Science.gov

Sample records for soundness metric development

  1. Conceptual Soundness, Metric Development, Benchmarking, and Targeting for PATH Subprogram Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey. G.; Doris, E.; Coggeshall, C.; Antes, M.; Ruch, J.; Mortensen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the conceptual soundness of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) program's revised goals and establish and apply a framework to identify and recommend metrics that are the most useful for measuring PATH's progress. This report provides an evaluative review of PATH's revised goals, outlines a structured method for identifying and selecting metrics, proposes metrics and benchmarks for a sampling of individual PATH programs, and discusses other metrics that potentially could be developed that may add value to the evaluation process. The framework and individual program metrics can be used for ongoing management improvement efforts and to inform broader program-level metrics for government reporting requirements.

  2. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  3. Interaction Metrics for Feedback Control of Sound Radiation from Stiffened Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction metrics developed for the process control industry are used to evaluate decentralized control of sound radiation from bays on an aircraft fuselage. The metrics are applied to experimentally measured frequency response data from a model of an aircraft fuselage. The purpose is to understand how coupling between multiple bays of the fuselage can destabilize or limit the performance of a decentralized active noise control system. The metrics quantitatively verify observations from a previous experiment, in which decentralized controllers performed worse than centralized controllers. The metrics do not appear to be useful for explaining control spillover which was observed in a previous experiment.

  4. Is Sound Exposure Level a Convenient Metric to Characterize Fatiguing Sounds? A Study in Beluga Whales.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander; Popov, Vladimir; Nechaev, Dmitry; Sysueva, Evgenia; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav

    2016-01-01

    Both the level and duration of fatiguing sounds influence temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) in odontocetes. These two parameters were combined into a sound exposure level (SEL). In the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas, TTSs were investigated at various sound pressure level (SPL)-to-duration ratios at a specific SEL. At low SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was positive: shorter high-level sounds produced greater TTSs than long low-level sounds of the same SEL. At high SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was negative: long low-level sounds produced greater TTSs than short high-level sounds of the same SEL. Thus, the validity of SEL as a metric for fatiguing sound efficiency is limited.

  5. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of highly accurate and useful system.

  6. Objective evaluation of interior noise booming in a passenger car based on sound metrics and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2009-09-01

    Booming sound is one of the important sounds in a passenger car. The aim of the paper is to develop the objective evaluation method of interior booming sound. The development method is based on the sound metrics and ANN (artificial neural network). The developed method is called the booming index. Previous work maintained that booming sound quality is related to loudness and sharpness--the sound metrics used in psychoacoustics--and that the booming index is developed by using the loudness and sharpness for a signal within whole frequency between 20 Hz and 20 kHz. In the present paper, the booming sound quality was found to be effectively related to the loudness at frequencies below 200 Hz; thus the booming index is updated by using the loudness of the signal filtered by the low pass filter at frequency under 200 Hz. The relationship between the booming index and sound metric is identified by an ANN. The updated booming index has been successfully applied to the objective evaluation of the booming sound quality of mass-produced passenger cars.

  7. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place In the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is managed by personnel from Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, either from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia, Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico or from Canada, Norway and Sweden. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requi6ng considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of a high accurate and useful system.

  8. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed.

  9. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Huiying; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, the Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI), specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame. The features of the AAMI software are discussed, and several case studies are presented to illustrate its functionality. PMID:22969353

  10. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  11. An Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Huiying; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-05-31

    Fishes and other marine mammals suffer a range of potential effects from intense sound sources generated by anthropogenic underwater processes such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording devices (USR) were built to monitor the acoustic sound pressure waves generated by those anthropogenic underwater activities, so the relevant processing software becomes indispensable for analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. However, existing software packages did not meet performance and flexibility requirements. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, named Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI), which is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed for underwater sound monitoring and analysis. In addition to the general functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs, the software can compute a series of acoustic metrics in physical units, monitor the sound's influence on fish hearing according to audiograms from different species of fishes and marine mammals, and batch process the sound files. The detailed applications of the software AAMI will be discussed along with several test case scenarios to illustrate its functionality.

  12. Developing a Security Metrics Scorecard for Healthcare Organizations.

    PubMed

    Elrefaey, Heba; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In healthcare, information security is a key aspect of protecting a patient's privacy and ensuring systems availability to support patient care. Security managers need to measure the performance of security systems and this can be achieved by using evidence-based metrics. In this paper, we describe the development of an evidence-based security metrics scorecard specific to healthcare organizations. Study participants were asked to comment on the usability and usefulness of a prototype of a security metrics scorecard that was developed based on current research in the area of general security metrics. Study findings revealed that scorecards need to be customized for the healthcare setting in order for the security information to be useful and usable in healthcare organizations. The study findings resulted in the development of a security metrics scorecard that matches the healthcare security experts' information requirements.

  13. Developing Metrics in Systems Integration (ISS Program COTS Integration Model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the complications in developing metrics for systems integration. Specifically it reviews a case study of how two programs within NASA try to develop and measure performance while meeting the encompassing organizational goals.

  14. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Metric is one of several measures employed by the NASA to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2004. The values are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. For Fiscal Year 2004, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 2.03 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.62 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  15. The Development and Demonstration of The Metric Assessment Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    APIT/GCM/LAS/93S-3 A04 Ai 7.5 4 . " . THE DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE METRIC ASSESSMENT TOOL THESIS Cynthia A. Campbell, GS-13, USAF and...Av•JI:a)iity Ccdes Avaii "•tc, or Dist 6pi-claI * iiV AFIT/GCM/LAS/93S-3 THE DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE METRIC ASSESSMENT TOOL THESIS...thesis was to develop and demonstrate a Metric Assessment Tool for the purpose of evaluating and improving process measurements. We narrowed our study

  16. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  17. Development of Quality Metrics in Ambulatory Pediatric Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Devyani; Gurvitz, Michelle; Marelli, Ariane; Anderson, Jeffrey; Baker-Smith, Carissa; Diab, Karim A; Edwards, Thomas C; Hougen, Tom; Jedeikin, Roy; Johnson, Jonathan N; Karpawich, Peter; Lai, Wyman; Lu, Jimmy C; Mitchell, Stephanie; Newburger, Jane W; Penny, Daniel J; Portman, Michael A; Satou, Gary; Teitel, David; Villafane, Juan; Williams, Roberta; Jenkins, Kathy

    2017-02-07

    The American College of Cardiology Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology (ACPC) Section had attempted to create quality metrics (QM) for ambulatory pediatric practice, but limited evidence made the process difficult. The ACPC sought to develop QMs for ambulatory pediatric cardiology practice. Five areas of interest were identified, and QMs were developed in a 2-step review process. In the first step, an expert panel, using the modified RAND-UCLA methodology, rated each QM for feasibility and validity. The second step sought input from ACPC Section members; final approval was by a vote of the ACPC Council. Work groups proposed a total of 44 QMs. Thirty-one metrics passed the RAND process and, after the open comment period, the ACPC council approved 18 metrics. The project resulted in successful development of QMs in ambulatory pediatric cardiology for a range of ambulatory domains.

  18. Setting Foundations for Developing Disaster Response Metrics.

    PubMed

    Abir, Mahshid; Bell, Sue Anne; Puppala, Neha; Awad, Osama; Moore, Melinda

    2017-02-06

    There are few reported efforts to define universal disaster response performance measures. Careful examination of responses to past disasters can inform the development of such measures. As a first step toward this goal, we conducted a literature review to identify key factors in responses to 3 recent events with significant loss of human life and economic impact: the 2003 Bam, Iran, earthquake; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami; and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Using the PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) database, we identified 710 articles and retained 124 after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seventy-two articles pertained to the Haiti earthquake, 38 to the Indian Ocean tsunami, and 14 to the Bam earthquake. On the basis of this review, we developed an organizational framework for disaster response performance measurement with 5 key disaster response categories: (1) personnel, (2) supplies and equipment, (3) transportation, (4) timeliness and efficiency, and (5) interagency cooperation. Under each of these, and again informed by the literature, we identified subcategories and specific items that could be developed into standardized performance measures. The validity and comprehensiveness of these measures can be tested by applying them to other recent and future disaster responses, after which standardized performance measures can be developed through a consensus process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 5).

  19. Measures and metrics for software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The evaluations of and recommendations for the use of software development measures based on the practical and analytical experience of the Software Engineering Laboratory are discussed. The basic concepts of measurement and system of classification for measures are described. The principal classes of measures defined are explicit, analytic, and subjective. Some of the major software measurement schemes appearing in the literature are derived. The applications of specific measures in a production environment are explained. These applications include prediction and planning, review and assessment, and evaluation and selection.

  20. The Applicability of Proposed Object-Oriented Metrics to Developer Feedback in Time to Impact Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper looks closely at each of the software metrics generated by the McCabe object-Oriented Tool(TM) and its ability to convey timely information to developers. The metrics are examined for meaningfulness in terms of the scale assignable to the metric by the rules of measurement theory and the software dimension being measured. Recommendations are made as to the proper use of each metric and its ability to influence development at an early stage. The metrics of the McCabe Object-Oriented Tool(TM) set were selected because of the tool's use in a couple of NASA IV&V projects.

  1. Detection and boundary identification of phonocardiogram sounds using an expert frequency-energy based metric.

    PubMed

    Naseri, H; Homaeinezhad, M R

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a new method to detect and to delineate phonocardiogram (PCG) sounds. Toward this objective, after preprocessing the PCG signal, two windows were moved on the preprocessed signal, and in each analysis window, two frequency-and amplitude-based features were calculated from the excerpted segment. Then, a synthetic decision making basis was devised by combining these two features for being used as an efficient detection-delineation decision statistic, (DS). Next, local extremums and locations of minimum slopes of the DS were determined by conducting forward-backward local investigations with the purpose of detecting sound incidences and their boundaries. In order to recognize the delineated PCG sounds, first, S1 and S2 were detected. Then, a new DS was regenerated from the signal whose S1 and S2 were eliminated to detect occasional S3 and S4 sounds. Finally, probable murmurs and souffles were spotted. The proposed algorithm was applied to 52 min PCG signals gathered from patients with different valve diseases. The provided database was annotated by some cardiology experts equipped by echocardiography and appropriate computer interfaces. The acquisition landmarks were in 2R (aortic), 2L (pulmonic), 4R (apex) and 4L (tricuspid) positions. The acquisition sensor was an electronic stethoscope (3 M Littmann® 3200, 4 kHz sampling frequency). The operating characteristics of the proposed method have an average sensitivity Se = 99.00% and positive predictive value PPV = 98.60% for sound type recognition (i.e., S1, S2, S3 or S4).

  2. The Development of Stereophonic Sound in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezina, Pavol

    2011-11-01

    The development of stereophonic sound in Slovakia in the late sixties had a profound impact on the quality of recorded music in all areas of artificial and non-artificial music and it also played an important role in composing music for radio plays. However, the Czechoslovak Radio in Bratislava was at that time the only technically equipped institute in Slovakia where a stereophonic record could be created. Therefore our research studies have particularly been concerned with examining the archives of this institution as well as the valuable information on implementation of the recordings we have collected through interviews with the former staff of the broadcasting organization. Our research focuses for the first time on the period of the beginnings of stereophonic sound in Slovakia, hence the purpose of this article is to summarize the research results.

  3. Development of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metrics and Risk Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Anderson, K. K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Lansing, Carina

    2012-10-01

    This is an internal project milestone report to document the CCSI Element 7 team's progress on developing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) metrics and risk measures. In this report, we provide a brief overview of the current technology readiness assessment research, document the development of technology readiness levels (TRLs) specific to carbon capture technologies, describe the risk measures and uncertainty quantification approaches used in our research, and conclude by discussing the next steps that the CCSI Task 7 team aims to accomplish.

  4. Ex Vivo Metrics, a preclinical tool in new drug development.

    PubMed

    Curtis, C Gerald; Bilyard, Kevin; Stephenson, Hugo

    2008-01-23

    Among the challenges facing translational medicine today is the need for greater productivity and safety during the drug development process. To meet this need, practitioners of translational medicine are developing new technologies that can facilitate decision making during the early stages of drug discovery and clinical development. Ex Vivo Metrics is an emerging technology that addresses this need by using intact human organs ethically donated for research. After hypothermic storage, the organs are reanimated by blood perfusion, providing physiologically and biochemically stable preparations. In terms of emulating human exposure to drugs, Ex Vivo Metrics is the closest biological system available for clinical trials. Early application of this tool for evaluating drug targeting, efficacy, and toxicity could result in better selection among promising drug candidates, greater drug productivity, and increased safety.

  5. Development of Metrics to Evaluate Effectiveness of Emergency Response Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Metrics to Evaluate Efectiveness of Emergency Response Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...population and/or property. Furthermore, the disaster will be characterized as being large enough that the resources the community has to mitigate the...disaster are stretched beyond the limits of their capacity. Such events that a community can readily cope with, such as small fires, individual

  6. Development of Management Metrics for Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheskin, Theodore J.

    2003-01-01

    Professor Ted Sheskin from CSU will be tasked to research and investigate metrics that can be used to determine the technical progress for advanced development and research tasks. These metrics will be implemented in a software environment that hosts engineering design, analysis and management tools to be used to support power system and component research work at GRC. Professor Sheskin is an Industrial Engineer and has been involved in issues related to management of engineering tasks and will use his knowledge from this area to allow extrapolation into the research and technology management area. Over the course of the summer, Professor Sheskin will develop a bibliography of management papers covering current management methods that may be applicable to research management. At the completion of the summer work we expect to have him recommend a metric system to be reviewed prior to implementation in the software environment. This task has been discussed with Professor Sheskin and some review material has already been given to him.

  7. Pragmatic quality metrics for evolutionary software development models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royce, Walker

    1990-01-01

    Due to the large number of product, project, and people parameters which impact large custom software development efforts, measurement of software product quality is a complex undertaking. Furthermore, the absolute perspective from which quality is measured (customer satisfaction) is intangible. While we probably can't say what the absolute quality of a software product is, we can determine the relative quality, the adequacy of this quality with respect to pragmatic considerations, and identify good and bad trends during development. While no two software engineers will ever agree on an optimum definition of software quality, they will agree that the most important perspective of software quality is its ease of change. We can call this flexibility, adaptability, or some other vague term, but the critical characteristic of software is that it is soft. The easier the product is to modify, the easier it is to achieve any other software quality perspective. This paper presents objective quality metrics derived from consistent lifecycle perspectives of rework which, when used in concert with an evolutionary development approach, can provide useful insight to produce better quality per unit cost/schedule or to achieve adequate quality more efficiently. The usefulness of these metrics is evaluated by applying them to a large, real world, Ada project.

  8. The limits of applicability of the sound exposure level (SEL) metric to temporal threshold shifts (TTS) in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V

    2014-05-15

    The influence of fatiguing sound level and duration on post-exposure temporary threshold shift (TTS) was investigated in two beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The fatiguing sound was half-octave noise with a center frequency of 22.5 kHz. TTS was measured at a test frequency of 32 kHz. Thresholds were measured by recording rhythmic evoked potentials (the envelope following response) to a test series of short (eight cycles) tone pips with a pip rate of 1000 s(-1). TTS increased approximately proportionally to the dB measure of both sound pressure (sound pressure level, SPL) and duration of the fatiguing noise, as a product of these two variables. In particular, when the noise parameters varied in a manner that maintained the product of squared sound pressure and time (sound exposure level, SEL, which is equivalent to the overall noise energy) at a constant level, TTS was not constant. Keeping SEL constant, the highest TTS appeared at an intermediate ratio of SPL to sound duration and decreased at both higher and lower ratios. Multiplication (SPL multiplied by log duration) better described the experimental data than an equal-energy (equal SEL) model. The use of SEL as a sole universal metric may result in an implausible assessment of the impact of a fatiguing sound on hearing thresholds in odontocetes, including under-evaluation of potential risks.

  9. Developing a Common Metric for Evaluating Police Performance in Deadly Force Situations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-27

    also have taken active steps to encourage commercial transition of the DFJDM metrics into the training simulation industry. Data for this project and...a DFJDM instruction manual were archived with the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD) on December 17, 2011. NIJ Metric Development... data used to test the metrics, steps taken in applying the metrics, study variables and hypotheses examined, and findings from the pilot testing

  10. Developing a Metrics-Based Online Strategy for Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to the various web metrics tools that are available, and to indicate how these might be used in libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes ways in which web metrics can be used to inform strategic decision making in libraries. Findings: A framework of possible web…

  11. Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) Website Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-04

    life affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How will ocean acidification affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound...Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How does shipping affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How does marine

  12. Development of a Broadband Underwater Sound Projector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    classification systems use existing transducer designs, such as the tonpilz (piston) transducers . This type of design has been selected to provide a maximum...source level at 20 kHz with high efficiency and reliability as well as excellent directivity responses. The manufacturing of the tonpilz transducer is...an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The transducer is resonant at 100 kHz but has been designed to deliver high sound pressure levels without

  13. Metrics Evolution in an Energy Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Dixon

    2011-08-01

    All technology programs progress through three phases: Discovery, Definition, and Deployment. The form and application of program metrics needs to evolve with each phase. During the discovery phase, the program determines what is achievable. A set of tools is needed to define program goals, to analyze credible technical options, and to ensure that the options are compatible and meet the program objectives. A metrics system that scores the potential performance of technical options is part of this system of tools, supporting screening of concepts and aiding in the overall definition of objectives. During the definition phase, the program defines what specifically is wanted. What is achievable is translated into specific systems and specific technical options are selected and optimized. A metrics system can help with the identification of options for optimization and the selection of the option for deployment. During the deployment phase, the program shows that the selected system works. Demonstration projects are established and classical systems engineering is employed. During this phase, the metrics communicate system performance. This paper discusses an approach to metrics evolution within the Department of Energy's Nuclear Fuel Cycle R&D Program, which is working to improve the sustainability of nuclear energy.

  14. Developing image processing meta-algorithms with data mining of multiple metrics.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kelvin; Cunha, Alexandre; Toga, A W; Parker, D Stott

    2014-01-01

    People often use multiple metrics in image processing, but here we take a novel approach of mining the values of batteries of metrics on image processing results. We present a case for extending image processing methods to incorporate automated mining of multiple image metric values. Here by a metric we mean any image similarity or distance measure, and in this paper we consider intensity-based and statistical image measures and focus on registration as an image processing problem. We show how it is possible to develop meta-algorithms that evaluate different image processing results with a number of different metrics and mine the results in an automated fashion so as to select the best results. We show that the mining of multiple metrics offers a variety of potential benefits for many image processing problems, including improved robustness and validation.

  15. Developing Image Processing Meta-Algorithms with Data Mining of Multiple Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Alexandre; Toga, A. W.; Parker, D. Stott

    2014-01-01

    People often use multiple metrics in image processing, but here we take a novel approach of mining the values of batteries of metrics on image processing results. We present a case for extending image processing methods to incorporate automated mining of multiple image metric values. Here by a metric we mean any image similarity or distance measure, and in this paper we consider intensity-based and statistical image measures and focus on registration as an image processing problem. We show how it is possible to develop meta-algorithms that evaluate different image processing results with a number of different metrics and mine the results in an automated fashion so as to select the best results. We show that the mining of multiple metrics offers a variety of potential benefits for many image processing problems, including improved robustness and validation. PMID:24653748

  16. Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capstick, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    1. The nature of sound; 2. Elasticity and vibrations; 3. Transverse waves; 4. Longitudinal waves; 5. Velocity of longitudinal waves; 6. Reflection and refraction. Doppler's principle; 7. Interference. Beats. Combination tones; 8. Resonance and forced vibrations; 9. Quality of musical notes; 10. Organ pipes; 11. Rods. Plates. Bells; 12. Acoustical measurements; 13. The phonograph, microphone and telephone; 14. Consonance; 15. Definition of intervals. Scales. Temperament; 16. Musical instruments; 17. Application of acoustical principles to military purposes; Questions; Answers to questions; Index.

  17. Development of a Student-Centered Instrument to Assess Middle School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and field test of the Sound Concept Inventory Instrument (SCII), designed to measure middle school students' concepts of sound. The instrument was designed based on known students' difficulties in understanding sound and the history of science related to sound and focuses on two main aspects of sound: sound…

  18. Development of a perceptually calibrated objective metric of noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keelan, Brian W.; Jin, Elaine W.; Prokushkin, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    A system simulation model was used to create scene-dependent noise masks that reflect current performance of mobile phone cameras. Stimuli with different overall magnitudes of noise and with varying mixtures of red, green, blue, and luminance noises were included in the study. Eleven treatments in each of ten pictorial scenes were evaluated by twenty observers using the softcopy ruler method. In addition to determining the quality loss function in just noticeable differences (JNDs) for the average observer and scene, transformations for different combinations of observer sensitivity and scene susceptibility were derived. The psychophysical results were used to optimize an objective metric of isotropic noise based on system noise power spectra (NPS), which were integrated over a visual frequency weighting function to yield perceptually relevant variances and covariances in CIE L*a*b* space. Because the frequency weighting function is expressed in terms of cycles per degree at the retina, it accounts for display pixel size and viewing distance effects, so application-specific predictions can be made. Excellent results were obtained using only L* and a* variances and L*a* covariance, with relative weights of 100, 5, and 12, respectively. The positive a* weight suggests that the luminance (photopic) weighting is slightly narrow on the long wavelength side for predicting perceived noisiness. The L*a* covariance term, which is normally negative, reflects masking between L* and a* noise, as confirmed in informal evaluations. Test targets in linear sRGB and rendered L*a*b* spaces for each treatment are available at http://www.aptina.com/ImArch/ to enable other researchers to test metrics of their own design and calibrate them to JNDs of quality loss without performing additional observer experiments. Such JND-calibrated noise metrics are particularly valuable for comparing the impact of noise and other attributes, and for computing overall image quality.

  19. Performance metric development for a group state estimator in airborne UHF GMTI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwell, Ryan A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of evaluation metrics for group state estimator (GSE, i.e. group tracking) algorithms. Key differences between group tracker metrics and individual tracker metrics are the method used for track-to-truth association and the characterization of group raid size. Another significant contribution of this work is the incorporation of measured radar performance in assessing tracker performance. The result of this work is a set of measures of performance derived from canonical individual target tracker metrics, extended to characterize the additional information provided by a group tracker. The paper discusses additional considerations in group tracker evaluation, including the definition of a group and group-to-group confusion. Metrics are computed on real field data to provide examples of real-world analysis, demonstrating an approach which provides characterization of group tracker performance, independent of the sensor's performance.

  20. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric: Fiscal Year 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2003. As such, the values herein are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. The Metric is one of several measures employed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). More specifically, the Metric is the ratio defined by the equivalent system mass (ESM) of a life support system for a specific mission using the ISS ECLSS technologies divided by the ESM for an equivalent life support system using the best ALS technologies. As defined, the Metric should increase in value as the ALS technologies become lighter, less power intensive, and require less volume. For Fiscal Year 2003, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 1.47 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.36 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  1. Developing a Weighted Measure of Speech Sound Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Edwards, Mary Louise; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a system for numerically quantifying a speaker's phonetic accuracy through transcription-based measures. With a focus on normal and disordered speech in children, the authors describe a system for differentially weighting speech sound errors on the basis of various levels of phonetic accuracy using a Weighted Speech Sound…

  2. Developing Common Metrics for the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs): Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Doris M; Blank, Arthur E; Dozier, Ann; Hites, Lisle; Gilliam, Victoria A; Hunt, Joe; Rainwater, Julie; Trochim, William M

    2015-10-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research initiative, funded by the NIH Common Fund and offered through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, developed more than 60 unique models for achieving the NIH goal of accelerating discoveries toward better public health. The variety of these models enabled participating academic centers to experiment with different approaches to fit their research environment. A central challenge related to the diversity of approaches is the ability to determine the success and contribution of each model. This paper describes the effort by the Evaluation Key Function Committee to develop and test a methodology for identifying a set of common metrics to assess the efficiency of clinical research processes and for pilot testing these processes for collecting and analyzing metrics. The project involved more than one-fourth of all CTSAs and resulted in useful information regarding the challenges in developing common metrics, the complexity and costs of acquiring data for the metrics, and limitations on the utility of the metrics in assessing clinical research performance. The results of this process led to the identification of lessons learned and recommendations for development and use of common metrics to evaluate the CTSA effort.

  3. Development and Implementation of a Design Metric for Systems Containing Long-Term Fluid Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.

    2016-01-01

    John Steele, a chemist and technical fellow from United Technologies Corporation, provided a water quality module to assist engineers and scientists with a metric tool to evaluate risks associated with the design of space systems with fluid loops. This design metric is a methodical, quantitative, lessons-learned based means to evaluate the robustness of a long-term fluid loop system design. The tool was developed by a cross-section of engineering disciplines who had decades of experience and problem resolution.

  4. Metrics for Developing an Endorsed Set of Radiographic Threat Surrogates for JINII/CAARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, R; Walston, S; Dietrich, D; Martz, H

    2009-02-11

    CAARS (Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System) is developing x-ray dual energy and x-ray backscatter methods to automatically detect materials that are greater than Z=72 (hafnium). This works well for simple geometry materials, where most of the radiographic path is through one material. However, this is usually not the case. Instead, the radiographic path includes many materials of different lengths. Single energy can be used to compute {mu}y{sub l} which is related to areal density (mass per unit area) while dual energy yields more information. This report describes a set of metrics suitable and sufficient for characterizing the appearance of assemblies as detected by x-ray radiographic imaging systems, such as those being tested by Joint Integrated Non-Intrusive Inspection (JINII) or developed under CAARS. These metrics will be simulated both for threat assemblies and surrogate threat assemblies (such as are found in Roney et al. 2007) using geometrical and compositional information of the assemblies. The imaging systems are intended to distinguish assemblies containing high-Z material from those containing low-Z material, regardless of thickness, density, or compounds and mixtures. The systems in question operate on the principle of comparing images obtained by using two different x-ray end-point energies--so-called 'dual energy' imaging systems. At the direction of the DHS JINII sponsor, this report does not cover metrics that implement scattering, in the form of either forward-scattered radiation or high-Z detection systems operating on the principle of backscatter detection. Such methods and effects will be covered in a later report. The metrics described here are to be used to compare assemblies and not x-ray radiography systems. We intend to use these metrics to determine whether two assemblies do or do not look the same. We are tasked to develop a set of assemblies whose appearance using this class of detection systems is indistinguishable from the

  5. Safety, codes and standards for hydrogen installations. Metrics development and benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Aaron P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2014-04-01

    Automakers and fuel providers have made public commitments to commercialize light duty fuel cell electric vehicles and fueling infrastructure in select US regions beginning in 2014. The development, implementation, and advancement of meaningful codes and standards is critical to enable the effective deployment of clean and efficient fuel cell and hydrogen solutions in the energy technology marketplace. Metrics pertaining to the development and implementation of safety knowledge, codes, and standards are important to communicate progress and inform future R&D investments. This document describes the development and benchmarking of metrics specific to the development of hydrogen specific codes relevant for hydrogen refueling stations. These metrics will be most useful as the hydrogen fuel market transitions from pre-commercial to early-commercial phases. The target regions in California will serve as benchmarking case studies to quantify the success of past investments in research and development supporting safety codes and standards R&D.

  6. Using Web Metric Software to Drive: Mobile Website Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidal, Junior

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have developed mobile versions of their websites. In order to understand their users, web developers have conducted both usability tests and focus groups, yet analytical software and web server logs can also be used to better understand users. Using data collected from these tools, the Ursula C. Schwerin Library has made informed…

  7. Learning words and learning sounds: Advances in language development.

    PubMed

    Vihman, Marilyn M

    2017-02-01

    Phonological development is sometimes seen as a process of learning sounds, or forming phonological categories, and then combining sounds to build words, with the evidence taken largely from studies demonstrating 'perceptual narrowing' in infant speech perception over the first year of life. In contrast, studies of early word production have long provided evidence that holistic word learning may precede the formation of phonological categories. In that account, children begin by matching their existing vocal patterns to adult words, with knowledge of the phonological system emerging from the network of related word forms. Here I review evidence from production and then consider how the implicit and explicit learning mechanisms assumed by the complementary memory systems model might be understood as reconciling the two approaches.

  8. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  9. Development of an Objective Space Suit Mobility Performance Metric Using Metabolic Cost and Functional Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating EVA suit performance and mobility have historically concentrated on isolated joint range of motion and torque. However, these techniques do little to evaluate how well a suited crewmember can actually perform during an EVA. An alternative method of characterizing suited mobility through measurement of metabolic cost to the wearer has been evaluated at Johnson Space Center over the past several years. The most recent study involved six test subjects completing multiple trials of various functional tasks in each of three different space suits; the results indicated it was often possible to discern between different suit designs on the basis of metabolic cost alone. However, other variables may have an effect on real-world suited performance; namely, completion time of the task, the gravity field in which the task is completed, etc. While previous results have analyzed completion time, metabolic cost, and metabolic cost normalized to system mass individually, it is desirable to develop a single metric comprising these (and potentially other) performance metrics. This paper outlines the background upon which this single-score metric is determined to be feasible, and initial efforts to develop such a metric. Forward work includes variable coefficient determination and verification of the metric through repeated testing.

  10. Developing Attitudinal Metrics for Induction-Year Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; McKim, Billy R.; Lawrence, Shannon; Stair, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    This study was part of a larger regional study of induction-year agricultural education teachers in three Western states. Studies have purported that attitude toward teaching is important for understanding and helping induction-year teachers. Thus, developing an instrument to assess induction-year agricultural education teachers' attitudes toward…

  11. Development of Performance and Effectiveness Metrics For Mechanical Diagnostic Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-05

    this need , a virtual test bench is under development by the Navy for assessing the performance and effectiveness of machinery diagnostic systems. The...benefits of mechanical machinery diagnostic technologies does not currently exist. In response to this need , a virtual test bench is 375 under...thermocouples, acoustic emission sensors, and oil debris sensors. Tests are run at various load and speed profiles while 381 logging measurement signals for

  12. Sound symbolism scaffolds language development in preverbal infants.

    PubMed

    Asano, Michiko; Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    A fundamental question in language development is how infants start to assign meaning to words. Here, using three Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based measures of brain activity, we establish that preverbal 11-month-old infants are sensitive to the non-arbitrary correspondences between language sounds and concepts, that is, to sound symbolism. In each trial, infant participants were presented with a visual stimulus (e.g., a round shape) followed by a novel spoken word that either sound-symbolically matched ("moma") or mismatched ("kipi") the shape. Amplitude increase in the gamma band showed perceptual integration of visual and auditory stimuli in the match condition within 300 msec of word onset. Furthermore, phase synchronization between electrodes at around 400 msec revealed intensified large-scale, left-hemispheric communication between brain regions in the mismatch condition as compared to the match condition, indicating heightened processing effort when integration was more demanding. Finally, event-related brain potentials showed an increased adult-like N400 response - an index of semantic integration difficulty - in the mismatch as compared to the match condition. Together, these findings suggest that 11-month-old infants spontaneously map auditory language onto visual experience by recruiting a cross-modal perceptual processing system and a nascent semantic network within the first year of life.

  13. Development of the Astrobee F sounding rocket system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. B.; Taylor, J. P.; Honecker, H. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The development of the Astrobee F sounding rocket vehicle through the first flight test at NASA-Wallops Station is described. Design and development of a 15 in. diameter, dual thrust, solid propellant motor demonstrating several new technology features provided the basis for the flight vehicle. The 'F' motor test program described demonstrated the following advanced propulsion technology: tandem dual grain configuration, low burning rate HTPB case-bonded propellant, and molded plastic nozzle. The resultant motor integrated into a flight vehicle was successfully flown with extensive diagnostic instrumentation.-

  14. Defining Exercise Performance Metrics for Flight Hardware Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyene, Nahon M.

    2004-01-01

    The space industry has prevailed over numerous design challenges in the spirit of exploration. Manned space flight entails creating products for use by humans and the Johnson Space Center has pioneered this effort as NASA's center for manned space flight. NASA Astronauts use a suite of flight exercise hardware to maintain strength for extravehicular activities and to minimize losses in muscle mass and bone mineral density. With a cycle ergometer, treadmill, and the Resistive Exercise Device available on the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Medicine community aspires to reproduce physical loading schemes that match exercise performance in Earth s gravity. The resistive exercise device presents the greatest challenge with the duty of accommodating 20 different exercises and many variations on the core set of exercises. This paper presents a methodology for capturing engineering parameters that can quantify proper resistive exercise performance techniques. For each specified exercise, the method provides engineering parameters on hand spacing, foot spacing, and positions of the point of load application at the starting point, midpoint, and end point of the exercise. As humans vary in height and fitness levels, the methodology presents values as ranges. In addition, this method shows engineers the proper load application regions on the human body. The methodology applies to resistive exercise in general and is in use for the current development of a Resistive Exercise Device. Exercise hardware systems must remain available for use and conducive to proper exercise performance as a contributor to mission success. The astronauts depend on exercise hardware to support extended stays aboard the ISS. Future plans towards exploration of Mars and beyond acknowledge the necessity of exercise. Continuous improvement in technology and our understanding of human health maintenance in space will allow us to support the exploration of Mars and the future of space

  15. Performation Metrics Development Analysis for Information and Communications Technology Outsourcing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, James L., III

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how and to what extent the development and use of the OV-5a operational architecture decomposition tree (OADT) from the Department of Defense (DoD) Architecture Framework (DoDAF) affects requirements analysis with respect to complete performance metrics for performance-based services acquisition of ICT under rigid…

  16. IBI METRIC DEVELOPMENT FOR STREAMS AND RIVERS IN WESTERN FORESTED MOUNTAINS AND ARID LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the western USA, development of metrics and indices of vertebrate assemblage condition in streams and rivers is challenged by low species richness, by strong natural gradients, by human impact gradients that co-vary with natural gradients, and by a shortage of minimally-distur...

  17. Development of PE Metrics Elementary Assessments for National Physical Education Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Ben; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Rink, Judy; Zhu, Weimo; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Fox, Connie; Raynes, De; Park, Youngsik

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how assessments in PE Metrics were developed following six steps: (a) determining test blueprint, (b) writing assessment tasks and scoring rubrics, (c) establishing content validity, (d) piloting assessments, (e) conducting item analysis, and (f) modifying the assessments based on analysis and expert opinion. A task force,…

  18. USING BROAD-SCALE METRICS TO DEVELOP INDICATORS OF WATERSHED VULNERABILITY IN THE OZARK MOUNTAINS (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple broad-scale landscape metrics were tested as potential indicators of total phosphorus (TP) concentration, total ammonia (TA) concentration, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria count, among 244 sub-watersheds in the Ozark Mountains (USA). Indicator models were develop...

  19. Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) Web Site Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-20

    notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty f·)r failing to comply w ith a collection of information if it ...stribution is unlimited 13_ SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOS ITS ) website (http://dosits .org/) was...sound on marine life. It includes information on the science of sound in the sea, on how people and marine life use sound in the sea, and on the effects

  20. Newborns' Orientation toward Sound: Possible Implications for Cortical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Rachel K.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Newborns were presented with a tape-recorded rattle sound through a single loudspeaker, through two loudspeakers with one onset leading the other by seven msecs., and through two loudspeakers simultaneously. Newborns turned toward the single source sound, but not toward either of the dual source sounds. (Author/RH)

  1. The relationship between settlement population size and sustainable development measured by two sustainability metrics

    SciTech Connect

    O'Regan, Bernadette Morrissey, John; Foley, Walter; Moles, Richard

    2009-04-15

    This paper reports on a study of the relative sustainability of 79 Irish villages, towns and a small city (collectively called 'settlements') classified by population size. Quantitative data on more than 300 economic, social and environmental attributes of each settlement were assembled into a database. Two aggregated metrics were selected to model the relative sustainability of settlements: Ecological Footprint (EF) and Sustainable Development Index (SDI). Subsequently these were aggregated to create a single Combined Sustainable Development Index. Creation of this database meant that metric calculations did not rely on proxies, and were therefore considered to be robust. Methods employed provided values for indicators at various stages of the aggregation process. This allowed both the first reported empirical analysis of the relationship between settlement sustainability and population size, and the elucidation of information provided at different stages of aggregation. At the highest level of aggregation, settlement sustainability increased with population size, but important differences amongst individual settlements were masked by aggregation. EF and SDI metrics ranked settlements in differing orders of relative sustainability. Aggregation of indicators to provide Ecological Footprint values was found to be especially problematic, and this metric was inadequately sensitive to distinguish amongst the relative sustainability achieved by all settlements. Many authors have argued that, for policy makers to be able to inform planning decisions using sustainability indicators, it is necessary that they adopt a toolkit of aggregated indicators. Here it is argued that to interpret correctly each aggregated metric value, policy makers also require a hierarchy of disaggregated component indicator values, each explained fully. Possible implications for urban planning are briefly reviewed.

  2. Measuring Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge: Development and Validation of Brief Letter-Sound Knowledge Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Phillips, Beth M.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are increasingly encouraged to support children's development of letter-sound abilities. Assessment of letter-sound knowledge is key in planning for effective instruction, yet the letter-sound knowledge assessments currently available and suitable for preschool-age children demonstrate significant limitations. The purpose…

  3. Datasets of Odontocete Sounds Annotated for Developing Automatic Detection Methods, FY09-10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    for the sounds of beaked whales and other odontocetes. Specifically, this report [1] details the newly collected odontocete recordings that have been...Since the inception of MobySound in the mid 1990s, it has expanded from being an archive of baleen whale (mysticete) sounds to include annotated...3 The major aim of this project was to begin development of high-performing automatic detection methods for the sounds of beaked whales and other

  4. Sounding Rocket Instrument Development at UAHuntsville/NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Savage, Sabrina; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Kuzin, Sergei; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig; DePontieu, Bart; Title, Alan; Podgorski, William; Kano, Ryouhei; Narukage, Noriyuki; Trujillo-Bueno, Javier

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of solar sounding rocket instruments developed jointly by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) is an EUV (19.3 nm) imaging telescope which was flown successfully in July 2012. The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a Lyman Alpha (121.6 nm) spectropolarimeter developed jointly with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and scheduled for launch in 2015. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrograph is a soft X-ray (0.5-1.2 keV) stigmatic spectrograph designed to achieve 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along the slit.

  5. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  6. Development of Maintenance METRICS to Forecast Resource Demands of Weapon Systems. (Analysis and Results of Metrics and Weightings). Revision A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    ETC (U) NCASFE 4 09NOV A0 D K HINUES. S A WALKER, D H WILSON F33615-77-C-0075 UNCLASSIFIED D194- 1089 -4_. .~~~. i.E EEnhhEEmhhh1h LEV.E 0 IDEVELOPMENT...9.2 CS LU.0 - - m m m LU31 DU 94- 1089 - These experiments were designed to test the new metrics equations within the context of an aircraft type...ih -M 1 - 19; Id 1 I. ai a;C; 11;0 ;I o I - 444 I 1 1411138 D19- 1089 - -00 NNO0 N r CN !c ’lfl ll 0! N C : f < 000 N N N l )wc " -~~2I S- mNNJN 1.N0

  7. Development and Analysis of Psychomotor Skills Metrics for Procedural Skills Decay.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Chembian; Ray, Rebecca; Rutherford, Drew; Zinn, Mike; Pugh, Carla

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop and analyze the metrics associated with a force production task involving a stationary target with the help of advanced VR and Force Dimension Omega 6 haptic device. We study the effects of force magnitude and direction on the various metrics namely path length, movement smoothness, velocity and acceleration patterns, reaction time and overall error in achieving the target. Data was collected from 47 participants who were residents. Results show a positive correlation between the maximum force applied and the deflection error, velocity while reducing the path length and increasing smoothness with a force of higher magnitude showing the stabilizing characteristics of higher magnitude forces. This approach paves a way to assess and model procedural skills decay.

