Science.gov

Sample records for soundproofing

  1. A soundproof pressure chamber.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Kodama, A; Ozawa, H; Inoue, S

    1994-01-01

    For neurotological research we designed a soundproof pressure chamber in which pressure can be adjusted +/- 1000 mmH2O at the rate of less than 100 mmH2O per second. Noise in the chamber can be maintained under 30-35 dB while pressure is kept at a given level.

  2. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, E-mail: shkim@mmu.ac.kr; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. Themore » sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.« less

  3. Sound-proof Sandwich Panel Design via Metamaterial Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Ni

    Sandwich panels consisting of hollow core cells and two face-sheets bonded on both sides have been widely used as lightweight and strong structures in practical engineering applications, but with poor acoustic performance especially at low frequency regime. Basic sound-proof methods for the sandwich panel design are spontaneously categorized as sound insulation and sound absorption. Motivated by metamaterial concept, this dissertation presents two sandwich panel designs without sacrificing weight or size penalty: A lightweight yet sound-proof honeycomb acoustic metamateiral can be used as core material for honeycomb sandwich panels to block sound and break the mass law to realize minimum sound transmission; the other sandwich panel design is based on coupled Helmholtz resonators and can achieve perfect sound absorption without sound reflection. Based on the honeycomb sandwich panel, the mechanical properties of the honeycomb core structure were studied first. By incorporating a thin membrane on top of each honeycomb core, the traditional honeycomb core turns into honeycomb acoustic metamaterial. The basic theory for such kind of membrane-type acoustic metamaterial is demonstrated by a lumped model with infinite periodic oscillator system, and the negative dynamic effective mass density for clamped membrane is analyzed under the membrane resonance condition. Evanescent wave mode caused by negative dynamic effective mass density and impedance methods are utilized to interpret the physical phenomenon of honeycomb acoustic metamaterials at resonance. The honeycomb metamaterials can extraordinarily improve low-frequency sound transmission loss below the first resonant frequency of the membrane. The property of the membrane, the tension of the membrane and the numbers of attached membranes can impact the sound transmission loss, which are observed by numerical simulations and validated by experiments. The sandwich panel which incorporates the honeycomb metamateiral as

  4. SoundProof: A Smartphone Platform for Wireless Monitoring of Wildlife and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukac, M.; Monibi, M.; Lane, M. L.; Howell, L.; Ramanathan, N.; Borker, A.; McKown, M.; Croll, D.; Terschy, B.

    2011-12-01

    We are developing an open-source, low-cost wildlife and environmental monitoring solution based on Android smartphones. Using a smartphone instead of a traditional microcontroller or single board computer has several advantages: smartphones are single integrated devices with multiple radios and a battery; they have a robust software interface which enables customization; and are field-tested by millions of users daily. Consequently, smartphones can improve the cost, configurability, and real-time access to data for environmental monitoring, ultimately replacing existing monitoring solutions which are proprietary, difficult to customize, expensive, and require labor-intensive maintenance. While smartphones can radically change environmental and wildlife monitoring, there are a number of technical challenges to address. We present our smartphone-based platform, SoundProof, discuss the challenges of building an autonomous system based on Android phones, and our ongoing efforts to enable environmental monitoring. Our system is built using robust off-the-shelf hardware and mature open-source software where available, to increase scalability and ease of installation. Key features include: * High-quality acoustic signal collection from external microphones to monitor wildlife populations. * Real-time data access, remote programming, and configuration of the field sensor via wireless cellular or WiFi channels, accessible from a website. * Waterproof packaging and solar charger setup for long-term field deployments. * Rich instrumentation of the end-to-end system to quickly identify and debug problems. * Supplementary mesh networking system with long-range wireless antennae to provide coverage when no cell network is available. We have deployed this system to monitor Rufous Crowned Sparrows on Anacapa Island, Chinese Crested Turns on the Matsu Islands in Taiwan, and Ashy Storm Petrels on South East Farallon Island. We have testbeds at two UC Natural Reserves to field

  5. Panels with low-Q-factor resonators with theoretically infinite sound-proofing ability at a single frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarev, L. A.

    2015-07-01

    An infinite panel with two types of resonators regularly installed on it is theoretically considered. Each resonator is an air-filled cavity hermetically closed by a plate, which executes piston vibrations. The plate and air inside the cavity play the roles of mass and elasticity, respectively. Every other resonator is reversed. At a certain ratio between the parameters of the resonators at the tuning frequency of the entire system, the acoustic-pressure force that directly affects the panel can be fully compensated by the action forces of the resonators. In this case, the sound-proofing ability (transmission loss) tends to infinity. The presented calculations show that a complete transmission-loss effect can be achieved even with low- Q resonators.

  6. Research on soundproof properties of cylindrical shells of generalized phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ru; Shu, Haisheng; Wang, Xingguo

    2017-04-01

    Based on the previous studies, the concept of generalized phononic crystals (GPCs) is further introduced into the cylindrical shell structures in this paper. And a type of cylindrical shells of generalized phononic crystals (CS-GPCs) is constructed, the structural field and acoustic-structural coupled field of the composite cylindrical shells are examined respectively. For the structural field, the transfer matrix method of mechanical state vector is adopted to build the transfer matrix of radial waves propagating from inside to outside. For the acoustic-structural coupled field, the expressions of the acoustic transmission/reflection coefficients and the sound insulation of acoustic waves with the excitation of center line sound source are set up. And the acoustic transmission coefficient and the frequency response of sound insulation in this mode were numerical calculated. Furthermore, the theoretical analysis results are verified by using the method of combining the numerical calculation and finite element simulation. Finally, the effects of inner and outer fluid parameters on the transmission/reflection coefficients of CS-GPCs are analyzed in detail.

  7. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  8. Enhanced and reduced transmission of acoustic waves with bubble meta-screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretagne, Alice; Tourin, Arnaud; Leroy, Valentin

    2011-11-01

    We present a class of sonic meta-screens for manipulating air-borne acoustic waves at ultrasonic or audible frequencies. Our screens consist of periodic arrangements of air bubbles in water or possibly embedded in a soft elastic matrix. They can be used for soundproofing but also for exalting transmission at an air/water interface or even to achieve enhanced absorption.

  9. Arousal and hallucinatory activity under two isolation conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, J.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental exploration of the hypothesis that soundproof-room and water-immersion isolation environments differ with respect to the variety of physiological responses and reported hallucinations they elicit. The results obtained support the hypothesis in regard to physiological responses only.

  10. THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY. A HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Orleans Public Schools, LA.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE LABORATORIES IS TO DEVELOP FOUR BASIC SKILLS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDY--AURAL UNDERSTANDING, SPEAKING, READING, WRITING, AND TO SUPPORT AN UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF THE CULTURE OF THE COUNTRY STUDIED. THE LABORATORY PROVIDES INDIVIDUAL SEMI-SOUNDPROOF BOOTHS EQUIPPED WITH HEADPHONES, MICROPHONES AND TAPE RECORDING…

  11. Concerns of the Institute of Transport Study and Research for reducing the sound level inside completely repaired buses. [noise and vibration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groza, A.; Calciu, J.; Nicola, I.; Ionasek, A.

    1974-01-01

    Sound level measurements on noise sources on buses are used to observe the effects of attenuating acoustic pressure levels inside the bus by sound-proofing during complete repair. A spectral analysis of the sound level as a function of motor speed, bus speed along the road, and the category of the road is reported.

  12. Auditory Space Perception in Left- and Right-Handers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Hirnstein, Marco; Hausmann, Markus; Lewald, Jorg

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that handedness has an impact on visual spatial abilities. Here we investigated the effect of laterality on auditory space perception. Participants (33 right-handers, 20 left-handers) completed two tasks of sound localization. In a dark, anechoic, and sound-proof room, sound stimuli (broadband noise) were presented via…

  13. Pneumatic vacuum tube message center, basement room 23, looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pneumatic vacuum tube message center, basement room 23, looking southeast toward doorway and corridor. Note soundproof walls, pedestal flooring, and cable tray suspended from the ceiling - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  14. Auditory Processing Testing: In the Booth versus Outside the Booth.

    PubMed

    Lucker, Jay R

    2017-09-01

    Many audiologists believe that auditory processing testing must be carried out in a soundproof booth. This expectation is especially a problem in places such as elementary schools. Research comparing pure-tone thresholds obtained in sound booths compared to quiet test environments outside of these booths does not support that belief. Auditory processing testing is generally carried out at above threshold levels, and therefore may be even less likely to require a soundproof booth. The present study was carried out to compare test results in soundproof booths versus quiet rooms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether auditory processing tests can be administered in a quiet test room rather than in the soundproof test suite. The outcomes would identify that audiologists can provide auditory processing testing for children under various test conditions including quiet rooms at their school. A battery of auditory processing tests was administered at a test level equivalent to 50 dB HL through headphones. The same equipment was used for testing in both locations. Twenty participants identified with normal hearing were included in this study, ten having no auditory processing concerns and ten exhibiting auditory processing problems. All participants underwent a battery of tests, both inside the test booth and outside the booth in a quiet room. Order of testing (inside versus outside) was counterbalanced. Participants were first determined to have normal hearing thresholds for tones and speech. Auditory processing tests were recorded and presented from an HP EliteBook laptop computer with noise-canceling headphones attached to a y-cord that not only presented the test stimuli to the participants but also allowed monitor headphones to be worn by the evaluator. The same equipment was used inside as well as outside the booth. No differences were found for each auditory processing measure as a function of the test setting or the order in which testing was done

  15. Noise Abatement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  16. Window treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book includes basic material as well as information the professional needs for designing appropriate window treatments for residential and nonresidential buildings: site, orientation, climate, energy efficiency, sound-proofing, privacy, protection, view, ventilation and interior and exterior aesthetics. Also includes a guide to the window treatment industry, a list of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers, information on window treatment fibers and fabrics, three glossaries, an extensive bibliography, and over 800 illustrations.

