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Sample records for sour gas processing

  1. ASSESSMENT OF SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE AT SOUR GAS PROCESSING PLANT SITES-PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen

    1999-02-01

    Alkanolamines are commonly used by the natural gas industry to remove hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and other acid gases from the natural gas in which they occur (''sour'' gas if hydrogen sulfide is present). At sour gas-processing plants, as at all plants that use alkanolamines for acid gas removal (AGR), spills and on-site management of wastes containing alkanolamines and associated reaction products have occasionally resulted in subsurface contamination that is presently the focus of some environmental concern. In 1994, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) initiated a three-phase program to investigate the natural attenuation processes that control the subsurface transport and fate of the most commonly used alkanolamine in Canada, monoethanolamine (MEA). Funding for the MEA research program was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. (CanOxy), Gas Research Institute (GRI), Environment Canada, and the National Energy Board of Canada. The MEA research program focused primarily on examining the biodegradability of MEA and MEA-related waste materials in soils and soil-slurries under a variety of environmentally relevant conditions, evaluating the mobility of MEA in soil and groundwater and the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques for removing contaminants and toxicity from MEA-contaminated soil. The presently inactive Okotoks sour gas-processing plant, owned by CanOxy in Alberta, Canada, was the source of samples and field data for much of the laboratory-based experimental work and was selected to be the location for the field-based efforts to evaluate remediation techniques. The objective of the research program is to provide the natural gas industry with ''real world'' data and insights developed under laboratory and field conditions regarding the effective and environmentally sound use of biological methods for the remediation of soil

  2. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  3. Sour gas distribution in the Amudaria Basin, Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, D.; Ivlev, A.; Shkutnik, E.

    1995-08-01

    The Amudaria Basin is the main sour-gas bearing region in Central Asia. In this region, sour gases occur in Upper Jurassic carbonate-reservoir rocks as well as in terrigenous rocks of Cretareous age, but the Upper Jurassic sulfate-carbonate complex is the main sour-gas bearing and producing complex. The chemical and isotopic composition of fluids in Upper Jurassic rocks show that sulfate reduction is the main process responsible for sour gas formation in the central part of the basin, where Kimmeridgian-Tithonian evaporites occur. The H{sub 2}S content of gases varies widely (0 to 10 percent by volume), even within similar carbonate traps located close to one another in the same temperature zone. Analyses of sour-gas distribution and composition in fluids in these areas indicate the main factors which control the variation of H{sub 2}S content in Upper Jurassic hydrocarbon pools in the same temperature zones. These factors include (1) the carbonate sediment facies type (shelf, barrier reef, deep water facies), and (2) within the same facies, the characteristics of traps and pools (tight, gentle, structural, phase-type, etc). The most favorable conditions for H{sub 2}S accumulation occur in hydrocarbon pools confined to the barrier reef flat and the parts of the shelf closest to it. The least favorable conditions are in pools confined to local reefs or carbonate build-ups located within the deep-water facies zone. These results are important for the prediction of H{sub 2}S in hydrocarbon pools. In most cases, H{sub 2}S in the Cretaceous complex is epigenetic. With the exception of Central Karakum zone H{sub 2}S distribution in this complex depends on the distribution and composition of Upper Jurassic evaporites.

  4. Sour-gas sweetening during offshore drillsteam tests; A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Casselman, R.L. )

    1990-03-01

    This case history details the use of a sour-gas sweetener on two exploratory well drillstem tests (DST's) offshore California. Also included is a brief description of the process and comments on future plans. This case history is intended to show that the process can be applied effectively in a sour-gas offshore DST. It shows performance on each of the exploratory wells and explains the solutions initiated to mitigate problems incurred in subsequent DST's.

  5. Inhibitors, cladded trees protect sour gas wells in Abu Dhabi

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, K.M. )

    1994-06-13

    Continuous chemical inhibition has prevented corrosion downhole, and tests indicate that Inconel 625 cladding will protect the christmas trees on wells producing sour gas from the Thamama C reservoir. Metallic corrosion is a costly problem. Estimates indicate that corrosion costs the oil industry several billion dollars per year. In addition, oil companies spend over $100 million/year on corrosion inhibitors for combating downhole tubular and casing corrosion. Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. (Adnoc) has successfully completed wells in extremely harsh operating conditions with high temperatures, pressures, and high concentrations of H[sub 2]S, CO[sub 2], and brine. Such environments require special materials for downhole and surface equipment. The Thamama C reservoir, in an onshore gas field, produces gas containing H[sub 2]S and CO[sub 2] in the range of 0.7--8.0 mole % and 4.0--8.0 mole %, respectively. The Thamama C gas-gathering system comprises 19 wells connected to four trunk lines that transport produced gas and associated condensate to a central processing plant. The paper discusses material and inhibitor selection.

  6. Anode materials for sour natural gas solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovic, Nemanja

    Novel anode catalysts have been developed for sour natural gas solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Sour natural gas comprises light hydrocarbons, and typically also contains H2S. An alternative fuel SOFC that operates directly on sour natural gas would reduce the overall cost of plant construction and operation for fuel cell power generation. The anode for such a fuel cell must have good catalytic and electrocatalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion, sulfur-tolerance, resistance to coking, and good electronic and ionic conductivity. The catalytic activity and stability of ABO3 (A= La, Ce and/or Sr, B=Cr and one or more of Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, or Co) perovskites as SOFC anode materials depends on both A and B, and are modified by substituents. The materials have been prepared by both solid state and wet-chemical methods. The physical and chemical characteristics of the materials have been fully characterized using electron microscopy, XRD, calorimetry, dilatometry, particle size and area, using XPS and TGA-DSC-MS. Electrochemical performance was determined using potentiodynamic and potentiostatic cell testing, electrochemical impedance analysis, and conductivity measurements. Neither Ce0.9Sr0.1VO3 nor Ce0.9 Sr0.1Cr0.5V0.5O3 was an active anode for oxidation of H2 and CH4 fuels. However, active catalysts comprising Ce0:9Sr0:1V(O,S)3 and Ce0.9Sr 0.1Cr0.5V0.5(O,S)3 were formed when small concentrations of H2S were present in the fuels. The oxysulfides formed in-situ were very active for conversion of H2S. The maximum performance improved from 50 mW cm-2 to 85 mW cm -2 in 0.5% H2S/CH4 at 850°C with partial substitution of V by Cr in Ce0.9Sr0.1V(O,S)3. Selective conversion of H2S offers potential for sweetening of sour gas without affecting the hydrocarbons. Perovskites La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5X 0.5O3--delta, (henceforth referred to as LSCX, X=Ti, Mn, Fe, Co) are active for conversion of H2, CH4 and 0.5% H2S/CH4. The order of activity in the different fuels depends on

  7. Design of dual lateral completion in a sour gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M.W.

    1997-11-01

    For the Siedenburg Z-6a sour gas well, completion options for separate stimulation and single or commingled production of both laterals are addressed, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The drilling and well completion concept and necessary modifications of downhole equipment due to existing well conditions are described. Coiled tubing runs proved to be a key issue in the project; the design of required coiled tubing tools is described. The implementation of the project and completion equipment, which was applied for the first time within Mobil, are presented and conclusions for future projects are summarized.

  8. BIODESULF(TM), A Novel Biological Technology for the Removal of H2S From Sour Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, K.C.; Stashick, J.J.; Johnson, P.E.; Kaushik, N.K.

    1997-10-01

    The state-of-the-art technologies for the removal of sulfur compounds from Sour Natural Gas (SNG) are not cost-effective when scaled down to approximately 2-5 MMSCFD. At the same time, the SNG Production is increasing at 3-6 TCF/Yr and -78 TCF potential reserves are also sour. Assuming only 3% treatment of this potential SNG market is for small volume processing, the potential U.S. Market is worth $0.14 to $0.28 billion. Therefore, the Gas Processing Industry is seeking novel, cost-effective, environmentally compatible and operator friendly technologies applicable to the small volume producers in the range of less than 1 MMSCFD to - 5 MMSCFD. A novel biological process, BIODESTJLFTM (patent pending), developed at ARCTECH removes H{sub 2}S and other sulfur contaminants that make the Natural Gas Sour. The removal is accomplished by utilizing an adapted mixed microbial culture (consortium). A variety of anaerobic microbial consortia from ARCTECH`s Microbial Culture Collection were grown and tested for removal of H{sub 2}S. One of these consortia, termed SS-11 was found to be particularly effective. Utilizing the SS-11 consortium, a process has been developed on a laboratory-scale to remove sulfur species from Sour Natural Gas at well head production pressures and temperatures. The process has been independently evaluated and found to be promising in effectively removing H{sub 2}S and other sulfur species cost effectively.

  9. The Role of Volcanic Sour Gas on the Alteration of Martian Basalt: Insights from Geochemical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, G.; Treguier, E.; D'Uston, C.; Pinet, P.; Toplis, M. J.

    2008-03-01

    We assess the chemical constraints of the alteration of basaltic material by a cold aqueous phase under atmospheric sour gas containing SO3. Secondary chemistry and mineralogy are calculated by a geochemical simulator and compared to MER data.

  10. CrystaSulf{sup SM} liquid redox and TDA gas phase H{sub 2}S conversion technologies for sour gas treating

    SciTech Connect

    Dalrymple, D.A.; Deberry, D.W.; Srinivas, G.

    1999-07-01

    Sour natural gas that contains hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) accounts for 15 to 25% of the gas processed in the US. Worldwide, as much as 30% of the gas reserves are sour. The need for more cost-effective approaches to process subquality gas is becoming more evident as new drilling occurs deeper within existing fields and in new fields. These types of producing zones tend to be sour. Gas containing very small amounts of sulfur (e.g., less than 0.2 long tons per day (LTPD)) can be cost-effectively treated with nonregenerable scavengers. This can be performed by injecting a liquid scavenger directly into a pipe containing the sour gas (direct injection) or by passing the sour gas through a tower containing a liquid or solid scavenger. Gas containing more than 25 to 30 LTPD of sulfur is generally processed by first separating the acid gases with an amine unit and then processing the amine offgas in a Claus plant to produce molten elemental sulfur. However, gas streams with sulfur amounts between 0.2 and 25 LTPD have generally posed treatment challenges to industry. This paper describes two emerging technologies for treating gases containing H{sub 2}S--the CrystaSulf{sup SM} liquid redox process and the TDA gas phase direct oxidation process. Both convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur and both are being pilot tested during 1999. Radian International is commercializing both processes. CrystaSulf appears to be well suited to treat sour streams containing between 0.2 and 25 LTPD of sulfur. CrystaSulf can achieve sulfur control efficiencies of 99.8% or greater and can be applied directly to sour streams or to tailgases from amine units or Clause plants. The TDA direct oxidation process provides a cost effective way to treat amine unit tailgas and in a single stage can achieve 85 to 97% sulfur control efficiencies for that stream. Following successful pilot plant testing, both processes will be available commercially.

  11. Microbially-enhanced redox solution reoxidation for sweetening sour natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, C.

    1995-06-01

    About twenty five percent of natural gas produced in the United States is sour containing significant volumes of hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants. Liquid redox processes remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. Aqueous solution of chelated ferric ions oxidize the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The reduced iron chelate is then oxidized by contact with air and recycled. This requires expensive equipment for regeneration, costly chemicals and the process is usually energy intensive. Recent studies show that the ferric ion regeneration rates are substantially enhanced in presence of acidophilic bacteria. The specific objectives of this project are to advance the technology and improve the economics of the commercial iron-based chelate processes utilizing biologically-enhanced reoxidation of the redox solutions used in these processes, such as LO-CAT II and SulFerox.

  12. Identifying Optimal Zeolitic Sorbents for Sweetening of Highly Sour Natural Gas.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mansi S; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2016-05-10

    Raw natural gas is a complex mixture comprising methane, ethane, other hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. For sour gas fields, selective and energy-efficient removal of H2 S is one of the crucial challenges facing the natural-gas industry. Separation using nanoporous materials, such as zeolites, can be an alternative to energy-intensive amine-based absorption processes. Herein, the adsorption of binary H2 S/CH4 and H2 S/C2 H6 mixtures in the all-silica forms of 386 zeolitic frameworks is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Adsorption of a five-component mixture is utilized to evaluate the performance of the 16 most promising materials under close-to-real conditions. It is found that depending on the fractions of CH4 , C2 H6 , and CO2 , different sorbents allow for optimal H2 S removal and hydrocarbon recovery.

  13. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  14. Sour gas plant remediation technology research and demonstration project, Task 7.53. Topical report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.; Schmit, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. Research performed under this project was designed to supplement and be coordinated with research activities being conducted at an operational sour gas plant located in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada. These research tasks included hydrogeological site characterization, subsurface contaminant characterization, ex situ treatment of groundwater, and subsurface remediation of residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Ex situ treatment of groundwater included evaluations of air stripping, steam stripping, advanced oxidation, and biological treatment, as well as the development of an artificial freeze crystallization process. Soil vapor extraction was evaluated as a technique to address residual contamination in the unsaturated zone.

  15. Understanding Microbial Reservoir Souring and Desouring Processes Using Reactive Transport Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Hubbard, C. G.; Hubbard, S. S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Li, L.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Coates, J. D.; Surasani, V.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction is the major metabolic process that leads to oil reservoir souring. Souring typically occurs when (sea)water is injected into the oil reservoir to maintain pressure and sweep remnant oil through the reservoir. Because biogenesis of hydrogen sulfide has detrimental impacts on oil production operations and can cause significant environmental and health problems, we strive to develop predictive understanding of reservoir souring and associated mitigation processes. Recent laboratory sediment column experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate treatments as souring control strategies. In this study, we describe the development of a reactive transport model that is based on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics revealed through the column experimental data. The model was used to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of the primary chemical species (e.g. sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate) and the microbial dynamics involved in the souring and desouring processes. The growth and inhibition dynamics of the sulfate reducing bacterial population are explicitly simulated and constrained by energetics. Simulation of the laboratory experimental results show that the model captured the spatio-temporal trend of the chemical species and microbial guilds during both souring and desouring. Ongoing research is focusing on extending the reactive transport model to mechanistically understand, quantify, and predict souring and desouring processes within heterogeneous reservoirs as a step toward optimizing field scale souring control strategies.

  16. Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Thomas David

    2009-11-03

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing acidic gas to a subsurface formation is described herein. The method may include providing heat from one or more heaters to a portion of a subsurface formation; producing fluids that include one or more acidic gases from the formation using a heat treatment process. At least a portion of one of the acidic gases may be introduced into the formation, or into another formation, through one or more wellbores at a pressure below a lithostatic pressure of the formation in which the acidic gas is introduced.

  17. Gas souring by thermochemical sulfate reduction at 140{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.H.; Smalley, P.C.; Oxtoby, N.H.

    1995-06-01

    Natural gas in the Permian-Triassic Khuff Formation of Abu Dhabi contains variable amounts of H{sub 2}S. Gas souring occurred through thermochemical sulfate reduction of anhydrite by hydrocarbon gases. Sour gas is observed only in reservoirs hotter than a critical reaction temperature: 140{degrees}C. Petrographic examination of core from a wide depth range showed that the anhydrite reactant has been replaced by calcite reaction product only in samples deeper than 4300 m. Gas composition data show that only reservoirs deeper than 4300 m contain large quantities of H{sub 2}S (i.e., >10%). At present-day geothermal gradients, 4300 m is equivalent to 140{degrees}C. Fluid inclusion analysis of calcite reaction product has shown that calcite growth only became significant at temperatures greater than 140{degrees}C. Thus, three independent indicators all show that 140{degrees}C is the critical temperature above which gas souring by thermochemical sulfate reduction begins. The previously suggested lower temperature thresholds for other sour gas provinces (80-130{degrees}C) derive from gas composition data that may not allow adequately either for the reservoir temperature history or for the migration of gas generated at higher temperatures into present traps. Conversely, published proposals for higher threshold temperature (180-200{degrees}C) derive from short duration experimental data that are not easily extrapolated to geologically realistic temperatures and time scales. Therefore, the temperature of 140{degrees}C derived from our study of the Khuff Formation may be the best estimate of temperature required for in-situ thermochemical sulfate reduction to produce the high H{sub 2}S concentrations encountered in deep carbonate gas reservoirs.

  18. Burst test of a vessel under wet sour gas conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Szklarz, K.E.; Bowker, J.; Orr, R.

    1997-09-01

    A sour burst test of a pressure vessel is described and the results given. The vessel was inspected for existing defects, material properties tested, integrity analyzed and artificial defects introduced before the vessel was subjected to a worst-case environment causing hydrogen charging. The vessel had existing hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) and some vertical weld defects. Laboratory materials testing in the hydrogen-charging environment showed the vessel was susceptible to HIC damage, showed no yield strength reduction, reduced plastic ductility in rising load but exhibited a brittleness under high plastic strain. No existing or artificial defect initialed the final burst. Sulfide stress cracking (SSC) initiated at a weld produced with temper-bead capping passes but no post weld heat treatment. The vessel survived to 1.2 times actual yield or more than four times its license pressure but the vessel did exhibit a decrease in plastic ductility. Monitoring during the burst test showed that the vessel had been significantly charged with hydrogen.

  19. Optimization of frozen sour cherries vacuum drying process.

    PubMed

    Sumić, Zdravko; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vidović, Senka; Jokić, Stela; Malbaša, Radomir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum-drying of frozen sour cherries in order to preserve health-beneficial phytochemicals, as well as textural characteristics. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and, of pressure, 17-583mbar, in a new design of vacuum-dryer equipment. The total solids, a(w) value, total phenolics, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content, total colour change and firmness were used as quality indicators of dried sour cherry. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 54.03°C and 148.16mbar were established for vacuum drying of sour cherry. Separate validation experiments were conducted, under optimum conditions, to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 744mg CAE/100 dw, vitamin C 1.44mg/100g per dry weight (g dw), anthocyanin content 125mg/100g dw, IC(50) 3.23mg/ml, total solids 70.72%, a(w) value 0.646, total colour change 52.61 and firmness 3395.4g. The investigated parameters had a significant effect on the quality of the dried sour cherries.

  20. Distribution of sulfur deposition near a wellbore in a sour gas reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinghong; Yang, Xuefeng; He, ShunLi; Zhao, Jinzhou

    2013-02-01

    Elemental sulfur precipitates from sour gas when reservoir pressure and temperature decrease. Sulfur deposition in a formation may significantly reduce the inflow performance of sour gas wells. This paper develops a micro-mechanical migration model and experiments which describe the law of sulfur precipitation, plugging and distribution near a wellbore. Based on the analysis of the sulfur deposition law and micro-mechanical migration theory, elemental sulfur mechanical models in pores are presented. The critical velocity of sulfur is calculated and the rule of precipitated sulfur distribution near a wellbore is deduced. Reservoir cores and supersaturated sour gas are utilized to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in sulfur damage experiments, and the main influential factor is analysed. According to the models and experimental results, precipitated sulfur can decrease reservoir permeability. The liquid bridge force is the most important factor to affect reservoir permeability due to sulfur deposition. Precipitated sulfur cannot be carried away from pores if the liquid bridge force is considered; the critical velocity increases as the diameter of the sulfur particles increases, which may cause serious formation damage. Moreover, it can be seen from the results that the biggest volume of sulfur deposition does not occur at the bottom but near the bottom of a borehole. These results can be used to describe the profile of dynamic sulfur deposition and help a reservoir engineer to develop a plan for removing the sulfur near a wellbore.

  1. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOEpatents

    Kustes, William A.; Hausberger, Arthur L.

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  2. Chronic exposure to sour gas emissions: meeting a community concern with epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, W O; Dales, R E; Schechter, M T; Suissa, S; Tousignant, P; Steinmetz, N; Hutcheon, M E

    1989-01-01

    For 25 years residents of a rural area in southwestern Alberta have complained of health problems attributed to sour gas emissions from nearby natural gas refineries. We undertook a large epidemiologic study of the current health status and the selected morbidity rates among 2152 people in the exposed area. We established two comparison groups: one was a demographically similar unexposed population and the other a demographically different group also exposed to sour gas emissions in another region. The methods included a cross-sectional survey of current residents and separate historical cohort studies involving registry linkage to investigate cancer incidence and all-cause mortality. The cross-sectional survey involved a comprehensive health questionnaire, standardized clinical examinations by physicians blinded to the subjects' symptoms and concerns, and several laboratory tests. We were able to contact just under 60% of the people who we knew had moved from each area since 1958 and found no evidence of selective migration for health reasons. Although the residents of the exposed area reported an excess number of symptoms and health problems there were no significant differences in the mortality rate, incidence of cancer, reproductive problems, major ailments, hair levels of arsenic and certain metals or respiratory function between the groups. PMID:2790604

  3. Microbially-Enhanced Redox Solution Reoxidation for Sour Natural Gas Sweetening

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Brezinsky

    2008-01-15

    The specific objective of this project are to advance the technology and improve the economics of the commercial iron-based chelate processes such as LO-CAT II and SulFerox process utilizing biologically enhanced reoxidation of the redox solutions used in these processes. The project is based on the use of chelated ferric iron as the catalyst for the production of elemental sulfur, and then oxidizing bacteria, such as Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans (ATCC 23270) as an oxidizer. The regeneration of Fe{sup 3+} - chelate is accomplished by the use of these same microbes under mild conditions at 25-30 C and at atmospheric pressure to minimize the chelate degradation process. The pH of the redox solution was observed to be a key process parameter. Other parameters such as temperature, total iron concentration, gas to liquid ratio and bacterial cell densities also influence the overall process. The second part of this project includes experimental data and a kinetic model of microbial H{sub 2}S removal from sour natural gas using thiobacillus species. In the experimental part, a series of experiments were conducted with a commercial chelated iron catalyst at pH ranges from 8.7 to 9.2 using a total iron concentration range from 925 ppm to 1050 ppm in the solution. Regeneration of the solution was carried out by passing air through the solution. Iron oxidizing bacteria were used at cell densities of 2.3 x 10{sup 7}cells/ml for optimum effective performance. In the modeling part, oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ions by the iron oxidizing bacteria - Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans was studied for application to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The factors that can directly affect the oxidation rate such as dilution rate, temperature, and pH were analyzed. The growth of the microorganism was assumed to follow Monod type of growth kinetics. Dilution rate had influence on the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. Higher dilution rates caused washout of the biomass. The oxidation rate was

  4. a Real-Time GIS Platform for High Sour Gas Leakage Simulation, Evaluation and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Liu, H.; Yang, C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of high-sulfur gas fields, also known as sour gas field, is faced with a series of safety control and emergency management problems. The GIS-based emergency response system is placed high expectations under the consideration of high pressure, high content, complex terrain and highly density population in Sichuan Basin, southwest China. The most researches on high hydrogen sulphide gas dispersion simulation and evaluation are used for environmental impact assessment (EIA) or emergency preparedness planning. This paper introduces a real-time GIS platform for high-sulfur gas emergency response. Combining with real-time data from the leak detection systems and the meteorological monitoring stations, GIS platform provides the functions of simulating, evaluating and displaying of the different spatial-temporal toxic gas distribution patterns and evaluation results. This paper firstly proposes the architecture of Emergency Response/Management System, secondly explains EPA's Gaussian dispersion model CALPUFF simulation workflow under high complex terrain and real-time data, thirdly explains the emergency workflow and spatial analysis functions of computing the accident influencing areas, population and the optimal evacuation routes. Finally, a well blow scenarios is used for verify the system. The study shows that GIS platform which integrates the real-time data and CALPUFF models will be one of the essential operational platforms for high-sulfur gas fields emergency management.

  5. Stopping a water crossflow in a sour-gas producing well

    SciTech Connect

    Hello, Y. Le; Woodruff, J.

    1998-09-01

    Lacq is a sour-gas field in southwest France. After maximum production of 774 MMcf/D in the 1970`s, production is now 290 MMcf/D, with a reservoir pressure of 712 psi. Despite the loss of pressure, production is maintained by adapting the surface equipment and well architecture to reservoir conditions. The original 5-in. production tubing is being replaced with 7-in. tubing to sustain production rates. During openhole cleaning, the casing collapsed in Well LA141. The primary objective was to plug all possible hydraulic communication paths into the lower zones. The following options were available: (1) re-entering the well from the top and pulling the fish before setting cement plugs; (2) sidetracking the well; and (3) drilling a relief well to intercept Well LA141 above the reservoirs. The decision was made to start with the first option and switch to a sidetrack if this option failed.

  6. Successful removal of zinc sulfide scale restriction from a hot, deep, sour gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Kenrick, A.J.; Ali, S.A.

    1997-07-01

    Removal of zinc sulfide scale with hydrochloric acid from a hot, deep, Norphlet Sandstone gas well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a 29% increase in the production rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near-wellbore area. The presence of zinc sulfide is explained by the production of 25 ppm H{sub 2}S gas, and the loss of 50--100 bbl of zinc bromide fluid to the formation. Although zinc sulfide scale has been successfully removed with hydrochloric acid in low-to-moderate temperature wells, no analogous treatment data were available for high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) Norphlet wells. Therefore laboratory testing was initiated to identify suitable acid systems for scale removal, and select a high quality corrosion inhibitor that would mitigate detrimental effects of the selected acid on downhole tubulars and surface equipment. This case history presents the first successful use of hydrochloric acid in removing zinc sulfide scale from a HTHP Norphlet sour gas well.

  7. Origin of marine sour natural gas and gas-filling model for the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Quanyou; Jin, Zhijun; Li, Jian; Hu, Anping; Bi, Changchun

    2012-09-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of natural gases from the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, Southwest China, was investigated to assess the potential gas sources and reconstruct the gas-filling history of the reservoirs. All natural gases in this field are dominated by gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-C3) with varied amounts of non-hydrocarbon components (CO2, H2S and N2). The H2S content varies with reservoir intervals. It ranges from zero to 1.84% with an average of 0.37% in the Carboniferous reservoir, from 0.05% to 0.76% with an average of 0.30% in the Permian reservoir, and from 1.09% to 18.83% with an average of 5.39% in the Lower Triassic reservoir. The gas dryness coefficient (C1/C1-3) ranges from 0.97 to 1.0 with an average of 0.99. The carbon isotopic compositions of methane and its homologues in the Wolonghe Gas Field vary widely, with δ13C1 ⩾ δ13C2 < δ13C3 in the Carboniferous and Permian gas reservoirs, and δ13C1 < δ13C2 < δ13C3 in the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation gas reservoirs. The δD1 values range from -140‰ to -100‰, with an average of -124.5‰. The δ34SH2S values in the field extend from 5.7‰ to 31.0‰, with δ34SH2S values in the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation reservoirs being much higher than those in the Carboniferous and Permian reservoirs. The sour natural gases in the field originated from cracking of oil and were sourced from the marine sapropelic organic matter at high maturity levels. The natural gases underwent alteration by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Although the limited extent TSR occurred in the Carboniferous and Permian gas reservoirs, the TSR alteration is likely to have caused the high gas dryness and the 13C enrichment of CH4. The present low content of H2S in the Carboniferous and Permian gases would be related to the loss of H2S dissolved in water under the reconstruction of these gas reservoirs. In contrast, the high H2S in the Jialingjiang Formation gases is determined by both the

  8. Sour gas plant subsurface remediation technology research and demonstration project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.

    1994-04-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), formerly the Canadian Petroleum Association (CPA), and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. The first phase of the project was completed in 1990, and consisted of a comprehensive review of all soil and groundwater monitoring data submitted to Alberta Environment by sour gas plants in accordance with the Clean Water Act (1980). That review indicated that all but one of the 45 sour gas plants for which data were available exhibited some form of impact on soil and groundwater quality. The study identified the most frequently occurring contamination situations at the sites and classified them by source, type of contaminant, and the hydrogeological characteristics of the contaminated setting. The project steering committee subsequently selected the Strachan Gas Plant, located near Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada, as a field research and remediation technology demonstration site. Research to be performed under this agreement is for activities in the areas of soil vapor extraction (SVE), bioventing, and bioremediation, all focusing on residual contamination in the unsaturated, or vadose, zone at the site, as well as evaluations of biological treatment of groundwater and ex situ soil remediation using solvent extraction in conjunction with photooxidation, solvent extraction in conjunction with microwave irradiation, and low-temperature thermal desorption.

  9. A new process for removing hydrogen sulfide from gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, K.; Allford, K.T.

    1986-01-01

    A novel, patented sour gas sweetening process was introduced to the gas processing industry in September, 1984. This new process is referred to as the one-step process in this paper. The one-step process selectively removes hydrogen sulfide from sour gases and converts dissolved hydrogen sulfide directly to sulfur in a bubble tower filled with the sweetener solution. The sweetener, a proprietary formulation, is an alkaline solution of oxidizing and buffering agents. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur is achieved by a liquid phase oxidation technique.

  10. Microorganisms of the San Francisco sour dough bread process. II. Isolation and characterization of undescribed bacterial species responsible for the souring activity.