  8. A newly developed dispersal metric indicates the succession of benthic invertebrates in restored rivers.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengqing; Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode. Second, we tested this metric using benthic invertebrate community data from a) 23 large restored river sites with substantial improvements of river bottom habitats dating back 1 to 10years, b) 23 unrestored sites very close to the restored sites, and c) 298 adjacent surrounding sites (mean±standard deviation: 13.0±9.5 per site) within a distance of up to 5km for each restored site in the low mountain and lowland areas of Germany. We hypothesize that our metric will reflect the temporal succession process of benthic invertebrate communities colonizing the restored sites, whereas no temporal changes are expected in the unrestored and surrounding sites. By applying our metric to these three river treatment categories, we found that the average dispersal capacity of benthic invertebrate communities in the restored sites significantly decreased in the early years following restoration, whereas there were no changes in either the unrestored or the surrounding sites. After all taxa had been divided into quartiles representing weak to strong dispersers, this pattern became even more obvious; strong dispersers colonized the restored sites during the first year after restoration and then significantly decreased over time, whereas weak dispersers continued to increase

  9. Development of the sound localization cues in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollin, Daniel J.

    2004-05-01

    Cats are a common model for developmental studies of the psychophysical and physiological mechanisms of sound localization. Yet, there are few studies on the development of the acoustical cues to location in cats. The magnitude of the three main cues, interaural differences in time (ITDs) and level (ILDs), and monaural spectral shape cues, vary with location in adults. However, the increasing interaural distance associated with a growing head and pinnae during development will result in cues that change continuously until maturation is complete. Here, we report measurements, in cats aged 1 week to adulthood, of the physical dimensions of the head and pinnae and the localization cues, computed from measurements of directional transfer functions. At 1 week, ILD depended little on azimuth for frequencies <6-7 kHz, maximum ITD was 175 μs, and for sources varying in elevation, a prominent spectral notch was located at higher frequencies than in the older cats. As cats develop, the spectral cues and the frequencies at which ILDs become substantial (>10 dB) shift to lower frequencies, and the maximum ITD increases to nearly 370 μs. Changes in the cues are correlated with the increasing size of the head and pinnae. [Work supported by NIDCD DC05122.

  10. Deriving phenological metrics from NDVI through an open source tool developed in QGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Lia; Teodoro, A. C.; Gonçalves, Hernãni

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation indices have been commonly used over the past 30 years for studying vegetation characteristics using images collected by remote sensing satellites. One of the most commonly used is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The various stages that green vegetation undergoes during a complete growing season can be summarized through time-series analysis of NDVI data. The analysis of such time-series allow for extracting key phenological variables or metrics of a particular season. These characteristics may not necessarily correspond directly to conventional, ground-based phenological events, but do provide indications of ecosystem dynamics. A complete list of the phenological metrics that can be extracted from smoothed, time-series NDVI data is available in the USGS online resources (http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/methods_deriving.php).This work aims to develop an open source application to automatically extract these phenological metrics from a set of satellite input data. The main advantage of QGIS for this specific application relies on the easiness and quickness in developing new plug-ins, using Python language, based on the experience of the research group in other related works. QGIS has its own application programming interface (API) with functionalities and programs to develop new features. The toolbar developed for this application was implemented using the plug-in NDVIToolbar.py. The user introduces the raster files as input and obtains a plot and a report with the metrics. The report includes the following eight metrics: SOST (Start Of Season - Time) corresponding to the day of the year identified as having a consistent upward trend in the NDVI time series; SOSN (Start Of Season - NDVI) corresponding to the NDVI value associated with SOST; EOST (End of Season - Time) which corresponds to the day of year identified at the end of a consistent downward trend in the NDVI time series; EOSN (End of Season - NDVI) corresponding to the NDVI value

  11. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  12. Developing a confidence metric for the Landsat land surface temperature product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraby, Kelly G.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina

    2016-05-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important Earth system data record that is useful to fields such as change detection, climate research, environmental monitoring, and smaller scale applications such as agriculture. Certain Earth-observing satellites can be used to derive this metric, and it would be extremely useful if such imagery could be used to develop a global product. Through the support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), a LST product for the Landsat series of satellites has been developed. Currently, it has been validated for scenes in North America, with plans to expand to a trusted global product. For ideal atmospheric conditions (e.g. stable atmosphere with no clouds nearby), the LST product underestimates the surface temperature by an average of 0.26 K. When clouds are directly above or near the pixel of interest, however, errors can extend to several Kelvin. As the product approaches public release, our major goal is to develop a quality metric that will provide the user with a per-pixel map of estimated LST errors. There are several sources of error that are involved in the LST calculation process, but performing standard error propagation is a difficult task due to the complexity of the atmospheric propagation component. To circumvent this difficulty, we propose to utilize the relationship between cloud proximity and the error seen in the LST process to help develop a quality metric. This method involves calculating the distance to the nearest cloud from a pixel of interest in a scene, and recording the LST error at that location. Performing this calculation for hundreds of scenes allows us to observe the average LST error for different ranges of distances to the nearest cloud. This paper describes this process in full, and presents results for a large set of Landsat scenes.

  13. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the

  14. Development of Sediment Quality Values for Puget Sound. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Everett Harbor A-138 Table A-8 Duwamish River II A-140 Figure A-i Locations of Commencement Bay stations sampled for benthic macroinvertebrates and sediment...As noted in "Recommended protocols for sampling and analyzing subtidal benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in Puget Sound" [Puget Sound Estuary...Example confidence limits for benthic AET determined for lead 102 v vt i ... I, TABLES Number Page 1 Approaches reviewed for establishing sediment quality

  15. Coupled Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Sound in Coastal Ocean for Renewable Ocean Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Wen; Jung, Ki Won; Yang, Zhaoqing; Copping, Andrea; Deng, Z. Daniel

    2016-03-01

    An underwater sound model was developed to simulate sound propagation from marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) devices or offshore wind (OSW) energy platforms. Finite difference methods were developed to solve the 3D Helmholtz equation for sound propagation in the coastal environment. A 3D sparse matrix solver with complex coefficients was formed for solving the resulting acoustic pressure field. The Complex Shifted Laplacian Preconditioner (CSLP) method was applied to solve the matrix system iteratively with MPI parallelization using a high performance cluster. The sound model was then coupled with the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) for simulating sound propagation generated by human activities, such as construction of OSW turbines or tidal stream turbine operations, in a range-dependent setting. As a proof of concept, initial validation of the solver is presented for two coastal wedge problems. This sound model can be useful for evaluating impacts on marine mammals due to deployment of MHK devices and OSW energy platforms.

  16. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  17. Developing new predictive alarms based on ECG metrics for bradyasystolic cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Ding, Quan; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Mortara, David; Do, Duc; Boyle, Noel G; Pelter, Michele M; Hu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    We investigated 17 metrics derived from four leads of electrocardiographic (ECG) signals from hospital patient monitors to develop new ECG alarms for predicting adult bradyasystolic cardiac arrest events.A retrospective case-control study was designed to analyze 17 ECG metrics from 27 adult bradyasystolic and 304 control patients. The 17 metrics consisted of PR interval (PR), P-wave duration (Pdur), QRS duration (QRSdur), RR interval (RR), QT interval (QT), estimate of serum K  +  using only frontal leads (SerumK2), T-wave complexity (T Complex), ST segment levels for leads I, II, V (ST I, ST II, ST V), and 7 heart rate variability (HRV) metrics. These 7 HRV metrics were standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), total power, very low frequency power, low frequency power, high frequency power, normalized low frequency power, and normalized high frequency power. Controls were matched by gender, age (±5 years), admission to the same hospital unit within the same month, and the same major diagnostic category. A research ECG analysis software program developed by co-author D M was used to automatically extract the metrics. The absolute value for each ECG metric, and the duration, terminal value, and slope of the dominant trend for each ECG metric, were derived and tested as the alarm conditions. The maximal true positive rate (TPR) of detecting cardiac arrest at a prescribed maximal false positive rate (FPR) based on the trending conditions was reported. Lead time was also recorded as the time between the first time alarm condition was triggered and the event of cardiac arrest.While conditions based on the absolute values of ECG metrics do not provide discriminative information to predict bradyasystolic cardiac arrest, the trending conditions can be useful. For example, with a max FPR  =  5.0%, some derived alarms conditions are: trend duration of PR  >  2.8 h (TPR  =  48.2%, lead time  =  10.0  ±  6.6

  18. Development of A New Electromagnetic Sounding System, Em-across

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Kunitomo, T.; Kumazawa, M.; Yokoyama, Y.

    We developed and tested a new electromagnetic sounding system. It is called EM- ACROSS (ElectroMagnetic - Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal Sys- tem), and originally Ogawa and Kumazawa (1996) proposed. The essential points of this method are the transmission of accurately controlled electromagnetic waves, and precise synchronization between the source and observation points, and acquisition the transfer function between the source and receivers. This transfer function includes the information of the area where the electromagnetic waves propagates. We developed hardware to establish an EM-ACROSS system. To generate the accu- rately controlled source signal and to synchronize the receivers with the source, we utilize GPS clock. The time-keeping for the transmission and data recordings is better than micro seconds. We examined this system by the transmission from the current dipole (moment 200Am) at the frequencies below 100Hz and the observations at the distances up to 3km in Tono area. We transmitted the controlled source signal which the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum from 200 seconds data attained up to 104. The accuracy of the synchronization was ascertained in data stacking of the received signal. The longer stacking reduced the error of the received signal as theoretically expected. From the observed transfer function, the resistivity of the experimental site was estimated as about 100 m, which is the typical value at the test site. We represent that the exploration using the accurately controlled electromagnetic sig- nal is realized. We come to convince ACROSS has a potential for explorations.

  19. Development of Methodologies, Metrics, and Tools for Investigating Human-Robot Interaction in Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezer, Neta; Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis; Sandor, Aniko; Boyer, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Robonaut, and Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV), as well as interviews with robotics trainers, robot operators, and developers of gesture interfaces. A survey of methods and metrics used in HRI was completed to identify those most applicable to space robotics. These methods and metrics included techniques and tools associated with task performance, the quantification of human-robot interactions and communication, usability, human workload, and situation awareness. The need for more research in areas such as natural interfaces, compensations for loss of signal and poor video quality, psycho-physiological feedback, and common HRI testbeds were identified. The initial findings from these activities and planned future research are discussed. Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator

  20. Performance of a Solidification Furnace Developed for Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chen Y.; Boschetti, Cesar; Ribeiro, Manuel F.; Toledo, Rafael C.; Freitas, Filipe E.; Bandeira, Iraja N.

    2011-11-01

    Brazil has a Microgravity Program mainly based on experiments using sounding rockets. This paper presents a brief account of the Program and the experiments made on the Brazilian rockets. Up to now three missions carrying a total of 26 experiments were made. In all flights a fast solidification furnace, capable of producing temperatures up to 900°C, was tested with semiconductor and metal alloys. This paper describes the construction and the performance of that furnace during the last parabolic flight, occurred in 2010. The solidification furnace is now qualified and ready to be used by other institutions in sounding rocket flights.

  1. Development and evaluation of aperture-based complexity metrics using film and EPID measurements of static MLC openings

    SciTech Connect

    Götstedt, Julia; Karlsson Hauer, Anna; Bäck, Anna

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Complexity metrics have been suggested as a complement to measurement-based quality assurance for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). However, these metrics have not yet been sufficiently validated. This study develops and evaluates new aperture-based complexity metrics in the context of static multileaf collimator (MLC) openings and compares them to previously published metrics. Methods: This study develops the converted aperture metric and the edge area metric. The converted aperture metric is based on small and irregular parts within the MLC opening that are quantified as measured distances between MLC leaves. The edge area metric is based on the relative size of the region around the edges defined by the MLC. Another metric suggested in this study is the circumference/area ratio. Earlier defined aperture-based complexity metrics—the modulation complexity score, the edge metric, the ratio monitor units (MU)/Gy, the aperture area, and the aperture irregularity—are compared to the newly proposed metrics. A set of small and irregular static MLC openings are created which simulate individual IMRT/VMAT control points of various complexities. These are measured with both an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device and EBT3 film. The differences between calculated and measured dose distributions are evaluated using a pixel-by-pixel comparison with two global dose difference criteria of 3% and 5%. The extent of the dose differences, expressed in terms of pass rate, is used as a measure of the complexity of the MLC openings and used for the evaluation of the metrics compared in this study. The different complexity scores are calculated for each created static MLC opening. The correlation between the calculated complexity scores and the extent of the dose differences (pass rate) are analyzed in scatter plots and using Pearson’s r-values. Results: The complexity scores calculated by the edge

  2. Multidimensional Approach to the Development of a Mandarin Chinese-Oriented Sound Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Yu-Chen; Lin, Chun-Yi; Tsai, Li-Chiun; Lee, Ya-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Because the Ling six-sound test is based on American English phonemes, it can yield unreliable results when administered to non-English speakers. In this study, we aimed to improve specifically the diagnostic palette for Mandarin Chinese users by developing an adapted version of the Ling six-sound test. Method: To determine the set of…

  3. Development of a Computer Program for Analyzing Preliminary Aircraft Configurations in Relationship to Emerging Agility Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Brent

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a FORTRAN computer code to perform agility analysis on aircraft configurations. This code is to be part of the NASA-Ames ACSYNT (AirCraft SYNThesis) design code. This paper begins with a discussion of contemporary agility research in the aircraft industry and a survey of a few agility metrics. The methodology, techniques and models developed for the code are then presented. Finally, example trade studies using the agility module along with ACSYNT are illustrated. These trade studies were conducted using a Northrop F-20 Tigershark aircraft model. The studies show that the agility module is effective in analyzing the influence of common parameters such as thrust-to-weight ratio and wing loading on agility criteria. The module can compare the agility potential between different configurations. In addition, one study illustrates the module's ability to optimize a configuration's agility performance.

  4. Software development predictors, error analysis, reliability models and software metric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor

    1983-01-01

    The use of dynamic characteristics as predictors for software development was studied. It was found that there are some significant factors that could be useful as predictors. From a study on software errors and complexity, it was shown that meaningful results can be obtained which allow insight into software traits and the environment in which it is developed. Reliability models were studied. The research included the field of program testing because the validity of some reliability models depends on the answers to some unanswered questions about testing. In studying software metrics, data collected from seven software engineering laboratory (FORTRAN) projects were examined and three effort reporting accuracy checks were applied to demonstrate the need to validate a data base. Results are discussed.

  5. An overview of climate change metrics, latest developments and links with air quality (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, P.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) metrics underpin most climate policies by allowing emissions of different GHGs and other forcing agents to be expressed in a common unit. They have potentially benefited climate policy by allowing substitution among different gases ( a so called 'basket approach'). The choice of metric and especially its time horizon depend on the policy context and there is no perfect metric as no single metric can capture all the nuances of the climate and/or air quality effects policy makers maybe interested in addressing. This is especially true when considering regional effects. We will discuss case studies for aviation emissions and black carbon emissions to test specific situations where pragmatic metric choice can guide sensible policy decisions. We give several examples of clear win-win situations for both air quality and climate, where decisions would be relatively insensitive to metric choice.

  6. Hospital readiness for health information exchange: development of metrics associated with successful collaboration for quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Korst, Lisa M.; Aydin, Carolyn E.; Signer, Jordana M. K.; Fink, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    Objective The development of readiness metrics for organizational participation in health information exchange is critical for monitoring progress toward, and achievement of, successful inter-organizational collaboration. In preparation for the development of a tool to measure readiness for data-sharing, we tested whether organizational capacities known to be related to readiness were associated with successful participation in an American data-sharing collaborative for quality improvement. Design Cross-sectional design, using an on-line survey of hospitals in a large, mature data-sharing collaborative organized for benchmarking and improvement in nursing care quality. Measurements Factor analysis was used to identify salient constructs, and identified factors were analyzed with respect to “successful” participation. “Success” was defined as the incorporation of comparative performance data into the hospital dashboard. Results The most important factor in predicting success included survey items measuring the strength of organizational leadership in fostering a culture of quality improvement (QI Leadership): 1) presence of a supportive hospital executive; 2) the extent to which a hospital values data; 3) the presence of leaders’ vision for how the collaborative advances the hospital’s strategic goals; 4) hospital use of the collaborative data to track quality outcomes; and 5) staff recognition of a strong mandate for collaborative participation (α = 0.84, correlation with Success 0.68 [P < 0.0001]). Conclusion The data emphasize the importance of hospital QI Leadership in collaboratives that aim to share data for QI or safety purposes. Such metrics should prove useful in the planning and development of this complex form of inter-organizational collaboration. PMID:21330191

  7. Toward the Development of Cognitive Task Difficulty Metrics to Support Intelligence Analysis Research

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2005-08-08

    Intelligence analysis is a cognitively complex task that is the subject of considerable research aimed at developing methods and tools to aid the analysis process. To support such research, it is necessary to characterize the difficulty or complexity of intelligence analysis tasks in order to facilitate assessments of the impact or effectiveness of tools that are being considered for deployment. A number of informal accounts of ''What makes intelligence analysis hard'' are available, but there has been no attempt to establish a more rigorous characterization with well-defined difficulty factors or dimensions. This paper takes an initial step in this direction by describing a set of proposed difficulty metrics based on cognitive principles.

  8. Research using Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells: quality metric towards developing a reference material

    PubMed Central

    Tanavde, Vivek; Vaz, Candida; Rao, Mahendra S; Vemuri, Mohan C; Pochampally, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated for their regenerative, immune-modulatory, and wound healing properties. While the laboratory studies have suggested that MSC’s have a unique potential for modulating the etiopathology of multiple diseases, the results from clinical trials have not been encouraging or reproducible. One of the explanations for such variability is explained by the “art” of isolating and propagating MSCs. Therefore, establishing more than minimal criteria to define MSC would help understand best protocols to isolate, propagate and deliver MSCs. Developing a calibration standard, a database and a set of functional tests would be a better quality metric for MSCs. In this review, we discuss the importance of selecting a standard, issues associated with coming up with such a standard and how these issues can be mitigated. PMID:26276001

  9. Related Critical Psychometric Issues and Their Resolutions during Development of PE Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Connie; Zhu, Weimo; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Graber, Kim C.; Dyson, Ben; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    In addition to validity and reliability evidence, other psychometric qualities of the PE Metrics assessments needed to be examined. This article describes how those critical psychometric issues were addressed during the PE Metrics assessment bank construction. Specifically, issues included (a) number of items or assessments needed, (b) training…

  10. Development and Implementation of a Metric Inservice Program for Teachers at Samuel Morse Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Thelma R.

    A model for organizing an introductory in-service workshop for elementary school teachers in the basic fundamentals and contents of the metric system is presented. Data collected from various questionnaires and tests suggest that the program improved the teacher's performance in presenting the metric system and that this improvement had a positive…

  11. Subsystem Details for the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides values at the assembly level for the subsystems described in the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric (Hanford, 2004). Hanford (2004) summarizes the subordinate computational values for the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development (ALS R&TD) Metric at the subsystem level, while this manuscript provides a summary at the assembly level. Hanford (2004) lists mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime for each mission examined by the ALS R&TD Metric according to the nominal organization for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) elements. The values in the tables below, Table 2.1 through Table 2.8, list the assemblies, using the organization and names within the Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) for each ALS element. These tables specifically detail mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime. Additionally, mass and volume are designated in terms of values associated with initial hardware and resupplied hardware just as they are within ALSSAT. The overall subsystem values are listed on the line following each subsystem entry. These values are consistent with those reported in Hanford (2004) for each listed mission. Any deviations between these values and those in Hanford (2004) arise from differences in when individual numerical values are rounded within each report, and therefore the resulting minor differences should not concern even a careful reader. Hanford (2004) u es the uni ts kW(sub e) and kW(sub th) for power and cooling, respectively, while the nomenclature below uses W(sub e) and W(sub th), which is consistent with the native units within ALSSAT. The assemblies, as specified within ALSSAT, are listed in bold below their respective subsystems. When recognizable assembly components are not listed within ALSSAT, a summary of the assembly is provided on the same line as the entry for the assembly. Assemblies with one or more recognizable components are further

  12. Evaluation of Two Crew Module Boilerplate Tests Using Newly Developed Calibration Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses a application of multi-dimensional calibration metrics to evaluate pressure data from water drop tests of the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) crew module boilerplate. Specifically, three metrics are discussed: 1) a metric to assess the probability of enveloping the measured data with the model, 2) a multi-dimensional orthogonality metric to assess model adequacy between test and analysis, and 3) a prediction error metric to conduct sensor placement to minimize pressure prediction errors. Data from similar (nearly repeated) capsule drop tests shows significant variability in the measured pressure responses. When compared to expected variability using model predictions, it is demonstrated that the measured variability cannot be explained by the model under the current uncertainty assumptions.

  13. Datasets of Odontocete Sounds Annotated for Developing Automatic Detection Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    marine mammal sounds. Appl. Acoust. 67: 1226-1242. 4 Mellinger, D.K., S.L. Heimlich , S.L. Nieukirk, D.J. Moretti, and N.A. DiMarzio. 2007. An...Center Dave Mellinger Sept. 21, 2006 Francine Desharnais, Nancy DiMarzio, Sara Heimlich , Franz-Peter Lam, Mark McDonald, David Mellinger, Dave...David K. Mellinger (1), Sara L. Heimlich (1), Sharon L. Nieukirk (1), David J. Moretti (2), Nancy A. DiMarzio (2) (1) Cooperative Institute for

  14. Analysis of urban development by means of multi-temporal fragmentation metrics from LULC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapena, M.; Ruiz, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    The monitoring and modelling of the evolution of urban areas is increasingly attracting the attention of land managers and administration. New data, tools and methods are being developed and made available for a better understanding of these dynamic areas. We study and analyse the concept of landscape fragmentation by means of GIS and remote sensing techniques, particularly focused on urban areas. Using LULC data obtained from the European Urban Atlas dataset developed by the local component of Copernicus Land Monitoring Services (scale 1:10,000), the urban fragmentation of the province of Rome is studied at 2006 and 2012. A selection of indices that are able to measure the land cover fragmentation level in the landscape are obtained employing a tool called IndiFrag, using as input data LULC data in vector format. In order to monitor the urban morphological changes and growth patterns, a new module with additional multi-temporal metrics has been developed for this purpose. These urban fragmentation and multi-temporal indices have been applied to the municipalities and districts of Rome, analysed and interpreted to characterise quantity, spatial distribution and structure of the urban change. This methodology is applicable to different regions, affording a dynamic quantification of urban spatial patterns and urban sprawl. The results show that urban form monitoring with multi-temporal data using these techniques highlights urbanization trends, having a great potential to quantify and model geographic development of metropolitan areas and to analyse its relationship with socioeconomic factors through the time.

  15. Color Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…

  16. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate-Scale Hydrodynamic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Labiosa, Rochelle G.; Kim, Taeyun

    2010-11-30

    The Washington State Department of Ecology contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop an intermediate-scale hydrodynamic and water quality model to study dissolved oxygen and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound and to help define potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies and decisions. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or dominate human impacts to dissolved oxygen levels in the sensitive areas. In this study, an intermediate-scale hydrodynamic model of Puget Sound was developed to simulate the hydrodynamics of Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits for the year 2006. The model was constructed using the unstructured Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model. The overall model grid resolution within Puget Sound in its present configuration is about 880 m. The model was driven by tides, river inflows, and meteorological forcing (wind and net heat flux) and simulated tidal circulations, temperature, and salinity distributions in Puget Sound. The model was validated against observed data of water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity at various stations within the study domain. Model validation indicated that the model simulates tidal elevations and currents in Puget Sound well and reproduces the general patterns of the temperature and salinity distributions.

  17. Towards better metrics and policymaking for seed system development: Insights from Asia's seed industry.

    PubMed

    Spielman, David J; Kennedy, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1980s, many developing countries have introduced policies to promote seed industry growth and improve the delivery of modern science to farmers, often with a long-term goal of increasing agricultural productivity in smallholder farming systems. Public, private, and civil society actors involved in shaping policy designs have, in turn, developed competing narratives around how best to build an innovative and sustainable seed system, each with varying goals, values, and levels of influence. Efforts to strike a balance between these narratives have often played out in passionate discourses surrounding seed rules and regulations. As a result, however, policymakers in many countries have expressed impatience with the slow progress on enhancing the contribution of a modern seed industry to the overarching goal of increasing agricultural productivity growth. One reason for this slow progress may be that policymakers are insufficiently cognizant of the trade-offs associated with rules and regulations required to effectively govern a modern seed industry. This suggests the need for new data and analysis to improve the understanding of how seed systems function. This paper explores these issues in the context of Asia's rapidly growing seed industry, with illustrations from seed markets for maize and several other crops, to highlight current gaps in the metrics used to analyze performance, competition, and innovation. The paper provides a finite set of indicators to inform policymaking on seed system design and monitoring, and explores how these indicators can be used to inform current policy debates in the region.

  18. Area of Concern: a new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplac...

  19. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Jean-Paul; Guttromson, Ross; Silva-Monroy, Cesar; Jeffers, Robert; Jones, Katherine; Ellison, James; Rath, Charles; Gearhart, Jared; Jones, Dean; Corbet, Tom; Hanley, Charles; Walker, La Tonya

    2014-09-01

    This report has been written for the Department of Energy’s Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Office to inform their writing of the Quadrennial Energy Review in the area of energy resilience. The topics of measuring and increasing energy resilience are addressed, including definitions, means of measuring, and analytic methodologies that can be used to make decisions for policy, infrastructure planning, and operations. A risk-based framework is presented which provides a standard definition of a resilience metric. Additionally, a process is identified which explains how the metrics can be applied. Research and development is articulated that will further accelerate the resilience of energy infrastructures.

  20. A Strategy for Developing a Common Metric in Item Response Theory when Parameter Posterior Distributions Are Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Growing interest in fully Bayesian item response models begs the question: To what extent can model parameter posterior draws enhance existing practices? One practice that has traditionally relied on model parameter point estimates but may be improved by using posterior draws is the development of a common metric for two independently calibrated…

  1. Development of multichannel analyzer using sound card ADC for nuclear spectroscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Lombigit, Lojius; Rahman, Nur Aira Abdul; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the development of Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) using sound card analogue to digital converter (ADC) for nuclear spectroscopy system. The system was divided into a hardware module and a software module. Hardware module consist of detector NaI (Tl) 2" by 2", Pulse Shaping Amplifier (PSA) and a build in ADC chip from readily available in any computers' sound system. The software module is divided into two parts which are a pre-processing of raw digital input and the development of the MCA software. Band-pass filter and baseline stabilization and correction were implemented for the pre-processing. For the MCA development, the pulse height analysis method was used to process the signal before displaying it using histogram technique. The development and tested result for using the sound card as an MCA are discussed.

  2. Development of multichannel analyzer using sound card ADC for nuclear spectroscopy system

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Lombigit, Lojius; Rahman, Nur Aira Abdul; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2014-02-12

    This paper describes the development of Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) using sound card analogue to digital converter (ADC) for nuclear spectroscopy system. The system was divided into a hardware module and a software module. Hardware module consist of detector NaI (Tl) 2” by 2”, Pulse Shaping Amplifier (PSA) and a build in ADC chip from readily available in any computers’ sound system. The software module is divided into two parts which are a pre-processing of raw digital input and the development of the MCA software. Band-pass filter and baseline stabilization and correction were implemented for the pre-processing. For the MCA development, the pulse height analysis method was used to process the signal before displaying it using histogram technique. The development and tested result for using the sound card as an MCA are discussed.

  3. Development of tinnitus in CBA/CaJ mice following sound exposure.

    PubMed

    Longenecker, Ryan J; Galazyuk, Alexander V

    2011-10-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of a sound without an external acoustic source, is a complex perceptual phenomenon affecting the quality of life in 17% of the adult population. Despite its ubiquity and morbidity, the pathophysiology of tinnitus is a work in progress, and there is no generally accepted cure or treatment. Development of a reliable common animal model is crucial for tinnitus research and may advance this field. The goal of this study was to develop a tinnitus mouse model. Tinnitus was induced in an experimental group of mice by an exposure to a loud (116 dB sound pressure level (SPL)) narrow band noise (one octave, centered at 16 kHz) during 1 h under anesthesia. The tinnitus was then assessed behaviorally by measuring gap induced suppression of the acoustic startle reflex. We found that a vast majority of the sound-exposed mice (86%) developed behavioral signs of tinnitus. This was a complex, long lasting, and dynamic process. On the day following exposure, all mice demonstrated signs of acute tinnitus over the entire range of sound frequencies used for testing (10-31 kHz). However, 2-3 months later, a behavioral evidence of tinnitus was evident only at a narrow frequency range (20-31 kHz) representing a presumed chronic condition. Extracellular recordings confirmed a significantly higher rate of spontaneous activity in inferior colliculus neurons in sound-exposed compared to control mice. Surprisingly, unilateral sound exposure suppresses startle responses in mice and they remained suppressed even 3 months post-exposure, whereas auditory brainstem response thresholds were completely recovered during 2 months following exposure. In summary, behavioral evidence of tinnitus can be reliably developed in mice by sound exposure, and tinnitus induction can be assessed by quantifying prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex.

  4. Development of a new, robust and accurate, spectroscopic metric for scatterer size estimation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassinopoulos, Michalis; Pitris, Costas

    2016-03-01

    The modulations appearing on the backscattering spectrum originating from a scatterer are related to its diameter as described by Mie theory for spherical particles. Many metrics for Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) take advantage of this observation in order to enhance the contrast of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images. However, none of these metrics has achieved high accuracy when calculating the scatterer size. In this work, Mie theory was used to further investigate the relationship between the degree of modulation in the spectrum and the scatterer size. From this study, a new spectroscopic metric, the bandwidth of the Correlation of the Derivative (COD) was developed which is more robust and accurate, compared to previously reported techniques, in the estimation of scatterer size. The self-normalizing nature of the derivative and the robustness of the first minimum of the correlation as a measure of its width, offer significant advantages over other spectral analysis approaches especially for scatterer sizes above 3 μm. The feasibility of this technique was demonstrated using phantom samples containing 6, 10 and 16 μm diameter microspheres as well as images of normal and cancerous human colon. The results are very promising, suggesting that the proposed metric could be implemented in OCT spectral analysis for measuring nuclear size distribution in biological tissues. A technique providing such information would be of great clinical significance since it would allow the detection of nuclear enlargement at the earliest stages of precancerous development.

  5. Topics in Metric Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeb, William Edward

    This thesis develops effective approximations of certain metrics that occur frequently in pure and applied mathematics. We show that distances that often arise in applications, such as the Earth Mover's Distance between two probability measures, can be approximated by easily computed formulas for a wide variety of ground distances. We develop simple and easily computed characterizations both of norms measuring a function's regularity -- such as the Lipschitz norm -- and of their duals. We are particularly concerned with the tensor product of metric spaces, where the natural notion of regularity is not the Lipschitz condition but the mixed Lipschitz condition. A theme that runs throughout this thesis is that snowflake metrics (metrics raised to a power less than 1) are often better-behaved than ordinary metrics. For example, we show that snowflake metrics on finite spaces can be approximated by the average of tree metrics with a distortion bounded by intrinsic geometric characteristics of the space and not the number of points. Many of the metrics for which we characterize the Lipschitz space and its dual are snowflake metrics. We also present applications of the characterization of certain regularity norms to the problem of recovering a matrix that has been corrupted by noise. We are able to achieve an optimal rate of recovery for certain families of matrices by exploiting the relationship between mixed-variable regularity conditions and the decay of a function's coefficients in a certain orthonormal basis.

  6. Development of Prototype of Whistling Sound Counter based on Piezoelectric Bone Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Mikio; Ogihara, Mitsuhiro; Kyuu, Ten; Taniguchi, Shuji; Kato, Shozo; Araki, Chikahiro

    Recently, some professional whistlers have set up music schools that teach musical whistling. Similar to singing, in musical whistling, the whistling sound should not be break, even when the whistling goes on for more than 3 min. For this, it is advisable to practice whistling the “Pii” sound, which involves whistling the “Pii” sound continuously 100 times with the same pitch. However, when practicing alone, a whistler finds it difficult to count his/her own whistling sounds. In this paper, we propose a whistling sound counter based on piezoelectric bone conduction. This system consists of five parts. The gain of the amplifier section of this counter is variable, and the center frequency (f0) of the BPF part is also variable. In this study, we developed a prototype of the system and tested it. For this, we simultaneously counted the whistling sounds of nine people using the proposed system. The proposed system showed a good performance in a noisy environment. We also propose an examination system for awarding grades in musical whistling, which enforces the license examination in musical whistling on the personal computer. The proposed system can be used to administer the 5th grade exam for musical whistling.

  7. Forensic Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important review topics the author teaches in middle school is the use of metric measurement for problem solving and inquiry. For many years, she had students measuring various objects around the room using the tools of metric measurement. She dutifully taught hypothesizing, data collecting, and drawing conclusions. It was…

  8. Mastering Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, Annette M.

    2005-01-01

    By the time students reach a middle school science course, they are expected to make measurements using the metric system. However, most are not practiced in its use, as their experience in metrics is often limited to one unit they were taught in elementary school. This lack of knowledge is not wholly the fault of formal education. Although the…

  9. Developing an Achievement Test for the Subject of Sound in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözen, Merve; Bolat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an achievement test which includes the basic concepts about the subject of sound and its properties in middle school science lessons and which at the same time aims to reveal the alternative concepts that the students already have. During the process of the development of the test, studies in the field and…

  10. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  11. Development of Maintenance METRICS To Forecast Resource Demands of Weapon Systems (Analysis and Evaluation). Revision A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    practical, and proved to be the most economical and expeditious method to gather all the data. 8. BASE VISITS At each base as depicted in Figure 9, it was...C) 137 D194-10089-1 A METRICS I ENVIROMENTAL A(PARAIETERS BY BASE) ALTITUDE OF BASE? GEOGRAPHY OF AREA. A) HILLY B) FLAT C) DESERT D) ETC

  12. Numerical studies and metric development for validation of magnetohydrodynamic models on the HIT-SI experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C.; Victor, B.; Morgan, K.; Jarboe, T.; Hossack, A.; Marklin, G.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D.

    2015-05-01

    We present application of three scalar metrics derived from the Biorthogonal Decomposition (BD) technique to evaluate the level of agreement between macroscopic plasma dynamics in different data sets. BD decomposes large data sets, as produced by distributed diagnostic arrays, into principal mode structures without assumptions on spatial or temporal structure. These metrics have been applied to validation of the Hall-MHD model using experimental data from the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection experiment. Each metric provides a measure of correlation between mode structures extracted from experimental data and simulations for an array of 192 surface-mounted magnetic probes. Numerical validation studies have been performed using the NIMROD code, where the injectors are modeled as boundary conditions on the flux conserver, and the PSI-TET code, where the entire plasma volume is treated. Initial results from a comprehensive validation study of high performance operation with different injector frequencies are presented, illustrating application of the BD method. Using a simplified (constant, uniform density and temperature) Hall-MHD model, simulation results agree with experimental observation for two of the three defined metrics when the injectors are driven with a frequency of 14.5 kHz.

  13. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  14. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  15. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Brinke, JoAnn

    1995-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suspected to contribute significantly to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' (SBS), a complex of subchronic symptoms that occurs during and in general decreases away from occupancy of the building in question. A new approach takes into account individual VOC potencies, as well as the highly correlated nature of the complex VOC mixtures found indoors. The new VOC metrics are statistically significant predictors of symptom outcomes from the California Healthy Buildings Study data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that a summary measure of the VOC mixture, other risk factors, and covariates for each worker will lead to better prediction of symptom outcome. VOC metrics based on animal irritancy measures and principal component analysis had the most influence in the prediction of eye, dermal, and nasal symptoms. After adjustment, a water-based paints and solvents source was found to be associated with dermal and eye irritation. The more typical VOC exposure metrics used in prior analyses were not useful in symptom prediction in the adjusted model (total VOC (TVOC), or sum of individually identified VOCs (ΣVOCi)). Also not useful were three other VOC metrics that took into account potency, but did not adjust for the highly correlated nature of the data set, or the presence of VOCs that were not measured. High TVOC values (2--7 mg m-3) due to the presence of liquid-process photocopiers observed in several study spaces significantly influenced symptoms. Analyses without the high TVOC values reduced, but did not eliminate the ability of the VOC exposure metric based on irritancy and principal component analysis to explain symptom outcome.

  16. Long-Term Trajectories of the Development of Speech Sound Production in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Lu, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study characterized the development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children with a minimum of 8 years of cochlear implant (CI) experience. Method Twenty-seven pediatric CI recipients' spontaneous speech samples from annual evaluation sessions were phonemically transcribed. Accuracy for these speech samples was evaluated in piecewise regression models. Results As a group, pediatric CI recipients showed steady improvement in speech sound production following implantation, but the improvement rate declined after 6 years of device experience. Piecewise regression models indicated that the slope estimating the participants' improvement rate was statistically greater than 0 during the first 6 years postimplantation, but not after 6 years. The group of pediatric CI recipients' accuracy of speech sound production after 4 years of device experience reasonably predicts their speech sound production after 5–10 years of device experience. Conclusions The development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children stabilizes after 6 years of device experience, and typically approaches a plateau by 8 years of device use. Early growth in speech before 4 years of device experience did not predict later rates of growth or levels of achievement. However, good predictions could be made after 4 years of device use. PMID:18695018

  17. Metrication in a global environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberg, J.

    1994-01-01

    A brief history about the development of the metric system of measurement is given. The need for the U.S. to implement the 'SI' metric system in the international markets, especially in the aerospace and general trade, is discussed. Development of metric implementation and experiences locally, nationally, and internationally are included.

  18. Development of a Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound and Northwest Straits

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-12-10

    The hydrodynamic model used in this study is the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) developed by the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth. The unstructured grid and finite volume framework, as well as the capability of wetting/drying simulation and baroclinic simulation, makes FVCOM a good fit to the modeling needs for nearshore restoration in Puget Sound. The model domain covers the entire Puget Sound, Strait of Juan de Fuca, San Juan Passages, and Georgia Strait at the United States-Canada Border. The model is driven by tide, freshwater discharge, and surface wind. Preliminary model validation was conducted for tides at various locations in the straits and Puget Sound using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide data. The hydrodynamic model was successfully linked to the NOAA oil spill model General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment model (GNOME) to predict particle trajectories at various locations in Puget Sound. Model results demonstrated that the Puget Sound GNOME model is a useful tool to obtain first-hand information for emergency response such as oil spill and fish migration pathways.

  19. Films/Videos: Guidance for Children's Sound and Safe Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle

    1993-01-01

    Three videos for adults chronicle the life works of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget, two giants in the child development field, and three videos for children candidly and sensitively address common problems experienced by children, such as being afraid to read aloud in class, dealing with bullies, and protecting themselves from attack by strangers.…

  20. "Sounds of Intent", Phase 2: Gauging the Music Development of Children with Complex Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockelford, A.; Welch, G.; Jewell-Gore, L.; Cheng, E.; Vogiatzoglou, A.; Himonides, E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the latest phase of research in the "Sounds of intent" project, which is seeking, as a long-term goal, to map musical development in children and young people with severe, or profound and multiple learning difficulties (SLD or PMLD). Previous exploratory work had resulted in a framework of six putative…

  1. Long-Term Trajectories of the Development of Speech Sound Production in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Lu, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study characterized the development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children with a minimum of 8 years of cochlear implant (CI) experience. Method: Twenty-seven pediatric CI recipients' spontaneous speech samples from annual evaluation sessions were phonemically transcribed. Accuracy for these speech samples was…

  2. Think Metric

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    The International System of Units, as the metric system is officially called, provides for a single "language" to describe weights and measures over the world. We in the United States together with the people of Brunei, Burma, and Yemen are the only ones who have not put this convenient system into effect. In the passage of the Metric Conversion Act of 1975, Congress determined that we also will adopt it, but the transition will be voluntary.

  3. Development of a cloud particle sensor for radiosonde sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Masatomo; Sugidachi, Takuji; Arai, Toru; Shimizu, Kensaku; Hayashi, Mayumi; Noma, Yasuhisa; Kawagita, Hideaki; Sagara, Kazuo; Nakagawa, Taro; Okumura, Satoshi; Inai, Yoichi; Shibata, Takashi; Iwasaki, Suginori; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    A meteorological balloon-borne cloud sensor called the cloud particle sensor (CPS) has been developed. The CPS is equipped with a diode laser at ˜ 790 nm and two photodetectors, with a polarization plate in front of one of the detectors, to count the number of particles per second and to obtain the cloud-phase information (i.e. liquid, ice, or mixed). The lower detection limit for particle size was evaluated in laboratory experiments as ˜ 2 µm diameter for water droplets. For the current model the output voltage often saturates for water droplets with diameter equal to or greater than ˜ 80 µm. The upper limit of the directly measured particle number concentration is ˜ 2 cm-3 (2 × 103 L-1), which is determined by the volume of the detection area of the instrument. In a cloud layer with a number concentration higher than this value, particle signal overlap and multiple scattering of light occur within the detection area, resulting in a counting loss, though a partial correction may be possible using the particle signal width data. The CPS is currently interfaced with either a Meisei RS-06G radiosonde or a Meisei RS-11G radiosonde that measures vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity, height, pressure, and horizontal winds. Twenty-five test flights have been made between 2012 and 2015 at midlatitude and tropical sites. In this paper, results from four flights are discussed in detail. A simultaneous flight of two CPSs with different instrumental configurations confirmed the robustness of the technique. At a midlatitude site, a profile containing, from low to high altitude, water clouds, mixed-phase clouds, and ice clouds was successfully obtained. In the tropics, vertically thick cloud layers in the middle to upper troposphere and vertically thin cirrus layers in the upper troposphere were successfully detected in two separate flights. The data quality is much better at night, dusk, and dawn than during the daytime because strong sunlight affects the

  4. Metric Education for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, David L.

    1978-01-01

    The metric education program developed at Okaloosa-Walton Junior College, Niceville, Florida, for students and the community in general consists of three components: a metric measurement course; multimedia labor for independent study; and metric signs located throughout the campus. Instructional approaches for adult students are noted. (MF)

  5. GPS Sounding Rocket Development at NASA with Simultaneous Multi-Payload Tracking Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Martel, Hugh

    2000-01-01

    An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket use which includes the flight unit and a ground station capable of extracting GPS data from sounding rocket telemetry, performing a real time differential solution and graphically displaying the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. Accuracy has been proven to within less than 10 meters. Postprocessing has increased the precision to within 10 - 20 centimeters. The system has been successfully flown several times and delivered to the Sounding Program Office for routine field use. In addition to providing position, velocity and time GPS data has been used on sounding rockets for vehicle performance analysis, effecting a one hundred fold improvement in data time tagging, and steering an optical tracking device to intercept payloads launched from over the horizon. Precise velocity separation information and timing has been provided to multiple payload systems. Future plans include its use for Range Safety and enabling of interferometric techniques. The technology and software developed also has potential application to small satellite navigation and formation flying.

