruction. The neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of letter-speech sound associations have, however, hardly been investigated. The present article describes an ERP study with beginner and…

  17. Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: development of a research protocol.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper.

  18. The Long Road to Automation: Neurocognitive Development of Letter-Speech Sound Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froyen, Dries J. W.; Bonte, Milene L.; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Blomert, Leo

    2009-01-01

    In transparent alphabetic languages, the expected standard for complete acquisition of letter-speech sound associations is within one year of reading instruction. The neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of letter-speech sound associations have, however, hardly been investigated. The present article describes an ERP study with beginner and…

  19. Noise exposure during early development impairs the processing of sound intensity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Bures, Zbynek; Grécová, Jolana; Popelár, Jirí; Syka, Josef

    2010-07-01

    During the early postnatal development of rats, the structural and functional maturation of the central auditory nuclei strongly relies on the natural character of the incoming neural activity. Even a temporary deprivation in the critical period results in a deterioration of neuronal responsiveness in adult animals. We demonstrate that besides the poorer frequency selectivity of neurons in the impaired animals reported previously [Grecova et al. (2009)Eur. J. Neurosci. 29, 1921-1930], the neuronal representation of sound intensity is significantly affected. Rate-intensity functions of inferior colliculus neurons were recorded in anaesthetized adult rats that were exposed to intense noise at postnatal day 14, and compared with those obtained in age-matched controls. Although the response thresholds were similar in the exposed and control rats, the neurons in the exposed animals had a longer first-spike latency, a narrower dynamic range, lower maximum response magnitudes and a steeper slope of the rate-intensity functions. The percentage of monotonic neurons was significantly lower in the exposed animals. The observed anomalies were confined to the mid- and high-frequency regions, whereas no significant changes were found in the low-frequency neurons. The altered parameters of the individual rate-intensity functions led also to differences in the cumulative responses. We conclude that a brief noise exposure during the critical period leads to a frequency-dependent alteration of the sound intensity representation in the inferior colliculus of adult rats. The results suggest that such impairments may appear in individuals with normal hearing thresholds, but with a history of noise exposure very early in childhood.

  20. Development of a Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) for continuous temperature profiling upto lower stratospheric altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar Sarma, T. V.; Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2012-07-01

    The Gadanki (13.46°N, 79.17°E) MST radar is a high power VHF pulsed coherent Doppler radar established for remote probing of atmospheric phenomena in the Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere regions. Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) was developed using this radar to obtain height profiles of atmospheric temperature up to lower stratospheric altitudes. RASS uses the effect of temperature on the speed of sound in air as a means to sense the atmospheric temperature. It is the combination of a Doppler radar and acoustic exciters. The radar was augmented with acoustic exciters that were designed and constructed for this purpose. The Doppler radar profiles the speed of refractive index perturbations induced by the acoustic source. RASS has been demonstrated to be a reliable ground-based remote profiling technique to obtain altitude profiles of atmospheric virtual temperature, Tv over the past two decades. This work describes the design of the system and its application to the observation of height profiles of atmospheric virtual temperature up to and beyond tropical tropopause altitudes. Observations were made during 2007, 2008 and 2009 over periods extending up to 72 hours. These observations demonstrate temperature profiling capability up to about 18 km in altitude, though on an occasion height coverage upto 22.8km was obtained briefly; lowest height covered is from about 1.5km onwards. During the period of the RASS observations simultaneous data from radiosonde was used to validate the temperature measurements. Simultaneous satellite-based measurement of outgoing long wave radiation (OLR) and precipitation from ground-based instruments was used to study the atmospheric phenomena of gravity waves and atmospheric stability during a convection event.

  1. [Spectral characteristics of vowel-like sounds in children of the first year of life and speech development].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, N G; Samokishchuk, A P; Kulikov, G A

    2003-11-01

    To study the continuity in speech development, an investigation of vowel-like sounds recorded in the course of longitudinal research of speech formation was carried out in 12 infants beginning with the first month up to 12 months of their life. It was revealed that features ensuring separation of vowel-like sounds are specific by their amplitude relation and frequency location of the most expressed spectral maxima, including the maxima corresponding to the fundamental frequency. As fundamental frequency increased, the vowel-like sounds [a], [u], [i] began to exhibit specific changes of the amplitude ratios of the spectral maxima. It was established that peculiarities of frequency positions of spectral maxima and relations of their amplitudes may be the very features on the bases of which children compare their own vowel-like sounds to the vowels of the adults in sound imitation. These findings and literature data corroborated the opinion of continuity in speech development, beginning with the early preverbal vocalizations.

  2. Development of a genomic metric that can be rapidly used to predict clinical outcome in severely injured trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Alex G; Gentile, Lori F; Lopez, M Cecilia; Ungaro, Ricardo; Liu, Huazhi; Xiao, Wenzhong; Seok, Junhee; Mindrinos, Michael N; Ang, Darwin; Baslanti, Tezcan Ozrazgat; Bihorac, Azra; Efron, Philip A; Cuschieri, Joseph; Warren, H Shaw; Tompkins, Ronald G; Maier, Ronald V; Baker, Henry V; Moldawer, Lyle L

    2013-05-01

    Many patients have complicated recoveries following severe trauma due to the development of organ injury. Physiological and anatomical prognosticators have had limited success in predicting clinical trajectories. We report on the development and retrospective validation of a simple genomic composite score that can be rapidly used to predict clinical outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Multi-institutional level 1 trauma centers. Data were collected from 167 severely traumatized (injury severity score >15) adult (18-55 yr) patients. Microarray-derived genomic data obtained from 167 severely traumatized patients over 28 days were assessed for differences in messenger RNA abundance among individuals with different clinical trajectories. Once a set of genes was identified based on differences in expression over the entire study period, messenger RNA abundance from these subjects obtained in the first 24 hours was analyzed in a blinded fashion using a rapid multiplex platform, and genomic data reduced to a single metric. From the existing genomic dataset, we identified 63 genes whose leukocyte expression differed between an uncomplicated and complicated clinical outcome over 28 days. Using a multiplex approach that can quantitate messenger RNA abundance in less than 12 hours, we reassessed total messenger RNA abundance from the first 24 hours after trauma and reduced the genomic data to a single composite score using the difference from reference. This composite score showed good discriminatory capacity to distinguish patients with a complicated outcome (area under a receiver-operator curve, 0.811; p <0.001). This was significantly better than the predictive power of either Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II or new injury severity score scoring systems. A rapid genomic composite score obtained in the first 24 hours after trauma can retrospectively identify trauma patients who are likely to develop complicated clinical trajectories. A novel platform is

  3. Hydrologic trends associated with urban development for selected streams in the Puget Sound basin, western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    Annual streamflow statistics from 10 selected streams in the Puget Sound Basin in western Washington were analyzed to identify possible hydrologic trends associated with urban development and to evaluate the effect of record length on errors in trend analysis. The analysis used three common streamflow statistics (annual mean discharge, annual maximum discharge, and 7-day low flow) and introduced an alternative statistic (fraction of year annual mean discharge was exceeded) for assessing the hydrologic effects of urban development. Although trends were identified in each of the four statistics analyzed, trends were not consistent in any of the four statistics for all selected streams. Instead, trends in two statistics ? (1) fraction of year annual mean discharge was exceeded, and (2) annual (instantaneous) maximum discharge ? were evident in streams with the highest levels of urban development over the period of record but not in streams with the lowest levels of urban development. Trends were not consistent for either annual mean discharge or 7-day low flow in urban streams. Trends were sensitive to the period of analysis for all four statistics, but particularly for the 7-day low flow, which showed increasing and decreasing trends for 10 subsets of the period of record in some streams.

  4. Metrication report to the Congress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The major NASA metrication activity of 1988 concerned the Space Station. Although the metric system was the baseline measurement system for preliminary design studies, solicitations for final design and development of the Space Station Freedom requested use of the inch-pound system because of concerns with cost impact and potential safety hazards. Under that policy, however use of the metric system would be permitted through waivers where its use was appropriate. Late in 1987, several Department of Defense decisions were made to increase commitment to the metric system, thereby broadening the potential base of metric involvement in the U.S. industry. A re-evaluation of Space Station Freedom units of measure policy was, therefore, initiated in January 1988.

  5. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  6. Software development for the analysis of heartbeat sounds with LabVIEW in diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Topal, Taner; Polat, Hüseyin; Güler, Inan

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, a time-frequency spectral analysis software (Heart Sound Analyzer) for the computer-aided analysis of cardiac sounds has been developed with LabVIEW. Software modules reveal important information for cardiovascular disorders, it can also assist to general physicians to come up with more accurate and reliable diagnosis at early stages. Heart sound analyzer (HSA) software can overcome the deficiency of expert doctors and help them in rural as well as urban clinics and hospitals. HSA has two main blocks: data acquisition and preprocessing, time-frequency spectral analyses. The heart sounds are first acquired using a modified stethoscope which has an electret microphone in it. Then, the signals are analysed using the time-frequency/scale spectral analysis techniques such as STFT, Wigner-Ville distribution and wavelet transforms. HSA modules have been tested with real heart sounds from 35 volunteers and proved to be quite efficient and robust while dealing with a large variety of pathological conditions.

  7. Development of common metrics for donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention for the blood donation context.

    PubMed

    France, Janis L; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; France, Christopher R; McGlone, Sarah T; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Shaz, Beth H

    2014-03-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior has been widely used in blood donation research, but the lack of uniform, psychometrically sound measures makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions or compare results across studies. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to develop such measures of donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were conducted on survey responses collected from college students (n = 1080). The resulting scales were then administered to an independent sample of experienced donors (n = 433) for additional CFAs and to test whether the Theory of Planned Behavior model provided a good fit to the data. CFAs conducted on both samples support the use of six-item scales, with two factors each, to measure donation attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control and a single-factor three-item scale to measure donation intention. Further, structural equation modeling of these measures revealed that the Theory of Planned Behavior provided a strong fit to the data (comparative fit index, 0.976; root mean square error of approximation, 0.041; standardized root mean square residual, 0.055) and accounted for 73.7% of the variance in donation intention. The present findings confirm the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior to the blood donation context and more importantly provide psychometric support for the future use of four brief measures of donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. The Academic RVU: Ten Years Developing a Metric for and Financially Incenting Academic Productivity at Oregon Health & Science University.

    PubMed

    Ma, O John; Hedges, Jerris R; Newgard, Craig D

    2017-08-01

    Established metrics reward academic faculty for clinical productivity. Few data have analyzed a bonus model to measure and reward academic productivity. This study's objective was to describe development and use of a departmental academic bonus system for incenting faculty scholarly and educational productivity. This cross-sectional study analyzed a departmental bonus system among emergency medicine academic faculty at Oregon Health & Science University, including growth from 2005 to 2015. All faculty members with a primary appointment were eligible for participation. Each activity was awarded points based on a predetermined education or scholarly point scale. Faculty members accumulated points based on their activity (numerator), and the cumulative points of all faculty were the denominator. Variables were individual faculty member (deidentified), academic year, bonus system points, bonus amounts awarded, and measures of academic productivity. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including measures of variance. The total annual financial bonus pool ranged from $211,622 to $274,706. The median annual per faculty academic bonus remained fairly constant over time ($3,980 in 2005-2006 vs. $4,293 in 2014-2015), with most change at the upper quartile of academic bonus (max bonus $16,920 in 2005-2006 vs. $39,207 in 2014-2015). Bonuses rose linearly among faculty in the bottom three quartiles of academic productivity, but increased exponentially in the 75th to 100th percentile. Faculty academic productivity can be measured and financially rewarded according to an objective academic bonus system. The "academic point" used to measure productivity functions as an "academic relative value unit."

  9. Challenges and recent developments in sound processing for Baha®.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Mark C

    2011-01-01

    Osseointegrated auditory implants such as Baha(®) provide an efficient pathway for sound delivery and an excellent amplification choice for patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss or single-sided sensorineural deafness. But at the same time, bone conduction hearing provides a number of key challenges that need to be addressed. One solution is computer-based fitting software to measure in-situ thresholds directly through the Baha sound processor and to individually prescribe amplification settings based on the patient's hearing loss and degree of transcranial attenuation. Additionally, technologies such as automatic directional microphones and noise reduction systems further improve hearing performance in noisy situations. This paper highlights recent technological innovations and summarizes data on the advantages for the Baha patient population using the sound processing capabilities available in the latest Baha sound processors.

  10. Vestibular Influence on Auditory Metrical Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips-Silver, J.; Trainor, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    When we move to music we feel the beat, and this feeling can shape the sound we hear. Previous studies have shown that when people listen to a metrically ambiguous rhythm pattern, moving the body on a certain beat-adults, by actively bouncing themselves in synchrony with the experimenter, and babies, by being bounced passively in the…

  11. Vestibular Influence on Auditory Metrical Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips-Silver, J.; Trainor, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    When we move to music we feel the beat, and this feeling can shape the sound we hear. Previous studies have shown that when people listen to a metrically ambiguous rhythm pattern, moving the body on a certain beat-adults, by actively bouncing themselves in synchrony with the experimenter, and babies, by being bounced passively in the…

  12. Sound-quality analysis of sewing machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterley, James; Boone, Andrew; Blotter, Jonathan; Sommerfeldt, Scott

    2005-04-01

    Sound quality analysis procedure and results for six sewing machines ranging from entry level to professional grade will be presented. The procedure consisted of jury-based listening tests and quantification of sound quality using standard metrics. The procedures and analysis of the jury testing will be presented and discussed. The correlation between the quantitative metrics and the qualitative jury results will be presented. Sound localization scans, using near field acoustic holography techniques with accompanying results, performed in order to determine machine sound hot spots and possible sources for undesired sounds, will also be presented. Proposed modifications to machine structure in order to alter machine sound signature into a more sensory pleasant sound will also be presented.

  13. Development of a regional littoral benthic macroinvertebrate multi-metric index (MMI) for lakes from the National Lakes Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 2007 National Lakes Assessment (NLA) benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected from the lake littoral zone. The purpose of the sampling was to assess the feasibility of a multi-metric index (MMI) to assess the condition of the littoral benthic macroinvertebrate...

  14. Development of a regional littoral benthic macroinvertebrate multi-metric index (MMI) for lakes from the National Lakes Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 2007 National Lakes Assessment (NLA) benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected from the lake littoral zone. The purpose of the sampling was to assess the feasibility of a multi-metric index (MMI) to assess the condition of the littoral benthic macroinvertebrate...

  15. Developing a reference of normal lung sounds in healthy Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    Ellington, Laura E; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H; Tielsch, James M; Chavez, Miguel A; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James; Checkley, William

    2014-10-01

    Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81%) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47% were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments.

  16. Early development and orientation of the acoustic funnel provides insight into the evolution of sound reception pathways in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Maya; Pyenson, Nicholas D

    2015-01-01

    Whales receive underwater sounds through a fundamentally different mechanism than their close terrestrial relatives. Instead of hearing through the ear canal, cetaceans hear through specialized fatty tissues leading to an evolutionarily novel feature: an acoustic funnel located anterior to the tympanic aperture. We traced the ontogenetic development of this feature in 56 fetal specimens from 10 different families of toothed (odontocete) and baleen (mysticete) whales, using X-ray computed tomography. We also charted ear ossification patterns through ontogeny to understand the impact of heterochronic developmental processes. We determined that the acoustic funnel arises from a prominent V-shaped structure established early in ontogeny, formed by the malleus and the goniale. In odontocetes, this V-formation develops into a cone-shaped funnel facing anteriorly, directly into intramandibular acoustic fats, which is likely functionally linked to the anterior orientation of sound reception in echolocation. In contrast, the acoustic funnel in balaenopterids rotates laterally, later in fetal development, consistent with a lateral sound reception pathway. Balaenids and several fossil mysticetes retain a somewhat anteriorly oriented acoustic funnel in the mature condition, indicating that a lateral sound reception pathway in balaenopterids may be a recent evolutionary innovation linked to specialized feeding modes, such as lunge-feeding.

  17. Early Development and Orientation of the Acoustic Funnel Provides Insight into the Evolution of Sound Reception Pathways in Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, Maya; Pyenson, Nicholas D.

    2015-01-01

    Whales receive underwater sounds through a fundamentally different mechanism than their close terrestrial relatives. Instead of hearing through the ear canal, cetaceans hear through specialized fatty tissues leading to an evolutionarily novel feature: an acoustic funnel located anterior to the tympanic aperture. We traced the ontogenetic development of this feature in 56 fetal specimens from 10 different families of toothed (odontocete) and baleen (mysticete) whales, using X-ray computed tomography. We also charted ear ossification patterns through ontogeny to understand the impact of heterochronic developmental processes. We determined that the acoustic funnel arises from a prominent V-shaped structure established early in ontogeny, formed by the malleus and the goniale. In odontocetes, this V-formation develops into a cone-shaped funnel facing anteriorly, directly into intramandibular acoustic fats, which is likely functionally linked to the anterior orientation of sound reception in echolocation. In contrast, the acoustic funnel in balaenopterids rotates laterally, later in fetal development, consistent with a lateral sound reception pathway. Balaenids and several fossil mysticetes retain a somewhat anteriorly oriented acoustic funnel in the mature condition, indicating that a lateral sound reception pathway in balaenopterids may be a recent evolutionary innovation linked to specialized feeding modes, such as lunge-feeding. PMID:25760328

  18. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    reduction of bluff-body noise. Xiaoyu Wang and Xiaofeng Sun discuss the interaction of fan stator and acoustic treatments using the transfer element method. S Saito and his colleagues in JAXA report the development of active devices for reducing helicopter noise. The paper by A Tamura and M Tsutahara proposes a brand new methodology for aerodynamic sound by applying the lattice Boltzmann finite difference method. As the method solves the fluctuation of air density directly, it has the advantage of not requiring modeling of the sound generation. M A Langthjem and M Nakano solve the hole-tone feedback cycle in jet flow by a numerical method. Y Ogami and S Akishita propose the application of a line-vortex method to the three-dimensional separated flow from a bluff body. I hope that a second issue on aerodynamic sound will be published in FDR in the not too distant future.