    PubMed

    Kline, L; Sugihara, T F

    1971-03-01

    A medium was developed which permitted isolation, apparently for the first time, of the bacteria responsible for the acid production in the 100-year-old San Francisco sour dough French bread process. Some of the essential ingredients of this medium included a specific requirement for maltose at a high level, Tween 80, freshly prepared yeast extractives, and an initial pH of not over 6.0. The bacteria were gram-positive, nonmotile, catalase-negative, short to medium slender rods, indifferent to oxygen, and producers of lactic and acetic acids with the latter varying from 3 to 26% of the total. Carbon dioxide was also produced. Their requirement for maltose for rapid and heavy growth and a proclivity for forming involuted, filamentous, and pleomorphic forms raises a question as to whether they should be properly grouped with the heterofermentative lactobacilli.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sour gas effects on the eye. A historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Timothy William; Goodwin, Verona Marie; Stefani, Dennis; Strosher, Lisa

    2006-08-15

    The toxicology of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and sour gas on the eye has a long history beginning at least with Ramazzini's observations [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers--De Morbis Artificum Diatriba--1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc.; 1964. 98-99 pp.]. In contrast, a recent review by Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW Report) concluded that there is little evidence of eye irritation following short-term exposures to H(2)S at concentrations up to 100ppm and that the H(2)S literature on the eye is a series of unsubstantiated claims reproduced in review articles dating back to the 1930s [Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW report). Health effects associated with short-term exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide: a technical review, Alberta Health and Wellness, October 2002, 81pp.]. In this paper, we evaluated this claim through a historical review of the toxicology of the eye. Ramazzini noted the effects of sewer gas on the eye [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers--De Morbis Artificum Diatriba--1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc. 1964. 98-99 pp.]. Lehmann experimentally showed eye effects in men at 70-90ppm H(2)S and also in animals [Lehmann K. Experimentalle Studien uber den Einfluss technisch und hygienisch wichtiger Gase und Dampfe auf den Organismus. Arch Hyg 1892;14:135-189]. In 1923, Sayers, Mitchell and Yant reported eye effects in animals and men at 50ppm H(2)S. Barthelemy showed eye effects in animals and men at 20ppm H(2)S [Barthelemy HL. Ten years' experience with industrial hygiene in connection with the manufacture of viscose rayon. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 1939;21:141-51]. Masure experimentally showed that H(2)S is the causative agent of eye impacts in animals and men [Masure R. La Keratoconjunctivite des filatures de viscose; etude clinique and experiementale. Rev Belge Pathol 1950;20:297-341]. Michal upon microscopic examination of the rat's cornea, found nuclear pyknosis, edema and separation of cells in

  12. "Sour gas" hydrothermal jarosite: Ancient to modern acid-sulfate mineralization in the southern Rio Grande Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lueth, V.W.; Rye, R.O.; Peters, L.

    2005-01-01

    deeply circulating meteoric water. Jarosite ??34S values range from -24??? to 5???, overlapping the values for barite and gypsum at the high end of the range and for sulfides at the low end. Most ??34S values for barite are 10.6??? to 13.1???, and many ??34S values for gypsum range from 13.1??? to 13.9??? indicating that a component of aqueous sulfate was derived from Permian evaporites (??34 S=12??2???). The requisite H2SO4 for jarosite formation was derived from oxidation of H2S which was likely largely sour gas derived from the thermochemical reduction of Permian sulfate. The low ??34S values for the precursor H2S probably resulted from exchange deeper in the basin with the more abundant Permian SO42- at ???150 to 200 ??C. Jarosite formed at shallow levels after the pH buffering capacity of the host rock (typically limestone) was neutralized by precipitation of earlier minerals. Some limestone-hosted deposits contain caves that may have been caused by the low pH of the deep basin fluids due to the addition of deep-seated HF and other magmatic gases during periods of renewed rifting. Caves in other deposits may be due to sulfuric acid speleogenesis as a result of H2S incursion into oxygenated groundwaters. The isotopic data in these "sour gas" jarosite occurrences encode a record of episodic tectonic or hydrologic processes that have operated in the rift over the last 10 my. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice

    PubMed Central

    Repajić, Maja; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Kušt, Josipa; Čošić, Zrinka; Levaj, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Summary The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs. Marasca and Oblačinska) juices. Samples were collected during four processing steps: from fresh fruit prior to processing, then from pressed, filtered and concentrated juices. The content of total phenols was the same in both cultivars, but antioxidant activity (Oblačinska>Marasca) and total monomeric anthocyanins (Marasca>Oblačinska) differed. All processing steps significantly influenced the content of total phenols, total monomeric anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. In all samples four major anthocyanins were identified by HPLC with UV/VIS PDA detector, listed in the descending order based on their abundance: cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Marasca cv. contained more total anthocyanins, and contents of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3- -glucosylrutinoside. The content of total hydroxycinnamic acids was also higher in Marasca than Oblačinska cv. After processing, the concentration of all identified anthocyanins increased in both cultivars. Majority of the highest values of polyphenols were detected in the juice after pressing. The content of polyphenols and their antioxidant activity were considerably stable during industrial processing to concentrated juice. Although Marasca had higher polyphenolic content than Oblačinska, both cultivars showed promising industrial potential for processing to concentrated juice. PMID:27904351

  14. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice.

    PubMed

    Repajić, Maja; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Putnik, Predrag; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Kušt, Josipa; Čošić, Zrinka; Levaj, Branka

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs. Marasca and Oblačinska) juices. Samples were collected during four processing steps: from fresh fruit prior to processing, then from pressed, filtered and concentrated juices. The content of total phenols was the same in both cultivars, but antioxidant activity (Oblačinska>Marasca) and total monomeric anthocyanins (Marasca>Oblačinska) differed. All processing steps significantly influenced the content of total phenols, total monomeric anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. In all samples four major anthocyanins were identified by HPLC with UV/VIS PDA detector, listed in the descending order based on their abundance: cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Marasca cv. contained more total anthocyanins, and contents of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3- -glucosylrutinoside. The content of total hydroxycinnamic acids was also higher in Marasca than Oblačinska cv. After processing, the concentration of all identified anthocyanins increased in both cultivars. Majority of the highest values of polyphenols were detected in the juice after pressing. The content of polyphenols and their antioxidant activity were considerably stable during industrial processing to concentrated juice. Although Marasca had higher polyphenolic content than Oblačinska, both cultivars showed promising industrial potential for processing to concentrated juice.

  15. Souring and breakdown of cyanogenic glucosides during the processing of cassava into akyeke.

    PubMed

    Obilie, Eric Mantey; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom Kofi

    2004-05-15

    The population and composition of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota as well as the content of cyanogenic glucosides occurring at various stages of fermentation and subsequent processing of cassava roots into akyeke, a steamed sour cassava meal, were investigated. The number of lactic acid bacteria and percentage titratable acidity increased during 5 days of fermentation, but decreases were observed in the subsequent operations of 'washing' the dough with water followed by partial drying and steaming. In field and laboratory samples, Lactobacillus plantarum accounted for 59.3% and 52.3%, Lactobacillus brevis 23.3% and 22.8% and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris 14.5% and 15.8%, respectively, of all lactic acid bacteria isolated at various stages of fermentation and processing. A reduction of about 98% occurred in the total cyanogens (CN) content of cassava roots during processing, from 69.3 to 1.4 and 110.3 to 2.8 mg CN equivalent/kg dry weight for laboratory and field samples of akyeke, respectively.

  16. Applications of UT results to confirm defects findings by utilization of relevant metallurgical investigations techniques on gas/condensate pipeline working in wet sour gas environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Azhari, O. A.; Gajam, S. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The gas/condensate pipe line under investigation is a 12 inch diameter, 48 km ASTM, A106 steel pipeline, carrying hydrocarbons containing wet CO2 and H2S.The pipe line had exploded in a region 100m distance from its terminal; after 24 years of service. Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sour gas corrosion were expected due to the presence of wet H2S in the gas analysis. In other areas of pipe line ultrasonic testing was performed to determine whether the pipeline can be re-operated. The results have shown presence of internal planner defects, this was attributed to the existence of either laminations, type II inclusions or some service defects such as HIC and step wise cracking (SWC).Metallurgical investigations were conducted on fractured samples as per NACE standard (TM-0284-84). The obtained results had shown macroscopic cracks in the form of SWC, microstructure of steel had MnS inclusions. Crack sensitivity analyses were calculated and the microhardness testing was conducted. These results had confirmed that the line material was suffering from sour gas deteriorations. This paper correlates the field UT inspection findings with those methods investigated in the laboratory. Based on the results obtained a new HIC resistance material pipeline needs to be selected.

  17. Iron control in west Texas sour-gas wells provides sustained production increases

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.L.; Dill, W.R.; Besler, M.R.; McFatridge, D.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Permian Basin operators have recorded sustained production increases in oil wells by preventing precipitation of iron sulfide and other sulfur-containing species. This improvement has resulted largely from cleaning out tubing before acidizing and from preventing the precipitation of ferrous sulfide and the formation of elemental sulfur by simultaneous use of iron chelants and sulfide-control agents. Previously used methods gave only temporary production increases that terminated when iron dissolved by the stimulation acid reprecipitated in the pay zone and damage the formation after the stimulation acid was spent. This paper describes a method to optimize iron sulfide control, methods to minimize reprecipitation, and case histories from the Permian Basin that show improved methods to control iron in sour-well environments.

  18. Microorganisms of the San Francisco sour dough bread process. I. Yeasts responsible for the leavening action.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, T F; Kline, L; Miller, M W

    1971-03-01

    Two hundred isolates from San Francisco sour dough French bread fermentations (40 from each of five different bakeries) were screened by fermentation tests and for their ability to grow in the presence of cycloheximide (Actidione). All of the isolates from four of the bakeries and 70% of those from the fifth were unable to utilize maltose but grew well on other sugars, even in the presence of cycloheximide. The remaining few isolates from the fifth bakery utilized maltose but not galactose and were inhibited by cycloheximide. No bakers' yeast types were found. Sixteen of the maltose-negative and five of the galactose-negative isolates were subjected to more rigorous taxonomic procedures. All of the maltose-negative isolates were identified as asporogenous strains of Saccharomyces exiguus (Torulopsis holmii) and the galactose-negative ones, as S. inusitatus. The predominance of S. exiguus, its vigor in the particular acidic environment of the sour dough, and the correlation of its numbers with the leavening function constitute strong evidence on the role of this organism in the sour dough system.

  19. Effect of processing conditions on acidification properties of wheat sour doughs.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Anaya, M A; Benedito de Barber, C; Collar Esteve, C

    1994-06-01

    The pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and lactic and acetic acids production have been investigated for wheat sour doughs with and without yeast addition, inoculated with two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (B33, B39). To study the effect of flour extraction rate (0.54, 11.11 and 1.68% ash content), dough yield (DY) (160, 200 and 240 of sour dough/100 g flour), and fermentation temperature (25, 30 and 35 degrees C) a response surface regression, factor analysis and K-means clustering analysis were used. Results from factor analysis point out that the extraction rate of fluor governs TTA and acetic acid content; this factor accounts for the 53% of variability of the data. Dough yield is highly correlated with lactic acid content, explaining 27% of the total variance. Finally, temperature explains the remaining 16% of variation, but it is not related to any analytical variable. From K-means clustering analysis, flour extraction rate of 1.68% ash content leads to the highest TTA and acetic acid values, whereas DY of 240 g sour dough/100 g flour gives the greatest lactic acid content, and DY of 160 leads to the lowest levels of TTA and organic acids.

  20. TSR versus non-TSR processes and their impact on gas geochemistry and carbon stable isotopes in Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate gas reservoirs in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. Y.; Worden, R. H.; Jin, Z. J.; Liu, W. H.; Li, J.; Gao, B.; Zhang, D. W.; Hu, A. P.; Yang, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeozoic and lowermost Mesozoic marine carbonate reservoirs of the Sichuan Basin in China contain variably sour and very dry gas. The source of the gas in the Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs is not known for certain and it has proved difficult to discriminate and differentiate the effects of thermal cracking- and TSR-related processes for these gases. Sixty-three gas samples were collected and analysed for their composition and carbon stable isotope values. The gases are all typically very dry (alkane gases being >97.5% methane), with low (<1%) nitrogen and highly variable H2S and CO2. Carboniferous gas is negligibly sour while the Lower Triassic gas tends to be most sour. The elevated H2S (up to 62%) is due to thermochemical sulphate reduction with the most sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs being deeper than 4800 m. The non-TSR affected Carboniferous gas is a secondary gas that was derived from the cracking of sapropelic kerogen-derived oil and primary gas and is highly mature. Carboniferous (and non-sour Triassic and Permian) gas has unusual carbon isotopes with methane and propane being isotopically heavier than ethane (a reversal of typical low- to moderate-maturity patterns). The gas in the non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs has the same geochemical and isotopic characteristics (and therefore the same source) as the Carboniferous gas. TSR in the deepest Triassic reservoirs altered the gas composition reaching 100% dryness in the deepest, most sour reservoirs showing that ethane and propane react faster than methane during TSR. Ethane evolves to heavier carbon isotope values than methane during TSR leading to removal of the reversed alkane gas isotope trend found in the Carboniferous and non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs. However, methane was directly involved in TSR as shown by the progressive increase in its carbon isotope ratio as gas souring proceeded. CO2 increased in concentration as gas souring proceeded, but

  1. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  2. Cancer downwind from sour gas refineries: the perception and the reality of an epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, M T; Spitzer, W O; Hutcheon, M E; Dales, R E; Eastridge, L M; Steinmetz, N; Tousignant, P; Hobbs, C

    1989-01-01

    A rural population in southwestern Alberta, Canada, living downwind from natural gas refineries, has expressed concerns about an excess of adverse health outcomes over the last 25 years. This has escalated to the point of causing a prominent sociopolitical controversy within the province. As part of a large field epidemiologic study undertaken during the summer of 1985 to investigate possible health effects, a residential cohort study was carried out to study cancer incidence. The cohort was defined as all those individuals who resided in the area in 1970. A total of 30,175 person-years of risk within Alberta were experienced by this cohort from 1970 to 1984. The incident cancers during this period were enumerated by computerized record linkage with the Alberta Cancer Registry. Age- and sex-standardized incidence ratios, based on expected rates from three prespecified demographically similar, nonmetropolitan Southern Alberta populations, were 1.05, 1.09, and 1.03, respectively, none of which was significantly different from unity. Although they do not address the issue of etiologic association, these data can provide considerable reassurance to a community that was convinced it had experienced an epidemic of cancer. PMID:2785032

  3. Novel single stripper with side-draw to remove ammonia and sour gas simultaneously for coal-gasification wastewater treatment and the industrial implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, D.C.; Yu, Z.J.; Chen, Y.; Qian, Y.

    2009-06-15

    A large amount of wastewater is produced in the Lurgi coal-gasification process with the complex compounds carbon dioxide, ammonia, phenol, etc., which cause a serious environmental problem. In this paper, a novel stripper operated at elevated pressure is designed to improve the pretreatment process. In this technology, two noticeable improvements were established. First, the carbon dioxide and ammonia were removed simultaneously in a single stripper where sour gas (mainly carbon dioxide) is removed from the tower top and the ammonia vapor is drawn from the side and recovered by partial condensation. Second, the ammonia is removed before the phenol recovery to reduce the pH value of the subsequent extraction units, so as the phenol removal performance of the extraction is greatly improved. To ensure the operational efficiency, some key operational parameters are analyzed and optimized though simulation. It is shown that when the top temperature is kept at 40 C and the weight ratio of the side draw to the feed is above 9%, the elevated pressures can ensure the removal efficiency of NH{sub 3} and carbon dioxide and the desired purified water as the bottom product of the unit is obtained. A real industrial application demonstrates the attractiveness of the new technique: it removes 99.9% CO{sub 2} and 99.6% ammonia, compared to known techniques which remove 66.5% and 94.4%, respectively. As a result, the pH value of the wastewater is reduced from above 9 to below 7. This ensures that the phenol removal ratio is above 93% in the following extraction units. The operating cost is lower than that of known techniques, and the operation is simplified.

  4. Worldwide gas processing enjoys solid 1991

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R. )

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that worldwide gas-processing operations exhibited growth across the board last year as demand for NGLs, primarily as petrochemical feedstock and gasoline blendstock, pushed operators to increases in capacities, throughput, and production. Most evident were the gains in the U.S., Canada, and Latin America. As has been true for several years, the U.S. continued to lead the rest of the world in gas-processing capacity and NGL production. Outside the U.S., the rest of the world continued to grow, although not as markedly. Canada and the countries of Latin America led others with solid gains in capacities, gas processed, and NGLs produced. These developments are reflected in the exclusive, plant-by-plant, world-wide gas-processing survey along with an international survey of petroleum-derived sulfur recovery. Last year, one major plant in the Caribbean came on stream adding 650 MMcfd of capacity and producing almost 10,000 b/d of product. By the time the next year's report, a major Canadian sour-gas plant near Calgary will be running.

  5. Gas processing handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Brief details are given of processes including: BGC-Lurgi slagging gasification, COGAS, Exxon catalytic coal gasification, FW-Stoic 2-stage, GI two stage, HYGAS, Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi pressure gasification, Saarberg-Otto, Shell, Texaco, U-Gas, W-D.IGI, Wellman-Galusha, Westinghouse, and Winkler coal gasification processes; the Rectisol process; the Catacarb and the Benfield processes for removing CO/SUB/2, H/SUB/2s and COS from gases produced by the partial oxidation of coal; the selectamine DD, Selexol solvent, and Sulfinol gas cleaning processes; the sulphur-tolerant shift (SSK) process; and the Super-meth process for the production of high-Btu gas from synthesis gas.

  6. Worldwide gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Radler, M.

    1998-06-08

    Tables are presented on capacity and production in natural gas processing plants by country (by province or by state when appropriate), and by company within each country. Production figures are presented separately for ethane, propane, isobutane, butane, LP-gas mixtures, raw NGL mixtures, debutanized natural gasoline, an other. Another table gives world sulfur production by company within each country. The sulfur production table gives the source of the sulfur, type of process used, and figures for design capacity and production.

  7. Gas treating process

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, R.H.

    1990-01-09

    This patent describes a process for preventing oxygen from deactivating a catalyst susceptible to deactivation by oxygen. It comprises: scavenging oxygen contained in a feed gas stream comprising carbon monoxide and water vapor as reactant gases in the presence of an oxidation catalyst under conditions which remove essentially all of the oxygen by reaction with hydrogen sulfide and contacting the resultant gas stream, containing the reactants but essentially free of oxygen, with a catalyst susceptible to deactivation by oxygen but active for the water gas shift reaction. The contacting being under conditions resulting in the conversion of at least some of the carbon monoxide and water vapor to hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

  8. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  9. Biological souring and mitigation in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gieg, Lisa M; Jack, Tom R; Foght, Julia M

    2011-10-01

    Souring in oil field systems is most commonly due to the action of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes, a diverse group of anaerobic microorganisms that respire sulfate and produce sulfide (the key souring agent) while oxidizing diverse electron donors. Such biological sulfide production is a detrimental, widespread phenomenon in the petroleum industry, occurring within oil reservoirs or in topside processing facilities, under low- and high-temperature conditions, and in onshore or offshore operations. Sulfate reducers can exist either indigenously in deep subsurface reservoirs or can be "inoculated" into a reservoir system during oil field development (e.g., via drilling operations) or during the oil production phase. In the latter, souring most commonly occurs during water flooding, a secondary recovery strategy wherein water is injected to re-pressurize the reservoir and sweep the oil towards production wells to extend the production life of an oil field. The water source and type of production operation can provide multiple components such as sulfate, labile carbon sources, and sulfate-reducing communities that influence whether oil field souring occurs. Souring can be controlled by biocides, which can non-specifically suppress microbial populations, and by the addition of nitrate (and/or nitrite) that directly impacts the sulfate-reducing population by numerous competitive or inhibitory mechanisms. In this review, we report on the diversity of sulfate reducers associated with oil reservoirs, approaches for determining their presence and effects, the factors that control souring, and the approaches (along with the current understanding of their underlying mechanisms) that may be used to successfully mitigate souring in low-temperature and high-temperature oil field operations.

  10. Effects of Ultrasound Assistance on Dehydration Processes and Bioactive Component Retention of Osmo-Dried Sour Cherries.

    PubMed

    Siucińska, Karolina; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Połubok, Aleksandra; Konopacka, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Despite having numerous health benefits, dried sour cherries have proven to be more acceptable to consumers when infused with sugar or other sweeteners to enhance their flavor, which, in turn, leads to serious anthocyanin losses. For this reason, a consideration was made for the application of ultrasound to accelerate solid gain and shorten drying time, thus favoring bioactive component retention. To determine the usefulness of ultrasound as a tool for sour cherry osmotic infusion enhancement, the effect of sonication time on dehydration effectiveness, as well as the stability of bioactive components during osmotic treatment and consecutive convective drying, was investigated. Fruits were osmo-dehydrated using a 60% sucrose solution for 120 min (40 °C), during which, ultrasound of 25 kHz (0.4 W/cm(2) ), was applied for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, after which, the fruits were convectively dried. In the range of the applied ultrasound energy no significant effect of sonication on mass transfer intensification was observed; moreover, longer acoustic treatment seemed to retard moisture removal during subsequent convective drying, which can be related to the breakdown of the parenchyma cell walls caused by the prolonged ultrasound (US) action. It was concluded that although US assistance could be considered neutral for bioactive component retention, excessive sonication time can lead to some anthocyanin deterioration. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the particular anthocyanin alterations, both during dehydration and final drying, occurred in a similar way. Sonication time prolongation caused approximately 10% more bioactive compound deterioration, than earlier, shorter trials.

  11. Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

    2013-11-27

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols.

  12. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  13. The use of fixed bed absorbents for flexible operation on the SAGE gas processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carnell, P.J.H.; Joslin, K.W.; Woodham, P.R.

    1995-11-01

    Mobil North Sea Ltd. operates the SAGE Gas Terminal at St. Fergus, Scotland on behalf of the SAGE partners. This terminal is capable of processing 1,150 MMscfd of sour gas with the sales gas being delivered into the British Gas distribution network and NGL`s exported by pipelines to Shell`s NGL fractionation plant at Mossmorran and BP`s fractionation plant at Kinneil. In order to meet the specifications for the sales gas and NGL produced while processing different mixtures of three separate feed gases produced by three independently operated production platforms the SAGE Gas Terminal has utilized ICI Katalco`s PURASPEC{trademark} processes to provide flexibility and reduce cost. This paper discusses how and where these fixed bed processes are utilized.

  14. Heightened sour preferences during childhood.

    PubMed

    Liem, Djin Gie; Mennella, Julie A

    2003-02-01

    Basic research has revealed that the chemical sensory world of children is different from that of adults, as evidenced by their heightened preferences for sweet and salty tastes. However, little is known about the ontogeny of sour taste preferences, despite the growing market of extreme sour candies. The present study investigated whether the level of sourness most preferred in a food matrix and the ability to discriminate differences in sour intensity differed between 5- to 9-year-old children and their mothers, by using a rank-by-elimination procedure embedded in the context of a game. Mothers also completed a variety of questionnaires and children were asked several questions to assess whether children's temperament and food preferences and habits related to sour preferences. The results indicated that, although every mother and all but two of the children (92%) were able to rank the gelatins from most to least sour, more than one-third (35%) of the children, but virtually none of the adults, preferred the high levels of sour taste (0.25 M citric acid) in gelatin. Those children who preferred the extreme sour tastes were significantly less food neophobic (P < 0.05) and tended to experience a greater variety of fruits when compared with the remaining children (P = 0.11). Moreover, the children's preference for sour tastes generalized to other foods, such as candies and lemons, as reported by both children and mothers. These findings are the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that sour taste preferences are heightened during childhood and that such preferences are related to children's food habits and preferences. Further research is needed to unfold the relationship between the level of sour taste preferred and the actual consumption of sour-tasting foods and flavors in children.

  15. Sour-water stripper efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Won, K.W.

    1983-04-01

    The sour waters from the synthetic fuel industries will contain substantial percentages of carbon dioxide, phenolics, hydrogen cyanide, acetic, and other carboxylic acids. The use of multi-component-dependent stage efficiencies for sour-water stripper caluclations is discussed. It was established from actual operating data on sour-water strippers that the more volatile a component in a mixture, the lower the stage efficiency of that compound. (JMT)

  16. Organic constituents in sour condensates from shale-oil and petroleum-crude runs at Sohio's Toledo refinery: identification and wastewater-control-technology considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wingender, R J; Harrison, W; Raphaelian, L A

    1981-02-01

    Samples of sour condensate generated from the continuous processing of both crude shale oil and petroleum crude were collected and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at Argonne National Laboratory and Radian Corporation. Qualitatively, the predominant types of organic compounds present in the shale-oil sour condensate were pyridines and anilines; semiquantitatively, these compounds were present at a concentration of 5.7 ppM, or about 78% of the total concentration of components detected. In contrast, straight-chain alkanes were the predominant types of compounds found in the sour condensate produced during isocracking of conventional crude oil. The approximate concentration of straight-chain alkanes, 8.3 ppM, and of other branched and/or unsaturated hydrocarbons, 6.8 ppM, amounted to 88% of the total concentration of components detected in the sour condensate from the petroleum-crude run. Nitrogen compounds in the shale-oil sour condensate may necessitate alterations of the sour water and refinery wastewater-treatment facilities to provide for organics degradation and to accommodate the potentially greater ammonia loadings. This would include use of larger amounts of caustic to enhance ammonia removal by steam stripping. Possible problems associated with biological removal of organic-nitrogen compounds should be investigated in future experimental shale-oil refining runs.

  17. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, SUCCiOlC acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  18. Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1995-10-10

    Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode. 5 figs.

  19. Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode.

  20. Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems using sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios: The example of oil reservoir souring control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope ratios in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had δ18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in δ18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that

  1. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  2. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.

    1986-08-05

    The method of reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion of sulfur-containing fuel is described. The method comprises: (a) mixing into the flue gas, at a point where its temperature is between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/ C., a finely divided dry sorbent comprising alkaline earth metal oxide slaked with an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, the sorbent being added in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt:sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5, the alkaline earth metal being selected from calcium and magnesium and the solubilizing agent selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas a humidifying agent selected from water and steam; (c) providing a contact time between the flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids resulting from addition of the sorbent and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (e) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/ C. and about 30/sup 0/C. above its saturation temperature.

  3. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.; Statnick, R.M.

    1986-09-23

    The method is described for reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion in a combustion zone of a sulfur-containing fuel, which method comprises: (a) injecting into the combustion zone a finely divided dry sorbent comprising calcium carbonate in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt:sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5:1; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas at a point where the flue gas has a temperature of between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/C. an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, such agent being selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (c) providing a contact time between the flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids resulting from drying of the droplets and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (c) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/C. and about 35/sup 0/C. above its saturation temperature.

  4. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.; Statnick, R.M.

    1986-07-15

    The method is described for reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion of a sulfur-containing fuel. The method consists of: (a) mixing into the flue gas, at a point where its temperature is between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/ C., a finely divided dry sorbent comprising alkaline earth metal oxide or hydroxide in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt: sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5, the alkaline earth metal being selected from calcium and magnesium; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, such agent being selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (c) providing a contact time between the sorbent in flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids comprising sorbent and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (e) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/ C. and about 35/sup 0/ C. above its saturation temperature.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, colour and some nutritional characteristics of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice and its sour concentrate processed by conventional evaporation.

    PubMed

    Orak, H Hülya

    2009-01-01

    In this study the antioxidant activity, colour and some nutritional characteristics of pomegranate juice (PJ) and its traditional sour concentrate (CPJ), produced in Denizli, Turkey, were analysed. The total anthocyanin content of PJ was found to be 492.9 mg/l but it was not determined in CPJ. The total phenolics were also found to be 3,246 and 9,870 microg/ml in PJ and CPJ, respectively. The antioxidant activity (percentage of inhibition of on peroxidation in linoleic acid system) of CPJ was determined to be higher (85.91%) than that of PJ (79.06%). During the concentration process, the reducing sugars, glucose and fructose level of CPJ showed an increase to 46.46%, 23.89%, and 22.53%, respectively. In CPJ the amounts of sodium, iron, zinc, copper and lead were found lower than those of PJ. On the other hand, potassium and magnesium mineral contents increased during concentration. Among the various elements, cadmium, mercury, manganese, cobalt and boron were also analysed for determination of metallic contamination, but they were not found in PJ juice and CPJ. 5-Hydroxymethyl furfural was determined to be at a significant level in CPJ as a result of the heat process.

  6. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.160 Sour cream. (a) Description. Sour cream results from the souring, by lactic acid producing bacteria, of pasteurized...

  7. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Work continued on Task No. 3. Particular attention was given to the back pressure control at the two gaseous effluent outlets and to the incineration of these effluents prior to their disposal. Temperature of the riser/regenerator and steam requirements were predicted from the gasification kinetics of coke and of coal char experimentally determined at atmospheric pressure, but at somewhat lower temperatures by H. Heinemann. The results of interactions of CH4 molecules with a Hydrogen Plasma in the adsorbed layer at the surface of refractory oxides were compared with those in the gas phase in order to select the optimum temperature range in the Cyclone reactor.

  8. Gas Hydrate Nucleation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, R. E.; Zatsepina, O.; Phelps, T. J.

    2003-12-01

    The onset of gas hydrate nucleation is greatly affected by the thermal history of the water that forms its lattice structure. Hydrate formation experiments were performed in a 72 liter pressure vessel by bubbling carbon dioxide through a 1 liter column at hydrate formation pressures (1.4 to 3.7 MPa) and temperatures (275.0 to 278.0 K) to quantify this effect. They show that when even a fraction ( e. g. 20 %) of the water in which hydrate has formed was recently frozen and thawed, the overpressurization for nucleation was reduced by an average of 50 % versus experiments performed in distilled water. In those experiments where a lower overpressure is present when hydrate nucleated, they tended to form on the surface of bubbles, whereas when a higher amount of overpressure was necessary for hydrate to nucleate, they appeared to form abruptly on bubble surfaces as well as from the bulk liquid phase. In approximation of classical nucleation, hydrate formation could be described as occurring by the spontaneous joining together of arising components of the hydrate lattice. In water that was frozen, and kept at a low temperature (< 275 K), molecular simulation models predict the predominance of water molecules organized as penatmeters, a possible subunit of the hydrate lattice. Our results suggest that in nature, initiation of hydrate formation may be strongly influenced by temperature dependant pre-structuring of water molecules prior to their contact with gas.