  6. Development and application of an agricultural intensity index to invertebrate and algal metrics from streams at two scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, Ian R.

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted at 28-30 sites within eight study areas across the United States along a gradient of nutrient enrichment/agricultural land use between 2003 and 2007. Objectives were to test the application of an agricultural intensity index (AG-Index) and compare among various invertebrate and algal metrics to determine indicators of nutrient enrichment nationally and within three regions. The agricultural index was based on total nitrogen and phosphorus input to the watershed, percent watershed agriculture, and percent riparian agriculture. Among data sources, agriculture within riparian zone showed significant differences among values generated from remote sensing or from higher resolution orthophotography; median values dropped significantly when estimated by orthophotography. Percent agriculture in the watershed consistently had lower correlations to invertebrate and algal metrics than the developed AG-Index across all regions. Percent agriculture showed fewer pairwise comparisons that were significant than the same comparisons using the AG-Index. Highest correlations to the AG-Index regionally were −0.75 for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera richness (EPTR) and −0.70 for algae Observed/Expected (O/E), nationally the highest was −0.43 for EPTR vs. total nitrogen and −0.62 for algae O/E vs. AG-Index. Results suggest that analysis of metrics at national scale can often detect large differences in disturbance, but more detail and specificity is obtained by analyzing data at regional scales.

  7. Toward Developing a New Occupational Exposure Metric Approach for Characterization of Diesel Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Cauda, Emanuele G.; Ku, Bon Ki; Miller, Arthur L.; Barone, Teresa L.

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of diesel-powered equipment in mines makes the exposure to diesel aerosols a serious occupational issue. The exposure metric currently used in U.S. underground noncoal mines is based on the measurement of total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentration in the air. Recent toxicological evidence suggests that the measurement of mass concentration is not sufficient to correlate ultrafine aerosol exposure with health effects. This urges the evaluation of alternative measurements. In this study, the current exposure metric and two additional metrics, the surface area and the total number concentration, were evaluated by conducting simultaneous measurements of diesel ultrafine aerosols in a laboratory setting. The results showed that the surface area and total number concentration of the particles per unit of mass varied substantially with the engine operating condition. The specific surface area (SSA) and specific number concentration (SNC) normalized with TC varied two and five times, respectively. This implies that miners, whose exposure is measured only as TC, might be exposed to an unknown variable number concentration of diesel particles and commensurate particle surface area. Taken separately, mass, surface area, and number concentration did not completely characterize the aerosols. A comprehensive assessment of diesel aerosol exposure should include all of these elements, but the use of laboratory instruments in underground mines is generally impracticable. The article proposes a new approach to solve this problem. Using SSA and SNC calculated from field-type measurements, the evaluation of additional physical properties can be obtained by using the proposed approach. PMID:26361400

  8. Guidelines for Teaching Metric Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide teachers and other decision-makers with a suggested framework within which sound planning for metric education can be done. Student behavioral objectives are listed by topic. Each objective is coded to indicate grade level, topic, and objective number. A chart is provided to show a kindergarten…

  9. Development in Source Modeling and Sound Propagation for Jet Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leib, Steward

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research carried out under this cooperative agreement was to develop tools that could be used to improve upon the current state of the art in the prediction of noise emitted by turbulent exhaust jets. Both the source modeling and sound propagation aspects of the prediction of jet noise by acoustic analogy were examined with a view toward the development of methods which yield improved predictions over a wider range of operating conditions.

  10. Development of Sound Localization Strategies in Children with Bilateral Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Godar, Shelly P; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2015-01-01

    Localizing sounds in our environment is one of the fundamental perceptual abilities that enable humans to communicate, and to remain safe. Because the acoustic cues necessary for computing source locations consist of differences between the two ears in signal intensity and arrival time, sound localization is fairly poor when a single ear is available. In adults who become deaf and are fitted with cochlear implants (CIs) sound localization is known to improve when bilateral CIs (BiCIs) are used compared to when a single CI is used. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emergence of spatial hearing sensitivity in children who use BiCIs, with a particular focus on the development of behavioral localization patterns when stimuli are presented in free-field horizontal acoustic space. A new analysis was implemented to quantify patterns observed in children for mapping acoustic space to a spatially relevant perceptual representation. Children with normal hearing were found to distribute their responses in a manner that demonstrated high spatial sensitivity. In contrast, children with BiCIs tended to classify sound source locations to the left and right; with increased bilateral hearing experience, they developed a perceptual map of space that was better aligned with the acoustic space. The results indicate experience-dependent refinement of spatial hearing skills in children with CIs. Localization strategies appear to undergo transitions from sound source categorization strategies to more fine-grained location identification strategies. This may provide evidence for neural plasticity, with implications for training of spatial hearing ability in CI users.

  11. A neural net-based approach to software metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boetticher, G.; Srinivas, Kankanahalli; Eichmann, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Software metrics provide an effective method for characterizing software. Metrics have traditionally been composed through the definition of an equation. This approach is limited by the fact that all the interrelationships among all the parameters be fully understood. This paper explores an alternative, neural network approach to modeling metrics. Experiments performed on two widely accepted metrics, McCabe and Halstead, indicate that the approach is sound, thus serving as the groundwork for further exploration into the analysis and design of software metrics.

  12. Enterprise Sustainment Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Air Force sustainment enterprise does not have metrics that . . . adequately measure key sustainment parameters, according to the 2011 National...Research Council of the National Academies study, Examination of the U.S. Air Force’s Aircraft Sustainment Needs in the Future and Its Strategy to Meet...standardized and do not contribute to the overall assessment of the sustainment enterprise. This paper explores the development of a single metric

  13. Agriculture, nutrition, and health in global development: typology and metrics for integrated interventions and research.

    PubMed

    Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite rhetoric arguing that enhanced agriculture leads to improved nutrition and health, there is scant empirical evidence about potential synergies across sectors or about the mix of actions that best supports all three sectors. The geographic scale and socioeconomic nature of these interventions require integration of previously separate research methods. This paper proposes a typology of interventions and a metric of integration among them to help researchers build on each other's results, facilitating integration in methods to inform the design of multisector interventions. The typology recognizes the importance of regional effect modifiers that are not themselves subject to randomized assignment, and trade-offs in how policies and programs are implemented, evaluated, and scaled. Using this typology could facilitate methodological pluralism, helping researchers in one field use knowledge generated elsewhere, each using the most appropriate method for their situation.

  14. Development of Metric for Measuring the Impact of RD&D Funding on GTO's Geothermal Exploration Goals (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, S.; Young, K. R.; Thorsteinsson, H.

    2013-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. In 2012, NREL was tasked with developing a metric to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration and cost and time improvements could be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Geothermal). The conference paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open EI website for public access (http://en.openei.org).

  15. Casualty Assistance: DOD and the Coast Guard Need to Develop Policies and Outreach Goals and Metrics for Program Supporting Servicemembers Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    CASUALTY ASSISTANCE DOD and the Coast Guard Need to Develop Policies and Outreach Goals and Metrics for Program...Services, U.S. Senate June 2016 CASUALTY ASSISTANCE DOD and the Coast Guard Need to Develop Policies and Outreach Goals and Metrics for Program...officers consistent with attributes of an effective training program. GAO analyzed statutes, DOD and Coast Guard policies on casualty matters, and

  16. The effects of immediate achievement and retention of middle school students involved in a metric unit designed to promote the development of estimating skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael L.; Rowsey, Robert E.

    1990-12-01

    Three hundred nintey-seven seventh-grade students were studied to determine the effect on immediate achievement and retention of a unit designed to promote the development of estimating skills involved in metric measurement. The study involved five teachers with a total of 15 average- or advanced-level classes divided into the reference and treatment groups. A five-day metric unit was designed so that both groups received exactly the same instruction in metric length, mass, and capacity with the exception of the treatment group's participation in activities relating to the development of estimation skills. Data collected from the Metric Application Instrument and analyzed with analysis of covariance indicated that students in the experimental group did retain significantly more of their improved metric application skills than the students in the reference group. The analysis of the main effects of race, sex, and ability indicated that white students achieved significantly more than black students and that males achieved significantly more than females. Analysis of significant race/ability and sex/race interactions indicated that (a) white students in the advanced group attained significantly greater achievement in metric application skills than black students of equal status and (b) white males significantly retained their metric applications achievement when compared to black males or black or white females.

  17. The development and application of composite complexity models and a relative complexity metric in a software maintenance environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.; Sherif, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    A great deal of effort is now being devoted to the study, analysis, prediction, and minimization of software maintenance expected cost, long before software is delivered to users or customers. It has been estimated that, on the average, the effort spent on software maintenance is as costly as the effort spent on all other software costs. Software design methods should be the starting point to aid in alleviating the problems of software maintenance complexity and high costs. Two aspects of maintenance deserve attention: (1) protocols for locating and rectifying defects, and for ensuring that noe new defects are introduced in the development phase of the software process; and (2) protocols for modification, enhancement, and upgrading. This article focuses primarily on the second aspect, the development of protocols to help increase the quality and reduce the costs associated with modifications, enhancements, and upgrades of existing software. This study developed parsimonious models and a relative complexity metric for complexity measurement of software that were used to rank the modules in the system relative to one another. Some success was achieved in using the models and the relative metric to identify maintenance-prone modules.

  18. Implicit Contractive Mappings in Modular Metric and Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, N.; Salimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    The notion of modular metric spaces being a natural generalization of classical modulars over linear spaces like Lebesgue, Orlicz, Musielak-Orlicz, Lorentz, Orlicz-Lorentz, and Calderon-Lozanovskii spaces was recently introduced. In this paper we investigate the existence of fixed points of generalized α-admissible modular contractive mappings in modular metric spaces. As applications, we derive some new fixed point theorems in partially ordered modular metric spaces, Suzuki type fixed point theorems in modular metric spaces and new fixed point theorems for integral contractions. In last section, we develop an important relation between fuzzy metric and modular metric and deduce certain new fixed point results in triangular fuzzy metric spaces. Moreover, some examples are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results. PMID:25003157

  19. Collaborative Sounding Rocket launch in Alaska and Development of Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Akimasa; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kan, Yuji; Tohyama, Fumio; Nakashino, Kyouichi; Hawkins, Joseph

    Tokai University student rocket project (TSRP) was established in 1995 for a purpose of the space science and engineering hands-on education, consisting of two space programs; the one is sounding rocket experiment collaboration with University of Alaska Fairbanks and the other is development and launch of small hybrid rockets. In January of 2000 and March 2002, two collaborative sounding rockets were successfully launched at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. In 2001, the first Tokai hybrid rocket was successfully launched at Alaska. After that, 11 hybrid rockets were launched to the level of 180-1,000 m high at Hokkaido and Akita in Japan. Currently, Tokai students design and build all parts of the rockets. In addition, they are running the organization and development of the project under the tight budget control. This program has proven to be very effective in providing students with practical, real-engineering design experience and this program also allows students to participate in all phases of a sounding rocket mission. Also students learn scientific, engineering subjects, public affairs and system management through experiences of cooperative teamwork. In this report, we summarize the TSRP's hybrid rocket program and discuss the effectiveness of the program in terms of educational aspects.

  20. Early Warning Look Ahead Metrics: The Percent Milestone Backlog Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Stephen A.; Anderson, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    All complex development projects experience delays and corresponding backlogs of their project control milestones during their acquisition lifecycles. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate (FPD) teamed with The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to develop a collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics that would provide GSFC leadership with some independent indication of the programmatic health of GSFC flight projects. As part of the collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics, the Percent Milestone Backlog metric is particularly revealing, and has utility as a stand-alone execution performance monitoring tool. This paper describes the purpose, development methodology, and utility of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric. The other four Early Warning Look Ahead metrics are also briefly discussed. Finally, an example of the use of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric in providing actionable insight is described, along with examples of its potential use in other commodities.

  1. The Importance of Bottomside and Topside Sounding Measurements for the Development of IRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2008-02-01

    This article reviews the important role that data from ground ionosondes and from satellite topside sounders have played in the development of empirical ionospheric models with special emphasis on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. It will briefly discuss the worldwide database established by these two instruments and point to times and locations not yet well covered requiring more sounding data inputs in the future. In the spirit of this book celebrating the 70th birthday of Bodo Reinisch the paper highlights his involvement in developing these measurements techniques and than using the results to improve the IRI model.

  2. Development for sound velocity and density measurements of liquid metal at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, H.; Nishida, K.; Urakawa, S.; Uesugi, K.; Takubo, Y.; Kuwabara, S.; Nakatsuka, A.; Hoshino, M.; Kono, Y.; Higo, Y.; Kondo, T.

    2012-12-01

    Sound velocity and density of liquid Fe-alloys under high pressure is quite important physical property to estimate the amount of light elements in the terrestrial core from the seismic data. Here, we have developed the system for simultaneous measurement of sound velocity and density combined with X-ray tomography technique at high pressure and temperature. High pressure experiments were performed using 80-ton uni-axial press (Urakawa et al. 2010) installed at X-ray computed micro-tomography (CT) beamline (BL20B2), SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. High pressure was generated using opposed-type cupped anvils. We measured the sound velocity and density of solid FeSi at room temperature and those of solid and liquid Ni-S at high temperature. Experimental pressure was obtained from the volume of h-BN. CT measurement was carried out by rotating the press from 0 to 180o with 0.2-0.3o steps. Monochromatized X-ray of 51 keV was used. Density was determined by using X-ray absorption method based on the X-ray radiograph image. The sample thickness for the X-ray path can be directly obtained from the CT data. This is a big advantage for CT measurement. Sound velocity was measured using pulse-echo overlapping ultrasonic method. P-wave signals were generated and detected by LiNbO3 transducer attached backside of the anvil. We have successfully observed both P-wave and S-wave signals up to 1.5 GPa and 1673 K. We detected change of signal intensity and shape corresponding to melting of Ni-S sample.

  3. Development and comparison of weighting metrics for probabilistic climate change projections of Mediterranean precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar-Ott, Irena; Hertig, Elke; Pollinger, Felix; Ring, Christoph; Paeth, Heiko; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    Climate protection and adaptive measures require reliable estimates of future climate change. Coupled global circulation models are still the most appropriate tool. However, the climate projections of individual models differ considerably, particularly at the regional scale and with respect to certain climate variables such as precipitation. Significant uncertainties also arise on the part of climate impact research. The model differences result from unknown initial conditions, different resolutions and driving mechanisms, different model parameterizations and emission scenarios. It is very challenging to determine which model simulates proper future climate conditions. By implementing results from all important model runs in probability density functions, the exceeding probabilities with respect to certain thresholds of climate change can be determined. The aim of this study is to derive such probabilistic estimates of future precipitation changes in the Mediterranean region for the multi-model ensemble from CMIP3 and CMIP5. The Mediterranean region represents a so-called hot spot of climate change. The analyses are carried out for the meteorological seasons in eight Mediterranean sub-regions, based on the results of principal component analyses. The methodologically innovative aspect refers mainly to the comparison of different metrics to derive model weights, such as Bayesian statistics, regression models, spatial-temporal filtering, the fingerprinting method and quality criteria for the simulated large-scale circulation. The latter describes the ability of the models to simulate the North Atlantic Oscillation, the East Atlantic pattern, the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern and the Scandinavia pattern, as they are the most important large-scale atmospheric drivers for Mediterranean precipitation. The comparison of observed atmospheric patterns with the modeled patterns leads to specific model weights. They are checked for their temporal consistency in the 20th

  4. Metrics for Occupations. Information Series No. 118.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, John C.

    The metric system is discussed in this information analysis paper with regard to its history, a rationale for the United States' adoption of the metric system, a brief overview of the basic units of the metric system, examples of how the metric system will be used in different occupations, and recommendations for research and development. The…

  5. Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9% was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04% was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface.

  6. Development of sound localization mechanisms in the mongolian gerbil is shaped by early acoustic experience.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Armin H; Grothe, Benedikt

    2005-08-01

    Sound localization is one of the most important tasks performed by the auditory system. Differences in the arrival time of sound at the two ears are the main cue to localize low-frequency sound in the azimuth. In the mammalian brain, such interaural time differences (ITDs) are encoded in the auditory brain stem; first by the medial superior olive (MSO) and then transferred to higher centers, such as the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), a brain stem nucleus that gets a direct input from the MSO. Here we demonstrate for the first time that ITD sensitivity in gerbils undergoes a developmental maturation after hearing onset. We further show that this development can be disrupted by altering the animal's acoustic experience during a critical period. In animals that had been exposed to omnidirectional white noise during a restricted time period right after hearing onset, ITD tuning did not develop normally. Instead, it was similar to that of juvenile animals 3 days after hearing onset, with the ITD functions not adjusted to the physiological range. Animals that had been exposed to omnidirectional noise as adults did not show equivalent abnormal ITD tuning. The development presented here is in contrast to that of the development of neuronal representation of ITDs in the midbrain of barn owls and interaural intensity differences in ferrets, where the representations are adjusted by an interaction of auditory and visual inputs. The development of ITD tuning presented here most likely depends on normal acoustic experience and may be related to the maturation of inhibitory inputs to the ITD detector itself.

  7. Assessment of noise metrics for application to rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullen, Andrew L.

    It is anticipated that the use of rotorcraft passenger vehicles for shorter journeys will increase because their use can reduce the time between boarding and take-off. The characteristics of rotorcraft noise are very different to that of fixed wing aircraft. There can be strong tonal components, fluctuations that can also make the noise sound impulsive, and future rotorcraft may produce proportionally more low frequency noise content. Most metrics that are used today to predict noise impact on communities around airports (e.g., Ldn) are just functions of A-weighted sound pressure level. To build a better noise annoyance model that can be applied to assess impact of future and current rotorcraft, it is important to understand the perceived sound attributes and how they influence annoyance. A series of psychoacoustic tests were designed and performed to further our understanding of how rotorcraft sound characteristics affect annoyance as well as evaluate the applicability of existing noise metrics as predictors of annoyance due to rotorcraft noise. The effect of the method used to reproduce sounds in the psychoacoustics tests was also investigated, and so tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Exterior Effects Room using loudspeaker arrays to simulate flyovers and in a double walled sound booth using earphones for playback. A semantic differential test was performed, and analysis of subject responses showed the presence of several independent perceptual factors relating to: loudness, sharpness, roughness, tonality, and impulsiveness. A simulation method was developed to alter tonal components in existing rotorcraft flyover recordings to change the impulsiveness and tonality of the sounds. Flyover recordings and simulations with varied attributes were used as stimuli in an annoyance test. Results showed that EPNL and SELA performed well as predictors of annoyance, but outliers to generate trends have tonal related characteristics that could be contributing to

  8. Sound and Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischman, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Claims that in metrical prose, rhythm can convey sense or express and underline what a writer is saying, and sound can be exploited to add a strong aural element that provides pleasure to the ears over and above the pleasure given by the sense of story. (SRT)

  9. Postnatal development of sound pressure transformations by the head and pinnae of the cat: monaural characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tollin, Daniel J; Koka, Kanthaiah

    2009-02-01

    Although there have been many anatomical, physiological, and psychophysical studies of auditory development in cat, there have been no comparable studies of the development of the sound pressured transformations by the cat head and pinnae. Because the physical dimensions of the head and pinnae determine the spectral and temporal transformations of sound, as head and pinnae size increase during development, the magnitude and frequency ranges of these transformations are hypothesized to systematically change. This hypothesis was tested by measuring directional transfer functions (DTFs), the directional components of head-related transfer functions, and the linear dimensions of the head and pinnae in cats from the onset of hearing ( approximately 1.5 weeks) through adulthood. Head and pinnae dimensions increased by factors of approximately 2 and approximately 2.5, respectively, reaching adult values by approximately 23 and approximately 16 weeks, respectively. The development of the spectral notch cues to source location, the spatial- and frequency-dependent distributions of DTF amplitude gain (acoustic directionality), maximum gain, and the acoustic axis, and the resonance frequency and associated gain of the ear canal and concha were systematically related to the dimensions of the head and pinnae. These monaural acoustical properties of the head and pinnae in the cat are mature by 16 weeks.

  10. Sound Guard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lubrication technology originally developed for a series of NASA satellites has produced a commercial product for protecting the sound fidelity of phonograph records. Called Sound Guard, the preservative is a spray-on fluid that deposits a microscopically thin protective coating which reduces friction and prevents the hard diamond stylus from wearing away the softer vinyl material of the disc. It is marketed by the Consumer Products Division of Ball Corporation, Muncie, Indiana. The lubricant technology on which Sound Guard is based originated with NASA's Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO), an Earth-orbiting satellite designed and built by Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado, also a division of Ball Corporation. Ball Brothers engineers found a problem early in the OSO program: known lubricants were unsuitable for use on satellite moving parts that would be exposed to the vacuum of space for several months. So the company conducted research on the properties of materials needed for long life in space and developed new lubricants. They worked successfully on seven OSO flights and attracted considerable attention among other aerospace contractors. Ball Brothers now supplies its "Vac Kote" lubricants and coatings to both aerospace and non-aerospace industries and the company has produced several hundred variations of the original technology. Ball Corporation expanded its product line to include consumer products, of which Sound Guard is one of the most recent. In addition to protecting record grooves, Sound Guard's anti-static quality also retards particle accumulation on the stylus. During comparison study by a leading U.S. electronic laboratory, a record not treated by Sound Guard had to be cleaned after 50 plays and the stylus had collected a considerable number of small vinyl particles. The Sound Guard-treated disc was still clean after 100 plays, as was its stylus.

  11. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  12. Aircraft sound quality for passenger comfort and enhanced product image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, Gregory H.; Bultemeier, Eric J.; West, Erik; Angerer, James R.; Bhat, Waman V.

    2005-09-01

    Passenger cabin noise requirements for commercial airplanes are being expanded beyond the traditional focus on noise annoyance and speech intelligibility. There is increasing recognition that the passenger response to the cabin soundscape is much more complex; affecting perceptions of product quality, and impacting fatigue and comfort. Tailoring the soundscape for a preferred cabin environment requires the development of metrics that capture a range of passenger responses. In a preliminary exploration of potential metrics, a series of experiments were undertaken to investigate passenger preference for several classes of stationary and transient sounds within the passenger cabin. The design, implementation, and data analysis for these experiments is discussed, along with the application of results to enhance cabin comfort and to convey product quality. Key findings confirm what has been found in sound quality studies in other industries: sound level alone does not fully account for passenger preference.

  13. Overlay quality metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir B.

    2012-03-01

    As overlay budget continues to shrink, an improved analysis of the different contributors to this budget is needed. A major contributor that has never been quantified is the accuracy of the measurements. KLA-Tencor developed a quality metric, that calculates and attaches an accuracy value to each OVL target. This operation is performed on the fly during measurement and can be applied without affecting MAM time or throughput. Using a linearity array we demonstrate that the quality metric identifies targets deviating from the intended OVL value, with no false alarms.

  14. Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric (GRRM) Developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.

    2015-09-02

    This paper reviews a methodology being developed for reporting geothermal resources and project progress. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of evaluating the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow the GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress and the public. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to develop the relevant geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by the GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for evaluating and reporting on GTO funding according to resource grade (geological, technical and socio-economic) and project progress. This methodology would allow GTO to target funding, measure impact by monitoring the progression of projects, or assess geological potential of targeted areas for development.

  15. The development of infants' use of property-poor sounds to individuate objects.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Teresa; Smith, Tracy R

    2010-12-01

    There is evidence that infants as young as 4.5 months use property-rich but not property-poor sounds as the basis for individuating objects (Wilcox, Woods, Tuggy, & Napoli, 2006). The current research sought to identify the age at which infants demonstrate the capacity to use property-poor sounds. Using the task of Wilcox et al., infants aged 7 and 9 months were tested. The results revealed that 9- but not 7-month-olds demonstrated sensitivity to property-poor sounds (electronic tones) in an object individuation task. Additional results confirmed that the younger infants were sensitive to property-rich sounds (rattle sounds). These are the first positive results obtained with property-poor sounds in infants and lay the foundation for future research to identify the underlying basis for the developmental hierarchy favoring property-rich over property-poor sounds and possible mechanisms for change.

  16. Active sound reduction: A study of recent developments and some future possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, E.

    1983-11-01

    It is suggested that active sound reduction is easiest to implement and most effective at low frequencies and in a duct rather than in a room or a free field. The prospects for success are considerably improved if the sound to be attenuated is periodic. Symmetry of the sound field can sometimes be exploited. The physical mechanisms of sound attenuation include reflection of sound by secondary sources, creation of higher order sources in order to reduce the energy radiated and conversion of acoustic energy. Active techniques can also be applied to prevent transmission of sound or vibrations from one sub-field to another. Microelectronics and digital filtering techniques are expected to greatly influence active sound attenuators.

  17. The development of spontaneous sound-shape matching in monolingual and bilingual infants during the first year.

    PubMed

    Pejovic, Jovana; Molnar, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Recently it has been proposed that sensitivity to nonarbitrary relationships between speech sounds and objects potentially bootstraps lexical acquisition. However, it is currently unclear whether preverbal infants (e.g., before 6 months of age) with different linguistic profiles are sensitive to such nonarbitrary relationships. Here, the authors assessed 4- and 12-month-old Basque monolingual and Spanish-Basque bilingual infants' sensitivity to cross-modal correspondences between sound symbolic nonwords without syllable repetition (buba, kike) and drawings of rounded and angular shapes. The findings demonstrate that sensitivity to sound-shape correspondences emerge by 12 months of age in both monolinguals and bilinguals. This finding suggests that spontaneous sound-shape matching is likely to be the product of language learning and development and may not be readily available prior to the onset of word learning. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Development and Calibration of an Item Bank for PE Metrics Assessments: Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Fox, Connie; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Graber, Kim C.; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and calibrate an assessment system, or bank, using the latest measurement theories and methods to promote valid and reliable student assessment in physical education. Using an anchor-test equating design, a total of 30 items or assessments were administered to 5,021 (2,568 boys and 2,453 girls) students in…

  19. Developing brief fatigue short forms calibrated to a common mathematical metric: is content-balancing important?

    PubMed

    Cook, Karon F; Choi, Seung W; Johnson, Kurt L; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-08-01

    There are clinical and research settings in which concerns about respondent burden make the use of longer self-report measures impractical. Though computer adaptive testing provides an efficient strategy for measuring patient reported outcomes, the requirement of a computer interface makes it impractical for some settings. This study evaluated how well brief short forms, constructed from a longer measure of patient reported fatigue, reproduced scores on the full measure. When the items of an item bank are calibrated using an item response theory model, it is assumed that the items are fungible units. Theoretically, there should be no advantage to balancing the content coverage of the items. We compared short forms developed using a random item selection process to short forms developed with consideration of the items relation to subdomains of fatigue (ie, physical and cognitive fatigue). Scores on short forms developed using content balancing more successfully predicted full item bank scores than did scores on short forms developed by random selection of items.

  20. Metric Development During the Reorganization of the Supply Chain Management Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    This MBA Project documents a case study of an ongoing reorganization effort at the Supply Chain Management Center (SCMC), Marine Corps Logistics...Command (MARCORLOGCOM), and their use of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) Model and the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to develop performance

  1. Developing Composite Metrics of Teaching Practice for Mediator Analysis of Program Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, Val; Newman, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy studies of educational programs often involve mediator analyses aimed at testing empirically appropriate theories of action. In particular, in the studies of professional development programs, the intervention targets primarily teachers' pedagogical skills and content knowledge, while the ultimate outcome is the student achievement…

  2. Developing an Aggregate Metric of Teaching Practice for Use in Mediator Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, Valeriy; Newman, Denis; Grossman, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Efficacy studies of educational programs often involve mediator analyses aimed at testing empirically appropriate theories of action. In particular, in the studies of professional teacher development programs, the intervention targets presumably teacher performance while the ultimate outcome is the student achievement measured by a standardized…

  3. Percentile-Based Journal Impact Factors: A Neglected Collection Development Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Various normalization techniques to transform journal impact factors (JIFs) into a standard scale or range of values have been reported a number of times in the literature, but have seldom been part of collection development librarians' tool kits. In this paper, JIFs as reported in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database are converted to…

  4. Gross motor development and reach on sound as critical tools for the development of the blind child.

    PubMed

    Elisa, Fazzi; Josée, Lanners; Oreste, Ferrari-Ginevra; Claudia, Achille; Antonella, Luparia; Sabrina, Signorini; Giovanni, Lanzi

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess early neuromotor development in 20 congenitally blind or severely visually impaired children, nine without (B) and 11 with associated handicaps (B + H), in order to develop a strategy for early intervention in these subjects. The mean age at first observation was 11.4 months (range: 4-30 months). The mean follow-up duration was 16.9 months (range: 3-36 months). Assessment included developmental history, neurological examination, video-recording of spontaneous activity and administration of the Reynell-Zinkin Scales and neuroradiological and neurophysiological investigations. All B children walked independently (mean age 19.8 months) and 55.5% crawled (mean age 15 months); the B + H subjects displayed absence of almost all neuromotor functions, except one who walked at 20 months. All the B and just one (9%) of the B + H children developed satisfactory fine motor abilities. 'Reach on sound' at distance was achieved by all the B children by the age of 14.2 months while in the B + H group it was achieved by only two subjects at a median age of 19.5 months. We conclude that it is possible to describe the profile of neuromotor development in B and B + H children; strategies to help postural-motor development and 'reach on sound' appear to be fundamental in early intervention in these subjects.

  5. Distribution and development of the highly specialized lipids in the sound reception systems of dolphins.

    PubMed

    Zahorodny Duggan, Zoey P; Koopman, Heather N; Budge, Suzanne M

    2009-08-01

    Fat bodies in the heads of toothed whales, which serve to transmit and receive sound, represent extraordinary examples of physiological specialization in adipose tissues among mammals, yet we know surprisingly little about their biochemical composition. We describe the spatial distributions and development of unusual endogenous lipids (branched-chain ["iso"] molecules and wax esters) in the mandibular fat bodies of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) using an ontogenetic series (fetus to adult; n = 10). Although concentrations of iso-acids, iso-alcohols and waxes were lower in younger dolphins than in adults, the same relative spatial arrangement was present in all age classes, implying a set "pattern" of acoustic lipid distribution that is established very early in life. In all age classes, a small region of blubber overlying the lateral region contained unusually high concentrations of iso-acids, exhibiting a tenfold increase over "normal" adjacent blubber. Being chemically more similar to the acoustic fat bodies, this region may serve as an entry point for sound into the head. Developmental accumulations of some iso-acids and iso-alcohols occurred more rapidly than others, implying that not only are the spatial distributions of branched-chain molecules under extremely fine-scale control, but the regulatory mechanisms controlling acoustic lipid synthesis are also highly complex.

  6. Measuring Impact of U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies Office Funding: Considerations for Development of a Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.; Bennett, Mitchell; Segneri, Brittany

    2015-04-25

    This paper reviews existing methodologies and reporting codes used to describe extracted energy resources such as coal and oil and describes a comparable proposed methodology to describe geothermal resources. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of assessing the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow for GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to inform development of a geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and we sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for assessing and reporting on GTO funding according to resource knowledge and resource grade (or quality). This methodology would allow GTO to target funding or measure impact by progression of projects or geological potential for development.

  7. Beyond Human Capital Development: Balanced Safeguards Workforce Metrics and the Next Generation Safeguards Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, Roberta L.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Shergur, Jason M.; Scholz, Melissa A.; Undem, Halvor A.

    2014-03-28

    Since its establishment in 2008, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has achieved a number of objectives under its five pillars: concepts and approaches, policy development and outreach, international nuclear safeguards engagement, technology development, and human capital development (HCD). As a result of these efforts, safeguards has become much more visible as a critical U.S. national security interest across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, limited budgets have since created challenges in a number of areas. Arguably, one of the more serious challenges involves NGSI’s ability to integrate entry-level staff into safeguards projects. Laissez fair management of this issue across the complex can lead to wasteful project implementation and endanger NGSI’s long-term sustainability. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of this problem, focusing on the demographics of the current safeguards workforce and compounding pressures to operate cost-effectively, transfer knowledge to the next generation of safeguards professionals, and sustain NGSI safeguards investments.

  8. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  9. Metrication: A Guide for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer and Corporate Affairs Dept., Ottawa (Ontario).

    The widespread use of the metric system by most of the major industrial powers of the world has prompted the Canadian government to investigate and consider use of the system. This booklet was developed to aid the consuming public in Canada in gaining some knowledge of metrication and how its application would affect their present economy.…

  10. Quality metrics for product defectiveness at KCD

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, J.V.

    1993-07-01

    Metrics are discussed for measuring and tracking product defectiveness at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Three new metrics, the metric (percent defective) that preceded the new metrics, and several alternatives are described. The new metrics, Percent Parts Accepted, Percent Parts Accepted Trouble Free, and Defects Per Million Observations, (denoted by PPA, PATF, and DPMO, respectively) were implemented for KCD-manufactured product and purchased material in November 1992. These metrics replace the percent defective metric that had been used for several years. The PPA and PATF metrics primarily measure quality performance while DPMO measures the effects of continuous improvement activities. The new metrics measure product quality in terms of product defectiveness observed only during the inspection process. The metrics were originally developed for purchased product and were adapted to manufactured product to provide a consistent set of metrics plant- wide. The new metrics provide a meaningful tool to measure the quantity of product defectiveness in terms of the customer`s requirements and expectations for quality. Many valid metrics are available and all will have deficiencies. These three metrics are among the least sensitive to problems and are easily understood. They will serve as good management tools for KCD in the foreseeable future until new flexible data systems and reporting procedures can be implemented that can provide more detailed and accurate metric computations.

  11. Sound Power Determination Using Sound Intensity Measurements: Applications and Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaobo

    1995-01-01

    The determination of sound power using sound intensity measurements is one of the most important developments in acoustics since the advent of digital signal processing techniques and FFT (fast Fourier transform) techniques in 1970's. Sound power determination using sound intensity measurements is the only way to precisely determine the sound power of noise sources in operating conditions when other noise sources are operating simultaneously. Sound power determination from sound intensity measurements largely obviates the need for special purpose test facilities, such as an anechoic room or a reverberation room. The determination of sound power from sound intensity measurements has many distinct advantages over the traditional determination of the sound power from sound pressure, and it will soon become the dominant method in the determination of the sound power of noise sources in-situ. Sound intensity measurements have been successfully applied to the determination of the sound power levels of noise sources in laboratory conditions, and of small machinery noise sources. The full scale application of this new technique to industrial machinery noise sources is certainly of importance for practical purposes. This dissertation mainly describes progress made in research on the application of sound intensity measurements for the determination of the sound power of noise sources. Results concerning the sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the following areas are discussed: sound power determination from sound intensity measurements at low frequency, error analysis of sound intensity estimates at low frequency, and sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the presence of air flow, sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the presence of strong background noise and some practical considerations on the application of the sound intensity technique to in-situ sound power determination.

  12. Using TRACI for Sustainability Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, has been developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, and product and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sustainable products, processes,...

  13. Bioprospecting of Evaporative Lakes for Development of a Novel Paleo-aridity Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, D. B.; Snoeyenbos-West, O.; Pratt, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    %). Notably, even in deeper and wetter parts of the mat, these groups are abundant members of the microbial community (62%) suggesting their role as keystone taxa in this harsh habitat. Using our culture-independent phylogenetic data as a guide, we are now developing culturing methods to target and isolate these desiccation-tolerant microbes and their associated metabolites for extraction and further biogeochemical study. These data will have applicability as potential paleo-aridity indicators in the rock record.

  14. ATLAS-M and Batt-M: development of flight hardware for MAPHEUS sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blochberger, G.; Drescher, J.; Neumann, C.; Penkert, P.; Griesche, A.; Kargl, F.; Meyer, A.

    2011-12-01

    Two modules ATLAS-M and Batt-M were especially developed for application in the MAPHEUS (MAterialPHysikalische Experimente Unter Schwerelosigkeit) sounding rocket campaign. They were manufactured and built at the Institute of Material Physics in Space at the German Aeropsace Center (DLR). ATLAS-M is a furnace for short time diffusion measurements achieving heating rates of 7K/s and cooling rates of 6K/s. Atlas-M is well suited for investigation of interdiffusion coefficients on a time scale of <200s. Batt-M is a rechargeable battery module, supplying a peak power of 12.6kW with a nominal capacity of 4.6 Ah for operation.

  15. Estuarine and coastal water dynamics controlling sediment movement and plume development in Long Island Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggles, F. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. As the Connecticut River flows into Long Island Sound, large plumes develop during the mixing of ocean and estuarine waters. Plumes were delineated for July 28, October 8, October 27, and December 2, 1972, by analyzing ERTS-1 imagery with the SRI Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC). Because the chemical and physical composition of the plume and ocean water were not too different, the ESIAC was utilized to expand the scenes and subject the transparencies to varying combinations of viewing techniques to identify and delineate the plumes. Best results were obtained when band 5 transparencies were used. Indications are, when the scene being analyzed is predominantly in the first two steps of the gray scale, it is best to use the negative transparencies. When the analysis is being done above the first two steps of the gray scale, it is best to use the positive transparencies.