  19. Student learning of measurement and sound: Examining the impact of teacher professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ting-Ho

    The current trends in science education emphasize students' engagement in scientific inquiry and deemphasize memorization of factual knowledge. In response to these trends, reform-based curricula often characterize students engaging in science investigations by listing the detailed steps of scientific practices. Unfortunately, if curricula stress procedures more than conceptual connections, students' understanding of science may be distorted. To ensure the effectiveness of science education reform, this study was designed to bring attention to the differences between the procedures for carrying out investigations and the conceptual knowledge involved in doing the investigations. This study explored teachers' use of a hands-on science curriculum and its impact on student learning using multiple assessments. The relationships between student learning of conceptual or procedural knowledge and teachers' talk about conceptual or procedural knowledge in their classrooms were investigated. Three teachers and their third-grade students participated in this study during the teaching of the measurement and sound units from a inquiry-based curriculum. One teacher had participated in an enhanced professional development workshop but the other two comparison teachers did not. The results showed that students from the three classes displayed similar knowledge of measurement procedures but different conceptual understanding of measurement and sound properties. Results from classroom observations indicated that teachers enacted the curriculum differently by either stressing the procedures of the activities or making conceptual connections between the activities and content knowledge. One of the comparison teachers emphasized the step-by-step procedures for using measurement tools, whereas the other two teachers constantly made reference to related measurement concepts or to everyday experiences. The patterns between student learning and teachers' enactment suggested that higher

  20. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  1. Two recently developed guidance and control systems for sounding rockets and similar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljunge, Lars

    2003-08-01

    Saab Ericsson Space has continued its development of digital control systems, based on its previous experiences from the Maxus GCS and DS19. Two new systems now exist: The S19D guidance and control system, which uses DS19 hardware to execute S19 type guidance and control. The GCS/DMARS guidance, navigation and control system, which is a modernisation of the GCS/RIINS. The family of guidance systems provided by Saab Ericsson Space now includes: The analog S19 and the digital S19D for constant attitude guidance during the first part of a sounding rocket's powered flight. The DS19, that controls the attitude throughout the motor burn phase and navigates the vehicle to a pre-set impact point. The (Maxus) GCS with the same function as the DS19, but using thrust vector control via moveable nozzles instead of canard control. The SPINRAC and the RACS, providing exo-atmospheric impact point and attitude control by on-board thrusters.

  2. Sound envelope processing in the developing human brain: A MEG study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huizhen; Brock, Jon; Johnson, Blake W

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated auditory cortical processing of linguistically-relevant temporal modulations in the developing brains of young children. Auditory envelope following responses to white noise amplitude modulated at rates of 1-80 Hz in healthy children (aged 3-5 years) and adults were recorded using a paediatric magnetoencephalography (MEG) system and a conventional MEG system, respectively. For children, there were envelope following responses to slow modulations but no significant responses to rates higher than about 25 Hz, whereas adults showed significant envelope following responses to almost the entire range of stimulus rates. Our results show that the auditory cortex of preschool-aged children has a sharply limited capacity to process rapid amplitude modulations in sounds, as compared to the auditory cortex of adults. These neurophysiological results are consistent with previous psychophysical evidence for a protracted maturational time course for auditory temporal processing. The findings are also in good agreement with current linguistic theories that posit a perceptual bias for low frequency temporal information in speech during language acquisition. These insights also have clinical relevance for our understanding of language disorders that are associated with difficulties in processing temporal information in speech. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reading Skills of Students With Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development

    PubMed Central

    Skebo, Crysten M.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison Avrich; Stein, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI) were compared to students without histories of SSD or LI (typical language; TL). Method In a cross-sectional design, students ages 7;0 (years; months) to 17;9 completed tests that measured reading, language, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills. Results For the TL group, phonological awareness predicted decoding at early elementary school, and overall language predicted reading comprehension at early elementary school and both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and high school. For the SSD-only group, vocabulary predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at early elementary school, and overall language predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and decoding at high school. For the SSD and LI group, overall language predicted decoding at all 3 literacy stages and reading comprehension at early elementary school and middle school, and vocabulary predicted reading comprehension at high school. Conclusion Although similar skills contribute to reading across the age span, the relative importance of these skills changes with children’s literacy stages. PMID:23833280

  4. Reading skills of students with speech sound disorders at three stages of literacy development.

    PubMed

    Skebo, Crysten M; Lewis, Barbara A; Freebairn, Lisa A; Tag, Jessica; Avrich Ciesla, Allison; Stein, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI) were compared to students without histories of SSD or LI (typical language; TL). In a cross-sectional design, students ages 7;0 (years;months) to 17;9 completed tests that measured reading, language, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills. For the TL group, phonological awareness predicted decoding at early elementary school, and overall language predicted reading comprehension at early elementary school and both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and high school. For the SSD-only group, vocabulary predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at early elementary school, and overall language predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and decoding at high school. For the SSD and LI group, overall language predicted decoding at all 3 literacy stages and reading comprehension at early elementary school and middle school, and vocabulary predicted reading comprehension at high school. Although similar skills contribute to reading across the age span, the relative importance of these skills changes with children's literacy stages.

  5. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna…

  6. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna…

  7. Hands-on Space Experiments from Cradle to Grave: The Role of the Sounding Rocket Program in Developing Human Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, S.

    2005-12-01

    Sounding rockets in university research provide a unique opportunity to train future space scientists and engineers. Besides fitting the typical schedule of a student, they allow a small group of students to be involved in all aspects of a space project from its inception through execution to a conclusion involving scientific discovery. Furthermore, universities with sounding rocket programs are cradles of innovations where the interdisciplinary nature of space experimentation is nurtured. These programs have formed the core research of many of the current Principal Investigators of NASA Space Science Missions. Additionally, they typically involve a large number of undergraduate students who gain in-depth experience into well-defined and critical components of a space mission. Researchers involved in sounding rocket experiments typically develop the science payload consisting of one or more instrument with the NASA Sounding Rocket Program Office (SRPO) providing all support necessary to make the science program a success. Unlike satellite missions, the sounding rocket experiments offer an opportunity to take more risks in terms of their science return. Some of these risks come in the form of new technology invention and development. Sounding rockets, with their flexible schedule and fewer formal procedural requirements, thus play an important role in maturing technology and developing new capabilities for satellite missions. The Student Launch Program was designed by NASA to provide a new opportunity where space science took a back seat to education and training. The program required that the proposing team provide components such as the nose cone, power and telemetry systems, which are typically provided to rocket experimenters by SRPO. The students involved in such programs thus gained invaluable experience with "mini-satellite" missions. We believe that they are essential for the long-term vitality of the space program and maintaining a technology

  8. Development of the software tool for generation and visualization of the finite element head model with bone conduction sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Dalibor; Milošević, Žarko; Saveljić, Igor; Filipović, Nenad

    2015-12-01

    Vibration of the skull causes a hearing sensation. We call it Bone Conduction (BC) sound. There are several investigations about transmission properties of bone conducted sound. The aim of this study was to develop a software tool for easy generation of the finite element (FE) model of the human head with different materials based on human head anatomy and to calculate sound conduction through the head. Developed software tool generates a model in a few steps. The first step is to do segmentation of CT medical images (DICOM) and to generate a surface mesh files (STL). Each STL file presents a different layer of human head with different material properties (brain, CSF, different layers of the skull bone, skin, etc.). The next steps are to make tetrahedral mesh from obtained STL files, to define FE model boundary conditions and to solve FE equations. This tool uses PAK solver, which is the open source software implemented in SIFEM FP7 project, for calculations of the head vibration. Purpose of this tool is to show impact of the bone conduction sound of the head on the hearing system and to estimate matching of obtained results with experimental measurements.

  9. Development and Testing of a High Level Axial Array Duct Sound Source for the NASA Flow Impedance Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marty E.; Fuller, Chris R.; Jones, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this report both a frequency domain method for creating high level harmonic excitation and a time domain inverse method for creating large pulses in a duct are developed. To create controllable, high level sound an axial array of six JBL-2485 compression drivers was used. The pressure downstream is considered as input voltages to the sources filtered by the natural dynamics of the sources and the duct. It is shown that this dynamic behavior can be compensated for by filtering the inputs such that both time delays and phase changes are taken into account. The methods developed maximize the sound output while (i) keeping within the power constraints of the sources and (ii) maintaining a suitable level of reproduction accuracy. Harmonic excitation pressure levels of over 155dB were created experimentally over a wide frequency range (1000-4000Hz). For pulse excitation there is a tradeoff between accuracy of reproduction and sound level achieved. However, the accurate reproduction of a pulse with a maximum pressure level over 6500Pa was achieved experimentally. It was also shown that the throat connecting the driver to the duct makes it difficult to inject sound just below the cut-on of each acoustic mode (pre cut-on loading effect).

  10. Development of new measuring technique using sound velocity for CO2 concentration in Cameroonian volcanic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanemasa, M.; Saiki, K.; Kaneko, K.; Ohba, T.; Kusakabe, M.; Tanyileke, G.; Hell, J.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction Limnic eruptions at Lakes Monoun and Nyos in Cameroon, which are sudden degassing of magmatic CO2 dissolved in the lake water, occurred in 1984 and 1986, respectively. The disasters killed about 1800 people around the lakes. Because of ongoing CO2 accumulation in the bottom water of the lakes, tragedy of limnic eruptions will possibly occur again. To prevent from further disasters, artificial degassing of CO2 from the lake waters has been undergoing. Additionally, CO2 monitoring of the lake waters is needed. Nevertheless, CO2 measurement is done only once or twice a year because current methods of CO2 measurement, which require chemical analysis of water samples, are not suitable for frequent measurement. In engineering field, on the other hand, a method to measure salt concentration using sound velocity has been proposed (Kleis and Sanchez, 1990). This method allows us to evaluate solute concentration fast. We applied the method to dissolved CO2 and examined the correlation between sound velocity and CO2 concentration in laboratory experiment. Furthermore, using the obtained correlation, we tried to estimate the CO2 concentration of waters in the Cameroonian lakes. 2. Laboratory experiment We examined the correlation between sound velocity and CO2 concentration. A profiler (Minos X, made by AML oceanography) and pure water were packed in cylindrical stainless vessel and high-pressure CO2 gas was injected to produce carbonated water. The profiler recorded temperature, pressure and sound velocity. Change of sound velocity was defined as difference of sound velocity between carbonated water and pure water under the same temperature and pressure conditions. CO2 concentration was calculated by Henry's law. The result indicated that the change of sound velocity [m s-1] is proportional to CO2 concentration [mmol kg-1], and the coefficient is 0.021 [m kg s-1 mmol-1]. 3. Field application Depth profiles of sound velocity, pressure, and temperature of Lakes

  11. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  12. Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment. Methods Data collection was implemented in six sites in four countries: Andhra Pradesh, India; Bohol, Philippines; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mexico City, Mexico; Pemba Island, Tanzania; and Uttar Pradesh, India. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) developed stringent diagnostic criteria including laboratory, pathology, and medical imaging findings to identify gold standard deaths in health facilities as well as an enhanced verbal autopsy instrument based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards. A cause list was constructed based on the WHO Global Burden of Disease estimates of the leading causes of death, potential to identify unique signs and symptoms, and the likely existence of sufficient medical technology to ascertain gold standard cases. Blinded verbal autopsies were collected on all gold standard deaths. Results Over 12,000 verbal autopsies on deaths with gold standard diagnoses were collected (7,836 adults, 2,075 children, 1,629 neonates, and 1,002 stillbirths). Difficulties in finding sufficient cases to meet gold standard criteria as well as problems with misclassification for certain causes meant that the target list of causes for analysis was reduced to 34 for adults, 21 for children, and 10 for neonates, excluding stillbirths. To ensure strict independence for the validation of methods and assessment of

  13. [Development of heart sound signal detection system based on USB interface].

    PubMed

    Ji, An; Guo, Xingming; Guo, Weizhen; Xiao, Shouzhong

    2008-10-01

    This paper introduces a type of heart sound recording, analysis and processing system based on USB interface. The system consists of high performance sensor sampling heart sounds, the preprocessing circuit, the A/D conversion module and the USB based high-speed computer communications interface. The experiments show that it is noninvasive, convenient, inexpensive and rapid in detecting the cardiac contractility of patients with heart disease as well as of healthy subjects. This system has provided a reliable technical platform for evaluating the cardiac contractility reserve.

  14. Development of local complexity metrics to quantify the effect of anatomical noise on detectability of lung nodules in chest CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Justin; Rubin, Geoffrey; Smith, Taylor; Harrawood, Brian; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop metrics of local anatomical complexity and compare them with detectability of lung nodules in CT. Data were drawn retrospectively from a published perception experiment in which detectability was assessed in cases enriched with virtual nodules (13 radiologists x 157 total nodules = 2041 responses). A local anatomical complexity metric called the distractor index was developed, defined as the Gaussian weighted proportion (i.e., average) of distracting local voxels (50 voxels in-plane, 5 slices). A distracting voxel was classified by thresholding image data that had been selectively filtered to enhance nodule-like features. The distractor index was measured for each nodule location in the nodule-free images. The local pixel standard deviation (STD) was also measured for each nodule. Other confounding factors of search fraction (proportion of lung voxels to total voxels in the given slice) and peripheral distance (defined as the 3D distance of the nodule from the trachea bifurcation) were measured. A generalized linear mixed-effects statistical model (no interaction terms, probit link function, random reader term) was fit to the data to determine the influence of each metric on detectability. In order of decreasing effect size: distractor index, STD, and search fraction all significantly affected detectability (P < 0.001). Distance to the trachea did not have a significant effect (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that local lung complexity degrades detection of lung nodules and the distractor index could serve as a good surrogate metric to quantify anatomical complexity.

  15. A new context-based approach to assess marine mammal behavioral responses to anthropogenic sounds.

    PubMed

    Ellison, W T; Southall, B L; Clark, C W; Frankel, A S

    2012-02-01

    Acute effects of anthropogenic sounds on marine mammals, such as from military sonars, energy development, and offshore construction, have received considerable international attention from scientists, regulators, and industry. Moreover, there has been increasing recognition and concern about the potential chronic effects of human activities (e.g., shipping). It has been demonstrated that increases in human activity and background noise can alter habitats of marine animals and potentially mask communications for species that rely on sound to mate, feed, avoid predators, and navigate. Without exception, regulatory agencies required to assess and manage the effects of noise on marine mammals have addressed only the acute effects of noise on hearing and behavior. Furthermore, they have relied on a single exposure metric to assess acute effects: the absolute sound level received by the animal. There is compelling evidence that factors other than received sound level, including the activity state of animals exposed to different sounds, the nature and novelty of a sound, and spatial relations between sound source and receiving animals (i.e., the exposure context) strongly affect the probability of a behavioral response. A more comprehensive assessment method is needed that accounts for the fact that multiple contextual factors can affect how animals respond to both acute and chronic noise. We propose a three-part approach. The first includes measurement and evaluation of context-based behavioral responses of marine mammals exposed to various sounds. The second includes new assessment metrics that emphasize relative sound levels (i.e., ratio of signal to background noise and level above hearing threshold). The third considers the effects of chronic and acute noise exposure. All three aspects of sound exposure (context, relative sound level, and chronic noise) mediate behavioral response, and we suggest they be integrated into ecosystem-level management and the spatial

  16. The Skylark sounding rocket program and future launcher developments by British Aerospace (Space Systems) Ltd.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. A.

    1989-06-01

    The past history of the Skylark sounding rocket, is reported. A background to the rationalization of the variations of rocket now available, is provided. The last two years launch program, with a summary of future scheduled programs, is listed. The future interests of British Aerospace in rocket launchers, in particular LittLEO (the small launcher for payloads into low earth orbit), are described.

  17. Development of a hybrid wave based-transfer matrix model for sound transmission analysis.

    PubMed

    Dijckmans, A; Vermeir, G

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a hybrid wave based-transfer matrix model is presented that allows for the investigation of the sound transmission through finite multilayered structures placed between two reverberant rooms. The multilayered structure may consist of an arbitrary configuration of fluid, elastic, or poro-elastic layers. The field variables (structural displacements and sound pressures) are expanded in terms of structural and acoustic wave functions. The boundary and continuity conditions in the rooms determine the participation factors in the pressure expansions. The displacement of the multilayered structure is determined by the mechanical impedance matrix, which gives a relation between the pressures and transverse displacements at both sides of the structure. The elements of this matrix are calculated with the transfer matrix method. First, the hybrid model is numerically validated. Next a comparison is made with sound transmission loss measurements of a hollow brick wall and a sandwich panel. Finally, numerical simulations show the influence of structural damping, room dimensions and plate dimensions on the sound transmission loss of multilayered structures.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF FILMSTRIP SEQUENCE PHOTOGRAPHS AND SOUND REPRODUCTION OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PRESENTATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTINI, HARRY R.

    BLACK AND WHITE FILMSTRIPS THAT REPRODUCED STILL PICTURES AND SOUND TRACK FROM EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION BROADCASTS WERE USED TO STUDY THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ETV REPRODUCTIONS IN AIDING POOR ACHIEVERS. THE SPECIFIC ADVANTAGE OF SUCH A REPRODUCTION WAS THAT IT COULD BE PACED TO THE LEARNING TEMPO OF THE STUDENTS RATHER THAN USING THE TOO-FAST PACE OF A…

  19. Development of a dinoflagellate-oriented PCR primer set leads to detection of picoplanktonic dinoflagellates from Long Island Sound.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Yubo; Miranda, Lilibeth; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2006-08-01

    We developed dinoflagellate-specific 18S rRNA gene primers. PCR amplification using these oligonucleotides for a picoplanktonic DNA sample from Long Island Sound yielded 24 clones, and all but one of these clones were dinoflagellates primarily belonging to undescribed and Amoebophrya-like lineages. These results highlight the need for a systematic investigation of picodinoflagellate diversity in both coastal and oceanic ecosystems.

  20. Sustainable chemistry metrics.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco García

    2009-01-01

    Green chemistry has developed mathematical parameters to describe the sustainability of chemical reactions and processes, in order to quantify their environmental impact. These parameters are related to mass and energy magnitudes, and enable analyses and numerical diagnoses of chemical reactions. The environmental impact factor (E factor), atom economy, and reaction mass efficiency have been the most influential metrics, and they are interconnected by mathematical equations. The ecodesign concept must also be considered for complex industrial syntheses, as a part of the sustainability of manufacturing processes. The aim of this Concept article is to identify the main parameters for evaluating undesirable environmental consequences.