  9. TECHNICAL AND OPERATING SUPPORT FOR PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF MORPHYSORB ACID GAS REMOVAL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju Palla; Dennis Leppin

    2003-06-30

    GTI and Krupp Uhde have been jointly developing advanced technology for removing high concentrations of acid gas from high-pressure natural gas for over a decade. This technology, the Morphysorb{reg_sign} process, based on N-formyl and N-acetyl morpholine mixtures, has now been tested in a large-scale facility and this paper presents preliminary results from acceptance testing at that facility. Earlier publications have discussed the bench-scale and pilot plant work that led up to this important milestone. The site was Duke Energy's new Kwoen sour gas upgrader near Chetwynd B.C., Canada. This facility has a nameplate capacity of 300 MMscfd of sour natural gas. The objective of the Morphysorb process at this site was to remove 33 MMscfd of acid gas (H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}) for reinjection downhole. This represents about half the acid gas present in the feed to the plant. In so doing, proportionately more of the plant ''sales'' gas, which is sent for final processing at the nearby Pine River plant, can be sent down the line without coming up against the sulfur removal capacity limits of Pine River plant, than could with other solvents that were evaluated. Other benefits include less loss of methane downhole with the rejected acid gas and lower circulation and recycle compression horsepower than with competitive solvents. On the downside, the process is expected to have higher solvent vaporization losses than competitive solvents, but this is a comparatively minor drawback when weighed against the value of the benefits. These benefits (and drawbacks) were developed into quantitative ''acceptance'' criteria, which will determine if the solvent will continue to be used at the site and for award of monetary bonuses to the process developer (GTI).

  10. TECHNICAL AND OPERATING SUPPORT FOR PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF MORPHYSORB ACID GAS REMOVAL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju Palla; Dennis Leppin

    2003-09-30

    GTI and Krupp Uhde have been jointly developing advanced technology for removing high concentrations of acid gas from high-pressure natural gas for over a decade. This technology, the Morphysorb{reg_sign} process, based on N-formyl and N-acetyl morpholine mixtures, has now been tested in a large-scale facility and this paper presents preliminary results from acceptance testing at that facility. Earlier publications have discussed the bench-scale and pilot plant work that led up to this important milestone. The site was Duke Energy's new Kwoen sour gas upgrader near Chetwynd B.C., Canada. This facility has a nameplate capacity of 300 MMscfd of sour natural gas. The objective of the Morphysorb process at this site was to remove 33 MMscfd of acid gas (H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}) for reinjection downhole. This represents about half the acid gas present in the feed to the plant. In so doing, proportionately more of the plant ''sales'' gas, which is sent for final processing at the nearby Pine River plant, can be sent down the line without coming up against the sulfur removal capacity limits of Pine River plant, than could with other solvents that were evaluated. Other benefits include less loss of methane downhole with the rejected acid gas and lower circulation and recycle compression horsepower than with competitive solvents. On the downside, the process is expected to have higher solvent vaporization losses than competitive solvents, but this is a comparatively minor drawback when weighed against the value of the benefits. These benefits (and drawbacks) were developed into quantitative ''acceptance'' criteria, which will determine if the solvent will continue to be used at the site and for award of monetary bonuses to the process developer (GTI).

  11. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  12. Yellow metal (UNS C69100) for sour service

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.; Inglis, W.; Fowler, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    UNS C69100, a ``yellow metal``, copper-based alloy, is used extensively in the European Oil and Gas Industry. The work reported herein was designed to assess the susceptibility of the material to sour environments, in terms of general corrosion and cracking. A series of sour environmental tests was conducted at ambient temperature and at elevated temperature and pressure. The ambient temperature tests indicated high resistance to sulphide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC). Additionally, tests including free sulphur exhibited no evidence of cracking. The high temperature and pressure tests also showed no tendency to SSCC. The corrosion rate tests at ambient temperature indicated corrosion rates well below those of carbon steel tested in an identical environment. Hydrogen permeation measurements confirmed the corrosion rate measurements. This alloy should be considered for sour service use. Further work will be undertaken to confirm the high temperature properties.

  13. Process for absorbing toxic gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.G.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a process for removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen halides from a gas contaminated with same in which the gas is contacted at a temperature below 250/sup 0/C with particulate solid acceptor comprising a mineral support having a coating containing divalent metal oxide, hydroxide, or both, the support being water-moistened particles selected from the group consisting of exfoliated vermiculite, expanded perlite, or a mixture thereof, the improvement which comprises: heating the acceptor before its first use at a temperature of at least about 400/sup 0/C until it is conditioned for the accepting purpose; dampening the conditioned acceptor with water; contacting contaminated gas with the acceptor; and separating resulting cleansed gas from the acceptor.

  14. Process gas with selective membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, W.J.; Houston, C.D.

    1982-09-01

    As an attractive alternative to conventional gas processes, high-flux asymmetric membranes are technically and economically suitable for a variety of industrial gas separations, including acid-gas separation from methane, hydrogen recovery, and gas dehydration. Offering greater packing density but typically lower permeation rates per unit membrane area, the newer hollow-fiber membranes are replacing the older flat-sheet configuration in commercial applications. Typical operating parameters for a spiral-wound hollow-fiber process are a temperature range of 32/sup 0/-140/sup 0/F, pressure differentials up to 1200 psi, and feed flow rates from 50,000 SCF/day to greater than 100 million SCF/day. The cellulose acetate membrane system can process mixtures containing a wide range of concentrations of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water vapor, hydrocarbons, and oxygen. Minor amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons, olefins, and heavy hydrocarbons do not appear to affect the membrane performance; spiral-wound elements have already operated on gas steams containing liquid hydrocarbons without difficulty.

  15. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  16. A polyphasic study on the taxonomic position of industrial sour dough yeasts.

    PubMed

    Mäntynen, V H; Korhola, M; Gudmundsson, H; Turakainen, H; Alfredsson, G A; Salovaara, H; Lindström, K

    1999-02-01

    The sour dough bread making process is extensively used to produce wholesome palatable rye bread. The process is traditionally done using a back-slopping procedure. Traditional sour doughs in Finland comprise of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The yeasts present in these doughs have been enriched in the doughs due to their metabolic activities, e.g. acid tolerance. We characterized the yeasts in five major sour bread bakeries in Finland. We found that most of the commercial sour doughs contained yeasts which were similar to Candida milleri on the basis of 18S rDNA and EF-3 PCR-RFLP patterns and metabolic activities. Some of the bakery yeasts exhibited extensive karyotype polymorphism. The minimum growth temperature was 8 degrees C for C. milleri and also for most of sour dough yeasts.

  17. Control of microbial souring of oil in a porous media column

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsel, M.

    1996-06-01

    Oil reservoir souring is a major problem in industry due to H{sub 2}S toxicity, corrosion, plugging, and sulfide concentrations in natural gas. Reservoir souring was simulated in Berea sandstone columns and cores using native mixed microbial consortia from two oil fields. Similar souring activity was seen with both consortia growing as a biofilm in columns and cores at 60{degrees}C. Most of the souring activity occurred at the beginning of the columns. This simulated injection well souring, in which sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfate and carbon sources, are all available at the well bore. Biomass and precipitated iron sulfide accumulated uniformly along the column length and caused plugging. More plugging was found in systems with lower initial permeabilities, and most of this plugging was due to iron sulfide precipitation. Several novel methods were discovered to inhibit souring in the columns and cores. Addition of 10 ppm nitrate stimulated both native consortia to quickly and completely inhibit active souring, and 5 ppm maintained the inhibition. Nitrite was produced at 80-100% of the nitrate level added through incomplete denitrification by nitrate-reducing bacteria, and nitrite was found to be the inhibitory agent. Direct continuous addition of 10-12 ppm nitrite also inhibited souring; but pulse addition was found to be more effective than continuous addition at the same total addition rate. In the 20-hour residence time of the reactor, 10-20% of the nitrite was consumed. Nitrite addition appeared to decrease plugging in the core system. Removal of nitrate or nitrite allowed souring to resume after it had been inhibited for as long as three months. Nitrite was a more effective and longer lasting inhibitor than was glutaraldehyde, a biocide routinely used in oil fields and other industrial applications.

  18. The chemistry of sour taste and the strategy to reduce the sour taste of beer.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Liu, Fang

    2015-10-15

    The contributions of free hydrogen ions, undissociated hydrogen ions in protonated acid species, and anionic acid species to sour taste were studied through sensory experiments. According to tasting results, it can be inferred that the basic substance producing a sour taste is the hydrogen ion, including free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The intensity of a sour taste is determined by the total concentration of free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The anionic acid species (without hydrogen ions) does not produce a sour taste but can intensify or weaken the intensity of a sour taste. It seems that hydroxyl or conjugated groups in anionic acid species can intensify the sour taste produced by hydrogen ions. The following strategy to reduce the sensory sourness is advanced: not only reduce free hydrogen ions, namely elevate pH value, but also reduce the undissociated hydrogen ions contained in protonated acid species.

  19. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  20. TECHNICAL AND OPERATING SUPPORT FOR PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF MORPHYSORB ACID GAS REMOVAL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju Palla; Dennis Leppin

    2004-02-01

    Over the past 14 years, the Gas Technology Institute and jointly with Uhde since 1997 developing Morphysorb{reg_sign} a new physical solvent-based acid gas removal process. Based on extensive laboratory, bench, pilot-plant scale experiments and computer simulations, DEGT Gas Transmission Company, Canada (DEGT) has chosen the process for use at its Kwoen processing facility near Chetwynd, British Columbia, Canada as the first commercial application for the Morphysorb process. DOE co-funded the development of the Morphysorb process in various stages of development. DOE funded the production of this report to ensure that the results of the work would be readily available to potential users of the process in the United States. The Kwoen Plant is designed to process 300 MMscfd of raw natural gas at 1,080-psia pressure. The sour natural gas contains 20 to 25 percent H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}. The plant reduces the acid gas content by about 50% and injects the removed H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} into an injection well. The Kwoen plant has been operating since August 2002. Morphysorb{reg_sign} is a physical solvent-based process used for the bulk removal of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S from natural gas and other gaseous streams. The solvent consists of N-Formyl morpholine and other morpholine derivatives. This process is particularly effective for high-pressure and high acid-gas applications and offers substantial savings in investment and operating cost compared to competitive physical solvent-based processes. GTI and DEGT first entered into an agreement in 2002 to test the Morphysorb process at their Kwoen Gas Treating Plant in northern BC. The process is operating successfully without any solvent related problems and has between DEGTC and GTI. As of December 2003, about 90 Bcf of sour gas was processed. Of this about 8 Bcf of acid gas containing mainly H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} was injected back into the depleted reservoir and 82 Bcf sent for further processing at DEGTC's Pine

  1. HIP clad nickel base Alloy 625 for deep sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, W.K.; Pendley, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    The hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process was used to clad nickel base Alloy 625 to AISI 4130 low alloy steel. The performance of the HIP clad material in the corrosive environment characteristic of deep, sour oil and gas wells was evaluated in laboratory tests. Included in the test program were NACE TM-01-77 sulfide stress cracking tests, chloride stress corrosion cracking tests in boiling MgCl /SUB 2'/ , and pitting and crevice corrosion tests. The HIP clad 625 performed excellently, displaying essentially the same corrosion resistance as wrought 625. Specifically the HIP clad 625 resisted sulfide stress cracking at applied stresses as high as 120% of yield strength and resisted chloride stress corrosion cracking at stresses exceeding 100% of yield. The HIP clad 625 also displayed immunity to pitting and crevice corrosion, with corrosion rates of <0.025 mm/y (1 mil/y). The 4130 base metal, however, was attacked severly in all tests. SEM/EDX analysis of the 625/4130 interface demonstrated that dilution of the cladding by the base metal was essentially eliminated.

  2. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.162 Acidified sour cream. (a) Description. Acidified sour cream results from the souring of pasteurized...

  3. One-step process takes H/sub 2/S from gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, K.; Allford, K.T.

    1986-10-20

    A novel, one-step process selectively removes hydrogen sulfide from sourgases and converts dissolved hydrogen sulfide directly to sulfur in a bubble tower filled with a sweetener solution. The sweetener is a proprietary formulation consisting of an alkaline solution of oxidizing and buffering agents. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur is achieved by a liquid-phase oxidation technique. Various sour gas sweetening processes have been used for a number of years. Incentives for use of the one-step process include: 1. Improved economics for hydrogen sulfide removal based on cost-performance evaluations. 2. Simplicity of operation. 3. Low capital cost requirements for the gas processing plant. 4. Adaptability to existing process equipment. 5. Low toxicity and nonhazardous waste characteristics of the spent slurry generated by the hydrogen sulfide reaction. This article presents the current understanding of hydrogen sulfide oxidation chemistry in nitrite solutions, as well as research and field data related to the one-step process. The field data provide quantifiable proof that the one-step process is a viable economical alternative for hydrogen sulfide removal in properly designed and operated equipment.

  4. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  5. Gas scrubbing apparatus and process

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.P.; Cox, K.K.

    1991-05-21

    This patent describes a scrubbing apparatus for purifying gas. It comprises: a tower through which gas moves upwardly, a first conical baffle mounted in the upper portion of the tower with its apex projecting downwardly for spreading gas flowing upward through the tower to the baffler, a first surface encircling the first conical baffle and located sufficiently close to the base of the baffle as to form a venturi passage past the periphery of the conical baffle base, a liquid collecting trough adjacent to the first surface for collecting liquid precipitated from air passing the first conical baffle, the tower including an upper section having a passage located above the base of the first conical baffle and having a cross section substantially smaller than the base of the first conical baffle, and a second conical baffle in the upper tower section of a size smaller than the base of the first conical baffle, a second surface encircling the second conical baffle and located sufficiently close to the base of the second conical baffle as to form a venturi passage past the base of the second conical baffle, a liquid collecting trough adjacent to the second surface for collecting liquid precipitated from air passing the second conical baffle, and an outlet from the upper chamber of the tower of a size in cross section smaller than the base of the second conical baffle.

  6. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  7. Methanation process utilizing split cold gas recycle

    DOEpatents

    Tajbl, Daniel G.; Lee, Bernard S.; Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Lam, Henry W.

    1976-07-06

    In the methanation of feed gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen in multiple stages, the feed gas, cold recycle gas and hot product gas is mixed in such proportions that the mixture is at a temperature sufficiently high to avoid carbonyl formation and to initiate the reaction and, so that upon complete reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen, an excessive adiabatic temperature will not be reached. Catalyst damage by high or low temperatures is thereby avoided with a process that utilizes extraordinarily low recycle ratios and a minimum of investment in operating costs.

  8. Rate processes in gas phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction-rate theory and experiment are given a critical review from the engineers' point of view. Rates of heavy-particle, collision-induced reaction in gas phase are formulated in terms of the cross sections and activation energies for reaction. The effect of cross section function shape and of excited state contributions to reaction both cause the slope of Arrhenius plots to differ from the true activation energy, except at low temperature. The master equations for chemically reacting gases are introduced, and dissociation and ionization reactions are shown to proceed primarily from excited states about kT from the dissociation or ionization limit. Collision-induced vibration, vibration-rotation, and pure rotation transitions are treated, including three-dimensional effects and conservation of energy, which have usually been ignored. The quantum theory of transitions at potential surface crossing is derived, and results are found to be in fair agreement with experiment in spite of some questionable approximations involved.

  9. Process for the preparation of gas oil

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, M.; Kanbier, D.; Kwant, P.B.; Tjan, P.W.

    1980-04-29

    A process for the preparation of gas oil from residual oils by combination of two stages of thermal cracking, cyclone separation, vacuum distillation, deasphalting, atmospheric distillation, and recycling of certain streams.

  10. UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

  11. Integrated Microbial Trait Based-Reactive Transport Modeling Approach Towards Understanding Microbial Reservoir Souring and Desouring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Coates, J. D.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Microbially mediated sulfate reduction is the major metabolic process that leads to the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oil reservoirs. Biogenesis of H2S (souring) has detrimental impacts on oil production operations and can cause significant environmental and health problems. Understanding the processes that control the rates and patterns of sulfate reduction is a crucial step in developing a predictive understanding of reservoir souring and associated mitigation processes. In this study, we describe the development of a microbial trait-based model that is coupled to a reactive transport model. The model represents several anaerobic microbial functional guilds with different resource acquisition (e.g., electron donor, sulfate) traits. The integrated model was used to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of the primary chemical species (e.g. sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate) and the microbial community dynamics involved in the souring and desouring processes as revealed in a recent laboratory column experiment comparing the effectiveness of nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate treatments as souring control strategies. Simulation of the laboratory experimental results shows that the model captured the spatio-temporal trend of the chemical species and microbial guilds during both souring and desouring. Model parameters derived through modeling of the column data are utilized in subsequent field-scale model simulations across a set of reservoir relevant environmental conditions. This integrated model demonstrates that interactions between SRBs and other heterotrophs can significantly impact the occurrence and extent of H2S production.

  12. Process for the preparation of gas oil

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, M.; Kanbier, D.; Kwant, P.B.; Tjan, P.W.

    1980-05-06

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of asphaltine containing mineral hydrocarbon oil to distillate gas oil by a processing sequence comprising thermal cracking, flashing, atmospheric fractionation, vacuum fractionation, thermal cracking , catalytic cracking or hydrocracking, and atmospheric fractionation with certain recycle of intermediate streams to achieve efficient, economic operations.

  13. U-GAS process for chemical manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.; Leppin, D.; Patel, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of two important industrial chemicals, methanol and ammonia, are described. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of manufacture of methanol and ammonia are presented.

  14. Process for producing synthesis gas from wood

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, G.P.; Lancet, M.S.

    1982-06-15

    In a process for producing synthesis gas by reacting a solid carbonaceous fuel with water in the presence of a carbon dioxide acceptor to produce a synthesis gas rich in hydrogen with at least a portion of the carbon dioxide so produced being reacted with the carbon dioxide acceptor to produce calcium carbonate and to provide sufficient heat to maintain a desired reaction temperature, an improvement comprising; the use of finely-divided wood as the solid carbonaceous fuel.

  15. Limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Kanda, O.; Nishimura, M.; Nishimura, T.; Nozawa, S.

    1984-12-11

    A flue gas desulfurization process capable of producing a high purity gypsum and also making equipment employed as minimum as possible is provided, which process comprises the steps of cooling and dedusting flue gas containing SO /SUB x/ ; contacting the cooled gas with a slurry containing limestone to remove SO /SUB x/ by absorption and also form CaSO/sub 3/; controlling the pH of the resulting slurry and then blowing air therein to form gypsum; and separating gypsum from the resulting slurry. As a modification of the above process, the slurry of the above second absorption step is further fed to the above first cooling step where unreacted limestone and SO /SUB x/ are reacted to form CaSO/sub 3/.

  16. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    PubMed

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  17. 1988 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Innumerable revisions in names, addresses, phone numbers, telex numbers, and cable numbers have been made since the publication of the previous edition. This directory also contains several of the most vital and informative surveys of the petroleum industry including the U.S. Refining Survey, The Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Eax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association.

  18. 30 CFR 1202.151 - Royalty on processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Royalty on processed gas. 1202.151 Section 1202... Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Federal Gas § 1202.151 Royalty on processed gas. (a)(1) A royalty, as... of royalty settlement without resorting to processing; and (ii) Residue gas and all gas...

  19. Gas-Liquid Processing in Microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; Twitchell, Alvin

    2005-09-01

    Processing gases and liquids together in microchannels having at least one dimension <1 mm has unique advantages for rapid heat and mass transfer. One approach for managing the two phases is to use porous structures as wicks within microchannels to segregate the liquid phase from the gas phase. Gas-liquid processing is accomplished by providing a gas flow path and inducing flow of the liquid phase through or along the wick under an induced pressure gradient. A variety of unit operations are enabled, including phase separation, partial condensation, absorption, desorption, and distillation. Results are reported of an investigation of microchannel phase separation in a transparent, single-channel device. Next, heat exchange is integrated with the microchannel wick approach to create a partial condenser that also separates the condensate. Finally, the scale-up to a multi-channel phase separator is described.

  20. Gri testing of SulFerox (trade name) for the direct treatment of high-pressure natural gas at NGPL`s Kermit, Texas site. Final report, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McIntush, K.E.; Petrinec, B.J.

    1995-04-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from sour gas is vital to the natural gas industry. About 14% of gas reserves are sour, and 15% of gas produced requires sulfur removal. Direct treatment of high-pressure sour gas with liquid redox processes has potential to reduce sulfur emissions and costs compared to conventional amine/Claus/SCOT technologies. However, these potential benefits and operability have not been commercially proven. For these reasons, GRI funded a pilot unit project with Radian Corporation and with the assistance of Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America. SulFerox was the first of a series of technologies to be evaluated. ARI-LO-CAT II will be evaluated next.

  1. Process simulation and modeling for gas processing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhameli, Falah Obaid Kenish Mubarak

    Natural gas is one of the major energy sources and its demand is increasing rapidly due to its environmental and economic advantages over other fuels. Gas processing is an essential component of natural gas system. In this work, gas processing plant is introduced with the objective of meeting pipeline gas quality. It consists of separation, sweetening and dehydration units. The separation unit contains phase separators along with stabilizer (conventional distillation column). The sweetening unit is an amine process with MDEA (Methyl DiEthanol Amine) solvent. The dehydration unit is glycol absorption with TEG (TriEthyleneGlycol) solvent. ProMaxRTM 3.2 was used to simulate the plant. Box-Behnken design was applied to build a black-box model using design of experiments (DoE). MinitabRTM 15 was used to generate and analyse the design. The chosen variables for the model were 10. They represent the gas feed conditions and units' parameters. The total runs were 170. They were successfully implemented and analysed. Total energy of the plant and water content for the product gas models were obtained. Case study was conducted to investigate the impact of H2S composition increase in the feed gas. The models were used for the case study with the objective of total energy minimization and constraint of 4 lb/MMscf for water content in the product gas. Lingo 13 was used for the optimization. It was observed that the feed pressure had the highest influence among the other parameters. Finally, some recommendations were pointed out for the future works.

  2. Limonoid content of sour orange varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern Citrus cultivars are thought to have arisen from three parents- the (pummelo), the mandarin, and citron. Taxological and genetic data support that sweet and sour oranges share a common parentage. However, as their name suggests the organoleptic properties of the fruit from these two familie...

  3. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Luo, Li-Siang

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD) was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (ΔR/R) of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost. PMID:25010696

  4. Worldwide gas-processing growth slows

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R. )

    1990-07-02

    Continued worldwide growth is evident in this report on natural -gas processing and sulfur recovery. But the pace was slower in 1989. Canada and the countries of the Asia-Pacific region were the best performers. U.S. figures were flat, while Canadian NGL production was again up markedly. Canada's lead in worldwide sulfur-recovery capacity and production increased slightly.

  5. Sour rot-damaged grapes are sources of wine spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; González, Sara; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Querol, Amparo; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2008-11-01

    Yeast species of sound and sour rot-damaged grapes were analysed during fermentation and grape ripening in the vineyard, using general and selective culture media. During 2003 and 2004 vintages, microvinifications were carried out with sound grapes to which different amounts of grapes with sour rot were added. The wine spoilage species Zygosaccharomyces bailii was only recovered during fermentations with sour rot, reaching 5.00 log CFU mL(-1) (2003) and 2.48 log CFU mL(-1) (2004) at the end of fermentation. The study of yeast populations during the sour rot ripening process (2005 vintage) showed that the veraison-damaged grapes always exhibited higher total yeast counts and a much greater diversity of species. From a total of 22 ascomycetous species, 17 were present only in damaged grapes. The most frequent species were Issatchenkia occidentalis and Zygoascus hellenicus. The spoilage species Z. bailii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus were consistently isolated exclusively from damaged grapes. This work demonstrates that one of the most dangerous wine spoilage species, Z. bailii, is strongly associated with sour rot grapes and survives during fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The use of selective media provides a more accurate characterization of grape contamination species.

  6. Process for desulfurizing an exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shinoda, N.; Okino, S.; Oshima, M.; Shigeta, S.; Tatani, A.; Ukawa, N.

    1983-12-13

    A process is disclosed for desulfurizing an exhaust gas which comprises desulfurizing an exhaust gas containing SO/sub 2/ by bringing it into contact with a slurry containing calcium compounds and aluminum compounds, characterized in that the concentration of the dissolved aluminum ion in said slurry is detected and a manganese compound is supplied into said slurry in such a manner that the ratio of the concentration of manganese (including both solid and liquid) to said concentration of the dissolved aluminum ion may be maintained in a molar ratio of less than 1 in said slurry.

  7. Process for sulfonation of gas oils

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R. C.

    1980-12-23

    A process for the production of oil-soluble sulfonates from a gas oil such as a vacuum gas oil. Water-soluble sulfonic acids are separated from the effluent of the sulfonation zone, and the remainder of the effluent is then passed through a saponification zone to produce oil-soluble sulfonates which are then recovered. The remaining hydrocarbons are fractionated, with the resultant heavy fraction being passed through a reforming zone to produce additional aromatics which are then recycled to the sulfonation zone.

  8. 30 CFR 1206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraph (h) of this section, if the maximum price permitted by Federal law at which any residue gas or gas... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Valuation standards-processed gas. 1206.153... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.153 Valuation standards—processed gas. (a)(1)...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... paragraph (h) of this section, if the maximum price permitted by Federal law at which any residue gas or gas... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Valuation standards-processed gas. 1206.153... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.153 Valuation standards—processed gas. (a)(1)...

  10. Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Wolfenbarger, James K.; Najjar, Mitri S.

    1993-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

  11. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Garofulić, Ivona Elez; Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-12-01

    Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4-7 and 13-17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4-7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder.

  12. 1987 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates an ever-varying aspect of the industry. Personnel names, plant sites, home office locations, sales and relocations - all have been compiled in this book. Inactive refineries have been updated and listed in a special section as well as active major refining and gas processing and construction projects worldwide. This directory also contains several of the most vital and informative surveys of the petroleum industry. It discusses the worldwide Construction Survey, U.S. Refining Survey, Worldwide Gas Processing Plant Survey, Worldwide Refining Survey, Worldwide Survey of Petroleum Derived Sulfur Production, and Worldwide Catalyst Report. Also included in the directory is the National Petroleum Refiners Association's U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Study.

  13. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  14. Plasma processes in inert gas thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Inert gas thrusters, particularly with large diameters, have continued to be of interest for space propulsion applications. Two plasma processes are treated in this study: electron diffusion across magnetic fields and double ion production in inert-gas thrusters. A model is developed to describe electron diffusion across a magnetic field that is driven by both density and potential gradients, with Bohm diffusion used to predict the diffusion rate. This model has applications to conduction across magnetic fields inside a discharge chamber, as well as through a magnetic baffle region used to isolate a hollow cathode from the main chamber. A theory for double ion production is presented, which is not as complete as the electron diffusion theory described, but it should be a useful tool for predicting double ion sputter erosion. Correlations are developed that may be used, without experimental data, to predict double ion densities for the design of new and especially larger ion thrusters.

  15. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  16. Sensing the gas metal arc welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, N. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Smartt, H. B.; Watkins, A. D.; Larsen, E. D.; Taylor, P. L.; Waddoups, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Control of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) requires real-time sensing of the process. Three sensing techniques for GMAW are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These are (1) noncontacting ultrasonic sensing using a laser/EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) to detect defects in the solidified weld on a pass-by-pass basis, (2) integrated optical sensing using a CCD camera and a laser stripe to obtain cooling rate and weld bead geometry information, and (3) monitoring fluctuations in digitized welding voltage data to detect the mode of metal droplet transfer and assure that the desired mass input is achieved.

  17. Synfuels from natural gas: The ethermix process

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli, G.B.; Micheli, E.; Miracca, I.

    1996-12-31

    Ethermix is a technology under development for the transformation of the dry fraction of natural gas into ethers, mainly MTBE. The process is performed in a series of steps that include the reforming of methane to a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, the combined synthesis of methanol and branched higher alcohols, mainly isobutanol, the dehydration of higher alcohols to the corresponding olefins, and the etherification of said olefins with methanol to form a mixture of ethers. The state-of-art on the subject is reported, including evaluation of the blending properties of the product and a preliminary economical analysis. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  19. Sensing the gas metal arc welding process

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, N.M.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.; Watkins, A.D.; Larsen, E.D.; Taylor, P.L. ); Waddoups, M.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Control of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) requires real-time sensing of the process. Three sensing techniques for GMAW are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These are (1) noncontacting ultrasonic sensing using a laser/EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) to detect defects in the solidified weld on a pass-bypass basis, (2) integrated optical sensing using a CCD camera and a laser stripe to obtain cooling rate and weld bead geometry information, and (3) monitoring fluctuations in digitized welding voltage data to detect the mode of metal droplet transfer and assure that the desired mass input is achieved.

  20. Sensing the gas metal arc welding process

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, N.M.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.; Watkins, A.D.; Larsen, E.D.; Taylor, P.L.; Waddoups, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    Control of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) requires real-time sensing of the process. Three sensing techniques for GMAW are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These are (1) noncontacting ultrasonic sensing using a laser/EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) to detect defects in the solidified weld on a pass-bypass basis, (2) integrated optical sensing using a CCD camera and a laser stripe to obtain cooling rate and weld bead geometry information, and (3) monitoring fluctuations in digitized welding voltage data to detect the mode of metal droplet transfer and assure that the desired mass input is achieved.

  1. Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  2. 30 CFR 1206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... permitted by Federal law at which any residue gas or gas plant products may be sold is less than the value... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Valuation standards-processed gas. 1206.153... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.153 Valuation...