  17. Method and Apparatus of Measuring Velocity and Sound Attenuation Coefficient in Bulk Materials Based on the Analysis of the Structure of Sound-Insulation Materials on the Basis of Perlite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapranov, B. I.; Mashanov, A. P.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the results of research and describes the apparatus for measuring the acoustic characteristics of bulk materials. Ultrasound, it has passed through a layer of bulk material, is further passes through an air gap. The presence of air gap prevents from measuring tract mechanical contacts, but complicates the measurement technology Studies were conducted on the example of measuring the acoustic characteristics of the widely used perlite-based sound-proofing material.

  18. Helicopter internal noise reduction research and development application to the SA 360 and SA 365 Dauphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marze, H. J.; Dambra, F.

    1978-01-01

    Noise sources inside helicopter cabins are considered with emphasis on the mechanisms of vibration generation inside the main gear box and mechanisms of transmission between source and cabin. The dynamic behavior of the main gear box components is examined in relation to the transfer of vibration energy to the structure. It is indicated that although improvements can be made in noise reduction at the source, a soundproofing treatment isolating the passenger from the noise source is necessary. Soundproofing treatments installed and optimized include: (1) an acoustic screen using the weight effect to isolate the passenger from the noise source; (2) a damping treatment to limit the conversion of the vibratory energy into acoustic energy; and (3) an absorbing treatment achieved either through HELMHOLTZ resonators or through a glass wool blanket to limit the propagation of acoustic waves and the wave reflection effects in the cabin. The application of treatments at the source and the optimization of the sound barriers improved the noise level by about 30 db.

  19. Near-field noise prediction for aircraft in cruising flight: Methods manual. [laminar flow control noise effects analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbetts, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for predicting noise at any point on an aircraft while the aircraft is in a cruise flight regime are presented. Developed for use in laminar flow control (LFC) noise effects analyses, they can be used in any case where aircraft generated noise needs to be evaluated at a location on an aircraft while under high altitude, high speed conditions. For each noise source applicable to the LFC problem, a noise computational procedure is given in algorithm format, suitable for computerization. Three categories of noise sources are covered: (1) propulsion system, (2) airframe, and (3) LFC suction system. In addition, procedures are given for noise modifications due to source soundproofing and the shielding effects of the aircraft structure wherever needed. Sample cases, for each of the individual noise source procedures, are provided to familiarize the user with typical input and computed data.

  20. Long term seismic noise acquisition and analysis in the Homestake mine with tunable monolithic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, Fausto; De Rosa, Rosario; De Salvo, Riccardo; Giordano, Gerardo; Harms, Jan; Mandic, Vuk; Sajeva, Angelo; Trancynger, Thomas; Barone, Fabrizio

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we describe the scientific data recorded along one month of data taking of two mechanical monolithic horizontal sensor prototypes located in a blind-ended (side) tunnel 2000 ft deep in the Homestake (South Dakota, USA) mine chosen to host the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The two mechanical monolithic sensors, developed at the University of Salerno, are placed, in thermally insulating enclosures, onto concrete slabs connected to the bedrock, and behind a sound-proofing wall. The main goal of this experiment is to characterize the Homestake site in the frequency band 10-4 ÷ 30 H z and to estimate the level of Newtonian noise, providing also the necessary preliminary information to understand the feasibility of underground gravitational-wave interferometers sensitive at 1 H z and below.

  1. Low frequency seismic noise acquisition and analysis in the Homestake Mine with tunable monolithic horizontal sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, Fausto; De Rosa, Rosario; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Giordano, Gerardo; Harms, Jan; Mandic, Vuk; Sajeva, Angelo; Trancynger, Thomas; Barone, Fabrizio

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we describe the scientific data recorded along one month of data taking of two mechanical monolithic horizontal sensor prototypes located in a blind-ended (side) tunnel 2000 ft deep in the Homestake (South Dakota, USA) mine chosen to host the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The two mechanical monolithic sensors, developed at the University of Salerno, are placed, in thermally insulating enclosures, onto concrete slabs connected to the bedrock, and behind a sound-proofing wall. The main goal of this experiment is to characterize the Homestake site in the frequency band 10-4 - 30Hz and to estimate the level of Newtonian noise in a deep underegropund laboratory. The horizontal semidiurnal Earth tide and the Peterson's New Low Noise Model have been measured.

  2. A lightweight low-frequency sound insulation membrane-type acoustic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kuan; Wu, Jiu Hui; Guan, Dong; Gao, Nansha; Jing, Li

    2016-02-01

    A novel membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) at low frequencies (⩽500Hz) was designed and the mechanisms were investigated by using negative mass density theory. This metamaterial's structure is like a sandwich with a thin (thickness=0.25mm) lightweight flexible rubber material within two layers of honeycomb cell plates. Negative mass density was demonstrated at frequencies below the first natural frequency, which results in the excellent low-frequency sound insulation. The effects of different structural parameters of the membrane on the sound-proofed performance at low frequencies were investigated by using finite element method (FEM). The numerical results show that, the STL can be modulated to higher value by changing the structural parameters, such as the membrane surface density, the unite cell film shape, and the membrane tension. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  3. [Asbestos exposure on board ships: a study of the environmental situation on 2 classes of ferryboats].

    PubMed

    Turi, E; Tidei, F; Paoletti, L

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the results of a study on contamination by airborne asbestos fibres on board a number of ships belonging to fleets operating from Civitavecchia, a port on the coast of central Italy. Asbestos was widely used throughout the ships as fire- and soundproofing insulation. Samples taken before, during and after removal of the insulation in areas of the ship outside the asbestos removal worksite gave concentration levels that were similar to those observed in other indoor environments (building), varying according to the sample location and the condition of the insulation material. The results are discussed taking into consideration the fact that a ship is also a living environment for crew and passengers.

  4. Towards energy-efficient nonoscillatory forward-in-time integrations on lat-lon grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Zbigniew; Ryczkowski, Adam

    2017-04-01

    The design of the next-generation weather prediction models calls for new algorithmic approaches allowing for robust integrations of atmospheric flow over complex orography at sub-km resolutions. These need to be accompanied by efficient implementations exposing multi-level parallelism, capable to run on modern supercomputing architectures. Here we present the recent advances in the energy-efficient implementation of the consistent soundproof/implicit compressible EULAG dynamical core of the COSMO weather prediction framework. Based on the experiences of the atmospheric dwarfs developed within H2020 ESCAPE project, we develop efficient, architecture agnostic implementations of fully three-dimensional MPDATA advection schemes and generalized diffusion operator in curvilinear coordinates and spherical geometry. We compare optimized Fortran implementation with preliminary C++ implementation employing the Gridtools library, allowing for integrations on CPU and GPU while maintaining single source code.

  5. The responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact sound: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seok Hyeon; Park, Sang Jin; Sim, Chang Sun; Sung, Joo Hyun; Kim, Ahra; Lee, Jang Myeong; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jiho

    2017-01-01

    Recently, noise coming from the neighborhood via floor wall has become a great social problem. The noise between the floors can be a cause of physical and psychological problems, and the different types of floor impact sound (FIS) may have the different effects on the human's body and mind. The purpose of this study is to assess the responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact. Ten men and 5 women were enrolled in our study, and the English listening test was performed under the twelve different types of FIS, which were made by the combinations of bang machine (B), tapping machine (T), impact ball (I) and sound-proof mattress (M). The 15 subjects were exposed to each FIS for about 3 min, and the subjective annoyance, performance ability (English listening test), cortisol level of urine/saliva and heart rate variability (HRV) were examined. The sound pressure level (SPL) and frequency of FIS were analyzed. Repeated-measures ANOVA, paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test were performed for data analysis. The SPL of tapping machine (T) was reduced with the soundproof mattress (M) by 3.9-7.3 dBA. Impact ball (I) was higher than other FIS in low frequency (31.5-125 Hz) by 10 dBA, and tapping machine (T) was higher than other FIS in high frequency (2-4 k Hz) by 10 dBA. The subjective annoyance is highest in the combination of bang machine and tapping machine (BT), and next in the tapping machine (T). The English listening score was also lowest in the BT, and next in T. The difference of salivary cortisol levels between various types of FIS was significant ( p  = 0.003). The change of HRV parameters by the change of FIS types was significant in some parameters, which were total power (TP) ( p  = 0.004), low frequency (LF) ( p  = 0.002) and high frequency (HF) ( p  = 0.011). These results suggest that the human's subjective and objective responses were different according to FIS types

  6. Apps in sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    Stippig, Andreas; Hübers, Ulrich; Emerich, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Users of mobile devices such as iPhones or iPads are offered a wide range of applications (apps) regarding sleep and sleep medicine. This article will give an overview about the apps that are available. Moreover, it will present how they work and determine if they can be used in therapy. The apps' competence to count snoring noises had to be evaluated. This was done with a three-piece test set-up to analyze the apps' ability to distinguish between snoring sounds and disturbing noises such as cars driving past the window, conversations in the bedroom, or even just the rustling of sheets and blankets. The tested apps monitor and record snoring noises well as long as they are used in a soundproof environment. In a real-life environment with various disturbing noises, the apps show difficulties in telling snoring sounds and other noises apart. The tested apps are not accurate enough to replace the common diagnostic standard in therapy. However, they can be a helpful addition. Especially, singles could use them who do not know if their snoring has improved with an OA and do not have anybody to ask.