  1. Developing the Translational Research Workforce: A Pilot Study of Common Metrics for Evaluating the Clinical and Translational Award KL2 Program

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Lourdes; Jones, Lisa B.; Tong, Greg; Ireland, Christine; Dumbauld, Jill; Rainwater, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose This pilot study describes the career development programs (i.e., NIH KL2 awards) across five Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institutions within the University of California (UC) system, and examines the feasibility of a set of common metrics for evaluating early outcomes. Methods A survey of program administrators provided data related to the institutional environment within which each KL2 program was implemented. Application and progress report data yielded a combined data set that characterized KL2 awardees, their initial productivity, and early career outcomes. Results The pilot project demonstrated the feasibility of aggregating common metrics data across multiple institutions. The data indicated that KL2 awardees were an accomplished set of investigators, both before and after the award period, representing a wide variety of disciplines. Awardees that had completed their trainee period overwhelmingly remained active in translational research conducted within an academic setting. Early indications also suggest high rates of success with obtaining research funding subsequent to the KL2 award. Conclusion This project offers a model for how to collect and analyze common metrics related to the education and training function of the CTSA Consortium. Next steps call for expanding participation to other CTSA sites outside of the University of California system. PMID:26602332

  2. Moving to Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This booklet, designed to help the consumer prepare for the change to the metric system, discusses the following related topics: simplicity and universality of the metric system, weather, shopping, textiles, cooking, and driving. (MP)

  3. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be a sign of early bowel obstruction. Causes Most of the sounds you hear in your stomach and intestines are ... a list of more serious conditions that can cause abnormal bowel sounds. Hyperactive, hypoactive, or missing bowel sounds may be ...

  4. Metrication for the Manager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, John T.

    The scope of this book covers metrication management. It was created to fill the middle management need for condensed, authoritative information about the metrication process and was conceived as a working tool and a prime reference source. Written from a management point of view, it touches on virtually all aspects of metrication and highlights…

  5. Developing effective serious games: the effect of background sound on visual fidelity perception with varying texture resolution.

    PubMed

    Rojas, David; Kapralos, Bill; Cristancho, Sayra; Collins, Karen; Hogue, Andrew; Conati, Cristina; Dubrowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Despite the benefits associated with virtual learning environments and serious games, there are open, fundamental issues regarding simulation fidelity and multi-modal cue interaction and their effect on immersion, transfer of knowledge, and retention. Here we describe the results of a study that examined the effect of ambient (background) sound on the perception of visual fidelity (defined with respect to texture resolution). Results suggest that the perception of visual fidelity is dependent on ambient sound and more specifically, white noise can have detrimental effects on our perception of high quality visuals. The results of this study will guide future studies that will ultimately aid in developing an understanding of the role that fidelity, and multi-modal interactions play with respect to knowledge transfer and retention for users of virtual simulations and serious games.

  6. Working memory span in Persian-speaking children with speech sound disorders and normal speech development.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Mohamad Reza; Ghorbani, Ali; Rashedi, Vahid; Jalilevand, Nahid; Kamali, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare working memory span in Persian-speaking preschool children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and their typically speaking peers. Additionally, the study aimed to examine Non-Word Repetition (NWR), Forward Digit Span (FDS) and Backward Digit Span (BDS) in four groups of children with varying severity levels of SSD. The participants in this study comprised 35 children with SSD and 35 typically developing (TD) children -matched for age and sex-as a control group. The participants were between the age range of 48 and 72 months. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. We used two tasks (NWR and FDS) to assess phonological loop component, and one task (BDS) to assess central executive component. Percentage of correct consonants (PCC) was used to calculate the severity of SSD. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in all tasks that assess working memory (p < 0.001). In addition, the comparison of the phonological loop of working memory between the various severity groups indicated significant differences between different severities of both NWR and FDS tasks among the SSD children (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, comparison of the central executive between various severity groups, which was assessed with the BDS task, did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05). The result showed that PCC scores in TD children were associated with NWR (p < 0.001), FDS (p = 0.001), and BDS (p < 0.001). Furthermore, PCC scores in SSD children were associated with NWR and FDS (p < 0.001), but not with BDS (p > 0.05). The working memory skills were weaker in SSD children, in comparison to TD children. In addition, children with varying levels of severity of SSD differed in terms of NWR and FSD, but not BDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A prototype hail detection algorithm and hail climatology developed with the advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Ralph; Beauchamp, James; Cecil, Daniel; Heymsfield, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    In previous studies published in the open literature, a strong relationship between the occurrence of hail and the microwave brightness temperatures (primarily at 37 and 85 GHz) was documented. These studies were performed with the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and most recently, the Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sensor. This led to climatologies of hail frequency from TMI and AMSR-E, however, limitations included geographical domain of the TMI sensor (35 S to 35 N) and the overpass time of the Aqua satellite (130 am/pm local time), both of which reduce an accurate mapping of hail events over the global domain and the full diurnal cycle. Nonetheless, these studies presented exciting, new applications for passive microwave sensors. NOAA and EUMETSAT have been operating the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A and -B) and the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on several operational satellites since 1998: NOAA-15 through NOAA-19; MetOp-A and -B. With multiple satellites in operation since 2000, the AMSU/MHS sensors provide near global coverage every 4 h, thus, offering a much larger time and temporal sampling than TRMM or AMSR-E. With similar observation frequencies near 30 and 85 GHz, one at 157 GHz, and additionally three at the 183 GHz water vapor band, the potential to detect strong convection associated with severe storms on a more comprehensive time and space scale exists. In this study, we develop a prototype AMSU-based hail detection algorithm through the use of collocated satellite and surface hail reports over the continental US for a 10-year period (2000-2009). Compared with the surface observations, the algorithm detects approximately 40% of hail occurrences. The simple threshold algorithm is then used to generate a hail climatology based on all available AMSU observations during 2000-2011 that is stratified in several ways

  8. Metrication report to the Congress. 1991 activities and 1992 plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    During 1991, NASA approved a revised metric use policy and developed a NASA Metric Transition Plan. This Plan targets the end of 1995 for completion of NASA's metric initiatives. This Plan also identifies future programs that NASA anticipates will use the metric system of measurement. Field installations began metric transition studies in 1991 and will complete them in 1992. Half of NASA's Space Shuttle payloads for 1991, and almost all such payloads for 1992, have some metric-based elements. In 1992, NASA will begin assessing requirements for space-quality piece parts fabricated to U.S. metric standards, leading to development and qualification of high priority parts.

  9. Outdoor Sound Propagation Modelling in Complex Environments: Recent Developments in the Parabolic Equation Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    equation for sound waves in inhomogeneous moving media”, Acustica united with Acta Acustica , Vol 83(3), pp 455-460,1997. [3] L. Dallois, Ph. Blanc...propagation in a turbulent atmosphere within the parabolic approximation”, Acustica united with Acta Acustica , Vol 87(1), pp 659-669, 2001 [6] M. Karweit...approaches", Acta Acustica united with Acustica , 89 (6), 980-991, (2003). [40] Ph. Voisin, Ph. Blanc-Benon, "The influence of meteorological

  10. Quality-Controlled Upper-Air Sounding Dataset for DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE: Development and Corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Ciesielski, Paul; Yu, Hungjui; Johnson, Richard; Yoneyama, Kunio; Katsumata, Masaki; Long, Charles N.; Wang, Junhong; Loehrer, Scot; Young, Kate; Williams, S.; Brown, William; Braun, John; Van Hove, Terese

    2014-04-01

    The upper-air sounding network for DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation or MJO) has provided an unprecedented set of observations for studying the MJO over the Indian Ocean (IO) where coupling of this oscillation with deep convection first occurs. With 72 sounding sites and dropsonde data from 13 aircraft mission, the sonde network covers the tropics from Eastern African to the West Pacific. In total nearly 26,000 sondes were collected from this network during the experiment’s 6-month extended observing period (from October 2011 to March 2012). Slightly more than half of the sondes, collected from 33 sites, are at high vertical resolution. Rigorous post-field phase processing of the sonde data included several levels of quality checks and a variety of corrections which address a number of issues (e.g., daytime dry bias, baseline surface data errors, ship deck-heating effects, artificial dry spikes in slow ascent sondes). Because of the importance of an accurate description of the moisture field in meeting the scientific goals of the experiments, particular attention is given to humidity correction and its validation. The humidity corrections, though small relative to some previous field campaigns, produced high fidelity moisture analyses in which sonde precipitable water compared well with independent estimates. An assessment of model operational analyses moisture using corrected sonde data shows an overall good agreement with the exception at upper-levels where model moisture and clouds are more abundant than the sounding data would indicate.

  11. Selection of metrics based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and development of a biotic index (CYMOX) for assessing ecological status of coastal and transitional waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Silvia; Mascaró, Oriol; Llagostera, Izaskun; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Bioindicators, based on a large variety of organisms, have been increasingly used in the assessment of the status of aquatic systems. In marine coastal waters, seagrasses have shown a great potential as bioindicator organisms, probably due to both their environmental sensitivity and the large amount of knowledge available. However, and as far as we are aware, only little attention has been paid to euryhaline species suitable for biomonitoring both transitional and marine waters. With the aim to contribute to this expanding field, and provide new and useful tools for managers, we develop here a multi-bioindicator index based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa. We first compiled from the literature a suite of 54 candidate metrics, i. e. measurable attribute of the concerned organism or community that adequately reflects properties of the environment, obtained from C. nodosa and its associated ecosystem, putatively responding to environmental deterioration. We then evaluated them empirically, obtaining a complete dataset on these metrics along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Using this dataset, we selected the metrics to construct the index, using, successively: (i) ANOVA, to assess their capacity to discriminate among sites of different environmental conditions; (ii) PCA, to check the existence of a common pattern among the metrics reflecting the environmental gradient; and (iii) feasibility and cost-effectiveness criteria. Finally, 10 metrics (out of the 54 tested) encompassing from the physiological (δ15N, δ34S, % N, % P content of rhizomes), through the individual (shoot size) and the population (root weight ratio), to the community (epiphytes load) organisation levels, and some metallic pollution descriptors (Cd, Cu and Zn content of rhizomes) were retained and integrated into a single index (CYMOX) using the scores of the sites on the first axis of a PCA. These scores were reduced to a 0-1 (Ecological Quality Ratio) scale by referring the values to the

  12. Evaluating social media's capacity to develop engaged audiences in health promotion settings: use of Twitter metrics as a case study.

    PubMed

    Neiger, Brad L; Thackeray, Rosemary; Burton, Scott H; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe G; Fagen, Michael C

    2013-03-01

    Use of social media in health promotion and public health continues to grow in popularity, though most of what is reported in literature represents one-way messaging devoid of attributes associated with engagement, a core attribute, if not the central purpose, of social media. This article defines engagement, describes its value in maximizing the potential of social media in health promotion, proposes an evaluation hierarchy for social media engagement, and uses Twitter as a case study to illustrate how the hierarchy might function in practice. Partnership and participation are proposed as culminating outcomes for social media use in health promotion. As use of social media in health promotion moves toward this end, evaluation metrics that verify progress and inform subsequent strategies will become increasingly important.

  13. Factors affecting adoption of energy efficient and environmentally sound industrial technologies in a developing country like India

    SciTech Connect

    Aneja, A.K.

    1997-12-31

    The paper reviews the status of technologies in selected industries in a developing country like India. The energy-intensive industrial sectors chosen were cement, iron & steel and pulp & paper A comparison of energy intensity of these industries is made with a few industrially developed countries. The paper analyses the, factors that inhibit and those that help in the promotion and propagation of energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies. The factors were divided into two categories: those that were internal to the organisation and those that were external.

  14. Development of a rank-ordering metric for selection of grid star candidates for the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzarite, J. H.; Shao, M.; Ciardi, D.; SIM Project Science Office Team; Michelson Science Center Team

    2004-12-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will determine a global astronomical reference frame based on precise astrometric measurements on a grid comprised of 1302 stars distributed quasi-uniformly on the celestial sphere. Candidates for the SIM grid will be chosen from two catalogs of K-giant stars: the University of Virginia GGSS catalog (S. Majewski, et. al. 18,617 stars) and the Tycho catalog sample (D. Ciardi 176,728 stars). 7,812 SIM grid candidates (six per eventual SIM grid star) will be selected from these catalogs. Radial velocities for these candidates will be determined during ground based surveys conducted by observing teams in three observatories from August 2004 to July 2008. The RV surveys will effectively filter out candidates with short-period stellar companions. The SIM grid will be selected from the best 1302 candidates surviving the radial-velocity surveys. In order to be stable reference points in the grid, SIM grid candidates should have minimal expected (unmodeled) astrometric jitter. Expected astrometric jitter involves complex inter-relationships among brightness, distance, J-Ks color, and [Fe/H] metallicity. We present a rank-ordering metric that provides a quantitative measure of expected astrometric jitter for a star, and therefore of the fitness of the star for the SIM grid. Application of this metric to the Ciardi and Majewski K-giant catalogs will facilitate selection of the most suitable candidates for the SIM grid. We acknowledge the significant contribution to this work from Ricky Patterson and Steve Majewski, who provided us with K-giant data tables based on their stellar evolution models. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA.

  15. Late Quaternary development of the Croatan Beach Ridge Complex, Bogue Sound, Bogue Banks, NC, USA and implications for coastal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Kelly B.; Mallinson, David J.; Culver, Stephen J.

    2016-06-01

    Foraminiferal, sedimentological, geophysical, and geochronologic data were utilized to elucidate the late Quaternary geologic development of the Croatan Beach Ridge Complex (CBRC), Bogue Sound, and Bogue Banks, North Carolina, USA. The CBRC is a relict beach ridge feature located on the mainland. It is separated from the modern barrier island, Bogue Banks, by Bogue Sound. Seventeen cores along shore-normal and shore-parallel transects provided material for sedimentologic and foraminiferal analysis and resulted in the recognition of seven depositional facies representing a variety of coastal depositional environments. Chronologic and depositional facies data suggest the CBRC was initiated during MIS 5a and rapid southward progradation produced a cape structure. Eolian reactivation of the upper sand of the CBRC occurred during the last glacial maximum (∼18 ka). The age of flood tide delta deposits in Bogue Sound suggests that the Holocene barrier island, Bogue Banks, had formed by ∼6 ka. Shoreface ravinement resulted in a shoreface landward of the present shoreline by ∼3.5 ka. Seaward and westward spit progradation of Bogue Banks began ∼1.7 ka and continued to ∼1.3 ka. Normal marine salinity conditions were present in Bogue Sound ∼1.1 ka, suggesting removal of at least the narrowest parts of the barrier island, coeval with a previously documented segmentation of the southern Outer Banks barrier islands. Previous work has linked this segmentation to climate warming and increased tropical storm activity during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. This study illustrates the complex response of this coastal system to Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level and climate change over two major sea-level cycles. In particular, the regional geomorphology during MIS5a and the Holocene sea-level highstand differ significantly and this, in large part, was controlled by the antecedent geologic framework, resulted in the contrasting more localized coastal geomorphic response.

  16. The Bosstown Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    Based on the argument that (contrary to critical opinion) the musicians in the various bands associated with Bosstown Sound were indeed talented, cohesive individuals and that the bands' lack of renown was partially a result of ill-treatment by record companies and the press, this paper traces the development of the Bosstown Sound from its…

  17. Development and Application of a Message Metric for NOAA NWS Tsunami Warnings and Recommended Guidelines for the NWS TsunamiReady Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Ricthie, L.; Meinhold, S.; Johnson, V.; Scott, C.; Farnham, C.; Houghton, B. F.; Horan, J.; Gill, D.

    2012-12-01

    Improving the quality and effectiveness of tsunami warning messages and the TsunamiReady community preparedness program of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service's (NWS), Tsunami Program are two key objectives of a three year project (Award NA10NWS4670015) to help integrate social science into the NWS' Tsunami Program and improve the preparedness of member states and territories of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Research was conducted in collaboration with state and local emergency managers. Based on findings from focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa), and upon review of research literature on behavioral response to warnings, we developed a warning message metric to help guide revisions to tsunami warning messages issued by the NWS' West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, Alaska and Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, Hawaii. The metric incorporates factors that predict response to warning information, which are divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the meaning of metric factors and assigning a maximum score of one point per factor. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. From focus groups that gathered information on the usefulness and achievability of tsunami preparedness actions, we developed recommendations for revisions to the proposed draft guidelines of the TsunamiReady Improvement Program. Proposed key revisions include the incorporation of community vulnerability to distant (far-field) versus local (near-field) tsunamis as a primary determinant of mandatory actions, rather than community population. Our team continues to work with

  18. Exploring Metric Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.

    2006-07-31

    Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.

  19. Technological Convergence: A Brief Review of Some of the Developments in the Integrated Storage and Retrieval of Text, Data, Sound and Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Reviews technological developments centered around microcomputers that have led to the design of integrated workstations. Topics discussed include methods of information storage, information retrieval, telecommunications networks, word processing, data management, graphics, interactive video, sound, interfaces, artificial intelligence, hypermedia,…

  20. Algebraic mesh quality metrics

    SciTech Connect

    KNUPP,PATRICK

    2000-04-24

    Quality metrics for structured and unstructured mesh generation are placed within an algebraic framework to form a mathematical theory of mesh quality metrics. The theory, based on the Jacobian and related matrices, provides a means of constructing, classifying, and evaluating mesh quality metrics. The Jacobian matrix is factored into geometrically meaningful parts. A nodally-invariant Jacobian matrix can be defined for simplicial elements using a weight matrix derived from the Jacobian matrix of an ideal reference element. Scale and orientation-invariant algebraic mesh quality metrics are defined. the singular value decomposition is used to study relationships between metrics. Equivalence of the element condition number and mean ratio metrics is proved. Condition number is shown to measure the distance of an element to the set of degenerate elements. Algebraic measures for skew, length ratio, shape, volume, and orientation are defined abstractly, with specific examples given. Combined metrics for shape and volume, shape-volume-orientation are algebraically defined and examples of such metrics are given. Algebraic mesh quality metrics are extended to non-simplical elements. A series of numerical tests verify the theoretical properties of the metrics defined.