  3. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2011-03-23

    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

  4. Identification of crude-oil components and microorganisms that cause souring under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, R; Toyama, K; Miyanaga, K; Tanji, Y

    2014-02-01

    Oil souring has important implications with respect to energy resources. Understanding the physiology of the microorganisms that play a role and the biological mechanisms are both important for the maintenance of infrastructure and mitigation of corrosion processes. The objective of this study was to identify crude-oil components and microorganisms in oil-field water that contribute to crude-oil souring. To identify the crude-oil components and microorganisms that are responsible for anaerobic souring in oil reservoirs, biological conversion of crude-oil components under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Microorganisms in oil field water in Akita, Japan degraded alkanes and aromatics to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under anaerobic conditions, and fermenting bacteria such as Fusibacter sp. were involved in VFA production. Aromatics such as toluene and ethylbenzene were degraded by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfotignum sp.) via the fumarate-addition pathway and not only degradation of VFA but also degradation of aromatics by sulfate-reducing bacteria was the cause of souring. Naphthenic acid and 2,4-xylenol were not converted.

  5. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Morse, D.; Raterman, K.

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  6. Potential of Spanish sour-sweet pomegranates (cultivar C25) for the juice industry.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Barrachina, A A; Calín-Sánchez, A; Bagatar, B; Hernández, F; Legua, P; Martínez-Font, R; Melgarejo, P

    2012-04-01

    Commercial juices of sweet pomegranates and fresh juices of sour-sweet pomegranates were analysed for organic acids, sugars, antioxidant activity, volatile composition, sensory profile and consumer liking. Organic acids and sugars were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, while volatiles were extracted using hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector. Malic acid was predominant in sweet juices while citric acid in sour-sweet samples. Fructose and glucose were found as the predominant sugars in all juices. A total of 18 compounds were found in pomegranate aroma profile, including monoterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, monoterpenoids and linear hydrocarbons; the most abundant compounds were 3-carene, α-terpinene and α-terpineol. The total concentration of volatiles ranged from 2.0 up to 5.1 mg/L, with commercial samples presenting higher total concentrations due to the presence of peel volatiles. The high potential of sour-sweet pomegranate fruits for the juice industry was supported by (a) the high values of positive attributes, such as colour and fresh pomegranate flavour and (b) the high overall liking of consumers.

  7. 30 CFR 202.151 - Royalty on processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty on processed gas. 202.151 Section 202.151 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Federal Gas § 202.151 Royalty on processed gas. (a)(1) A royalty, as provided in...

  8. 30 CFR 1202.151 - Royalty on processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Royalty on processed gas. 1202.151 Section 1202.151 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal Gas § 1202.151 Royalty on processed gas. (a)(1) A royalty, as...

  9. 30 CFR 1202.151 - Royalty on processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Royalty on processed gas. 1202.151 Section 1202.151 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal Gas § 1202.151 Royalty on processed gas. (a)(1) A royalty, as...

  10. 30 CFR 1202.151 - Royalty on processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Royalty on processed gas. 1202.151 Section 1202.151 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal Gas § 1202.151 Royalty on processed gas. (a)(1) A royalty, as...

  11. Portable spectrometer monitors inert gas shield in welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, E. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable spectrometer using photosensitive readouts, monitors the amount of oxygen and hydrogen in the inert gas shield of a tungsten-inert gas welding process. A fiber optic bundle transmits the light from the welding arc to the spectrometer.

  12. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to develop hydrogen-selective membranes for an innovative gas-separation process based on a water-gas-shift membrane reactor (WGS-MR) for the production of hydrogen.

  13. Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Zaida [Katy, TX; Del Paggio, Alan Anthony [Spring, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX

    2011-12-06

    A method of producing methane is described. The method includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ conversion process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. At least the olefins in the first gas stream are contacted with a hydrogen source in the presence of one or more catalysts and steam to produce a second gas stream. The second gas stream is contacted with a hydrogen source in the presence of one or more additional catalysts to produce a third gas stream. The third gas stream includes methane.

  14. Sweet and Sour: Attenuating Sulfidogenesis in an Advective Flow Column System with Perchlorate or Nitrate Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrektson, A. L.; Hubbard, C. G.; Piceno, Y.; Boussina, A.; Jin, Y.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Tom, L.; Hu, P.; Conrad, M. E.; Anderson, G. L.; Coates, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biogenesis in oil reservoirs is a primary cause of souring and of associated costs in reservoir and pipeline maintenance. In addition to the corrosive effects of the H2S itself, abiotic and biological oxidation also generates sulfuric acid, further degrading metallic surfaces. Amending these environments with perchlorate (ClO4-) resolves these problems by inhibition of biological sulfate reduction and re-oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur by dissimilatory (per)chlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB). Triplicate flow through columns packed with San Francisco bay sediment were flushed with bay water ([SO4=] = 25-30 mM) containing yeast extract with 50 mM inhibitor concentrations (NO3-or ClO4-) decreasing to 25 mM and finally 12.5 mM. Influent and effluent geochemistry was monitored and DNA was prepared from the sediment bed for microbial community analysis. Souring was reversed by both treatments (at 50 mM) compared to the control columns that had no ion addition. Nitrate began to re-sour when treatment concentration was decreased to 25 mM but treatment had to be decreased to 12.5 mM before the perchlorate treated columns began to re-sour. However, the treated columns re-soured to a lesser extent than the control columns. Phylochip microbial community analyses indicated microbial community shifts and phylogenetic clustering by treatment. Isotopic analysis of sulfate showed trends that broadly agreed with the geochemistry but also suggested further sulfur cycling was occurring. This study indicates that perchlorate shows great promise as an inhibitor of sulfidogenesis in natural communities and provides insight into which organisms are involved in this process.

  15. Gas treating alternatives for LNG plants

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.S.; Sibal, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    This paper covers the various gas treating processes available for treating sour natural gas to specifications required for LNG production. The LNG product specification requires that the total sulfur level be less than 30--40 ppmv, the CO{sub 2} level be less than 50 ppmv and the water level be less than 100 ppmv to prevent freezing problems in the LNG cryogenic column. A wide variety of natural gas compositions are encountered in the various fields and the gas treating process selection is dependent on the type of impurities present in the gas, namely, levels of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, mercaptans and other organic sulfur compounds. This paper discusses the implications various components in the feed to the LNG plant can have on process selection, and the various treating processes that are available to condition the gas. Process selection criteria, design and operating philosophies are discussed. An economic comparison for two treating schemes is provided.

  16. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Cha, C.Y.

    1993-09-21

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. 1 figure.

  17. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tastandieva, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of "cooling down" liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  18. Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

  19. Sulfide stress corrosion study of a super martensitic stainless steel in H2S sour environments: Metallic sulfides formation and hydrogen embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnot, Martin; Nogueira, Ricardo P.; Roche, Virginie; Berthomé, Grégory; Chauveau, Eric; Estevez, Rafael; Mantel, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Thanks to their high corrosion resistance, super martensitic stainless steels are commonly used in the oil and gas industry, particularly in sour environments. Some grades are however susceptible to undergo hydrogen and mechanically-assisted corrosion processes in the presence of H2S, depending on the pH. The martensitic stainless steel EN 1.4418 grade exhibits a clear protective passive behavior with no sulfide stress corrosion cracking when exposed to sour environments of pH ≥ 4, but undergoes a steep decrease in its corrosion resistance at lower pH conditions. The present paper investigated this abrupt loss of corrosion resistance with electrochemical measurements as well as different physicochemical characterization techniques. Results indicated that below pH 4.0 the metal surface is covered by a thick (ca 40 μm) porous and defect-full sulfide-rich corrosion products layer shown to be straightforwardly related to the onset of hydrogen and sulfide mechanically-assisted corrosion phenomena.

  20. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.

  1. Factors Governing the Germination of Sulfate-Reducing Desulfotomaculum Endospores Involved in Oil Reservoir Souring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, A.; Bell, E.; Cueto, G.; Suarez-Suarez, A.; Pilloni, G.; Hubert, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir souring is caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in subsurface oil reservoirs, and is often induced by seawater injection during secondary oil recovery. Souring can potentially contribute to corrosion of infrastructure, health and safety hazards to the workforce, and reduction in value by increasing refining costs associated with producing the oil resource. Souring causes annual losses in the billions of dollars to the oil industry. Endospore-forming SRM, such as Desulfotomaculum spp., are often suspected culprits in reservoir souring. Endospores can survive unfavourable conditions for long periods, yet remain poised to germinate and become active if conditions become more favourable. Factors governing endospore germination are poorly understood, but are thought to include availability of nutrients, possibly metabolic by products of other anaerobic bioprocesses, and/or variations in temperature. Most research has focused on aerobic Bacillus spp., with very few studies dedicated to spore germination among anaerobes (order Clostridiales) including the sulfate-reducing Desulfotomaculum found in anoxic subsurface petroleum reservoirs. For Desulfotomaculum spores in deep hot oil reservoirs, cold seawater introduction during secondary oil recovery may create thermal viability zones for sulfate reduction near the injection wellbore. To evaluate these processes, sulfate-containing microcosms were prepared with different marine sediments as a source of spores, and amended with organic substrates in the presence or absence of oil. Incubation at 80°C for six days was followed by a down-shift in temperature to 60°C to mimic cold seawater injection into a hot reservoir. Souring did not occur at 80°C, but commenced within hours at 60°C. Microcosms were monitored for sulfate reduction and organic acids in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes (Ion Torrent, Illumina MiSeq). Through a combination of high

  2. 10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS PRODUCER PROCESS, BUILDING 10A.' Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Holston Defense Corporation. August 29, 1974. Delineator: G. A. Horne. Drawing # SK-1942. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  3. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  4. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  5. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    SciTech Connect

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  6. Ampicillin Nanoparticles Production via Supercritical CO2 Gas Antisolvent Process.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Nadia; Ghoreishi, Seyyed M

    2015-12-01

    The micronization of ampicillin via supercritical gas antisolvent (GAS) process was studied. The particle size distribution was significantly controlled with effective GAS variables such as initial solute concentration, temperature, pressure, and antisolvent addition rate. The effect of each variable in three levels was investigated. The precipitated particles were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Zetasizer Nano ZS. The results indicated that decreasing the temperature and initial solute concentration while increasing the antisolvent rate and pressure led to a decrease in ampicillin particle size. The mean particle size of ampicillin was obtained in the range of 220-430 nm by varying the GAS effective variables. The purity of GAS-synthesized ampicillin nanoparticles was analyzed in contrast to unprocessed ampicillin by FTIR and HPLC. The results indicated that the structure of the ampicillin nanoparticles remained unchanged during the GAS process.

  7. Process for separating aggressive gases from gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T.E.

    1984-03-06

    A process for separating large percentages of aggressive gases such as carbon dioxide from low temperature gas mixtures wherein the gas mixture is passed through a plurality of treatment zones in series. In each treatment zone the gas mixture is first compressed to a pressure such that the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide is not greater than the critical carbon dioxide partial pressure and the compressed gas mixture is then brought into contact with a membrane more permeable to carbon dioxide than other gases of the mixture such that carbon dioxide permeates the membrane to the other side thereof. The gas mixture is maintained in contact with the membrane a sufficient time to lower the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide in the non-permeated gas mixture to less than about 40 percent of said critical carbon dioxide partial pressure. The process is especially useful for separating carbon dioxide from methane and other gases.

  8. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Peterson, Kurt D.; Riha, Brian D.

    2008-04-01

    A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

  9. Gas condensate reservoir characterisation for CO2 geological storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    During oil and gas production hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is significantly increased by injecting miscible CO2 gas in order to displace hydrocarbons towards producing wells. This process of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) might be used for the total CO2 storage after complete hydrocarbon reservoir depletion. This kind of potential storage sites was selected for detailed studies, including generalised development study to investigate the applicability of CO2 for storages. The study is focused on compositional modelling to predict the miscibility pressures. We consider depleted gas condensate field in Kazakhstan as important target for CO2 storage and EOR. This reservoir being depleted below the dew point leads to retrograde condensate formed in the pore system. CO2 injection in the depleted gas condensate reservoirs may allow enhanced gas recovery by reservoir pressurisation and liquid re-vaporisation. In addition a number of geological and petrophysical parameters should satisfy storage requirements. Studied carbonate gas condensate and oil field has strong seal, good petrophysical parameters and already proven successful containment CO2 and sour gas in high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions. The reservoir is isolated Lower Permian and Carboniferous carbonate platform covering an area of about 30 km. The reservoir contains a gas column about 1.5 km thick. Importantly, the strong massive sealing consists of the salt and shale seal. Sour gas that filled in the oil-saturated shale had an active role to form strong sealing. Two-stage hydrocarbon saturation of oil and later gas within the seal frame were accompanied by bitumen precipitation in shales forming a perfect additional seal. Field hydrocarbon production began three decades ago maintaining a strategy in full replacement of gas in order to maintain pressure of the reservoir above the dew point. This was partially due to the sour nature of the gas with CO2 content over 5%. Our models and

  10. Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  11. Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, R.

    1985-06-04

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  12. An ionic liquid process for mercury removal from natural gas.

    PubMed

    Abai, Mahpuzah; Atkins, Martin P; Hassan, Amiruddin; Holbrey, John D; Kuah, Yongcheun; Nockemann, Peter; Oliferenko, Alexander A; Plechkova, Natalia V; Rafeen, Syamzari; Rahman, Adam A; Ramli, Rafin; Shariff, Shahidah M; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Zou, Yiran

    2015-05-14

    Efficient scrubbing of mercury vapour from natural gas streams has been demonstrated both in the laboratory and on an industrial scale, using chlorocuprate(II) ionic liquids impregnated on high surface area porous solid supports, resulting in the effective removal of mercury vapour from natural gas streams. This material has been commercialised for use within the petroleum gas production industry, and has currently been running continuously for three years on a natural gas plant in Malaysia. Here we report on the chemistry underlying this process, and demonstrate the transfer of this technology from gram to ton scale.

  13. A study to investigate the performance of the Benfield-HiPure process of natural gas sweetening using computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochieng, Richard

    The removal of CO2 and H2S from natural gas is currently a global issue. Apart from meeting the customer's contract, pipeline, and LNG specifications; it is also a measure for reducing the global environmental emissions. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of ADGAS' Train#3 plant through process simulations. ADGAS' Train#3 plant uses the Benfield HiPure design commissioned by Universal Oil Product (UOP Honeywell) in 1993. The Benfield HiPure process uses two independent but compatible circulating solutions in series to achieve high product purity in terms of acid gas concentrations that meet the LNG industry specifications. The ability to remove contaminants up to very low levels (1ppm H2S, 50ppm CO2 and 2ppm COS) makes the HiPure process an excellent choice for purifying natural gas for LNG requirement. At Das Island, ADGAS' Train#3 facility receives sour gas containing about 6-7 mole % acid gas content. This gas is first contacted with hot potassium carbonate (30wt% K2CO3) promoted with diethanolamine solution (3wt% DEA) followed by a contact with aqueous amine solution (20wt% DEA) alone as the second solvent. In this thesis, ADGAS Train#3 model was developed using the simulator tool ProMax®. Simulation outputs were found to match reasonably well the design and plant operating data. Based on the model predictions, the carbonate absorber seemed to be over designed with much of the acid gases being absorbed at the bottom of the packing. With the confidence that the model is a reliable replicate of the real plant facility, a parametric sensitivity analysis was carried out to develop a strategy of controlling operational uncertainties and enable plant optimization. The parametric sensitivity analysis showed that the liquid circulation rates, solvent concentrations, trim cooler temperatures, feed gas flow rate, and feed gas H2S/CO2 ratio have a considerable effect on the performance of the plant with respect to acid gas removal, gas production

  14. Process for making ceramic hot gas filter

    DOEpatents

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  15. Synthesis and deposition of metal nanoparticles by gas condensation process

    SciTech Connect

    Maicu, Marina Glöß, Daniel; Frach, Peter; Schmittgens, Ralph; Gerlach, Gerald; Hecker, Dominic

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the synthesis of Pt and Ag nanoparticles by means of the inert gas phase condensation of sputtered atomic vapor is presented. The process parameters (power, sputtering time, and gas flow) were varied in order to study the relationship between deposition conditions and properties of the nanoparticles such as their quantity, size, and size distribution. Moreover, the gas phase condensation process can be combined with a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition procedure in order to deposit nanocomposite coatings consisting of metallic nanoparticles embedded in a thin film matrix material. Selected examples of application of the generated nanoparticles and nanocomposites are discussed.

  16. U-GAS process for production of hydrogen from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.J.; Patel, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Today, hydrogen is produced mainly from natural gas and petroleum fractions. Tomorrow, because reserves of natural gas and oil are declining while demand continues to increase, they cannot be considered available for long-term, large-scale production of hydrogen. Hydrogen obtained from coal is expected to be the lowest cost, large-scale source of hydrogen in the future. The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of hydrogen is discussed. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of hydrogen manufactured are presented.

  17. Radon gas distribution in natural gas processing facilities and workplace air environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Shwiekani, R

    2008-04-01

    Evaluation was made of the distribution of radon gas and radiation exposure rates in the four main natural gas treatment facilities in Syria. The results showed that radiation exposure rates at contact of all equipment were within the natural levels (0.09-0.1 microSvh(-1)) except for the reflex pumps where a dose rate value of 3 microSvh(-1) was recorded. Radon concentrations in Syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bq m(-3) and 1141 Bq m(-3); natural gas associated with oil production was found to contain higher concentrations than the non-associated natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities than the wellheads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its decay products. Moreover, the lowest 222Rn concentration was in the natural gas fraction used for producing sulfur; a value of 80 Bq m(-3) was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas and its decay product concentrations in workplace air environments were found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratories; a value of 458 Bq m(-3) was observed. However, all reported levels in the workplaces in the four main stations were below the action level set by IAEA for chronic exposure situations involving radon, which is 1000 Bq m(-3).

  18. Aerobic biodegradation of sludge with high hydrocarbon content generated by a Mexican natural gas processing facility.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Carrillo, T; Castorena-Cortés, G; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Olguín-Lora, P

    2012-03-01

    The biodegradation of oil sludge from Mexican sour gas and petrochemical facilities contaminated with a high content of hydrocarbons, 334.7 ± 7.0 g kg(-1) dry matter (dm), was evaluated. Studies in microcosm systems were carried out in order to determine the capacity of the native microbiota in the sludge to reduce hydrocarbon levels under aerobic conditions. Different carbon/nitrogen/phosphorous (C/N/P) nutrient ratios were tested. The systems were incubated at 30 °C and shaken at 100 rpm. Hydrocarbon removals from 32 to 51% were achieved in the assays after 30 days of incubation. The best assay had C/N/P ratio of 100/1.74/0.5. The results of the Microtox(®) and Ames tests indicated that the original sludge was highly toxic and mutagenic, whereas the best assay gave a final product that did not show toxicity or mutagenicity.

  19. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude...

  20. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude...

  1. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude...

  2. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude...

  3. Microwave Plasma Sources for Gas Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.; Dors, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguide-based surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzle-type MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented.

  4. Microwave Plasma Sources for Gas Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.; Dors, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.

    2008-03-19

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguide-based surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzle-type MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented.

  5. Fast Gas Replacement in Plasma Process Chamber by Improving Gas Flow Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Sadaharu; Goto, Tetsuya; Akutsu, Isao; Ohyama, Kenji; Ito, Takashi; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2009-01-01

    The precise and high-speed alteration of various gas species is important for realizing precise and well-controlled multiprocesses in a single plasma process chamber with high throughput. The gas replacement times in the replacement of N2 by Ar and that of H2 by Ar are measured in a microwave excited high-density and low electron-temperature plasma process chamber at various working pressures and gas flow rates, incorporating a new gas flow control system, which can avoid overshoot of the gas pressure in the chamber immediately after the valve operation, and a gradational lead screw booster pump, which can maintain excellent pumping capability for various gas species including lightweight gases such as H2 in a wide pressure region from 10-1 to 104 Pa. Furthermore, to control the gas flow pattern in the chamber, upper ceramic shower plates, which have thousands of very fine gas injection holes (numbers of 1200 and 2400) formed with optimized allocation on the plates, are adopted, while the conventional gas supply method in the microwave-excited plasma chamber uses many holes only opened at the sidewall of the chamber (gas ring). It has been confirmed that, in the replacement of N2 by Ar, a short replacement time of approximately 1 s in the cases of 133 and 13.3 Pa and approximately 3 s in the case of 4 Pa can be achieved when the upper shower plate has 2400 holes, while a replacement time longer than approximately 10 s is required for all pressure cases where the gas ring is used. In addition, thanks to the excellent pumping capability of the gradational lead screw booster pump for lightweight gases, it has also been confirmed that the replacement time of H2 by Ar is almost the same as that of N2 by Ar.

  6. The development of Enron`s Teesside gas processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Meckna, R.D.; Oliver, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the changing nature of gas processing in the United Kingdom. Geographical changes in the gas supply and Legislative changes are discussed. Market demands require that a gas processing facility meet gas quality specifications, be reliable and flexible. A detailed description of the Train 1 plant design and operation will be addressed. A comparison of Train 2 and Train 1 will be made and differences in design will be highlighted. Special features of each plant such as the Drizo glycol dehydration and the Puraspec H{sub 2}S removal will be reviewed. Construction/operation interfaces were very important during the Train 2 construction because Train 1 was a live operating plant. A review of safety and environmental requirements with emphasis on how the Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards Regulation 1984 (CIMAH) affect the design, construction and operation of the facilities are included in the paper.

  7. [Occupational deafness in workers of gas-processing industry].

    PubMed

    Raĭtselis, I V

    2009-01-01

    A total of 1121 workers serving processing unit operators, including operators (n = 673), drivers (n = 201), and fitters (n = 247), were examined at a gas-processing plant (GPP). A complex of negative industrial factors in the gas-processing industry workers was ascertained to be formed due to their exposure to high noise along with class 3.2 hard work. The total rate of the working conditions at the GPP in terms of the intensity of negative industrial factors corresponds to Class 3.3-3.4, which determines the increased likelihood of occupational deafness in the workers.

  8. Electrolytic trapping of iodine from process gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Horner, Donald E.; Mailen, James C.; Posey, Franz A.

    1977-01-25

    A method for removing molecular, inorganic, and organic forms of iodine from process gas streams comprises the electrolytic oxidation of iodine in the presence of cobalt-III ions. The gas stream is passed through the anode compartment of a partitioned electrolytic cell having a nitric acid anolyte containing a catalytic amount of cobalt to cause the oxidation of effluent iodine species to aqueous soluble species.

  9. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-05-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{trademark} (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting periods new catalyst formulations were tested. The experiments showed that the newest catalyst has slightly better performance, but catalyst TDA No.2 is still superior overall for use with the hybrid CrystaSulf process due to lower costs. Plans for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described.

  10. An advanced oxidation process using ionized gas for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Chung, Paul Gene; Kwak, Dong Heui; Kim, Lee Hyung; Kim, Min Jeong

    2010-01-01

    This study on removing non-degradable materials in wastewater focused primarily on advanced oxidation methods such as ozone, ozone/UV and ozone/H2O2. Wastewater treatment using an ionized gas from plasma has been actively progressing. The ionized gas involves reactive species such as O2+, O2- cluster, O radical and OH radical. Since the ionized gas method has such outstanding characteristics as relatively simple structures, non-calorification, non-toxicity and low electricity consumption, it evidently of interest as a new process. A series of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of ionized gas as a useful element for the diminution of nondegradable organic matters. On the other hand, a large amount of organic matters were changed to hydrophilic and the compounds containing aromatic functional group gradually decreased. The results implied that the ionized gas has been able to degrade the non-biodegradable organic matters. Therefore, the oxidation process by using an ionized gas process could be considered as an effective alternative unit in water and wastewater treatment plants.

  11. Crystal morphology and gas evolution during solidification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Marcus Vinicius Andrade

    A theoretical and experimental study of the solidification process has been performed to obtain fundamental understanding relevant to metal casting, solidification of alloys, freezing of biological materials and other areas. The emphasis is on the effect of the morphology of the crystals on the solidification of binary systems and the role of dissolved gas evolution on gas porosity formation. Of specific interest is the effect of gas bubble nucleation and of crystal morphology on the effective thermal conductivity of the solidifying system. An analytical and a semi-analytical method are used to calculate the gas species redistribution due to the movement of the solid-liquid interface during the freezing processes. The gas segregation at the interface strongly depends on the solidification rate (i.e., the interface velocity). The results are important to predict the formation of gas voids in castings and, most importantly, to avoid them. It is found that for a constant solidification rate, bubble nucleation always occurs at the interface despite the magnitude of the interface velocity. On the other hand, when the solidification rate is inversely proportional to the square root of time bubble nucleation can be avoided by ensuring that the initial gas concentration is smaller than a ratio involving the gas solubilities in the liquid and in the solid. An experimental apparatus is designed and constructed to study solidification on a microscopic scale. The temperature gradient and the solidification rate are controlled and aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride of different initial concentrations are frozen in a controlled manner in order to measure the microscopic characteristic lengths of the crystals grown from ammonium chloride solutions of low initial concentrations. Air-saturated water is also solidified and the dissolved gas bubble nucleation observed. Microscopic geometric lengths of the crystal that form the mushy zone are correlated with the velocity of the

  12. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES AND PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Bikson; Sal Giglia; Jibin Hao

    2003-03-01

    In the second phase of this project, the newly developed membrane module for natural gas dehydration was tested and evaluated in a pilot plant located at a commercial natural gas treatment site. This phase was undertaken jointly with UOP LLC, our commercialization partner. The field test demonstrated that a commercial-size membrane module for natural gas dehydration was successfully manufactured. The membrane module operated reliably over 1000 psi differential pressure across the membrane in the field test. The effects of feed gas pressure, permeate gas pressure, feed flow rate, purge ratio (flow rate ratio of permeate outlet to feed), and feed gas dew point on the membrane module performance were determined and found to meet the design expectations. Although water vapor permeance was lower than expected, substantial natural gas dehydration was demonstrated with low purge ratio. For example, dew point was suppressed by as much as 30 F with only about 2 {approx} 3% purge ratio. However the bore side pressure drops were significantly higher than the projected value from the fluid dynamic calculation. It is likely that not all the fibers were open in either the sweep or the permeate tube sheet end. This could help to explain the relatively low water vapor permeances that were measured in the field. An economic evaluation of the membrane process and the traditional Triethylene Glycol (TEG) process to dehydrate natural gas was performed and the economics of the two processes were compared. Two sets of membrane module performance properties were used in the economic analysis of the membrane process. One was from the results of this field test and the other from the results of the previous small-scale test with a medium pressure membrane variant conducted at 750 psig. The membrane process was competitive with the TEG process for the natural gas feed flow rate below 10 MMSCFD for the membrane with previously measured water vapor permeance. The membrane process was

  13. Miracle fruit: An alternative sugar substitute in sour beverages.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica Ferreira; Andrade, Rafaela da Silva; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Coelho, Sandra Bragança; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2016-12-01

    High sugar consumption has been related to several chronic diseases and thus, many alternative sweeteners have been extensively researched. However, there is still controversy regarding the harmful effects of their consumption, mainly regarding the use of artificial sweeteners, controversy which increases the demand for natural sweeteners, such as miracle fruit. This tropical plant grows in West Africa is named for its unique ability of changing a sour taste into sweet. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the temporal profile of miracle fruit and assess its sugar substitute power in sour beverages through time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations tests. For this, unsweetened lemonade and lemonades with sugar, sucralose and previous miracle fruit ingestions were evaluated. We noted that the dynamic profile of lemonade ingested after miracle fruit ingestion indicates that it seems to be a good sugar substitute, since it provides high sweetness intensity and persistence, reduced product sourness and an absence of aftertastes. The miracle fruit also provided a sensory profile similar to that of sucralose, an established and recognized sugar substitute. The results of this study provide important information for future applications of miracle fruit as a sugar substitute in sour beverages, providing an alternative use for a natural substance as a sweetening agent.

  14. Methane Emissions from United States Natural Gas Gathering and Processing.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Anthony J; Vaughn, Timothy L; Zimmerle, Daniel J; Martinez, David M; Williams, Laurie L; Robinson, Allen L; Mitchell, Austin L; Subramanian, R; Tkacik, Daniel S; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C

    2015-09-01

    New facility-level methane (CH4) emissions measurements obtained from 114 natural gas gathering facilities and 16 processing plants in 13 U.S. states were combined with facility counts obtained from state and national databases in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate CH4 emissions from U.S. natural gas gathering and processing operations. Total annual CH4 emissions of 2421 (+245/-237) Gg were estimated for all U.S. gathering and processing operations, which represents a CH4 loss rate of 0.47% (±0.05%) when normalized by 2012 CH4 production. Over 90% of those emissions were attributed to normal operation of gathering facilities (1697 +189/-185 Gg) and processing plants (506 +55/-52 Gg), with the balance attributed to gathering pipelines and processing plant routine maintenance and upsets. The median CH4 emissions estimate for processing plants is a factor of 1.7 lower than the 2012 EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) estimate, with the difference due largely to fewer reciprocating compressors, and a factor of 3.0 higher than that reported under the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. Since gathering operations are currently embedded within the production segment of the EPA GHGI, direct comparison to our results is complicated. However, the study results suggest that CH4 emissions from gathering are substantially higher than the current EPA GHGI estimate and are equivalent to 30% of the total net CH4 emissions in the natural gas systems GHGI. Because CH4 emissions from most gathering facilities are not reported under the current rule and not all source categories are reported for processing plants, the total CH4 emissions from gathering and processing reported under the EPA GHGRP (180 Gg) represents only 14% of that tabulated in the EPA GHGI and 7% of that predicted from this study.