  7. Electron spin resonance of particulate soot samples from automobiles to help environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, C; Matsuda, T; Ikeya, M

    2005-02-01

    The application of electron spin resonance (ESR) was studied for diesel soot samples and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from automobile engines. Soot samples or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) were recovered at various points: in the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine, at the dust sampler of a highway tunnel (standard DEP), on the soundproofing wall alongside a heavy traffic road, and on the filters of a dust sampler for SPM. The diesel soot samples apparently showed two ESR spectra: one was a broad spectrum at g=2.1 with a line width of ca. 80-120 mT and the other was a sharp signal of a carbon radical at g=2.003 with a line width of 0.4 mT. Annealing experiments with a DEP sample at 250 degrees C revealed drastic enhancement of the sharp ESR signal, which suggested a thermal process of carbonization of remnant organics. An oximetric study by ESR showed an enhancement of the broad signal in the diesel soot sample as well as in the sharp ESR signal. Therefore, the main part of the broad ESR signal would be attributed to carbon radicals, which form a different configuration, probably closely interacting aggregates. Enhancement of the sharp ESR signal was not observed in the standard DEP sample under vacuum condition, which suggested less adsorption sites on the surface of DEP samples.

  8. Noise and autism spectrum disorder in children: An exploratory survey.

    PubMed

    Kanakri, Shireen M; Shepley, Mardelle; Varni, James W; Tassinary, Louis G

    2017-04-01

    With more students being educated in schools for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) than ever before, architects and interior designers need to consider the environmental features that may be modified to enhance the academic and social success of autistic students in school. This study explored existing empirical research on the impact of noise on children with ASD and provides recommendations regarding design features that can contribute to noise reduction. A survey, which addressed the impact of architectural design elements on autism-related behavior, was developed for teachers of children with ASD and distributed to three schools. Most teachers found noise control to be an important issue for students with autism and many observed children using ear defenders. In terms of managing issues related to noise, most teachers agreed that thick or soundproof walls and carpet in the classroom were the most important issues for children with ASD. Suggested future research should address architectural considerations for building an acoustically friendly environment for children with autism, identifying patterns of problematic behaviors in response to acoustical features of the built environment of the classroom setting, and ways to manage maladaptive behaviors in acoustically unfriendly environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The development of the Athens Emotional States Inventory (AESI): collection, validation and automatic processing of emotionally loaded sentences.

    PubMed

    Chaspari, Theodora; Soldatos, Constantin; Maragos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    The development of ecologically valid procedures for collecting reliable and unbiased emotional data towards computer interfaces with social and affective intelligence targeting patients with mental disorders. Following its development, presented with, the Athens Emotional States Inventory (AESI) proposes the design, recording and validation of an audiovisual database for five emotional states: anger, fear, joy, sadness and neutral. The items of the AESI consist of sentences each having content indicative of the corresponding emotion. Emotional content was assessed through a survey of 40 young participants with a questionnaire following the Latin square design. The emotional sentences that were correctly identified by 85% of the participants were recorded in a soundproof room with microphones and cameras. A preliminary validation of AESI is performed through automatic emotion recognition experiments from speech. The resulting database contains 696 recorded utterances in Greek language by 20 native speakers and has a total duration of approximately 28 min. Speech classification results yield accuracy up to 75.15% for automatically recognizing the emotions in AESI. These results indicate the usefulness of our approach for collecting emotional data with reliable content, balanced across classes and with reduced environmental variability.

  10. Altitude Wind Tunnel Control Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1945-05-21

    Researchers at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory monitor a ramjet's performance in the Altitude Wind Tunnel from the control room. The soundproof control room was just a few feet from the tunnel’s 20-foot-diameter test section. In the control room, the operators could control all aspects of the tunnel’s operation, including the air density, temperature, and speed. They also operated the engine or test article in the test section by controlling the angle-of-attack, speed, power, and other parameters. The men in this photograph are monitoring the engine’s thrust and lift. A NACA-designed 20-inch-diameter ramjet was installed in the tunnel in May 1945. Thrust figures from these runs were compared with drag data from tests of scale models in small supersonic tunnels to verify the ramjet’s feasibility. The tunnel was used to analyze the ramjet’s overall performance up to altitudes of 47,000 feet and speeds to Mach 1.84. The researchers found that an increase in altitude caused a reduction in the engine’s horsepower and identified optimal flameholder configurations.

  11. Systematic assessment of noise amplitude generated by toys intended for young children.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Oliaei, Sepehr; Badran, Karam W; Ziai, Kasra; Chang, Janice; Zardouz, Shawn; Shahriari, Shawn; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2013-06-01

    To systematically evaluate the noise generated by toys targeted for children and to compare the results over the course of 4 consecutive holiday shopping seasons. Experimental study. Academic medical center. During 2008-2011, more than 200 toys marketed for children older than 6 months were screened for loudness. The toys with sound output of more than 80 dBA at speaker level were retested in a soundproof audiometry booth. The generated sound amplitude of each toy was measured at speaker level and at 30 cm away from the speaker. Ninety different toys were analyzed. The mean (SD) noise amplitude was 100 (8) dBA (range, 80-121 dBA) at the speaker level and 80 (11) dBA (range, 60-109 dBA) at 30 cm away from the speaker. Eighty-eight (98%) had more than an 85-dBA noise amplitude at speaker level, whereas 19 (26%) had more than an 85-dBA noise amplitude at a 30-cm distance. Only the mean noise amplitude at 30 cm significantly declined during the studied period (P < .001). There was no significant difference in mean noise amplitude of different toys specified for different age groups. Our findings demonstrate the persistence of extremely loud toys marketed for very young children. Acoustic trauma from toys remains a potential risk factor for noise-induced hearing loss in this age group, warranting promotion of public awareness and regulatory considerations for manufacture and marketing of toys.

  12. Earthing (grounding) the human body reduces blood viscosity-a major factor in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T; Oschman, James L; Delany, Richard M

    2013-02-01

    Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. SUBJECTS were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events.

  13. Video Tutorial of Continental Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurani, A. S.; Juwaedah, A.; Mahmudatussa'adah, A.

    2018-02-01

    This research is motivated by the belief in the importance of media in a learning process. Media as an intermediary serves to focus on the attention of learners. Selection of appropriate learning media is very influential on the success of the delivery of information itself both in terms of cognitive, affective and skills. Continental food is a course that studies food that comes from Europe and is very complex. To reduce verbalism and provide more real learning, then the tutorial media is needed. Media tutorials that are audio visual can provide a more concrete learning experience. The purpose of this research is to develop tutorial media in the form of video. The method used is the development method with the stages of analyzing the learning objectives, creating a story board, validating the story board, revising the story board and making video tutorial media. The results show that the making of storyboards should be very thorough, and detailed in accordance with the learning objectives to reduce errors in video capture so as to save time, cost and effort. In video capturing, lighting, shooting angles, and soundproofing make an excellent contribution to the quality of tutorial video produced. In shooting should focus more on tools, materials, and processing. Video tutorials should be interactive and two-way.

  14. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  15. Wright R–2600–8 Engine in the Engine Propeller Research Building

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1943-03-21

    A Wright Aeronautical R–2600 Cyclone piston engine installed in the Engine Propeller Research Building, or Prop House, at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory. The R–2600 was among the most powerful engines that emerged during World War II. The engine, which was developed for commercial applications in 1939, was used to power the North American B–25 bomber and several other midsize military aircraft. The higher altitudes required by the military caused problems with the engine's cooling and fuel systems. The military requested that the Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory analyze the performance of the R–2600, improve its cooling system, and reduce engine knock. The NACA researchers subjected the engine to numerous tests in its Prop House. The R–2600 was the subject of the laboratory's first technical report, which was written by members of the Fuels and Lubricants Division. The Prop House contained soundproof test cells in which piston engines and propellers were mounted and operated at high powers. Electrically driven fans drew air through ducts to create a stream of cooling air over the engines. Researchers tested the performance of fuels, turbochargers, water-injection and cooling systems here during World War II. The facility was also investigated a captured German V–I buzz bomb during the war.