  1. A Participatory Design Approach to Develop an Interactive Sound Environment Simulator.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Geir K; Dahl, Yngve

    2016-10-01

    Our purpose is to provide insight into the added value of applying a participatory design approach in the design of an interactive sound environment simulator to facilitate communication and understanding between patients and audiologists in consultation situations. We have applied a qualitative approach, presenting results and discussion in the form of a story, following 3 consecutive steps: problem investigation, design, and evaluation. We provide an overview of lessons learned, emphasizing how patients and audiologists took roles and responsibilities in the design process and the effects of this involvement. Our results suggest that participatory design is a viable and practical approach to address multifaceted problems directly affecting patients and practitioners.

  2. About Using the Metric System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet contains a brief introduction to the use of the metric system. Topics covered include: (1) what is the metric system; (2) how to think metric; (3) some advantages of the metric system; (4) basics of the metric system; (5) how to measure length, area, volume, mass and temperature the metric way; (6) some simple calculations using…

  3. Goal-Driven Definition of Product Metrics Based on Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1995-01-01

    Defining product metrics requires a rigorous and disciplined approach, because useful metrics depend, to a very large extent, on one's goals and assumptions about the studied software process. Unlike in more mature scientific fields, it appears difficult to devise a "universal" set of metrics in software engineering, that can be used across application environments. We propose an approach for the definition of product metrics which is driven by the experimental goals of measurement, expressed via the Goal/Question/Metric (GQM) paradigm, and is based on the mathematical properties of the metrics. This approach integrates several research contributions from the literature into a consistent, practical and rigorous approach. The approach we outline should not be considered as a complete and definitive solution, but as a starting point for discussion about a product metric definition approach widely accepted in the software engineering community. At this point, we intend to provide an intellectual process that we think is necessary to define sound software product metrics. A precise and complete documentation of such an approach will provide the information needed to make the assessment and reuse of a new metric possible. Thus, product metrics are supported by a solid theory which facilitates their review and refinement. Moreover, their definition is made less exploratory and, as a consequence, one is less likely to identify spurious correlations between process and product metrics.

  4. Goal-Driven Definition of Product Metrics Based on Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1995-01-01

    Defining product metrics requires a rigorous and disciplined approach, because useful metrics depend, to a very large extent, on one's goals and assumptions about the studied software process. Unlike in more mature scientific fields, it appears difficult to devise a "universal" set of metrics in software engineering, that can be used across application environments. We propose an approach for the definition of product metrics which is driven by the experimental goals of measurement, expressed via the Goal/Question/Metric (GQM) paradigm, and is based on the mathematical properties of the metrics. This approach integrates several research contributions from the literature into a consistent, practical and rigorous approach. The approach we outline should not be considered as a complete and definitive solution, but as a starting point for discussion about a product metric definition approach widely accepted in the software engineering community. At this point, we intend to provide an intellectual process that we think is necessary to define sound software product metrics. A precise and complete documentation of such an approach will provide the information needed to make the assessment and reuse of a new metric possible. Thus, product metrics are supported by a solid theory which facilitates their review and refinement. Moreover, their definition is made less exploratory and, as a consequence, one is less likely to identify spurious correlations between process and product metrics.

  5. Fusion metrics for dynamic situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Pribilski, Mike; Daughtery, Bryan; Roscoe, Brian; Gunsett, Josh

    2004-08-01

    To design information fusion systems, it is important to develop metrics as part of a test and evaluation strategy. In many cases, fusion systems are designed to (1) meet a specific set of user information needs (IN), (2) continuously validate information pedigree and updates, and (3) maintain this performance under changing conditions. A fusion system"s performance is evaluated in many ways. However, developing a consistent set of metrics is important for standardization. For example, many track and identification metrics have been proposed for fusion analysis. To evaluate a complete fusion system performance, level 4 sensor management and level 5 user refinement metrics need to be developed simultaneously to determine whether or not the fusion system is meeting information needs. To describe fusion performance, the fusion community needs to agree on a minimum set of metrics for user assessment and algorithm comparison. We suggest that such a minimum set should include feasible metrics of accuracy, confidence, throughput, timeliness, and cost. These metrics can be computed as confidence (probability), accuracy (error), timeliness (delay), throughput (amount) and cost (dollars). In this paper, we explore an aggregate set of metrics for fusion evaluation and demonstrate with information need metrics for dynamic situation analysis.

  6. Categorizing Sounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    Classification) CatemorizinR Sounds 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dr. Gremory R. Lockhead 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month,Day) S...variability in judgments of univariate sounds depends on what stimuli occurred recently (sequence effects), what stimuli might occur (set and range effects...CLASSIFICATION OF TH IS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED CATEGORIZING SOUNDS =- Gregory R. Lockhead Department of Psychology 3 Duke University -4 Durham, North Carolina 27706

  7. International aspirations for speech-language pathologists' practice with multilingual children with speech sound disorders: development of a position paper.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Bowen, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for the speech-language pathology profession in many cultures is to address the mismatch between the "linguistic homogeneity of the speech-language pathology profession and the linguistic diversity of its clientele" (Caesar & Kohler, 2007, p. 198). This paper outlines the development of the Multilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Position Paper created to guide speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') facilitation of multilingual children's speech. An international expert panel was assembled comprising 57 researchers (SLPs, linguists, phoneticians, and speech scientists) with knowledge about multilingual children's speech, or children with speech sound disorders. Combined, they had worked in 33 countries and used 26 languages in professional practice. Fourteen panel members met for a one-day workshop to identify key points for inclusion in the position paper. Subsequently, 42 additional panel members participated online to contribute to drafts of the position paper. A thematic analysis was undertaken of the major areas of discussion using two data sources: (a) face-to-face workshop transcript (133 pages) and (b) online discussion artifacts (104 pages). Finally, a moderator with international expertise in working with children with speech sound disorders facilitated the incorporation of the panel's recommendations. The following themes were identified: definitions, scope, framework, evidence, challenges, practices, and consideration of a multilingual audience. The resulting position paper contains guidelines for providing services to multilingual children with speech sound disorders (http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech/position-paper). The paper is structured using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children and Youth Version (World Health Organization, 2007) and incorporates recommendations for (a) children and families, (b) SLPs' assessment and intervention, (c) SLPs' professional

  8. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  9. Developing a new stream metric for comparing stream function using a bank-floodplain sediment budget: a case study of three Piedmont streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg

    2013-01-01

    A bank and floodplain sediment budget was created for three Piedmont streams tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. The watersheds of each stream varied in land use from urban (Difficult Run) to urbanizing (Little Conestoga Creek) to agricultural (Linganore Creek). The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between geomorphic parameters and sediment dynamics and to develop a floodplain trapping metric for comparing streams with variable characteristics. Net site sediment budgets were best explained by gradient at Difficult Run, floodplain width at Little Conestoga Creek, and the relation of channel cross-sectional area to floodplain width at Linganore Creek. A correlation for all streams indicated that net site sediment budget was best explained by relative floodplain width (ratio of channel width to floodplain width). A new geomorphic metric, the floodplain trapping factor, was used to compare sediment budgets between streams with differing suspended sediment yields. Site sediment budgets were normalized by floodplain area and divided by the stream's sediment yield to provide a unitless measure of floodplain sediment trapping. A floodplain trapping factor represents the amount of upland sediment that a particular floodplain site can trap (e.g. a factor of 5 would indicate that a particular floodplain site traps the equivalent of 5 times that area in upland erosional source area). Using this factor we determined that Linganore Creek had the highest gross and net (floodplain deposition minus bank erosion) floodplain trapping factor (107 and 46, respectively) that Difficult Run the lowest gross floodplain trapping factor (29) and Little Conestoga Creek had the lowest net floodplain trapping factor (–14, indicating that study sites were net contributors to the suspended sediment load). The trapping factor is a robust metric for comparing three streams of varied watershed and geomorphic character, it promises to be a useful tool for future stream assessments.

  10. Fighter agility metrics, research, and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.; Valasek, John; Eggold, David P.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A completed set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation provided by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available. Simulation documentation and user instructions are provided in an appendix.

  11. Development of a Low Energy Particle Electron Spectrum Analyzer (LEP-ESA) onboard the ICI-2 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, M.; Saito, Y.; Yokota, S.; Saito, M.; Asamura, K.; Kasahara, S.

    2008-12-01

    Strong HF radar backscatter echoes are well-known characteristics of the polar cusp region by the ground- based observation of HF radar in the polar ionosphere. The gradient drift instability is regarded as a dominant mode for producing backscatter targets. According to Moen et al. [2002], decameter scale measurement that cannot be achieved by ground-based and satellite observations is required to understand the generation mechanism. Norwegian sounding rocket experiment ICI-2(Investigation of Cusp Irregularities) is proposed in order to single out the mechanism(s) running cusp ionospheric plasma unstable and facilitate backscatter targets for HF radars. The ICI-2 rocket will be launched into cusp ionosphere from Svalbard, Norway in Nov/Dec 2008. We are responsible for developing a low energy particle electron spectrum analyzer (LEP-ESA) that is one of the science payloads onboard the ICI-2 sounding rocket. LEP-ESA covers the energy range between 10eV and 10keV. We designed LEP-ESA to achieve high spatial resolution of ~10m/energy spectrum (16 energy steps). We have confirmed the performance of LEP-ESA by experiments as well as numerical simulations. In order to realize the high spatial resolution, high time resolution is required. For the purpose of high time resolution measurement of low energy electrons we have newly developed an electron detector that consists of Z-stack MCPs (Micro Channel Pates) and 64-channel multi-anode. An ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) with 64-channel fast preamplifiers and counters are installed on the backside of the anode. Since the detected electrons are independently counted by 64 separated anodes, multi-anode can achieve the higher time resolution than any other position sensitive anodes. One of the most severe problems in using a multi- anode is the size of the required electronics that becomes unacceptably large for the sounding rocket / satellite instrument when the number of the channels is large. By using the

  12. Cognitive Dimensions in Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Normal Elderly: Developing a Common Metric

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; McCrary, John W.; Gardner, Margaret N.; Bachus, Laura E.; DeGrush, Elizabeth; Reilly, Lindsey A.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Guillily, Maria D.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess similarity in cognitive factor structures underlying neuropsychological test performance of elders belonging to three clinical groups: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and normal elderly. We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to 214 elderly participants in the groups. First, the underlying cognitive structure of a Combined-Set of AD, MCI, and Control subjects was determined by Principal Components Analysis (PCA), including quantitative relationships (loadings) between the test measures and the factors. The PCA resolved 17 neuropsychological test measures into 6 interpretable factors, accounting for 78% of the variance. This cognitive structure was compared with separate cognitive structures from an AD-Set, an MCI-Set, and a Control-Set (different individuals in each set) in additional PCA using Procrustes factor rotation. Analysis of congruence coefficients between each set and the Combined-Set by a bootstrapping statistical procedure supported the factor invariance hypothesis. These close similarities across groups in their underlying neuropsychological dimensions support the use of a common metric system (the factor structure of a Combined-Set) for measuring neuropsychological factors in all these elderly individuals. PMID:20717503

  13. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  14. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  15. Real Ear Sound Pressure Levels Developed by Three Portable Stereo System Earphones.

    PubMed

    MacLean, G L; Stuart, A; Stenstrom, R

    1992-11-01

    Differences in real ear sound pressure levels (SPLs) with three portable stereo system (PSS) earphones (supraaural [Sony Model MDR-44], semiaural [Sony Model MDR-A15L], and insert [Sony Model MDR-E225]) were investigated. Twelve adult men served as subjects. Frequency response, high frequency average (HFA) output, peak output, peak output frequency, and overall RMS output for each PSS earphone were obtained with a probe tube microphone system (Fonix 6500 Hearing Aid Test System). Results indicated a significant difference in mean RMS outputs with nonsignificant differences in mean HFA outputs, peak outputs, and peak output frequencies among PSS earphones. Differences in mean overall RMS outputs were attributed to differences in low-frequency effects that were observed among the frequency responses of the three PSS earphones. It is suggested that one cannot assume equivalent real ear SPLs, with equivalent inputs, among different styles of PSS earphones.

  16. Trends in Developed Land Cover Adjacent to Habitat for Threatened Salmon in Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Krista K.; Ford, Michael J.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Fresh, Kurt L.; Pess, George R.; Kennedy, Robert E.; Rowse, Melinda L.; Sheer, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    For widely distributed species at risk, such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), habitat monitoring is both essential and challenging. Only recently have widespread monitoring programs been implemented for salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Remote sensing data, such as Landsat images, are therefore a useful way to evaluate trends prior to the advent of species-specific habitat monitoring programs. We used annual (1986-2008) land cover maps created from Landsat images via automated algorithms (LandTrendr) to evaluate trends in developed (50-100% impervious) land cover in areas adjacent to five types of habitat utilized by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Puget Sound region of Washington State, U.S.A. For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain), but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008). For each habitat type, the increasing trend changed during the time series. In nearshore, mainstem, and floodplain areas, the rate of increase in developed land cover slowed in the latter portion of the time series, while the opposite occurred in estuary and tributary areas. Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds. Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition. PMID:25923327

  17. Sound Visualization and Holography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  18. Performance comparison of video quality metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Kotevski; Pece, Mitrevski

    2010-02-01

    The development of digital video technology, due to its nature, introduced new approach to the objective video quality estimation. Basically there are two types of metrics for measuring the quality of digital video: purely mathematically defined video quality metrics (DELTA, MSAD, MSE, SNR and PSNR) where the error is mathematically calculated as a difference between the original and processed pixel, and video quality metrics that have similar characteristics as the Human Visual System (SSIM, NQI, VQM), where the perceptual quality is also considered in the overall quality estimation. The metrics from the first group are more technical ones and because the visual quality of perception is more complex than pixel error calculation, many examples show that their video quality estimation is deficiently accurate. The second group of metrics work in a different manner compared to previous, calculating the scene structure in the overall video quality estimation. This paper is concerned with experimental comparison of the performance of Structural Similarity (SSIM) and Video Quality Metric (VQM) metrics for objective video quality estimation. For the purpose of this experiment, more than 300 short video sequences were prepared. The measurements of these video sequences are used to draw the metrics dependence to common changes in processed video sequences. These changes include changes in: brightness, contrast, hue, saturation and noise. This paper pinpoints the key characteristics of each metric, gives the conclusion of the better performing one and gives directions for improvement of objective video quality estimation.

  19. Bounds for phylogenetic network space metrics.

    PubMed

    Francis, Andrew; Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2017-08-23

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for representation of reticulate evolution. Recently, a space of unrooted phylogenetic networks was introduced, where such a network is a connected graph in which every vertex has degree 1 or 3 and whose leaf-set is a fixed set X of taxa. This space, denoted [Formula: see text], is defined in terms of two operations on networks-the nearest neighbor interchange and triangle operations-which can be used to transform any network with leaf set X into any other network with that leaf set. In particular, it gives rise to a metric d on [Formula: see text] which is given by the smallest number of operations required to transform one network in [Formula: see text] into another in [Formula: see text]. The metric generalizes the well-known NNI-metric on phylogenetic trees which has been intensively studied in the literature. In this paper, we derive a bound for the metric d as well as a related metric [Formula: see text] which arises when restricting d to the subset of [Formula: see text] consisting of all networks with [Formula: see text] vertices, [Formula: see text]. We also introduce two new metrics on networks-the SPR and TBR metrics-which generalize the metrics on phylogenetic trees with the same name and give bounds for these new metrics. We expect our results to eventually have applications to the development and understanding of network search algorithms.

  20. Metrics for Blueprint Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of blueprint reading students, this instructional package is one of eight for the manufacturing occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology, measurement…

  1. Metrics for Food Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in food distribution, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  2. Metrics for Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in transportation, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

  3. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  4. Metrics for Cosmetology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of cosmetology students, this instructional package on cosmetology is part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology, measurement terms, and tools currently in use. Each of the…

  5. Metrics for Aviation Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of aviation electronics students, this instructional package is one of four for the transportation occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

  6. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  7. Metrics for Dental Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in becoming dental assistants, this instructional package is one of five for the health occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  8. A Measured Metric Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Edward D.; Wisner, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    A middle-road approach towards adopting the instruction of the metric system is presented. The realities of our cultural, economic, and political processes are taken into account and a 100 percent metric curriculum is viewed as unrealistic and anachronistic. (MP)

  9. Metrics for Fire Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in fire science education, this instructional package is one of two for the public service occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  10. The Science News Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Carol A.; Davidson, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Scientists, observatories, academic institutions and funding agencies persistently review the usefulness and productivity of investment in scientific research. The Science News Metrics was created over 10 years ago to review NASA's performance in this arena. The metric has been useful for many years as one facet in measuring the scientific discovery productivity of NASA-funded missions. The metric is computed independently of the agency and has been compiled in a consistent manner. Examination of the metric yields year-by-year insight into NASA science successes in a world wide context. The metric has shown that NASA's contribution to worldwide top science news stories has been approximately 5% overall with the Hubble Space Telescope dominating the performance.

  11. Vestibular influence on auditory metrical interpretation.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Trainor, Laurel J

    2008-06-01

    When we move to music we feel the beat, and this feeling can shape the sound we hear. Previous studies have shown that when people listen to a metrically ambiguous rhythm pattern, moving the body on a certain beat--adults, by actively bouncing themselves in synchrony with the experimenter, and babies, by being bounced passively in the experimenter's arms--can bias their auditory metrical representation so that they interpret the pattern in a corresponding metrical form [Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2005). Feeling the beat: Movement influences infant rhythm perception. Science, 308, 1430; Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2007). Hearing what the body feels: Auditory encoding of rhythmic movement. Cognition, 105, 533-546]. The present studies show that in adults, as well as in infants, metrical encoding of rhythm can be biased by passive motion. Furthermore, because movement of the head alone affected auditory encoding whereas movement of the legs alone did not, we propose that vestibular input may play a key role in the effect of movement on auditory rhythm processing. We discuss possible cortical and subcortical sites for the integration of auditory and vestibular inputs that may underlie the interaction between movement and auditory metrical rhythm perception.