  15. Mechanistic Processes Controlling Gas Sorption in Shale Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaef, T.; Loring, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Davidson, C. L.; Owen, T.; Hoyt, D.; Glezakou, V. A.; McGrail, B. P.; Thompson, C.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of CO2 to stimulate natural gas production in previously fractured shale-dominated reservoirs where CO2 remains in place for long-term storage may be an attractive new strategy for reducing the cost of managing anthropogenic CO2. A preliminary analysis of capacities and potential revenues in US shale plays suggests nearly 390 tcf in additional gas recovery may be possible via CO2 driven enhanced gas recovery. However, reservoir transmissivity properties, optimum gas recovery rates, and ultimate fate of CO2 vary among reservoirs, potentially increasing operational costs and environmental risks. In this paper, we identify key mechanisms controlling the sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto phyllosilicates and processes occurring in mixed gas systems that have the potential of impacting fluid transfer and CO2 storage in shale dominated formations. Through a unique set of in situ experimental techniques coupled with molecular-level simulations, we identify structural transformations occurring to clay minerals, optimal CO2/CH4 gas exchange conditions, and distinguish between adsorbed and intercalated gases in a mixed gas system. For example, based on in situ measurements with magic angle spinning NMR, intercalation of CO2 within the montmorillonite structure occurs in CH4/CO2 gas mixtures containing low concentrations (<5 mol%) of CO2. A stable montmorillonite structure dominates during exposure to pure CH4 (90 bar), but expands upon titration of small fractions (1-3 mol%) of CO2. Density functional theory was used to quantify the difference in sorption behavior between CO2 and CH4 and indicates complex interactions occurring between hydrated cations, CH4, and CO2. The authors will discuss potential impacts of these experimental results on CO2-based hydrocarbon recovery processes.

  16. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2003-10-01

    This third quarter report of 2003 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and off-shore applications. CrystaSulf{reg_sign} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas.

  17. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-04-01

    This first quarter report of 2004 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and off-shore applications. CrystaSulf{reg_sign} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane while avoiding methane oxidation and fouling due to coking from other hydrocarbon contaminants. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas.

  18. Nitrogen addition using a gas blow in an ESR process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Momoi, Y.; Kajikawa, K.

    2016-07-01

    A new nitrogen method for adding in an ESR process using nitrogen gas blown in through the electrode was investigated. Nitrogen gas blown through a center bore of the electrode enabled contact between the nitrogen gas and the molten steel directly underneath the electrode tip. A ɸ 145mm diameter, laboratory-sized PESR furnace was used for the study on the reaction kinetics. Also, we carried out a water-model experiment in order to check the injection depth of the gas blown in the slag. The water model showed that the gas did not reach the upper surface of the molten metal and flowed on the bottom surface of the electrode only. An EPMA was carried out for a droplet remaining on the tip of the electrode after melting. The molten steel from the tip of the electrode shows that nitrogen gas absorption occurred at the tip of the electrode. The mass transfer coefficient was around 1.0x10-2 cm/sec in the system. This value is almost the same as the coefficient at the molten steel free surface.

  19. Process for producing methanol from a feed gas

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.P.

    1987-03-17

    A process is described for producing methanol from a feed gas comprising: passing at least a portion of the feed gas stream comprising hydrogen plus carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide to a first separation zone, the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the feed gas stream being insufficient for effective methanol production; physically separating the feed gas stream in the first separation zone into a first hydrogen stream wherein the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide is greater than in the feed gas stream and a first product stream comprising a hydrogen lean stream rich in carbon monoxide wherein the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide is less than in the feed gas stream; passing the first hydrogen stream to a product reaction zone to form a mixed product comprising methanol formed by the reaction of the reactants comprisng hydrogen plus carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and also residual components comprising residual hydrogen and carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The ratio of hydrogen to other reactants in the product reaction zone is such as to facilitate the formation of methanol; and removing the methanol and residual components as a mixed product stream from the product reaction zone.

  20. 30 CFR 1206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Valuation standards-processed gas. 1206.153 Section 1206.153 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL... notification shall be by letter to the ONRR Director for Office of Natural Resources or his/her designee....

  1. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  2. Indirect gas chromatographic measurement of water for process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.

    1993-05-01

    This project was conducted to develop a moisture measurement method for process gas streams of fossil fuels. Objective was to from pyrolysis to measure the molar concentration of water in a gas stream without flow measurements. The method developed has been incorporated into the hydrocarbon gas analysis method currently used at Western Research Institute. A literature search of types of direct measuring moisture sensors was conducted, and a list of sensors available is given; most of them could not survive in the environment of the process streams. Indirect methods of measuring water involve changing the water via reaction to a compound that can be more readily measured. These methods react water with various reagents to form hydrogen, acetylene, and acetone. The method chose for this study uses a calcium carbide reaction column to convert the water present in the gas stream to acetylene for analysis. Relative deviation for the daily determination of water varied from 0.5 to 3.4%. The method chosen was tested for linearity over a wide range of gas stream water content. Response over 2 to 15 mole % water appears to be linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.991.

  3. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  4. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  5. Methane gas seepage - Disregard of significant water column filter processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Schmale, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Marine methane seepage represents a potential contributor for greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and is discussed as a driver for climate change. The ultimate question is how much methane is released from the seafloor on a global scale and what fraction may reach the atmosphere? Dissolved fluxes from methane seepage sites on the seabed were found to be very efficiently reduced by benthic microbial oxidation, whereas transport of free gas bubbles from the seabed is considered to bypass the effective benthic methane filter. Numerical models are available today to predict the fate of such methane gas bubble release to the water column in regard to gas exchange with the ambient water column, respective bubble lifetime and rise height. However, the fate of rising gas bubbles and dissolved methane in the water column is not only governed by dissolution, but is also affected by lateral oceanographic currents and vertical bubble-induced upwelling, microbial oxidation, and physico-chemical processes that remain poorly understood so far. According to this gap of knowledge we present data from two study sites - the anthropogenic North Sea 22/4b Blowout and the natural Coal Oil point seeps - to shed light into two new processes gathered with hydro-acoustic multibeam water column imaging and microbial investigations. The newly discovered processes are hereafter termed Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism. Spiral Vortex describes the evolution of a complex vortical fluid motion of a bubble plume in the wake of an intense gas release site (Blowout, North Sea). It appears very likely that it dramatically changes the dissolution kinetics of the seep gas bubbles. Bubble Transport Mechanism prescribes the transport of sediment-hosted bacteria into the water column via rising gas bubbles. Both processes act as filter mechanisms in regard to vertical transport of seep related methane, but have not been considered before. Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism represent the

  6. U.S. gas processing consolidates while world tempo increases

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Consolidation characterized US gas processing in 1995, while plants in Canada, Western Europe, Middle East, and Asia displayed growth in capacities and NGL production. The US and Canada continued to lead the rest of the world in capacity, throughput, and NGL production, although by smaller margins. A rash of consolidations underway in the US among gatherers and processors, shrunk capacity by more than 1.8 bcfd ({minus}2.6%) and production by nearly 950,000 gpd ({minus}1.3%). US capacity stood at slightly more than 69 bcfd as of Jan. 1, 1996; throughput for 1995 averaged nearly 48.4 bcfd; and NGL production exceeded 74,550 gpd. Canada saw its gas-processing capacity increase last year by more than 2.3 bcfd (6.3%) led by a handful of major expansions at large Alberta scavenger plants that straddle major gas export pipelines to the US. Gas-processing capacity in Canada as of Jan. 1 was nearly 39 bcfd; throughput for 1995 averaged nearly 30.5 bcfd; NGL production fell to slightly more than 43,000 gpd. This paper discusses these trends in the US and Canada, and briefly world wide.

  7. [A microbiological study of an underground gas storage in the process of gas injection].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Borzenkov, I A; Tarasov, A L; Milekhina, E I; Beliaev, S S

    2007-01-01

    The liquid phase of different units of an underground gas storage (UGS) in the period of gas injection was studied with respect to its hydrochemical composition and characterized microbiologically. The presence of viable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was revealed in the UGS stratal and associated waters. An important source of microorganisms and biogenic elements in the ecosystem studied is water and various technogenic admixtures contained in trace amounts in the gas entering from the gas main in the period of gas injection into the storage. Owing to this fact, the bacterial functional diversity, number, and activity are maximal in the system of gas treatment and purification and considerably lower in the observation well zone. At the terminal stages, the anaerobic transformation of organic matter in the UGS aqueous media occurs via sulfate reduction and methanogenesis; exceptionally high rates of these processes (up to 4.9 x 10(5) ng S(2-)l(-1) day(-1) and 2.8 x 10(6) nl CH4 l(-1) day(-1), respectively) were recorded for above-ground technological equipment.

  8. The thief process for mercury removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Granite, Evan J; Freeman, Mark C; Hargis, Richard A; O'Dowd, William J; Pennline, Henry W

    2007-09-01

    The Thief Process is a cost-effective variation to activated carbon injection (ACI) for removal of mercury from flue gas. In this scheme, partially combusted coal from the furnace of a pulverized coal power generation plant is extracted by a lance and then re-injected into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater. Recent results on a 500-lb/h pilot-scale combustion facility show similar removals of mercury for both the Thief Process and ACI. The tests conducted to date at laboratory, bench, and pilot-scales demonstrate that the Thief sorbents exhibit capacities for mercury from flue gas streams that are comparable to those exhibited by commercially available activated carbons. A patent for the process was issued in February 2003. The Thief sorbents are cheaper than commercially-available activated carbons; exhibit excellent capacities for mercury; and the overall process holds great potential for reducing the cost of mercury removal from flue gas. The Thief Process was licensed to Mobotec USA, Inc. in May of 2005.

  9. Fission gas bubble identification using MATLAB's image processing toolbox

    DOE PAGES

    Collette, R.; King, J.; Keiser, Jr., D.; ...

    2016-06-08

    Automated image processing routines have the potential to aid in the fuel performance evaluation process by eliminating bias in human judgment that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. In addition, this study presents several MATLAB based image analysis routines designed for fission gas void identification in post-irradiation examination of uranium molybdenum (U–Mo) monolithic-type plate fuels. Frequency domain filtration, enlisted as a pre-processing technique, can eliminate artifacts from the image without compromising the critical features of interest. This process is coupled with a bilateral filter, an edge-preserving noise removal technique aimed at preparing the image for optimal segmentation. Adaptive thresholding provedmore » to be the most consistent gray-level feature segmentation technique for U–Mo fuel microstructures. The Sauvola adaptive threshold technique segments the image based on histogram weighting factors in stable contrast regions and local statistics in variable contrast regions. Once all processing is complete, the algorithm outputs the total fission gas void count, the mean void size, and the average porosity. The final results demonstrate an ability to extract fission gas void morphological data faster, more consistently, and at least as accurately as manual segmentation methods.« less

  10. Fission gas bubble identification using MATLAB's image processing toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Collette, R.; King, J.; Keiser, Jr., D.; Miller, B.; Madden, J.; Schulthess, J.

    2016-06-08

    Automated image processing routines have the potential to aid in the fuel performance evaluation process by eliminating bias in human judgment that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. In addition, this study presents several MATLAB based image analysis routines designed for fission gas void identification in post-irradiation examination of uranium molybdenum (U–Mo) monolithic-type plate fuels. Frequency domain filtration, enlisted as a pre-processing technique, can eliminate artifacts from the image without compromising the critical features of interest. This process is coupled with a bilateral filter, an edge-preserving noise removal technique aimed at preparing the image for optimal segmentation. Adaptive thresholding proved to be the most consistent gray-level feature segmentation technique for U–Mo fuel microstructures. The Sauvola adaptive threshold technique segments the image based on histogram weighting factors in stable contrast regions and local statistics in variable contrast regions. Once all processing is complete, the algorithm outputs the total fission gas void count, the mean void size, and the average porosity. The final results demonstrate an ability to extract fission gas void morphological data faster, more consistently, and at least as accurately as manual segmentation methods.

  11. Design, Control and in Situ Visualization of Gas Nitriding Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ratajski, Jerzy; Olik, Roman; Suszko, Tomasz; Dobrodziej, Jerzy; Michalski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of time, as well as possibilities to predict the properties of nitrided layers. For in situ visualization of the growth of the nitrided layer, computer procedures were developed which make use of the results of the correlations of direct and differential voltage and time runs of the process result sensor (magnetic sensor), with the proper layer growth stage. Computer procedures make it possible to combine, in the duration of the process, the registered voltage and time runs with the models of the process. PMID:22315536

  12. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-07-01

    This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. This report describes testing using the laboratory apparatus but operated at the pilot plant using the actual pilot plant

  13. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-08-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H{sub 2}S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H{sub 2}S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H{sub 2}S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not change the

  14. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOEpatents

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Corbeels, Roger J.; Kokturk, Uygur

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  15. Study on Process Optimization of Cold Gas Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabbara, H.; Gu, S.; McCartney, D. G.; Price, T. S.; Shipway, P. H.

    2011-03-01

    Cold gas dynamic spraying is a relatively new spray coating technique capable of depositing a variety of materials without extensive heating. As a result the inherent degradation of the powder particles found during traditional thermal spraying can be avoided. The simplicity of this technique is its most salient feature. High pressure gas is accelerated through a convergent-divergent nozzle up to supersonic velocity. The powder particles are carried to the substrate by the gas and on impact the particles deform at temperatures below their melting point. Computational modeling of thermal spray systems can provide thorough descriptions of the complex, compressible, particle-laden flow, and therefore can be utilized to strengthen understanding and allow technological progress to be made in a more systematic fashion. The computational fluid dynamic approach is adopted in this study to examine the effects of changing the nozzle cross-section shape, particle size and process gas type on the gas flow characteristics through a cold spray nozzle, as well as the spray distribution and particle velocity variation at the exit.

  16. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Pence, Dallas T.; Chou, Chun-Chao

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

  17. New processes target methanol production, off-gas cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J. )

    1994-03-28

    Catalysis plays a key role in two technological developments aimed at addressing environmental-related matters. One, a process that converts carbon dioxide to methanol, is seen as a means of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide dumped into the atmosphere without an economic penalty. The other, unsteady-state operation, is a chemical processing innovation that is finding its way into the cleaning of plant exhaust gases. Particulars on the developments were presented in separate forums at the American Chemical Society's national meeting in San Diego. The methanol process, developed by Lurgi Oel-Gas-Chemie, Frankfurt, was outlined for the Catalysis and Surface Science Secretariat. Lurgi is ready to commercialized a variation of its methanol process, which converts carbon dioxide to ethanol in two stages. Underlying the process is development of a catalyst that is suitable for operation in two temperature regimes. The paper describes the development of the process. A catalytic reverse processing system is being used to decontaminate gas streams containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOCs may be unacceptable in the environment or undesirable in subsequent processing units. Other applications include nitrogen oxides reduction, ammonia and methanol synthesis, and oxidation of SO[sub 2] to SO[sub 3] in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Among the materials that have been removed as VOCs are C[sub 4] to C[sub 8] alcohols, phenol, formaldehyde, cyanic acid, and a variety of organic solvents. The advantages over conventional methods are discussed.

  18. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  19. [A microbiological study of an underground gas storage in the process of gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Borzenkov, I A; Tarasov, A L; Milekhina, E I; Beliaev, S S

    2007-01-01

    The numbers of microorganisms belonging to ecologically significant groups and the rates of terminal microbial processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were determined in the liquid phase of an underground gas storage (UGS) in the period of gas extraction. The total number of microorganisms in water samples from the operation and injection wells reached 2.1 x 10(6) cells/ml. Aerobic organotrophs (including hydrocarbon- and oil-oxidizing ones) and various anaerobic microorganisms (fermenting bacteria, methanogens, acetogens, sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria) were constituent parts of the community. The radioisotopic method showed that, in all the UGS units, the terminal stages of organic matter decomposition included sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, with the maximal rate of these processes recorded in the aqueous phase of above-ground technological equipment which the gas enters from the operation wells. A comparative analysis by these parameters of different anaerobic ecotopes, including natural hydrocarbon fields, allows us to assess the rate of these processes in the UGS as high throughout the annual cycle of its operation. The data obtained indicate the existence in the UGS of a bacterial community that is unique in its diversity and metabolic capacities and able to make a certain contribution to the geochemistry of organic and inorganic compounds in the natural and technogenic ecosystem of the UGS and thus influence the industrial gas composition.

  20. Examination on Substrate Preheating Process in Cold Gas Dynamic Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shuo; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Li, Wen-Ya; Guo, Xue-Ping

    2011-06-01

    Substrate preheating always takes an important role in particle bonding and formation of the first layer coating in cold gas dynamic spraying (CGDS). In this study, a systemic investigation on substrate preheating process is conducted with Cu, Al, Steel, and Ti substrate by both numerical and experimental methods. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) approach is adopted to simulate the heat exchange process between gas and solid substrate. The numerical results show that substrate can be significantly preheated by the high-temperature gas, especially by the gas at the near-wall zone behind the bow shock where the temperature is extremely high. Moreover, the comparison between different substrates implies that substrates with smaller thermal conductivity can achieve higher surface temperature and larger temperature gradient which may greatly contribute to the generation of residual stress, such as Ti substrate in this study. For the heat flux, Cu substrate obtains the largest value at the center zone of the substrate surface, followed by Al, Steel, and Ti substrate, but at the outer zone, the heat flux through the Cu substrate surface is smaller than the other three types of substrates. Besides, based on the experimental results, it is found that the substrate surface temperature amounts to the peak value only when the preheating time is sufficiently long.

  1. Investigation of gas exchange processes in peat bog ecosystems by means of innovative Raman gas spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Torsten; Keiner, Robert; Michalzik, Beate; Fischer, Bernhard; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-02-05

    Highly sensitive Raman gas spectroscopy is introduced for simultaneous real time analysis of O(2), CO(2), CH(4), and N(2) in order to elucidate the dynamics of greenhouse gases evolving from climate-sensitive ecosystems. The concentrations and fluxes of this suite of biogenic gases were quantified in the head space of a water-saturated, raised peat bog ecotron. The intact peat bog, exhibiting various degradation stages of peat and sphagnum moss, was exposed to various light regimes in order to determine important ecosystem parameters such as the maximum photosynthesis rate of the sphagnum as well as the extent of soil and plant respiration. Miniaturized Raman gas spectroscopy was proven to be an extremely versatile analytical technique that allows for onsite multigas analysis in high temporal resolution. Therefore it is an urgently needed tool for elucidation of complex biochemical processes especially in climate-sensitive ecosystems and consequently for the estimation of climate-relevant gas budgets.

  2. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-04-01

    This first quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{sup SM} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. In a previous reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H{sub 2}S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H{sub 2}S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H{sub 2}S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not change

  3. Sour Ageusia in Two Individuals Implicates Ion Channels of the ASIC and PKD Families in Human Sour Taste Perception at the Anterior Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Huque, Taufiqul; Cowart, Beverly J.; Dankulich-Nagrudny, Luba; Pribitkin, Edmund A.; Bayley, Douglas L.; Spielman, Andrew I.; Feldman, Roy S.; Mackler, Scott A.; Brand, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    Background The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli. Methods and Findings Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) 1a, 1β, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-β2, the δ-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as β-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1β, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-β2, and δ-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells. Conclusions These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals (“natural knockouts”) suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities. PMID:19812697

  4. A field study of microbiological growth and reservoir souring

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.D.; Surinach, P.

    1997-08-01

    The souring of normally sweet production systems is a significant problem which can have implications to continued oilfield operations. Such problems are commonly approached by gathering of field sample and laboratory analysis or by simple test kits. This paper describes an alternative approach which includes the use of specialized field sampling and analysis procedures and portable equipment that can be moved from site to site. A case study is presented that illustrates the use of these procedures and equipment. In the present case, it was learned that whereas souring was occurring in oil producing wells, no major infection of SRB was found. Evaluation of the injection wells indicated only limited inflection. Based on field studies it was found that the problem was likely due to maintenance of a sessile SRB population in the injection system due to a combination of general heterotrophic bacteria and accumulation of solids followed by growth of mesophilic SRB in the formation after injection. Remedial actions were developed based on field data and this mechanism of reservoir souring.

  5. Evaluation of high-efficiency gas liquid contactors for natural gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Palla, N.; Lee, A.L.

    1995-06-01

    The objectives of this program are to develop and evaluate advanced processing technologies that can reduce the cost of upgrading sub quality natural gas to pipeline standards. The successful application of cost-effective, new technologies will facilitate the production of sub quality natural gas that otherwise would be too expensive to produce. The overall program is focused on the following activities: evaluation of the potential of structured packing for the removal of acid gases from natural gases, and expansion of the currently available database of the fluid dynamics of rotating gas liquid contactors. The natural gas sweetening, structured packing field tests are scheduled to be conducted in calendar year 1995. Design, procurement and construction of the field test unit. Expansion of the available data base on the hydraulic characteristics of a rotating gas-liquid contactor is being pursued through a series of laboratory experiments. A 100 GPM, low pressure rotary contactor system has been assembled at IGT`s Energy Development Center to examine the fluid dynamic behavior of this type of contactor. The studies are determining the effects of liquid viscosity, liquid surface tension and operating conditions on liquid residence times and flooding limits.

  6. Hypersorption process for separation of components of a medium -Btu gas. Final report. [Gas obtained from Lurgi process, Texaco gasification process, and Foster-Wheeler process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-17

    This study has been performed to determine the technical and economic feasibility of employing hypersorption process technology to separate and purify a medium - Btu gas, derived from oxygen-blown gasifiers, to obtain a H/sub 2//CO ratio of 2:1 as a feed to a Fischer-Tropsch type plant. Technical feasibility is a measure of the ability to design a hypersorption separation and purification process from available data. Economic feasibility can be made through comparisons with commercially available process technology. Three gasification processes have been used as a basis for this study. These processes are based upon EPRI Report AF-244 for the Lurgi moving bed, oxygen-blown, dry bottom gasifier, and EPRI Report AF-642 for the Texaco, slurry fed, oxygen-blown, entrained bed gasifier and for the Foster-Wheeler, oxygen-blown, entrained bed gasifier. Process designs for the hypersorption separation and purification for each case have been made using engineering judgments based on the available adsorption isotherms, which have been obtained from the Calgon Corporation. No attempt has been made to optimize these designs although some additional studies have been done where it has been deemed desirable. Cryogenic separation and acid gas purification for each case have been supplied by Lotepro as a packaged unit. Economic evaluations are ambiguous. All plant investments are within the +- 30% accuracy of this study. No clear cut choice between cryogenic separation - acid gas purification and hypersorptive separation - purification can be made based on plant investment. Operating costs are within the +- 30% accuracy. However, in the Foster-Wheeler case the operating costs are 28% greater for the hypersorption process. 12 figures, 42 tables.

  7. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  8. Identification and Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sour Dough Sponges.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Ishikawa, M; Yoshida, I; Uchimura, T; Ohara, N; Kozaki, M

    1992-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria in four samples of sour dough sponges were studied quantitatively and qualitatively. In each sponge, there were one or two species of the genus Lactobacillus: L. reuteri and L. curvatus in San Francisco sour dough sponge, L. brevis and L. hilgardii in panettone sour dough sponge produced in Italy, L. sanfrancisco from a rye sour dough sponge produced in Germany, and L. casei and L. curvatus from a rye sour dough sponge produced in Switzerland. For all isolates except the L. reuteri strains oleic acid, a component of the Tween 80 added to the medium, was essential for growth. It was of interest that lactobacilli requiring oleic acid were the predominant flora of lactic acid bacteria in the microbial environment of sour dough sponges.

  9. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRAL SEPARATOR FOR A CENTRIFUGAL GAS PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    LANCE HAYS

    2007-02-27

    A COMPACT GAS PROCESSING DEVICE WAS INVESTIGATED TO INCREASE GAS PRODUCTION FROM REMOTE, PREVIOUSLY UN-ECONOMIC RESOURCES. THE UNIT WAS TESTED ON AIR AND WATER AND WITH NATURAL GAS AND LIQUID. RESULTS ARE REPORTED WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK.

  10. Measuring gas temperature during spin-exchange optical pumping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, E.; Jiang, C. Y.; Brown, D. R.; Robertson, L.; Crow, L.; Tong, X.

    2016-04-01

    The gas temperature inside a Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) laser-pumping polarized 3He cell has long been a mystery. Different experimental methods were employed to measure this temperature but all were based on either modelling or indirect measurement. To date there has not been any direct experimental measurement of this quantity. Here we present the first direct measurement using neutron transmission to accurately determine the number density of 3He, the temperature is obtained using the ideal gas law. Our result showed a surprisingly high gas temperature of 380°C, compared to the 245°C of the 3He cell wall temperature and 178°C of the optical pumping oven temperature. This experiment result may be used to further investigate the unsolved puzzle of the "X-factor" in the SEOP process which places an upper bound to the 3He polarization that can be achieved. Additional spin relaxation mechanisms might exist due to the high gas temperature, which could explain the origin of the X-factor.

  11. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-06-01

    This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize a

  12. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K. ); Silveston, P.L. )

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of achieved carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. The experimental work is divided between Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). RTI will conduct the NO{sub x} removal studies, whereas Waterloo will conduct the SO{sub 2} removal studies. The ultimate goal of the project is to demonstrate that the process can be reduce the cost of electricity by 20% over conventional SCR/flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. In the present quarter, the continuous SO{sub 2} analyzer system at Waterloo was completed. The SO{sub 2} removal factorial experiments were begun Waterloo with the BPL carbon at 21{degrees}C. Also, SO{sub 2} removal was tested on two catalyst at RTI at 80{degrees}C. NO{sub x} conversion was tested on a variety of catalysts at RTI. It was shown that the BPL carbon could remove over 95% SO{sub 2} at 21{degrees}C but would required several beds at space velocity in each bed of abut 1,500 scc/(cc{center dot}h) to reduce SO{sub 2} from 2,500 ppm to 100 ppm. A modified carbon catalyst tested at RTI showed 99% SO{sub 2} removal at 80{degrees}C at 1,400 scc/(cc{center dot}h). Also, it was possible to produce nearly 9 normal H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by periodic flushing of this catalyst. The modified carbon catalyst also demonstrated removal of more than 80% NO{sub x}. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Process conditions for preparing methanol from cornstalk gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling-Feng; Du, Lei; Li, Xin-Bao; Li, Guo-Ting; Zhang, Jie

    2007-01-01

    The low-heat-value cornstalk gas produced in the down-flow fixed bed gasifier was tentatively used for methanol synthesis. The cornstalk gas was purified and the technical procedures such as deoxygenation, desulfurization, catalytic cracking of tar, purification and hydrogenation were studied. The catalytic experiments of methanol synthesis with cornstalk syngas were carried out in a tubular-flow integral and isothermal reactor. The effect of reaction temperature, pressure, catalyst types, catalyst particle size, syngas flow at entering end and composition of syngas was investigated. The optimum process conditions and yield of methanol from cornstalk syngas were obtained. The experimental results indicated that the proper catalyst for the synthetic reaction was C301 and the optimum catalyst size was 0.833 mm x 0.351 mm. The optimum operating temperature and pressure were found to be 235 degrees C and 5 MPa, respectively. The suitable syngas flow 0.9-1.10 mol/h at entering end was selected and the best composition of syngas were CO 10.49%, CO2 8.8%, N2 37.32%, C(n)H(m) 0.95% and H2 40.49%. The best methanol yield was 0.418 g/g cornstalk. This study provided the technical support for the industrial test of methanol production from biomass (cornstalk) gas.

  14. Atomic processes in the hot gas in our galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Robin L.

    2017-03-01

    Our galaxy contains vast regions of very hot, very low density plasma that provide scientists with unique opportunities to observe atomic processes in extreme conditions. With temperatures of ˜ 105 to ˜ 106 K, the atoms in these regions are ionized to high charge states. Collisional ionization and excitation dominate the atomic physics in the interiors of these regions, and charge exchange becomes important where the highly ionized gas borders cool gas. Examples of very hot regions include the bubbles blown by supernova explosions and the interstellar gas above and below the disk of our galaxy. Examples of charge exchange sites include the heliosphere, supernova shock fronts, and high velocity clouds. Highly ionized plasmas are primarily studied via ultraviolet and X-ray observations using telescopes mounted on satellites, rockets, or space shuttles. Observations have been made of both the emitted spectrum and the number of ions along a path. The sensitivity and spectral resolution of the observing instruments have already reached the stage where some individual transitions can be detected, even in weak plasmas. Where the spectrum is crowded with emission lines from multiple elements, ionization levels, and transitions, spectral modeling is performed in order to estimate the contribution from each. The goal of this paper is to provide examples of interesting atomic physics occurring in our galaxy especially that in the hot component of our galaxy, highlight some areas where new atomic calculations and measurements are needed, and explain how astrophysical atomic transitions are observed.

  15. CFD simulation of gas-jet wiping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrillas, K.; Gosset, A.; Rambaud, P.; Buchlin, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the gas-jet wiping process, which is used in coating techniques to control the final coating thickness applied on a substrate. Numerical simulations are performed using the FLUENT commercial software, with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) model coupled with Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The comparison with results from an analytical model, (with and without surface tension), and from dedicated experiments shows good agreement. The realizable k-epsilon turbulence model is used to reduce the computation time, but with no satisfactory agreement compared with LES and experiments.

  16. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved.

  17. Functional properties of selected starter cultures for sour maize bread.

    PubMed

    Edema, Mojisola O; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the functional properties of maize sour-dough microflora selected and tested for their use as starter cultures for sour maize bread. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from spontaneously fermented maize dough were selected based on dominance during fermentation and presence at the end of fermentation. Functional properties examined included acidification, leavening and production of some antimicrobial compounds in the fermenting matrix. The organisms previously identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. fermentum, Lb. acidophilus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc dextranicum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used singly and as mixed cultures in the fermentation (fermentation time: 12h at 28+/-2 degrees C) of maize meal (particle size >0.2mm). The pH fell from an initial value of 5.62-3.05 in maize meals fermented with Lb. plantarum; 4.37 in L. dextranicum+S. cerevisiae compared with the value for the control (no starter) of 4.54. Significant differences (P

  18. Surfactant process for promoting gas hydrate formation and application of the same

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Rudy E.; Zhong, Yu

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of storing gas using gas hydrates comprising forming gas hydrates in the presence of a water-surfactant solution that comprises water and surfactant. The addition of minor amounts of surfactant increases the gas hydrate formation rate, increases packing density of the solid hydrate mass and simplifies the formation-storage-decomposition process of gas hydrates. The minor amounts of surfactant also enhance the potential of gas hydrates for industrial storage applications.