  16. Considerations in the Development of a Sound Tolerance Interview and Questionnaire Instrument.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, LaGuinn P; Formby, Craig

    2017-02-01

    Most clinicians approach the objective fitting of hearing aids with three goals in mind: audibility, comfort, and tolerance. When these three amplification goals have been met, the hearing aid user is more likely to adapt to and perceive benefit from hearing aid use. However, problems related to the loudness of sounds and reduced sound tolerance, which may or may not be reported by the aided user, can adversely impact adaptation to amplification and the individual's quality of life. Although there are several standardized questionnaires available to evaluate hearing aid benefit and satisfaction, there is no standardized questionnaire or interview tool for evaluating reduced sound tolerance and the related impact on hearing aid use. We describe a 36-item tool, the Sound Tolerance Questionnaire (STQ), consisting of six sections, including experience with hearing aids, sound sensitivity/intolerance, medical and noise exposure histories, coexisting tinnitus problems, and a final question to differentiate the primary and secondary problems related to sound intolerance, tinnitus, and hearing loss. In its current format as a research tool, the STQ was sensitive in pinpointing vague sound tolerance complaints not reported by the study participants in eligibility screening by Formby et al. A refined version of the STQ, the Sound Tolerance Interview and Questionnaire Instrument (STIQI), structured as a two-part tool, is presented in the appendix for prospective clinical use. The STIQI has potential utility to delineate factors contributing to loudness complaints and/or reduced sound tolerance in individuals considering hearing aid use, as well as those who have been unsuccessful hearing aid users secondary to loudness complaints or sound intolerance. The STIQI, when validated and refined, also may hold promise for predicting hearing aid benefit and/or assessing treatment-related change over time of hearing aid use or interventions designed to remediate problems of loudness

  17. Puget Sound Tidal Energy In-Water Testing and Development Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collar, Craig W

    2012-11-16

    Tidal energy represents potential for the generation of renewable, emission free, environmentally benign, and cost effective energy from tidal flows. A successful tidal energy demonstration project in Puget Sound, Washington may enable significant commercial development resulting in important benefits for the northwest region and the nation. This project promoted the United States Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program's goals of advancing the commercial viability, cost-competitiveness, and market acceptance of marine hydrokinetic systems. The objective of the Puget Sound Tidal Energy Demonstration Project is to conduct in-water testing and evaluation of tidal energy technology as a first step toward potential construction of a commercial-scale tidal energy power plant. The specific goal of the project phase covered by this award was to conduct all activities necessary to complete engineering design and obtain construction approvals for a pilot demonstration plant in the Admiralty Inlet region of the Puget Sound. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County (The District) accomplished the objectives of this award through four tasks: Detailed Admiralty Inlet Site Studies, Plant Design and Construction Planning, Environmental and Regulatory Activities, and Management and Reporting. Pre-Installation studies completed under this award provided invaluable data used for site selection, environmental evaluation and permitting, plant design, and construction planning. However, these data gathering efforts are not only important to the Admiralty Inlet pilot project. Lessons learned, in particular environmental data gathering methods, can be applied to future tidal energy projects in the United States and other parts of the world. The District collaborated extensively with project stakeholders to complete the tasks for this award. This included Federal, State, and local government agencies, tribal governments, environmental groups, and others

  18. Intelligent Systems Approaches to Product Sound Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietila, Glenn M.

    As a product market becomes more competitive, consumers become more discriminating in the way in which they differentiate between engineered products. The consumer often makes a purchasing decision based on the sound emitted from the product during operation by using the sound to judge quality or annoyance. Therefore, in recent years, many sound quality analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the consumer preference as it relates to a product sound and to quantify this preference based on objective measurements. This understanding can be used to direct a product design process in order to help differentiate the product from competitive products or to establish an impression on consumers regarding a product's quality or robustness. The sound quality process is typically a statistical tool that is used to model subjective preference, or merit score, based on objective measurements, or metrics. In this way, new product developments can be evaluated in an objective manner without the laborious process of gathering a sample population of consumers for subjective studies each time. The most common model used today is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), although recently non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches are gaining popularity. This dissertation will review publicly available published literature and present additional intelligent systems approaches that can be used to improve on the current sound quality process. The focus of this work is to address shortcomings in the current paired comparison approach to sound quality analysis. This research will propose a framework for an adaptive jury analysis approach as an alternative to the current Bradley-Terry model. The adaptive jury framework uses statistical hypothesis testing to focus on sound pairings that are most interesting and is expected to address some of the restrictions required by the Bradley-Terry model. It will also provide a more amicable framework for an intelligent systems approach

  19. Noise exposure during early development impairs the processing of sound intensity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Bures, Zbynek; Grécová, Jolana; Popelár, Jirí; Syka, Josef

    2010-07-01

    During the early postnatal development of rats, the structural and functional maturation of the central auditory nuclei strongly relies on the natural character of the incoming neural activity. Even a temporary deprivation in the critical period results in a deterioration of neuronal responsiveness in adult animals. We demonstrate that besides the poorer frequency selectivity of neurons in the impaired animals reported previously [Grecova et al. (2009)Eur. J. Neurosci. 29, 1921-1930], the neuronal representation of sound intensity is significantly affected. Rate-intensity functions of inferior colliculus neurons were recorded in anaesthetized adult rats that were exposed to intense noise at postnatal day 14, and compared with those obtained in age-matched controls. Although the response thresholds were similar in the exposed and control rats, the neurons in the exposed animals had a longer first-spike latency, a narrower dynamic range, lower maximum response magnitudes and a steeper slope of the rate-intensity functions. The percentage of monotonic neurons was significantly lower in the exposed animals. The observed anomalies were confined to the mid- and high-frequency regions, whereas no significant changes were found in the low-frequency neurons. The altered parameters of the individual rate-intensity functions led also to differences in the cumulative responses. We conclude that a brief noise exposure during the critical period leads to a frequency-dependent alteration of the sound intensity representation in the inferior colliculus of adult rats. The results suggest that such impairments may appear in individuals with normal hearing thresholds, but with a history of noise exposure very early in childhood.

  20. Development of a Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) for continuous temperature profiling upto lower stratospheric altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar Sarma, T. V.; Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2012-07-01

    The Gadanki (13.46°N, 79.17°E) MST radar is a high power VHF pulsed coherent Doppler radar established for remote probing of atmospheric phenomena in the Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere regions. Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) was developed using this radar to obtain height profiles of atmospheric temperature up to lower stratospheric altitudes. RASS uses the effect of temperature on the speed of sound in air as a means to sense the atmospheric temperature. It is the combination of a Doppler radar and acoustic exciters. The radar was augmented with acoustic exciters that were designed and constructed for this purpose. The Doppler radar profiles the speed of refractive index perturbations induced by the acoustic source. RASS has been demonstrated to be a reliable ground-based remote profiling technique to obtain altitude profiles of atmospheric virtual temperature, Tv over the past two decades. This work describes the design of the system and its application to the observation of height profiles of atmospheric virtual temperature up to and beyond tropical tropopause altitudes. Observations were made during 2007, 2008 and 2009 over periods extending up to 72 hours. These observations demonstrate temperature profiling capability up to about 18 km in altitude, though on an occasion height coverage upto 22.8km was obtained briefly; lowest height covered is from about 1.5km onwards. During the period of the RASS observations simultaneous data from radiosonde was used to validate the temperature measurements. Simultaneous satellite-based measurement of outgoing long wave radiation (OLR) and precipitation from ground-based instruments was used to study the atmospheric phenomena of gravity waves and atmospheric stability during a convection event.

  1. The Long Road to Automation: Neurocognitive Development of Letter-Speech Sound Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froyen, Dries J. W.; Bonte, Milene L.; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Blomert, Leo

    2009-01-01

    In transparent alphabetic languages, the expected standard for complete acquisition of letter-speech sound associations is within one year of reading instruction. The neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of letter-speech sound associations have, however, hardly been investigated. The present article describes an ERP study with beginner and…

  2. Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: development of a research protocol.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper.

  3. Hydrologic trends associated with urban development for selected streams in the Puget Sound basin, western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    Annual streamflow statistics from 10 selected streams in the Puget Sound Basin in western Washington were analyzed to identify possible hydrologic trends associated with urban development and to evaluate the effect of record length on errors in trend analysis. The analysis used three common streamflow statistics (annual mean discharge, annual maximum discharge, and 7-day low flow) and introduced an alternative statistic (fraction of year annual mean discharge was exceeded) for assessing the hydrologic effects of urban development. Although trends were identified in each of the four statistics analyzed, trends were not consistent in any of the four statistics for all selected streams. Instead, trends in two statistics ? (1) fraction of year annual mean discharge was exceeded, and (2) annual (instantaneous) maximum discharge ? were evident in streams with the highest levels of urban development over the period of record but not in streams with the lowest levels of urban development. Trends were not consistent for either annual mean discharge or 7-day low flow in urban streams. Trends were sensitive to the period of analysis for all four statistics, but particularly for the 7-day low flow, which showed increasing and decreasing trends for 10 subsets of the period of record in some streams.

  4. Metrication report to the Congress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The major NASA metrication activity of 1988 concerned the Space Station. Although the metric system was the baseline measurement system for preliminary design studies, solicitations for final design and development of the Space Station Freedom requested use of the inch-pound system because of concerns with cost impact and potential safety hazards. Under that policy, however use of the metric system would be permitted through waivers where its use was appropriate. Late in 1987, several Department of Defense decisions were made to increase commitment to the metric system, thereby broadening the potential base of metric involvement in the U.S. industry. A re-evaluation of Space Station Freedom units of measure policy was, therefore, initiated in January 1988.

  5. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  6. Software development for the analysis of heartbeat sounds with LabVIEW in diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Topal, Taner; Polat, Hüseyin; Güler, Inan

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, a time-frequency spectral analysis software (Heart Sound Analyzer) for the computer-aided analysis of cardiac sounds has been developed with LabVIEW. Software modules reveal important information for cardiovascular disorders, it can also assist to general physicians to come up with more accurate and reliable diagnosis at early stages. Heart sound analyzer (HSA) software can overcome the deficiency of expert doctors and help them in rural as well as urban clinics and hospitals. HSA has two main blocks: data acquisition and preprocessing, time-frequency spectral analyses. The heart sounds are first acquired using a modified stethoscope which has an electret microphone in it. Then, the signals are analysed using the time-frequency/scale spectral analysis techniques such as STFT, Wigner-Ville distribution and wavelet transforms. HSA modules have been tested with real heart sounds from 35 volunteers and proved to be quite efficient and robust while dealing with a large variety of pathological conditions.

  7. Vestibular Influence on Auditory Metrical Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips-Silver, J.; Trainor, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    When we move to music we feel the beat, and this feeling can shape the sound we hear. Previous studies have shown that when people listen to a metrically ambiguous rhythm pattern, moving the body on a certain beat-adults, by actively bouncing themselves in synchrony with the experimenter, and babies, by being bounced passively in the…

  8. Development of a regional littoral benthic macroinvertebrate multi-metric index (MMI) for lakes from the National Lakes Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 2007 National Lakes Assessment (NLA) benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected from the lake littoral zone. The purpose of the sampling was to assess the feasibility of a multi-metric index (MMI) to assess the condition of the littoral benthic macroinvertebrate...

  9. Challenges and recent developments in sound processing for Baha®.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Mark C

    2011-01-01

    Osseointegrated auditory implants such as Baha(®) provide an efficient pathway for sound delivery and an excellent amplification choice for patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss or single-sided sensorineural deafness. But at the same time, bone conduction hearing provides a number of key challenges that need to be addressed. One solution is computer-based fitting software to measure in-situ thresholds directly through the Baha sound processor and to individually prescribe amplification settings based on the patient's hearing loss and degree of transcranial attenuation. Additionally, technologies such as automatic directional microphones and noise reduction systems further improve hearing performance in noisy situations. This paper highlights recent technological innovations and summarizes data on the advantages for the Baha patient population using the sound processing capabilities available in the latest Baha sound processors.

  10. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  11. Early development and orientation of the acoustic funnel provides insight into the evolution of sound reception pathways in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Maya; Pyenson, Nicholas D

    2015-01-01

    Whales receive underwater sounds through a fundamentally different mechanism than their close terrestrial relatives. Instead of hearing through the ear canal, cetaceans hear through specialized fatty tissues leading to an evolutionarily novel feature: an acoustic funnel located anterior to the tympanic aperture. We traced the ontogenetic development of this feature in 56 fetal specimens from 10 different families of toothed (odontocete) and baleen (mysticete) whales, using X-ray computed tomography. We also charted ear ossification patterns through ontogeny to understand the impact of heterochronic developmental processes. We determined that the acoustic funnel arises from a prominent V-shaped structure established early in ontogeny, formed by the malleus and the goniale. In odontocetes, this V-formation develops into a cone-shaped funnel facing anteriorly, directly into intramandibular acoustic fats, which is likely functionally linked to the anterior orientation of sound reception in echolocation. In contrast, the acoustic funnel in balaenopterids rotates laterally, later in fetal development, consistent with a lateral sound reception pathway. Balaenids and several fossil mysticetes retain a somewhat anteriorly oriented acoustic funnel in the mature condition, indicating that a lateral sound reception pathway in balaenopterids may be a recent evolutionary innovation linked to specialized feeding modes, such as lunge-feeding.

  12. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    reduction of bluff-body noise. Xiaoyu Wang and Xiaofeng Sun discuss the interaction of fan stator and acoustic treatments using the transfer element method. S Saito and his colleagues in JAXA report the development of active devices for reducing helicopter noise. The paper by A Tamura and M Tsutahara proposes a brand new methodology for aerodynamic sound by applying the lattice Boltzmann finite difference method. As the method solves the fluctuation of air density directly, it has the advantage of not requiring modeling of the sound generation. M A Langthjem and M Nakano solve the hole-tone feedback cycle in jet flow by a numerical method. Y Ogami and S Akishita propose the application of a line-vortex method to the three-dimensional separated flow from a bluff body. I hope that a second issue on aerodynamic sound will be published in FDR in the not too distant future.

  13. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna…

  14. Two recently developed guidance and control systems for sounding rockets and similar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljunge, Lars

    2003-08-01

    Saab Ericsson Space has continued its development of digital control systems, based on its previous experiences from the Maxus GCS and DS19. Two new systems now exist: The S19D guidance and control system, which uses DS19 hardware to execute S19 type guidance and control. The GCS/DMARS guidance, navigation and control system, which is a modernisation of the GCS/RIINS. The family of guidance systems provided by Saab Ericsson Space now includes: The analog S19 and the digital S19D for constant attitude guidance during the first part of a sounding rocket's powered flight. The DS19, that controls the attitude throughout the motor burn phase and navigates the vehicle to a pre-set impact point. The (Maxus) GCS with the same function as the DS19, but using thrust vector control via moveable nozzles instead of canard control. The SPINRAC and the RACS, providing exo-atmospheric impact point and attitude control by on-board thrusters.

  15. Hands-on Space Experiments from Cradle to Grave: The Role of the Sounding Rocket Program in Developing Human Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, S.

    2005-12-01

    Sounding rockets in university research provide a unique opportunity to train future space scientists and engineers. Besides fitting the typical schedule of a student, they allow a small group of students to be involved in all aspects of a space project from its inception through execution to a conclusion involving scientific discovery. Furthermore, universities with sounding rocket programs are cradles of innovations where the interdisciplinary nature of space experimentation is nurtured. These programs have formed the core research of many of the current Principal Investigators of NASA Space Science Missions. Additionally, they typically involve a large number of undergraduate students who gain in-depth experience into well-defined and critical components of a space mission. Researchers involved in sounding rocket experiments typically develop the science payload consisting of one or more instrument with the NASA Sounding Rocket Program Office (SRPO) providing all support necessary to make the science program a success. Unlike satellite missions, the sounding rocket experiments offer an opportunity to take more risks in terms of their science return. Some of these risks come in the form of new technology invention and development. Sounding rockets, with their flexible schedule and fewer formal procedural requirements, thus play an important role in maturing technology and developing new capabilities for satellite missions. The Student Launch Program was designed by NASA to provide a new opportunity where space science took a back seat to education and training. The program required that the proposing team provide components such as the nose cone, power and telemetry systems, which are typically provided to rocket experimenters by SRPO. The students involved in such programs thus gained invaluable experience with "mini-satellite" missions. We believe that they are essential for the long-term vitality of the space program and maintaining a technology

  16. Development and Testing of a High Level Axial Array Duct Sound Source for the NASA Flow Impedance Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marty E.; Fuller, Chris R.; Jones, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this report both a frequency domain method for creating high level harmonic excitation and a time domain inverse method for creating large pulses in a duct are developed. To create controllable, high level sound an axial array of six JBL-2485 compression drivers was used. The pressure downstream is considered as input voltages to the sources filtered by the natural dynamics of the sources and the duct. It is shown that this dynamic behavior can be compensated for by filtering the inputs such that both time delays and phase changes are taken into account. The methods developed maximize the sound output while (i) keeping within the power constraints of the sources and (ii) maintaining a suitable level of reproduction accuracy. Harmonic excitation pressure levels of over 155dB were created experimentally over a wide frequency range (1000-4000Hz). For pulse excitation there is a tradeoff between accuracy of reproduction and sound level achieved. However, the accurate reproduction of a pulse with a maximum pressure level over 6500Pa was achieved experimentally. It was also shown that the throat connecting the driver to the duct makes it difficult to inject sound just below the cut-on of each acoustic mode (pre cut-on loading effect).

  17. Development of the software tool for generation and visualization of the finite element head model with bone conduction sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Dalibor; Milošević, Žarko; Saveljić, Igor; Filipović, Nenad

    2015-12-01

    Vibration of the skull causes a hearing sensation. We call it Bone Conduction (BC) sound. There are several investigations about transmission properties of bone conducted sound. The aim of this study was to develop a software tool for easy generation of the finite element (FE) model of the human head with different materials based on human head anatomy and to calculate sound conduction through the head. Developed software tool generates a model in a few steps. The first step is to do segmentation of CT medical images (DICOM) and to generate a surface mesh files (STL). Each STL file presents a different layer of human head with different material properties (brain, CSF, different layers of the skull bone, skin, etc.). The next steps are to make tetrahedral mesh from obtained STL files, to define FE model boundary conditions and to solve FE equations. This tool uses PAK solver, which is the open source software implemented in SIFEM FP7 project, for calculations of the head vibration. Purpose of this tool is to show impact of the bone conduction sound of the head on the hearing system and to estimate matching of obtained results with experimental measurements.

  18. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  19. Development of new measuring technique using sound velocity for CO2 concentration in Cameroonian volcanic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanemasa, M.; Saiki, K.; Kaneko, K.; Ohba, T.; Kusakabe, M.; Tanyileke, G.; Hell, J.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction Limnic eruptions at Lakes Monoun and Nyos in Cameroon, which are sudden degassing of magmatic CO2 dissolved in the lake water, occurred in 1984 and 1986, respectively. The disasters killed about 1800 people around the lakes. Because of ongoing CO2 accumulation in the bottom water of the lakes, tragedy of limnic eruptions will possibly occur again. To prevent from further disasters, artificial degassing of CO2 from the lake waters has been undergoing. Additionally, CO2 monitoring of the lake waters is needed. Nevertheless, CO2 measurement is done only once or twice a year because current methods of CO2 measurement, which require chemical analysis of water samples, are not suitable for frequent measurement. In engineering field, on the other hand, a method to measure salt concentration using sound velocity has been proposed (Kleis and Sanchez, 1990). This method allows us to evaluate solute concentration fast. We applied the method to dissolved CO2 and examined the correlation between sound velocity and CO2 concentration in laboratory experiment. Furthermore, using the obtained correlation, we tried to estimate the CO2 concentration of waters in the Cameroonian lakes. 2. Laboratory experiment We examined the correlation between sound velocity and CO2 concentration. A profiler (Minos X, made by AML oceanography) and pure water were packed in cylindrical stainless vessel and high-pressure CO2 gas was injected to produce carbonated water. The profiler recorded temperature, pressure and sound velocity. Change of sound velocity was defined as difference of sound velocity between carbonated water and pure water under the same temperature and pressure conditions. CO2 concentration was calculated by Henry's law. The result indicated that the change of sound velocity [m s-1] is proportional to CO2 concentration [mmol kg-1], and the coefficient is 0.021 [m kg s-1 mmol-1]. 3. Field application Depth profiles of sound velocity, pressure, and temperature of Lakes

  20. Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment. Methods Data collection was implemented in six sites in four countries: Andhra Pradesh, India; Bohol, Philippines; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mexico City, Mexico; Pemba Island, Tanzania; and Uttar Pradesh, India. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) developed stringent diagnostic criteria including laboratory, pathology, and medical imaging findings to identify gold standard deaths in health facilities as well as an enhanced verbal autopsy instrument based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards. A cause list was constructed based on the WHO Global Burden of Disease estimates of the leading causes of death, potential to identify unique signs and symptoms, and the likely existence of sufficient medical technology to ascertain gold standard cases. Blinded verbal autopsies were collected on all gold standard deaths. Results Over 12,000 verbal autopsies on deaths with gold standard diagnoses were collected (7,836 adults, 2,075 children, 1,629 neonates, and 1,002 stillbirths). Difficulties in finding sufficient cases to meet gold standard criteria as well as problems with misclassification for certain causes meant that the target list of causes for analysis was reduced to 34 for adults, 21 for children, and 10 for neonates, excluding stillbirths. To ensure strict independence for the validation of methods and assessment of

  1. [Development of heart sound signal detection system based on USB interface].

    PubMed

    Ji, An; Guo, Xingming; Guo, Weizhen; Xiao, Shouzhong

    2008-10-01

    This paper introduces a type of heart sound recording, analysis and processing system based on USB interface. The system consists of high performance sensor sampling heart sounds, the preprocessing circuit, the A/D conversion module and the USB based high-speed computer communications interface. The experiments show that it is noninvasive, convenient, inexpensive and rapid in detecting the cardiac contractility of patients with heart disease as well as of healthy subjects. This system has provided a reliable technical platform for evaluating the cardiac contractility reserve.

  2. A new context-based approach to assess marine mammal behavioral responses to anthropogenic sounds.

    PubMed

    Ellison, W T; Southall, B L; Clark, C W; Frankel, A S

    2012-02-01

    Acute effects of anthropogenic sounds on marine mammals, such as from military sonars, energy development, and offshore construction, have received considerable international attention from scientists, regulators, and industry. Moreover, there has been increasing recognition and concern about the potential chronic effects of human activities (e.g., shipping). It has been demonstrated that increases in human activity and background noise can alter habitats of marine animals and potentially mask communications for species that rely on sound to mate, feed, avoid predators, and navigate. Without exception, regulatory agencies required to assess and manage the effects of noise on marine mammals have addressed only the acute effects of noise on hearing and behavior. Furthermore, they have relied on a single exposure metric to assess acute effects: the absolute sound level received by the animal. There is compelling evidence that factors other than received sound level, including the activity state of animals exposed to different sounds, the nature and novelty of a sound, and spatial relations between sound source and receiving animals (i.e., the exposure context) strongly affect the probability of a behavioral response. A more comprehensive assessment method is needed that accounts for the fact that multiple contextual factors can affect how animals respond to both acute and chronic noise. We propose a three-part approach. The first includes measurement and evaluation of context-based behavioral responses of marine mammals exposed to various sounds. The second includes new assessment metrics that emphasize relative sound levels (i.e., ratio of signal to background noise and level above hearing threshold). The third considers the effects of chronic and acute noise exposure. All three aspects of sound exposure (context, relative sound level, and chronic noise) mediate behavioral response, and we suggest they be integrated into ecosystem-level management and the spatial

  3. Problems in Developing Morally Sound Strategy in Low-Intensity Conflict.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    MORALLY SOUND STRATEGY FOR LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT SECTION I INTRODUCTION The avalanche of ethical arguments spawned by the Vietnam war and current debates...wryly several times in his book, A Sodier Reports, that Wellington had told the House of Lords: "A great nation cannot fight a little war." 27 4.XI’kr’, Z

  4. Development of a hybrid wave based-transfer matrix model for sound transmission analysis.

    PubMed

    Dijckmans, A; Vermeir, G

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a hybrid wave based-transfer matrix model is presented that allows for the investigation of the sound transmission through finite multilayered structures placed between two reverberant rooms. The multilayered structure may consist of an arbitrary configuration of fluid, elastic, or poro-elastic layers. The field variables (structural displacements and sound pressures) are expanded in terms of structural and acoustic wave functions. The boundary and continuity conditions in the rooms determine the participation factors in the pressure expansions. The displacement of the multilayered structure is determined by the mechanical impedance matrix, which gives a relation between the pressures and transverse displacements at both sides of the structure. The elements of this matrix are calculated with the transfer matrix method. First, the hybrid model is numerically validated. Next a comparison is made with sound transmission loss measurements of a hollow brick wall and a sandwich panel. Finally, numerical simulations show the influence of structural damping, room dimensions and plate dimensions on the sound transmission loss of multilayered structures.

  5. Sustainable chemistry metrics.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco García

    2009-01-01

    Green chemistry has developed mathematical parameters to describe the sustainability of chemical reactions and processes, in order to quantify their environmental impact. These parameters are related to mass and energy magnitudes, and enable analyses and numerical diagnoses of chemical reactions. The environmental impact factor (E factor), atom economy, and reaction mass efficiency have been the most influential metrics, and they are interconnected by mathematical equations. The ecodesign concept must also be considered for complex industrial syntheses, as a part of the sustainability of manufacturing processes. The aim of this Concept article is to identify the main parameters for evaluating undesirable environmental consequences.

  6. Moving to Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This booklet, designed to help the consumer prepare for the change to the metric system, discusses the following related topics: simplicity and universality of the metric system, weather, shopping, textiles, cooking, and driving. (MP)

  7. Developing the Translational Research Workforce: A Pilot Study of Common Metrics for Evaluating the Clinical and Translational Award KL2 Program

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Margaret; Guerrero, Lourdes; Jones, Lisa B.; Tong, Greg; Ireland, Christine; Dumbauld, Jill; Rainwater, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This pilot study describes the career development programs (i.e., NIH KL2 awards) across five Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institutions within the University of California (UC) system, and examines the feasibility of a set of common metrics for evaluating early outcomes. Methods A survey of program administrators provided data related to the institutional environment within which each KL2 program was implemented. Application and progress report data yielded a combined data set that characterized KL2 awardees, their initial productivity, and early career outcomes. Results The pilot project demonstrated the feasibility of aggregating common metrics data across multiple institutions. The data indicated that KL2 awardees were an accomplished set of investigators, both before and after the award period, representing a wide variety of disciplines. Awardees that had completed their trainee period overwhelmingly remained active in translational research conducted within an academic setting. Early indications also suggest high rates of success with obtaining research funding subsequent to the KL2 award. Conclusion This project offers a model for how to collect and analyze common metrics related to the education and training function of the CTSA Consortium. Next steps call for expanding participation to other CTSA sites outside of the University of California system. PMID:26602332

  8. Metrics in Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindbeck, John R.

    The United States is rapidly becoming a metric nation. Industry, education, business, and government are all studying the issue of metrication to learn how they can prepare for it. The book is designed to help teachers and students in career education programs learn something about metrics. Presented in an easily understood manner, the textbook's…

  9. Metrication for the Manager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, John T.

    The scope of this book covers metrication management. It was created to fill the middle management need for condensed, authoritative information about the metrication process and was conceived as a working tool and a prime reference source. Written from a management point of view, it touches on virtually all aspects of metrication and highlights…

  10. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be a sign of early bowel obstruction. Causes Most of the sounds you hear in your stomach and intestines are ... a list of more serious conditions that can cause abnormal bowel sounds. Hyperactive, hypoactive, or missing bowel sounds may be ...

  11. Developing effective serious games: the effect of background sound on visual fidelity perception with varying texture resolution.

    PubMed

    Rojas, David; Kapralos, Bill; Cristancho, Sayra; Collins, Karen; Hogue, Andrew; Conati, Cristina; Dubrowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Despite the benefits associated with virtual learning environments and serious games, there are open, fundamental issues regarding simulation fidelity and multi-modal cue interaction and their effect on immersion, transfer of knowledge, and retention. Here we describe the results of a study that examined the effect of ambient (background) sound on the perception of visual fidelity (defined with respect to texture resolution). Results suggest that the perception of visual fidelity is dependent on ambient sound and more specifically, white noise can have detrimental effects on our perception of high quality visuals. The results of this study will guide future studies that will ultimately aid in developing an understanding of the role that fidelity, and multi-modal interactions play with respect to knowledge transfer and retention for users of virtual simulations and serious games.

  12. A prototype hail detection algorithm and hail climatology developed with the advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Ralph; Beauchamp, James; Cecil, Daniel; Heymsfield, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    In previous studies published in the open literature, a strong relationship between the occurrence of hail and the microwave brightness temperatures (primarily at 37 and 85 GHz) was documented. These studies were performed with the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and most recently, the Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sensor. This led to climatologies of hail frequency from TMI and AMSR-E, however, limitations included geographical domain of the TMI sensor (35 S to 35 N) and the overpass time of the Aqua satellite (130 am/pm local time), both of which reduce an accurate mapping of hail events over the global domain and the full diurnal cycle. Nonetheless, these studies presented exciting, new applications for passive microwave sensors. NOAA and EUMETSAT have been operating the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A and -B) and the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on several operational satellites since 1998: NOAA-15 through NOAA-19; MetOp-A and -B. With multiple satellites in operation since 2000, the AMSU/MHS sensors provide near global coverage every 4 h, thus, offering a much larger time and temporal sampling than TRMM or AMSR-E. With similar observation frequencies near 30 and 85 GHz, one at 157 GHz, and additionally three at the 183 GHz water vapor band, the potential to detect strong convection associated with severe storms on a more comprehensive time and space scale exists. In this study, we develop a prototype AMSU-based hail detection algorithm through the use of collocated satellite and surface hail reports over the continental US for a 10-year period (2000-2009). Compared with the surface observations, the algorithm detects approximately 40% of hail occurrences. The simple threshold algorithm is then used to generate a hail climatology based on all available AMSU observations during 2000-2011 that is stratified in several ways

  13. Outdoor Sound Propagation Modelling in Complex Environments: Recent Developments in the Parabolic Equation Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    equation for sound waves in inhomogeneous moving media”, Acustica united with Acta Acustica , Vol 83(3), pp 455-460,1997. [3] L. Dallois, Ph. Blanc...propagation in a turbulent atmosphere within the parabolic approximation”, Acustica united with Acta Acustica , Vol 87(1), pp 659-669, 2001 [6] M. Karweit...approaches", Acta Acustica united with Acustica , 89 (6), 980-991, (2003). [40] Ph. Voisin, Ph. Blanc-Benon, "The influence of meteorological

  14. Selection of metrics based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and development of a biotic index (CYMOX) for assessing ecological status of coastal and transitional waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Silvia; Mascaró, Oriol; Llagostera, Izaskun; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Bioindicators, based on a large variety of organisms, have been increasingly used in the assessment of the status of aquatic systems. In marine coastal waters, seagrasses have shown a great potential as bioindicator organisms, probably due to both their environmental sensitivity and the large amount of knowledge available. However, and as far as we are aware, only little attention has been paid to euryhaline species suitable for biomonitoring both transitional and marine waters. With the aim to contribute to this expanding field, and provide new and useful tools for managers, we develop here a multi-bioindicator index based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa. We first compiled from the literature a suite of 54 candidate metrics, i. e. measurable attribute of the concerned organism or community that adequately reflects properties of the environment, obtained from C. nodosa and its associated ecosystem, putatively responding to environmental deterioration. We then evaluated them empirically, obtaining a complete dataset on these metrics along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Using this dataset, we selected the metrics to construct the index, using, successively: (i) ANOVA, to assess their capacity to discriminate among sites of different environmental conditions; (ii) PCA, to check the existence of a common pattern among the metrics reflecting the environmental gradient; and (iii) feasibility and cost-effectiveness criteria. Finally, 10 metrics (out of the 54 tested) encompassing from the physiological (δ15N, δ34S, % N, % P content of rhizomes), through the individual (shoot size) and the population (root weight ratio), to the community (epiphytes load) organisation levels, and some metallic pollution descriptors (Cd, Cu and Zn content of rhizomes) were retained and integrated into a single index (CYMOX) using the scores of the sites on the first axis of a PCA. These scores were reduced to a 0-1 (Ecological Quality Ratio) scale by referring the values to the

  15. Quality-Controlled Upper-Air Sounding Dataset for DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE: Development and Corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Ciesielski, Paul; Yu, Hungjui; Johnson, Richard; Yoneyama, Kunio; Katsumata, Masaki; Long, Charles N.; Wang, Junhong; Loehrer, Scot; Young, Kate; Williams, S.; Brown, William; Braun, John; Van Hove, Terese

    2014-04-01

    The upper-air sounding network for DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation or MJO) has provided an unprecedented set of observations for studying the MJO over the Indian Ocean (IO) where coupling of this oscillation with deep convection first occurs. With 72 sounding sites and dropsonde data from 13 aircraft mission, the sonde network covers the tropics from Eastern African to the West Pacific. In total nearly 26,000 sondes were collected from this network during the experiment’s 6-month extended observing period (from October 2011 to March 2012). Slightly more than half of the sondes, collected from 33 sites, are at high vertical resolution. Rigorous post-field phase processing of the sonde data included several levels of quality checks and a variety of corrections which address a number of issues (e.g., daytime dry bias, baseline surface data errors, ship deck-heating effects, artificial dry spikes in slow ascent sondes). Because of the importance of an accurate description of the moisture field in meeting the scientific goals of the experiments, particular attention is given to humidity correction and its validation. The humidity corrections, though small relative to some previous field campaigns, produced high fidelity moisture analyses in which sonde precipitable water compared well with independent estimates. An assessment of model operational analyses moisture using corrected sonde data shows an overall good agreement with the exception at upper-levels where model moisture and clouds are more abundant than the sounding data would indicate.

  16. Evaluating social media's capacity to develop engaged audiences in health promotion settings: use of Twitter metrics as a case study.

    PubMed

    Neiger, Brad L; Thackeray, Rosemary; Burton, Scott H; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe G; Fagen, Michael C

    2013-03-01

    Use of social media in health promotion and public health continues to grow in popularity, though most of what is reported in literature represents one-way messaging devoid of attributes associated with engagement, a core attribute, if not the central purpose, of social media. This article defines engagement, describes its value in maximizing the potential of social media in health promotion, proposes an evaluation hierarchy for social media engagement, and uses Twitter as a case study to illustrate how the hierarchy might function in practice. Partnership and participation are proposed as culminating outcomes for social media use in health promotion. As use of social media in health promotion moves toward this end, evaluation metrics that verify progress and inform subsequent strategies will become increasingly important.

  17. The Bosstown Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    Based on the argument that (contrary to critical opinion) the musicians in the various bands associated with Bosstown Sound were indeed talented, cohesive individuals and that the bands' lack of renown was partially a result of ill-treatment by record companies and the press, this paper traces the development of the Bosstown Sound from its…

  18. Late Quaternary development of the Croatan Beach Ridge Complex, Bogue Sound, Bogue Banks, NC, USA and implications for coastal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Kelly B.; Mallinson, David J.; Culver, Stephen J.

    2016-06-01

    Foraminiferal, sedimentological, geophysical, and geochronologic data were utilized to elucidate the late Quaternary geologic development of the Croatan Beach Ridge Complex (CBRC), Bogue Sound, and Bogue Banks, North Carolina, USA. The CBRC is a relict beach ridge feature located on the mainland. It is separated from the modern barrier island, Bogue Banks, by Bogue Sound. Seventeen cores along shore-normal and shore-parallel transects provided material for sedimentologic and foraminiferal analysis and resulted in the recognition of seven depositional facies representing a variety of coastal depositional environments. Chronologic and depositional facies data suggest the CBRC was initiated during MIS 5a and rapid southward progradation produced a cape structure. Eolian reactivation of the upper sand of the CBRC occurred during the last glacial maximum (∼18 ka). The age of flood tide delta deposits in Bogue Sound suggests that the Holocene barrier island, Bogue Banks, had formed by ∼6 ka. Shoreface ravinement resulted in a shoreface landward of the present shoreline by ∼3.5 ka. Seaward and westward spit progradation of Bogue Banks began ∼1.7 ka and continued to ∼1.3 ka. Normal marine salinity conditions were present in Bogue Sound ∼1.1 ka, suggesting removal of at least the narrowest parts of the barrier island, coeval with a previously documented segmentation of the southern Outer Banks barrier islands. Previous work has linked this segmentation to climate warming and increased tropical storm activity during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. This study illustrates the complex response of this coastal system to Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level and climate change over two major sea-level cycles. In particular, the regional geomorphology during MIS5a and the Holocene sea-level highstand differ significantly and this, in large part, was controlled by the antecedent geologic framework, resulted in the contrasting more localized coastal geomorphic response.

  19. Algebraic mesh quality metrics

    SciTech Connect

    KNUPP,PATRICK

    2000-04-24

    Quality metrics for structured and unstructured mesh generation are placed within an algebraic framework to form a mathematical theory of mesh quality metrics. The theory, based on the Jacobian and related matrices, provides a means of constructing, classifying, and evaluating mesh quality metrics. The Jacobian matrix is factored into geometrically meaningful parts. A nodally-invariant Jacobian matrix can be defined for simplicial elements using a weight matrix derived from the Jacobian matrix of an ideal reference element. Scale and orientation-invariant algebraic mesh quality metrics are defined. the singular value decomposition is used to study relationships between metrics. Equivalence of the element condition number and mean ratio metrics is proved. Condition number is shown to measure the distance of an element to the set of degenerate elements. Algebraic measures for skew, length ratio, shape, volume, and orientation are defined abstractly, with specific examples given. Combined metrics for shape and volume, shape-volume-orientation are algebraically defined and examples of such metrics are given. Algebraic mesh quality metrics are extended to non-simplical elements. A series of numerical tests verify the theoretical properties of the metrics defined.

  20. Goal-Driven Definition of Product Metrics Based on Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1995-01-01

    Defining product metrics requires a rigorous and disciplined approach, because useful metrics depend, to a very large extent, on one's goals and assumptions about the studied software process. Unlike in more mature scientific fields, it appears difficult to devise a "universal" set of metrics in software engineering, that can be used across application environments. We propose an approach for the definition of product metrics which is driven by the experimental goals of measurement, expressed via the Goal/Question/Metric (GQM) paradigm, and is based on the mathematical properties of the metrics. This approach integrates several research contributions from the literature into a consistent, practical and rigorous approach. The approach we outline should not be considered as a complete and definitive solution, but as a starting point for discussion about a product metric definition approach widely accepted in the software engineering community. At this point, we intend to provide an intellectual process that we think is necessary to define sound software product metrics. A precise and complete documentation of such an approach will provide the information needed to make the assessment and reuse of a new metric possible. Thus, product metrics are supported by a solid theory which facilitates their review and refinement. Moreover, their definition is made less exploratory and, as a consequence, one is less likely to identify spurious correlations between process and product metrics.

  1. Fusion metrics for dynamic situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Pribilski, Mike; Daughtery, Bryan; Roscoe, Brian; Gunsett, Josh

    2004-08-01

    To design information fusion systems, it is important to develop metrics as part of a test and evaluation strategy. In many cases, fusion systems are designed to (1) meet a specific set of user information needs (IN), (2) continuously validate information pedigree and updates, and (3) maintain this performance under changing conditions. A fusion system"s performance is evaluated in many ways. However, developing a consistent set of metrics is important for standardization. For example, many track and identification metrics have been proposed for fusion analysis. To evaluate a complete fusion system performance, level 4 sensor management and level 5 user refinement metrics need to be developed simultaneously to determine whether or not the fusion system is meeting information needs. To describe fusion performance, the fusion community needs to agree on a minimum set of metrics for user assessment and algorithm comparison. We suggest that such a minimum set should include feasible metrics of accuracy, confidence, throughput, timeliness, and cost. These metrics can be computed as confidence (probability), accuracy (error), timeliness (delay), throughput (amount) and cost (dollars). In this paper, we explore an aggregate set of metrics for fusion evaluation and demonstrate with information need metrics for dynamic situation analysis.

  2. Developing a new stream metric for comparing stream function using a bank-floodplain sediment budget: a case study of three Piedmont streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg

    2013-01-01

    A bank and floodplain sediment budget was created for three Piedmont streams tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. The watersheds of each stream varied in land use from urban (Difficult Run) to urbanizing (Little Conestoga Creek) to agricultural (Linganore Creek). The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between geomorphic parameters and sediment dynamics and to develop a floodplain trapping metric for comparing streams with variable characteristics. Net site sediment budgets were best explained by gradient at Difficult Run, floodplain width at Little Conestoga Creek, and the relation of channel cross-sectional area to floodplain width at Linganore Creek. A correlation for all streams indicated that net site sediment budget was best explained by relative floodplain width (ratio of channel width to floodplain width). A new geomorphic metric, the floodplain trapping factor, was used to compare sediment budgets between streams with differing suspended sediment yields. Site sediment budgets were normalized by floodplain area and divided by the stream's sediment yield to provide a unitless measure of floodplain sediment trapping. A floodplain trapping factor represents the amount of upland sediment that a particular floodplain site can trap (e.g. a factor of 5 would indicate that a particular floodplain site traps the equivalent of 5 times that area in upland erosional source area). Using this factor we determined that Linganore Creek had the highest gross and net (floodplain deposition minus bank erosion) floodplain trapping factor (107 and 46, respectively) that Difficult Run the lowest gross floodplain trapping factor (29) and Little Conestoga Creek had the lowest net floodplain trapping factor (–14, indicating that study sites were net contributors to the suspended sediment load). The trapping factor is a robust metric for comparing three streams of varied watershed and geomorphic character, it promises to be a useful tool for future stream assessments.

  3. Fighter agility metrics, research, and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.; Valasek, John; Eggold, David P.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A completed set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation provided by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available. Simulation documentation and user instructions are provided in an appendix.

  4. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  5. Cognitive Dimensions in Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Normal Elderly: Developing a Common Metric

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; McCrary, John W.; Gardner, Margaret N.; Bachus, Laura E.; DeGrush, Elizabeth; Reilly, Lindsey A.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Guillily, Maria D.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess similarity in cognitive factor structures underlying neuropsychological test performance of elders belonging to three clinical groups: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and normal elderly. We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to 214 elderly participants in the groups. First, the underlying cognitive structure of a Combined-Set of AD, MCI, and Control subjects was determined by Principal Components Analysis (PCA), including quantitative relationships (loadings) between the test measures and the factors. The PCA resolved 17 neuropsychological test measures into 6 interpretable factors, accounting for 78% of the variance. This cognitive structure was compared with separate cognitive structures from an AD-Set, an MCI-Set, and a Control-Set (different individuals in each set) in additional PCA using Procrustes factor rotation. Analysis of congruence coefficients between each set and the Combined-Set by a bootstrapping statistical procedure supported the factor invariance hypothesis. These close similarities across groups in their underlying neuropsychological dimensions support the use of a common metric system (the factor structure of a Combined-Set) for measuring neuropsychological factors in all these elderly individuals. PMID:20717503

  6. Development of a Low Energy Particle Electron Spectrum Analyzer (LEP-ESA) onboard the ICI-2 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, M.; Saito, Y.; Yokota, S.; Saito, M.; Asamura, K.; Kasahara, S.