  12. The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer on the GLOBAL HAWK: From Technology Development to Science Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Shannon; Denning, Richard; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Lim, Boon; Tanabe, Jordan; Tanner, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) during three recent field campaigns on the Global Hawk Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAV), focusing on the enabling technology that led to unprecedented observations of significant weather phenomenon, such as thermodynamic evolution of the tropical cyclone core during rapid intensification and the high resolution three dimensional mapping of several atmospheric river events. HAMSR is a 25 channel cross-track scanning microwave sounder with channels near the 60 and 118 GHz oxygen lines and the 183 GHz water vapor line. HAMSR was originally designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a technology demonstrator in 1998. Subsequent to this, HAMSR participated in three NASA hurricane field campaigns, CAMEX-4, TCSP and NAMMA. Beginning in 2008, HAMSR was extensively upgraded to deploy on the NASA Global Hawk (GH) platform and serve as an asset to the NASA sub-orbital program. HAMSR has participated on the Global Hawk during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification (GRIP) campaign, the 2011 Winter Storms and Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) campaign and is currently participating in the NASA Ventures Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign (2011-2015).

  13. Development of a Fast Forward Model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Schluessel, P.; Zhou, D.; Larar, A.; Smith, W.; Mango, S.

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer IASI is a modern satellite sensor with 8461 channels and a spectral resolution of 0 25 wavenumber It provides a wealth of information on atmospheric and surface properties Due to the high spectral resolution a large number of Radiative Transfer RT calculations through the inhomogeneous atmosphere are needed Usually only subsets of channels are used to perform physical inversions for atmospheric profiles This paper presents a novel radiative transfer model based on principal component analysis The Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model PCRTM predicts PC scores and associated derivatives with respect to various atmospheric and surface properties in PC space directly Usually less than 200 PCs are needed to regenerate the original radiance spectrum with accuracy better than instrument noise level Therefore the dimension of the spectrum is reduced by an order of magnitude for hyper spectral sensors with thousands of channels The reduction in dimension and the fast RTM make the physical inversion algorithm very fast and efficient Due to its significant savings in computational time the approach uses information from all measured channels There is no need to use only subset of channels The parameterization of the PCRTM model is derived from properties of PC scores and instrument line shape functions It is physical and accurate

  14. The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer on the GLOBAL HAWK: From Technology Development to Science Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Shannon; Denning, Richard; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Lim, Boon; Tanabe, Jordan; Tanner, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) during three recent field campaigns on the Global Hawk Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAV), focusing on the enabling technology that led to unprecedented observations of significant weather phenomenon, such as thermodynamic evolution of the tropical cyclone core during rapid intensification and the high resolution three dimensional mapping of several atmospheric river events. HAMSR is a 25 channel cross-track scanning microwave sounder with channels near the 60 and 118 GHz oxygen lines and the 183 GHz water vapor line. HAMSR was originally designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a technology demonstrator in 1998. Subsequent to this, HAMSR participated in three NASA hurricane field campaigns, CAMEX-4, TCSP and NAMMA. Beginning in 2008, HAMSR was extensively upgraded to deploy on the NASA Global Hawk (GH) platform and serve as an asset to the NASA sub-orbital program. HAMSR has participated on the Global Hawk during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification (GRIP) campaign, the 2011 Winter Storms and Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) campaign and is currently participating in the NASA Ventures Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign (2011-2015).

  15. Design and development an insect-inspired humanoid gripper that is structurally sound, yet very flexible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjaj, S.; Pun, N.

    2013-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges in mechanical robotics design is the balance between structural integrity and flexibility. An industrial robotic gripper could be technically advanced, however it contains only 1 Degree of Freedom (DOF). If one is to add more DOFs the design would become complex. On the other hand, the human wrist and fingers contain 23 DOFs, and is very lightweight and highly flexible. Robotics are becoming more and more part of our social life, they are more and more being incorporated in social, medical, and personal application. Therefore, for such robots to be effective, they need to mimic human performance, both in performance as well as in mechanical design. In this work, a Humanoid Gripper is designed and built to mimic a simplified version of a human wrist and fingers. This is attempted by mimicking insect and human designs of grippes. The main challenge was to insure that the gripper is structurally sound, but at the same time flexible and lightweight. A combination of light weight material and a unique design of finger actuators were applied. The gripper is controlled by a PARALLAX servo controller 28823 (PSCI), which mounted on the assembly itself. At the end, a 6 DOF humanoid gripper made of lightweight material, similar in size to the human arm, and is able to carry a weight of 1 Kg has been designed and built.

  16. The sound manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  17. Math Roots: The Beginnings of the Metric System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Art; Norris, Kit; Adams,Thomasina Lott, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the history of the metric system, from a proposal of a sixteenth-century mathematician to its implementation in Revolutionary France some 200 years later. Recent developments in the metric system are also discussed.

  18. Math Roots: The Beginnings of the Metric System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Art; Norris, Kit; Adams,Thomasina Lott, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the history of the metric system, from a proposal of a sixteenth-century mathematician to its implementation in Revolutionary France some 200 years later. Recent developments in the metric system are also discussed.

  19. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  20. Comparing Chemistry to Outcome: The Development of a Chemical Distance Metric, Coupled with Clustering and Hierarchal Visualization Applied to Macromolecular Crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Andrew E.; Ruby, Amanda M.; Luft, Joseph R.; Grant, Thomas D.; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Hunt, John F.; Snell, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Many bioscience fields employ high-throughput methods to screen multiple biochemical conditions. The analysis of these becomes tedious without a degree of automation. Crystallization, a rate limiting step in biological X-ray crystallography, is one of these fields. Screening of multiple potential crystallization conditions (cocktails) is the most effective method of probing a proteins phase diagram and guiding crystallization but the interpretation of results can be time-consuming. To aid this empirical approach a cocktail distance coefficient was developed to quantitatively compare macromolecule crystallization conditions and outcome. These coefficients were evaluated against an existing similarity metric developed for crystallization, the C6 metric, using both virtual crystallization screens and by comparison of two related 1,536-cocktail high-throughput crystallization screens. Hierarchical clustering was employed to visualize one of these screens and the crystallization results from an exopolyphosphatase-related protein from Bacteroides fragilis, (BfR192) overlaid on this clustering. This demonstrated a strong correlation between certain chemically related clusters and crystal lead conditions. While this analysis was not used to guide the initial crystallization optimization, it led to the re-evaluation of unexplained peaks in the electron density map of the protein and to the insertion and correct placement of sodium, potassium and phosphate atoms in the structure. With these in place, the resulting structure of the putative active site demonstrated features consistent with active sites of other phosphatases which are involved in binding the phosphoryl moieties of nucleotide triphosphates. The new distance coefficient, CDcoeff, appears to be robust in this application, and coupled with hierarchical clustering and the overlay of crystallization outcome, reveals information of biological relevance. While tested with a single example the potential applications

  1. Sound Advice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popke, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the planning and decision-making process in acquiring sound equipment for sports stadiums that will help make the experience of fans more pleasurable. The bidding process and use of consultants is explored. (GR)

  2. Sound Advice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popke, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the planning and decision-making process in acquiring sound equipment for sports stadiums that will help make the experience of fans more pleasurable. The bidding process and use of consultants is explored. (GR)

  3. Early development of polyphonic sound encoding and the high voice superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Marie, Céline; Trainor, Laurel J

    2014-05-01

    Previous research suggests that when two streams of pitched tones are presented simultaneously, adults process each stream in a separate memory trace, as reflected by mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the event-related potential (ERP). Furthermore, a superior encoding of the higher tone or voice in polyphonic sounds has been found for 7-month-old infants and both musician and non-musician adults in terms of a larger amplitude MMN in response to pitch deviant stimuli in the higher than the lower voice. These results, in conjunction with modeling work, suggest that the high voice superiority effect might originate in characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. If this is the case, the high voice superiority effect should be present in infants younger than 7 months. In the present study we tested 3-month-old infants as there is no evidence at this age of perceptual narrowing or specialization of musical processing according to the pitch or rhythmic structure of music experienced in the infant׳s environment. We presented two simultaneous streams of tones (high and low) with 50% of trials modified by 1 semitone (up or down), either on the higher or the lower tone, leaving 50% standard trials. Results indicate that like the 7-month-olds, 3-month-old infants process each tone in a separate memory trace and show greater saliency for the higher tone. Although MMN was smaller and later in both voices for the group of sixteen 3-month-olds compared to the group of sixteen 7-month-olds, the size of the difference in MMN for the high compared to low voice was similar across ages. These results support the hypothesis of an innate peripheral origin of the high voice superiority effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Software metrics: The quantitative impact of four factors on work rates experienced during software development. [reliability engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, J. E., Jr.; Judge, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    A model of a software development process is described. The software development process is seen to consist of a sequence of activities, such as 'program design' and 'module development' (or coding). A manpower estimate is made by multiplying code size by the rates (man months per thousand lines of code) for each of the activities relevant to the particular case of interest and summing up the results. The effect of four objectively determinable factors (organization, software product type, computer type, and code type) on productivity values for each of nine principal software development activities was assessed. Four factors were identified which account for 39% of the observed productivity variation.

  5. Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Casper, Brandon M.; Woodley, Christa M.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of effects to fishes and other aquatic life from impulsive sound produced by activities such as pile driving and seismic exploration is increasing throughout the world, particularly with the increased exploitation of oceans for energy production. At the same time, there are few data that provide insight into the effects of these sounds on fishes. The goal of this study was to provide quantitative data to define the levels of impulsive sound that could result in the onset of barotrauma to fish. A High Intensity Controlled Impedance Fluid filled wave Tube was developed that enabled laboratory simulation of high-energy impulsive sound that were characteristic of aquatic far-field, plane-wave acoustic conditions. The sounds used were based upon the impulsive sounds generated by an impact hammer striking a steel shell pile. Neutrally buoyant juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were exposed to impulsive sounds and subsequently evaluated for barotrauma injuries. Observed injuries ranged from mild hematomas at the lowest sound exposure levels to organ hemorrhage at the highest sound exposure levels. Frequency of observed injuries were used to compute a biological response weighted index (RWI) to evaluate the physiological impact of injuries at the different exposure levels. As single strike and cumulative sound exposure levels (SELss, SELcum respectively) increased, RWI values increased. Based on the results, tissue damage associated with adverse physiological costs occurred when the RWI was greater than 2. In terms of sound exposure levels a RWI of 2 was achieved for 1920 strikes by 177 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s SELss yielding a SELcum of 210 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s, and for 960 strikes by 180 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s SELss yielding a SELcum of 210 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s. These metrics define thresholds for onset of injury in juvenile Chinook salmon. PMID:22745695

  6. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  7. An Arithmetic Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominici, Diego

    2011-01-01

    This work introduces a distance between natural numbers not based on their position on the real line but on their arithmetic properties. We prove some metric properties of this distance and consider a possible extension.

  8. General Motors Goes Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Ted

    1976-01-01

    Describes the program to convert to the metric system all of General Motors Corporation products. Steps include establishing policy regarding employee-owned tools, setting up training plans, and making arrangements with suppliers. (MF)

  9. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  10. An Arithmetic Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominici, Diego

    2011-01-01

    This work introduces a distance between natural numbers not based on their position on the real line but on their arithmetic properties. We prove some metric properties of this distance and consider a possible extension.

  11. A metric for success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Gary P.

    1994-05-01

    The federal agencies are working with industry to ease adoption of the metric system. The goal is to help U.S. industry compete more successfully in the global marketplace, increase exports, and create new jobs. The strategy is to use federal procurement, financial assistance, and other business-related activities to encourage voluntary conversion. Based upon the positive experiences of firms and industries that have converted, federal agencies have concluded that metric use will yield long-term benefits that are beyond any one-time costs or inconveniences. It may be time for additional steps to move the Nation out of its dual-system comfort zone and continue to progress toward metrication. This report includes 'Metric Highlights in U.S. History'.

  12. Fertilization and development of eggs of the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, on sounding rockets in space.

    PubMed

    Ubbels, G A; Berendsen, W; Kerkvliet, S; Narraway, J

    1992-01-01

    Egg rotation and centrifugation experiments strongly suggest a role for gravity in the determination of the spatial structure of amphibian embryos. Decisive experiments can only be made in Space. Eggs of Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad, were the first vertebrate eggs which were successfully fertilized on Sounding Rockets in Space. Unfixed, newly fertilized eggs survived reentry, and a reasonable number showed a seemingly normal gastrulation but died between gastrulation and neurulation. Only a few reached the larval stage, but these developed abnormally. In the future, we intend to test whether this abnormal morphogenesis is due to reentry perturbations, or due to a real microgravity effect, through perturbation of the reinitiation of meiosis and other processes, or started by later sperm penetration.

  13. Development of user applications for earth resources survey data in urban and regional planning in the Puget Sound area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westerlund, F. V.

    1975-01-01

    User applications of remote sensing in Washington State are described. The first project created a multi-temporal land use/land cover data base for the environs of the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, to serve planning and management operations of the Port of Seattle. The second is an on-going effort to develop a capability within the Puget Sound Governmental Conference, a council of governments (COG), to inventory and monitor land use within its four county jurisdiction. Developmental work has focused on refinement of land use/cover classification systems applicable at this regional scale and various levels of detail in relation to program requirements of the agency. Related research, refinement of manual methods, user training and approaches to technology transfer are discussed.

  14. Fertilization and development of eggs of the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, on sounding rockets in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubbels, Geertje A.; Berendsen, Willem; Kerkvliet, Sonja; Narraway, Jenny

    Egg rotation and centrifugation experiments strongly suggest a role for gravity in the determination of the spatial structure of amphibian embryos. Decisive experiments can only be made in Space. Eggs of Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad, were the first vertebrate eggs which were successfully fertilized on Sounding Rockets in Space. Unfixed, newly fertilized eggs survived reentry, and a reasonable number showed a seemingly normal gastrulation but died between gastrulation and neurulation. Only a few reached the larval stage, but these developed abnormally. In the future, we inted to test whether this abnormal morphogenesis is due to reentry perturbations, or due to a real microgravity effect, through perturbation of the reinitiation of meiosis and other processes, or started by later sperm penetration.

  15. The Automatic Activation of Sound-Letter Knowledge: An Alternative Interpretation of Analogy and Priming Effects in Early Spelling Development

    PubMed

    Nation; Hulme

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents two experiments investigating 6-year-old children's use of analogy in spelling. In Experiment 1, children make analogies between a visible clue word and a similar sounding target word. Analogies are made to the same extent regardless of whether the clue and target share a rime unit, a consonant vowel (CV) or a vowel but are not made when only common letters are shared. A second experiment investigates children's spelling by analogy when the clue word is not visible. Again, an equal number of analogies are made between words sharing a rime unit, a CV or a vowel. From the earliest stages of learning to spell, children benefit from drawing analogies (at the level of individual phonemes) with words that they know. These findings are related to recent connectionist models of the development of reading and spelling skills.

  16. Spatial and temporal determinants of A-weighted and frequency specific sound levels-An elastic net approach.

    PubMed

    Walker, Erica D; Hart, Jaime E; Koutrakis, Petros; Cavallari, Jennifer M; VoPham, Trang; Luna, Marcos; Laden, Francine

    2017-11-01

    Urban sound levels are a ubiquitous environmental stressor and have been shown to be associated with a wide variety of health outcomes. While much is known about the predictors of A-weighted sound pressure levels in the urban environment, far less is known about other frequencies. To develop a series of spatial-temporal sound models to predict A-weighted sound pressure levels, low, mid, and high frequency sound for Boston, Massachusetts. Short-term sound levels were gathered at n = 400 sites from February 2015 - February 2016. Spatial and meteorological attributes at or near the sound monitoring site were obtained using publicly available data and a portable weather station. An elastic net variable selection technique was used to select predictors of A-weighted, low, mid, and high frequency sound. The final models for low, mid, high, and A-weighted sound levels explained 59 - 69% of the variability in each measure. Similar to other A-weighted models, our sound models included transportation related variables such as length of roads and bus lines in the surrounding area; distance to road and rail lines; traffic volume, vehicle mix, residential and commercial land use. However, frequency specific models highlighted additional predictors not included in the A-weighted model including temperature, vegetation, impervious surfaces, vehicle mix, and density of entertainment establishments and restaurants. Building spatial temporal models to characterize sound levels across the frequency spectrum using an elastic net approach can be a promising tool for noise exposure assessments within the urban soundscape. Models of sound's character may give us additional important sound exposure metrics to be utilized in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  18. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  19. Development of An Empirical Water Quality Model for Stormwater Based on Watershed Land Use in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; May, Christopher W.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Judd, Chaeli; Johnston, Robert K.

    2007-03-29

    The Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed is located on the west side of Puget Sound in Kitsap County, Washington, U.S.A. (Figure 1). The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA-DOE), Kitsap County, City of Bremerton, City of Bainbridge Island, City of Port Orchard, and the Suquamish Tribe have joined in a cooperative effort to evaluate water-quality conditions in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and correct identified problems. A major focus of this project, known as Project ENVVEST, is to develop Water Clean-up (TMDL) Plans for constituents listed on the 303(d) list within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed. Segments within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed were listed on the State of Washington’s 1998 303(d) because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination, which lacked sufficient data for a contaminant mass balance calculation for the watershed. This paper summarizes the development of an empirical model for estimating contaminant concentrations in all streams discharging into Sinclair and Dyes Inlets based on watershed land use, 18 storm events, and wet/dry season baseflow conditions between November 2002 and May 2005. Stream pollutant concentrations along with estimates for outfalls and surface runoff will be used in estimating the loading and ultimately in establishing a Water Cleanup Plan (TMDL) for the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed.

  20. Social network analysis as a metric for the development of an interdisciplinary, inter-organizational research team.

    PubMed

    Ryan, David; Emond, Marcel; Lamontagne, Marie-Eve

    2014-01-01

    The development of an interdisciplinary and inter-organizational research team among eight of Canada's leading emergency, geriatric medicine and rehabilitation researchers affiliated with six academic centers has provided an opportunity to study the development of a distributed team of interdisciplinary researchers using the methods of social network theory and analysis and to consider whether these methods are useful tools in the science of team science. Using traditional network analytic methods, the team of investigators were asked to rate their relationships with one another retrospectively at one year prior to the team's first meeting and contemporaneously at two subsequent yearly intervals. Using network analytic statistics and visualizations the data collected finds an increase in network density and reciprocity of relationships together with more distributed centrality consistent with the findings of other researchers. These network development characteristics suggest that the distributed research team is developing as it should and supports the assertion that network analysis is a useful science of team science research tool.