  19. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.

    PubMed

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved.

  20. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  1. A proton current associated with sour taste: distribution and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Jeremy D; Ye, Wenlei; Liman, Emily R

    2015-07-01

    Sour taste is detected by taste receptor cells that respond to acids through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The cells that detect sour express the protein PKD2L1, which is not the sour receptor but nonetheless serves as a useful marker for sour cells. By use of mice in which the PKD2L1 promoter drives expression of yellow fluorescent protein, we previously reported that sour taste cells from circumvallate papillae in the posterior tongue express a proton current. To establish a correlation between this current and sour transduction, we examined its distribution by patch-clamp recording. We find that the current is present in PKD2L1-expressing taste cells from mouse circumvallate, foliate, and fungiform papillae but not in a variety of other cells, including spinal cord neurons that express PKD2L1. We describe biophysical properties of the current, including pH-dependent Zn(2+) inhibition, lack of voltage-dependent gating, and activation at modest pH values (6.5) that elicit action potentials in isolated cells. Consistent with a channel that is constitutively open, the cytosol of sour taste cells is acidified. These data define a functional signature for the taste cell proton current and indicate that its expression is mostly restricted to the subset of taste cells that detect sour.

  2. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  3. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  4. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  5. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and process economics of the fluid milk process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On-farm activities associated with fluid milk production contribute approximately 70% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while off-farm activities arising from milk processing, packaging, and refrigeration, contribute the remainder in the form of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. W...

  6. Interaction between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in sour-dough using a rheofermentometer.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, M; Corsetti, A; Rossi, J

    1995-11-01

    Rheofermentometer assays were used to characterize the leavening of sour-doughs produced using species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, alone or in combination. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141 produced the most CO2 and ethanol whereas S. exiguus M14 and Lactobacillus brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 contributed poorly to leavening and gave sour-doughs without porosity. In comparison with that seen in sour-dough produced with yeast alone, yeast fermentation with heterofermentative LAB present was faster whereas that with homofermentative LAB (L. plantarum DC400, L. farciminis CF3) present was slower and produced more CO2. Combining L. brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 with S. cerevisiae 141 decreased bacterial cell numbers and souring activity. However, addition of fructose to the sour-dough overcame these problems as well as activating S. cerevisiae 141.

  7. Process gas chromatography study of a Selexol acid gas removal system. Final report Mar-Sep 82

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The report gives results of continuous compositional monitoring by process gas chromatography (GC) for three gas streams associated with the Selexol acid gas removal system at the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, PA. Data were obtained from the inlet and outlet streams of the Selexol system during tests in April and May 1982. Product gas composition data were logged for 55 hours of plant operation. The Bi-Gas pilot plant, utilizing a two-stage, entrained-bed, high-pressure slagging gasifier, produces a product gas that is low in tars and heavy oils. This gas stream required very little cleanup prior to instrumental analysis. However, some problems were encountered in the analysis of the Selexol acid gas stream due to the presence of high levels of naphthalene. The process gas chromatographs performed well and remained very stable during the tests. Material balances based on GC analyses and process flow rate data show a high degree of material accountability. The H/sub 2/S removal efficiency of the Selexol absorber was about 99% during the tests.

  8. A Research on Sour Sensation Mechanism of Fungiform Taste Receptor Cells Based on Microelectrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Peihua; Xiao, Lidan; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Taste receptor cells as the fundamental units of taste sensation are not only passive receivers to outside stimulus, but some primary process for the signals and information. In this paper, an innovation on acquisition of taste receptor cells was introduced and larger amount of cells could be obtained. A multichannel microelectrode array (MEA) system was applied in signal recording, which is used in non-invasive, multiple and simultaneous extracellular recording of taste receptor cells. The cells were treated with sour solutions of different pHs, and the relations between concentration of hydrogen and firing rate were observed. Firing rates on pH 7, pH 4 and pH 2 were approximately 1.38±0.01 (MEAN±SE)/s, 1.61±0.07/s and 2.75+0.15/s.

  9. Optimization of Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Khurana, M. K.; Yadav, Pradeep K.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the application of Taguchi method combined with grey relational analysis to optimize the process parameters of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of AISI 1020 carbon steels for multiple quality characteristics (bead width, bead height, weld penetration and heat affected zone). An orthogonal array of L9 has been implemented to fabrication of joints. The experiments have been conducted according to the combination of voltage (V), current (A) and welding speed (Ws). The results revealed that the welding speed is most significant process parameter. By analyzing the grey relational grades, optimal parameters are obtained and significant factors are known using ANOVA analysis. The welding parameters such as speed, welding current and voltage have been optimized for material AISI 1020 using GMAW process. To fortify the robustness of experimental design, a confirmation test was performed at selected optimal process parameter setting. Observations from this method may be useful for automotive sub-assemblies, shipbuilding and vessel fabricators and operators to obtain optimal welding conditions.

  10. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  11. Sour taste preferences of children relate to preference for novel and intense stimuli.

    PubMed

    Liem, Djin Gie; Westerbeek, Annemarie; Wolterink, Sascha; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

    2004-10-01

    Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall preference for intense and new stimuli. Eighty-nine children 7-12 years old carried out a rank-order procedure for preference and category scale for perceived intensity for four gelatins (i.e. 0.0 M, 0.02 M, 0.08 M, 0.25 M added citric acid) and four yellow cards that differed in brightness. In addition, we measured their willingness to try a novel candy and their flow and buffering capacity of their saliva. Fifty-eight percent of the children tested preferred one of the two most sour gelatins. These children had a higher preference for the brightest color (P < 0.05) and were more likely to try the candy with the unknown flavor (P < 0.001) than children who did not prefer the most sour gelatins. Preference for sour taste was not related with differences in rated sour intensity, however those who preferred sour taste had a higher salivary flow (P < 0.05). These findings show that a substantial proportion of young children have a preference for extreme sour taste. This appears to be related to the willingness to try unknown foods and preference for intense visual stimuli. Further research is needed to investigate how these findings can be implemented in the promotion of sour-tasting food such as fruit.

  12. Preliminary characterization of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process

    SciTech Connect

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    The agglomeration of aqueous suspensions of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal particles with i-octane was studied by employing a scale model mixing system which measured both agitator speed and torque. The progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque and was confirmed by examining samples of the suspension with an optical microscope. When a suspension containing 30 w/w% solids was degassed and then conditioned with 20 v/w% i-octane (20 ml i-octane/100 g coal), no agglomeration took place until a small amount of air (e.g., 9 v/w%) was introduced. Subsequent changes in agitator torque indicated that the ensuing process of agglomeration was complex and consisted of several stages involving various interactions between coal particles, oil drops, and gas bubbles. The time required to produce spherical agglomerates was determined for different experimental conditions by conducting a number of agglomeration tests involving different mixing tank sizes and different impeller sizes and speeds. The results indicate that agglomeration time decreases with increasing power input per unit volume and increasing gas concentration.

  13. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  14. Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, W.N.; May, S.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Winter, J.K.; Beard, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx. 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.

  15. Natural gas recovery, storage, and utilization SBIR program

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, H.D.

    1993-12-31

    A Fossil Energy natural-gas topic has been a part of the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program since 1988. To date, 50 Phase SBIR natural-gas applications have been funded. Of these 50, 24 were successful in obtaining Phase II SBIR funding. The current Phase II natural-gas research projects awarded under the SBIR program and managed by METC are presented by award year. The presented information on these 2-year projects includes project title, awardee, and a project summary. The 1992 Phase II projects are: landfill gas recovery for vehicular natural gas and food grade carbon dioxide; brine disposal process for coalbed gas production; spontaneous natural as oxidative dimerization across mixed conducting ceramic membranes; low-cost offshore drilling system for natural gas hydrates; motorless directional drill for oil and gas wells; and development of a multiple fracture creation process for stimulation of horizontally drilled wells.The 1993 Phase II projects include: process for sweetening sour gas by direct thermolysis of hydrogen sulfide; remote leak survey capability for natural gas transport storage and distribution systems; reinterpretation of existing wellbore log data using neural-based patter recognition processes; and advanced liquid membrane system for natural gas purification.

  16. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arend, C.

    1995-12-31

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  17. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO₂ permeance

  18. Natural Gas Processing: The Crucial Link Between NG Production & Its Transportation to Market

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This special report examines the processing plant segment of the natural gas industry, providing a discussion and an analysis of how the gas processing segment has changed following the restructuring of the natural gas industry in the 1990s and the trends that have developed during that time.

  19. 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant gas systems. Design baseline package. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume 9 contains the Selexol process and the Ammonia Sulfide Water Stripping Unit. Much of the Selexol process data is proprietary so little information is included on that. The Ammonia Sulfide Water Stripping Unit (ASWS) removes volatile pollutants from contaminated water. The products of the ASWS are a sour gas product composed primarily of NH/sub 3/, H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/ and water vapor and a stripped water product which is suitable for biological treatment. This process is described in some detail. (LTN)

  20. Gas powered, closed loop power system and process for using same

    SciTech Connect

    Cardone, J.T.; Dill, J.M.; Shatz, K.J.

    1982-06-08

    This invention relates to a gas powered, closed loop power generating system which generates power substantially as a result of the flow of gas through its power generating means. Gas flows through the power generating means because of a pressure drop caused by dissolving the gas in a solvent medium on the exit side of the power generating means. The solution is then separated into the solvent medium, and the gas. The gas pressure is raised and it is then fed back into the power generating means while the separated solvent medium is recycled to redissolve more exiting gas. A process for generating power is also disclosed.

  1. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect.

  2. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  3. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  4. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method of treating a sour well penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises: introducing into the well a treating fluid comprising an acid solution having a pH below 1.9, an iron sequestering agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution, and a sulfide modifier comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming aldehydes in the acid solution, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent of the acid solution; and treating the subterranean formation with the treating fluid.

  5. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes an acidizing composition for treating a sour well. It comprises: a base acid solution having an initial ph below 1.9; an iron sequestering agent to combine with iron present in the solution comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution; and a sulfide modifier to combine with sulfides present in the solution comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming an aldehyde in solution, present in an amount of from about 1 to about 4 percent by weight of the acid solution, whereby precipitation of ferric hydroxide, ferrous sulfide and elemental sulfur is inhibited as acid spending occurs.

  6. Surface Studies of Ultra Strength Drilling Steel after Corrosion Fatigue in Simulated Sour Environment

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; J.A. Hawk; R. Thodla; F. Gui

    2012-05-06

    The Unites States predicted 60% growth in energy demand by 2030 makes oil and natural gas primary target fuels for energy generation. The fact that the peak of oil production from shallow wells (< 5000 m) is about to be reached, thereby pushing the oil and natural gas industry into deeper wells. However, drilling to depths greater than 5000 m requires increasing the strength-to weight ratio of the drill pipe materials. Grade UD-165 is one of the ultra- high yield strength carbon steels developed for ultra deep drilling (UDD) activities. Drilling UDD wells exposes the drill pipes to Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and H{sub 2}S-containig corrosive environments (i.e., sour environments) at higher pressures and temperatures compared to those found in conventional wells. Because of the lack of synergism within the service environment, operational stresses can result in catastrophic brittle failures characteristic for environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Approximately 75% of all drill string failures are caused by fatigue or corrosion fatigue. Since there is no literature data on the corrosion fatigue performance of UD-165 in sour environments, research was initiated to better clarify the fatigue crack growth (FCGR) behavior of this alloy in UDD environments. The FCGR behavior of ultra-strength carbon steel, grade UD-165, was investigated by monitoring crack growth rate in deaerated 5%NaCl solution buffered with NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in contact with H{sub 2}S. The partial pressure of H{sub 2}S (p{sub H2S}) was 0.83 kPa and pH of the solution was adjusted by NaOH to 12. The fatigue experiments were performed at 20 and 85 C in an autoclave with surface investigations augmented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. In this study, research focused on surface analyses supported by the fatigue crack growth rate measurements. Fig. 1 shows an SEM micrograph of the crack that propagated from the

  7. Dissipation process of binary gas mixtures in thermally relativistic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, dissipation process of binary gas mixtures in thermally relativistic flows is discussed with focus on characteristics of diffusion flux. As an analytical object, we consider the relativistic rarefied-shock layer around a triangular prism. Numerical results for the diffusion flux are compared with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) order approximation of the diffusion flux, which is calculated using the diffusion and thermal-diffusion coefficients by Kox et al (1976 Physica A 84 165-74). In the case of uniform flow with small Lorentz contraction, the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is roughly approximated by the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, whereas the diffusion flux in the vicinity of a wall is markedly different from the NSF order approximation. The magnitude of the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is similar to that of the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, unlike the pressure deviator, dynamic pressure and heat flux, even when the Lorentz contraction in the uniform flow becomes large, because the diffusion flux does not depend on the generic Knudsen number from its definition in Eckart’s frame. Finally, the author concludes that for accuracy diffusion flux must be calculated using the particle four-flow and averaged four velocity, which are formulated using the four velocity defined by each species of hard spherical particles.

  8. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    SciTech Connect

    M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1998-10-30

    Two series of agglomeration tests were conducted as part of an effort to find a suitable basis for size scale-up of the mixing system used for a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. In the first series of tests the agitator impeller diameter and speed were varied among runs so as to vary impeller tip speed and agitator power independently while keeping other conditions constant. In the second series of tests the mixing tank size and agitator speed were varied while the ratio of tank diameter to impeller diameter were held constant. All tests were conducted with finely ground Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with i-octane as the agglomerant. The results of these tests showed that the minimum time te required to produce spherical agglomerates was predominantly a function of the agitator power input per unit volume. In addition, the size of the agglomerates produced in a given time was also strongly dependent on power input. At lower power input levels, the mean size rose as power input increased until a point was reached where agglomerate breakage became important and the mean size decreased. The results also showed that the ash content of the agglomerates produced in a given time tended to decrease with increasing power input. On the other hand, the recovery of clean coal on a dry, ash-free basis was not greatly affected by power input.

  9. Simplified power processing for inert gas ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Pinero, L. R.; Hamley, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Significant simplifications to power processors for inert gas ion thrusters in the 1 to 5 kW range have been identified. They include elimination of all but three power supplies - one each for the neutralizer, main discharge, and beam. The neutralizer and discharge power supplies would provide both cathode heating and plasma generating functions. This dual-use power supply concept was validated via integration tests with a 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster. The beam/accelerator power supply would have positive and negative outputs to allow a single power supply to provide both functions. The discharge and beam power supplies would incorporate full-bridge inverters similar to those proven for flight-ready arcjet propulsion systems. Operation of this simplified power processing scheme at an inverter frequency of 50 kHz results in a projected power processor design with low mass and high efficiency. A 2 kW reference point design has estimated values of specific mass of 5.4 kg/kW and an efficiency of 93 percent.

  10. Evaluation of natural gas processing technology. Task 3, Volume 2. Topical report, September-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Changela, M.K.; McKee, R.L.; Neshan, H.; Pathak, V.K.; Quinlan, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    The report establishes the costs of producing pipeline quality gas on a small scale from subquality natural gas. The processing technologies evaluated include: carbon dioxide (CO2) and acid gas removal employing conventional diethanolamine (DEA) absorption; modified Claus sulfur recovery; triethylene glycol (TEG) dehydration; natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery employing the expander, lean oil and Joule-Thomson processes; and cryogenic nitrogen (N2) rejection. The results show that the size and investment cost of a DEA unit for CO2/acid gas removal increase with increasing CO2/acid gas concentration of the feed gas due to the increasing DEA circulation rate requirement. Due to economies of scale, processing costs for DEA units decrease at higher feed flow rates. The Claus process is not economical for very low inlet sulfur rates, but becomes economical at about 20 LT/D sulfur capacity (at a $100/LT sulfur product price). The size and investment cost of a TEG dehydration unit increase as the water content of the feed gas increases due to the increasing TEG circulation rate requirement. Processing costs associated with TEG dehydration units decrease at higher feed flow rates. At the same feed flow rate, the plant investment cost of a cryogenic N2 rejection unit increases with increasing N2 content of the feed gas primarily due to the increasing sales gas compression requirements. Processing costs for cryogenic N2 rejection units also increase with increasing N2 content of the feed gas.

  11. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  12. 75 FR 71733 - Requirements for Measurement Facilities Used for the Royalty Valuation of Processed Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Requirements for Measurement Facilities... measurement equipment at gas plants and other processing facilities. SUMMARY: This notice provides information... measurement of Federal production at gas processing plants when royalty is reported and paid on processed...

  13. The K+ channel KIR2.1 functions in tandem with proton influx to mediate sour taste transduction

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wenlei; Chang, Rui B.; Bushman, Jeremy D.; Tu, Yu-Hsiang; Mulhall, Eric M.; Wilson, Courtney E.; Cooper, Alexander J.; Chick, Wallace S.; Hill-Eubanks, David C.; Nelson, Mark T.; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Liman, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Sour taste is detected by a subset of taste cells on the tongue and palate epithelium that respond to acids with trains of action potentials. Entry of protons through a Zn2+-sensitive proton conductance that is specific to sour taste cells has been shown to be the initial event in sour taste transduction. Whether this conductance acts in concert with other channels sensitive to changes in intracellular pH, however, is not known. Here, we show that intracellular acidification generates excitatory responses in sour taste cells, which can be attributed to block of a resting K+ current. We identify KIR2.1 as the acid-sensitive K+ channel in sour taste cells using pharmacological and RNA expression profiling and confirm its contribution to sour taste with tissue-specific knockout of the Kcnj2 gene. Surprisingly, acid sensitivity is not conferred on sour taste cells by the specific expression of Kir2.1, but by the relatively small magnitude of the current, which makes the cells exquisitely sensitive to changes in intracellular pH. Consistent with a role of the K+ current in amplifying the sensory response, entry of protons through the Zn2+-sensitive conductance produces a transient block of the KIR2.1 current. The identification in sour taste cells of an acid-sensitive K+ channel suggests a mechanism for amplification of sour taste and may explain why weak acids that produce intracellular acidification, such as acetic acid, taste more sour than strong acids. PMID:26627720

  14. The K+ channel KIR2.1 functions in tandem with proton influx to mediate sour taste transduction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenlei; Chang, Rui B; Bushman, Jeremy D; Tu, Yu-Hsiang; Mulhall, Eric M; Wilson, Courtney E; Cooper, Alexander J; Chick, Wallace S; Hill-Eubanks, David C; Nelson, Mark T; Kinnamon, Sue C; Liman, Emily R

    2016-01-12

    Sour taste is detected by a subset of taste cells on the tongue and palate epithelium that respond to acids with trains of action potentials. Entry of protons through a Zn(2+)-sensitive proton conductance that is specific to sour taste cells has been shown to be the initial event in sour taste transduction. Whether this conductance acts in concert with other channels sensitive to changes in intracellular pH, however, is not known. Here, we show that intracellular acidification generates excitatory responses in sour taste cells, which can be attributed to block of a resting K(+) current. We identify KIR2.1 as the acid-sensitive K(+) channel in sour taste cells using pharmacological and RNA expression profiling and confirm its contribution to sour taste with tissue-specific knockout of the Kcnj2 gene. Surprisingly, acid sensitivity is not conferred on sour taste cells by the specific expression of Kir2.1, but by the relatively small magnitude of the current, which makes the cells exquisitely sensitive to changes in intracellular pH. Consistent with a role of the K(+) current in amplifying the sensory response, entry of protons through the Zn(2+)-sensitive conductance produces a transient block of the KIR2.1 current. The identification in sour taste cells of an acid-sensitive K(+) channel suggests a mechanism for amplification of sour taste and may explain why weak acids that produce intracellular acidification, such as acetic acid, taste more sour than strong acids.

  15. Gas expulsion versus gas retention: what process dominates in young massive clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2017-02-01

    The ability of young stellar clusters to expel or retain the gas left over after a first episode of star formation is a central issue in all models aiming to explain multiple stellar populations and the peculiar light element abundance patterns in globular clusters. Recent attempts to detect the gas left over from star formation in present-day clusters with masses similar to those of globular clusters did not reveal a significant amount of gas in the majority of them, which strongly restricts the scenarios of multiple stellar population formation. Here the conditions required to retain the gas left over from star formation within the natal star-forming cloud are revised. It is shown that the usually accepted concept regarding the thermalization of the star cluster kinetic energy due to nearby stellar winds and supernova ejecta collisions must be taken with care in the case of very compact and dense star-forming clouds where three star formation regimes are possible if one considers different star formation efficiencies and mass concentrations. The three possible regimes are well separated in the half-mass radius and in the natal gas central density versus pre-stellar cloud mass parameter space. The two gas-free clusters in the Antennae galaxies and the gas-rich cluster with a similar mass and age in the galaxy NGC 5253 appear in different zones in these diagrams. The critical lines obtained for clusters with a solar and a primordial gas metallicity are compared.

  16. Batch-processed semiconductor gas sensor array for the selective detection of NOx in automotive exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hani; Kim, Minki; Kim, Yongjun

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports on a semiconductor gas sensor array to detect nitrogen oxides (NOx) in automotive exhaust gas. The proposed semiconductor gas sensor array consisted of one common electrode and three individual electrodes to minimize the size of the sensor array, and three sensing layers [TiO2 + SnO2 (15 wt%), SnO2, and Ga2O3] were deposited using screen printing. In addition, sensing materials were sintered under the same conditions in order to take advantage of batch processing. The sensing properties of the proposed sensor array were verified by experimental measurements, and the selectivity improved by using pattern recognition.

  17. Individual differences in sour and salt sensitivity: detection and quality recognition thresholds for citric acid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul M; Breslin, Paul A S

    2013-05-01

    Taste sensitivity is assessed with various techniques, including absolute detection and quality recognition. For any stimulus, one might expect individual differences in sensitivity to be reflected in all measures, but they are often surprisingly independent. Here, we focus on sensitivity to sour and salty taste, in part because processing of these qualities is poorly understood relative to other tastes. In Study 1, we measured retest reliability for detection (modified, forced-choice staircase method) and recognition (modified Harris-Kalmus procedure) for both citric acid (CA) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Despite good retest reliability, individual differences in detection and recognition were weakly correlated, suggesting that detection and recognition of sour and salty stimuli may reflect different physiological processes. In Study 2, a subset of subjects returned to contribute full detection (psychometric) functions for CA and NaCl. Thresholds estimated from full detection functions correlated with both staircase and recognition thresholds, suggesting that both tasks may reflect absolute sensitivity to some extent. However, the ranges of individual differences were systematically compressed for staircase thresholds relative to those from full detection functions. Thus, individual differences in sensitivity appear to interact with different test methodologies in lawful ways. More work will be required to understand how different taste phenotypes relate to one another.

  18. INTEGRATED PROCESS GAS MODELING FOR TRITIUM SYSTEMS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, T; Anita Poore, A

    2007-08-30

    Significant savings are being realized from the consolidated tritium gas-processing operations at the Savannah River Site. However, the trade-off is some reduction of operational flexibility due to decreased storage capacity for process and waste gases. Savannah River National Laboratory researchers are developing an integrated process gas model for tritium processing using Aspen Custom Modeler{trademark} (ACM) software. The modeling involves fully characterizing process flow streams (gas composition, quantity), frequency of batch transfers, and availability of equipment in the flow stream. The model provides a valuable engineering tool to identify flow bottlenecks, thereby enabling adjustments to be made to improve process operations.

  19. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes.

  20. Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.; Wicks, George G.

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

  1. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

    1999-06-22

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

  2. In vitro enamel erosion associated with commercially available original and sour candies

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, Stephanie N.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Qian, Fang; Wefel, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to acidic foods and beverages is thought to increase risk of dental erosion. We hypothesized that the erosion potential of sour candies was greater than the erosion potentials of original candies. Methods The pH and titratable acidity of candies dissolved in artificial saliva or water were measured. Lesion depths of enamel surfaces exposed to candy slurries for 25 hours were measured. Statistics included two sample t-tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to identify differences between original and sour candies and correlations to identify relationships between lesion depths, pH and titratable acidity. Results Lesion depths were generally higher following exposure to sour candies compared to original candies, and for candies dissolved in water compared to artificial saliva. Lesion depths were negatively associated with initial slurry pH and positively associated with titratable acidity. Conclusions Both original and sour candies are potentially erosive, with sour candies being of greater concern. Although saliva might protect against the erosive effects of original candies, saliva is much less likely to protect against the erosive effects of sour candies. Clinical Implications Individuals at risk for candy-associated erosion, particularly those with high intakes, pocketing behaviors or decreased salivary flow, should be provided preventive guidance regarding candy habits. PMID:19571054

  3. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Pennline, Henry W.; Granite, Evan J.; Freeman, Mark C.; Hargis, Richard A.; O'Dowd, William J.

    2003-02-18

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  4. Inactivation of Penicillum expansum in sour cherry juice, peach and apricot nectars by pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir; Tok, Fatih M; Soylu, E Mine; Soylu, Soner

    2008-08-01

    Inhibitory effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on Penicillum expansum inoculated into sour cherry juice, apricot and peach nectars were determined based on germination tube elongation, spore germination rate, and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations in this study. After inoculation of juice/nectar samples with P. expansum spores at the level of 10(5)-10(6)cfu/mL, the samples were processed by bench scale PEF pulse generator as a function of differing electric field strengths (0, 13, 17, 20, 23, 27, 30 and 34kV/cm) and processing times (0, 62, 94, 123, 163, 198 and 218mus). Results revealed that with an increase in electric field strength and processing time, germination tube elongation and spore germination rate were completely inhibited. Light and SEM observations revealed considerable morphological alterations in fungal conidia such as cytoplasmic coagulation, vacuolations, shrinkage and protoplast leakage. PEF processing of juice/nectars was demonstrated to be effective in inactivating P. expansum. To our knowledge, this is the first study confirming the inhibitory effects of PEF on germination tube elongation and spore germination rate of P. expansum in fruit juice/nectars.

  5. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for Clean Power and Syngas Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Amy, Fabrice; Hufton, Jeffrey; Bhadra, Shubhra; Weist, Edward; Lau, Garret; Jonas, Gordon

    2015-06-30

    Air Products has developed an acid gas removal technology based on adsorption (Sour PSA) that favorably compares with incumbent AGR technologies. During this DOE-sponsored study, Air Products has been able to increase the Sour PSA technology readiness level by successfully operating a two-bed test system on coal-derived sour syngas at the NCCC, validating the lifetime and performance of the adsorbent material. Both proprietary simulation and data obtained during the testing at NCCC were used to further refine the estimate of the performance of the Sour PSA technology when expanded to a commercial scale. In-house experiments on sweet syngas combined with simulation work allowed Air Products to develop new PSA cycles that allowed for further reduction in capital expenditure. Finally our techno economic analysis of the use the Sour PSA technology for both IGCC and coal-to-methanol applications suggests significant improvement of the unit cost of electricity and methanol compared to incumbent AGR technologies.

  6. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2014-07-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation ( t 1), the base temperature ( T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date ( t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  7. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2013-03-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation (t 1), the base temperature (T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date (t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  8. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  9. A thumb-nail sketch of the gas processes in the Stirling cycle machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organ, A. J.

    The gas processes in the Stirling cycle machine are usually modeled in the Eulerian reference frame. In Lagrange coordinates the energy equation by itself is a transparent statement of the physical phenomena involved, and is simple symbolically. It is virtually a 'one-line' description of the gas processes at all locations and at all points in the cycle.

  10. Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that address common plant-related gas-process misconceptions held by middle school students. The…

  11. [Removal of CO2 from simulated flue gas of power plants by membrane-based gas absorption processes].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Fen; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Wang, Shu-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2005-07-01

    Three typical absorbents such as aqueous of aminoacetic acid potassium (AAAP), monoethanolamine (MEA) and methyldiethanolamine(MDEA) are selected to investigate the performance of CO2 separation from flue gas via membrane contactors made of hydrophobic hollow fiber polypropylene porous membrane. Impacts of absorbents, concentrations and flow rates of feeding gas and absorbent solution, cyclic loading of CO2 on the removal rate and the mass transfer velocity of CO2 are discussed. The results demonstrate that the mass transfer velocity was 7.1 mol x (m2 x s)(-1) for 1 mol x L(-1) MEA with flow rate of 0.1 m x s(-1) and flue gas with that of 0.211 m x s(-1). For 1 mol L(-1) AAAP with flow rate of 0.05 m x s(-1) and flue gas of 0.211 m x s(-1), CO2 removal rate (eta) was 93.2 % and eta was 98% for 4 mol x L(-1) AAAP under the same conditions. AAAP being absorbent, eta was higher than 90% in a wider range of concentrations of CO2. It indicates that membrane-based absorption process is a widely-applied and promising way of CO2 removal from flue gas of power plants, which not only appropriates for CO2 removal of flue gas of widely-used PF and NGCC, but also for that of flue gas of IGCC can be utilized widely in future.

  12. Effects of superficial gas velocity on process dynamics in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, T. T.; Kumar, B.

    2014-06-01

    Present work analyzes the flow hydrodynamics and mass transfer mechanisms in double Rushton and CD-6 impeller on wide range (0.0075-0.25 m/s) of superficial gas velocity ( v g) in a gas-liquid phase bioreactor by employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The volume averaged velocity magnitude and dissipation rate are found higher with increasing superficial gas velocity. Higher relative power draw ( P g/ P 0) is predicted in CD-6 than the Rushton impeller but no significant difference in volume averaged mass transfer coefficient ( k L a) observed between these two types of impeller. The ratio of power draw with mass transfer coefficient has been found higher in CD-6 impeller (25-50 %) than the Rushton impeller.