    2008-12-01

    Strong HF radar backscatter echoes are well-known characteristics of the polar cusp region by the ground- based observation of HF radar in the polar ionosphere. The gradient drift instability is regarded as a dominant mode for producing backscatter targets. According to Moen et al. [2002], decameter scale measurement that cannot be achieved by ground-based and satellite observations is required to understand the generation mechanism. Norwegian sounding rocket experiment ICI-2(Investigation of Cusp Irregularities) is proposed in order to single out the mechanism(s) running cusp ionospheric plasma unstable and facilitate backscatter targets for HF radars. The ICI-2 rocket will be launched into cusp ionosphere from Svalbard, Norway in Nov/Dec 2008. We are responsible for developing a low energy particle electron spectrum analyzer (LEP-ESA) that is one of the science payloads onboard the ICI-2 sounding rocket. LEP-ESA covers the energy range between 10eV and 10keV. We designed LEP-ESA to achieve high spatial resolution of ~10m/energy spectrum (16 energy steps). We have confirmed the performance of LEP-ESA by experiments as well as numerical simulations. In order to realize the high spatial resolution, high time resolution is required. For the purpose of high time resolution measurement of low energy electrons we have newly developed an electron detector that consists of Z-stack MCPs (Micro Channel Pates) and 64-channel multi-anode. An ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) with 64-channel fast preamplifiers and counters are installed on the backside of the anode. Since the detected electrons are independently counted by 64 separated anodes, multi-anode can achieve the higher time resolution than any other position sensitive anodes. One of the most severe problems in using a multi- anode is the size of the required electronics that becomes unacceptably large for the sounding rocket / satellite instrument when the number of the channels is large. By using the

  7. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  8. Metrics for Cosmetology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of cosmetology students, this instructional package on cosmetology is part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology, measurement terms, and tools currently in use. Each of the…

  9. Metrics for Food Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in food distribution, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  10. Metrics for Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in transportation, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

  11. Metrics for Blueprint Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of blueprint reading students, this instructional package is one of eight for the manufacturing occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology, measurement…

  12. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  13. A Measured Metric Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Edward D.; Wisner, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    A middle-road approach towards adopting the instruction of the metric system is presented. The realities of our cultural, economic, and political processes are taken into account and a 100 percent metric curriculum is viewed as unrealistic and anachronistic. (MP)

  14. Metrics for Fire Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in fire science education, this instructional package is one of two for the public service occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  15. Trends in Developed Land Cover Adjacent to Habitat for Threatened Salmon in Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Krista K.; Ford, Michael J.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Fresh, Kurt L.; Pess, George R.; Kennedy, Robert E.; Rowse, Melinda L.; Sheer, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    For widely distributed species at risk, such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), habitat monitoring is both essential and challenging. Only recently have widespread monitoring programs been implemented for salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Remote sensing data, such as Landsat images, are therefore a useful way to evaluate trends prior to the advent of species-specific habitat monitoring programs. We used annual (1986-2008) land cover maps created from Landsat images via automated algorithms (LandTrendr) to evaluate trends in developed (50-100% impervious) land cover in areas adjacent to five types of habitat utilized by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Puget Sound region of Washington State, U.S.A. For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain), but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008). For each habitat type, the increasing trend changed during the time series. In nearshore, mainstem, and floodplain areas, the rate of increase in developed land cover slowed in the latter portion of the time series, while the opposite occurred in estuary and tributary areas. Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds. Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition. PMID:25923327

  16. Sound Visualization and Holography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  17. New metrics for blog mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulicny, Brian; Baclawski, Ken; Magnus, Amy

    2007-04-01

    Blogs represent an important new arena for knowledge discovery in open source intelligence gathering. Bloggers are a vast network of human (and sometimes non-human) information sources monitoring important local and global events, and other blogs, for items of interest upon which they comment. Increasingly, issues erupt from the blog world and into the real world. In order to monitor blogging about important events, we must develop models and metrics that represent blogs correctly. The structure of blogs requires new techniques for evaluating such metrics as the relevance, specificity, credibility and timeliness of blog entries. Techniques that have been developed for standard information retrieval purposes (e.g. Google's PageRank) are suboptimal when applied to blogs because of their high degree of exophoricity, quotation, brevity, and rapidity of update. In this paper, we offer new metrics related for blog entry relevance, specificity, timeliness and credibility that we are implementing in a blog search and analysis tool for international blogs. This tools utilizes new blog-specific metrics and techniques for extracting the necessary information from blog entries automatically, using some shallow natural language processing techniques supported by background knowledge captured in domain-specific ontologies.

  18. Vestibular influence on auditory metrical interpretation.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Trainor, Laurel J

    2008-06-01

    When we move to music we feel the beat, and this feeling can shape the sound we hear. Previous studies have shown that when people listen to a metrically ambiguous rhythm pattern, moving the body on a certain beat--adults, by actively bouncing themselves in synchrony with the experimenter, and babies, by being bounced passively in the experimenter's arms--can bias their auditory metrical representation so that they interpret the pattern in a corresponding metrical form [Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2005). Feeling the beat: Movement influences infant rhythm perception. Science, 308, 1430; Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2007). Hearing what the body feels: Auditory encoding of rhythmic movement. Cognition, 105, 533-546]. The present studies show that in adults, as well as in infants, metrical encoding of rhythm can be biased by passive motion. Furthermore, because movement of the head alone affected auditory encoding whereas movement of the legs alone did not, we propose that vestibular input may play a key role in the effect of movement on auditory rhythm processing. We discuss possible cortical and subcortical sites for the integration of auditory and vestibular inputs that may underlie the interaction between movement and auditory metrical rhythm perception.

  19. Math Roots: The Beginnings of the Metric System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Art; Norris, Kit; Adams,Thomasina Lott, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the history of the metric system, from a proposal of a sixteenth-century mathematician to its implementation in Revolutionary France some 200 years later. Recent developments in the metric system are also discussed.

  20. Development of a Fast Forward Model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Schluessel, P.; Zhou, D.; Larar, A.; Smith, W.; Mango, S.

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer IASI is a modern satellite sensor with 8461 channels and a spectral resolution of 0 25 wavenumber It provides a wealth of information on atmospheric and surface properties Due to the high spectral resolution a large number of Radiative Transfer RT calculations through the inhomogeneous atmosphere are needed Usually only subsets of channels are used to perform physical inversions for atmospheric profiles This paper presents a novel radiative transfer model based on principal component analysis The Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model PCRTM predicts PC scores and associated derivatives with respect to various atmospheric and surface properties in PC space directly Usually less than 200 PCs are needed to regenerate the original radiance spectrum with accuracy better than instrument noise level Therefore the dimension of the spectrum is reduced by an order of magnitude for hyper spectral sensors with thousands of channels The reduction in dimension and the fast RTM make the physical inversion algorithm very fast and efficient Due to its significant savings in computational time the approach uses information from all measured channels There is no need to use only subset of channels The parameterization of the PCRTM model is derived from properties of PC scores and instrument line shape functions It is physical and accurate

  1. The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer on the GLOBAL HAWK: From Technology Development to Science Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Shannon; Denning, Richard; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Lim, Boon; Tanabe, Jordan; Tanner, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) during three recent field campaigns on the Global Hawk Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAV), focusing on the enabling technology that led to unprecedented observations of significant weather phenomenon, such as thermodynamic evolution of the tropical cyclone core during rapid intensification and the high resolution three dimensional mapping of several atmospheric river events. HAMSR is a 25 channel cross-track scanning microwave sounder with channels near the 60 and 118 GHz oxygen lines and the 183 GHz water vapor line. HAMSR was originally designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a technology demonstrator in 1998. Subsequent to this, HAMSR participated in three NASA hurricane field campaigns, CAMEX-4, TCSP and NAMMA. Beginning in 2008, HAMSR was extensively upgraded to deploy on the NASA Global Hawk (GH) platform and serve as an asset to the NASA sub-orbital program. HAMSR has participated on the Global Hawk during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification (GRIP) campaign, the 2011 Winter Storms and Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) campaign and is currently participating in the NASA Ventures Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign (2011-2015).

  2. Design and development an insect-inspired humanoid gripper that is structurally sound, yet very flexible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjaj, S.; Pun, N.

    2013-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges in mechanical robotics design is the balance between structural integrity and flexibility. An industrial robotic gripper could be technically advanced, however it contains only 1 Degree of Freedom (DOF). If one is to add more DOFs the design would become complex. On the other hand, the human wrist and fingers contain 23 DOFs, and is very lightweight and highly flexible. Robotics are becoming more and more part of our social life, they are more and more being incorporated in social, medical, and personal application. Therefore, for such robots to be effective, they need to mimic human performance, both in performance as well as in mechanical design. In this work, a Humanoid Gripper is designed and built to mimic a simplified version of a human wrist and fingers. This is attempted by mimicking insect and human designs of grippes. The main challenge was to insure that the gripper is structurally sound, but at the same time flexible and lightweight. A combination of light weight material and a unique design of finger actuators were applied. The gripper is controlled by a PARALLAX servo controller 28823 (PSCI), which mounted on the assembly itself. At the end, a 6 DOF humanoid gripper made of lightweight material, similar in size to the human arm, and is able to carry a weight of 1 Kg has been designed and built.

  3. The sound manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  4. Comparing Chemistry to Outcome: The Development of a Chemical Distance Metric, Coupled with Clustering and Hierarchal Visualization Applied to Macromolecular Crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Andrew E.; Ruby, Amanda M.; Luft, Joseph R.; Grant, Thomas D.; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Hunt, John F.; Snell, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Many bioscience fields employ high-throughput methods to screen multiple biochemical conditions. The analysis of these becomes tedious without a degree of automation. Crystallization, a rate limiting step in biological X-ray crystallography, is one of these fields. Screening of multiple potential crystallization conditions (cocktails) is the most effective method of probing a proteins phase diagram and guiding crystallization but the interpretation of results can be time-consuming. To aid this empirical approach a cocktail distance coefficient was developed to quantitatively compare macromolecule crystallization conditions and outcome. These coefficients were evaluated against an existing similarity metric developed for crystallization, the C6 metric, using both virtual crystallization screens and by comparison of two related 1,536-cocktail high-throughput crystallization screens. Hierarchical clustering was employed to visualize one of these screens and the crystallization results from an exopolyphosphatase-related protein from Bacteroides fragilis, (BfR192) overlaid on this clustering. This demonstrated a strong correlation between certain chemically related clusters and crystal lead conditions. While this analysis was not used to guide the initial crystallization optimization, it led to the re-evaluation of unexplained peaks in the electron density map of the protein and to the insertion and correct placement of sodium, potassium and phosphate atoms in the structure. With these in place, the resulting structure of the putative active site demonstrated features consistent with active sites of other phosphatases which are involved in binding the phosphoryl moieties of nucleotide triphosphates. The new distance coefficient, CDcoeff, appears to be robust in this application, and coupled with hierarchical clustering and the overlay of crystallization outcome, reveals information of biological relevance. While tested with a single example the potential applications

  5. Breath sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... are believed to occur when air opens closed air spaces. Rales can be further described as moist, dry, fine, and coarse. Rhonchi. Sounds that resemble snoring. They occur when air is blocked or air flow becomes rough through ...

  6. Sound Advice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popke, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the planning and decision-making process in acquiring sound equipment for sports stadiums that will help make the experience of fans more pleasurable. The bidding process and use of consultants is explored. (GR)

  7. Software metrics: The quantitative impact of four factors on work rates experienced during software development. [reliability engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, J. E., Jr.; Judge, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    A model of a software development process is described. The software development process is seen to consist of a sequence of activities, such as 'program design' and 'module development' (or coding). A manpower estimate is made by multiplying code size by the rates (man months per thousand lines of code) for each of the activities relevant to the particular case of interest and summing up the results. The effect of four objectively determinable factors (organization, software product type, computer type, and code type) on productivity values for each of nine principal software development activities was assessed. Four factors were identified which account for 39% of the observed productivity variation.

  8. Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Casper, Brandon M.; Woodley, Christa M.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of effects to fishes and other aquatic life from impulsive sound produced by activities such as pile driving and seismic exploration is increasing throughout the world, particularly with the increased exploitation of oceans for energy production. At the same time, there are few data that provide insight into the effects of these sounds on fishes. The goal of this study was to provide quantitative data to define the levels of impulsive sound that could result in the onset of barotrauma to fish. A High Intensity Controlled Impedance Fluid filled wave Tube was developed that enabled laboratory simulation of high-energy impulsive sound that were characteristic of aquatic far-field, plane-wave acoustic conditions. The sounds used were based upon the impulsive sounds generated by an impact hammer striking a steel shell pile. Neutrally buoyant juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were exposed to impulsive sounds and subsequently evaluated for barotrauma injuries. Observed injuries ranged from mild hematomas at the lowest sound exposure levels to organ hemorrhage at the highest sound exposure levels. Frequency of observed injuries were used to compute a biological response weighted index (RWI) to evaluate the physiological impact of injuries at the different exposure levels. As single strike and cumulative sound exposure levels (SELss, SELcum respectively) increased, RWI values increased. Based on the results, tissue damage associated with adverse physiological costs occurred when the RWI was greater than 2. In terms of sound exposure levels a RWI of 2 was achieved for 1920 strikes by 177 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s SELss yielding a SELcum of 210 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s, and for 960 strikes by 180 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s SELss yielding a SELcum of 210 dB re 1 µPa2⋅s. These metrics define thresholds for onset of injury in juvenile Chinook salmon. PMID:22745695

  9. A metric for success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Gary P.

    1994-05-01

    The federal agencies are working with industry to ease adoption of the metric system. The goal is to help U.S. industry compete more successfully in the global marketplace, increase exports, and create new jobs. The strategy is to use federal procurement, financial assistance, and other business-related activities to encourage voluntary conversion. Based upon the positive experiences of firms and industries that have converted, federal agencies have concluded that metric use will yield long-term benefits that are beyond any one-time costs or inconveniences. It may be time for additional steps to move the Nation out of its dual-system comfort zone and continue to progress toward metrication. This report includes 'Metric Highlights in U.S. History'.

  10. An Arithmetic Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominici, Diego

    2011-01-01

    This work introduces a distance between natural numbers not based on their position on the real line but on their arithmetic properties. We prove some metric properties of this distance and consider a possible extension.

  11. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  12. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  13. Fertilization and development of eggs of the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, on sounding rockets in space.

    PubMed

    Ubbels, G A; Berendsen, W; Kerkvliet, S; Narraway, J

    1992-01-01

    Egg rotation and centrifugation experiments strongly suggest a role for gravity in the determination of the spatial structure of amphibian embryos. Decisive experiments can only be made in Space. Eggs of Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad, were the first vertebrate eggs which were successfully fertilized on Sounding Rockets in Space. Unfixed, newly fertilized eggs survived reentry, and a reasonable number showed a seemingly normal gastrulation but died between gastrulation and neurulation. Only a few reached the larval stage, but these developed abnormally. In the future, we intend to test whether this abnormal morphogenesis is due to reentry perturbations, or due to a real microgravity effect, through perturbation of the reinitiation of meiosis and other processes, or started by later sperm penetration.

  14. Fertilization and development of eggs of the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, on sounding rockets in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubbels, Geertje A.; Berendsen, Willem; Kerkvliet, Sonja; Narraway, Jenny

    Egg rotation and centrifugation experiments strongly suggest a role for gravity in the determination of the spatial structure of amphibian embryos. Decisive experiments can only be made in Space. Eggs of Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad, were the first vertebrate eggs which were successfully fertilized on Sounding Rockets in Space. Unfixed, newly fertilized eggs survived reentry, and a reasonable number showed a seemingly normal gastrulation but died between gastrulation and neurulation. Only a few reached the larval stage, but these developed abnormally. In the future, we inted to test whether this abnormal morphogenesis is due to reentry perturbations, or due to a real microgravity effect, through perturbation of the reinitiation of meiosis and other processes, or started by later sperm penetration.

  15. Development of user applications for earth resources survey data in urban and regional planning in the Puget Sound area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westerlund, F. V.

    1975-01-01

    User applications of remote sensing in Washington State are described. The first project created a multi-temporal land use/land cover data base for the environs of the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, to serve planning and management operations of the Port of Seattle. The second is an on-going effort to develop a capability within the Puget Sound Governmental Conference, a council of governments (COG), to inventory and monitor land use within its four county jurisdiction. Developmental work has focused on refinement of land use/cover classification systems applicable at this regional scale and various levels of detail in relation to program requirements of the agency. Related research, refinement of manual methods, user training and approaches to technology transfer are discussed.

  16. Social network analysis as a metric for the development of an interdisciplinary, inter-organizational research team.

    PubMed

    Ryan, David; Emond, Marcel; Lamontagne, Marie-Eve

    2014-01-01

    The development of an interdisciplinary and inter-organizational research team among eight of Canada's leading emergency, geriatric medicine and rehabilitation researchers affiliated with six academic centers has provided an opportunity to study the development of a distributed team of interdisciplinary researchers using the methods of social network theory and analysis and to consider whether these methods are useful tools in the science of team science. Using traditional network analytic methods, the team of investigators were asked to rate their relationships with one another retrospectively at one year prior to the team's first meeting and contemporaneously at two subsequent yearly intervals. Using network analytic statistics and visualizations the data collected finds an increase in network density and reciprocity of relationships together with more distributed centrality consistent with the findings of other researchers. These network development characteristics suggest that the distributed research team is developing as it should and supports the assertion that network analysis is a useful science of team science research tool.

  17. Another ``new'' metric for outdoor amphitheater criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berens, Robert S.

    2005-09-01

    Since the late 1960s, when amplified musical performances began being held there, Atlanta's open-air Chastain Park Amphitheater has been the source of enormous friction between the City, the venue's owner, and the wealthy, politically-connected residential community abutting the Park. To identify the characteristics of concert event sound to which neighbors are particularly sensitive, sound levels were monitored during 17 concerts, ranging from quiet jazz and classical performances to rock-and-roll and hip-hop. Community sound levels were monitored at 25 locations, including nine where measurements were made simultaneously inside and outside homes. The study team confirmed that low-frequency sound was the one feature of concert-related sound that community residents identified as most problematic, but that only a relatively small proportion of the Chastain concerts resulted in any significant community annoyance. After assessing the spectral characteristics of the most troublesome concerts, a new compliance metric has been proposed to address low-frequency annoyance issues: a two-tiered exceedence threshold, based on 1-minute LEQ levels in the 63 Hz octave band measured at the rear of the amphitheater, with a concert-event ``exceedence'' defined to be either a 1-minute LEQ(63 Hz) level greater than 95 dB or more than ten 1-minute LEQ(63 Hz) levels greater than 90 dB.

  18. Speech based transmission index for all: An intelligibility metric for variable hearing ability.

    PubMed

    Mechergui, Nader; Djaziri-Larbi, Sonia; Jaïdane, Mériem

    2017-03-01

    A method to measure the speech intelligibility in public address systems for normal hearing and hearing impaired persons is presented. The proposed metric is an extension of the speech based Speech Transmission Index to account for accurate perceptual masking and variable hearing ability: The sound excitation pattern generated at the ear is accurately computed using an auditory filter model, and its shapes depend on frequency, sound level, and hearing impairment. This extension yields a better prediction of the intensity of auditory masking which is used to rectify the modulation transfer function and thus to objectively assess the speech intelligibility experienced by hearing impaired as well as by normal hearing persons in public spaces. The proposed metric was developed within the framework of the European Active and Assisted Living research program, and was labeled "SB-STI for All." Extensive subjective in-Lab and in vivo tests have been conducted and the proposed metric proved to have a good correlation with subjective intelligibility scores.

  19. Development of An Empirical Water Quality Model for Stormwater Based on Watershed Land Use in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; May, Christopher W.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Judd, Chaeli; Johnston, Robert K.

    2007-03-29

    The Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed is located on the west side of Puget Sound in Kitsap County, Washington, U.S.A. (Figure 1). The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA-DOE), Kitsap County, City of Bremerton, City of Bainbridge Island, City of Port Orchard, and the Suquamish Tribe have joined in a cooperative effort to evaluate water-quality conditions in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and correct identified problems. A major focus of this project, known as Project ENVVEST, is to develop Water Clean-up (TMDL) Plans for constituents listed on the 303(d) list within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed. Segments within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed were listed on the State of Washington’s 1998 303(d) because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination, which lacked sufficient data for a contaminant mass balance calculation for the watershed. This paper summarizes the development of an empirical model for estimating contaminant concentrations in all streams discharging into Sinclair and Dyes Inlets based on watershed land use, 18 storm events, and wet/dry season baseflow conditions between November 2002 and May 2005. Stream pollutant concentrations along with estimates for outfalls and surface runoff will be used in estimating the loading and ultimately in establishing a Water Cleanup Plan (TMDL) for the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed.

  20. Associations between rate of force development metrics and throwing velocity in elite team handball players: a short research report.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mário C; Saavedra, Francisco J; Abrantes, Catarina; Aidar, Felipe J

    2011-09-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring participant's development in distinct sports, yet limited and contradictory data are available in trained subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw in elite team handball players and selected measures of rate of force development like force, power, velocity, and bar displacement during a concentric only bench press exercise in elite male handball players. Fitteen elite senior male team handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric only bench press test with 25, 35, and 45 kg as well as having one-repetition maximum strength determined. Ball throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun. The results of this study indicated significant associations between ball velocity and time at maximum rate of force development (0, 66; p<0.05) and rate of force development at peak force (0,56; p<0.05) only with 25kg load. The current research indicated that ball velocity was only median associated with maximum rate of force development with light loads. A training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team handball players should emphasize bench press movement using light loads.

  1. Associations Between Rate of Force Development Metrics and Throwing Velocity in Elite Team Handball Players: a Short Research Report

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Mário C.; Saavedra, Francisco J.; Abrantes, Catarina; Aidar, Felipe J.

    2011-01-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring participant’s development in distinct sports, yet limited and contradictory data are available in trained subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw in elite team handball players and selected measures of rate of force development like force, power, velocity, and bar displacement during a concentric only bench press exercise in elite male handball players. Fitteen elite senior male team handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric only bench press test with 25, 35, and 45 kg as well as having one-repetition maximum strength determined. Ball throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun. The results of this study indicated significant associations between ball velocity and time at maximum rate of force development (0, 66; p<0.05) and rate of force development at peak force (0,56; p<0.05) only with 25kg load. The current research indicated that ball velocity was only median associated with maximum rate of force development with light loads. A training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team handball players should emphasize bench press movement using light loads. PMID:23487363

  2. Object-oriented productivity metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John L.; Eller, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Software productivity metrics are useful for sizing and costing proposed software and for measuring development productivity. Estimating and measuring source lines of code (SLOC) has proven to be a bad idea because it encourages writing more lines of code and using lower level languages. Function Point Analysis is an improved software metric system, but it is not compatible with newer rapid prototyping and object-oriented approaches to software development. A process is presented here for counting object-oriented effort points, based on a preliminary object-oriented analysis. It is proposed that this approach is compatible with object-oriented analysis, design, programming, and rapid prototyping. Statistics gathered on actual projects are presented to validate the approach.

  3. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  4. Metrication of Technical Career Education. Final Report. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feirer, John L.

    This second volume of the metrication study report contains the instructional materials developed to help the industrial and vocational education fields to use the metric system, primarily in the area of industrial arts from the seventh through the fourteenth year. The materials are presented in three sections. Section 1, Going Metric in…

  5. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  6. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  7. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  8. Defining Sustainability Metric Targets in an Institutional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Jason N.; Newman, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to expand on the development of university and college sustainability metrics by implementing an adaptable metric target strategy. Design/methodology/approach: A combined qualitative and quantitative methodology is derived that both defines what a sustainable metric target might be and describes the path a…

  9. Metrics Concept Report. Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software (CARDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-31

    Through Autom ation ............................................................... 24 7.1 The M etrics Definition Database...metrics, analyzing the metrics, and acting on the results of the analysis. The Added Value through Automation Section describes a database tool to...to the development and implementation of metrics in other project areas, " Automation of the methods used to define, analyze, report, and maintain

  10. Software Metrics Useful Tools or Wasted Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    shared by the developers of the field of software metrics. Capers Jones, Chairman of Software Productivity Research, Inc. and a noted pioneer in...development efforts in terms of function points. That will give you a basis for measuring productivity. Capers Jones, chairman of Software... Capers Jones, "Building a better metric," Computerworld Extra, 22 (June 20, 1988):39. 24 ALlen J. Albrecht and John E. Gaffney, Jr., "Software Function

  11. GRC GSFC TDRSS Waveform Metrics Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, Dale J.

    2013-01-01

    The report presents software metrics and porting metrics for the GGT Waveform. The porting was from a ground-based COTS SDR, the SDR-3000, to the CoNNeCT JPL SDR. The report does not address any of the Operating Environment (OE) software development, nor the original TDRSS waveform development at GSFC for the COTS SDR. With regard to STRS, the report presents compliance data and lessons learned.

  12. Difference in precedence effect between children and adults signifies development of sound localization abilities in complex listening tasks.

    PubMed

    Litovsky, Ruth Y; Godar, Shelly P

    2010-10-01

    The precedence effect refers to the fact that humans are able to localize sound in reverberant environments, because the auditory system assigns greater weight to the direct sound (lead) than the later-arriving sound (lag). In this study, absolute sound localization was studied for single source stimuli and for dual source lead-lag stimuli in 4-5 year old children and adults. Lead-lag delays ranged from 5-100 ms. Testing was conducted in free field, with pink noise bursts emitted from loudspeakers positioned on a horizontal arc in the frontal field. Listeners indicated how many sounds were heard and the perceived location of the first- and second-heard sounds. Results suggest that at short delays (up to 10 ms), the lead dominates sound localization strongly at both ages, and localization errors are similar to those with single-source stimuli. At longer delays errors can be large, stemming from over-integration of the lead and lag, interchanging of perceived locations of the first-heard and second-heard sounds due to temporal order confusion, and dominance of the lead over the lag. The errors are greater for children than adults. Results are discussed in the context of maturation of auditory and non-auditory factors.

  13. Development of Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Assessments of the Modulation Type with Regard to Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed; however, further improvements are needed, especially in terms of articulation and sound quality. In this study, the intelligibility and sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulation] were evaluated. The results showed that DSB-TC and transposed speech were more intelligible than DSB-SC speech, and transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to air-conducted speech in terms of sound quality. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  14. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    Of the many geophysical remote-sensing techniques available today, a few are suitable for the water ice-rich, layered material expected at the north martian ice cap. Radio echo sounding has been used for several decades to determine ice thickness and internal structure. Selection of operating frequency is a tradeoff between signal attenuation (which typically increases with frequency and ice temperature) and resolution (which is proportional to wavelength). Antenna configuration and size will be additional considerations for a mission to Mars. Several configurations for ice-penetrating radar systems are discussed: these include orbiter-borne sounders, sounding antennas trailed by balloons and penetrators, and lander-borne systems. Lander-borne systems could include short-wave systems capable of resolving fine structure and layering in the upper meters beneath the lander. Spread-spectrum and deconvolution techniques can be used to increase the depth capability of a radar system. If soundings over several locations are available (e.g., with balloons, rovers, or panning short-wave systems), then it will be easier to resolve internal layering, variations in basal reflection coefficient (from which material properties may be inferred), and the geometry of nonhorizontal features. Sonic sounding has a long history in oil and gas exploration. It is, however, unlikely that large explosive charges, or even swept-frequency techniques such as Vibroseis, would be suitable for a Polar lander -- these systems are capable of penetrating several kilometers of material at frequencies of 10-200 Hz, but the energy required to generate the sound waves is large and potentially destructive. The use of audio-frequency and ultrasonic sound generated by piezoelectric crystals is discussed as a possible method to explore layering and fine features in the upper meters of the ice cap. Appropriate choice of transducer(s) will permit operation over a range of fixed or modulated frequencies

  15. Fault Management Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  16. Encounters in an online brand community: development and validation of a metric for value co-creation by customers.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Ling

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in service marketing have demonstrated the potential value co-creation by customers who participate in online brand communities (OBCs). Therefore, this study forecasts the co-created value by understanding the participation/behavior of customers in a multi-stakeholder OBC. This six-phase qualitative and quantitative investigation conceptualizes, constructs, refines, and tests a 12-item three-dimensional scale for measuring key factors that are related to the experience, interpersonal interactions, and social relationships that affect the value co-creation by customers in an OBC. The scale captures stable psychometric properties, measured using various reliability and validity tests, and can be applied across various industries. Finally, the utility implications and limitations of the proposed scale are discussed, and potential future research directions considered.

  17. Successful Experiences in Teaching Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Jeffrey V., Ed.

    In this publication are presentations on specific experiences in teaching metrics, made at a National Bureau of Standards conference. Ideas of value to teachers and administrators are described in reports on: SI units of measure; principles and practices of teaching metric; metric and the school librarian; teaching metric through television and…

  18. Metrics for Labeled Markov Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desharnais, Josee; Jagadeesan, Radha; Gupta, Vineet; Panangaden, Prakash

    1999-01-01

    Partial Labeled Markov Chains are simultaneously generalizations of process algebra and of traditional Markov chains. They provide a foundation for interacting discrete probabilistic systems, the interaction being synchronization on labels as in process algebra. Existing notions of process equivalence are too sensitive to the exact probabilities of various transitions. This paper addresses contextual reasoning principles for reasoning about more robust notions of "approximate" equivalence between concurrent interacting probabilistic systems. The present results indicate that:We develop a family of metrics between partial labeled Markov chains to formalize the notion of distance between processes. We show that processes at distance zero are bisimilar. We describe a decision procedure to compute the distance between two processes. We show that reasoning about approximate equivalence can be done compositionally by showing that process combinators do not increase distance. We introduce an asymptotic metric to capture asymptotic properties of Markov chains; and show that parallel composition does not increase asymptotic distance.

  19. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  20. Assessment of proposed fighter agility metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.; Valasek, John; Eggold, David P.; Downing, David R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of proposed metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility. A novel framework for classifying these metrics is developed and applied. A set of transient metrics intended to quantify the axial and pitch agility of fighter aircraft is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation. Test techniques and data reduction method are proposed, and sensitivities to pilot introduced errors during flight testing is investigated. Results indicate that the power onset and power loss parameters are promising candidates for quantifying axial agility, while maximum pitch up and pitch down rates are for quantifying pitch agility.

  1. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  2. Developing a culturally and ecologically sound intervention program for youth exposed to war and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, William R; Layne, Christopher M; Steinberg, Alan M; Arslanagic, Berina; Pynoos, Robert S

    2003-04-01

    This article describes the public mental health approach used to develop and implement a school-based postwar trauma/grief intervention program for adolescents in Bosnia-Herzegovina. This approach includes development of multilateral partnerships with local and ministerial stakeholders, systematic assessment that yields a detailed understanding of the specific range and severity of trauma and loss experiences, current adversities and trauma reminders among the affected population, and a training program aimed at developing the capacities of local service providers and an indigenous support infrastructure so that the intervention program may be directed and sustained by people within the communities served. Concluding comments detail an expanded conceptual framework for public mental health interventions that may be appropriate for terrorist and mass-casualty events.

  3. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  4. The Development of a Psychometrically-Sound Instrument to Measure Teachers' Multidimensional Attitudes toward Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahat, Marian

    2008-01-01

    The "Multidimensional Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale" (MATIES) was developed to effectively measure affective, cognitive and behavioural aspects of attitudes, within the realm of inclusive education that includes physical, social and curricular inclusion. Models within Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory were used…

  5. Developing Sound Skills for Reading: Teaching Phonological Awareness to Preschoolers with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliver, Megan; Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Leigh, Greg; Gunnourie, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of intervention for developing deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) preschoolers' phonological awareness (PA) skills. Thirty children (mean age 57 months) with aided, bilateral hearing loss (and who primarily communicated using spoken English) were recruited in the year prior to commencing formal schooling. The…

  6. TU-CD-BRD-04: UCLA Experience, with Focus On Developing Metrics and Using RO-ILS

    SciTech Connect

    Beron, P.

    2015-06-15

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  7. Fighter agility metrics. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    Fighter flying qualities and combat capabilities are currently measured and compared in terms relating to vehicle energy, angular rates and sustained acceleration. Criteria based on these measurable quantities have evolved over the past several decades and are routinely used to design aircraft structures, aerodynamics, propulsion and control systems. While these criteria, or metrics, have the advantage of being well understood, easily verified and repeatable during test, they tend to measure the steady state capability of the aircraft and not its ability to transition quickly from one state to another. Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A complete set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available.

  8. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  9. SAPHIRE 8 Quality Assurance Software Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt G. Vedros

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this review of software metrics is to examine the quality of the metrics gathered in the 2010 IV&V and to set an outline for results of updated metrics runs to be performed. We find from the review that the maintenance of accepted quality standards presented in the SAPHIRE 8 initial Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of April, 2010 is most easily achieved by continuing to utilize the tools used in that effort while adding a metric of bug tracking and resolution. Recommendations from the final IV&V were to continue periodic measurable metrics such as McCabe's complexity measure to ensure quality is maintained. The four software tools used to measure quality in the IV&V were CodeHealer, Coverage Validator, Memory Validator, Performance Validator, and Thread Validator. These are evaluated based on their capabilities. We attempted to run their latest revisions with the newer Delphi 2010 based SAPHIRE 8 code that has been developed and was successful with all of the Validator series of tools on small tests. Another recommendation from the IV&V was to incorporate a bug tracking and resolution metric. To improve our capability of producing this metric, we integrated our current web reporting system with the SpiraTest test management software purchased earlier this year to track requirements traceability.

  10. Development of a Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Model for Propagation of Transient Sounds in Very Shallow Water.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Mark W; Luczkovich, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    This finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model for sound propagation in very shallow water uses pressure and velocity grids with both 3-dimensional Cartesian and 2-dimensional cylindrical implementations. Parameters, including water and sediment properties, can vary in each dimension. Steady-state and transient signals from discrete and distributed sources, such as the surface of a vibrating pile, can be used. The cylindrical implementation uses less computation but requires axial symmetry. The Cartesian implementation allows asymmetry. FDTD calculations compare well with those of a split-step parabolic equation. Applications include modeling the propagation of individual fish sounds, fish aggregation sounds, and distributed sources.

  11. Sounding Narrative Medicine: Studying Students’ Professional Identity Development at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eliza; Balmer, Dorene; Hermann, Nellie; Graham, Gillian; Charon, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To learn what medical students derive from training in humanities, social sciences, and the arts in a narrative medicine curriculum and to explore narrative medicine’s framework as it relates to students’ professional development. Method On completion of required intensive, half-semester narrative medicine seminars in 2010, 130 second-year medical students at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons participated in focus group discussions of their experiences. Focus group transcriptions were submitted to close iterative reading by a team who performed a grounded-theory-guided content analysis, generating a list of codes into which statements were sorted to develop overarching themes. Provisional interpretations emerged from the close and repeated readings, suggesting a fresh conceptual understanding of how and through what avenues such education achieves its goals in clinical training. Results Students’ comments articulated the known features of narrative medicine—attention, representation, and affiliation—and endorsed all three as being valuable to professional identity development. They spoke of the salience of their work in narrative medicine to medicine and medical education and its dividends of critical thinking, reflection, and pleasure. Critiques constituted a small percentage of the statements in each category. Conclusions Students report that narrative medicine seminars support complex interior, interpersonal, perceptual, and expressive capacities. Students’ lived experiences confirm some expectations of narrative medicine curricular planners while exposing fresh effects of such work to view. PMID:24362390

  12. Annual Reports Regarding Progress in Developing a Dredged Material Management Plan for the Long Island Sound Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The site designation for the Western and Central Long Island Sound disposal sites requires the completion of a Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) and EPA to conduct an annual review of progress toward completion of the DMMP.

  13. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    If Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, pub. 1962, can be credited for the public realization of widespread environmental degradation directly or indirectly attributable to industrial enterprise, the book, Our Common Future (WCED, 1987) which is the report of the World Commission on E...

  14. Metrics of Scholarly Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Ruscio and colleagues (Ruscio, Seaman, D'Oriano, Stremlo, & Mahalchik, this issue) provide a thoughtful empirical analysis of 22 different measures of individual scholarly impact. The simplest metric is number of publications, which Simonton (1997) found to be a reasonable predictor of career trajectories. Although the assessment of the scholarly…

  15. Metrics and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association, Shawnee Mission, KS.

    Designed as a guide to aid the National Collegiate Athletic Association membership and others who must relate measurement of distances, weights, and volumes to athletic activity, this document presents diagrams of performance areas with measurements delineated in both imperial and metric terms. Illustrations are given for baseball, basketball,…

  16. Software Quality Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    March 1979, pp. 121-128. Gorla, Narasimhaiah, Alan C. Benander, and Barbara A. Benander, "Debugging Effort Estimation Using Software Metrics", IEEE...Society, IEEE Guide for the Use of IEEE Standard Dictionary of Measures to Produce Reliable Software, IEEE Std 982.2-1988, June 1989. Jones, Capers

  17. Metrical Phonology and SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English language with the intention that it may be used in second language instruction. Stress is defined by its physical and acoustical correlates, and the principles of…

  18. Candidate control design metrics for an agile fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Bailey, Melvin L.; Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1991-01-01

    Success in the fighter combat environment of the future will certainly demand increasing capability from aircraft technology. These advanced capabilities in the form of superagility and supermaneuverability will require special design techniques which translate advanced air combat maneuvering requirements into design criteria. Control design metrics can provide some of these techniques for the control designer. Thus study presents an overview of control design metrics and investigates metrics for advanced fighter agility. The objectives of various metric users, such as airframe designers and pilots, are differentiated from the objectives of the control designer. Using an advanced fighter model, metric values are documented over a portion of the flight envelope through piloted simulation. These metric values provide a baseline against which future control system improvements can be compared and against which a control design methodology can be developed. Agility is measured for axial, pitch, and roll axes. Axial metrics highlight acceleration and deceleration capabilities under different flight loads and include specific excess power measurements to characterize energy meneuverability. Pitch metrics cover both body-axis and wind-axis pitch rates and accelerations. Included in pitch metrics are nose pointing metrics which highlight displacement capability between the nose and the velocity vector. Roll metrics (or torsion metrics) focus on rotational capability about the wind axis.