  1. Speech based transmission index for all: An intelligibility metric for variable hearing ability.

    PubMed

    Mechergui, Nader; Djaziri-Larbi, Sonia; Jaïdane, Mériem

    2017-03-01

    A method to measure the speech intelligibility in public address systems for normal hearing and hearing impaired persons is presented. The proposed metric is an extension of the speech based Speech Transmission Index to account for accurate perceptual masking and variable hearing ability: The sound excitation pattern generated at the ear is accurately computed using an auditory filter model, and its shapes depend on frequency, sound level, and hearing impairment. This extension yields a better prediction of the intensity of auditory masking which is used to rectify the modulation transfer function and thus to objectively assess the speech intelligibility experienced by hearing impaired as well as by normal hearing persons in public spaces. The proposed metric was developed within the framework of the European Active and Assisted Living research program, and was labeled "SB-STI for All." Extensive subjective in-Lab and in vivo tests have been conducted and the proposed metric proved to have a good correlation with subjective intelligibility scores.

  2. Another ``new'' metric for outdoor amphitheater criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berens, Robert S.

    2005-09-01

    Since the late 1960s, when amplified musical performances began being held there, Atlanta's open-air Chastain Park Amphitheater has been the source of enormous friction between the City, the venue's owner, and the wealthy, politically-connected residential community abutting the Park. To identify the characteristics of concert event sound to which neighbors are particularly sensitive, sound levels were monitored during 17 concerts, ranging from quiet jazz and classical performances to rock-and-roll and hip-hop. Community sound levels were monitored at 25 locations, including nine where measurements were made simultaneously inside and outside homes. The study team confirmed that low-frequency sound was the one feature of concert-related sound that community residents identified as most problematic, but that only a relatively small proportion of the Chastain concerts resulted in any significant community annoyance. After assessing the spectral characteristics of the most troublesome concerts, a new compliance metric has been proposed to address low-frequency annoyance issues: a two-tiered exceedence threshold, based on 1-minute LEQ levels in the 63 Hz octave band measured at the rear of the amphitheater, with a concert-event ``exceedence'' defined to be either a 1-minute LEQ(63 Hz) level greater than 95 dB or more than ten 1-minute LEQ(63 Hz) levels greater than 90 dB.

  3. Young Children's Letter-Sound Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Barbara; Carr, Alex

    2003-01-01

    This study with 83 normally developing children (ages 4-6) compared three essential skills in early literacy, letter-sound recognition, letter-sound recall, and letter reproduction. Children performed better in letter-sound recognition than in letter-sound recall and letter reproduction. There were no performance differences due to sex or age.…

  4. Associations between rate of force development metrics and throwing velocity in elite team handball players: a short research report.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mário C; Saavedra, Francisco J; Abrantes, Catarina; Aidar, Felipe J

    2011-09-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring participant's development in distinct sports, yet limited and contradictory data are available in trained subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw in elite team handball players and selected measures of rate of force development like force, power, velocity, and bar displacement during a concentric only bench press exercise in elite male handball players. Fitteen elite senior male team handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric only bench press test with 25, 35, and 45 kg as well as having one-repetition maximum strength determined. Ball throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun. The results of this study indicated significant associations between ball velocity and time at maximum rate of force development (0, 66; p<0.05) and rate of force development at peak force (0,56; p<0.05) only with 25kg load. The current research indicated that ball velocity was only median associated with maximum rate of force development with light loads. A training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team handball players should emphasize bench press movement using light loads.

  5. Associations Between Rate of Force Development Metrics and Throwing Velocity in Elite Team Handball Players: a Short Research Report

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Mário C.; Saavedra, Francisco J.; Abrantes, Catarina; Aidar, Felipe J.

    2011-01-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring participant’s development in distinct sports, yet limited and contradictory data are available in trained subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw in elite team handball players and selected measures of rate of force development like force, power, velocity, and bar displacement during a concentric only bench press exercise in elite male handball players. Fitteen elite senior male team handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric only bench press test with 25, 35, and 45 kg as well as having one-repetition maximum strength determined. Ball throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun. The results of this study indicated significant associations between ball velocity and time at maximum rate of force development (0, 66; p<0.05) and rate of force development at peak force (0,56; p<0.05) only with 25kg load. The current research indicated that ball velocity was only median associated with maximum rate of force development with light loads. A training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team handball players should emphasize bench press movement using light loads. PMID:23487363

  6. Object-oriented productivity metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John L.; Eller, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Software productivity metrics are useful for sizing and costing proposed software and for measuring development productivity. Estimating and measuring source lines of code (SLOC) has proven to be a bad idea because it encourages writing more lines of code and using lower level languages. Function Point Analysis is an improved software metric system, but it is not compatible with newer rapid prototyping and object-oriented approaches to software development. A process is presented here for counting object-oriented effort points, based on a preliminary object-oriented analysis. It is proposed that this approach is compatible with object-oriented analysis, design, programming, and rapid prototyping. Statistics gathered on actual projects are presented to validate the approach.

  7. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  8. Transformational Research Engineering: Research Design Metrics for In-Depth and Empowering K-12 Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, James Edward

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of the Tri-Squared Test as an advanced statistical measure used to verify and validate the research outcomes. This type of statistical measure is ideal for teachers professional development as educators can create and validate instruments for educational settings. The initial research investigation published…

  9. Metrics Concept Report. Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software (CARDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-31

    Through Autom ation ............................................................... 24 7.1 The M etrics Definition Database...metrics, analyzing the metrics, and acting on the results of the analysis. The Added Value through Automation Section describes a database tool to...to the development and implementation of metrics in other project areas, " Automation of the methods used to define, analyze, report, and maintain

  10. A Report of the NRL Technical Metrics Workshop 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-09

    to identify state-of-the- art technical and scientific metrics needed by the acoustic and oceanographic research and development communities...6 2.5 The Use of Technical and Other Metrics within an Organization .................................................... 7 3. STATE-OF-THE- ART ...7 3.2 State-of-the- Art METOC/Acoustic/Bottom Metrics

  11. Defining Sustainability Metric Targets in an Institutional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Jason N.; Newman, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to expand on the development of university and college sustainability metrics by implementing an adaptable metric target strategy. Design/methodology/approach: A combined qualitative and quantitative methodology is derived that both defines what a sustainable metric target might be and describes the path a…

  12. Defining Sustainability Metric Targets in an Institutional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Jason N.; Newman, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to expand on the development of university and college sustainability metrics by implementing an adaptable metric target strategy. Design/methodology/approach: A combined qualitative and quantitative methodology is derived that both defines what a sustainable metric target might be and describes the path a…

  13. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15...) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act..., when the metric system of measurement will be used in the agency's procurements, grants, and other...

  14. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15...) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act..., when the metric system of measurement will be used in the agency's procurements, grants, and other...

  15. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15...) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act..., when the metric system of measurement will be used in the agency's procurements, grants, and other...

  16. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15...) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act..., when the metric system of measurement will be used in the agency's procurements, grants, and other...

  17. What Research Says to the Teacher: Metric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbecker, Sheralyn S.

    How measurement systems developed is briefly reviewed, followed by comments on the international conversion to the metric system and a lengthier discussion of the history of the metric controversy in the U.S. Statements made by supporters of the customary and metric systems are listed. The role of education is detailed in terms of teacher…

  18. Metrication of Technical Career Education. Final Report. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feirer, John L.

    This second volume of the metrication study report contains the instructional materials developed to help the industrial and vocational education fields to use the metric system, primarily in the area of industrial arts from the seventh through the fourteenth year. The materials are presented in three sections. Section 1, Going Metric in…

  19. Metrication of Technical Career Education. Final Report. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feirer, John L.

    This second volume of the metrication study report contains the instructional materials developed to help the industrial and vocational education fields to use the metric system, primarily in the area of industrial arts from the seventh through the fourteenth year. The materials are presented in three sections. Section 1, Going Metric in…

  20. Implementation of Metric Measurement into the Vocational Curriculum of Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James P.

    To implement metric education in Pennsylvania's vocational curriculum, the following objectives were planned: (1) establish two pilot metric measurement sites; (2) reproduce 150 copies of the 55 metric measurement booklets developed by the National Center for Research in Vocational Education (NCRVE); (3) orient vocational administrators to the…

  1. Difference in precedence effect between children and adults signifies development of sound localization abilities in complex listening tasks.

    PubMed

    Litovsky, Ruth Y; Godar, Shelly P

    2010-10-01

    The precedence effect refers to the fact that humans are able to localize sound in reverberant environments, because the auditory system assigns greater weight to the direct sound (lead) than the later-arriving sound (lag). In this study, absolute sound localization was studied for single source stimuli and for dual source lead-lag stimuli in 4-5 year old children and adults. Lead-lag delays ranged from 5-100 ms. Testing was conducted in free field, with pink noise bursts emitted from loudspeakers positioned on a horizontal arc in the frontal field. Listeners indicated how many sounds were heard and the perceived location of the first- and second-heard sounds. Results suggest that at short delays (up to 10 ms), the lead dominates sound localization strongly at both ages, and localization errors are similar to those with single-source stimuli. At longer delays errors can be large, stemming from over-integration of the lead and lag, interchanging of perceived locations of the first-heard and second-heard sounds due to temporal order confusion, and dominance of the lead over the lag. The errors are greater for children than adults. Results are discussed in the context of maturation of auditory and non-auditory factors.

  2. Development of an Interdisciplinary Team Communication Framework and Quality Metrics for Home-Based Medical Care Practices.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Roya; Sheehan, Orla C; Garrigues, Sarah K; Saliba, Debra; Leff, Bruce; Ritchie, Christine S

    2016-08-01

    The unique needs of homebound adults receiving home-based medical care (HBMC) (ie, home-based primary care and home-based palliative care services) are ideally provided by interdisciplinary care teams (IDTs) that provide coordinated care. The composition of team members from an array of organizations and the unique dimension of providing care in the home present specific challenges to timely access and communication of patient care information. The objective of this work was to develop a conceptual framework and corresponding quality indicators (QIs) that assess how IDT members for HBMC practices access and communicate key patient information with each other. A systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature was performed to inform a framework for care coordination in the home and the development of candidate QIs to assess processes by which all IDT members optimally access and use patient information. A technical expert panel (TEP) participated in a modified Delphi process to assess the validity and feasibility of each QI and to identify which would be most suitable for testing in the field. Thematic analysis of literature revealed 4 process themes for how HBMC practices might engage in high-quality care coordination: using electronic medical records, conducting interdisciplinary team meetings, sharing standardized patient assessments, and communicating via secure e-messaging. Based on these themes, 9 candidate QIs were developed to reflect these processes. Three candidate QIs were assessed by the TEP as valid and feasible to measure in an HBMC practice setting. These indicators focused on use of IDT meetings, standardized patient assessments, and secure e-messaging. Translating the complex issue of care coordination into QIs will improve care delivered to vulnerable home-limited adults who receive HBMC. Guided by the literature, we developed a framework to reflect optimal care coordination in the home setting and identified 3 candidate QIs to field-test in

  3. Development of Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Assessments of the Modulation Type with Regard to Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed; however, further improvements are needed, especially in terms of articulation and sound quality. In this study, the intelligibility and sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulation] were evaluated. The results showed that DSB-TC and transposed speech were more intelligible than DSB-SC speech, and transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to air-conducted speech in terms of sound quality. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  4. English Speech Sound Development in Preschool-Aged Children from Bilingual English-Spanish Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Kester, Ellen S.; Davis, Barbara L.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: English speech acquisition by typically developing 3- to 4-year-old children with monolingual English was compared to English speech acquisition by typically developing 3- to 4-year-old children with bilingual English-Spanish backgrounds. We predicted that exposure to Spanish would not affect the English phonetic inventory but would…

  5. Software Metrics Useful Tools or Wasted Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    shared by the developers of the field of software metrics. Capers Jones, Chairman of Software Productivity Research, Inc. and a noted pioneer in...development efforts in terms of function points. That will give you a basis for measuring productivity. Capers Jones, chairman of Software... Capers Jones, "Building a better metric," Computerworld Extra, 22 (June 20, 1988):39. 24 ALlen J. Albrecht and John E. Gaffney, Jr., "Software Function

  6. GRC GSFC TDRSS Waveform Metrics Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, Dale J.

    2013-01-01

    The report presents software metrics and porting metrics for the GGT Waveform. The porting was from a ground-based COTS SDR, the SDR-3000, to the CoNNeCT JPL SDR. The report does not address any of the Operating Environment (OE) software development, nor the original TDRSS waveform development at GSFC for the COTS SDR. With regard to STRS, the report presents compliance data and lessons learned.

  7. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    Of the many geophysical remote-sensing techniques available today, a few are suitable for the water ice-rich, layered material expected at the north martian ice cap. Radio echo sounding has been used for several decades to determine ice thickness and internal structure. Selection of operating frequency is a tradeoff between signal attenuation (which typically increases with frequency and ice temperature) and resolution (which is proportional to wavelength). Antenna configuration and size will be additional considerations for a mission to Mars. Several configurations for ice-penetrating radar systems are discussed: these include orbiter-borne sounders, sounding antennas trailed by balloons and penetrators, and lander-borne systems. Lander-borne systems could include short-wave systems capable of resolving fine structure and layering in the upper meters beneath the lander. Spread-spectrum and deconvolution techniques can be used to increase the depth capability of a radar system. If soundings over several locations are available (e.g., with balloons, rovers, or panning short-wave systems), then it will be easier to resolve internal layering, variations in basal reflection coefficient (from which material properties may be inferred), and the geometry of nonhorizontal features. Sonic sounding has a long history in oil and gas exploration. It is, however, unlikely that large explosive charges, or even swept-frequency techniques such as Vibroseis, would be suitable for a Polar lander -- these systems are capable of penetrating several kilometers of material at frequencies of 10-200 Hz, but the energy required to generate the sound waves is large and potentially destructive. The use of audio-frequency and ultrasonic sound generated by piezoelectric crystals is discussed as a possible method to explore layering and fine features in the upper meters of the ice cap. Appropriate choice of transducer(s) will permit operation over a range of fixed or modulated frequencies

  8. Metrical Encoding in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalson, Geoffrey A.; Byrd, Courtney T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore metrical aspects of phonological encoding (i.e., stress and syllable boundary assignment) in adults who do and do not stutter (AWS and AWNS, respectively). Method: Participants monitored nonwords for target sounds during silent phoneme monitoring tasks across two distinct experiments. For…

  9. Encounters in an online brand community: development and validation of a metric for value co-creation by customers.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Ling

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in service marketing have demonstrated the potential value co-creation by customers who participate in online brand communities (OBCs). Therefore, this study forecasts the co-created value by understanding the participation/behavior of customers in a multi-stakeholder OBC. This six-phase qualitative and quantitative investigation conceptualizes, constructs, refines, and tests a 12-item three-dimensional scale for measuring key factors that are related to the experience, interpersonal interactions, and social relationships that affect the value co-creation by customers in an OBC. The scale captures stable psychometric properties, measured using various reliability and validity tests, and can be applied across various industries. Finally, the utility implications and limitations of the proposed scale are discussed, and potential future research directions considered.

  10. Fault Management Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  11. Successful Experiences in Teaching Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Jeffrey V., Ed.

    In this publication are presentations on specific experiences in teaching metrics, made at a National Bureau of Standards conference. Ideas of value to teachers and administrators are described in reports on: SI units of measure; principles and practices of teaching metric; metric and the school librarian; teaching metric through television and…

  12. Changing to the Metric System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Donald L.; Dowling, Kenneth W.

    This report examines educational aspects of the conversion to the metric system of measurement in the United States. Statements of positions on metrication and basic mathematical skills are given from various groups. Base units, symbols, prefixes, and style of the metric system are outlined. Guidelines for teaching metric concepts are given,…

  13. Using Metrics in Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bame, E. Allen

    This metric supplement is intended as a guide to aid the industrial arts teacher in incorporating metrics in the classroom. A list of student objectives for measurement skills is followed by an overview of the history of measurement, an argument for change to the metric system in the United States, and a discussion of metric basics (common terms).…

  14. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  15. Metrics for Labeled Markov Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desharnais, Josee; Jagadeesan, Radha; Gupta, Vineet; Panangaden, Prakash

    1999-01-01

    Partial Labeled Markov Chains are simultaneously generalizations of process algebra and of traditional Markov chains. They provide a foundation for interacting discrete probabilistic systems, the interaction being synchronization on labels as in process algebra. Existing notions of process equivalence are too sensitive to the exact probabilities of various transitions. This paper addresses contextual reasoning principles for reasoning about more robust notions of "approximate" equivalence between concurrent interacting probabilistic systems. The present results indicate that:We develop a family of metrics between partial labeled Markov chains to formalize the notion of distance between processes. We show that processes at distance zero are bisimilar. We describe a decision procedure to compute the distance between two processes. We show that reasoning about approximate equivalence can be done compositionally by showing that process combinators do not increase distance. We introduce an asymptotic metric to capture asymptotic properties of Markov chains; and show that parallel composition does not increase asymptotic distance.

  16. Assessment of proposed fighter agility metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.; Valasek, John; Eggold, David P.; Downing, David R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of proposed metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility. A novel framework for classifying these metrics is developed and applied. A set of transient metrics intended to quantify the axial and pitch agility of fighter aircraft is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation. Test techniques and data reduction method are proposed, and sensitivities to pilot introduced errors during flight testing is investigated. Results indicate that the power onset and power loss parameters are promising candidates for quantifying axial agility, while maximum pitch up and pitch down rates are for quantifying pitch agility.

  17. Metric learning for DNA microarray data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Masao; Seto, Masao

    2009-12-01

    In many microarray studies, gene set selection is an important preliminary step for subsequent main task such as tumor classification, cancer subtype identification, etc. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using metric learning as an alternative to gene set selection. We develop a simple metric learning algorithm aiming to use it for microarray data analysis. Exploiting a property of the algorithm, we introduce a novel approach for extending the metric learning to be adaptive. We apply the algorithm to previously studied microarray data on malignant lymphoma subtype identification.