  16. Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity—a Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Delany, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. Design/interventions Subjects were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Settings/location Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Subjects Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Results Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Conclusions Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events. PMID:22757749

  17. The association of malocclusion and trumpet performance.

    PubMed

    Kula, Katherine; Cilingir, H Zeynep; Eckert, George; Dagg, Jack; Ghoneima, Ahmed

    2015-04-20

      To determine whether trumpet performance skills are associated with malocclusion.   Following institutional review board approval, 70 university trumpet students (54 male, 16 female; aged 20-38.9 years) were consented. After completing a survey, the students were evaluated while playing a scripted performance skills test (flexibility, articulation, range, and endurance exercises) on their instrument in a soundproof music practice room. One investigator (trumpet teacher) used a computerized metronome and a decibel meter during evaluation. A three-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computerized tomography scan (CBCT) was taken of each student the same day as the skills test. Following reliability studies, multiple dental parameters were measured on the 3D CBCT. Nonparametric correlations (Spearman), accepting P < .05 as significant, were used to determine if there were significant associations between dental parameters and the performance skills.   Intrarater reliability was excellent (intraclass correlations; all r values > .94). Although associations were weak to moderate, significant negative associations (r ≤ -.32) were found between Little's irregularity index, interincisal inclination, maxillary central incisor rotation, and various flexibility and articulation performance skills, whereas significant positive associations (r ≤ .49) were found between arch widths and various skills.   Specific malocclusions are associated with trumpet performance of experienced young musicians. (Angle Orthod. 0000;00:000-000.).

  18. The association of malocclusion and trumpet performance.

    PubMed

    Kula, Katherine; Cilingir, H Zeynep; Eckert, George; Dagg, Jack; Ghoneima, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether trumpet performance skills are associated with malocclusion. Following institutional review board approval, 70 university trumpet students (54 male, 16 female; aged 20-38.9 years) were consented. After completing a survey, the students were evaluated while playing a scripted performance skills test (flexibility, articulation, range, and endurance exercises) on their instrument in a soundproof music practice room. One investigator (trumpet teacher) used a computerized metronome and a decibel meter during evaluation. A three-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computerized tomography scan (CBCT) was taken of each student the same day as the skills test. Following reliability studies, multiple dental parameters were measured on the 3D CBCT. Nonparametric correlations (Spearman), accepting P < .05 as significant, were used to determine if there were significant associations between dental parameters and the performance skills. Intrarater reliability was excellent (intraclass correlations; all r values > .94). Although associations were weak to moderate, significant negative associations (r ≤ -.32) were found between Little's irregularity index, interincisal inclination, maxillary central incisor rotation, and various flexibility and articulation performance skills, whereas significant positive associations (r ≤ .49) were found between arch widths and various skills. Specific malocclusions are associated with trumpet performance of experienced young musicians.

  19. The effect of head protection on the hearing of rugby players.

    PubMed

    Kieran, S M; Dunne, J; Hughes, J P; Fenton, J E

    2008-09-01

    Professional rugby players utilise various methods of head protection to prevent against the development of a pinna haematoma. This study tests the hypothesis that these measures, whilst preventing injury, decrease the wearers' hearing threshold and therefore their performance. Eight patients had free field audiometry performed in a soundproof room, with warble tones. All patients were young men (mean 24.75 years (range 22-34)). No participant had ear symptomatology or a past history of ear surgery. Three separate audiological assessments were performed on each patient: normal free field audiometry in a sound field room, following application of adhesive tape and whilst wearing a scrum cap. All measurements were performed by a single audiological scientist. A significant clinical drop in hearing threshold was defined as an increase of 10 dB. No patient demonstrated a significant drop in hearing threshold following the application of either tape or a scrum cap, nor was there a significant difference in the mean (SD) warble tone average: air 7.03 (5.47); tape 7.19 (6.40); scrum cap 6.56 (5.58). Theoretical concerns that "ear taping" and scrum caps affect hearing of rugby players are unfounded and should not discourage their use.

  20. Language acquisition: hesitations in the question/answer dialogic pair.

    PubMed

    Chacon, Lourenço; Villega, Cristyane de Camargo Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    (1) To verify the existence (or not) of hesitation marks in the beginning of utterances in children's discourse; and (2) to determine to what extent the presence/absence of these marks could be explained by retrievable facts in the production conditions of their discourses. Interview situations with four children aged 5-6 years attending Kindergarten level II in a public preschool at the time of the data collection were analyzed. The interviews were recorded on audio and video, inside a soundproof booth, with high fidelity equipment. Afterwards, the recordings were transcribed by six transcribers that were specially trained for this task. Transcription rules that prioritized the analyses of hesitations were used. For the analysis of retrievable facts in the production conditions of children's discourse, the dialogic pair question-answer was adopted. A correlation between presence/absence of hesitation in the beginning of utterances in children and type of question (open/closed) made by the collocutor was observed. When the question was closed ended, the utterances were preferably initiated without hesitation marks, and when the question was open ended, the utterances were preferably initiated with hesitation marks. The presence/absence of hesitation marks in the beginning of utterances in children was found to be dependent on the production conditions of their discourses.

  1. Altitude Wind Tunnel Control Room at the Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1944-07-21

    Operators in the control room for the Altitude Wind Tunnel at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory remotely operate a Wright R–3350 engine in the tunnel’s test section. Four of the engines were used to power the B–29 Superfortress, a critical weapon in the Pacific theater during World War II. The wind tunnel, which had been in operation for approximately six months, was the nation’s only wind tunnel capable of testing full-scale engines in simulated altitude conditions. The soundproof control room was used to operate the wind tunnel and control the engine being run in the test section. The operators worked with assistants in the adjacent Exhauster Building and Refrigeration Building to manage the large altitude simulation systems. The operator at the center console controlled the tunnel’s drive fan and operated the engine in the test section. Two sets of pneumatic levers near his right forearm controlled engine fuel flow, speed, and cooling. Panels on the opposite wall, out of view to the left, were used to manage the combustion air, refrigeration, and exhauster systems. The control panel also displayed the master air speed, altitude, and temperature gauges, as well as a plethora of pressure, temperature, and airflow readings from different locations on the engine. The operator to the right monitored the manometer tubes to determine the pressure levels. Despite just being a few feet away from the roaring engine, the control room remained quiet during the tests.

  2. Multi-domain boundary element method for axi-symmetric layered linear acoustic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Paul; Ziegelwanger, Harald

    2017-12-01

    Homogeneous porous materials like rock wool or synthetic foam are the main tool for acoustic absorption. The conventional absorbing structure for sound-proofing consists of one or multiple absorbers placed in front of a rigid wall, with or without air-gaps in between. Various models exist to describe these so called multi-layered acoustic systems mathematically for incoming plane waves. However, there is no efficient method to calculate the sound field in a half space above a multi layered acoustic system for an incoming spherical wave. In this work, an axi-symmetric multi-domain boundary element method (BEM) for absorbing multi layered acoustic systems and incoming spherical waves is introduced. In the proposed BEM formulation, a complex wave number is used to model absorbing materials as a fluid and a coordinate transformation is introduced which simplifies singular integrals of the conventional BEM to non-singular radial and angular integrals. The radial and angular part are integrated analytically and numerically, respectively. The output of the method can be interpreted as a numerical half space Green's function for grounds consisting of layered materials.

  3. Wheel liner design for improved sound and structural performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltean, Alexandru; Diaconescu, Claudiu; Tabacu, Ştefan

    2017-10-01

    Vehicle noise is composed mainly of wheel-road noise and noise from the power unit. At low speeds power unit noise dominates while at high speeds wheel-road noise dominates as wheel-road noise level increases approximately logarithmically with speed. The wheel liner is designed as a component of the vehicle that has a multiple role. It has to prevent the dirt or water from the road surface that are engaged by the wheel to access the engine/front bay. Same time it has the important role to reduce perceived noised in the passenger’s compartment that comes from the wheel-road interaction. Progress in plastic injection moulding technology allowed for new structures to be developed - nonwoven materials in combination with a PP based carrier structure which benefits from a cell structure caused by MuCell injection moulding. The results are light parts with increased sound absorption performances. An adapted combination of materials and production processes can provide the solution for stiff yet soundproofing structures valued for modern vehicles. Sound absorption characteristics of materials used for wheel liners applications were reported in this study. Different polypropylene and polyester fibre-based thermally bonded nonwovens varying in weight and thickness were investigated. Having as a background the performances of the nonwoven material the microcellular structure was part of the analysis. Acoustical absorptive behaviour was explained by analysing the results obtained using the impedance tube and correlating with the knowledge of materials structure.