  13. Surface gas-exchange processes of snow algae

    PubMed Central

    Williams, William E.; Gorton, Holly L.; Vogelmann, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The red-colored chlorophyte Chlamydomonas nivalis is commonly found in summer snowfields. We used a modified Li-Cor gas-exchange system to investigate surface gas-exchange characteristics of snow colonized by this alga, finding rates of CO2 uptake up to 0.3 μmol m−2⋅s−1 in dense algal blooms. Experiments varying the irradiance resulted in light curves that resembled those of the leaves of higher plants. Red light was more effective than white and much more effective than green or blue, because of the red astaxanthin that surrounds and masks the algal chloroplasts. Integrating daily course measurements of gas exchange showed CO2 uptake around 2,300 μmol⋅m−2⋅day−1 in heavily colonized patches, indicating that summer snowfields can be surprisingly productive. PMID:12518048

  14. Evaluation of thiosulfate as a substitute for hydrogen sulfide in sour corrosion fatigue studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappes, Mariano Alberto

    This work evaluates the possibility of replacing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) with thiosulfate anion (S2O32- ) in sour corrosion fatigue studies. H2S increases the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and can be present in carbon steel risers and flowlines used in off-shore oil production. Corrosion tests with gaseous H2S require special facilities with safety features, because H2S is a toxic and flammable gas. The possibility of replacing H2S with S2O32-, a non-toxic anion, for studying stress corrosion cracking of stainless and carbon steels in H2S solutions was first proposed by Tsujikawa et al. ( Tsujikawa et al., Corrosion, 1993. 49(5): p. 409-419). In this dissertation, Tsujikawa work will be extended to sour corrosion fatigue of carbon steels. H2S testing is often conducted in deareated condition to avoid oxygen reaction with sulfide that yields sulfur and to mimic oil production conditions. Nitrogen deareation was also adopted in S2O3 2- testing, and gas exiting the cell was forced through a sodium hydroxide trap. Measurements of the sulfide content of this trap were used to estimate the partial pressure of H2S in nitrogen, and Henry's law was used to estimate the content of H2S in the solution in the cell. H2S was produced by a redox reaction of S2O 32-, which required electrons from carbon steel corrosion. This reaction is spontaneous at the open circuit potential of steel. Therefore, H2S concentration was expected to be maximum at the steel surface, and this concentration was estimated by a mass balance analysis. Carbon steel specimens exposed to S2O32- containing solutions developed a film on their surface, composed by iron sulfide and cementite. The film was not passivating and a good conductor of electrons. Hydrogen permeation experiments proved that this film controls the rate of hydrogen absorption of steels exposed to thiosulfate containing solutions. The absorption of hydrogen in S2O3 2- solutions was compared with the absorption of hydrogen in

  15. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Monitoring and Preventing Reservoir Souring Using Molecular Microbiological Methods (MMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittel, Antje

    The injection of seawater during the process of secondary oil recovery in offshore oilfields supplies huge amounts of sulphate to the prokaryotic reservoir communities. Together with the presence of oil organics and their degradation products as electron donors, this facilitates the enrichment and growth of sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) in the reservoir, as well as in pipings and top-side installations (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Vance and Thrasher, 2005). The activity of SRP causes severe economic problems due to the reactivity and toxicity of the produced hydrogen sulphide (H2S), one of the major problems being reservoir souring. Besides the use of broad-spectrum biocides or inhibitors for sulphate reduction, the addition of nitrate effectively decreased the net production of H2S in model column studies (Myhr et al., 2002; Hubert et al., 2005; Dunsmore et al., 2006) and field trials (Telang et al., 1997; Bødtker et al., 2008). The mechanisms by which nitrate addition might affect souring control are (i) the stimulation of heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that outcompete SRP for electron donors, (ii) the activity of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidising bacteria (NR-SOB), and (iii) the inhibition of SRP by the production of nitrite and nitrous oxides (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Hubert and Voordouw, 2007).

  16. Characterization of thermophilic consortia from two souring oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R F; Nielsen, P H

    1996-09-01

    The microbial consortia from produced water at two different oil fields in Alaska (Kuparuk) and the North Sea (Ninian) were investigated for sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activity over a range of temperatures and for a variety of substrates. The consortia were sampled on site, and samples were either incubated on site at 60(deg)C with various substrates or frozen for later incubation and analyses. Temperature influenced the rates of sulfate reduction, hydrogen sulfide production, and substrate oxidation, as well as the cell morphology. The highest rates of sulfate reduction and substrate oxidation were found between 50 and 60(deg)C. Formate and n-butyrate were the most favorable electron donors at any tested temperature. Acetate was utilized at 35(deg)C but not at 50 or 70(deg)C and was produced at 60(deg)C. This indicates that the high levels of acetate found in produced water from souring oil formations are due mainly to an incomplete oxidation of volatile fatty acids to acetate. The cell size distribution of the microbial consortium indicated a nonuniform microbial composition in the original sample from the Kuparuk field. At different temperatures, different microbial morphologies and physiologies were observed. Methane-producing activity at thermophilic temperatures (60(deg)C) was found only for the Kuparuk consortium when hydrogen and carbon dioxide were present. No methane production from acetate was observed. Suppression of methanogenic activity in the presence of sulfate indicated a competition with sulfate-reducing bacteria for hydrogen.

  17. Numerical analysis of gas-dynamic instabilities during the laser drilling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. H.; O'Neill, W.; Tunna, L.; Sutcliffe, C. J.

    2006-08-01

    The use of high-pressure gas jets in the laser-drilling process has significant influence on the melt ejection mechanism. These jets are highly unstable and this directly relates to the gas pressure and the geometry of the hole being drilled. The evolution of gas-dynamic instabilities during the laser-drilling process was investigated numerically. A minimum length nozzle (MLN) with a 300 μm throat diameter was modelled at various gas pressures, with the gas jet impinging on a range of simulated holes with different aspect ratios. The simulations predict the formation of surface pressure fluctuations that have a broad spectrum due to both the turbulent nature of the jet and the blunt shock oscillation on the surface. The surface pressure variations and the blunt shock oscillation govern the gas dynamic conditions inside the hole, which strongly influence the melt ejection phenomena during the laser-drilling process.

  18. Comparison of oil removal in surfactant alternating gas with water alternating gas, water flooding and gas flooding in secondary oil recovery process

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mehdi Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Sahraei, Eghbal; Nejad, Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei

    2014-01-01

    Growing oil prices coupled with large amounts of residual oil after operating common enhanced oil recovery methods has made using methods with higher operational cost economically feasible. Nitrogen is one of the gases used in both miscible and immiscible gas injection process in oil reservoir. In heterogeneous formations gas tends to breakthrough early in production wells due to overriding, fingering and channeling. Surfactant alternating gas (SAG) injection is one of the methods commonly used to decrease this problem. Foam which is formed on the contact of nitrogen and surfactant increases viscosity of injected gas. This increases the oil–gas contact and sweep efficiency, although adsorption of surfactant on rock surface can causes difficulties and increases costs of process. Many parameters must be considered in design of SAG process. One of the most important parameters is SAG ratio that should be in optimum value to improve the flooding efficiency. In this study, initially the concentration of surfactant was optimized due to minimization of adsorption on rock surface which results in lower cost of surfactant. So, different sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations of 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm were used to obtain the optimum concentration at 70 °C and 144.74×105 Pa. A simple, clean and relatively fast spectrophotometric method was used for determination of surfactant which is based on the formation of an ion-pair. Then the effect of surfactant to gas volume ratio on oil recovery in secondary oil recovery process during execution of immiscible surfactant alternating gas injection was examined experimentally. The experiments were performed with sand pack under certain temperature, pressure and constant rate. Experiments were performed with surfactant to gas ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 and 1.2 pore volume injected. Then, comparisons were made between obtained results (SAG) with water flooding, gas flooding and water alternating gas

  19. Comparison of oil removal in surfactant alternating gas with water alternating gas, water flooding and gas flooding in secondary oil recovery process.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Mehdi Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Sahraei, Eghbal; Nejad, Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei

    2014-08-01

    Growing oil prices coupled with large amounts of residual oil after operating common enhanced oil recovery methods has made using methods with higher operational cost economically feasible. Nitrogen is one of the gases used in both miscible and immiscible gas injection process in oil reservoir. In heterogeneous formations gas tends to breakthrough early in production wells due to overriding, fingering and channeling. Surfactant alternating gas (SAG) injection is one of the methods commonly used to decrease this problem. Foam which is formed on the contact of nitrogen and surfactant increases viscosity of injected gas. This increases the oil-gas contact and sweep efficiency, although adsorption of surfactant on rock surface can causes difficulties and increases costs of process. Many parameters must be considered in design of SAG process. One of the most important parameters is SAG ratio that should be in optimum value to improve the flooding efficiency. In this study, initially the concentration of surfactant was optimized due to minimization of adsorption on rock surface which results in lower cost of surfactant. So, different sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations of 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm were used to obtain the optimum concentration at 70 °C and 144.74×10(5) Pa. A simple, clean and relatively fast spectrophotometric method was used for determination of surfactant which is based on the formation of an ion-pair. Then the effect of surfactant to gas volume ratio on oil recovery in secondary oil recovery process during execution of immiscible surfactant alternating gas injection was examined experimentally. The experiments were performed with sand pack under certain temperature, pressure and constant rate. Experiments were performed with surfactant to gas ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 and 1.2 pore volume injected. Then, comparisons were made between obtained results (SAG) with water flooding, gas flooding and water alternating gas

  20. Cost-cutting for offshore sulfur recovery processes studied

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, M.P.; Echterhoff, L.W.; Leppin, D.; Meyer, H.S.

    1997-07-21

    An increasing portion of future US gas supply is likely to come from offshore, primarily Gulf of Mexico. Because this gas can be sour, the industry has sought lower cost H{sub 2}S-removal/recovery processes for treating it. Usually the gas contains < 5 tons/day (tpd) of sulfur. A study to compare several emerging sulfur-removal/recovery processes against a baseline Amine/LO-CAT II process has indicated that some emerging processes, though not yet commercialized, show considerable potential for reducing costs. Specifically, the major findings were that Double Loop and CrystaSulf, developed by Radian International LLC, Austin, were the least expensive capital-cost processes by a significant margin and that Marathon Oil Co.`s Hysulf`s cost has the potential to compete with Double Loop and CrystaSulf.

  1. Selection of an acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.B.; Jones, G.N.; Denton, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Acid gas contaminants, such as, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and mercaptans, must be removed to a very low level from a feed natural gas before it is liquefied. CO{sub 2} is typically removed to a level of about 100 ppm to prevent freezing during LNG processing. Sulfur compounds are removed to levels required by the eventual consumer of the gas. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly classified as: solvent-based, adsorption, cryogenic or physical separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these processes will be discussed along with design and operating considerations. This paper will also discuss the important considerations affecting the choice of the best acid-gas removal process for LNG plants. Some of these considerations are: the remoteness of the LNG plant from the resource; the cost of the feed gas and the economics of minimizing capital expenditures; the ultimate disposition of the acid gas; potential for energy integration; and the composition, including LPG and conditions of the feed gas. The example of the selection of the acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant.

  2. Multipass optical device and process for gas and analyte determination

    DOEpatents

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2011-01-25

    A torus multipass optical device and method are described that provide for trace level determination of gases and gas-phase analytes. The torus device includes an optical cavity defined by at least one ring mirror. The mirror delivers optical power in at least a radial and axial direction and propagates light in a multipass optical path of a predefined path length.

  3. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  4. A Gas Kinetic Explanation of Simple Thermodynamic Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Boyd A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat is defined as a random or nondirected internal energy transfer between different bodies at different temperatures. Work is defined as oriented or nonrandom internal energy transfer. Both heat and work are demonstrated to lead to increases in temperature via interpretations from gas kinetic theory. (JN)

  5. DGA proves out as a low pressure gas sweetener in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Huval, M.; van de Venne, H.

    1981-08-17

    Aramco is successfully using diglycolamine (DGA) to treat low-pressure associated sour gases to 1/4 gr H/sub 2/S/100 SCF specifications. The DGA process meets the design criteria of (1) handling high acid-gas-content (up to 15%) feed gases, (2) sweetening at high temperatures (120/sup 0/-140/sup 0/F) and low pressures (120-180 psig), (3) removing both H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ in a single step and (4) providing a Claus-plant feed suitable for the production of bright-yellow (rather than black) sulfur.

  6. GENETIC VARIATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PROMISING SOUR CHERRIES INFERRED FROM MICROSATELLITE MARKERS.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, R; Arzani, K; Bouzari, N; Saei, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the group of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for identification of promising sour cherries. From among 30 tested microsatellite (SSR) markers, 19 were selected to profile genetic variation in sour cherries due to high polymorphisms. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the accessions based on these markers. Totally 148 alleles were generated at 19 SSR loci which 122 alleles were polymorphic. The number of total alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 15 with an average of 7.78 and polymorphism percentage varied from 50 to 100% with an average of 78.76%. Also, PIC varied from 0.47 to 0.89 with an average of 0.79 and heterozygosity ranged from 0.35 to 0.55 with a mean of 0.45. According to these results, these markers specially PMS3, PS12A02, PceGA34, BPPCT021, EMPA004, EMPA018, and Pchgms3 produced good and various levels of amplifications and showed high heterozygosity levels. By the way, the genetic similarity showed a high diversity among the sour cherries. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising sour cherries, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the studied sour cherries were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these sour cherries can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that the set of microsatellite markers employed in this study demonstrated usefulness of microsatellite markers for the identification of sour cherry genotypes.

  7. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  9. Composition of matter useful in flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, D.

    1983-05-03

    Flue gas having a content of sulfur dioxide is passed upwardly through a scrubbing tower against a descending flow of recycled aqueous sodium aluminate-sodium hydroxide liquor. The sulfur dioxide in the gas is converted to sodium and aluminum sulfates and sulfites and the liquor removes any fly ash present in the gas. Underflow is continuously discharged from the tower and is sent to an evaporator for removal of excess water. Make-up solutions of sodium sulfate and aluminum sulfate are added, as necessary. Carbonaceous reducing agent is added to the discharge from the evaporator. The mixture is continuously fed into a reducing furnace where the sulfates and sulfites are reduced to sulfides. The product of the furnace (Molten sodium and aluminum sulfides) is charged into a continuous hydrolyzer. Hydrogen sulfide is evolved and collected, and, if desired, its sulfur content is converted to elementary sulfur. The underflow from the hydrolyzer is filtered. The filtrate is aqueous sodium aluminate sodium hydroxide solution which is recycled to the scrubbing tower.

  10. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

    2010-02-15

    A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy.

  11. Process for removing SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ compounds from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, R.H.

    1989-02-14

    A process is described for removing SO/sub x/ compounds from a feed gas stream and producing a purified gas stream of reduced SO/sub x/ content, which process comprises: contacting a feed gas stream containing SO/sub x/ compounds; withdrawing from step (1) a liquid stream of spent absorbent containing the absorbed SO/sub x/ compounds; regenerating the spent absorbent back to a form active for absorbing SO/sub x/ compounds; separating the products of step (3) into a liquid stream containing a regenerated absorbent and a product gas stream containing H/sub 2/S; recycling at least some of the liquid stream containing regenerated absorbent; and recovering the purified gas stream of reduced SO/sub x/ content and the product gas stream containing H/sub 2/S.

  12. WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Xiaomei Qi; Scott Kronewitter

    2004-02-01

    This project involved fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2} -separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams were examined in the project. Cu-cerium oxide was identified as the most promising high-temperature water-gas shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. The high-temperature shift catalyst composition was optimized by proper selection of dopant type and amount in ceria. The formulation 10at%Cu-Ce(30at%La)O{sub x} showed the best performance, and was selected for further kinetic studies. WGS reaction rates were measured in a simulated coal-gas mixture. The apparent activation energy, measured over aged catalysts, was equal to 70.2 kJ/mol. Reaction orders in CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} were found to be 0.8, 0.2, -0.3, and -0.3, respectively. This shows that H{sub 2}O has very little effect on the reaction rate, and that both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} weakly inhibit the reaction. Good stability of catalyst performance was found in 40-hr long tests. A flat (38 cm{sup 2}) Pd-Cu alloy membrane reactor was used with the catalyst washcoated on oxidized aluminum screens close coupled with the membrane. To achieve higher loadings, catalyst granules were layered on the membrane itself to test the combined HTS activity/ H{sub 2} -separation efficiency of the composite. Simulated coal gas mixtures were used and the effect of membrane on the conversion of CO over the catalyst was evidenced at high space

  13. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT N-93 September 1980 ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD) PROCESSES FOR POTENTIAL USE ON ARMY COAL-FIRED BOILERS TECHNICAL LIBRARY...REFERENCE: Technical Report N-93, Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Ppooesses for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers Please take a few...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. REPORT NUMBER CERL-TR-N-93 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO «. TITLE (end Subtitle) ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD

  14. Souring in low-temperature surface facilities of two high-temperature Argentinian oil fields.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; An, Dongshan; Cavallaro, Adriana; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    Produced waters from the Barrancas and Chihuido de la Salina (CHLS) fields in Argentina had higher concentrations of sulfate than were found in the injection waters, suggesting that the formation waters in these reservoirs had a high sulfate concentration and that sulfate-reducing bacteria were inactive downhole. Incubation of produced waters with produced oil gave rapid reduction of sulfate to sulfide (souring) at 37 °C, some at 60 °C, but none at 80 °C. Alkylbenzenes and alkanes served as electron donor, especially in incubations with CHLS oil. Dilution with water to decrease the ionic strength or addition of inorganic phosphate did not increase souring at 37 or 60 °C. These results indicate that souring in these reservoirs is limited by the reservoir temperature (80 °C for the Barrancas and 65-70 °C for the CHLS field) and that souring may accelerate in surface facilities where the oil-water mixture cools. As a result, significant sulfide concentrations are present in these surface facilities. The activity and presence of chemolithotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira, which represented 85% of the microbial community in a water plant in the Barrancas field, indicated reoxidation of sulfide and sulfur to sulfate. The presence of these bacteria offers potential for souring control by microbial oxidation in aboveground facilities, provided that formation of corrosive sulfur can be avoided.

  15. Characterization of Thermophilic Consortia from Two Souring Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, R. F.; Nielsen, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial consortia from produced water at two different oil fields in Alaska (Kuparuk) and the North Sea (Ninian) were investigated for sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activity over a range of temperatures and for a variety of substrates. The consortia were sampled on site, and samples were either incubated on site at 60(deg)C with various substrates or frozen for later incubation and analyses. Temperature influenced the rates of sulfate reduction, hydrogen sulfide production, and substrate oxidation, as well as the cell morphology. The highest rates of sulfate reduction and substrate oxidation were found between 50 and 60(deg)C. Formate and n-butyrate were the most favorable electron donors at any tested temperature. Acetate was utilized at 35(deg)C but not at 50 or 70(deg)C and was produced at 60(deg)C. This indicates that the high levels of acetate found in produced water from souring oil formations are due mainly to an incomplete oxidation of volatile fatty acids to acetate. The cell size distribution of the microbial consortium indicated a nonuniform microbial composition in the original sample from the Kuparuk field. At different temperatures, different microbial morphologies and physiologies were observed. Methane-producing activity at thermophilic temperatures (60(deg)C) was found only for the Kuparuk consortium when hydrogen and carbon dioxide were present. No methane production from acetate was observed. Suppression of methanogenic activity in the presence of sulfate indicated a competition with sulfate-reducing bacteria for hydrogen. PMID:16535394

  16. Unit for combustion of process exhaust gas and production of hot air

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, J.O.; Eriksson, T.L.; Nystrom, O.

    1982-12-07

    Unit for thermal incineration of non-explosive gases with minor amounts of organic pollutants and for production of hot air, and which can be adapted to various types of supplementary fuel. There is a combustion chamber which consists of a flame pipe inside an outer jacket. Through the space therebetween, incoming process gas is led as coolant. At its front end, the combustion chamber has a burner for supplementary fuel and a mixing-in zone for process gas. The process gas rapidly mixes with the hot combustion gases in the flame, the gas reaching its reaction temperature directly. Powerful turbulence in the mixing-in zone gas, film-layer cooling, convective cooling and even flow give highly efficient and pure combustion while keeping the flame pipe temperature low enough to prevent corrosion.

  17. CNG process, a new approach to physical-absorption acid-gas removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hise, R.E.; Massey, L.G.; Adler, R.J.; Brosilow, C.B.; Gardner, N.C.; Brown, W.R.; Cook, W.J.; Petrik, M.

    1982-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process embodies three novel features: (1) scrubbing with liquid carbon dioxide to remove all sulfurous molecules and other trace contaminants; (2) triple-point crystallization of carbon dioxide to concentrate sulfurous molecules and produce pure carbon dioxide; and (3) absorption of carbon dioxide with a slurry of solid carbon dioxide in organic carrier liquid. The CNG process is discussed and contrasted with existing acid gas removal technology as represented by the Benfield, Rectisol, and Selexol acid gas removal processes.

  18. Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW.

  19. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES AND PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Johann LeRoux

    2002-02-01

    The first phase of this project involved the development of a high performance composite membranes for the treatment of natural gas. The objective of the second phase is to demonstrate the commercial potential of a full-size membrane module in a pilot scale field test. This phase is undertaken jointly with our commercial partner, UOP LLC. At the conclusion of Phase I, two composite membrane products had been developed for the enrichment (sweetening) of natural gas. The one was a low pressure membrane with a high CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation factor that falls within the target range of 25-30 (at 50 C) set for the program. This is a significant improvement over current commercial membranes that have separation factors of around 18-19. The second membrane had excellent high pressure capability and good contamination resistance, with a separation factor of 20-22. Based on the performance and the economic evaluation of the newly developed membranes, and with the input of UOP and DOE, it was decided to devote the demonstration phase of the program to the field testing and commercial evaluation of natural gas dehydration membranes. Due to the events of September 11, the program was also extended by 6 months until June 30, 2002. In Phase II, UOP has essentially completed preparation of the field test site. Site preparation included the re-design of the test system, purchase and installation of analytical equipment, and making the necessary piping and other hardware changes. IMS has produced two commercial sized dehydration membrane modules for the field tests. These have been successfully tested up to pressures expected in the field tests, and the modules have been shipped to the test site. The remainder of the program will comprise performance testing of the membrane modules, evaluation of the results and submission of the final report with recommendations.

  20. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus

  1. Process for removal of hydrogen halides or halogens from incinerator gas

    DOEpatents

    Huang, H.S.; Sather, N.F.

    1987-08-21

    A process for reducing the amount of halogens and halogen acids in high temperature combustion gas and through their removal, the formation of halogenated organics at lower temperatures, with the reduction being carried out electrochemically by contacting the combustion gas with the negative electrode of an electrochemical cell and with the halogen and/or halogen acid being recovered at the positive electrode.

  2. Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyele, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,…

  3. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (Eco Logic) process thermally separates organics, then chemically reduces them in a hydrogen atmosphere, converting them to a reformed gas that consists of light hydrocarbons and water. A scrubber treats the reformed gas to remove hydrogen chl...

  4. THE INTEGRATION OF PROCESS HEAT APPLICATIONS TO HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    A high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, can produce industrial process steam, high-temperature heat-transfer gases, and/or electricity. In conventional industrial processes, these products are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, resulting in significant emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Heat or electricity produced in an HTGR could be used to supply process heat or electricity to conventional processes without generating any greenhouse gases. Process heat from a reactor needs to be transported by a gas to the industrial process. Two such gases were considered in this study: helium and steam. For this analysis, it was assumed that steam was delivered at 17 MPa and 540 C and helium was delivered at 7 MPa and at a variety of temperatures. The temperature of the gas returning from the industrial process and going to the HTGR must be within certain temperature ranges to maintain the correct reactor inlet temperature for a particular reactor outlet temperature. The returning gas may be below the reactor inlet temperature, ROT, but not above. The optimal return temperature produces the maximum process heat gas flow rate. For steam, the delivered pressure sets an optimal reactor outlet temperature based on the condensation temperature of the steam. ROTs greater than 769.7 C produce no additional advantage for the production of steam.

  5. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOEpatents

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.M.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Suggitt, R.M.

    1995-03-28

    A partial oxidation process is described for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF, H{sub 2}S, COS, N{sub 2}, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000 F. 1 figure.

  6. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOEpatents

    Leininger, Thomas F.; Robin, Allen M.; Wolfenbarger, James K.; Suggitt, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    A partial oxidation process for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O, CH.sub.4, NH.sub.3, HCl, HF, H.sub.2 S, COS, N.sub.2, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000.degree. F.

  7. Membrane process for biological treatment of contaminated gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Ergas, S.J.; Shumway, L.; Fitch, M.W.; Neemann, J.J.

    1999-05-20

    A hollow fiber membrane bioreactor was investigated for control of air emissions of biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the membrane bioreactor, gases containing VOCs pass through the lumen of microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Soluble compounds diffuse through the membrane pores and partition into a VOC degrading biofilm. The hollow fiber membranes serve as a support for the microbial population and provide a large surface area for VOC and oxygen mass transfer. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of toluene loading rate, gas residence time, and liquid phase turbulence on toluene removal in a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor. Three models of the reactor were created: a numeric model, a first-order flat sheet model, and a zero-order flat sheet model. Only the numeric model fit the data well, although removal predicted as a function of gas residence time disagreed slightly with that observed. A modification in the model to account for membrane phase resistance resulted in an underprediction of removal.

  8. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  9. Ceramics in gas turbine: Powder and process characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the intrinsic properties of various forms of Si3N4 and SiC are listed and limitations of such materials' availability are pointed out. The essential features/parameters to characterize a batch of powder are discussed including the standard techniques for such characterization. In process characterization, parameters in sintering, reaction sintering, and hot pressing processes are discussed including the factors responsible for strength limitations in ceramic bodies. Significant improvements in material properties can be achieved by reducing or eliminating the strength limiting factors with consistent powder and process characterization along with process control.

  10. Real gas effects on charging and discharging processes of high pressure pneumatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuxi; Wang, Xuanyin; Ge, Yaozheng

    2013-01-01

    The high pressure pneumatic system has been applied to special industries. It may cause errors when we analyze high pressure pneumatics under ideal gas assumption. However, the real gas effect on the performances of high pressure pneumatics is seldom investigated. In this paper, the real gas effects on air enthalpy and internal energy are estimated firstly to study the real gas effect on the energy conversion. Under ideal gas assumption, enthalpy and internal energy are solely related to air temperature. The estimation result indicates that the pressure enthalpy and pressure internal energy of real pneumatic air obviously decrease the values of enthalpy and internal energy for high pressure pneumatics, and the values of pressure enthalpy and pressure internal energy are close. Based on the relationship among pressure, enthalpy and internal energy, the real gas effects on charging and discharging processes of high pressure pneumatics are estimated, which indicates that the real gas effect accelerates the temperature and pressure decreasing rates during discharging process, and decelerates their increasing rates during charging process. According to the above analysis, and for the inconvenience in building the simulation model for real gas and the difficulty of measuring the detail thermal capacities of pneumatics, a method to compensate the real gas effect under ideal gas assumption is proposed by modulating the thermal capacity of the pneumatic container in simulation. The experiments of switching expansion reduction (SER) for high pressure pneumatics are used to verify this compensating method. SER includes the discharging process of supply tanks and the charging process of expansion tank. The simulated and experimental results of SER are highly consistent. The proposed compensation method provides a convenient way to obtain more realistic simulation results for high pressure pneumatics.

  11. Technology of Ultrasonic Control Of Gas-Shielded Welding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodsky, S. A.; Sarychev, V. D.; Borisov, I. S.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach to implementation of electrode metal transfer control under MAG, MIG welding is suggested. The process ensures control of thermal and crystallization processes, stabilizes the time of electrode metal drop formation. The results of the research allow formulating the basic criteria of electrode metal transfer control via ultrasonic exposure, determining the conditions of producing a more equilibrium structure of deposit metal.

  12. CO/sub 2/ removal from ammonia synthesis gas with SELEXOL Solvent Process

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The high cost of energy which has prevailed since the 70's has forced ammonia producers to seek new methods to save energy and lower the ammonia production cost. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of SELEXOL Solvent Process for treatment of ammonia synthesis gas and discuss a patented SELEXOL process scheme which permits substantially 100% carbon dioxide recovery. This paper also describes: the SELEXOL Process Technology; treating of Ammonia Synthesis Gas; philosophy; high CO/sub 2/ Recovery Process; 100% CO2 Recovery Process; cost and Utility Requirement; plant Performance Data.

  13. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuousmore » formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.« less

  14. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuous formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.

  15. A biological process effective for the conversion of CO-containing industrial waste gas to acetate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Wan; Bae, Seung Seob; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Sung-Mok; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kang, Sung Gyun

    2016-07-01

    Acetogens have often been observed to be inhibited by CO above an inhibition threshold concentration. In this study, a two-stage culture consisting of carboxydotrophic archaea and homoacetogenic bacteria is found to be effective in converting industrial waste gas derived from a steel mill process. In the first stage, Thermococcus onnurineus could grow on the Linz-Donawitz converter gas (LDG) containing ca. 56% CO as a sole energy source, converting the CO into H2 and CO2. Then, in the second stage, Thermoanaerobacter kivui could grow on the off-gas from the first stage culture, consuming the H2 and CO in the off-gas completely and producing acetate as a main product. T. kivui alone could not grow on the LDG gas. This work represents the first demonstration of acetate production using steel mill waste gas by a two-stage culture of carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic microbes and homoacetogenic bacteria.