  18. Developing a culturally and ecologically sound intervention program for youth exposed to war and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, William R; Layne, Christopher M; Steinberg, Alan M; Arslanagic, Berina; Pynoos, Robert S

    2003-04-01

    This article describes the public mental health approach used to develop and implement a school-based postwar trauma/grief intervention program for adolescents in Bosnia-Herzegovina. This approach includes development of multilateral partnerships with local and ministerial stakeholders, systematic assessment that yields a detailed understanding of the specific range and severity of trauma and loss experiences, current adversities and trauma reminders among the affected population, and a training program aimed at developing the capacities of local service providers and an indigenous support infrastructure so that the intervention program may be directed and sustained by people within the communities served. Concluding comments detail an expanded conceptual framework for public mental health interventions that may be appropriate for terrorist and mass-casualty events.

  19. Developing Sound Skills for Reading: Teaching Phonological Awareness to Preschoolers with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliver, Megan; Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Leigh, Greg; Gunnourie, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of intervention for developing deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) preschoolers' phonological awareness (PA) skills. Thirty children (mean age 57 months) with aided, bilateral hearing loss (and who primarily communicated using spoken English) were recruited in the year prior to commencing formal schooling. The…

  20. The Development of a Psychometrically-Sound Instrument to Measure Teachers' Multidimensional Attitudes toward Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahat, Marian

    2008-01-01

    The "Multidimensional Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale" (MATIES) was developed to effectively measure affective, cognitive and behavioural aspects of attitudes, within the realm of inclusive education that includes physical, social and curricular inclusion. Models within Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory were used…

  1. e-Modeling--Helping Learners to Develop Sound e-Learning Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greener, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The learning and teaching relationship, whether online or in the classroom, is changing. Mentis offers a typology of teacher roles gathered from current literature on e-learning including instructor, designer, guide, mediator, curator and mentor, which offer the university teacher a striking range of ways in which to develop relationships with…

  2. Developing Sound Skills for Reading: Teaching Phonological Awareness to Preschoolers with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliver, Megan; Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Leigh, Greg; Gunnourie, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of intervention for developing deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) preschoolers' phonological awareness (PA) skills. Thirty children (mean age 57 months) with aided, bilateral hearing loss (and who primarily communicated using spoken English) were recruited in the year prior to commencing formal schooling. The…

  3. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  4. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  5. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  6. Development of a Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Model for Propagation of Transient Sounds in Very Shallow Water.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Mark W; Luczkovich, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    This finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model for sound propagation in very shallow water uses pressure and velocity grids with both 3-dimensional Cartesian and 2-dimensional cylindrical implementations. Parameters, including water and sediment properties, can vary in each dimension. Steady-state and transient signals from discrete and distributed sources, such as the surface of a vibrating pile, can be used. The cylindrical implementation uses less computation but requires axial symmetry. The Cartesian implementation allows asymmetry. FDTD calculations compare well with those of a split-step parabolic equation. Applications include modeling the propagation of individual fish sounds, fish aggregation sounds, and distributed sources.

  7. TU-CD-BRD-04: UCLA Experience, with Focus On Developing Metrics and Using RO-ILS

    SciTech Connect

    Beron, P.

    2015-06-15

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  8. Datasets of Odontocete Sounds Annotated for Developing Automatic Detection Methods, FY09-10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Energy Ratio Mapping Algorithm (ERMA) method for use on gliders and its extension to new species and populations; [3] reports on development of a new...Navy’s AUTEC range in the Bahamas in summer 2010 and off the Kona coast of Hawaii in late 2009. Species for which ERMA detectors have been...regions for which this has been done now includes Washington state (Haro Strait area), Hawaii (Kona coast of the big island of Hawai’i), and the

  9. Fighter agility metrics. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    Fighter flying qualities and combat capabilities are currently measured and compared in terms relating to vehicle energy, angular rates and sustained acceleration. Criteria based on these measurable quantities have evolved over the past several decades and are routinely used to design aircraft structures, aerodynamics, propulsion and control systems. While these criteria, or metrics, have the advantage of being well understood, easily verified and repeatable during test, they tend to measure the steady state capability of the aircraft and not its ability to transition quickly from one state to another. Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A complete set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available.

  10. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  11. Fighter agility metrics. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    Fighter flying qualities and combat capabilities are currently measured and compared in terms relating to vehicle energy, angular rates and sustained acceleration. Criteria based on these measurable quantities have evolved over the past several decades and are routinely used to design aircraft structures, aerodynamics, propulsion and control systems. While these criteria, or metrics, have the advantage of being well understood, easily verified and repeatable during test, they tend to measure the steady state capability of the aircraft and not its ability to transition quickly from one state to another. Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A complete set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available.

  12. Robust Transfer Metric Learning for Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhengming; Fu, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Metric learning has attracted increasing attention due to its critical role in image analysis and classification. Conventional metric learning always assumes that the training and test data are sampled from the same or similar distribution. However, to build an effective distance metric, we need abundant supervised knowledge (i.e., side/label information), which is generally inaccessible in practice, because of the expensive labeling cost. In this paper, we develop a robust transfer metric learning (RTML) framework to effectively assist the unlabeled target learning by transferring the knowledge from the well-labeled source domain. Specifically, RTML exploits knowledge transfer to mitigate the domain shift in two directions, i.e., sample space and feature space. In the sample space, domain-wise and class-wise adaption schemes are adopted to bridge the gap of marginal and conditional distribution disparities across two domains. In the feature space, our metric is built in a marginalized denoising fashion and low-rank constraint, which make it more robust to tackle noisy data in reality. Furthermore, we design an explicit rank constraint regularizer to replace the rank minimization NP-hard problem to guide the low-rank metric learning. Experimental results on several standard benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed RTML by comparing it with the state-of-the-art transfer learning and metric learning algorithms.

  13. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  14. SAPHIRE 8 Quality Assurance Software Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt G. Vedros

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this review of software metrics is to examine the quality of the metrics gathered in the 2010 IV&V and to set an outline for results of updated metrics runs to be performed. We find from the review that the maintenance of accepted quality standards presented in the SAPHIRE 8 initial Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of April, 2010 is most easily achieved by continuing to utilize the tools used in that effort while adding a metric of bug tracking and resolution. Recommendations from the final IV&V were to continue periodic measurable metrics such as McCabe's complexity measure to ensure quality is maintained. The four software tools used to measure quality in the IV&V were CodeHealer, Coverage Validator, Memory Validator, Performance Validator, and Thread Validator. These are evaluated based on their capabilities. We attempted to run their latest revisions with the newer Delphi 2010 based SAPHIRE 8 code that has been developed and was successful with all of the Validator series of tools on small tests. Another recommendation from the IV&V was to incorporate a bug tracking and resolution metric. To improve our capability of producing this metric, we integrated our current web reporting system with the SpiraTest test management software purchased earlier this year to track requirements traceability.

  15. Sounding narrative medicine: studying students' professional identity development at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eliza; Balmer, Dorene; Hermann, Nellie; Graham, Gillian; Charon, Rita

    2014-02-01

    To learn what medical students derive from training in humanities, social sciences, and the arts in a narrative medicine curriculum and to explore narrative medicine's framework as it relates to students' professional development. On completion of required intensive, half-semester narrative medicine seminars in 2010, 130 second-year medical students at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons participated in focus group discussions of their experiences. Focus group transcriptions were submitted to close iterative reading by a team who performed a grounded-theory-guided content analysis, generating a list of codes into which statements were sorted to develop overarching themes. Provisional interpretations emerged from the close and repeated readings, suggesting a fresh conceptual understanding of how and through what avenues such education achieves its goals in clinical training. Students' comments articulated the known features of narrative medicine--attention, representation, and affiliation--and endorsed all three as being valuable to professional identity development. They spoke of the salience of their work in narrative medicine to medicine and medical education and its dividends of critical thinking, reflection, and pleasure. Critiques constituted a small percentage of the statements in each category. Students report that narrative medicine seminars support complex interior, interpersonal, perceptual, and expressive capacities. Students' lived experiences confirm some expectations of narrative medicine curricular planners while exposing fresh effects of such work to view.

  16. Sounding Narrative Medicine: Studying Students’ Professional Identity Development at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eliza; Balmer, Dorene; Hermann, Nellie; Graham, Gillian; Charon, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To learn what medical students derive from training in humanities, social sciences, and the arts in a narrative medicine curriculum and to explore narrative medicine’s framework as it relates to students’ professional development. Method On completion of required intensive, half-semester narrative medicine seminars in 2010, 130 second-year medical students at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons participated in focus group discussions of their experiences. Focus group transcriptions were submitted to close iterative reading by a team who performed a grounded-theory-guided content analysis, generating a list of codes into which statements were sorted to develop overarching themes. Provisional interpretations emerged from the close and repeated readings, suggesting a fresh conceptual understanding of how and through what avenues such education achieves its goals in clinical training. Results Students’ comments articulated the known features of narrative medicine—attention, representation, and affiliation—and endorsed all three as being valuable to professional identity development. They spoke of the salience of their work in narrative medicine to medicine and medical education and its dividends of critical thinking, reflection, and pleasure. Critiques constituted a small percentage of the statements in each category. Conclusions Students report that narrative medicine seminars support complex interior, interpersonal, perceptual, and expressive capacities. Students’ lived experiences confirm some expectations of narrative medicine curricular planners while exposing fresh effects of such work to view. PMID:24362390

  17. English speech sound development in preschool-aged children from bilingual English-Spanish environments.

    PubMed

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E; Kester, Ellen S; Davis, Barbara L; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2008-07-01

    English speech acquisition by typically developing 3- to 4-year-old children with monolingual English was compared to English speech acquisition by typically developing 3- to 4-year-old children with bilingual English-Spanish backgrounds. We predicted that exposure to Spanish would not affect the English phonetic inventory but would increase error frequency and type in bilingual children. Single-word speech samples were collected from 33 children. Phonetically transcribed samples for the 3 groups (monolingual English children, English-Spanish bilingual children who were predominantly exposed to English, and English-Spanish bilingual children with relatively equal exposure to English and Spanish) were compared at 2 time points and for change over time for phonetic inventory, phoneme accuracy, and error pattern frequencies. Children demonstrated similar phonetic inventories. Some bilingual children produced Spanish phonemes in their English and produced few consonant cluster sequences. Bilingual children with relatively equal exposure to English and Spanish averaged more errors than did bilingual children who were predominantly exposed to English. Both bilingual groups showed higher error rates than English-only children overall, particularly for syllable-level error patterns. All language groups decreased in some error patterns, although the ones that decreased were not always the same across language groups. Some group differences of error patterns and accuracy were significant. Vowel error rates did not differ by language group. Exposure to English and Spanish may result in a higher English error rate in typically developing bilinguals, including the application of Spanish phonological properties to English. Slightly higher error rates are likely typical for bilingual preschool-aged children. Change over time at these time points for all 3 groups was similar, suggesting that all will reach an adult-like system in English with exposure and practice.

  18. Developing Sound Skills for Reading: Teaching Phonological Awareness to Preschoolers With Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Gilliver, Megan; Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Leigh, Greg; Gunnourie, Miriam

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of intervention for developing deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) preschoolers' phonological awareness (PA) skills. Thirty children (mean age 57 months) with aided, bilateral hearing loss (and who primarily communicated using spoken English) were recruited in the year prior to commencing formal schooling. The study used an experimental design with participants assigned to one of two intervention conditions-vocabulary instruction, or explicit PA instruction. Both intervention programs were based around items drawn from a common word set and presented over six short weekly sessions by a researcher using a computer tablet. Overall, participants showed greater knowledge of word items used in interventions and improved performance on rhyme-based PA skills following intervention. However, the PA group showed significantly greater improvement than the vocabulary group for both overall PA performance and for consonant-vowel-consonant blending. DHH children's order of PA skill development was also examined, with comparison to that shown for children without hearing loss. The results provide early encouraging evidence about the potential benefit of explicit PA instruction for this population. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Metric reconstruction from Weyl scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Bernard F.; Price, Larry R.

    2005-08-01

    The Kerr geometry has remained an elusive world in which to explore physics and delve into the more esoteric implications of general relativity. Following the discovery, by Kerr in 1963, of the metric for a rotating black hole, the most major advance has been an understanding of its Weyl curvature perturbations based on Teukolsky's discovery of separable wave equations some ten years later. In the current research climate, where experiments across the globe are preparing for the first detection of gravitational waves, a more complete understanding than concerns just the Weyl curvature is now called for. To understand precisely how comparatively small masses move in response to the gravitational waves they emit, a formalism has been developed based on a description of the whole spacetime metric perturbation in the neighbourhood of the emission region. Presently, such a description is not available for the Kerr geometry. While there does exist a prescription for obtaining metric perturbations once curvature perturbations are known, it has become apparent that there are gaps in that formalism which are still waiting to be filled. The most serious gaps include gauge inflexibility, the inability to include sources—which are essential when the emitting masses are considered—and the failure to describe the ell = 0 and 1 perturbation properties. Among these latter properties of the perturbed spacetime, arising from a point mass in orbit, are the perturbed mass and axial component of angular momentum, as well as the very elusive Carter constant for non-axial angular momentum. A status report is given on recent work which begins to repair these deficiencies in our current incomplete description of Kerr metric perturbations.

  20. Annual Reports Regarding Progress in Developing a Dredged Material Management Plan for the Long Island Sound Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The site designation for the Western and Central Long Island Sound disposal sites requires the completion of a Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) and EPA to conduct an annual review of progress toward completion of the DMMP.

  1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    If Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, pub. 1962, can be credited for the public realization of widespread environmental degradation directly or indirectly attributable to industrial enterprise, the book, Our Common Future (WCED, 1987) which is the report of the World Commission on E...

  2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    If Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, pub. 1962, can be credited for the public realization of widespread environmental degradation directly or indirectly attributable to industrial enterprise, the book, Our Common Future (WCED, 1987) which is the report of the World Commission on E...

  3. The anatomy, life habits, and later development of a new species of enteropneust, Harrimania planktophilus (Hemichordata: Harrimaniidae) from Barkley Sound.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Christopher B

    2002-04-01

    A new species of enteropneust, Harrimania planktophilus, lives intertidally and subtidally in mixed sediments in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada. H. planktophilus has a long proboscis skeleton extending into the pharyngeal region. The collar (mesosome) has complete dorsal and ventral mesenteries. The trunk (metasome) has four distinct regions that can be recognized externally: the branchial region, esophageal region, hepatic region, and an undifferentiated intestinal region leading to the anus. The dorsal pharynx is large and has long gill slits without synapticles. Posterior to the gills is a constriction followed by a short esophageal region and a long gonadal region. The paired dorsolateral gonads extend almost to the end of the trunk. Eggs in the ovaries appear amber yellow, and the testes appear slightly paler. The trunk terminates at an anus with a well-developed sphincter muscle. H. planktophilus forms long sinuous burrows that are semipermanent and shared. Females deposit a tubular egg mass in a burrow in which the embryos develop directly into juveniles. Gastrulation appears to be by invagination, followed by a ciliated stage that has a telotrochal swimming band, suggesting that the ancestor to H. planktophilus developed via a tornaria larva. The juveniles emerge from the egg membrane with a ventral post-anal tail and assume an interstitial burrowing life habit. The post-anal tail, mode of development, small size and correlated simplification in body plan suggest that H. planktophilus is closely related to Saccoglossus, and together these worms may be sister taxa to the colonial Pterobranchia. A taxonomic key is provided to the enteropneust genera, and to the species of Harrimania:

  4. Metrics of Scholarly Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Ruscio and colleagues (Ruscio, Seaman, D'Oriano, Stremlo, & Mahalchik, this issue) provide a thoughtful empirical analysis of 22 different measures of individual scholarly impact. The simplest metric is number of publications, which Simonton (1997) found to be a reasonable predictor of career trajectories. Although the assessment of the scholarly…

  5. Adaptable edge quality metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Robin N.; Chang, Dunkai K.

    1990-09-01

    A new quality metric for evaluating edges detected by digital image processing algorithms is presented. The metric is a weighted sum of measures of edge continuity smoothness thinness localization detection and noisiness. Through a training process we can design weights which optimize the metric for different users and applications. We have used the metric to compare the results of ten edge detectors when applied to edges degraded by varying degrees of blur and varying degrees and types of noise. As expected the more optimum Difference-of-Gaussians (DOG) and Haralick methods outperform the simpler gradient detectors. At high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios Haralick''s method is the best choice although it exhibits a sudden drop in performance at lower SNRs. The DOG filter''s performance degrades almost linearly with SNR and maintains a reasonably high level at lower SNRs. The same relative performances are observed as blur is varied. For most of the detectors tested performance drops with increasing noise correlation. Noise correlated in the same direction as the edge is the most destructive of the noise types tested.

  6. Metrical Phonology and SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English language with the intention that it may be used in second language instruction. Stress is defined by its physical and acoustical correlates, and the principles of…

  7. Metrics and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association, Shawnee Mission, KS.

    Designed as a guide to aid the National Collegiate Athletic Association membership and others who must relate measurement of distances, weights, and volumes to athletic activity, this document presents diagrams of performance areas with measurements delineated in both imperial and metric terms. Illustrations are given for baseball, basketball,…

  8. Arbitrary Metrics Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the arbitrariness of a metric is distinct from the pursuit of validity, rational zero points, data transformations, standardization, and the types of statistical procedures one uses to analyze interval-level versus ordinal-level data. A variety of theoretical, methodological, and statistical tools can assist researchers who wish to make…

  9. Metrics of Scholarly Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Ruscio and colleagues (Ruscio, Seaman, D'Oriano, Stremlo, & Mahalchik, this issue) provide a thoughtful empirical analysis of 22 different measures of individual scholarly impact. The simplest metric is number of publications, which Simonton (1997) found to be a reasonable predictor of career trajectories. Although the assessment of the scholarly…

  10. Software Quality Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    March 1979, pp. 121-128. Gorla, Narasimhaiah, Alan C. Benander, and Barbara A. Benander, "Debugging Effort Estimation Using Software Metrics", IEEE...Society, IEEE Guide for the Use of IEEE Standard Dictionary of Measures to Produce Reliable Software, IEEE Std 982.2-1988, June 1989. Jones, Capers

  11. Candidate control design metrics for an agile fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Bailey, Melvin L.; Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1991-01-01

    Success in the fighter combat environment of the future will certainly demand increasing capability from aircraft technology. These advanced capabilities in the form of superagility and supermaneuverability will require special design techniques which translate advanced air combat maneuvering requirements into design criteria. Control design metrics can provide some of these techniques for the control designer. Thus study presents an overview of control design metrics and investigates metrics for advanced fighter agility. The objectives of various metric users, such as airframe designers and pilots, are differentiated from the objectives of the control designer. Using an advanced fighter model, metric values are documented over a portion of the flight envelope through piloted simulation. These metric values provide a baseline against which future control system improvements can be compared and against which a control design methodology can be developed. Agility is measured for axial, pitch, and roll axes. Axial metrics highlight acceleration and deceleration capabilities under different flight loads and include specific excess power measurements to characterize energy meneuverability. Pitch metrics cover both body-axis and wind-axis pitch rates and accelerations. Included in pitch metrics are nose pointing metrics which highlight displacement capability between the nose and the velocity vector. Roll metrics (or torsion metrics) focus on rotational capability about the wind axis.