  19. The anatomy, life habits, and later development of a new species of enteropneust, Harrimania planktophilus (Hemichordata: Harrimaniidae) from Barkley Sound.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Christopher B

    2002-04-01

    A new species of enteropneust, Harrimania planktophilus, lives intertidally and subtidally in mixed sediments in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada. H. planktophilus has a long proboscis skeleton extending into the pharyngeal region. The collar (mesosome) has complete dorsal and ventral mesenteries. The trunk (metasome) has four distinct regions that can be recognized externally: the branchial region, esophageal region, hepatic region, and an undifferentiated intestinal region leading to the anus. The dorsal pharynx is large and has long gill slits without synapticles. Posterior to the gills is a constriction followed by a short esophageal region and a long gonadal region. The paired dorsolateral gonads extend almost to the end of the trunk. Eggs in the ovaries appear amber yellow, and the testes appear slightly paler. The trunk terminates at an anus with a well-developed sphincter muscle. H. planktophilus forms long sinuous burrows that are semipermanent and shared. Females deposit a tubular egg mass in a burrow in which the embryos develop directly into juveniles. Gastrulation appears to be by invagination, followed by a ciliated stage that has a telotrochal swimming band, suggesting that the ancestor to H. planktophilus developed via a tornaria larva. The juveniles emerge from the egg membrane with a ventral post-anal tail and assume an interstitial burrowing life habit. The post-anal tail, mode of development, small size and correlated simplification in body plan suggest that H. planktophilus is closely related to Saccoglossus, and together these worms may be sister taxa to the colonial Pterobranchia. A taxonomic key is provided to the enteropneust genera, and to the species of Harrimania:

  20. A Prototype Hail Detection Algorithm and Hail Climatology Developed with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, Ralph; Beauchamp, James; Cecil, Dan; Heymsfeld, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies published in the open literature, a strong relationship between the occurrence of hail and the microwave brightness temperatures (primarily at 37 and 85 GHz) was documented. These studies were performed with the Nimbus-7 SMMR, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and most recently, the Aqua AMSR-E sensor. This lead to climatologies of hail frequency from TMI and AMSR-E, however, limitations include geographical domain of the TMI sensor (35 S to 35 N) and the overpass time of the Aqua satellite (130 am/pm local time), both of which reduce an accurate mapping of hail events over the global domain and the full diurnal cycle. Nonetheless, these studies presented exciting, new applications for passive microwave sensors. Since 1998, NOAA and EUMETSAT have been operating the AMSU-A/B and the MHS on several operational satellites: NOAA-15 through NOAA-19; MetOp-A and -B. With multiple satellites in operation since 2000, the AMSU/MHS sensors provide near global coverage every 4 hours, thus, offering a much larger time and temporal sampling than TRMM or AMSR-E. With similar observation frequencies near 30 and 85 GHz and additionally three at the 183 GHz water vapor band, the potential to detect strong convection associated with severe storms on a more comprehensive time and space scale exists. In this study, we develop a prototype AMSU-based hail detection algorithm through the use of collocated satellite and surface hail reports over the continental U.S. for a 12-year period (2000-2011). Compared with the surface observations, the algorithm detects approximately 40 percent of hail occurrences. The simple threshold algorithm is then used to generate a hail climatology that is based on all available AMSU observations during 2000-11 that is stratified in several ways, including total hail occurrence by month (March through September), total annual, and over the diurnal cycle. Independent comparisons are made compared to similar data sets derived from other

  1. Investigation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility metrics for normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzic, Nikolina

    The effectiveness of in-vehicle speech communication can be a good indicator of the perception of the overall vehicle quality and customer satisfaction. Currently available speech intelligibility metrics do not account in their procedures for essential parameters needed for a complete and accurate evaluation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility. These include the directivity and the distance of the talker with respect to the listener, binaural listening, hearing profile of the listener, vocal effort, and multisensory hearing. In the first part of this research the effectiveness of in-vehicle application of these metrics is investigated in a series of studies to reveal their shortcomings, including a wide range of scores resulting from each of the metrics for a given measurement configuration and vehicle operating condition. In addition, the nature of a possible correlation between the scores obtained from each metric is unknown. The metrics and the subjective perception of speech intelligibility using, for example, the same speech material have not been compared in literature. As a result, in the second part of this research, an alternative method for speech intelligibility evaluation is proposed for use in the automotive industry by utilizing a virtual reality driving environment for ultimately setting targets, including the associated statistical variability, for future in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation. The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) was evaluated at the sentence Speech Receptions Threshold (sSRT) for various listening situations and hearing profiles using acoustic perception jury testing and a variety of talker and listener configurations and background noise. In addition, the effect of individual sources and transfer paths of sound in an operating vehicle to the vehicle interior sound, specifically their effect on speech intelligibility was quantified, in the framework of the newly developed speech intelligibility evaluation method. Lastly

  2. 12 CFR 1720.2 - Safety and soundness standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety and soundness standards. 1720.2 Section... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS § 1720.2 Safety and soundness standards. Policy guidances as may be adopted from time to time by OFHEO, addressing safety and soundness...

  3. The Imagery of Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Automated Analysis Corporation's COMET is a suite of acoustic analysis software for advanced noise prediction. It analyzes the origin, radiation, and scattering of noise, and supplies information on how to achieve noise reduction and improve sound characteristics. COMET's Structural Acoustic Foam Engineering (SAFE) module extends the sound field analysis capability of foam and other materials. SAFE shows how noise travels while airborne, how it travels within a structure, and how these media interact to affect other aspects of the transmission of noise. The COMET software reduces design time and expense while optimizing a final product's acoustical performance. COMET was developed through SBIR funding and Langley Research Center for Automated Analysis Corporation.

  4. Quality Metrics in Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gurudu, Suryakanth R.

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy has evolved in the past 4 decades to become an important tool in the diagnosis and management of many digestive diseases. Greater focus on endoscopic quality has highlighted the need to ensure competency among endoscopists. A joint task force of the American College of Gastroenterology and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy has proposed several quality metrics to establish competence and help define areas of continuous quality improvement. These metrics represent quality in endoscopy pertinent to pre-, intra-, and postprocedural periods. Quality in endoscopy is a dynamic and multidimensional process that requires continuous monitoring of several indicators and benchmarking with local and national standards. Institutions and practices should have a process in place for credentialing endoscopists and for the assessment of competence regarding individual endoscopic procedures. PMID:24711767

  5. Making Sense of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  6. Metrics for Energy Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov

    2014-09-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.

  7. Metrics for Offline Evaluation of Prognostic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Prognostic performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. Currently, prognostics concepts lack standard definitions and suffer from ambiguous and inconsistent interpretations. This lack of standards is in part due to the varied end-user requirements for different applications, time scales, available information, domain dynamics, etc. to name a few. The research community has used a variety of metrics largely based on convenience and their respective requirements. Very little attention has been focused on establishing a standardized approach to compare different efforts. This paper presents several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics that were recently introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. These metrics have the capability of incorporating probabilistic uncertainty estimates from prognostic algorithms. In addition to quantitative assessment they also offer a comprehensive visual perspective that can be used in designing the prognostic system. Several methods are suggested to customize these metrics for different applications. Guidelines are provided to help choose one method over another based on distribution characteristics. Various issues faced by prognostics and its performance evaluation are discussed followed by a formal notational framework to help standardize subsequent developments.

  8. On Applying the Prognostic Performance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. As prognostics technology matures and more sophisticated methods for prognostic uncertainty management are developed, a standardized methodology for performance evaluation becomes extremely important to guide improvement efforts in a constructive manner. This paper is in continuation of previous efforts where several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics were introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. Several shortcomings identified, while applying these metrics to a variety of real applications, are also summarized along with discussions that attempt to alleviate these problems. Further, these metrics have been enhanced to include the capability of incorporating probability distribution information from prognostic algorithms as opposed to evaluation based on point estimates only. Several methods have been suggested and guidelines have been provided to help choose one method over another based on probability distribution characteristics. These approaches also offer a convenient and intuitive visualization of algorithm performance with respect to some of these new metrics like prognostic horizon and alpha-lambda performance, and also quantify the corresponding performance while incorporating the uncertainty information.

  9. The role of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in the reading development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology.

  10. Metric Education Plan for Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Secondary Education.

    This comprehensive document is the result of statewide planning for the implementation of metric education in Virginia schools. An introduction discusses the rationale, needs, and continuing objectives for metric education. An organizational structure for metric education in Virginia is outlined. Guidelines for administrative planning are…

  11. Some References on Metric Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This resource work lists metric information published by the U.S. Government and the American National Standards Institute. Also organizations marketing metric materials for education are given. A short table of conversions is included as is a listing of basic metric facts for everyday living. (LS)

  12. Metrics for building performance assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Koles, G.; Hitchcock, R.; Sherman, M.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents part of the work performed in phase I of a Laboratory Directors Research and Development (LDRD) funded project entitled Building Performance Assurances (BPA). The focus of the BPA effort is to transform the way buildings are built and operated in order to improve building performance by facilitating or providing tools, infrastructure, and information. The efforts described herein focus on the development of metrics with which to evaluate building performance and for which information and optimization tools need to be developed. The classes of building performance metrics reviewed are (1) Building Services (2) First Costs, (3) Operating Costs, (4) Maintenance Costs, and (5) Energy and Environmental Factors. The first category defines the direct benefits associated with buildings; the next three are different kinds of costs associated with providing those benefits; the last category includes concerns that are broader than direct costs and benefits to the building owner and building occupants. The level of detail of the various issues reflect the current state of knowledge in those scientific areas and the ability of the to determine that state of knowledge, rather than directly reflecting the importance of these issues; it intentionally does not specifically focus on energy issues. The report describes work in progress and is intended as a resource and can be used to indicate the areas needing more investigation. Other reports on BPA activities are also available.

  13. Cosmic X-ray Physics: Sounding rocket investigations of the diffuse X-ray background, including instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, Dan

    We propose an investigation to improve our understanding of the Galactic diffuse X-ray background. The ultimate purpose of this is to determine the role of hot phases of the interstellar medium in mediating stellar feedback in star formation, in transport of metals, and in determining the structure and evolution of the Galaxy. It directly addresses SMD's astrophysics goal No. 2, to explore the origin and evolution of the galaxies, stars and planets that make up our universe. This work will involve a flight of an existing payload with small modifications in Woomera, South Australia, to observe the Galactic soft X-ray bulge and attempt to determine its nature and emission mechanisms. This flight should also either confirm or put strict upper limits on the "sterile neutrino" model for the 3.5 keV signal observed near the Galactic Center by XMM-Newton. Our investigation includes the development of thermal detectors with superconducting transition edge thermometers capable of 1-2 eV FWHM energy resolution in the 100-400 eV range with the intent of obtaining a scientifically useful spectrum on a sounding rocket flight of the emission from one million degree gas in this energy range. This will require a total area of 1-2 square centimeters for the detector array. To enable routine testing of such detectors in the lab and for necessary in-flight gain and resolution monitoring, we are trying to develop a pulsed-UV laser calibration source. In collaboration with Goddard Space Flight Center, we are investigating the practicality of waveguide-below-cutoff filters to provide the necessary attenuation of infrared radiation for these detectors while still allowing good x-ray transmission below 150 eV. The detectors, calibration source, filters, optimal high-rate pulse analysis and flight experience with the detector readouts are all relevant to future NASA major missions. The detectors we're working on for a low-energy sounding rocket flight would be an excellent match to what is

  14. An evaluation of software testing metrics for NASA's mission control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, George E.; Durst, Robert C.; Pelnik, Tammy M.

    1991-01-01

    Software metrics are used to evaluate the software development process and the quality of the resulting product. Five metrics were used during the testing phase of the Shuttle Mission Control Center Upgrade at the NASA Johnson Space Center. All but one metric provided useful information. Based on the experience, it is recommended that metrics be used during the test phase of software development and additional candidate metrics are proposed for further study.

  15. Random Kähler metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank; Klevtsov, Semyon; Zelditch, Steve

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a new method to define and calculate path integrals over metrics on a Kähler manifold. The main idea is to use finite dimensional spaces of Bergman metrics, as an approximation to the full space of Kähler metrics. We use the theory of large deviations to decide when a sequence of probability measures on the spaces of Bergman metrics tends to a limit measure on the space of all Kähler metrics. Several examples are considered.

  16. Metrics for the NASA Airspace Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    This document defines an initial set of metrics for use by the NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP). ASP consists of the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. The work in each project is organized along multiple, discipline-level Research Focus Areas (RFAs). Each RFA is developing future concept elements in support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as defined by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). In addition, a single, system-level RFA is responsible for integrating concept elements across RFAs in both projects and for assessing system-wide benefits. The primary purpose of this document is to define a common set of metrics for measuring National Airspace System (NAS) performance before and after the introduction of ASP-developed concepts for NextGen as the system handles increasing traffic. The metrics are directly traceable to NextGen goals and objectives as defined by the JPDO and hence will be used to measure the progress of ASP research toward reaching those goals. The scope of this document is focused on defining a common set of metrics for measuring NAS capacity, efficiency, robustness, and safety at the system-level and at the RFA-level. Use of common metrics will focus ASP research toward achieving system-level performance goals and objectives and enable the discipline-level RFAs to evaluate the impact of their concepts at the system level.

  17. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  18. Development of computer program ENAUDIBL for computation of the sensation levels of multiple, complex, intrusive sounds in the presence of residual environmental masking noise

    SciTech Connect

    Liebich, R. E.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    The relative audibility of multiple sounds occurs in separate, independent channels (frequency bands) termed critical bands or equivalent rectangular (filter-response) bandwidths (ERBs) of frequency. The true nature of human hearing is a function of a complex combination of subjective factors, both auditory and nonauditory. Assessment of the probability of individual annoyance, community-complaint reaction levels, speech intelligibility, and the most cost-effective mitigation actions requires sensation-level data; these data are one of the most important auditory factors. However, sensation levels cannot be calculated by using single-number, A-weighted sound level values. This paper describes specific steps to compute sensation levels. A unique, newly developed procedure is used, which simplifies and improves the accuracy of such computations by the use of maximum sensation levels that occur, for each intrusive-sound spectrum, within each ERB. The newly developed program ENAUDIBL makes use of ERB sensation-level values generated with some computational subroutines developed for the formerly documented program SPECTRAN.

  19. Development of a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Bormin; Mielikainen, Jarno; Oh, Hyunjong; Allen Huang, Hung-Lung

    2011-03-20

    Satellite-observed radiance is a nonlinear functional of surface properties and atmospheric temperature and absorbing gas profiles as described by the radiative transfer equation (RTE). In the era of hyperspectral sounders with thousands of high-resolution channels, the computation of the radiative transfer model becomes more time-consuming. The radiative transfer model performance in operational numerical weather prediction systems still limits the number of channels we can use in hyperspectral sounders to only a few hundreds. To take the full advantage of such high-resolution infrared observations, a computationally efficient radiative transfer model is needed to facilitate satellite data assimilation. In recent years the programmable commodity graphics processing unit (GPU) has evolved into a highly parallel, multi-threaded, many-core processor with tremendous computational speed and very high memory bandwidth. The radiative transfer model is very suitable for the GPU implementation to take advantage of the hardware's efficiency and parallelism where radiances of many channels can be calculated in parallel in GPUs. In this paper, we develop a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched in 2006 onboard the first European meteorological polar-orbiting satellites, METOP-A. Each IASI spectrum has 8461 spectral channels. The IASI radiative transfer model consists of three modules. The first module for computing the regression predictors takes less than 0.004% of CPU time, while the second module for transmittance computation and the third module for radiance computation take approximately 92.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Our GPU-based IASI radiative transfer model is developed to run on a low-cost personal supercomputer with four GPUs with total 960 compute cores, delivering near 4 TFlops theoretical peak performance. By massively parallelizing the second and third modules, we reached 364x

  20. Validating Software Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-30

    validation test: Spearman Rank Correlation and Wald - Wolfowitz Runs Test (test for randomness) (5,8]. For example, if a complexity metric is claimed to be... error count (E). Validity Criteria Select values of V, B, A, and P. The values of V, B, A, and P, used in the example are .7, .7, 20%, and 80...Procedures with no errors Average rank of first group = 85.2419 based on 31 values . Average rank of second group = 45.5 based on 81 values . Large sample test

  1. SI (Metric) handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artusa, Elisa A.

    1994-03-01

    This guide provides information for an understanding of SI units, symbols, and prefixes; style and usage in documentation in both the US and in the international business community; conversion techniques; limits, fits, and tolerance data; and drawing and technical writing guidelines. Also provided is information of SI usage for specialized applications like data processing and computer programming, science, engineering, and construction. Related information in the appendixes include legislative documents, historical and biographical data, a list of metric documentation, rules for determining significant digits and rounding, conversion factors, shorthand notation, and a unit index.

  2. SI (Metric) handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artusa, Elisa A.

    1994-01-01

    This guide provides information for an understanding of SI units, symbols, and prefixes; style and usage in documentation in both the US and in the international business community; conversion techniques; limits, fits, and tolerance data; and drawing and technical writing guidelines. Also provided is information of SI usage for specialized applications like data processing and computer programming, science, engineering, and construction. Related information in the appendixes include legislative documents, historical and biographical data, a list of metric documentation, rules for determining significant digits and rounding, conversion factors, shorthand notation, and a unit index.

  3. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, Eduardo; Milligan, Michael

    2014-11-13

    As the penetration of variable generation (wind and solar) increases around the world, there is an accompanying growing interest and importance in accurately assessing the contribution that these resources can make toward planning reserve. This contribution, also known as the capacity credit or capacity value of the resource, is best quantified by using a probabilistic measure of overall resource adequacy. In recognizing the variable nature of these renewable resources, there has been interest in exploring the use of reliability metrics other than loss of load expectation. In this paper, we undertake some comparisons using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council in the western United States.

  4. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    -term sound representations, and sets the stage for the development of human-computer interfaces based on vocalizations. PMID:27992480

  5. Method of sound synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Miner, Nadine E.; Caudell, Thomas P.

    2004-06-08

    A sound synthesis method for modeling and synthesizing dynamic, parameterized sounds. The sound synthesis method yields perceptually convincing sounds and provides flexibility through model parameterization. By manipulating model parameters, a variety of related, but perceptually different sounds can be generated. The result is subtle changes in sounds, in addition to synthesis of a variety of sounds, all from a small set of models. The sound models can change dynamically according to changes in the simulation environment. The method is applicable to both stochastic (impulse-based) and non-stochastic (pitched) sounds.

  6. Metrics for assessing improvements in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Stange, Kurt C; Etz, Rebecca S; Gullett, Heidi; Sweeney, Sarah A; Miller, William L; Jaén, Carlos Roberto; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Nutting, Paul A; Glasgow, Russell E

    2014-01-01

    Metrics focus attention on what is important. Balanced metrics of primary health care inform purpose and aspiration as well as performance. Purpose in primary health care is about improving the health of people and populations in their community contexts. It is informed by metrics that include long-term, meaning- and relationship-focused perspectives. Aspirational uses of metrics inspire evolving insights and iterative improvement, using a collaborative, developmental perspective. Performance metrics assess the complex interactions among primary care tenets of accessibility, a whole-person focus, integration and coordination of care, and ongoing relationships with individuals, families, and communities; primary health care principles of inclusion and equity, a focus on people's needs, multilevel integration of health, collaborative policy dialogue, and stakeholder participation; basic and goal-directed health care, prioritization, development, and multilevel health outcomes. Environments that support reflection, development, and collaborative action are necessary for metrics to advance health and minimize unintended consequences.

  7. "They may be pixels, but they're MY pixels:" developing a metric of character attachment in role-playing video games.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Melissa L; Weber, René; Bowman, Nicholas David

    2008-08-01

    This paper proposes a new and reliable metric for measuring character attachment (CA), the connection felt by a video game player toward a video game character. Results of construct validity analyses indicate that the proposed CA scale has a significant relationship with self-esteem, addiction, game enjoyment, and time spent playing games; all of these relationships are predicted by theory. Additionally, CA levels for role-playing games differ significantly from CA levels of other character-driven games.

  8. Elliptic constructions of hyperkahler metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionas, Radu Aurelian

    In this dissertation we develop a twistor-theoretic method of constructing hyperkahler metrics from holomorphic functions and elliptic curves. We obtain, among other things, new results concerning the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold, asymptotically locally Euclidean spaces of type Dn and certain Swann bundles. For example, in the Atiyah-Hitchin case we derive in an explicit holomorphic coordinate basis closed-form formulas for the metric, the holomorphic symplectic form and all three Kahler potentials. The equation describing an asymptotically locally Euclidean space of type Dn is found to admit an algebraic formulation in terms of the group law on a Weierstrass cubic. This curve has the structure of a Cayley cubic for a pencil generated by two transversal plane conics, that is, it takes the form Y2 = det( A+XB ), where A and B are the defining 3 x 3 matrices of the conics. In this light, the equation can be interpreted as the closure condition for an elliptic billiard trajectory tangent to the conic B and bouncing into various conics of the pencil determined by the positions of the monopoles.

  9. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  10. Word Maturity: A New Metric for Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Kireyev, Kirill; Panaccione, Charles

    2011-01-01

    A new metric, Word Maturity, estimates the development by individual students of knowledge of every word in a large corpus. The metric is constructed by Latent Semantic Analysis modeling of word knowledge as a function of the reading that a simulated learner has done and is calibrated by its developing closeness in information content to that of a…

  11. Acoustics: Motion controlled by sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neild, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    A simple technique has been developed that produces holograms made of sound waves. These acoustic landscapes are used to manipulate microscale objects, and offer great potential in medical imaging and selective heating. See Letter p.518

  12. Evaluation of moving-coil loudspeaker and passive radiator parameters using normal-incidence sound transmission measurements: theoretical developments.

    PubMed

    Leishman, Timothy W; Anderson, Brian E

    2013-07-01

    The parameters of moving-coil loudspeaker drivers are typically determined using direct electrical excitation and measurement. However, as electro-mechano-acoustical devices, their parameters should also follow from suitable mechanical or acoustical evaluations. This paper presents the theory of an acoustical method of excitation and measurement using normal-incidence sound transmission through a baffled driver as a plane-wave tube partition. Analogous circuits enable key parameters to be extracted from measurement results in terms of open and closed-circuit driver conditions. Associated tools are presented that facilitate adjacent field decompositions and derivations of sound transmission coefficients (in terms of driver parameters) directly from the circuits. The paper also clarifies the impact of nonanechoic receiving tube terminations and the specific benefits of downstream field decompositions.

  13. Geometric Constraints on Human Speech Sound Inventories.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Ewan; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the idea that the languages of the world have developed coherent sound systems in which having one sound increases or decreases the chances of having certain other sounds, depending on shared properties of those sounds. We investigate the geometries of sound systems that are defined by the inherent properties of sounds. We document three typological tendencies in sound system geometries: economy, a tendency for the differences between sounds in a system to be definable on a relatively small number of independent dimensions; local symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to have relatively large numbers of pairs of sounds that differ only on one dimension; and global symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to be relatively balanced. The finding of economy corroborates previous results; the two symmetry properties have not been previously documented. We also investigate the relation between the typology of inventory geometries and the typology of individual sounds, showing that the frequency distribution with which individual sounds occur across languages works in favor of both local and global symmetry.

  14. Geometric Constraints on Human Speech Sound Inventories

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Ewan; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the idea that the languages of the world have developed coherent sound systems in which having one sound increases or decreases the chances of having certain other sounds, depending on shared properties of those sounds. We investigate the geometries of sound systems that are defined by the inherent properties of sounds. We document three typological tendencies in sound system geometries: economy, a tendency for the differences between sounds in a system to be definable on a relatively small number of independent dimensions; local symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to have relatively large numbers of pairs of sounds that differ only on one dimension; and global symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to be relatively balanced. The finding of economy corroborates previous results; the two symmetry properties have not been previously documented. We also investigate the relation between the typology of inventory geometries and the typology of individual sounds, showing that the frequency distribution with which individual sounds occur across languages works in favor of both local and global symmetry. PMID:27462296

  15. Assessing spelling in kindergarten: further comparison of scoring metrics and their relation to reading skills.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Nathan H; Oslund, Eric L; Simmons, Leslie E; Simmons, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Early reading and spelling development share foundational skills, yet spelling assessment is underutilized in evaluating early reading. This study extended research comparing the degree to which methods for scoring spelling skills at the end of kindergarten were associated with reading skills measured at the same time as well as at the end of first grade. Five strategies for scoring spelling responses were compared: totaling the number of words spelled correctly, totaling the number of correct letter sounds, totaling the number of correct letter sequences, using a rubric for scoring invented spellings, and calculating the Spelling Sensitivity Score (Masterson & Apel, 2010b). Students (N=287) who were identified at kindergarten entry as at risk for reading difficulty and who had received supplemental reading intervention were administered a standardized spelling assessment in the spring of kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, decoding, word recognition, and reading fluency were administered concurrently and at the end of first grade. The five spelling scoring metrics were similar in their strong relations with factors summarizing reading subskills (phonological awareness, decoding, and word reading) on a concurrent basis. Furthermore, when predicting first-grade reading skills based on spring-of-kindergarten performance, spelling scores from all five metrics explained unique variance over the autoregressive effects of kindergarten word identification. The practical advantages of using a brief spelling assessment for early reading evaluation and the relative tradeoffs of each scoring metric are discussed.

  16. Systems resilience for multihazard environments: definition, metrics, and valuation for decision making.

    PubMed

    Ayyub, Bilal M

    2014-02-01

    The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction reported that the 2011 natural disasters, including the earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan, resulted in $366 billion in direct damages and 29,782 fatalities worldwide. Storms and floods accounted for up to 70% of the 302 natural disasters worldwide in 2011, with earthquakes producing the greatest number of fatalities. Average annual losses in the United States amount to about $55 billion. Enhancing community and system resilience could lead to massive savings through risk reduction and expeditious recovery. The rational management of such reduction and recovery is facilitated by an appropriate definition of resilience and associated metrics. In this article, a resilience definition is provided that meets a set of requirements with clear relationships to the metrics of the relevant abstract notions of reliability and risk. Those metrics also meet logically consistent requirements drawn from measure theory, and provide a sound basis for the development of effective decision-making tools for multihazard environments. Improving the resiliency of a system to meet target levels requires the examination of system enhancement alternatives in economic terms, within a decision-making framework. Relevant decision analysis methods would typically require the examination of resilience based on its valuation by society at large. The article provides methods for valuation and benefit-cost analysis based on concepts from risk analysis and management.

  17. To the beat of your own drum: cortical regularization of non-integer ratio rhythms toward metrical patterns.

    PubMed

    Motz, Benjamin A; Erickson, Molly A; Hetrick, William P

    2013-04-01

    Humans perceive a wide range of temporal patterns, including those rhythms that occur in music, speech, and movement; however, there are constraints on the rhythmic patterns that we can represent. Past research has shown that sequences in which sounds occur regularly at non-metrical locations in a repeating beat period (non-integer ratio subdivisions of the beat, e.g. sounds at 430ms in a 1000ms beat) are represented less accurately than sequences with metrical relationships, where events occur at even subdivisions of the beat (integer ratios, e.g. sounds at 500ms in a 1000ms beat). Why do non-integer ratio rhythms present cognitive challenges? An emerging theory is that non-integer ratio sequences are represented incorrectly, "regularized" in the direction of the nearest metrical pattern, and the present study sought evidence of such perceptual regularization toward integer ratio relationships. Participants listened to metrical and non-metrical rhythmic auditory sequences during electroencephalogram recording, and sounds were pseudorandomly omitted from the stimulus sequence. Cortical responses to these omissions (omission elicited potentials; OEPs) were used to estimate the timing of expectations for omitted sounds in integer ratio and non-integer ratio locations. OEP amplitude and onset latency measures indicated that expectations for non-integer ratio sequences are distorted toward the nearest metrical location in the rhythmic period. These top-down effects demonstrate metrical regularization in a purely perceptual context, and provide support for dynamical accounts of rhythm perception.

  18. Characterizing Hurricane Tracks Using Multiple Statistical Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, K. L.; Emanuel, K.; Ravela, S.

    2015-12-01

    Historical tropical cyclone tracks reveal a wide range of shapes and speeds over different ocean basins. However, they have only been accurately recorded in the last few decades, limiting their representativeness to only a subset of possible tracks in a changing large-scale environment. Taking into account various climate conditions, synthetic tracks can be generated to produce a much larger sample of cyclone tracks to understand variability of cyclone activity and assess future changes. To evaluate how well the synthetic tracks capture the characteristics of the historical tracks, several statistical metrics have been developed to characterize and compare their shapes and movements. In one metric, the probability density functions of storm locations are estimated by modeling the position of the storms as a Markov chain. Another metric is constructed to capture the mutual information between two variables such as velocity and curvature. These metrics are then applied to the synthetic and historical tracks to determine if the latter are plausibly a subset of the former. Bootstrap sampling is used in applying the metrics to the synthetic tracks to accurately compare them with the historical tracks given the large sample size difference. If we confirm that the synthetic tracks capture the variability of the historical ones, high confidence intervals can be determined from the much larger set of synthetic tracks to look for highly unusual tracks and to assess their probability of occurrence.

  19. Performance metrics for the evaluation of hyperspectral chemical identification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truslow, Eric; Golowich, Steven; Manolakis, Dimitris; Ingle, Vinay

    2016-02-01

    Remote sensing of chemical vapor plumes is a difficult but important task for many military and civilian applications. Hyperspectral sensors operating in the long-wave infrared regime have well-demonstrated detection capabilities. However, the identification of a plume's chemical constituents, based on a chemical library, is a multiple hypothesis testing problem which standard detection metrics do not fully describe. We propose using an additional performance metric for identification based on the so-called Dice index. Our approach partitions and weights a confusion matrix to develop both the standard detection metrics and identification metric. Using the proposed metrics, we demonstrate that the intuitive system design of a detector bank followed by an identifier is indeed justified when incorporating performance information beyond the standard detection metrics.

  20. Evaluation metric of an image understanding result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemery, Baptiste; Laurent, Helene; Emile, Bruno; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Image processing algorithms include methods that process images from their acquisition to the extraction of useful information for a given application. Among interpretation algorithms, some are designed to detect, localize, and identify one or several objects in an image. The problem addressed is the evaluation of the interpretation results of an image or a video given an associated ground truth. Challenges are multiple, such as the comparison of algorithms, evaluation of an algorithm during its development, or the definition of its optimal settings. We propose a new metric for evaluating the interpretation result of an image. The advantage of the proposed metric is to evaluate a result by taking into account the quality of the localization, recognition, and detection of objects of interest in the image. Several parameters allow us to change the behavior of this metric for a given application. Its behavior has been tested on a large database and showed interesting results.

  1. Landscape pattern metrics and regional assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, R. V.; Riitters, K.H.; Wickham, J.D.; Jones, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of remote imagery data, geographic information systems software, and landscape ecology theory provides a unique basis for monitoring and assessing large-scale ecological systems. The unique feature of the work has been the need to develop and interpret quantitative measures of spatial pattern-the landscape indices. This article reviews what is known about the statistical properties of these pattern metrics and suggests some additional metrics based on island biogeography, percolation theory, hierarchy theory, and economic geography. Assessment applications of this approach have required interpreting the pattern metrics in terms of specific environmental endpoints, such as wildlife and water quality, and research into how to represent synergystic effects of many overlapping sources of stress.

  2. The metric system: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lumley, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    On July 13, 1992, Deputy Director Duane Sewell restated the Laboratory`s policy on conversion to the metric system which was established in 1974. Sewell`s memo announced the Laboratory`s intention to continue metric conversion on a reasonable and cost effective basis. Copies of the 1974 and 1992 Administrative Memos are contained in the Appendix. There are three primary reasons behind the Laboratory`s conversion to the metric system. First, Public Law 100-418, passed in 1988, states that by the end of fiscal year 1992 the Federal Government must begin using metric units in grants, procurements, and other business transactions. Second, on July 25, 1991, President George Bush signed Executive Order 12770 which urged Federal agencies to expedite conversion to metric units. Third, the contract between the University of California and the Department of Energy calls for the Laboratory to convert to the metric system. Thus, conversion to the metric system is a legal requirement and a contractual mandate with the University of California. Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770 are discussed in more detail later in this section, but first they examine the reasons behind the nation`s conversion to the metric system. The second part of this report is on applying the metric system.

  3. Implementing the Metric System in Agricultural Occupations. Metric Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Hal M.; And Others

    Addressed to the agricultural education teacher, this guide is intended to provide appropriate information, viewpoints, and attitudes regarding the metric system and to make suggestions regarding presentation of the material in the classroom. An introductory section on teaching suggestions emphasizes the need for a "think metric" approach made up…

  4. Implementing the Metric System in Health Occupations. Metric Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Wilson P.; And Others

    Addressed to the health occupations education teacher, this guide is intended to provide appropriate information, viewpoints, and attitudes regarding the metric system and to make suggestions regarding presentation of the material in the classroom. An introductory section on teaching suggestions emphasizes the need for a "think metric" approach…

  5. Implementing the Metric System in Business Occupations. Metric Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retzer, Kenneth A.; And Others

    Addressed to the business education teacher, this guide is intended to provide appropriate information, viewpoints, and attitudes regarding the metric system and to make suggestions regarding presentation of the material in the classroom. An introductory section on teaching suggestions emphasizes the need for a "think metric" approach made up of…

  6. Implementing the Metric System in Industrial Occupations. Metric Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retzer, Kenneth A.

    Addressed to the industrial education teacher, this guide is intended to provide appropriate information, viewpoints, and attitudes regarding the metric system and to make suggestions regarding presentation of the material in the classroom. An introductory section on teaching suggestions emphasizes the need for a "think metric" approach made up of…

  7. Software metrics: Software quality metrics for distributed systems. [reliability engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    Software quality metrics was extended to cover distributed computer systems. Emphasis is placed on studying embedded computer systems and on viewing them within a system life cycle. The hierarchy of quality factors, criteria, and metrics was maintained. New software quality factors were added, including survivability, expandability, and evolvability.

  8. Environmental Decision Support with Consistent Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most effective ways to pursue environmental progress is through the use of consistent metrics within a decision making framework. The US Environmental Protection Agency’s Sustainable Technology Division has developed TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of...

  9. Objective evaluation of interior trim effects on sound quality and noise reduction of a coupled plate cavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egab, Laith; Wang, Xu

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the impedance mobility and psychoacoustic analysis methods are combined to develop a structural-acoustic model of a plate-cavity coupling system. The objective is to evaluate the effect of interior trim materials on sound loudness and sharpness of a plate-cavity coupling system. The impedance mobility method is applied to calculate the pressure frequency responses of the interior acoustic field for the plate-cavity coupling system. The sound pressure results calculated by the impedance mobility method are then directly used to calculate the psychoacoustic metrics using psychoacoustic analysis method. A good agreement was found between the experimental and analytical results. The results show that the interior trim has a large influence on the distribution of the sound loudness and sharpness inside the cavity in the middle and high frequency ranges.

  10. Development of a High Resolution Passive Microwave 3U Cubesat for High Resolution Temperature Sounding and Imaging at 118 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Sanders, B. T.; Gallaher, D. W.; Periasamy, L.; Alvarenga, G.; Weaver, R.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    PolarCube is a 3U CubeSat based on the CU ALL-STAR bus hosting an eight-channel passive microwave scanning spectrometer operating at the 118.7503 GHz (1-) O2 resonance. The anticipated launch date is in late 2015. It is being designed to operate for 12 months on orbit to provide global 118-GHz spectral imagery of the Earth over a full seasonal cycle. The mission will focus on the study of Arctic vertical temperature structure and its relation to sea ice coverage, but include the secondary goals of assessing the potential for convective cloud mass detection and cloud top altitude measurement and hurricane warm core sounding. The principles used by PolarCube for sounding and cloud measurement have been well established in number of peer-reviewed papers, although measurements using the 118 GHz oxygen line over the dry polar regions (unaffected by water vapor) have never been demonstrated from space. The PolarCube channels are selected to probe clear-air emission over vertical levels from the surface to the lower stratosphere. Operational spaceborne microwave soundings have available for decades but using lower frequencies (50-57 GHz) and from higher altitudes. While the JPSS ATMS sensor provides global coverage at ~32 km resolution PolarCube will improve on this resolution by a factor of two (~16 km), thus facilitating a key science goal of mapping sea ice concentration and extent while obtaining temperature profile data. Additionally, we seek to correlate freeze-thaw line data from the NASA SMAP mission with atmospheric temperature structure to help understand the relationship between clouds, temperature, and surface energy fluxes during seasonal transitions. PolarCube will also provide the first demonstration of a very low cost passive microwave sounder that if operated in a fleet configuration would have the potential to fulfill the goals of the Precipitation Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission, as defined in the NRC Decadal Survey.

  11. Calculating Speed of Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh

    2017-01-01

    Sound is an emerging source of renewable energy but it has some limitations. The main limitation is, the amount of energy that can be extracted from sound is very less and that is because of the velocity of the sound. The velocity of sound changes as per medium. If we could increase the velocity of the sound in a medium we would be probably able to extract more amount of energy from sound and will be able to transfer it at a higher rate. To increase the velocity of sound we should know the speed of sound. If we go by the theory of classic mechanics speed is the distance travelled by a particle divided by time whereas velocity is the displacement of particle divided by time. The speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C (68 °F) is considered to be 343.2 meters per second and it won't be wrong in saying that 342.2 meters is the velocity of sound not the speed as it's the displacement of the sound not the total distance sound wave covered. Sound travels in the form of mechanical wave, so while calculating the speed of sound the whole path of wave should be considered not just the distance traveled by sound. In this paper I would like to focus on calculating the actual speed of sound wave which can help us to extract more energy and make sound travel with faster velocity.

  12. Standardised metrics for global surgical surveillance.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Thomas G; Makary, Martin A; Haynes, Alex B; Dziekan, Gerald; Berry, William R; Gawande, Atul A

    2009-09-26

    Public health surveillance relies on standardised metrics to evaluate disease burden and health system performance. Such metrics have not been developed for surgical services despite increasing volume, substantial cost, and high rates of death and disability associated with surgery. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative of WHO's Patient Safety Programme has developed standardised public health metrics for surgical care that are applicable worldwide. We assembled an international panel of experts to develop and define metrics for measuring the magnitude and effect of surgical care in a population, while taking into account economic feasibility and practicability. This panel recommended six measures for assessing surgical services at a national level: number of operating rooms, number of operations, number of accredited surgeons, number of accredited anaesthesia professionals, day-of-surgery death ratio, and postoperative in-hospital death ratio. We assessed the feasibility of gathering such statistics at eight diverse hospitals in eight countries and incorporated them into the WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery, in which methods for data collection, analysis, and reporting are outlined.

  13. Metric Supplement to Technical Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henschel, Mark

    This manual is intended for use in training persons whose vocations involve technical drawing to use the metric system of measurement. It could be used in a short course designed for that purpose or for individual study. The manual begins with a brief discussion of the rationale for conversion to the metric system. It then provides a…

  14. How to Teach Metric Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worcester Public Schools, MA.

    This curriculum guide for grades K-6 was prepared to assist teachers and students in learning about the metric system. An introductory section presents a brief history of the metric system and the rationale for introducing it into the schools. Instructional objectives and suggested learning activities are presented for each grade level. The…

  15. Metric Activities, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Bob, Comp.

    This pamphlet presents worksheets for use in fifteen activities or groups of activities designed for teaching the metric system to children in grades K through 6. The approach taken in several of the activities is one of conversion between metric and English units. The majority of the activities concern length, area, volume, and capacity. A…

  16. Metrics for Soft Goods Merchandising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in soft goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  17. Metrics for Hard Goods Merchandising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in hard goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  18. Conversion to the Metric System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crunkilton, John C.; Lee, Jasper S.

    1974-01-01

    The authors discuss background information about the metric system and explore the effect of metrication of agriculture in areas such as equipment calibration, chemical measurement, and marketing of agricultural products. Suggestions are given for possible leadership roles and approaches that agricultural education might take in converting to the…

  19. What About Metric? Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbrow, Louis E.

    Described are the advantages of using the metric system over the English system. The most common units of both systems are listed and compared. Pictures are used to exhibit use of the metric system in connection with giving prices or sizes of common items. Several examples provide computations of area, total weight of several objects, and volume;…

  20. Multimetric indices: How many metrics?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multimetric indices (MMI’s) often include 5 to 15 metrics, each representing a different attribute of assemblage condition, such as species diversity, tolerant taxa, and nonnative taxa. Is there an optimal number of metrics for MMIs? To explore this question, I created 1000 9-met...

  1. Saturn IB Launch Vehicle Characteristics - Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1968 cutaway drawing illustrates the Saturn IB launch vehicle with its two booster stages, the S-IB (first stage) and S-IVB (second stage), and provides the vital statistics in metric units. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the marned lunar missions.

  2. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  3. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  4. Sound Insulation in Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gösele, K.; Schröder, E.

    Sound insulation between the different rooms inside a building or to the outside is a very complex problem. First, the airborne sound insulation of ceilings, walls, doors and windows is important. Second, a sufficient structure-borne sound insulation, also called impact sound insulation, for the ceilings, has to be provided especially. Finally, the service equipment should be sufficiently quiet.

  5. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  6. The Sound of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  7. Making Sound Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  8. NASA Sounding Rockets and Hi-C

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Sounding Rockets Program Office (SRPO), located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, provides suborbital launch vehicles, payload development, and field operations sup...

  9. Reuse metrics and measurement: A framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reifer, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    The lessons learned and experience gleaned are described by those who have started to implement the reuse metrics and measurement framework used in controlling the development of common avionics and software for its affiliated aircraft programs. The framework was developed to permit the measurement of the long term cost/benefits resulting from the creation and use of Reusable Software Objects (RSOs). The framework also monitors the efficiency and effectiveness of the Software Reuse Library (SRL). The metrics and measurement framework is defined which was established to allow some determinations and findings to be made relative to software reuse. Seven criteria are discussed which were used to guide the establishment of the proposed reuse framework. Object recapture and creation metrics are explained along with their normalized use in effort, productivity, and quality determination. A single and multiple reuse instance version of a popular cost model is presented which uses these metrics and the measurement scheme proposed to predict the software effort and duration under various reuse assumptions. Studies in using this model to predict actuals taken from the RCI data base of over 1000 completed projects is discussed.