  4. Plate-type metamaterials for extremely broadband low-frequency sound insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Guo, Xinwei; Chen, Tianning; Yao, Ge

    2018-01-01

    A novel plate-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) in the low-frequency range ( ≤1000 Hz) is designed, theoretically proven and then experimentally verified. The thin plates with large modulus used in this paper mean that we do not need to apply tension to the plates, which is more applicable to practical engineering, the achievement of noise reduction is better and the installation of plates is more user-friendly than that of the membranes. The effects of different structural parameters of the plates on the sound-proofed performance at low-frequencies were also investigated by experiment and finite element method (FEM). The results showed that the STL can be modulated effectively and predictably using vibration theory by changing the structural parameters, such as the radius and thickness of the plate. Furthermore, using unit cells of different geometric sizes which are responsible for different frequency regions, the stacked panels with thickness ≤16 mm and weight ≤5 kg/m2 showed high STL below 2000 Hz. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  5. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  6. Deflection of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor. PMID:25574491

  7. EEG correlates of social interaction at distance

    PubMed Central

    Giroldini, William; Pederzoli, Luciano; Bilucaglia, Marco; Caini, Patrizio; Ferrini, Alessandro; Melloni, Simone; Prati, Elena; Tressoldi, Patrizio

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated EEG correlates of social interaction at distance between twenty-five pairs of participants who were not connected by any traditional channels of communication. Each session involved the application of 128 stimulations separated by intervals of random duration ranging from 4 to 6 seconds. One of the pair received a one-second stimulation from a light signal produced by an arrangement of red LEDs, and a simultaneous 500 Hz sinusoidal audio signal of the same length. The other member of the pair sat in an isolated sound-proof room, such that any sensory interaction between the pair was impossible. An analysis of the Event-Related Potentials associated with sensory stimulation using traditional averaging methods showed a distinct peak at approximately 300 ms, but only in the EEG activity of subjects who were directly stimulated. However, when a new algorithm was applied to the EEG activity based on the correlation between signals from all active electrodes, a weak but robust response was also detected in the EEG activity of the passive member of the pair, particularly within 9 – 10 Hz in the Alpha range. Using the Bootstrap method and the Monte Carlo emulation, this signal was found to be statistically significant. PMID:26966513

  8. Smartphones Offer New Opportunities in Clinical Voice Research.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, C; Lebacq, J; Cantarella, G; Schoentgen, J; Orlandi, S; Bandini, A; DeJonckere, P H

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone technology provides new opportunities for recording standardized voice samples of patients and sending the files by e-mail to the voice laboratory. This drastically improves the collection of baseline data, as used in research on efficiency of voice treatments. However, the basic requirement is the suitability of smartphones for recording and digitizing pathologic voices (mainly characterized by period perturbations and noise) without significant distortion. In this experiment, two smartphones (a very inexpensive one and a high-level one) were tested and compared with direct microphone recordings in a soundproof room. The voice stimuli consisted in synthesized deviant voice samples (median of fundamental frequency: 120 and 200 Hz) with three levels of jitter and three levels of added noise. All voice samples were analyzed using PRAAT software. The results show high correlations between jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio measured on the recordings via both smartphones, the microphone, and measured directly on the sound files from the synthesizer. Smartphones thus appear adequate for reliable recording and digitizing of pathologic voices. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Design and analysis of a hemi-anechoic chamber at Michigan Technological University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Jason; Jangale, Ashish; Rao, Mohan D.

    2005-09-01

    A four-wheel chassis roll dynamometer test facility was installed on the campus of Michigan Technological University (MTU). The chassis dynamometer was enclosed in a soundproof hem-anechoic room in order to conduct noise radiation measurements on test vehicles. All surfaces of the room, except the floor and control room window, were acoustically treated with donated tetrahedral acoustic cones and panels. The acoustic absorption properties of these materials were characterized through reverberation chamber and impedance tube testing, and the effects of air gaps, cone orientation, and cone mounting materials were qualitatively evaluated. The design of the wall, ceiling, and door treatments of the chamber was based on the sound absorption properties of these materials, in addition to spatial constraints and cost considerations. The treated chamber acoustics were predicted based on the amount of acoustic material that could be applied to given chamber dimensions and would still preserve the functionality of the room. These predictions were validated through evaluation of the actual room treatment based on average reverberation time at 100-Hz third-octave band, free sound field characteristic 6-dB reduction in sound pressure level (SPL) per doubling in distance from source, noise reduction at the chamber boundaries, and background SPL Noise Criteria (NC) Rating.

  10. EEG alpha activity and hallucinatory experience during sensory deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M; Morikawa, T; Hori, T

    1992-10-01

    The relationship between hallucinatory experiences under sensory deprivation and EEG alpha activities was studied. Each of seven male students lived alone in an air conditioned, soundproof dark room for 72 hours. When hallucinatory experiences occurred, the students pressed a button at once. If they could not press the button during the experience, they were required to press it two times when the hallucinatory experience was finished. Spectral analysis was performed on the consecutive EEG samples from just before button-presses to 10 min. before them, and the average alpha band amplitudes were obtained for the four epochs (0-.5, .5-2, 2-5, 5-10 min.). For the single button-presses, the amplitude of alpha band increased 2 min. before the button-presses. Right-hemisphere EEG activation was observed in the occipital area for the double button-presses. The results suggest an association between the hallucinatory experiences under sensory deprivation and the amount of EEG alpha activity.

  11. Result on speech perception after conversion from Spectra® to Freedom®.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Hoshino, Ana Cristina; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Brito, Rubens

    2012-04-01

    New technology in the Freedom® speech processor for cochlear implants was developed to improve how incoming acoustic sound is processed; this applies not only for new users, but also for previous generations of cochlear implants. To identify the contribution of this technology-- the Nucleus 22®--on speech perception tests in silence and in noise, and on audiometric thresholds. A cross-sectional cohort study was undertaken. Seventeen patients were selected. The last map based on the Spectra® was revised and optimized before starting the tests. Troubleshooting was used to identify malfunction. To identify the contribution of the Freedom® technology for the Nucleus22®, auditory thresholds and speech perception tests were performed in free field in sound-proof booths. Recorded monosyllables and sentences in silence and in noise (SNR = 0dB) were presented at 60 dBSPL. The nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired data was used to compare groups. Freedom® applied for the Nucleus22® showed a statistically significant difference in all speech perception tests and audiometric thresholds. The Freedom® technology improved the performance of speech perception and audiometric thresholds of patients with Nucleus 22®.

  12. Combined Use of Standard and Throat Microphones for Measurement of Acoustic Voice Parameters and Voice Categorization.

    PubMed

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Uloziene, Ingrida; Saferis, Viktoras; Verikas, Antanas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of the measurements of acoustic voice parameters obtained simultaneously using oral and contact (throat) microphones and to investigate utility of combined use of these microphones for voice categorization. Voice samples of sustained vowel /a/ obtained from 157 subjects (105 healthy and 52 pathological voices) were recorded in a soundproof booth simultaneously through two microphones: oral AKG Perception 220 microphone (AKG Acoustics, Vienna, Austria) and contact (throat) Triumph PC microphone (Clearer Communications, Inc, Burnaby, Canada) placed on the lamina of thyroid cartilage. Acoustic voice signal data were measured for fundamental frequency, percent of jitter and shimmer, normalized noise energy, signal-to-noise ratio, and harmonic-to-noise ratio using Dr. Speech software (Tiger Electronics, Seattle, WA). The correlations of acoustic voice parameters in vocal performance were statistically significant and strong (r = 0.71-1.0) for the entire functional measurements obtained for the two microphones. When classifying into healthy-pathological voice classes, the oral-shimmer revealed the correct classification rate (CCR) of 75.2% and the throat-jitter revealed CCR of 70.7%. However, combination of both throat and oral microphones allowed identifying a set of three voice parameters: throat-signal-to-noise ratio, oral-shimmer, and oral-normalized noise energy, which provided the CCR of 80.3%. The measurements of acoustic voice parameters using a combination of oral and throat microphones showed to be reliable in clinical settings and demonstrated high CCRs when distinguishing the healthy and pathological voice patient groups. Our study validates the suitability of the throat microphone signal for the task of automatic voice analysis for the purpose of voice screening. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation of all-scale atmospheric dynamics on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Szmelter, Joanna; Xiao, Feng

    2016-10-01

    The advance of massively parallel computing in the nineteen nineties and beyond encouraged finer grid intervals in numerical weather-prediction models. This has improved resolution of weather systems and enhanced the accuracy of forecasts, while setting the trend for development of unified all-scale atmospheric models. This paper first outlines the historical background to a wide range of numerical methods advanced in the process. Next, the trend is illustrated with a technical review of a versatile nonoscillatory forward-in-time finite-volume (NFTFV) approach, proven effective in simulations of atmospheric flows from small-scale dynamics to global circulations and climate. The outlined approach exploits the synergy of two specific ingredients: the MPDATA methods for the simulation of fluid flows based on the sign-preserving properties of upstream differencing; and the flexible finite-volume median-dual unstructured-mesh discretisation of the spatial differential operators comprising PDEs of atmospheric dynamics. The paper consolidates the concepts leading to a family of generalised nonhydrostatic NFTFV flow solvers that include soundproof PDEs of incompressible Boussinesq, anelastic and pseudo-incompressible systems, common in large-eddy simulation of small- and meso-scale dynamics, as well as all-scale compressible Euler equations. Such a framework naturally extends predictive skills of large-eddy simulation to the global atmosphere, providing a bottom-up alternative to the reverse approach pursued in the weather-prediction models. Theoretical considerations are substantiated by calculations attesting to the versatility and efficacy of the NFTFV approach. Some prospective developments are also discussed.