  12. Healing sounds.

    PubMed

    Brewer, J F

    1998-02-01

    This article explores Guzzetta's (1988) notion that musical vibrations that are in tune with our human vibratory pattern could have a profound healing effect on the entire body. The question of why music therapy works for some and not others is addressed in the paper and solutions are offered. Central to utilizing therapeutic music and healing sounds with positive effects is an understanding of the principles and theories of sound and harmonics, in order to comprehend its capacity to achieve therapeutic, psychological and physical change. Some of these principles and theories are explored in this article. There is a focus on strategies for the holistic nurse who wishes to use this knowledge to facilitate communication and balance between the mind and body of the patient.

  13. A Prototype Hail Detection Algorithm and Hail Climatology Developed with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, Ralph; Beauchamp, James; Cecil, Dan; Heymsfeld, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies published in the open literature, a strong relationship between the occurrence of hail and the microwave brightness temperatures (primarily at 37 and 85 GHz) was documented. These studies were performed with the Nimbus-7 SMMR, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and most recently, the Aqua AMSR-E sensor. This lead to climatologies of hail frequency from TMI and AMSR-E, however, limitations include geographical domain of the TMI sensor (35 S to 35 N) and the overpass time of the Aqua satellite (130 am/pm local time), both of which reduce an accurate mapping of hail events over the global domain and the full diurnal cycle. Nonetheless, these studies presented exciting, new applications for passive microwave sensors. Since 1998, NOAA and EUMETSAT have been operating the AMSU-A/B and the MHS on several operational satellites: NOAA-15 through NOAA-19; MetOp-A and -B. With multiple satellites in operation since 2000, the AMSU/MHS sensors provide near global coverage every 4 hours, thus, offering a much larger time and temporal sampling than TRMM or AMSR-E. With similar observation frequencies near 30 and 85 GHz and additionally three at the 183 GHz water vapor band, the potential to detect strong convection associated with severe storms on a more comprehensive time and space scale exists. In this study, we develop a prototype AMSU-based hail detection algorithm through the use of collocated satellite and surface hail reports over the continental U.S. for a 12-year period (2000-2011). Compared with the surface observations, the algorithm detects approximately 40 percent of hail occurrences. The simple threshold algorithm is then used to generate a hail climatology that is based on all available AMSU observations during 2000-11 that is stratified in several ways, including total hail occurrence by month (March through September), total annual, and over the diurnal cycle. Independent comparisons are made compared to similar data sets derived from other

  14. Investigation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility metrics for normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzic, Nikolina

    The effectiveness of in-vehicle speech communication can be a good indicator of the perception of the overall vehicle quality and customer satisfaction. Currently available speech intelligibility metrics do not account in their procedures for essential parameters needed for a complete and accurate evaluation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility. These include the directivity and the distance of the talker with respect to the listener, binaural listening, hearing profile of the listener, vocal effort, and multisensory hearing. In the first part of this research the effectiveness of in-vehicle application of these metrics is investigated in a series of studies to reveal their shortcomings, including a wide range of scores resulting from each of the metrics for a given measurement configuration and vehicle operating condition. In addition, the nature of a possible correlation between the scores obtained from each metric is unknown. The metrics and the subjective perception of speech intelligibility using, for example, the same speech material have not been compared in literature. As a result, in the second part of this research, an alternative method for speech intelligibility evaluation is proposed for use in the automotive industry by utilizing a virtual reality driving environment for ultimately setting targets, including the associated statistical variability, for future in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation. The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) was evaluated at the sentence Speech Receptions Threshold (sSRT) for various listening situations and hearing profiles using acoustic perception jury testing and a variety of talker and listener configurations and background noise. In addition, the effect of individual sources and transfer paths of sound in an operating vehicle to the vehicle interior sound, specifically their effect on speech intelligibility was quantified, in the framework of the newly developed speech intelligibility evaluation method. Lastly

  15. 12 CFR 1720.2 - Safety and soundness standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety and soundness standards. 1720.2 Section... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS § 1720.2 Safety and soundness standards. Policy guidances as may be adopted from time to time by OFHEO, addressing safety and soundness...

  16. The Imagery of Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Automated Analysis Corporation's COMET is a suite of acoustic analysis software for advanced noise prediction. It analyzes the origin, radiation, and scattering of noise, and supplies information on how to achieve noise reduction and improve sound characteristics. COMET's Structural Acoustic Foam Engineering (SAFE) module extends the sound field analysis capability of foam and other materials. SAFE shows how noise travels while airborne, how it travels within a structure, and how these media interact to affect other aspects of the transmission of noise. The COMET software reduces design time and expense while optimizing a final product's acoustical performance. COMET was developed through SBIR funding and Langley Research Center for Automated Analysis Corporation.

  17. Adaptive Optics Metrics & QC Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Julien H.

    2017-09-01

    "There are many Adaptive Optics (AO) fed instruments on Paranal and more to come. To monitor their performances and assess the quality of the scientific data, we have developed a scheme and a set of tools and metrics adapted to each flavour of AO and each data product. Our decisions to repeat observations or not depends heavily on this immediate quality control "zero" (QC0). Atmospheric parameters monitoring can also help predict performances . At the end of the chain, the user must be able to find the data that correspond to his/her needs. In Particular, we address the special case of SPHERE."

  18. Making Sense of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  19. Making Sense of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  20. Metric Measurement and Instructional Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiring, Steven P.

    1977-01-01

    The television series "MeasureMetric," an instructional series introducing length, area, volume, mass, and temperature measurement in metric settings, is described. Guidelines are given for using the series as a complete learning unit. (JT)

  1. Quality Metrics in Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gurudu, Suryakanth R.

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy has evolved in the past 4 decades to become an important tool in the diagnosis and management of many digestive diseases. Greater focus on endoscopic quality has highlighted the need to ensure competency among endoscopists. A joint task force of the American College of Gastroenterology and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy has proposed several quality metrics to establish competence and help define areas of continuous quality improvement. These metrics represent quality in endoscopy pertinent to pre-, intra-, and postprocedural periods. Quality in endoscopy is a dynamic and multidimensional process that requires continuous monitoring of several indicators and benchmarking with local and national standards. Institutions and practices should have a process in place for credentialing endoscopists and for the assessment of competence regarding individual endoscopic procedures. PMID:24711767

  2. The Kerr metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teukolsky, Saul A.

    2015-06-01

    This review describes the events leading up to the discovery of the Kerr metric in 1963 and the enormous impact the discovery has had in the subsequent 50 years. The review discusses the Penrose process, the four laws of black hole mechanics, uniqueness of the solution, and the no-hair theorems. It also includes Kerr perturbation theory and its application to black hole stability and quasi-normal modes. The Kerr metric's importance in the astrophysics of quasars and accreting stellar-mass black hole systems is detailed. A theme of the review is the ‘miraculous’ nature of the solution, both in describing in a simple analytic formula the most general rotating black hole, and in having unexpected mathematical properties that make many calculations tractable. Also included is a pedagogical derivation of the solution suitable for a first course in general relativity.

  3. The role of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in the reading development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology.

  4. Performance Metrics for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Wang, Na; Romero, Rachel L.; Deru, Michael P.

    2010-09-30

    Commercial building owners and operators have requested a standard set of key performance metrics to provide a systematic way to evaluate the performance of their buildings. The performance metrics included in this document provide standard metrics for the energy, water, operations and maintenance, indoor environmental quality, purchasing, waste and recycling and transportation impact of their building. The metrics can be used for comparative performance analysis between existing buildings and industry standards to clarify the impact of sustainably designed and operated buildings.

  5. Metrics for Energy Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov

    2014-09-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.

  6. Metrics for Offline Evaluation of Prognostic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Prognostic performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. Currently, prognostics concepts lack standard definitions and suffer from ambiguous and inconsistent interpretations. This lack of standards is in part due to the varied end-user requirements for different applications, time scales, available information, domain dynamics, etc. to name a few. The research community has used a variety of metrics largely based on convenience and their respective requirements. Very little attention has been focused on establishing a standardized approach to compare different efforts. This paper presents several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics that were recently introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. These metrics have the capability of incorporating probabilistic uncertainty estimates from prognostic algorithms. In addition to quantitative assessment they also offer a comprehensive visual perspective that can be used in designing the prognostic system. Several methods are suggested to customize these metrics for different applications. Guidelines are provided to help choose one method over another based on distribution characteristics. Various issues faced by prognostics and its performance evaluation are discussed followed by a formal notational framework to help standardize subsequent developments.

  7. On Applying the Prognostic Performance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. As prognostics technology matures and more sophisticated methods for prognostic uncertainty management are developed, a standardized methodology for performance evaluation becomes extremely important to guide improvement efforts in a constructive manner. This paper is in continuation of previous efforts where several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics were introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. Several shortcomings identified, while applying these metrics to a variety of real applications, are also summarized along with discussions that attempt to alleviate these problems. Further, these metrics have been enhanced to include the capability of incorporating probability distribution information from prognostic algorithms as opposed to evaluation based on point estimates only. Several methods have been suggested and guidelines have been provided to help choose one method over another based on probability distribution characteristics. These approaches also offer a convenient and intuitive visualization of algorithm performance with respect to some of these new metrics like prognostic horizon and alpha-lambda performance, and also quantify the corresponding performance while incorporating the uncertainty information.

  8. Cosmic X-ray Physics: Sounding rocket investigations of the diffuse X-ray background, including instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, Dan

    We propose an investigation to improve our understanding of the Galactic diffuse X-ray background. The ultimate purpose of this is to determine the role of hot phases of the interstellar medium in mediating stellar feedback in star formation, in transport of metals, and in determining the structure and evolution of the Galaxy. It directly addresses SMD's astrophysics goal No. 2, to explore the origin and evolution of the galaxies, stars and planets that make up our universe. This work will involve a flight of an existing payload with small modifications in Woomera, South Australia, to observe the Galactic soft X-ray bulge and attempt to determine its nature and emission mechanisms. This flight should also either confirm or put strict upper limits on the "sterile neutrino" model for the 3.5 keV signal observed near the Galactic Center by XMM-Newton. Our investigation includes the development of thermal detectors with superconducting transition edge thermometers capable of 1-2 eV FWHM energy resolution in the 100-400 eV range with the intent of obtaining a scientifically useful spectrum on a sounding rocket flight of the emission from one million degree gas in this energy range. This will require a total area of 1-2 square centimeters for the detector array. To enable routine testing of such detectors in the lab and for necessary in-flight gain and resolution monitoring, we are trying to develop a pulsed-UV laser calibration source. In collaboration with Goddard Space Flight Center, we are investigating the practicality of waveguide-below-cutoff filters to provide the necessary attenuation of infrared radiation for these detectors while still allowing good x-ray transmission below 150 eV. The detectors, calibration source, filters, optimal high-rate pulse analysis and flight experience with the detector readouts are all relevant to future NASA major missions. The detectors we're working on for a low-energy sounding rocket flight would be an excellent match to what is

  9. Some References on Metric Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This resource work lists metric information published by the U.S. Government and the American National Standards Institute. Also organizations marketing metric materials for education are given. A short table of conversions is included as is a listing of basic metric facts for everyday living. (LS)

  10. Metrication, American Style. Fastback 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzi, John

    The purpose of this pamphlet is to provide a starting point of information on the metric system for any concerned or interested reader. The material is organized into five brief chapters: Man and Measurement; Learning the Metric System; Progress Report: Education; Recommended Sources; and Metrication, American Style. Appendixes include an…

  11. Say "Yes" to Metric Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Nelson, Marvin N.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the metric system. Discusses the infrequent use of the metric measurement system in the United States, why conversion from the customary system to the metric system is difficult, and the need for change. (Contains 14 resources.) (ASK)

  12. Metric Education Plan for Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Secondary Education.

    This comprehensive document is the result of statewide planning for the implementation of metric education in Virginia schools. An introduction discusses the rationale, needs, and continuing objectives for metric education. An organizational structure for metric education in Virginia is outlined. Guidelines for administrative planning are…

  13. Metrics for building performance assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Koles, G.; Hitchcock, R.; Sherman, M.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents part of the work performed in phase I of a Laboratory Directors Research and Development (LDRD) funded project entitled Building Performance Assurances (BPA). The focus of the BPA effort is to transform the way buildings are built and operated in order to improve building performance by facilitating or providing tools, infrastructure, and information. The efforts described herein focus on the development of metrics with which to evaluate building performance and for which information and optimization tools need to be developed. The classes of building performance metrics reviewed are (1) Building Services (2) First Costs, (3) Operating Costs, (4) Maintenance Costs, and (5) Energy and Environmental Factors. The first category defines the direct benefits associated with buildings; the next three are different kinds of costs associated with providing those benefits; the last category includes concerns that are broader than direct costs and benefits to the building owner and building occupants. The level of detail of the various issues reflect the current state of knowledge in those scientific areas and the ability of the to determine that state of knowledge, rather than directly reflecting the importance of these issues; it intentionally does not specifically focus on energy issues. The report describes work in progress and is intended as a resource and can be used to indicate the areas needing more investigation. Other reports on BPA activities are also available.

  14. An evaluation of software testing metrics for NASA's mission control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, George E.; Durst, Robert C.; Pelnik, Tammy M.

    1991-01-01

    Software metrics are used to evaluate the software development process and the quality of the resulting product. Five metrics were used during the testing phase of the Shuttle Mission Control Center Upgrade at the NASA Johnson Space Center. All but one metric provided useful information. Based on the experience, it is recommended that metrics be used during the test phase of software development and additional candidate metrics are proposed for further study.

  15. An exploratory survey of methods used to develop measures of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamner, Kenneth L.; Lafleur, Charles A.

    1993-09-01

    Nonmanufacturing organizations are being challenged to provide high-quality products and services to their customers, with an emphasis on continuous process improvement. Measures of performance, referred to as metrics, can be used to foster process improvement. The application of performance measurement to nonmanufacturing processes can be very difficult. This research explored methods used to develop metrics in nonmanufacturing organizations. Several methods were formally defined in the literature, and the researchers used a two-step screening process to determine the OMB Generic Method was most likely to produce high-quality metrics. The OMB Generic Method was then used to develop metrics. A few other metric development methods were found in use at nonmanufacturing organizations. The researchers interviewed participants in metric development efforts to determine their satisfaction and to have them identify the strengths and weaknesses of, and recommended improvements to, the metric development methods used. Analysis of participants' responses allowed the researchers to identify the key components of a sound metrics development method. Those components were incorporated into a proposed metric development method that was based on the OMB Generic Method, and should be more likely to produce high-quality metrics that will result in continuous process improvement.

  16. Towards a physics on fractals: Differential vector calculus in three-dimensional continuum with fractal metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Bory-Reyes, Juan; Shapiro, Michael

    2016-02-01

    One way to deal with physical problems on nowhere differentiable fractals is the mapping of these problems into the corresponding problems for continuum with a proper fractal metric. On this way different definitions of the fractal metric were suggested to account for the essential fractal features. In this work we develop the metric differential vector calculus in a three-dimensional continuum with a non-Euclidean metric. The metric differential forms and Laplacian are introduced, fundamental identities for metric differential operators are established and integral theorems are proved by employing the metric version of the quaternionic analysis for the Moisil-Teodoresco operator, which has been introduced and partially developed in this paper. The relations between the metric and conventional operators are revealed. It should be emphasized that the metric vector calculus developed in this work provides a comprehensive mathematical formalism for the continuum with any suitable definition of fractal metric. This offers a novel tool to study physics on fractals.

  17. Changes in Letter Sound Knowledge Are Associated with Development of Phonological Awareness in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    Letter sound knowledge, which, together with phonological awareness, is highly predictive of pre-school children's reading acquisition, derives from children's knowledge of their associated letter names and the phonological patterns of those names. In this study of 66 monolingual pre-school children we examined whether phonological patterns…

  18. The Development of Spontaneous Sound-Shape Matching in Monolingual and Bilingual Infants during the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejovic, Jovana; Molnar, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Recently it has been proposed that sensitivity to nonarbitrary relationships between speech sounds and objects potentially bootstraps lexical acquisition. However, it is currently unclear whether preverbal infants (e.g., before 6 months of age) with different linguistic profiles are sensitive to such nonarbitrary relationships. Here, the authors…

  19. Random Kähler metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank; Klevtsov, Semyon; Zelditch, Steve

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a new method to define and calculate path integrals over metrics on a Kähler manifold. The main idea is to use finite dimensional spaces of Bergman metrics, as an approximation to the full space of Kähler metrics. We use the theory of large deviations to decide when a sequence of probability measures on the spaces of Bergman metrics tends to a limit measure on the space of all Kähler metrics. Several examples are considered.

  20. Metrics for the NASA Airspace Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    This document defines an initial set of metrics for use by the NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP). ASP consists of the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. The work in each project is organized along multiple, discipline-level Research Focus Areas (RFAs). Each RFA is developing future concept elements in support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as defined by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). In addition, a single, system-level RFA is responsible for integrating concept elements across RFAs in both projects and for assessing system-wide benefits. The primary purpose of this document is to define a common set of metrics for measuring National Airspace System (NAS) performance before and after the introduction of ASP-developed concepts for NextGen as the system handles increasing traffic. The metrics are directly traceable to NextGen goals and objectives as defined by the JPDO and hence will be used to measure the progress of ASP research toward reaching those goals. The scope of this document is focused on defining a common set of metrics for measuring NAS capacity, efficiency, robustness, and safety at the system-level and at the RFA-level. Use of common metrics will focus ASP research toward achieving system-level performance goals and objectives and enable the discipline-level RFAs to evaluate the impact of their concepts at the system level.