  10. Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, C.

    2016-06-01

    Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnostics to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. The utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.

  11. Developing an eBook-Integrated High-Fidelity Mobile App Prototype for Promoting Child Motor Skills and Taxonomically Assessing Children's Emotional Responses Using Face and Sound Topology.

    PubMed

    Brown, William; Liu, Connie; John, Rita Marie; Ford, Phoebe

    2014-01-01

    Developing gross and fine motor skills and expressing complex emotion is critical for child development. We introduce "StorySense", an eBook-integrated mobile app prototype that can sense face and sound topologies and identify movement and expression to promote children's motor skills and emotional developmental. Currently, most interactive eBooks on mobile devices only leverage "low-motor" interaction (i.e. tapping or swiping). Our app senses a greater breath of motion (e.g. clapping, snapping, and face tracking), and dynamically alters the storyline according to physical responses in ways that encourage the performance of predetermined motor skills ideal for a child's gross and fine motor development. In addition, our app can capture changes in facial topology, which can later be mapped using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for later interpretation of emotion. StorySense expands the human computer interaction vocabulary for mobile devices. Potential clinical applications include child development, physical therapy, and autism.

  12. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals.

  13. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummer, Steven A.; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales. The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create effective material properties that are not possible with passive structures and have led to the development of dynamically reconfigurable, loss-compensating and parity-time-symmetric materials for sound manipulation. Challenges remain, including the development of efficient techniques for fabricating large-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview of future directions in the field.

  14. A Dynamic Testing Complexity Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voas, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces a dynamic metric that is based on the estimated ability of a program to withstand the effects of injected "semantic mutants" during execution by computing the same function as if the semantic mutants had not been injected. Semantic mutants include: (1) syntactic mutants injected into an executing program and (2) randomly selected values injected into an executing program's internal states. The metric is a function of a program, the method used for injecting these two types of mutants, and the program's input distribution; this metric is found through dynamic executions of the program. A program's ability to withstand the effects of injected semantic mutants by computing the same function when executed is then used as a tool for predicting the difficulty that will be incurred during random testing to reveal the existence of faults, i.e., the metric suggests the likelihood that a program will expose the existence of faults during random testing assuming faults were to exist. If the metric is applied to a module rather than to a program, the metric can be used to guide the allocation of testing resources among a program's modules. In this manner the metric acts as a white-box testing tool for determining where to concentrate testing resources. Index Terms: Revealing ability, random testing, input distribution, program, fault, failure.

  15. Variable metric conjugate gradient methods

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1994-07-01

    1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

  16. Double metric, generalized metric, and α' -deformed double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Zwiebach, Barton

    2016-03-01

    We relate the unconstrained "double metric" of the "α' -geometry" formulation of double field theory to the constrained generalized metric encoding the spacetime metric and b -field. This is achieved by integrating out auxiliary field components of the double metric in an iterative procedure that induces an infinite number of higher-derivative corrections. As an application, we prove that, to first order in α' and to all orders in fields, the deformed gauge transformations are Green-Schwarz-deformed diffeomorphisms. We also prove that to first order in α' the spacetime action encodes precisely the Green-Schwarz deformation with Chern-Simons forms based on the torsionless gravitational connection. This seems to be in tension with suggestions in the literature that T-duality requires a torsionful connection, but we explain that these assertions are ambiguous since actions that use different connections are related by field redefinitions.

  17. Truss Performance and Packaging Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M.; Collins, Timothy J.; Doggett, William; Dorsey, John; Watson, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper a set of performance metrics are derived from first principals to assess the efficiency of competing space truss structural concepts in terms of mass, stiffness, and strength, for designs that are constrained by packaging. The use of these performance metrics provides unique insight into the primary drivers for lowering structural mass and packaging volume as well as enabling quantitative concept performance evaluation and comparison. To demonstrate the use of these performance metrics, data for existing structural concepts are plotted and discussed. Structural performance data is presented for various mechanical deployable concepts, for erectable structures, and for rigidizable structures.

  18. The LSST metrics analysis framework (MAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. L.; Yoachim, Peter; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Cook, Kem H.; Ivezic, Željko; Krughoff, K. S.; Petry, Catherine; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the Metrics Analysis Framework (MAF), an open-source python framework developed to provide a user-friendly, customizable, easily-extensible set of tools for analyzing data sets. MAF is part of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Simulations effort. Its initial goal is to provide a tool to evaluate LSST Operations Simulation (OpSim) simulated surveys to help understand the effects of telescope scheduling on survey performance, however MAF can be applied to a much wider range of datasets. The building blocks of the framework are Metrics (algorithms to analyze a given quantity of data), Slicers (subdividing the overall data set into smaller data slices as relevant for each Metric), and Database classes (to access the dataset and read data into memory). We describe how these building blocks work together, and provide an example of using MAF to evaluate different dithering strategies. We also outline how users can write their own custom Metrics and use these within the framework.

  19. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.

  20. Toroidal metrics: gravitational solenoids and static shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynden-Bell, Donald; Katz, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    In electromagnetism a current along a wire tightly wound on a torus makes a solenoid whose magnetic field is confined within the torus. In Einstein's gravity we give a corresponding solution in which a current of matter moves up on the inside of a toroidal shell and down on the outside, rolling around the torus by the short way. The metric is static outside the torus but stationary inside with the gravomagnetic field confined inside the torus, running around it by the long way. This exact solution of Einstein's equations is found by fitting Bonnor's solution for the metric of a light beam, which gives the required toroidal gravomagnetic field inside the torus, to the general Weyl static external metric in toroidal coordinates, which we develop. We deduce the matter tensor on the torus and find when it obeys the energy conditions. We also give the equipotential shells that generate the simple Bach-Weyl metric externally and find which shells obey the energy conditions.

  1. Rice by Weight, Other Produce by Bulk, and Snared Iguanas at So Much Per One. A Talk on Measurement Standards and on Metric Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Harold Don

    This script for a short radio broadcast on measurement standards and metric conversion begins by tracing the rise of the metric system in the international marketplace. Metric units are identified and briefly explained. Arguments for conversion to metric measures are presented. The history of the development and acceptance of the metric system is…

  2. Development of a Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Evaluation of Sound Quality Using a Semantic Differential Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2013-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed. However, there is room for improvement particularly in terms of sound quality. BCU speech is accompanied by a strong high-pitched tone and contain some distortion. In this study, the sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulations] and air-conducted (AC) speech was quantitatively evaluated using semantic differential and factor analysis. The results showed that all the types of BCU speech had higher metallic and lower esthetic factor scores than AC speech. On the other hand, transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to AC speech generally; the transposed speech showed a higher powerfulness factor score than the other types of BCU speech and a higher esthetic factor score than DSB-SC speech. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  3. Making the market right for environmentally sound energy-efficient technologies: US buildings sector successes that might work in developing countries and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

    1991-12-01

    Between 1973 and 1985, when energy prices were high, all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries improved their E/GNP by about 2.5% annually. Increased energy efficiency accounted for 2/3rds of this improvement; the remaining portion was due to structural changes in the economy. In the US, analytic and policy tools that have successfully promoted energy efficiency include integrated resource planning, energy use labels, energy use standards, ``Golden Carrot`` incentive programs, and revenue-neutral ``feebates.`` In addition, a number of low cost, environmentally sound, energy-efficient technologies, such as electronic ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows, have recently been developed. We discuss how many of these policies and technologies are probably exportable to developing countries and Eastern Europe, giving examples of successful starts in India, the ASEAN countries, and Brazil.

  4. The Development of a Theoretically Sound Concept of Quality Criteria: As in the Case of the Accreditation for Technology-Enhanced Learning EFMD-CEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahm, Taiga; Euler, Dieter; Seufert, Sabine

    This chapter aims at providing insight into the methodological derivation of the quality criteria used in the teChnology-Enhanced Learning accreditation (CEL) of the European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD), which was designed to assess and improve technology-enhanced programs. The main question posed in this chapter is how to develop quality criteria in a methodologically sound manner. After briefly outlining how the quality dimensions and the quality perspectives form the basis of an integrated quality model, the derivation of a number of quality criteria is explained in detail. The main outcomes of the chapter are to base the development of the quality criteria on theory and support it by empirical or theoretical evidence and/or argumentative reasoning. By taking these aspects into account, the quality accreditation scheme will be useful, consistent, and comprehensible and, thus, will be a valuable instrument for institutions in an accreditation process.

  5. Metrics for border management systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  6. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tomomi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill) can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq) and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: “metallic and unpleasant” and “powerful”. LAeq had a strong relationship with “powerful impression”, calculated sharpness was positively related to “metallic impression”, and “unpleasant impression” was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating

  7. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomomi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill) can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq) and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a comfortable sound

  8. Metric usage study: A look at 6 case histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This study was prepared to describe the metric experiences, good as well as bad, of a number of firms representing a cross-section of American business and industry. Their experiences show that there are problems as well as opportunities inherent in metric conversion. The six case histories presented in this publication reflect the trend, the drawbacks, and the merits of metric usage in the private sector. The United States Metric Board was created by Congress to plan and coordinate the increasing voluntary use of the metric system in the United States. This study has been developed as part of the Board's public awareness and education program. The six firms that were studied are Black and Webster, Samuel Cabot, Inc., Caterpillar Tractor, National Distillers Company, Levi Strauss & Co., and Inland Steel Company in the preparation of this publication.

  9. Degraded visual environment image/video quality metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Dustin D.; Brown, Jeremy B.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    A number of image quality metrics (IQMs) and video quality metrics (VQMs) have been proposed in the literature for evaluating techniques and systems for mitigating degraded visual environments. Some require both pristine and corrupted imagery. Others require patterned target boards in the scene. None of these metrics relates well to the task of landing a helicopter in conditions such as a brownout dust cloud. We have developed and used a variety of IQMs and VQMs related to the pilot's ability to detect hazards in the scene and to maintain situational awareness. Some of these metrics can be made agnostic to sensor type. Not only are the metrics suitable for evaluating algorithm and sensor variation, they are also suitable for choosing the most cost effective solution to improve operating conditions in degraded visual environments.

  10. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  11. Sound Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  12. Metric Selection for Ecosystem Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Conceptual modeling can be used in a situation where there is little funding for monitoring and evaluation planning, and when planning needs to be done...ecosystem restoration monitoring and evaluation programs, compile a list of these previous metrics, and assess and narrow them down based on...and understanding of the system will likely correlate with the benefits gained from monitoring and evaluation . A more appropriate, robust metric

  13. Validity of ligand efficiency metrics.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christopher W; Erlanson, Daniel A; Hopkins, Andrew L; Keserü, György M; Leeson, Paul D; Rees, David C; Reynolds, Charles H; Richmond, Nicola J

    2014-06-12

    A recent viewpoint article (Improving the plausibility of success with inefficient metrics. ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2014, 5, 2-5) argued that the standard definition of ligand efficiency (LE) is mathematically invalid. In this viewpoint, we address this criticism and show categorically that the definition of LE is mathematically valid. LE and other metrics such as lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) can be useful during the multiparameter optimization challenge faced by medicinal chemists.

  14. Phylogenetic metrics of community similarity.

    PubMed

    Ives, Anthony R; Helmus, Matthew R

    2010-11-01

    We derive a new metric of community similarity that takes into account the phylogenetic relatedness among species. This metric, phylogenetic community dissimilarity (PCD), can be partitioned into two components, a nonphylogenetic component that reflects shared species between communities (analogous to Sørensen' s similarity metric) and a phylogenetic component that reflects the evolutionary relationships among nonshared species. Therefore, even if a species is not shared between two communities, it will increase the similarity of the two communities if it is phylogenetically related to species in the other community. We illustrate PCD with data on fish and aquatic macrophyte communities from 59 temperate lakes. Dissimilarity between fish communities associated with environmental differences between lakes often has a phylogenetic component, whereas this is not the case for macrophyte communities. With simulations, we then compare PCD with two other metrics of phylogenetic community similarity, II(ST) and UniFrac. Of the three metrics, PCD was best at identifying environmental drivers of community dissimilarity, showing lower variability and greater statistical power. Thus, PCD is a statistically powerful metric that separates the effects of environmental drivers on compositional versus phylogenetic components of community structure.

  15. Early sound symbolism for vowel sounds.

    PubMed

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki) to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba) to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound-shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound-shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat) and four rounded-jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko) rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba). Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01). The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  16. Sound wave transmission (image)

    MedlinePlus

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  17. Common metrics to assess the efficiency of clinical research.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Doris McGartland

    2013-12-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program was designed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop processes and infrastructure for clinical and translational research throughout the United States. The CTSA initiative now funds 61 institutions. In 2012, the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, which administers the CTSA Program, charged the Evaluation Key Function Committee of the CTSA Consortium to develop common metrics to assess the efficiency of clinical research processes and outcomes. At this writing, the committee has identified 15 metrics in six categories. It has also developed a standardized protocol to define, pilot test, refine, and implement the metrics. The ultimate goal is to learn critical lessons about how to evaluate the processes and outcomes of clinical research within the CTSAs and beyond. This article describes the work involved in developing and applying common metrics and benchmarks of evaluation.

  18. Clinical Outcome Metrics for Optimization of Robust Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Doug; Byrne, Vicky; Cole, Richard; Dulchavsky, Scott; Foy, Millennia; Garcia, Kathleen; Gibson, Robert; Ham, David; Hurst, Victor; Kerstman, Eric; McGuire, Kerry; Sargsyan, Ashot

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop and use clinical outcome metrics and training tools to quantify the differences in performance of a physician vs non-physician crew medical officer (CMO) analogues during simulations.

  19. Indicators and Metrics for Evaluating the Sustainability of Chemical Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    A metric-based method, called GREENSCOPE, has been developed for evaluating process sustainability. Using lab-scale information and engineering assumptions the method evaluates full-scale epresentations of processes in environmental, efficiency, energy and economic areas. The m...

  20. Moving sound source localization based on triangulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Feng; Yang, Diange; Wen, Junjie; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-12-01

    This study develops a sound source localization method that extends traditional triangulation to moving sources. First, the possible sound source locating plane is scanned. Secondly, for each hypothetical source location in this possible plane, the Doppler effect is removed through the integration of sound pressure. Taking advantage of the de-Dopplerized signals, the moving time difference of arrival (MTDOA) is calculated, and the sound source is located based on triangulation. Thirdly, the estimated sound source location is compared to the original hypothetical location and the deviations are recorded. Because the real sound source location leads to zero deviation, the sound source can be finally located by minimizing the deviation matrix. Simulations have shown the superiority of MTDOA method over traditional triangulation in case of moving sound sources. The MTDOA method can be used to locate moving sound sources with as high resolution as DAMAS beamforming, as shown in the experiments, offering thus a new method for locating moving sound sources.

  1. Is scoring system of computed tomography based metric parameters can accurately predicts shock wave lithotripsy stone-free rates and aid in the development of treatment strategies?

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Yasser Ali; Abdelaziz, Alsayed Saad; Shehab, Mohamed Ahmed; Mohamed, Hazem Abdelsabour Dief; Emara, Absel-Aziz Ali; Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali; Ghanem, Maged Mohammed; ELHelaly, Hesham Abdel Azim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine the predicting success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) using a combination of computed tomography based metric parameters to improve the treatment plan. Patients and Methods: Consecutive 180 patients with symptomatic upper urinary tract calculi 20 mm or less were enrolled in our study underwent extracorporeal SWL were divided into two main groups, according to the stone size, Group A (92 patients with stone ≤10 mm) and Group B (88 patients with stone >10 mm). Both groups were evaluated, according to the skin to stone distance (SSD) and Hounsfield units (≤500, 500–1000 and >1000 HU). Results: Both groups were comparable in baseline data and stone characteristics. About 92.3% of Group A rendered stone-free, whereas 77.2% were stone-free in Group B (P = 0.001). Furthermore, in both group SWL success rates was a significantly higher for stones with lower attenuation <830 HU than with stones >830 HU (P < 0.034). SSD were statistically differences in SWL outcome (P < 0.02). Simultaneous consideration of three parameters stone size, stone attenuation value, and SSD; we found that stone-free rate (SFR) was 100% for stone attenuation value <830 HU for stone <10 mm or >10 mm but total number SWL sessions and shock waves required for the larger stone group were higher than in the smaller group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, SFR was 83.3% and 37.5% for stone <10 mm, mean HU >830, SSD 90 mm and SSD >120 mm, respectively. On the other hand, SFR was 52.6% and 28.57% for stone >10 mm, mean HU >830, SSD <90 mm and SSD >120 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Stone size, stone density (HU), and SSD is simple to calculate and can be reported by radiologists to applying combined score help to augment predictive power of SWL, reduce cost, and improving of treatment strategies. PMID:27141192

  2. 75 FR 7581 - RTO/ISO Performance Metrics; Notice Requesting Comments on RTO/ISO Performance Metrics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission RTO/ISO Performance Metrics; Notice Requesting Comments on RTO/ ISO..., work with regional transmission organizations (RTO), Independent System Operators (ISO), stakeholders and other experts to develop standardized measures that track the performance of RTO/ISO...

  3. 77 FR 12832 - Non-RTO/ISO Performance Metrics; Commission Staff Request Comments on Performance Metrics for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Non-RTO/ISO Performance Metrics; Commission Staff Request Comments on... actions, work with regional transmission organizations (RTO), Independent System Operators (ISO), stakeholders and other experts to develop standardized measures that track the performance of...

  4. Concurrent development of the head and pinnae and the acoustical cues to sound location in a precocious species, the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Jones, Heath G; Koka, Kanthaiah; Thornton, Jennifer L; Tollin, Daniel J

    2011-04-01

    Sounds are filtered in a spatial- and frequency-dependent manner by the head and pinna giving rise to the acoustical cues to sound source location. These spectral and temporal transformations are dependent on the physical dimensions of the head and pinna. Therefore, the magnitudes of binaural sound location cues-the interaural time (ITD) and level (ILD) differences-are hypothesized to systematically increase while the lower frequency limit of substantial ILD production is expected to decrease due to the increase in head and pinna size during development. The frequency ranges of the monaural spectral notch cues to source elevation are also expected to decrease. This hypothesis was tested here by measuring directional transfer functions (DTFs), the directional components of head-related transfer functions, and the linear dimensions of the head and pinnae for chinchillas from birth through adulthood. Dimensions of the head and pinna increased by factors of 1.8 and 2.42, respectively, reaching adult values by ~6 weeks. From the DTFs, the ITDs, ILDs, and spectral shape cues were computed. Maximum ITDs increased by a factor of 1.75, from ~160 μs at birth (P0-1, first postnatal day) to 280 μs in adults. ILDs depended on source location and frequency exhibiting a shift in the frequency range of substantial ILD (>10 dB) from higher to lower frequencies with increasing head and pinnae size. Similar trends were observed for the spectral notch frequencies which ranged from 14.7-33.4 kHz at P0-1 to 5.3-19.1 kHz in adults. The development of the spectral notch cues, the spatial- and frequency-dependent distributions of DTF amplitude gain, acoustic directionality, maximum gain, and the acoustic axis were systematically related to the dimensions of the head and pinnae. The dimension of the head and pinnae in the chinchilla as well as the acoustical properties associated with them are mature by ~6 weeks.

  5. Investigation using data from ERTS-1 to develop and implement utilization of living marine resources. [availability and distribution of menhaden fish in Mississippi Sound and Gulf waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H. (Principal Investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This 15-month ERTS-1 investigation produced correlations between satellite, aircraft, menhaden fisheries, and environmental sea truth data from the Mississippi Sound. Selected oceanographic, meteorological, and biological parameters were used as indirect indicators of the menhaden resource. Synoptic and near real time sea truth, fishery, satellite imagery, aircraft acquired multispectral, photo and thermal IR information were acquired as data inputs. Computer programs were developed to manipulate these data according to user requirements. Preliminary results indicate a correlation between backscattered light with chlorophyll concentration and water transparency in turbid waters. Eight empirical menhaden distribution models were constructed from combinations of four fisheries-significant oceanographic parameters: water depth, transparency, color, and surface salinity. The models demonstrated their potential for management utilization in areas of resource assessment, prediction, and monitoring.

  6. Non-metric chaotic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Koivisto, Tomi; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos E-mail: T.S.Koivisto@astro.uio.no

    2012-05-01

    We consider inflation within the context of what is arguably the simplest non-metric extension of Einstein gravity. There non-metricity is described by a single graviscalar field with a non-minimal kinetic coupling to the inflaton field Ψ, parameterized by a single parameter γ. There is a simple equivalent description in terms of a massless field and an inflaton with a modified potential. We discuss the implications of non-metricity for chaotic inflation and find that it significantly alters the inflaton dynamics for field values Ψ∼>M{sub P}/γ, dramatically changing the qualitative behaviour in this regime. In the equivalent single-field description this is described as a cuspy potential that forms of barrier beyond which the inflation becomes a ghost field. This imposes an upper bound on the possible number of e-folds. For the simplest chaotic inflation models, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio receive small corrections dependent on the non-metricity parameter. We also argue that significant post-inflationary non-metricity may be generated.

  7. Derived Metric Tensors for Flow Surface Visualization.

    PubMed

    Obermaier, H; Joy, K I

    2012-12-01

    Integral flow surfaces constitute a widely used flow visualization tool due to their capability to convey important flow information such as fluid transport, mixing, and domain segmentation. Current flow surface rendering techniques limit their expressiveness, however, by focusing virtually exclusively on displacement visualization, visually neglecting the more complex notion of deformation such as shearing and stretching that is central to the field of continuum mechanics. To incorporate this information into the flow surface visualization and analysis process, we derive a metric tensor field that encodes local surface deformations as induced by the velocity gradient of the underlying flow field. We demonstrate how properties of the resulting metric tensor field are capable of enhancing present surface visualization and generation methods and develop novel surface querying, sampling, and visualization techniques. The provided results show how this step towards unifying classic flow visualization and more advanced concepts from continuum mechanics enables more detailed and improved flow analysis.

  8. Sound of sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elze, H.-Thomas; Kodama, Takeshi; Rafelski, Johann

    1998-04-01

    We consider an air bubble in water under conditions of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) and evaluate the emitted sound field nonperturbatively for subsonic gas-liquid interface motion. Sound emission being the dominant damping mechanism, we also implement the nonperturbative sound damping in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for the interface motion. We evaluate numerically the sound pulse emitted during bubble collapse and compare the nonperturbative and perturbative results, showing that the usual perturbative description leads to an overestimate of the maximal surface velocity and maximal sound pressure. The radius vs time relation for a full SBSL cycle remains deceptively unaffected.

  9. Dynamic Density: An Air Traffic Management Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudeman, I. V.; Shelden, S. G.; Branstrom, R.; Brasil, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of a metric of air traffic controller workload based on air traffic characteristics is essential to the development of both air traffic management automation and air traffic procedures. Dynamic density is a proposed concept for a metric that includes both traffic density (a count of aircraft in a volume of airspace) and traffic complexity (a measure of the complexity of the air traffic in a volume of airspace). It was hypothesized that a metric that includes terms that capture air traffic complexity will be a better measure of air traffic controller workload than current measures based only on traffic density. A weighted linear dynamic density function was developed and validated operationally. The proposed dynamic density function includes a traffic density term and eight traffic complexity terms. A unit-weighted dynamic density function was able to account for an average of 22% of the variance in observed controller activity not accounted for by traffic density alone. A comparative analysis of unit weights, subjective weights, and regression weights for the terms in the dynamic density equation was conducted. The best predictor of controller activity was the dynamic density equation with regression-weighted complexity terms.

  10. Priming Gestures with Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M.; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge. PMID:26544884

  11. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  12. Kerr-Schild–Kundt metrics are universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürses, Metin; Çağrı Şişman, Tahsin; Tekin, Bayram

    2017-04-01

    We define (non-Einsteinian) universal metrics as the metrics that solve the source-free covariant field equations of generic gravity theories. Here, extending the rather scarce family of universal metrics known in the literature, we show that the Kerr-Schild–Kundt class of metrics are universal. Besides being interesting on their own, these metrics can provide consistent backgrounds for quantum field theory at extremely high energies.

  13. Turbine Siting Metrics for Simulated Tidal Flow in a Double-Silled Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyng, K. M.; Kawase, M.; Riley, J. J.; Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    2010-12-01

    An important component of site and resource characterization for marine renewable energy projects is to identify areas with large potential resource but also with easy extractability of the available resource for commercial develop- ment. Metrics that characterize potential resource include mean kinetic power density and speed over a tidal cycle, while important metrics for extractability include measures of the bidirectionality of the tidal flow (asymmetry, directional deviation, and power bias of ebb versus flood tide) as well as percentage of time spent by the device producing power at the particular site. This study examines the character of a tidal flow over an idealized two- dimensional (x-z) double sill in a rectangular channel in terms of these resource characterization metrics. This domain is meant to capture the bulk features of Admiralty Inlet, the main entrance to the Puget Sound, a fjord-like estuary in western Washington State. Admiralty Inlet is an area of interest for build- ing a commercial-scale tidal turbine array, and is currently the location of two potential pilot-scale tidal hydrokinetic projects. Initial results point to the speed up of the incoming flow due to the shallowest sill as an area of strong resource. The presence of the deeper sill affects the character of this strong resource in a way that the metrics can help quantify in terms of extractability of the resource and vertical structure. Together, these metrics will give a clear understanding of the tidal turbine siting characteristics of the domain. In the case of the idealized double sill simulation, the mean speed is increased by a factor of more than 2 over the mean incoming speed at the entrance of the channel due to the shallower, more prominent sill, while the deeper sill sees a multiplication factor of close to 1.5. This is a modest increase in mean speed, but translates to a multiplication factor of over 8 from the nominal far field value near the shallow sill in the mean

  14. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  15. Thermodynamic Metrics and Optimal Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Sivak, David; Crooks, Gavin

    2012-05-08

    A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.

  16. The flexibility of optical metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittencourt, Eduardo; Pereira, Jonas P.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.

    2016-08-01

    We firstly revisit the importance, naturalness and limitations of the so-called optical metrics for describing the propagation of light rays in the limit of geometric optics. We then exemplify their flexibility and nontriviality in some nonlinear material media and in the context of nonlinear theories of the electromagnetism, both in the presence of curved backgrounds, where optical metrics could be flat and inaccessible regions for the propagation of photons could be conceived, respectively. Finally, we underline and discuss the relevance and potential applications of our analyses in a broad sense, ranging from material media to compact astrophysical systems.

  17. Separable metrics and radiating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abebe, G. Z.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    We study the junction condition relating the pressure to heat flux at the boundary of an accelerating and expanding spherically symmetric radiating star. We transform the junction condition to an ordinary differential equation by making a separability assumption on the metric functions in the space-time variables. The condition of separability on the metric functions yields several new exact solutions. A class of shear-free models is found which contains a linear equation of state and generalizes a previously obtained model. Four new shearing models are obtained; all the gravitational potentials can be written explicitly. A brief physical analysis indicates that the matter variables are well behaved.

  18. Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Centers: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Paul; Ganguly, Srirupa; Greenberg, Steve; Sartor, Dale

    2009-07-13

    This guide describes energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks that can be used to track the performance of and identify potential opportunities to reduce energy use in data centers. This guide is primarily intended for personnel who have responsibility for managing energy use in existing data centers - including facilities managers, energy managers, and their engineering consultants. Additionally, data center designers may also use the metrics and benchmarks described in this guide for goal-setting in new construction or major renovation. This guide provides the following information: (1) A step-by-step outline of the benchmarking process. (2) A set of performance metrics for the whole building as well as individual systems. For each metric, the guide provides a definition, performance benchmarks, and potential actions that can be inferred from evaluating this metric. (3) A list and descriptions of the data required for computing the metrics. This guide is complemented by spreadsheet templates for data collection and for computing the benchmarking metrics. This guide builds on prior data center benchmarking studies supported by the California Energy Commission. Much of the benchmarking data are drawn from the LBNL data center benchmarking database that was developed from these studies. Additional benchmark data were obtained from engineering experts including facility designers and energy managers. This guide also builds on recent research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Save Energy Now program.

  19. Suspended sediment delivery to Puget Sound from the lower Nisqually River, western Washington, July 2010–November 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Christopher A.; Grossman, Eric E.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Foreman, James R.

    2016-05-26

    On average, the Nisqually River delivers about 100,000 metric tons per year (t/yr) of suspended sediment to Puget Sound, western Washington, a small proportion of the estimated 1,200,000 metric tons (t) of sediment reported to flow in the upper Nisqually River that drains the glaciated, recurrently active Mount Rainier stratovolcano. Most of the upper Nisqually River sediment load is trapped in Alder Lake, a reservoir completed in 1945. For water year 2011 (October 1, 2010‒September 30, 2011), daily sediment and continuous turbidity data were used to determine that 106,000 t of suspended sediment were delivered to Puget Sound, and 36 percent of this load occurred in 2 days during a typical winter storm. Of the total suspended-sediment load delivered to Puget Sound in the water year 2011, 47 percent was sand (particle size >0.063 millimeters), and the remainder (53 percent) was silt and clay. A sediment-transport curve developed from suspended-sediment samples collected from July 2010 to November 2011 agreed closely with a curve derived in 1973 using similar data-collection methods, indicating that similar sediment-transport conditions exist. The median annual suspended-sediment load of 73,000 t (water years 1980–2014) is substantially less than the average load, and the correlation (Pearson’s r = 0.80, p = 8.1E-9, n=35) between annual maximum 2-day sediment loads and normalized peak discharges for the period indicates the importance of wet years and associated peak discharges of the lower Nisqually River for sediment delivery to Puget Sound. The magnitude of peak discharges in the lower Nisqually River generally is suppressed by flow regulation, and relative to other free-flowing, glacier-influenced rivers entering Puget Sound, the Nisqually River delivers proportionally less sediment because of upstream sediment trapping from dams.

  20. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  1. Sounds Clear Enough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Alan

    2004-01-01

    I'm a vice president at Line6, where we produce electronics for musical instruments. My company recently developed a guitar that can be programmed to sound like twenty-five different classic guitars - everything from a 1928 National 'Tricone' to a 1970 Martin. It is quite an amazing piece of technology. The guitar started as a research project because we needed to know if the technology was going to be viable and if the guitar design was going to be practical. I've been in this business for about twenty years now, and I still enjoy starting up projects whenever the opportunity presents itself. During the research phase, I headed up the project myself. Once we completed our preliminary research and made the decision to move into development, that's when I handed the project off - and that's where this story really begins.

  2. Science and Technology Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Encephalopathic Diseases ," Scientist, Vol. 10, No. 12, p. 13. Ender, MG. 2001. Authorship and affiliation in Armed Forces & Society: Volumes 1-25...Volume 36, Number 3, 1980 Hinze, S. 1999. Collaboration and cross-disciplinarity in autoimmune diseases . SCIENTOMETRICS 46 (3): 457-471. Hinze, S. 2003...sporadic Parkinson disease . NEUROLOGY 62 (12): 2198-2202. Huang, Z; Chen, HC; Chen, ZK; Roco, MC. 2004. International nanotechnology development in 2003

  3. Wide-Screen Cinema and Stereophonic Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysotsky, Michael Z.

    Developments in the techniques of wide screen cinema and stereophonic sound throughout the world are detailed in this book. Particular attention is paid to progress in the Soviet Union in these fields. Special emphasis is placed on the Soviet view of stereophonic sound as a vital adjunct in the search for enchanced realism as opposed to the…

  4. Waves and Sound, An Experiment that Walks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunschwig, Fernand

    An experiment on sound waves, developed for non-science majors in a college physics course, is described. The student investigates the interference of two sound waves and measures and wavelength as he uses a prerecorded tape and a cassette player. The student is tutored by the cassette tape recorder, which also produces the overlapping sound…

  5. Sound Localization in the Alligator

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and mammalian ancestors. In the archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) the presence of air spaces in the skull provided connections between the ears that have been exploited to improve directional hearing, while neural circuits mediating sound localization are well developed. In this review, we will focus primarily on directional hearing in crocodilians, where vocalization and sound localization are thought to be ecologically important, and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution. PMID:26048335

  6. Sound localization in the alligator.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Hilary S; Carr, Catherine E

    2015-11-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and mammalian ancestors. In the archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) the presence of air spaces in the skull provided connections between the ears that have been exploited to improve directional hearing, while neural circuits mediating sound localization are well developed. In this review, we will focus primarily on directional hearing in crocodilians, where vocalization and sound localization are thought to be ecologically important, and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution.

  7. Bergman kernel, balanced metrics and black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevtsov, Semyon

    In this thesis we explore the connections between the Kahler geometry and Landau levels on compact manifolds. We rederive the expansion of the Bergman kernel on Kahler manifolds developed by Tian, Yau, Zelditch, Lu and Catlin, using path integral and perturbation theory. The physics interpretation of this result is as an expansion of the projector of wavefunctions on the lowest Landau level, in the special case that the magnetic field is proportional to the Kahler form. This is a geometric expansion, somewhat similar to the DeWitt-Seeley-Gilkey short time expansion for the heat kernel, but in this case describing the long time limit, without depending on supersymmetry. We also generalize this expansion to supersymmetric quantum mechanics and more general magnetic fields, and explore its applications. These include the quantum Hall effect in curved space, the balanced metrics and Kahler gravity. In particular, we conjecture that for a probe in a BPS black hole in type II strings compactified on Calabi-Yau manifolds, the moduli space metric is the balanced metric.

  8. R&D100: Lightweight Distributed Metric Service

    ScienceCinema

    Gentile, Ann; Brandt, Jim; Tucker, Tom; Showerman, Mike

    2016-10-19

    On today's High Performance Computing platforms, the complexity of applications and configurations makes efficient use of resources difficult. The Lightweight Distributed Metric Service (LDMS) is monitoring software developed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide detailed metrics of system performance. LDMS provides collection, transport, and storage of data from extreme-scale systems at fidelities and timescales to provide understanding of application and system performance with no statistically significant impact on application performance.

  9. R&D100: Lightweight Distributed Metric Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, Ann; Brandt, Jim; Tucker, Tom; Showerman, Mike

    2015-11-19

    On today's High Performance Computing platforms, the complexity of applications and configurations makes efficient use of resources difficult. The Lightweight Distributed Metric Service (LDMS) is monitoring software developed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide detailed metrics of system performance. LDMS provides collection, transport, and storage of data from extreme-scale systems at fidelities and timescales to provide understanding of application and system performance with no statistically significant impact on application performance.

  10. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  11. Metrication and the Technical Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Michael

    1975-01-01

    The conclusion of the two-part feature on the S1 metric (International System of Units) reviews the basics and some of the rules technical teachers need to know in order to prepare their students for the changing world. (Author)

  12. Powerful Metrics: Strategic and Transformative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    To be a valuable partner at the strategic level, human resources can and should contribute to both institutional effectiveness measurement and workforce metrics. In this article, the author examines how to link HR initiatives with key institutional strategies, clarifies essential HR responsibilities for workforce results, explores return on human…

  13. Metrics in Education - Resource Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This publication contains materials suitable for reproduction as transparencies or as classroom handouts. These metric materials may be used in a variety of occupational and practical arts courses. The format of the materials is in large print, some with humorous drawing; details of drawings and charts are easy to read. Introductory pages deal…

  14. Metric-Free Distributional Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haertel, Edward H.; And Others

    Two methods are presented for comparing distributions, such as achievement test score distributions, for distinctly different groups of persons in such a way that the comparison will not be influenced by the particular metric of the test being used. Both methods use percentile scores. One method, attributed to Flanagan, fits a straight line to the…

  15. Improving an Imperfect Metric System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, E. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    Suggests some improvements and additional units necessary for the International Metric System to expand its use to all measureable entities and defined quantities, especially in the measurement of time and angles. Included are tables of proposed unit systems in contrast with the presently available systems. (CC)

  16. Metric Measurement: Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection is comprised of 63 objectives and corresponding sample test items for evaluation of students in grades K-8. Correct answers or criteria for judging the adequacy of student responses are provided. Major categories in the collection are: (1) preparing to use the metric system--decimal and fractional notation; (2) measurement--length,…

  17. Metric analysis and data validation across FORTRAN projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Selby, Richard W., Jr.; Phillips, Tsai-Yun

    1983-01-01

    The desire to predict the effort in developing or explaining the quality of software has led to the proposal of several metrics. As a step toward validating these metrics, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has analyzed the software science metrics, cyclomatic complexity, and various standard program measures for their relation to effort (including design through acceptance testing), development errors (both discrete and weighted according to the amount of time to locate and fix), and one another. The data investigated are collected from a project FORTRAN environment and examined across several projects at once, within individual projects and by reporting accuracy checks demonstrating the need to validate a database. When the data comes from individual programmers or certain validated projects, the metrics' correlations with actual effort seem to be strongest. For modules developed entirely by individual programmers, the validity ratios induce a statistically significant ordering of several of the metrics' correlations. When comparing the strongest correlations, neither software science's E metric cyclomatic complexity not source lines of code appears to relate convincingly better with effort than the others.

  18. A Validation of Object-Oriented Design Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel; Melo, Walcelio L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted at the University of Maryland in which we experimentally investigated the suite of Object-Oriented (00) design metrics introduced by [Chidamber and Kemerer, 1994]. In order to do this, we assessed these metrics as predictors of fault-prone classes. This study is complementary to [Lieand Henry, 1993] where the same suite of metrics had been used to assess frequencies of maintenance changes to classes. To perform our validation accurately, we collected data on the development of eight medium-sized information management systems based on identical requirements. All eight projects were developed using a sequential life cycle model, a well-known 00 analysis/design method and the C++ programming language. Based on experimental results, the advantages and drawbacks of these 00 metrics are discussed and suggestions for improvement are provided. Several of Chidamber and Kemerer's 00 metrics appear to be adequate to predict class fault-proneness during the early phases of the life-cycle. We also showed that they are, on our data set, better predictors than "traditional" code metrics, which can only be collected at a later phase of the software development processes.

  19. Ion heating, burnout of the high-frequency field, and ion sound generation under the development of a modulation instability of an intense Langmuir wave in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kirichok, A. V. Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2015-09-15

    The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.

  20. Ion heating, burnout of the high-frequency field, and ion sound generation under the development of a modulation instability of an intense Langmuir wave in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichok, A. V.; Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.

  1. NASA sounding rockets, 1958 - 1968: A historical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The development and use of sounding rockets is traced from the Wac Corporal through the present generation of rockets. The Goddard Space Flight Center Sounding Rocket Program is discussed, and the use of sounding rockets during the IGY and the 1960's is described. Advantages of sounding rockets are identified as their simplicity and payload simplicity, low costs, payload recoverability, geographic flexibility, and temporal flexibility. The disadvantages are restricted time of observation, localized coverage, and payload limitations. Descriptions of major sounding rockets, trends in vehicle usage, and a compendium of NASA sounding rocket firings are also included.

  2. Software metrics: The key to quality software on the NCC project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Patricia J.

    1993-01-01

    Network Control Center (NCC) Project metrics are captured during the implementation and testing phases of the NCCDS software development lifecycle. The metrics data collection and reporting function has interfaces with all elements of the NCC project. Close collaboration with all project elements has resulted in the development of a defined and repeatable set of metrics processes. The resulting data are used to plan and monitor release activities on a weekly basis. The use of graphical outputs facilitates the interpretation of progress and status. The successful application of metrics throughout the NCC project has been instrumental in the delivery of quality software. The use of metrics on the NCC Project supports the needs of the technical and managerial staff. This paper describes the project, the functions supported by metrics, the data that are collected and reported, how the data are used, and the improvements in the quality of deliverable software since the metrics processes and products have been in use.

  3. A methodology for evaluation and selection of nanoparticle manufacturing processes based on sustainability metrics.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Sasikumar; Sawhney, Rapinder; Li, Xueping

    2008-09-01

    A set of sustainability metrics, covering the economic, environmental and sociological dimensions of sustainability for evaluation of nanomanufacturing processes is developed. The metrics are divided into two categories namely industrial engineering metrics (process and safety metrics) and green chemistry metrics (environmental impact). The waste reduction algorithm (WAR) is used to determine the environmental impact of the processes and NAIADE (Novel Approach to Imprecise Assessment and Decision Environments) software is used for evaluation and decision analysis. The methodology is applied to three processes used for silica nanoparticle synthesis based on sol-gel and flame methods.