  14. Tunable two-dimensional acoustic meta-structure composed of funnel-shaped unit cells with multi-band negative acoustic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungjin; Kim, Boseung; Min, Dongki; Park, Junhong

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional heat-exhaust and sound-proof acoustic meta-structure exhibiting tunable multi-band negative effective mass density. The meta-structure was composed of periodic funnel-shaped units in a square lattice. Each unit cell operates simultaneously as a Helmholtz resonator (HR) and an extended pipe chamber resonator (EPCR), leading to a negative effective mass density creating bandgaps for incident sound energy dissipation without transmission. This structure allowed large heat-flow through the cross-sectional area of the extended pipe since the resonance was generated by acoustic elements without using solid membranes. The pipes were horizontally directed to a flow source to enable small flow resistance for cooling. Measurements of the sound transmission were performed using a two-load, four-microphone method for a unit cell and small reverberation chamber for two-dimensional panel to characterize the acoustic performance. The effective mass density showed significant frequency dependent variation exhibiting negative values at the specific bandgaps, while the effective bulk modulus was not affected by the resonator. Theoretical models incorporating local resonances in the multiple resonator units were proposed to analyze the noise reduction mechanism. The acoustic meta-structure parameters to create broader frequency bandgaps were investigated using the theoretical model. The negative effective mass density was calculated to investigate the creation of the bandgaps. The effects of design parameters such as length, cross-sectional area, and volume of the HR; length and cross-sectional area of the EPCR were analyzed. To maximize the frequency band gap, the suggested acoustic meta-structure panel, small neck length, and cross-sectional area of the HR, large EPCR length was advantageous. The bandgaps became broader when the two resonant frequencies were similar.

  15. Sound levels and their effects on children in a German primary school.

    PubMed

    Eysel-Gosepath, Katrin; Daut, Tobias; Pinger, Andreas; Lehmacher, Walter; Erren, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Considerable sound levels are produced in primary schools by voices of children and resonance effects. As a consequence, hearing loss and mental impairment may occur. In a Cologne primary school, sound levels were measured in three different classrooms, each with 24 children, 8-10 years old, and one teacher. Sound dosimeters were positioned in the room and near the teacher's ear. Additional measurements were done in one classroom fully equipped with sound-absorbing materials. A questionnaire containing 12 questions about noise at school was distributed to 100 children, 8-10 years old. Measurements were repeated after children had been taught about noise damage and while "noise lights" were used. Mean sound levels of 5-h per day measuring period were 78 dB (A) near the teacher's ear and 70 dB (A) in the room. The average of all measured maximal sound levels for 1 s was 105 dB (A) for teachers, and 100 dB (A) for rooms. In the soundproofed classroom, Leq was 66 dB (A). The questionnaire revealed certain judgment of the children concerning situations with high sound levels and their ability to develop ideas for noise reduction. However, no clear sound level reduction was identified after noise education and using "noise lights" during lessons. Children and their teachers are equally exposed to high sound levels at school. Early sensitization to noise and the possible installation of sound-absorbing materials can be important means to prevent noise-associated hearing loss and mental impairment.

  16. Limiting hazardous noise exposure from noisy toys: simple, sticky solutions.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Heather M; Jabbour, Noel; Levine, Samuel; Yueh, Bevan

    2013-09-01

    To assess noise levels of toys from the Sight & Hearing Association (SHA) 2010 Noisy Toys List and evaluate the change in noise of these toys after covering the speakers with tape or glue. One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. SHA 2010 Toys List (n = 18) toys were tested at distances of 0 and 25 cm from sound source in a soundproof booth using a digital sound-level meter. The dBA level of sound produced by toy was obtained. Toys with speakers (n = 16) were tested before and after altering speakers with plastic packing tape or nontoxic glue. Mean noise level for non-taped toys at 0 and 25 cm was 107.6 dBA (SD ± 8.5) and 82.5 dBA (SD ± 8.8), respectively. With tape, there was a statistically significant decrease in noise level at 0 and 25 cm: 84.2 dBA and 68.2 dBA (P <0.001). With glue, there was a statistically significant decrease in noise level at 0 cm and 25 cm: 79.7 dBA and 66.4 dBA (P <0.001). Both tape and glue significantly decreased the noise level produced by the toys. However, there was no significant difference between tape or glue. Overall, altering the toy can significantly decrease the sound a child may experience when playing with toys. However, some toys, even after altering, still produce sound levels that may be considered dangerous. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rat with chronic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tsukahara, Takuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Urade, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis. Acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and then wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats underwent surgery for implantation of electrodes for electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings, and they were transferred to a soundproof recording chamber. Polygraphic recordings were scored by using 10-s epochs for wake, rapid eye movement sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. To examine the role of acid reflux, rats were subcutaneously administered a PPI, omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily. Rats with reflux esophagitis presented with several erosions, ulcers, and mucosal thickening with basal hyperplasia and marked inflammatory infiltration. The reflux esophagitis group showed a 34.0% increase in wake (232.2±11.4 min and 173.3±7.4 min in the reflux esophagitis and control groups, respectively; p<0.01) accompanied by a reduction in NREM sleep during light period, an increase in sleep fragmentation, and more frequent stage transitions. The use of omeprazole significantly improved sleep disturbances caused by reflux esophagitis, and this effect was not observed when the PPI was withdrawn. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rats with chronic esophagitis.

  18. Acid Reflux Directly Causes Sleep Disturbances in Rat with Chronic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tsukahara, Takuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Urade, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis. Methods Acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and then wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats underwent surgery for implantation of electrodes for electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings, and they were transferred to a soundproof recording chamber. Polygraphic recordings were scored by using 10-s epochs for wake, rapid eye movement sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. To examine the role of acid reflux, rats were subcutaneously administered a PPI, omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily. Results Rats with reflux esophagitis presented with several erosions, ulcers, and mucosal thickening with basal hyperplasia and marked inflammatory infiltration. The reflux esophagitis group showed a 34.0% increase in wake (232.2±11.4 min and 173.3±7.4 min in the reflux esophagitis and control groups, respectively; p<0.01) accompanied by a reduction in NREM sleep during light period, an increase in sleep fragmentation, and more frequent stage transitions. The use of omeprazole significantly improved sleep disturbances caused by reflux esophagitis, and this effect was not observed when the PPI was withdrawn. Conclusions Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rats with chronic esophagitis. PMID:25215524

  19. Mechanisms of action of light on circadian rhythms in the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; DeRoshia, C. W.; Hetherington, N. W.

    1970-01-01

    Light is considered by many investigators to be the primary Zeitgeber for most physiologic rhythms. In order to study the effects on biorhythms of changing photoperiods and to provide information on the nature of the wave forms and the mechanisms of entrainment, unrestrained male monkeys (Cebus albifrons, Macaca nemestrina) were maintained in a sound-proofed environmental chamber. The Cebus was initially maintained on a 12L:12D schedule; it was subjected to a 180 degrees phase shift for 14 days, then returned to the original photoperiod. In two experiments (24 days; 27 days each) the same monkey was again maintained on a 12L:12D schedule which was gradually altered to a constant light environment. Deep body temperature (DBT) data were obtained with miniature radiotransmitters. Locomotor activity (LMA) was measured by strain gauges. Under the 12L:12D regimens the Macaca DBT cycles were uniform as to phase and wave form for over 60 weeks. These wave forms were analyzed by the use of periodogram and correlogram analyses and by fitting to the Volterra Integro-Differential Equation. Phase angle relationships between Zeitgeber and physiologic parameters were characterized. After the photoperiod phase shift the DBT cycle rephased in about 9 days. During the rephasing process the wave form changed. The shapes of the wave forms of DBT and activity were maintained with increasing light until an 18L:6D photoperiod was reached. The rhythms were entrained to the onset of darkness rather than lights on. Major and minor periods of LMA were detected. Hysteresis diagrams showed that DBT led the onset of major LA by 6 hr and the end of major activity by 2 hr.