  4. Sounds like Team Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    trying to improve on what they've done before. Second, success in any endeavor stems from people who know how to interpret a composition to sound beautiful when played in a different style. For Knowledge Sharing to work, it must be adapted, reinterpreted, shaped and played with at the centers. In this regard, we've been blessed with another crazy, passionate, inspired artist named Claire Smith. Claire has turned Ames Research Center in California into APPL-west. She is so good and committed to what she does that I just refer people to her whenever they have questions about implementing project management development at the field level. Finally, any great effort requires talented people working behind the scenes, the people who formulate a business approach and know how to manage the money so that the music gets heard. I have known many brilliant and creative people with a ton of ideas that never take off due to an inability to work the business. Again, the Knowledge Sharing team has been fortunate to have competent and passionate people, specifically Tony Maturo and his procurement team at Goddard Space Flight Center, to make sure the process is in place to support the effort. This kind of support is every bit as crucial as the activity itself, and the efforts and creativity that go into successful procurement and contracting is a vital ingredient of this successful team.

  5. Analysis of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  6. Development of an immunization tracking system in a large health maintenance organization. Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, T.; Kanvik, S.; Seward, R.; Beeman, D.; Salazar, A.; Miller, Z.; Immanuel, V.; Thompson, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    We have successfully developed a mainframe system for tracking all immunizations administered to enrollees in a large HMO. This system will provide comprehensive immunization records on a population of over 350,000 patients. Data required by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 are locally entered into terminals, and records of immunization are stored in a database. Preliminary results show that data entry times are practical, but that improvement in data quality is needed. This immunization tracking system will be used for research, and as the foundation of an immunization reminder system under development. PMID:1807572

  7. Development of an electro-stethoscope system and design of an optimum filter based on tissue sound transmission for noninvasive early diagnosis of malfunction of an implanted mechanical total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Inoue, Taku; Hashimoto, Takuya; Saito, Itsuro; Abe, Yusuke; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Isoyama, Takashi; Imachi, Kou; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2004-02-01

    Early diagnosis of the malfunction of a mechanical artificial heart implanted in a patient who has been discharged from hospital is very important. We have developed an electro-stethoscope system that enables the malfunction of an artificial heart to be detected from the analysis of sound signals from the artificial heart. The sound data can be transmitted to a hospital via a mobile telephone or the Internet, so that doctors can examine the condition of the artificial heart. The optimum frequency characteristics of a low-pass filter for the elimination of ambient sound through the electro-stethoscope casing were obtained by simulating sound transmission through tissue. We evaluated the usefulness of the electro-stethoscope system using a goat in which an undulation pump total artificial heart had been implanted. A frequency analysis of the sound signal provided information on the degree of degradation of each mechanical component of the artificial heart. The results of this study showed that the electro-stethoscope system is useful for the early detection of the malfunction of an artificial heart at home, and that the use of the system contributes to improvement in the quality of life of patients.

  8. Semantic Metrics for Analysis of Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etzkorn, Letha H.; Cox, Glenn W.; Farrington, Phil; Utley, Dawn R.; Ghalston, Sampson; Stein, Cara

    2005-01-01

    A recently conceived suite of object-oriented software metrics focus is on semantic aspects of software, in contradistinction to traditional software metrics, which focus on syntactic aspects of software. Semantic metrics represent a more human-oriented view of software than do syntactic metrics. The semantic metrics of a given computer program are calculated by use of the output of a knowledge-based analysis of the program, and are substantially more representative of software quality and more readily comprehensible from a human perspective than are the syntactic metrics.

  9. Development of An Empirical Water Quality Model for Stormwater Based on Watershed Land Use in Puget Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-29

    were listed on the State of Washington’s 1998 303(d) because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and...organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination ...which lacked sufficient data for a contaminant mass balance calculation for the watershed. This paper summarizes the development of an

  10. FINAL REPORT OF FY 1999, 2000, AND 2001 ACTIVITIES: CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED SOUNDING SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE DOE/ARM EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Ed R. Westwater CIRES, University of Colorado /NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory 325 Broadway MS R/E/ET1 Boulder, Colorado 80305

    2002-04-30

    OAK B188 FINAL REPORT OF FY 1999, 2000, AND 2001 ACTIVITIES: CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED SOUNDING SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE DOE/ARM EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of atmospheric quantities relevant to radiative transfer and climate research. Primary among these atmospheric variables are integrated amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid, as well as profiles of temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid. A primary thrust of this research is to combine data from instruments available to ARM to maximize their importance in radiative transfer and climate research. To gather data relevant to these studies, participation in field experiments, especially intensive operating periods, as well as the subsequent analysis and dissemination of collected data, is of primary importance. Examples of relevant experiments include several Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods at the Southern Great Plains Cloud And Radiation Testbed site, experiments in the Tropical Western Pacific such as PROBE and Nauru'99, and experiments at the North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean site. This final report describes our analyses of data taken during these field experiments.

  11. Spatial Knowledge Acquisition from Direct Experience in the Environment: Individual Differences in the Development of Metric Knowledge and the Integration of Separately Learned Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Toru; Montello, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Existing frameworks for explaining spatial knowledge acquisition in a new environment propose either stage-like or continuous development. To examine the spatial microgenesis of individuals, a longitudinal study was conducted. Twenty-four college students were individually driven along two routes in a previously unfamiliar neighborhood over 10…

  12. Environmentally Sound Processing Technology: JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee and Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Joint Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Lorri A. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Topics covered include: Risk assessment of hazardous materials, Automated systems for pollution prevention and hazardous materials elimination, Study design for the toxicity evaluation of ammonium perchlorate, Plasma sprayed bondable stainless surface coatings, Development of CFC-free cleaning processes, New fluorinated solvent alternatives to ozone depleting solvents, Cleaning with highly fluorinated liquids, Biotreatment of propyleneglycol nitrate by anoxic denitrification, Treatment of hazardous waste with white rot fungus, Hydrothermal oxidation as an environmentally benign treatment technology, Treatment of solid propellant manufacturing wastes by base hydrolysis, Design considerations for cleaning using supercritical fluid technology, and Centrifugal shear carbon dioxide cleaning.

  13. Visible Contrast Energy Metrics for Detection and Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert; Watson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Contrast energy was proposed by Watson, Robson, & Barlow as a useful metric for representing luminance contrast target stimuli because it represents the detectability of the stimulus in photon noise for an ideal observer. Like the eye, the ear is a complex transducer system, but relatively simple sound level meters are used to characterize sounds. These meters provide a range of frequency sensitivity functions and integration times depending on the intended use. We propose here the use of a range of contrast energy measures with different spatial frequency contrast sensitivity weightings, eccentricity sensitivity weightings, and temporal integration times. When detection threshold are plotting using such measures, the results show what the eye sees best when these variables are taken into account in a standard way. The suggested weighting functions revise the Standard Spatial Observer for luminance contrast detection and extend it into the near periphery. Under the assumption that the detection is limited only by internal noise, discrimination performance can be predicted by metrics based on the visible energy of the difference images

  14. Development and validation of a combined phased acoustical radiosity and image source model for predicting sound fields in rooms.

    PubMed

    Marbjerg, Gerd; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Nilsson, Erling

    2015-09-01

    A model, combining acoustical radiosity and the image source method, including phase shifts on reflection, has been developed. The model is denoted Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Method (PARISM), and it has been developed in order to be able to model both specular and diffuse reflections with complex-valued and angle-dependent boundary conditions. This paper mainly describes the combination of the two models and the implementation of the angle-dependent boundary conditions. It furthermore describes how a pressure impulse response is obtained from the energy-based acoustical radiosity by regarding the model as being stochastic. Three methods of implementation are proposed and investigated, and finally, recommendations are made for their use. Validation of the image source method is done by comparison with finite element simulations of a rectangular room with a porous absorber ceiling. Results from the full model are compared with results from other simulation tools and with measurements. The comparisons of the full model are done for real-valued and angle-independent surface properties. The proposed model agrees well with both the measured results and the alternative theories, and furthermore shows a more realistic spatial variation than energy-based methods due to the fact that interference is considered.

  15. International stem cell tourism and the need for effective regulation. Part II: Developing sound oversight measures and effective patient support.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Cynthia B; Cohen, Peter J

    2010-09-01

    Part I of this article, published in the March 2010 issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, traces and addresses the provision of unproven stem cell treatments in Russia and India, examines the concept of innovative treatment, and concludes that stronger regulations are needed to protect the health and informed choices of patients. The current paper, Part II, proposes that the regulatory frameworks for the development of safe and efficacious treatments in effect in the United States and the United Kingdom provide examples of strong oversight measures from which countries seeking to obtain international credibility for their biotechnological competence could draw when developing regulations for stem cell treatments. Major sources of information available to persons who consider receiving such unproven treatments are explored in order to understand and address their concerns. The paper concludes with proposed measures to inform those considering the pursuit of unproven stem cell treatments abroad more accurately about their efficacy and safety and provide them with improved medical and social support in their home countries.

  16. Development of a reaction wheel attitude control system for sounding rocket experiments and small Shuttle-based free flyers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    A three-axis reaction wheel control system is currently under development. Initial emphasis is on a magnetic field reference, although the system is easily adaptable to other positional references, e.g., the gyroscopic. The system is housed in a skin section 17.25 inches in diameter and approximately 10 inches long. Current weight estimate is 75 pounds. An orthogonal triad of dc motors forms the basis of the system. Power is provided by silver-zinc cells and controlled by an 8-bit microprocessor. The control law is presented and the dynamical equations derived. Simulation results show that a payload with a roll MOI of 4.1 sl/sq ft and a transverse MOI of 20.3 sl/sq ft can typically be reoriented 90 degrees in 20-35 seconds, depending upon the initial body rates.

  17. Fuzzy polynucleotide spaces and metrics.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Juan J; Torres, A; Georgiou, D N; Karakasidis, T E

    2006-04-01

    The study of genetic sequences is of great importance in biology and medicine. Mathematics is playing an important role in the study of genetic sequences and, generally, in bioinformatics. In this paper, we extend the work concerning the Fuzzy Polynucleotide Space (FPS) introduced in Torres, A., Nieto, J.J., 2003. The fuzzy polynucleotide Space: Basic properties. Bioinformatics 19(5); 587-592 and Nieto, J.J., Torres, A., Vazquez-Trasande, M.M. 2003. A metric space to study differences between polynucleotides. Appl. Math. Lett. 27:1289-1294: by studying distances between nucleotides and some complete genomes using several metrics. We also present new results concerning the notions of similarity, difference and equality between polynucleotides. The results are encouraging since they demonstrate how the notions of distance and similarity between polynucleotides in the FPS can be employed in the analysis of genetic material.

  18. Measuring Sustainability: Deriving Metrics From Objectives (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The definition of 'sustain', to keep in existence, provides some insight into the metrics that are required to measure sustainability and adequately respond to assure sustainability. Keeping something in existence implies temporal and spatial contexts and requires metrics that g...

  19. Sustainability Metrics: The San Luis Basin Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about promoting humanly desirable dynamic regimes of the environment. Metrics: ecological footprint, net regional product, exergy, emergy, and Fisher Information. Adaptive management: (1) metrics assess problem, (2) specific problem identified, and (3) managemen...

  20. An Evaluation of Methods for Teaching Initial Sound Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Robin S.; Kamm, Marga R.

    The ability to analyze a word into its component sounds is prerequisite to a child's learning of letter-sound correspondences and therefore to his learning to read. As prereaders do not typically master the ability to analyze a work into its component sounds, techniques must be developed to teach them this skill. Most procedures which have been…

  1. Protecting against Noise Trauma by Sound Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NIU, X.; CANLON, B.

    2002-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that more than 12% of the world population is at risk for developing noise-induced hearing loss. At present, sound conditioning presents one means of reducing the deleterious effects of noise trauma. This phenomenon is now known to occur in a variety of mammals, including gerbils, chinchillas, guinea pigs, rabbits, rats, mice, and, of most importance, human subjects. A variety of sound conditioning paradigms have been proven successful in preventing morphological and physiological damage. Proposed mechanisms include the upregulation of endogenous antioxidants, the number of NMDA receptors, heat shock proteins, calcium buffering systems, and neurotrophic factors. Further studies are needed to understand the protective mechanisms afforded by sound conditioning. It is convincible that sound conditioning will benefit human subjects and provide a treatment for noise-induced hearing loss. The data presented in this review describe the current status and understanding of the phenomenon of sound conditioning.

  2. Science and Technology Transition Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    for Research", Science, Volume 277, 1 August 1997. Kostoff, R. N., "The Use and Misuse of Citation Analysis in Research Evaluation", Scientometrics ...The Metrics of Science and Technology”. Scientometrics . 50:2. 353-361. February 2001. Kostoff, R. N., and Schaller, R. R. "Science and...37. 604-606. September 2001. Kostoff, R. N. “Citation Analysis for Research Performer Quality”. Scientometrics . 53:1. 49-71. 2002. VII

  3. Marketing metrics for medical practices.

    PubMed

    Zahaluk, David; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    There's a saying by John Wanamaker who pontificated, "Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted; the trouble is, I don't know which half". Today you have opportunities to determine which parts of your marketing efforts are effective and what is wasted. However, you have to measure your marketing results. This article will discuss marketing metrics and how to use them to get the best bang for your marketing buck.

  4. Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cowlin, Shannon; Heimiller, Donna; Macknick, Jordan; Mann, Margaret; Pless, Jacquelyn; Munoz, David

    2014-12-01

    A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.

  5. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  6. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  7. Operational sounding algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The analytical equations used to interpret TIROS-N sounding radiances for operational applications are presented. Both the National Environmental Satellite System (NESS) Global Operational Synoptic Scale and the NESS/University of Wisconsin (UW) North American Mesoscale Sounding Production Systems are considered.

  8. Categorization of Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Roel; Sereno, Joan; Jongman, Allard

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 experiments to test the decision-bound, prototype, and distribution theories for the categorization of sounds. They used as stimuli sounds varying in either resonance frequency or duration. They created different experimental conditions by varying the variance and overlap of 2 stimulus distributions used in a training phase…

  9. Use of sounding out to improve spelling in young children.

    PubMed

    Mann, Tracie B; Bushell, Don; Morris, Edward K

    2010-03-01

    We examined the effects of teaching 5 typically developing elementary students to sound out their spelling words while writing them using the cover-copy-compare (CCC) method to practice spelling. Each student's posttest performance following practice with sounding out was compared to that student's posttest performance following practice with no sounding out. For every student, posttest accuracy was higher following practice with sounding out, indicating that it is an effective and easily implemented strategy to improve spelling instruction.

  10. Finite Element Development and Specifications of a Patched, Recessed Nomex Core Honeycomb Panel for Increased Sound Transmission Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2007-01-01

    This informal report summarizes the development and the design specifications of a recessed nomex core honeycomb panel in fulfillment of the deliverable in Task Order 13RBE, Revision 10, Subtask 17. The honeycomb panel, with 0.020-inch thick aluminum face sheets, has 0.016-inch thick aluminum patches applied to twenty-five, 6 by 6 inch, quarter inch thick recessed cores. A 10 dB higher transmission loss over the frequency range 250 - 1000 Hz was predicted by a MSC/NASTRAN finite element model when compared with the transmission loss of the base nomex core honeycomb panel. The static displacement, due to a unit force applied at either the core or recessed core area, was of the same order of magnitude as the static displacement of the base honeycomb panel when exposed to the same unit force. The mass of the new honeycomb design is 5.1% more than the base honeycomb panel. A physical model was constructed and is being tested.

  11. Visual metrics: discriminative power through flexibility.

    PubMed

    Janssen, T J; Blommaert, F J

    2000-01-01

    An important stage in visual processing is the quantification of optical attributes of the outside world. We argue that the metrics used for this quantification are flexible, and that this flexibility is exploited to optimise the discriminative power of the metrics. We derive mathematical expressions for such optimal metrics and show that they exhibit properties resembling well-known visual phenomena. To conclude, we discuss some of the implications of flexible metrics for visual identification.

  12. A study of heart sound and lung sound separation by independent component analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jen-Chien; Huang, Ming-Chuan; Lin, Yue-Der; Chong, Fok-ching

    2006-01-01

    In the hospital, using percussion and auscultation are the most common ways for physical examination. Recently, in order to develop tele-medicine and home care system and to assist physician getting better auscultation results; electric stethoscope and computer analysis have become an inevitable trend. However, two important physical signals heart sound and lung sound recorded from chest overlap on spectrum chart. Therefore, in order to reduce human factor (ex. misplace or untrained of using) and minimize correlated effect in computer analysis; it's necessary for separated heart sound and lung sound. Independent component analysis can divide these sounds efficiency. In this paper, we use two microphones to collect signals from left and right chest. We have successfully divide heart and lung sounds by fast ICA algorithm. Therefore, it can assist physician examine and also using on tele-medicine and home care by this way.

  13. Measures of agreement between computation and experiment:validation metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Oberkampf, William Louis

    2005-08-01

    With the increasing role of computational modeling in engineering design, performance estimation, and safety assessment, improved methods are needed for comparing computational results and experimental measurements. Traditional methods of graphically comparing computational and experimental results, though valuable, are essentially qualitative. Computable measures are needed that can quantitatively compare computational and experimental results over a range of input, or control, variables and sharpen assessment of computational accuracy. This type of measure has been recently referred to as a validation metric. We discuss various features that we believe should be incorporated in a validation metric and also features that should be excluded. We develop a new validation metric that is based on the statistical concept of confidence intervals. Using this fundamental concept, we construct two specific metrics: one that requires interpolation of experimental data and one that requires regression (curve fitting) of experimental data. We apply the metrics to three example problems: thermal decomposition of a polyurethane foam, a turbulent buoyant plume of helium, and compressibility effects on the growth rate of a turbulent free-shear layer. We discuss how the present metrics are easily interpretable for assessing computational model accuracy, as well as the impact of experimental measurement uncertainty on the accuracy assessment.

  14. The Development of a Plan for the Assessment, Improvement and Deployment of a Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) for Wake Vortex Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.; Boluriaan, Said

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the activities completed under a grant from the NASA Langley Research Center to develop a plan for the assessment, improvement, and deployment of a Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) for the detection of wake vortices. A brief review is provided of existing alternative instruments for wake vortex detection. This is followed by a review of previous implementations and assessment of a RASS. As a result of this review, it is concluded that the basic features of a RASS have several advantages over other commonly used wake vortex detection and measurement systems. Most important of these features are the good fidelity of the measurements and the potential for all weather operation. To realize the full potential of this remote sensing instrument, a plan for the development of a RASS designed specifically for wake vortex detection and measurement has been prepared. To keep costs to a minimum, this program would start with the development an inexpensive laboratory-scale version of a RASS system. The new instrument would be developed in several stages, each allowing for a critical assessment of the instrument s potential and limitations. The instrument, in its initial stages of development, would be tested in a controlled laboratory environment. A jet vortex simulator, a prototype version of which has already been fabricated, would be interrogated by the RASS system. The details of the laboratory vortex would be measured using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. In the early development stages, the scattered radar signal would be digitized and the signal post-processed to determine how extensively and accurately the RASS could measure properties of the wake vortex. If the initial tests prove to be successful, a real-time, digital signal processing system would be developed as a component of the RASS system. At each stage of the instrument development and testing, the implications of the scaling required for a full-scale instrument would be

  15. A literature-based similarity metric for biological processes

    PubMed Central

    Chagoyen, Monica; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Gil, Concha; Carazo, Jose M; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent analyses in systems biology pursue the discovery of functional modules within the cell. Recognition of such modules requires the integrative analysis of genome-wide experimental data together with available functional schemes. In this line, methods to bridge the gap between the abstract definitions of cellular processes in current schemes and the interlinked nature of biological networks are required. Results This work explores the use of the scientific literature to establish potential relationships among cellular processes. To this end we haveused a document based similarity method to compute pair-wise similarities of the biological processes described in the Gene Ontology (GO). The method has been applied to the biological processes annotated for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We compared our results with similarities obtained with two ontology-based metrics, as well as with gene product annotation relationships. We show that the literature-based metric conserves most direct ontological relationships, while reveals biologically sounded similarities that are not obtained using ontology-based metrics and/or genome annotation. Conclusion The scientific literature is a valuable source of information from which to compute similarities among biological processes. The associations discovered by literature analysis are a valuable complement to those encoded in existing functional schemes, and those that arise by genome annotation. These similarities can be used to conveniently map the interlinked structure of cellular processes in a particular organism. PMID:16872502

  16. Mississippi Sound remote sensing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are being developed to study near shore marine waters in the Mississippi Sound. Specific elements of the investigation include: (1) evaluation of existing techniques and instrument capabilities for remote measurement of parameters which characterize near shore water; (2) integration of these parameters into a system which will make possible the definition of circulation characteristics; (3) conduct of applications experiments; and (4) definition of hardware development requirements and/or system specifications. Efforts have emphasized: (1) development of a satisfactory system of gathering ground truth over the entire area of Mississippi Sound to aid in evaluating remotely sensed data; (2) conduct of two data acquisition experiments; (3) analysis of individual sensor data from completed flights; and (4) pursuit of methods which will allow interrelations between data from individual sensors in order to add another dimension to the study.

  17. Development of a practical ultrasonic approach for simultaneous measurement of the thickness and the sound speed in human skull bones: a laboratory phantom study.

    PubMed

    Wydra, A; Malyarenko, E; Shapoori, K; Maev, R Gr

    2013-02-21

    The availability of a non-invasive express method for the in vivo measurement of both sound velocity and thickness of the human skull bone would be of great benefit to various transcranial ultrasonic imaging and treatment applications. This paper investigates two ultrasonic methods that measure both parameters and are based on the variable focus technique. All the experiments described in this paper were conducted on specially prepared custom skull bone phantoms, including flat and deformed samples, designed and developed in our laboratory. The first method uses a single immersion 2.25 MHz ultrasonic transducer consecutively focused on the front and back surfaces of the sample. The accuracy and precision of this method are demonstrated via single point measurements on flat samples with and without porosity. The measurement results from a specimen with the randomly curved back surface show the possibility of obtaining the inner profile of the skull bone. The second presented method is a practical modification of the variable focus technique for the linear phased array case. The method was tested on flat and curved skull bone phantoms with and without inner porosity showing higher measurement accuracy and simpler practical realization than its scanning counterpart.

  18. Metrics for Evaluation of Student Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelanek, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Researchers use many different metrics for evaluation of performance of student models. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of commonly used metrics, to discuss properties, advantages, and disadvantages of different metrics, to summarize current practice in educational data mining, and to provide guidance for evaluation of student…

  19. Quasi-Einstein metrics on hypersurface families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Stuart James

    2013-02-01

    We construct quasi-Einstein metrics on some hypersurface families. The hypersurfaces are circle bundles over the product of Fano, Kähler-Einstein manifolds. The quasi-Einstein metrics are related to various gradient Kähler-Ricci solitons constructed by Dancer and Wang and some Hermitian, non-Kähler, Einstein metrics constructed by Wang and Wang on the same manifolds.

  20. Patient Perspectives in OMERACT Provide an Anchor for Future Metric Development and Improved Approaches to Healthcare Delivery in Connective Tissue Disease Related Interstitial Lung Disease (CTD-ILD)

    PubMed Central

    Mittoo, Shikha; Frankel, Sid; LeSage, Daphne; Strand, Vibeke; Shah, Ami A.; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Danoff, Sonye; Hummers, Laura K.; Swigris, Jeffery J.; Huscher, Dörte; Christensen, Angela M.; Cenac, Sophia L.; Erbil, Jen K.; Ferguson, Sancia; Garcia-Valladares, Ignacio; Grewal, Harmanjot K.; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Tran, Maithy; Bingham, Clifton O.; Castelino, Flavia V.; Fischer, Aryeh; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2015-01-01

    Objective The impact and natural history of connective tissue disease related interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) are poorly understood; and have not been previously described from the patient’s perspective. This investigation sought insight into CTD-ILD from the patients’ perspective to add to our knowledge of CTD-ILD, identify disease-specific areas of unmet need and gather potentially meaningful information towards development of disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Methods A mixed methods design incorporating patient focus groups (FGs) querying disease progression and life impact followed by questionnaires with items of importance generated by >250 ILD specialists were implemented among CTD-ILD patients with rheumatoid arthritis, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, systemic sclerosis, and other CTD subtypes. FG data were analyzed through inductive analysis with five independent analysts, including a patient research partner. Questionnaires were analyzed through Fisher’s Exact tests and hierarchal cluster analysis. Results Six multicenter FGs included 45 patients. Biophysiologic themes were cough and dyspnea, both pervasively impacting health related quality of life (HRQoL). Language indicating dyspnea was unexpected, unique and contextual. Psycho-social themes were Living with Uncertainty, Struggle over Self-Identity, and Self-Efficacy - with education and clinician communication strongly emphasised. All questionnaire items were rated ‘moderately’ to ‘extremely’ important with 10 items of highest importance identified by cluster analysis. Conclusion Patients with CTD-ILD informed our understanding of symptoms and impact on HRQoL. Cough and dyspnea are central to the CTD-ILD experience. Initial FGs have provided disease-specific content, context and language essential for reliable PROM development with questionnaires adding value in recognition of patients’ concerns. PMID:26568747

  1. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts

  2. Assessment of Kinematic Brain Injury Metrics for Predicting Strain Responses in Diverse Automotive Impact Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Lee F; Crandall, Jeff R; Panzer, Matthew B

    2016-12-01

    Numerous injury criteria have been developed to predict brain injury using the kinematic response of the head during impact. Each criterion utilizes a metric that is some mathematical combination of the velocity and/or acceleration components of translational and/or rotational head motion. Early metrics were based on linear acceleration of the head, but recent injury criteria have shifted towards rotational-based metrics. Currently, there is no universally accepted metric that is suitable for a diverse range of head impacts. In this study, we assessed the capability of fifteen existing kinematic-based metrics for predicting strain-based brain response using four different automotive impact conditions. Tissue-level strains were obtained through finite element model simulation of 660 head impacts including occupant and pedestrian crash tests, and pendulum head impacts. Correlations between head kinematic metrics and predicted brain strain-based metrics were evaluated. Correlations between brain strain and metrics based on angular velocity were highest among those evaluated, while metrics based on linear acceleration were least correlative. BrIC and RVCI were the kinematic metrics with the highest overall correlation; however, each metric had limitations in certain impact conditions. The results of this study suggest that rotational head kinematics are the most important parameters for brain injury criteria.

  3. Metric conversion: Future progress depends upon private sector and public support. Report to Congressional requesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    In reviewing federal metric conversion (metrication) activities, the General Accounting Office (GAO) evaluated federal agency activities in (1) establishing metric guidelines and preparing reports on the transition, (2) using the metric system in procurements, (3) using the metric system in grants and other business activities, and (4) dealing with private sector and public attitudes toward conversion. Since 1990, federal preparations for metric conversion have advanced dramatically, with more than 30 agencies having developed some combination of guidelines, transition plans, and progress reports that indicate a substantially greater commitment to metrication. However, they are still facing serious difficulties in putting their plans into practice. These difficulties include a procurement environment in which most products are nonmetric and in which federal agencies represent too small a share of the total market to stimulate private sector conversion. Mixed progress has been made toward metric conversion in the areas of federal grants and other business activities. Grants for research require the use of the metric system, but such a commitment has not been made for grants in other areas, such as housing and education. Agencies that undertake other business-related activities, such as federal programs involving farmers or highway signs, are concerned about private sector and public resistance to conversion. Now that most agencies have made significant progress in preparing for metric conversion, a broader national dialogue between the government, the private sector, and the public is needed to discuss the next steps in decision-making about metric conversion.

  4. Beat Processing Is Pre-Attentive for Metrically Simple Rhythms with Clear Accents: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Bouwer, Fleur L.; Van Zuijen, Titia L.; Honing, Henkjan

    2014-01-01

    The perception of a regular beat is fundamental to music processing. Here we examine whether the detection of a regular beat is pre-attentive for metrically simple, acoustically varying stimuli using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an ERP response elicited by violations of acoustic regularity irrespective of whether subjects are attending to the stimuli. Both musicians and non-musicians were presented with a varying rhythm with a clear accent structure in which occasionally a sound was omitted. We compared the MMN response to the omission of identical sounds in different metrical positions. Most importantly, we found that omissions in strong metrical positions, on the beat, elicited higher amplitude MMN responses than omissions in weak metrical positions, not on the beat. This suggests that the detection of a beat is pre-attentive when highly beat inducing stimuli are used. No effects of musical expertise were found. Our results suggest that for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents beat processing does not require attention or musical expertise. In addition, we discuss how the use of acoustically varying stimuli may influence ERP results when studying beat processing. PMID:24870123

  5. Hybrid metric-Palatini stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilǎ, Bogdan; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mak, M. K.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the internal structure and the physical properties of specific classes of neutron, quark and Bose-Einstein condensate stars in the recently proposed hybrid metric-Palatini gravity theory, which is a combination of the metric and Palatini f (R ) formalisms. It turns out that the theory is very successful in accounting for the observed phenomenology, since it unifies local constraints at the Solar System level and the late-time cosmic acceleration, even if the scalar field is very light. In this paper, we derive the equilibrium equations for a spherically symmetric configuration (mass continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) in the framework of the scalar-tensor representation of the hybrid metric-Palatini theory, and we investigate their solutions numerically for different equations of state of neutron and quark matter, by adopting for the scalar field potential a Higgs-type form. It turns out that the scalar-tensor definition of the potential can be represented as an Clairaut differential equation, and provides an explicit form for f (R ) given by f (R )˜R +Λeff, where Λeff is an effective cosmological constant. Furthermore, stellar models, described by the stiff fluid, radiation-like, bag model and the Bose-Einstein condensate equations of state are explicitly constructed in both general relativity and hybrid metric-Palatini gravity, thus allowing an in-depth comparison between the predictions of these two gravitational theories. As a general result it turns out that for all the considered equations of state, hybrid gravity stars are more massive than their general relativistic counterparts. Furthermore, two classes of stellar models corresponding to two particular choices of the functional form of the scalar field (constant value, and logarithmic form, respectively) are also investigated. Interestingly enough, in the case of a constant scalar field the equation of state of the matter takes the form of the bag model equation of state describing

  6. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors

    PubMed Central

    Spalding, Richard; Tencer, John; Sweatt, William; Conley, Benjamin; Hogan, Roy; Boslough, Mark; Gonzales, GiGi; Spurný, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with −11 to −13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally. Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that −12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. The photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs. PMID:28145486

  7. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Richard; Tencer, John; Sweatt, William; Conley, Benjamin; Hogan, Roy; Boslough, Mark; Gonzales, Gigi; Spurný, Pavel

    2017-02-01

    Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with ‑11 to ‑13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally. Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that ‑12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. The photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs.

  8. Photoacoustic sounds from meteors

    DOE PAGES

    Spalding, Richard; Tencer, John; Sweatt, William; ...

    2017-02-01

    Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with –11 to –13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally.more » Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that –12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. As a result, the photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs.« less

  9. Sound wave propagation through glow discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepaniuk, Vadim P.

    This work investigates the use of glow discharge plasma for acoustic wave manipulation. The broader goal is the suppression of aerodynamic noise using atmospheric glow discharge plasma as a sound barrier. Part of the effort was devoted to the development of a system for the generation of a large volume stable DC glow discharge in air both at atmospheric and at reduced pressures. The single tone sound wave propagation through the plasma was systematically studied. Attenuation of the acoustic wave passing through the glow discharge was measured for a range of experimental conditions including different discharge currents, electrode configurations, air pressures and sound frequencies including audible sound and ultrasound. Sound attenuation by glow discharge plasma as high as -28 dB was recorded in the experiments. Two types of possible mechanisms were considered that can potentially cause the observed sound attenuation. One is a global mechanism and the other is a local mechanism. The global mechanism considered is based on the reflection and refraction of acoustic wave due to the gas temperature gradients that form around the plasma. The local mechanism, on the other hand, is essentially the interaction of the acoustic wave with the plasma as it propagates inside the discharge and it can be viewed as a feedback system. Detailed temperature measurements, using laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique, were carried out in the glow discharge plasma in order to evaluate the role of global mechanism in the observed attenuation. These measurements were made for a range of conditions in the atmospheric glow discharge. Theoretical analysis of the sound attenuation was carried out to identify the physical mechanism for the observed sound attenuation by plasma. It was demonstrated that the global mechanism is the dominant mechanism of sound attenuation. As a result of this study, the potentials and limitations of the plasma noise suppression technology were determined and

  10. Sound as artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Jeffrey L.

    A distinguishing feature of the discipline of archaeology is its reliance upon sensory dependant investigation. As perceived by all of the senses, the felt environment is a unique area of archaeological knowledge. It is generally accepted that the emergence of industrial processes in the recent past has been accompanied by unprecedented sonic extremes. The work of environmental historians has provided ample evidence that the introduction of much of this unwanted sound, or "noise" was an area of contestation. More recent research in the history of sound has called for more nuanced distinctions than the noisy/quiet dichotomy. Acoustic archaeology tends to focus upon a reconstruction of sound producing instruments and spaces with a primary goal of ascertaining intentionality. Most archaeoacoustic research is focused on learning more about the sonic world of people within prehistoric timeframes while some research has been done on historic sites. In this thesis, by way of a meditation on industrial sound and the physical remains of the Quincy Mining Company blacksmith shop (Hancock, MI) in particular, I argue for an acceptance and inclusion of sound as artifact in and of itself. I am introducing the concept of an individual sound-form, or sonifact , as a reproducible, repeatable, representable physical entity, created by tangible, perhaps even visible, host-artifacts. A sonifact is a sound that endures through time, with negligible variability. Through the piecing together of historical and archaeological evidence, in this thesis I present a plausible sonifactual assemblage at the blacksmith shop in April 1916 as it may have been experienced by an individual traversing the vicinity on foot: an 'historic soundwalk.' The sensory apprehension of abandoned industrial sites is multi-faceted. In this thesis I hope to make the case for an acceptance of sound as a primary heritage value when thinking about the industrial past, and also for an increased awareness and acceptance

  11. Sounding the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    Sounding the Sun Antony Fraser-Smith STAR Laboratory Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 phone: (650) 723-3684 fax: (650) 723-9251 email...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sounding the Sun 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...systems. The objective of our “Sounding the sun ” experiment is to detect earth-directed CME’s by using existing earth-based HF (3- 30 MHz) radar systems

  12. A new distribution metric for image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Romeil; Georgiou, Tryphon; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new distribution metric for image segmentation that arises as a result in prediction theory. Forming a natural geodesic, our metric quantifies "distance" for two density functionals as the standard deviation of the difference between logarithms of those distributions. Using level set methods, we incorporate an energy model based on the metric into the Geometric Active Contour framework. Moreover, we briefly provide a theoretical comparison between the popular Fisher Information metric, from which the Bhattacharyya distance originates, with the newly proposed similarity metric. In doing so, we demonstrate that segmentation results are directly impacted by the type of metric used. Specifically, we qualitatively compare the Bhattacharyya distance and our algorithm on the Kaposi Sarcoma, a pathology that infects the skin. We also demonstrate the algorithm on several challenging medical images, which further ensure the viability of the metric in the context of image segmentation.

  13. Texture metric that predicts target detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culpepper, Joanne B.

    2015-12-01

    Two texture metrics based on gray level co-occurrence error (GLCE) are used to predict probability of detection and mean search time. The two texture metrics are local clutter metrics and are based on the statistics of GLCE probability distributions. The degree of correlation between various clutter metrics and the target detection performance of the nine military vehicles in complex natural scenes found in the Search_2 dataset are presented. Comparison is also made between four other common clutter metrics found in the literature: root sum of squares, Doyle, statistical variance, and target structure similarity. The experimental results show that the GLCE energy metric is a better predictor of target detection performance when searching for targets in natural scenes than the other clutter metrics studied.

  14. SoundCompass: A Distributed MEMS Microphone Array-Based Sensor for Sound Source Localization

    PubMed Central

    Tiete, Jelmer; Domínguez, Federico; da Silva, Bruno; Segers, Laurent; Steenhaut, Kris; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization is a well-researched subject with applications ranging from localizing sniper fire in urban battlefields to cataloging wildlife in rural areas. One critical application is the localization of noise pollution sources in urban environments, due to an increasing body of evidence linking noise pollution to adverse effects on human health. Current noise mapping techniques often fail to accurately identify noise pollution sources, because they rely on the interpolation of a limited number of scattered sound sensors. Aiming to produce accurate noise pollution maps, we developed the SoundCompass, a low-cost sound sensor capable of measuring local noise levels and sound field directionality. Our first prototype is composed of a sensor array of 52 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microphones, an inertial measuring unit and a low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA). This article presents the SoundCompass’s hardware and firmware design together with a data fusion technique that exploits the sensing capabilities of the SoundCompass in a wireless sensor network to localize noise pollution sources. Live tests produced a sound source localization accuracy of a few centimeters in a 25-m2 anechoic chamber, while simulation results accurately located up to five broadband sound sources in a 10,000-m2 open field. PMID:24463431

  15. SoundCompass: a distributed MEMS microphone array-based sensor for sound source localization.

    PubMed

    Tiete, Jelmer; Domínguez, Federico; da Silva, Bruno; Segers, Laurent; Steenhaut, Kris; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2014-01-23

    Sound source localization is a well-researched subject with applications ranging from localizing sniper fire in urban battlefields to cataloging wildlife in rural areas. One critical application is the localization of noise pollution sources in urban environments, due to an increasing body of evidence linking noise pollution to adverse effects on human health. Current noise mapping techniques often fail to accurately identify noise pollution sources, because they rely on the interpolation of a limited number of scattered sound sensors. Aiming to produce accurate noise pollution maps, we developed the SoundCompass, a low-cost sound sensor capable of measuring local noise levels and sound field directionality. Our first prototype is composed of a sensor array of 52 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microphones, an inertial measuring unit and a low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA). This article presents the SoundCompass's hardware and firmware design together with a data fusion technique that exploits the sensing capabilities of the SoundCompass in a wireless sensor network to localize noise pollution sources. Live tests produced a sound source localization accuracy of a few centimeters in a 25-m2 anechoic chamber, while simulation results accurately located up to five broadband sound sources in a 10,000-m2 open field.

  16. Product Operations Status Summary Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takagi, Atsuya; Toole, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The Product Operations Status Summary Metrics (POSSUM) computer program provides a readable view into the state of the Phoenix Operations Product Generation Subsystem (OPGS) data pipeline. POSSUM provides a user interface that can search the data store, collect product metadata, and display the results in an easily-readable layout. It was designed with flexibility in mind for support in future missions. Flexibility over various data store hierarchies is provided through the disk-searching facilities of Marsviewer. This is a proven program that has been in operational use since the first day of the Phoenix mission.

  17. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2014-09-01

    As the penetration of variable generation (wind and solar) increases around the world, there is an accompanying growing interest and importance in accurately assessing the contribution that these resources can make toward planning reserve. This contribution, also known as the capacity credit or capacity value of the resource, is best quantified by using a probabilistic measure of overall resource adequacy. In recognizing the variable nature of these renewable resources, there has been interest in exploring the use of reliability metrics other than loss of load expectation. In this paper, we undertake some comparisons using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council in the western United States.

  18. A priori discretization error metrics for distributed hydrologic modeling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongli; Tolson, Bryan A.; Craig, James R.; Shafii, Mahyar

    2016-12-01

    Watershed spatial discretization is an important step in developing a distributed hydrologic model. A key difficulty in the spatial discretization process is maintaining a balance between the aggregation-induced information loss and the increase in computational burden caused by the inclusion of additional computational units. Objective identification of an appropriate discretization scheme still remains a challenge, in part because of the lack of quantitative measures for assessing discretization quality, particularly prior to simulation. This study proposes a priori discretization error metrics to quantify the information loss of any candidate discretization scheme without having to run and calibrate a hydrologic model. These error metrics are applicable to multi-variable and multi-site discretization evaluation and provide directly interpretable information to the hydrologic modeler about discretization quality. The first metric, a subbasin error metric, quantifies the routing information loss from discretization, and the second, a hydrological response unit (HRU) error metric, improves upon existing a priori metrics by quantifying the information loss due to changes in land cover or soil type property aggregation. The metrics are straightforward to understand and easy to recode. Informed by the error metrics, a two-step discretization decision-making approach is proposed with the advantage of reducing extreme errors and meeting the user-specified discretization error targets. The metrics and decision-making approach are applied to the discretization of the Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada. Results show that information loss increases as discretization gets coarser. Moreover, results help to explain the modeling difficulties associated with smaller upstream subbasins since the worst discretization errors and highest error variability appear in smaller upstream areas instead of larger downstream drainage areas. Hydrologic modeling experiments under

  19. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  20. Development of Metrics for Trust in Automation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Going to SpringerLink , and performing the same simple search, 69,590 book, chapter, and journal article titles are returned with a more scientific...variety of ways and contexts, in Amazon.com, 957,838 titles are returned for a ‘love’ search while in SpringerLink , only 41,687 titles are returned with a