  20. Comparison of effects on voice of diode laser and cold knife microlaryngology techniques for vocal fold polyps.

    PubMed

    Karasu, Mehmet Fatih; Gundogdu, Ramazan; Cagli, Sedat; Aydin, Mesut; Arli, Turan; Aydemir, Samet; Yuce, Imdat

    2014-05-01

    To compare the effects on voice of endolaryngeal microsurgery (EMS) with cold instruments and a new method, "diode laser," for vocal fold polyps. Fifty-one patients with vocal fold polyps suffering from dysphonia who were treated in the Erciyes University Department of Otolaryngology were included in the study. Voice analysis was performed in a soundproof room, holding the microphone 15 cm away from the patients' mouth and by recording a sustained [a] vowel for at least 10 seconds. Fundamental frequency (F0), Jitter, Shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR) parameters were evaluated in terms of vocal analysis. All patients were asked for to fill in a questionnaire, after being informed about the voice handicap index (VHI). EMS was performed with a diode laser and cold knife on 26 and 25 patients, respectively. Patient follow-up was performed 8 weeks after surgery. Changes in F0, Jitter, Shimmer, and NHR values were measured and recorded. VHI was also completed and reassessed. There was a significant difference in each technique's VHI score between the preoperative and postoperative questionnaire (P < 0.001). Postoperatively, there was no significant difference in VHI scores between two groups (P > 0.05). There was a significant difference in voice analysis values measured preoperatively and at the postoperative controls for both groups (P < 0.05). Postoperatively, there was no significant difference in voice analysis values between two groups (P > 0.05). In the treatment of vocal polyps, EMS with both diode laser and traditional cold knife is effective. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiac autonomic regulation during exposure to auditory stimulation with classical baroque or heavy metal music of different intensities.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Joice A T; Nogueira, Marcela L; Roque, Adriano L; Guida, Heraldo L; De Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Raimundo, Rodrigo Daminello; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Ribeiro, Vivian L; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-03-01

    The effects of chronic music auditory stimulation on the cardiovascular system have been investigated in the literature. However, data regarding the acute effects of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic regulation are lacking. The literature has indicated that auditory stimulation with white noise above 50 dB induces cardiac responses. We aimed to evaluate the acute effects of classical baroque and heavy metal music of different intensities on cardiac autonomic regulation. The study was performed in 16 healthy men aged 18-25 years. All procedures were performed in the same soundproof room. We analyzed heart rate variability (HRV) in time (standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals [SDNN], root-mean square of differences [RMSSD] and percentage of adjacent NN intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms [pNN50]) and frequency (low frequency [LF], high frequency [HF] and LF/HF ratio) domains. HRV was recorded at rest for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the volunteers were exposed to one of the two musical styles (classical baroque or heavy metal music) for five minutes through an earphone, followed by a five-minute period of rest, and then they were exposed to the other style for another five minutes. The subjects were exposed to three equivalent sound levels (60-70dB, 70-80dB and 80-90dB). The sequence of songs was randomized for each individual. Auditory stimulation with heavy metal music did not influence HRV indices in the time and frequency domains in the three equivalent sound level ranges. The same was observed with classical baroque musical auditory stimulation with the three equivalent sound level ranges. Musical auditory stimulation of different intensities did not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men.

  2. Hearing loss in the developing world: evaluating the iPhone mobile device as a screening tool.

    PubMed

    Peer, S; Fagan, J J

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have the world's highest prevalence of hearing loss, and hearing screening programmes are scarce. Mobile devices such as smartphones have potential for audiometric testing. To evaluate the uHear app using an Apple iPhone as a possible hearing screening tool in the developing world, and to determine accuracy of certain hearing thresholds that could prove useful in early detection of hearing loss for high-risk populations in resource-poor communities. This was a quasi-experimental study design. Participants recruited from the Otolaryngology Clinic, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, completed a uHear test in three settings--waiting room (WR), quiet roon (QR) and soundproof room (SR). Thresholds were compared with formal audiograms. Twenty-five patients were tested (50 ears). The uHear test detected moderate or worse hearing loss (pure-tone average (PTA) > 40 dB accurately with a sensitivity of 100% in all three environments. Specificity was 88% (SR), 73% (QR) and 68% (WR). Its was highly accurate in detecting high-frequency hearing loss (2 000, 4 000, 6 000 Hz) in the QR and SR with 'good' and 'very good' kappa values, showing statistical significance (p < 0.05). It was moderately accurate in low-frequency hearing loss (250, 500, 1 000 Hz) in the SR, and poor in the QR and WR. Using the iPhone, uHear is a feasible screening test to rule out significant hearing loss (PTA > 40 dB). It is highly sensitive for detecting threshold changes at high frequencies, making it reasonably well suited to detect presbycusis and ototoxic hearing loss from HIV, tuberculosis therapy and chemotherapy. Portability and ease of use make it appropriate to use in developing world communities that lack screening programmes.

  3. Field and laboratory studies of moving and temporally variable noise sources (aircraft); perception of location, movement, and direction.

    PubMed

    Gunn, W J; Shigehisa, T; Shepherd, W T

    1979-10-01

    The conditions were examined under which more valid and reliable estimates could be made of the effects of aircraft noise on people. In Exper. 1, 12 Ss in 2 different houses directly under the flight path of a major airport (JFK) indicated 1 of 12 possible flight paths (4 directly overhead and 8 to one side) for each of 3 jet aircraft flyovers: 3% of cases in House A and 56% in House B (which had open windows) were correctly identified. Despite judgment inaccuracy, Ss were more than moderately certain of the correctness of their judgments. In Exper. II. Ss either inside or outside of 2 houses in Wallops Station, Virginia, indicated on diagrams the direction of flyovers. Each of 4 aircraft (Boeing 737, C-54, UE-1 helicopter, Queenaire) made 8 flyovers directly over the houses and 8 to one side. Windows were either open or closed. All flyovers and conditions were counterbalanced. All sound sources under all conditions were usually judged to be overhead and moving, but for Ss indoors with windows closed the to-the-side flyovers were judged to be off to the side in 24% of cases. Outdoor Ss reported correct direction in 75% of cases while indoor Ss were correct in only 25% (windows open) or 18% (windows closed). Judgments "to the side" were significantly better (p = less than .02) with windows open vs closed, while with windows closed judgments were significantly better (p = less than .05) for flyovers overhead vs to the side. In Exper. III, Ss localized in azimuth and in the vertical plane recorded noises (10 1-oct noise bands of CF = 28.12 c/s - 14.4kc/s, spoken voice, and jet aircraft takeoffs and landings), presented through 1, 2, or 4 floor-level loudspeakers at each corner of a simulated living room (4.2 x 5.4m)built inside an IAC soundproof room. Aircraft noises presented by 4 loudspeakers were localized as "directly" overhead 80% of the time and "generally overhead" about 90% of the time; other sounds were so localized about 50% and 75% of the time respectively

  4. Symbolic Analysis of Heart Rate Variability During Exposure to Musical Auditory Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Garner, David Matthew; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the application of nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has increased. However, studies on the influence of music on cardiac autonomic modulation in those circumstances are rare. The research team aimed to evaluate the acute effects on HRV of selected auditory stimulation by 2 musical styles, measuring the results using nonlinear methods of analysis: Shannon entropy, symbolic analysis, and correlation-dimension analysis. Prospective control study in which the volunteers were exposed to music and variables were compared between control (no auditory stimulation) and during exposure to music. All procedures were performed in a sound-proofed room at the Faculty of Science and Technology at São Paulo State University (UNESP), São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were 22 healthy female students, aged between 18 and 30 y. Prior to the actual intervention, the participants remained at rest for 20 min, and then they were exposed to one of the selected types of music, either classical baroque (64-84 dB) or heavy-metal (75-84 dB). Each musical session lasted a total of 5 min and 15 s. At a point occurring up to 1 wk after that day, the participants listened to the second type of music. The 2 types of music were delivered in a random sequence that depended on the group to which the participant was assigned. The study analyzed the following HRV indices through Shannon entropy; symbolic analysis-0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, and 2ULV%; and correlation-dimension analysis. During exposure to auditory stimulation by heavy-metal or classical baroque music, the study established no statistically significant variations regarding the indices for the Shannon entropy; the symbolic analysis-0V%, 1V%, and 2ULV%; and the correlation-dimension analysis. However, during heavy-metal music, the 2LV% index in the symbolic analysis was reduced compared with the controls. Auditory stimulation with the heavy-metal music reduced the parasympathetic modulation of HRV

  5. Oral Contraceptives Attenuate Cardiac Autonomic Responses to Musical Auditory Stimulation: Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Milan, Réveni Carmem; Plassa, Bruna Oliveira; Guida, Heraldo Lorena; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Gomes, Rayana L; Garner, David M; Valenti, Vitor E

    2015-01-01

    The literature presents contradictory results regarding the effects of contraceptives on cardiac autonomic regulation. The research team aimed to evaluate the effects of musical auditory stimulation on cardiac autonomic regulation in women who use oral contraceptives. The research team designed a transversal observational pilot study. The setting was the Centro de Estudos do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo (CESNA) in the Departamento de Fonoaudiologia at the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) in Marília, SP, Brazil. Participants were 22 healthy nonathletic and nonsedentary females, all nonsmokers and aged between 18 and 27 y. Participants were divided into 2 groups: (1) 12 women who were not taking oral contraceptives, the control group; and (2) 10 women who were taking oral contraceptives, the oral contraceptive group. In the first stage, a rest control, the women sat with their earphones turned off for 20 min. After that period, the participants were exposed to 20 min of classical baroque music (ie, "Canon in D Major," Johann Pachelbel), at 63-84 dB. Measurements of the equivalent sound levels were conducted in a soundproof room, and the intervals between consecutive heartbeats (R-R intervals) were recorded, with a sampling rate of 1000 Hz. For calculation of the linear indices, the research team used software to perform an analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Linear indices of HRV were analyzed in the time domain: (1) the standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN), (2) the root-mean square of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals in a time interval (RMSSD), and (3) the percentage of adjacent R-R intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms (pNN50). The study also analyzed the frequency domain-low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio. For the control group, the musical auditory stimulation reduced (1) the SDNN from 52.2 ± 10 ms to 48.4 ± 16 ms (P = .0034); (2) the RMSSD from 45.8 ± 22 ms to 41.2

  6. Multiscale Simulation of Moist Global Atmospheric Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    The overarching goal of this award was to include phase changes of the water substance and accompanying latent heating and precipitation processes into the all-scale nonhydrostatic atmospheric dynamics EUlerian/LAGrangian (EULAG) model. The model includes fluid flow solver that is based on either an unabbreviated set of the governing equations (i.e., compressible dynamics) or a simplified set of equations without sound waves (i.e., sound-proof, either anelastic or pseudo-incompressible). The latter set has been used in small-scale dynamics for decades, but its application to the all-scale dynamics (from small-scale to planetary) has never been studied in practical implementations. The highlight of themore » project is the development of the moist implicit compressible model that can be run by applying time steps, as long as the anelastic model is limited only by the computational stability of the fluid flow and not by the speed of sound waves that limit the stability of explicit compressible models. Applying various versions of the EULAG model within the same numerical framework allows for an unprecedented comparison of solutions obtained with various sets of the governing equations and straightforward evaluation of the impact of various physical parameterizations on the model solutions. The main outcomes of this study are reported in three papers, two published and one currently under review. These papers include comparisons between model solutions for idealized moist problems across the range of scales from small to planetary. These tests include: moist thermals rising in the stable-stratified environment (following Grabowski and Clark, J. Atmos. Sci. 1991) and in the moist-neutral environment (after Bryan and Fritsch, Mon. Wea. Rev. 2002), moist flows over a mesoscale topography (as in Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz, Mon. Wea. Rev. 2002), deep convection in a sheared environment (following Weisman and Klemp, Mon. Wea. Rev. 1982), moist extension of the baroclinic

  7. Alpha brain-wave neurofeedback training reduces psychopathology in a cohort of male and female Canadian aboriginals.

    PubMed

    Hardt, James V

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine if alpha brain-wave neurofeedback training can have positive psychological results by reducing anxiety and other psychopathology. The cohort participated in alpha brain-wave neurofeedback training for 76 minutes (day 1) to 120 or more minutes (days 5-7) daily for 7 days. Electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes were attached to the head with conductive gel according to the 10-20 International Electrode Placement System. During training, participants were seated in a comfortable armchair within a soundproof and lightproof room. Brain-wave signals were amplified for processing by analog-to-digital converters and polygraphs, then filtered to the pure delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands as well as subbands of these bands of the EEG. For 2-minute epochs, trainees sat with their eyes closed in the dark listening to their feedback tones as the filtered alpha brain-wave EEG signals controlled the loudness of the tones. Then a "ding" sounded and the tones stopped. For 8 seconds, a monitor lit up with dimly illuminated, static numbers, indicating the strength of their alpha brain waves, after which the feedback tones resumed and the process was repeated. 40 adult volunteers were recruited from the aboriginal population (First Nations, Métis, and Inuit) of Canada. The cohort ranged in age from 25 to 60 years and included males and females. The study was conducted at Biocybernaut Institute of Canada in Victoria, British Columbia. Data was obtained to determine the effectiveness of this training by giving four psychological tests (Minnesota Multi-Phasic Personality Inventory, and the trait forms of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List, Clyde Mood Scale, and Profile of Mood States) on the first day prior to commencing training and on the seventh day upon completion of the training. EEG data was also compiled throughout the training and analyzed as a factor of the training process. Postintervention data showed positive results with

  8. Acute high-intensity noise induces rapid Arc protein expression but fails to rapidly change GAD expression in amygdala and hippocampus of rats: Effects of treatment with D-cycloserine.

    PubMed

    Kapolowicz, M R; Thompson, L T

    2016-12-01

    Tinnitus is a devastating auditory disorder impacting a growing number of people each year. The aims of the current experiment were to assess neuronal mechanisms involved in the initial plasticity after traumatic noise exposure that could contribute to the emergence of tinnitus and to test a potential pharmacological treatment to alter this early neural plasticity. Specifically, this study addressed rapid effects of acute noise trauma on amygdalo-hippocampal circuitry, characterizing biomarkers of both excitation and inhibition in these limbic regions, and compared them to expression of these same markers in primary auditory cortex shortly after acute noise trauma. To assess excitatory plasticity, activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein expression was evaluated in male rats 45 min after bilateral exposure to acute high-intensity noise (16 kHz, 115 dB SPL, for 1 h), sufficient to cause acute cochlear trauma, a common cause of tinnitus in humans and previously shown sufficient to induce tinnitus in rat models of this auditory neuropathology. Western blot analyses confirmed that up-regulation of amygdalo-hippocampal Arc expression occurred rapidly post-noise trauma, corroborating several lines of evidence from our own and other laboratories indicating that limbic brain structures, i.e. outside of the classical auditory pathways, exhibit plasticity early in the initiation of tinnitus. Western blot analyses revealed no noise-induced changes in amygdalo-hippocampal expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the biosynthetic enzyme required for GABAergic inhibition. No changes in either Arc or GAD protein expression were observed in primary auditory cortex in this immediate post-noise exposure period, confirming other reports that auditory cortical plasticity may not occur until later in the development of tinnitus. As a further control, our experiments compared Arc protein expression between groups exposed to the quiet background of a sound-proof

  9. Auxetics in smart systems and structures 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Fabrizio; Ruzzene, Massimo; Alderson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W.

    2013-08-01

    Auxetics comes from the Greek (auxetikos), meaning 'that which tends to expand'. The term indicates specifically materials and structures with negative Poisson's ratio (NPR). Although the Poisson's ratio is a mechanical property, auxetic solids have shown evidence of multifunctional characteristics, ranging from increased stiffness and indentation resistance, to energy absorption under static and dynamic loading, soundproofing qualities and dielectric tangent loss. NPR solids and structures have also been used in the past as material platforms to build smart structural systems. Auxetics in general can be considered also a part of the 'negative materials' field, which includes solids and structures exhibiting negative thermal expansion, negative stiffness and compressibility. All these unusual deformation characteristics have the potential to provide a significant contribution to the area of smart materials systems and structures. In this focus issue, we are pleased to present some examples of novel multifunctional behaviors provided by auxetic, negative stiffness and negative compressibility in smart systems and structures. Particular emphasis has been placed upon the multidisciplinary and systems approach provided by auxetics and negative materials, also with examples applied to energy absorption, vibration damping, structural health monitoring and active deployment aspects. Three papers in this focus issue provide significant new clarifications on the role of auxeticity in the mechanical behavior of shear deformation in plates (Lim), stress wave characteristics (Lim again), and thermoelastic damping (Maruszewski et al ). Kochmann and Venturini describe the performance of auxetic composites in finite strain elasticity. New types of microstructures for auxetic systems are depicted for the first time in three works by Ge et al , Zhang et al , and Kim and co-workers. Tubular auxetic structures and their mechanical performance are also analyzed by Karnessis and

  10. [Telepsychiatry at the service of autism].

    PubMed

    Saint-André, S; Neira Zalentein, W; Robin, D; Lazartigues, A

    2011-02-01

    format for the meeting, to distribute speaking time fairly, to clearly formulate the decisions made (organisation of results, summing up diagnostic results and evaluation of competencies, common institutional actions, arrangement of projects, university research and trainings, scheduling future meetings). Still using their experiences, the authors put forward several recommendations on technology, video and audio links (framing, sound checks, multidirectional microphones, video quality - forcing people to limit rapid gestures…) but also insist on having fit for purpose rooms (soundproofing, neutral decor, homogenous lighting, neon for example…). Contact with patients and their family through video-conference: despite being used less, this technique has shown its pertinence especially for the evaluation of diagnostics and competencies. In practice, the families are joined by the health professionals in charge of the patient in that institution. A meeting chair must be nominated, in our case the doctor in charge of the unit for autistic persons. The doctor from the CRA sits in on the meeting as consulting expert and intervenes at the invitation of the chair. The plan for the meeting and the must-ask questions have to be determined beforehand by the two doctors, so as make sure the meeting will be fast flowing and all the relevant clinical and biographical data are collated. Families, seeing different institutions working together to help their family member despite the distances using high tech solutions, were very satisfied. On the whole, the authors help us to have good insight into the obstacles (cultural, administrative, technological) and the benefits (availability of consultants with specific competencies, reduction in the waiting time, more efficient use of resources, reduction in costs and risks of travel and of CO(2) emissions…). They believe that health professionals cannot and should not completely avoid travel to the other sites because it is important to