  16. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vapors to a fuel gas system or process shall open to the atmosphere during loading. Pressure relief... to the atmosphere. (b) Fuel gas system and process compliance determination. (1) If emissions...

  17. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Chipeta Processing, LLC - Chipeta Gas Plant Train IV Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the response to public comments and the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the Chipeta Processing, LLC, Chipeta Gas Plant Train IV Project, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  18. Near-infrared Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging for Early Detection of Sour Skin Disease in Vidalia Sweet Onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sour skin is a major onion disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia). It not only causes substantial economic loss from diseased onions but also could lead to pulmonary infection in humans. It is critical to prevent onions infected by sour skin from entering storage rooms or ...

  19. New insights into the ecological interaction between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila flies during the development of sour rot.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; Santos, Sara Correia; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we studied the ecological interactions between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila sp. flies involved in sour rot disease during grape ripening. After veráison the total microbial counts of grape berries affected by sour rot increased from about 2 log CFU/g of berries to more than 7 log CFU/g. Berry damage provoked a clear shift in yeast diversity from basidiomycetes to ascomycetous fermentative species. The latter were mostly Pichia terricola, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, and Zygoascus hellenicus. However, these species were not able to produce the metabolites characteristic of sour rot (gluconic and acetic acids) in inoculated berries. On the contrary, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans produced high levels of these acids, mainly when berries were incubated in the presence of the insect Drosophila sp. Sour rot was not observed when grape bunches were physically separated from insects, even when berries were artificially injured. The wounds made in berry skin healed in the absence of insects, thus preventing the development of sour rot. Therefore, in the vineyard, the induction of sour rot depends on the contamination of wounded berries by a microbial consortium--yeasts and acetic acid bacteria--transported by drosophilid insects which disseminate sour rot among damaged berries. In the absence of these insects, plant defense mechanisms are effective and lead to skin healing, preventing disease spread. Thus, we showed that Drosophila sp. act as a vector for microorganisms associated with grape sour rot disease.

  20. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction state. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process. Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination Process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure.

  1. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  2. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  3. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  4. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  5. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  6. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  7. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  8. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  9. A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, T.C.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.; Cicero, D.C.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning IGCC generated syngas to meet contaminant tolerance limits for fuel cell and chemical production applications. The specific goals are to develop processes for (1) removal of reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removal of hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface-area material; and (3) removal of NH3 with acidic adsorbents followed by conversion of this NH3 into nitrogen and water. Existing gasification technologies can effectively and efficiently convert a wide variety of carbonaceous feedstocks (coal, petcoke, resids, biomass, etc.) into syngas, which predominantly contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Unfortunately, the impurities present in these carbonaceous feedstocks are converted to gaseous contaminants such as H2S, COS, HCl, NH3, alkali macromolecules and heavy metal compounds (such as Hg) during the gasification process. Removal of these contaminants using conventional processes is thermally inefficient and capital intensive. This research and development effort is focused on investigation of modular processes for removal of sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen and mercury compounds from syngas at elevated temperature and pressures at significantly lower costs than conventional technologies.

  10. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  11. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2016-09-06

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  12. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2015-05-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission, and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual-tracer flux measurements and on-site observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with on-site tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  13. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual tracer flux measurements and onsite observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with onsite tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions, and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  14. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Charles R; Torczynski, John R; Brady, Patrick V; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F

    2013-09-17

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  15. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Charles R.; Torczynski, John R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F.

    2014-06-17

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  16. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Charles R; Torczynski, John R; Brady, Patrick V; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F

    2013-11-19

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  17. Adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization process - an assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.D.; Chang, J.C.S.

    1981-12-01

    Adipic acid, when used as an additive in a limestone FGD system, greatly increases both SO/sub 2/ removal and limestone utilization. Most existing limestone scrubbers would benefit from adipic acid addition without major process changes. No significant operating problems or adverse environmental impacts have been identified. The adipic acid enhanced system is economically attractive. Waste dibasic acids and glycolic acid appear to provide benefits similar to adipic acid at a lower cost.

  18. Potential of OUR and OTR measurements for identification of activated sludge removal processes in aerated basins.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, A; Libra, J A; Sahlmann, C; Handschag, J; Wiesmann, U; Gnirss, R

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop a process control scheme to reduce energy costs for aeration in activated sludge systems with biological P removal, pre-denitrification and nitrification stages, the spatial distribution of carbon oxidation and nitrification was evaluated over a long full-scale plug flow aeration basin using an externally measured specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR) and in basin measurement of the actual specific oxygen transfer rate (sOTR) with off-gas testing as well as with the calculated oxygen demand from NH4-N concentrations (sOTR(N)). Using a simple static model, a gas phase balance on oxygen and carbon dioxide, sOTR(N) values were also calculated from off-gas testing. Comparison of sOTR(N) to sOTR and sOUR for carbon oxidation (sOUR(C)) to nitrification (sOUR(N)) at different loading conditions allowed the oxidation processes to be followed over the three zones of the aeration basin. As expected, the distribution depended on the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in the basin. However, the major change was in the C-oxidation rate and not the nitrification rate. At a low DO, and when NH4-N was present in the zone, the amount of oxygen transferred for nitrification was nearly the same, but the overall sOTR was lower. The externally measured sOUR was only useful when it was differentiated into sOUR(N) and sOUR(C). sOUR(N) could be used to predict the nitrification rate in the basin. With further refinement, the gas phase balance model has potential to be used to monitor the degree of nitrification over the basin length. This can be integrated into a control scheme to reduce aeration costs by adjusting the DO setpoint according to loading conditions in the

  19. Numerical solution of moving boundary problem for deposition process in solid fuel gas generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokhov, V. M.; Dorofeenko, S. O.; Sharov, M. S.; Toktaliev, P. D.

    2016-11-01

    Moving boundary problem in application to process of depositions formation in gas generator are considered. Gas generator, as a part of fuel preparation system of high-speed vehicle, convert solid fuel into multicomponent multiphase mixture, which further burned down in combustion chamber. Mathematical model of two-phase “gas-solid particles” flow, including Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flow in gas generator and mass, impulse conservations laws for elementary depositions layer are proposed. Verification of proposed mathematical model for depositions mass in gas generator conditions is done. Further possible improvements of proposed model, based on more detail accounting of particle-wall interaction and wall's surface adhesion properties are analyzed.

  20. A novel carbon-based process for flue-gas cleanup. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Howe, G.B.; McMichael, W.J.; Spivey, J.J.

    1993-10-01

    A low-temperature process employing activated carbon-based catalysts and operating downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was evaluated jointly by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). The RTI-Waterloo process was projected to be capable of removing more than 95% SO{sub 2} and 75% NO{sub x }from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, the flue gas leaving the ESP is first cooled to approximately 100{degree}C. The SO{sub 2} is then catalytically oxidized to SO{sub 3} which is removed as medium-strength sulfuric acid in a series of periodically flushed trickle-bed reactors containing an activated carbon-based catalyst. The SO{sub 2}-free gas is then reheated to approximately 150{degree}C and NH{sub 3} is injected into the gas stream. It is then passed over a fixed bed of another activated carbon-based catalyst to reduce the NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The clean flue gas is then vented to the stack. The feasibility of the process has been demonstrated in laboratory-scale experiments using simulated flue gas. Catalysts have been identified that gave the required performance for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal with <25 ppM NH{sub 3} slip. Potential for producing up to 10 N sulfuric acid by periodically flushing the SO{sub 2} removal reactor and further concentration to industrial strength 93.17% sulfuric acid was also demonstrated. Using the results of the experimental work, an engineering evaluation was conducted. Cost for the RTI-Waterloo process was competitive with conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) -- flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process and other emerging combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal processes.

  1. Study of Mass Transfer in Gas Blowing Processes for Silicon Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenberend, Jochen; Chichignoud, Guy; Delannoy, Yves

    2017-03-01

    Boron removal processes are crucial to make the metallurgical route for silicon refining for solar cells competitive and thus reduce the cost of solar energy. The rate-limiting step was investigated in silicon purification processes for boron removal based on gas blowing, to gain better understanding that should help to improve the design of such processes. We calculate the boron concentration in the off-gas that corresponds to chemical equilibrium between the gas and silicon. The real concentration in the off-gas ranges between 9 and 30 pct of this theoretical value calculated using Gibbs free energies reported in literature. Purification experiments with varying temperature and hydrogen concentration were done to evaluate whether limited chemical reaction rates induce deviation from chemical equilibrium. The experiments and data from literature show that the chemical reactions at the surface of the melt are close to chemical equilibrium, thus the purification rate is limited by mass transfer in the gas phase near the interface. Based on this, recommendations for the design of a gas blowing purification process are given.

  2. Process for the separation of components from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Merriman, J.R.; Pashley, J.H.; Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.

    1973-10-01

    A process for the removal, from gaseous mixtures of a desired component selected from oxygen, iodine, methyl iodide, and lower oxides of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur is described. The gaseous mixture is contacted with a liquid fluorocarbon in an absorption zone maintained at superatmospheric pressure to preferentially absorb the desired component in the fluorocarbon. Unabsorbed constituents of the gaseous mixture are withdrawn from the absorption zone. Liquid fluorocarbon enriched in the desired component is withdrawn separately from the zone, following which the desired component is recovered from the fluorocarbon absorbent. (Official Gazette)

  3. Sour orange fine root distribution after seventeen years of atmospheric CO2 enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Belowground responses to CO2 enrichment remain understudied relative to aboveground parameters. Further, there is a paucity of information on the long-term effects of CO2 on tree species. Sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.), grown in an Avondale loam in Phoenix, AZ, were exposed to ambient and e...

  4. Invasive Drosophila suzukii facilitates Drosophila melanogaster infestation and sour rot outbreaks in the vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, R.; Xuéreb, A.; Benoit, L.; Chapuis, M. P. ; Gibert, P.

    2017-01-01

    How do invasive pests affect interactions between members of pre-existing agrosystems? The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii is suspected to be involved in the aetiology of sour rot, a grapevine disease that otherwise develops following Drosophila melanogaster infestation of wounded berries. We combined field observations with laboratory assays to disentangle the relative roles of both Drosophila in disease development. We observed the emergence of numerous D. suzukii, but no D. melanogaster flies, from bunches that started showing mild sour rot symptoms days after field collection. However, bunches that already showed severe rot symptoms in the field mostly contained D. melanogaster. In the laboratory, oviposition by D. suzukii triggered sour rot development. An independent assay showed the disease increased grape attractiveness to ovipositing D. melanogaster females. Our results suggest that in invaded vineyards, D. suzukii facilitates D. melanogaster infestation and, consequently, favours sour rot outbreaks. Rather than competing with close species, the invader subsequently permits their reproduction in otherwise non-accessible resources and may cause more frequent, or more extensive, disease outbreaks.

  5. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35 min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness.

  6. Adsorption process to recover hydrogen from feed gas mixtures having low hydrogen concentration

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Novosat, Paul Anthony

    2010-04-13

    A process for selectively separating hydrogen from at least one more strongly adsorbable component in a plurality of adsorption beds to produce a hydrogen-rich product gas from a low hydrogen concentration feed with a high recovery rate. Each of the plurality of adsorption beds subjected to a repetitive cycle. The process comprises an adsorption step for producing the hydrogen-rich product from a feed gas mixture comprising 5% to 50% hydrogen, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas withdrawal steps, a provide purge step resulting in a first pressure decrease, a blowdown step resulting in a second pressure decrease, a purge step, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas introduction steps, and a repressurization step. The second pressure decrease is at least 2 times greater than the first pressure decrease.

  7. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2002-12-31

    This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the third year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. In this report we present an application of compositional streamline simulation in modeling enhanced condensate recovery via gas injection. These processes are inherently compositional and detailed compositional fluid descriptions must be use to represent the flow behavior accurately. Compositional streamline simulation results are compared to those of conventional finite-difference (FD) simulation for evaluation of gas injection schemes in condensate reservoirs. We present and compare streamline and FD results for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) examples, to show that the compositional streamline method is a way to obtain efficiently estimates of reasonable accuracy for condensate recovery by gas injection.

  8. Phase I: the pipeline gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant process design. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Conoco's process for manufacturing high-Btu gas from high-sulfur, bituminous, caking coals combines the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasification technology and Conoco's own shift/methanation expertise. The 1245-acre site in Ohio selected for the demonstration plant is large enough to allow scale-up to a commercial venture. The plant will consist of 12 processing units and 8 offsite units. Conoco will use the plant data to evaluate the economic, environmental, and safety aspects of the process. The preliminary budget places the erected plant cost at $187 million (not including a contingency).

  9. Operation, Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Reverse Water Gas Shift process is a candidate technology for water and oxygen production on Mars under the In-Situ Propellant Production project. This report focuses on the operation and analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process, which has been constructed at Kennedy Space Center. A summary of results from the initial operation of the RWGS, process along with an analysis of these results is included in this report. In addition an evaluation of a material balance model developed from the work performed previously under the summer program is included along with recommendations for further experimental work.

  10. [Organization of nutrition and nutritional status in major jobs workers engaged in gas-processing industry].

    PubMed

    Beĭlin, S M; Fateeva, T A

    2009-01-01

    The workers of gas-processing industry are exposed to a complex of industrial factors throughout their labor activity. Curative diet is in full measure unable to neutralize reactants and to optimize metabolic processes so there is a need for warranting, designing, and introducing a functional diet. The nutrition of major jobs workers engaged in gas-processing industry is inadequate, improper, and unbalanced, which leads to an excess nutritional status in the majority of workers. It is necessary to develop a functional nutrition concept that makes it possible to correct the intake of essential nutrients and to normalize the nutritional status of the workers, by including functional foods into their diet.

  11. Numerical Studies of the Application of Shock Tube Technology for Cold Gas Dynamic Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, R.; Bobzin, K.; Lugscheider, E.; Parkot, D.; Varava, W.; Olivier, H.; Luo, X.

    2007-12-01

    A new method for a combustion-free spraying is studied fundamentally by modeling and simulation in comparison with first experiments. The article focuses on the numerical simulation of the gas-particle nozzle flow, which is generated by the shock reflection at the end wall section of a shock tube. To study the physical fundamentals of this process, at present only a single shot operation is considered. The particles are injected downstream of the nozzle throat into a supersonic nozzle flow. The measurements of the particle velocity made by a laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) set up show that the maximum velocity amounts to 1220 m/s for stainless steel particles of 15 μm diameter. The CFD-Code (Fluent) is first verified by a comparison with available numerical and experimental data for gas and gas-particle flow fields in a long Laval-nozzle. The good agreement implied the great potential of the new dynamic process concept for cold-gas coating applications. Then the flow fields in the short Laval nozzle designed and realized by the Shock Wave Laboratory (SWL) are investigated. The gas flow for experimentally obtained stagnation conditions is simulated. The gas-particle flow without and with the influence of the particles on the gas flow is calculated by the Surface Engineering Institute (IOT) and compared with experiments. The influence of the injection parameters on the particle velocities is investigated, as well.

  12. Characterization of three-dimensional spatial aggregation and association patterns of brown rot symptoms within intensively mapped sour cherry trees

    PubMed Central

    Everhart, Sydney E.; Askew, Ashley; Seymour, Lynne; Holb, Imre J.; Scherm, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Characterization of spatial patterns of plant disease can provide insights into important epidemiological processes such as sources of inoculum, mechanisms of dissemination, and reproductive strategies of the pathogen population. Whilst two-dimensional patterns of disease (among plants within fields) have been studied extensively, there is limited information on three-dimensional patterns within individual plant canopies. Reported here are the detailed mapping of different symptom types of brown rot (caused by Monilinia laxa) in individual sour cherry tree (Prunus cerasus) canopies, and the application of spatial statistics to the resulting data points to determine patterns of symptom aggregation and association. Methods A magnetic digitizer was utilized to create detailed three-dimensional maps of three symptom types (blossom blight, shoot blight and twig canker) in eight sour cherry tree canopies during the green fruit stage of development. The resulting point patterns were analysed for aggregation (within a given symptom type) and pairwise association (between symptom types) using a three-dimensional extension of nearest-neighbour analysis. Key Results Symptoms of M. laxa infection were generally aggregated within the canopy volume, but there was no consistent pattern for one symptom type to be more or less aggregated than the other. Analysis of spatial association among symptom types indicated that previous year's twig cankers may play an important role in influencing the spatial pattern of current year's symptoms. This observation provides quantitative support for the epidemiological role of twig cankers as sources of primary inoculum within the tree. Conclusions Presented here is a new approach to quantify spatial patterns of plant disease in complex fruit tree canopies using point pattern analysis. This work provides a framework for quantitative analysis of three-dimensional spatial patterns within the finite tree canopy, applicable to

  13. Optimisation of the thickness of the moderator for positron annihilation process study in Ar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Toshitaka; Sano, Yosuke; Kino, Yasushi; Sekine, Tsutomu

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the deceleration and annihilation processes of positron in noble gas, we attempted to optimise the thickness of the positron moderator. The results of the decreasing trend of free positron intensity and ortho-positronium intensity with the thickness, and the annihilation rate suggest that the energy of almost all the positrons passed through the metal foils was much above the positronium formation threshold of 9 eV. Total thickness of 0.1 g cm-2 of the moderator and the Ar gas was required to stop almost all the positron in Ar gas.

  14. Efficient gas-separation process to upgrade dilute methane stream for use as fuel

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Lin, Haiqing [Mountain View, CA; Thompson, Scott [Brecksville, OH; Daniels, Ramin [San Jose, CA

    2012-03-06

    A membrane-based gas separation process for treating gas streams that contain methane in low concentrations. The invention involves flowing the stream to be treated across the feed side of a membrane and flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side. Carbon dioxide permeates the membrane preferentially and is picked up in the sweep air stream on the permeate side; oxygen permeates in the other direction and is picked up in the methane-containing stream. The resulting residue stream is enriched in methane as well as oxygen and has an EMC value enabling it to be either flared or combusted by mixing with ordinary air.

  15. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed in the U.S. The Hg associated with petroleum and natural gas production and processing enters the environment primarily via solid waste streams (drilli...

  16. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2011-09-01

    This report is a summary of analyses performed by the NGNP project to determine whether it is technically and economically feasible to integrate high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) technology into industrial processes. To avoid an overly optimistic environmental and economic baseline for comparing nuclear integrated and conventional processes, a conservative approach was used for the assumptions and calculations.

  17. World`s gas-processing expands; Canada, U.S. lead remains steady

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-06-08

    Worldwide gas-processing capacity increased in 1997, led by expansions in North America, Latin America, and the Middle East. Canada and the US continued to dominate the rest of the world in capacity, but those countries` combined share of world capacities and production was kept steady in 1997 by expansions elsewhere. The paper discusses prices of natural gas in the US, Canadian plans, North American activity, world activity, and sulfur recovery capacity.

  18. Oxidation Processes in Blowing Steel With Inert Gas into the Ladle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Valuev, D. V.; Trifonov, V. A.; Valueva, A. V.; Serikbol, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the possible development of oxidative processes in a metal when treating the melt in the ladle under intensive stirring with an inert gas. The industrial data have been received, confirming the possibility of reducing the concentration of silicon and aluminum in the metal, as well as changing the slag chemical composition with the bath blowing with the inert gas through the top submerged lance.

  19. EQUATIONS FOR GAS RELEASING PROCESS FROM PRESSURIZED VESSELS IN ODH EVALUATION.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.X.; WANG,L.

    2001-07-16

    IN THE EVALUATION OF ODH, THE CALCULATION OF THE SPILL RATE FROM THE PRESSURIZED VESSEL IS THE CENTRAL TASK. THE ACCURACY OF THE ENGINEERING ESTIMATION BECOMES ONE OF THE SAFETY DESIGN ISSUES. THIS PAPER SUMMARIZES THE EQUATIONS FOR THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION CALCULATION IN DIFFERENT CASES, AND DISCUSSES THE EQUATIONS FOR THE GAS RELEASE PROCESS CALCULATION BOTH FOR THE HIGH-PRESSURE GAS TANK AND THE LOW-TEMPERATURE LIQUID CONTAINER.

  20. Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The report describes a dual alkali (or double alkali) flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from the flue gas by a soluble sodium-based scrubbing liquor. The collected SO2 is precipitated as calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), or a mixed crystal of both salts, and is purged from the system.

  1. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing Onshore natural gas...

  2. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of applications. (a) LNG terminal facilities and related jurisdictional natural gas facilities. A...

  3. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  4. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405 Section 60.5405 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5405 What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405 Section 60.5405 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5405 What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  7. Processing and utilization of wet flue gas desulfurization material

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.; Hassett, D.J. |

    1997-05-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) became fully operational in 1981. The two 550-MW units at CCS burn North Dakota lignite. The resulting by-products are fly ash, bottom ash, and wet FGD material. Although disposal of the coal combustion by-products (CCBs) was included in the original site plant at CCS, even early on, consideration was given to utilization of the fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete and as a partial sorbent replacement for the wet scrubbing system. CCS fly ash has been successfully marketed into North Dakota, Minnesota, and the surrounding region as a construction material that is environmentally benign, highly consistent, and an excellent performer in numerous construction applications. Attempts to use CCS fly ash as part of the scrubbing medium in the wet scrubbing system at the site were not as successful as first hoped, primarily due to the abrasive nature of the fly ash. Currently, CCS scrubbers use lime as the scrubbing medium for SO{sub 2} removal. CCS`s efforts to market its fly ash have been successful, so with increased awareness of the economic advantages of by-product utilization, the favorable US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory determination that CCBs are not hazardous, and the improved understanding of potential local and regional markets, Cooperative Power has taken additional steps to investigate the processing and utilization of its wet FGD material. These steps are discussed.

  8. Sweet and sour cherry phenolics and their protective effects on neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ok; Heo, Ho Jin; Kim, Young Jun; Yang, Hyun Seuk; Lee, Chang Y

    2005-12-28

    The identification of phenolics from various cultivars of fresh sweet and sour cherries and their protective effects on neuronal cells were comparatively evaluated in this study. Phenolics in cherries of four sweet and four sour cultivars were extracted and analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and their antineurodegenerative activities. Total phenolics in sweet and sour cherries per 100 g ranged from 92.1 to 146.8 and from 146.1 to 312.4 mg gallic acid equivalents, respectively. Total anthocyanins of sweet and sour cherries ranged from 30.2 to 76.6 and from 49.1 to 109.2 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that anthocyanins such as cyanidin and peonidin derivatives were prevalent phenolics. Hydroxycinnamic acids consisted of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid derivatives. Glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were also found. Generally, sour cherries had higher concentrations of total phenolics than sweet cherries, due to a higher concentration of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids. A positive linear correlation (r2 = 0.985) was revealed between the total anthocyanins measured by summation of individual peaks from HPLC analysis and the total anthocyanins measured by the pH differential method, indicating that there was in a close agreement with two quantifying methods for measuring anthocyanin contents. Cherry phenolics protected neuronal cells (PC 12) from cell-damaging oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner mainly due to anthocyanins. Overall results showed that cherries are rich in phenolics, especially in anthocyanins, with a strong antineurodegenerative activity and that they can serve as a good source of biofunctional phytochemicals in our diet.

  9. 30 CFR 1206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 1206.181 Section 1206.181 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.181 How do I establish processing costs for...

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  11. Finite Element Modeling of Adsorption Processes for Gas Separation and Purification

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Paul H.; Williams, Richard M.; Hayes, James C.

    2009-09-22

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in the design and fabrication of automated radioxenon collection systems for nuclear explosion monitoring. In developing new systems there is an ever present need to reduce size, power consumption and complexity. Most of these systems have used adsorption based techniques for gas collection and/or concentration and purification. These processes include pressure swing adsorption, vacuum swing adsorption, temperature swing adsorption, gas chromatography and hybrid processes that combine elements of these techniques. To better understand these processes, and help with the development of improved hardware, a finite element software package (COMSOL Multiphysics) has been used to develop complex models of these adsorption based operations. The partial differential equations used include a mass balance for each gas species and adsorbed species along with a convection conduction energy balance equation. These equations in conjunction with multicomponent temperature dependent isotherm models are capable of simulating separation processes ranging from complex multibed PSA processes, and multicomponent temperature programmed gas chromatography, to simple two component temperature swing adsorption. These numerical simulations have been a valuable tool for assessing the capability of proposed processes and optimizing hardware and process parameters.

  12. 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant gas systems. Design baseline package, Volume 8. [DEA process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-27

    Volume 8 contains the design of the fuel gas desulfurization process (DEA) and of the liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) section of the plant. The removal of acid gases is accomplished by intimately contacting the feed stream with the descending DEA solution. A partially regenerated semi-lean DEA solution is fed to an intermediate tray of the column for the bulk removal of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ while a fully regenerated lean DEA solution is fed at the top tray for the removal of the remaining acid gases in the top section of the absorber. The lean solution stream temperature is maintained at 10 to 15/sup 0/F above the absorber feed gas temperature to prevent hydrocarbon condensation in the column with consequent foaming and flooding of the column. The overhead gas (Stream 6305) leaving the H.P. DEA absorber is cooled and passed through the Sweet Gas K.O. Drum (bottom section of V-15305) to separate any condensate. The gas leaving the drum is further contacted with a 3 weight percent caustic solution in the bottom section of the Treated Gas Wash Column (T-15303) for removal of residual acid gases in order to comply with the sweet gas specifications of 1 ppMv H/sub 2/S and 10 ppMv CO/sub 2/. The LPG Recovery Unit is designed to process 15.95 MMSCFD of low pressure fuel reject gas from the HPU to recover approximately 60 percent of the propane and most of the heavier hydrocarbons. The recovered hydrocarbons are produced as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) product. Specifications for the LPG product are: (1) Ethane/Propane (Vol/Vol) 0.02; and (2) LPG product should meet GPA Publication 2140-77 Commercial B-P mixture specifications.

  13. Investigation of Integrated Subsurface Processing of Landfill Gas and Carbon Sequestration, Johnson County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    K. David Newell; Timothy R. Carr

    2007-03-31

    The Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, KS is operated by Deffenbaugh Industries and serves much of metropolitan Kansas City. Refuse, which is dumped in large plastic-underlined trash cells covering several acres, is covered over with shale shortly after burial. The landfill waste, once it fills the cell, is then drilled by Kansas City LFG, so that the gas generated by anaerobic decomposition of the refuse can be harvested. Production of raw landfill gas from the Johnson County landfill comes from 150 wells. Daily production is approximately 2.2 to 2.5 mmcf, of which approximately 50% is methane and 50% is carbon dioxide and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds). Heating value is approximately 550 BTU/scf. A upgrading plant, utilizing an amine process, rejects the carbon dioxide and NMVOCs, and upgrades the gas to pipeline quality (i.e., nominally a heating value >950 BTU/scf). The gas is sold to a pipeline adjacent to the landfill. With coal-bearing strata underlying the landfill, and carbon dioxide a major effluent gas derived from the upgrading process, the Johnson County Landfill is potentially an ideal setting to study the feasibility of injecting the effluent gas in the coals for both enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon sequestration. To these ends, coals below the landfill were cored and then were analyzed for their thickness and sorbed gas content, which ranged up to 79 scf/ton. Assuming 1 1/2 square miles of land (960 acres) at the Johnson County Landfill can be utilized for coalbed and shale gas recovery, the total amount of in-place gas calculates to 946,200 mcf, or 946.2 mmcf, or 0.95 bcf (i.e., 985.6 mcf/acre X 960 acres). Assuming that carbon dioxide can be imbibed by the coals and shales on a 2:1 ratio compared to the gas that was originally present, then 1682 to 1720 days (4.6 to 4.7 years) of landfill carbon dioxide production can be sequestered by the coals and shales immediately under the landfill. Three coal--the Bevier

  14. Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

    2006-09-30

    This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated three possible

  15. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  16. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2002-03-31

    This report outlines progress in the second quarter of the second year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. A three-dimensional streamline simulator, developed at Stanford University, has been modified in order to use analytical one-dimensional dispersion-free solutions to multicomponent gas injection processes. The use of analytical one-dimensional solutions in combination with streamline simulation is demonstrated to speedup compositional simulations of miscible gas injection processes by orders of magnitude compared to a conventional finite difference simulator. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional examples are reported to demonstrate the potential of this technology. Finally, the assumptions of the approach and possible extensions to include the effects of gravity are discussed.

  17. Aqueous process for recovering sulfur from hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Arunabha

    2015-05-05

    A process for recovering sulfur from a hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas utilizes an aqueous reaction medium, a temperature of about 110-150.degree. C., and a high enough pressure to maintain the aqueous reaction medium in a liquid state. The process reduces material and equipment costs and addresses the environmental disadvantages associated with known processes that rely on high boiling point organic solvents.

  18. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2004-05-01

    This final technical report describes and summarizes results of a research effort to investigate physical mechanisms that control the performance of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs and to represent those physical effects in an efficient way in simulations of gas injection processes. The research effort included four main lines of research: (1) Efficient compositional streamline methods for 3D flow; (2) Analytical methods for one-dimensional displacements; (3) Physics of multiphase flow; and (4) Limitations of streamline methods. In the first area, results are reported that show how the streamline simulation approach can be applied to simulation of gas injection processes that include significant effects of transfer of components between phases. In the second area, the one-dimensional theory of multicomponent gas injection processes is extended to include the effects of volume change as components change phase. In addition an automatic algorithm for solving such problems is described. In the third area, results on an extensive experimental investigation of three-phase flow are reported. The experimental results demonstrate the impact on displacement performance of the low interfacial tensions between the gas and oil phases that can arise in multicontact miscible or near-miscible displacement processes. In the fourth area, the limitations of the streamline approach were explored. Results of an experimental investigation of the scaling of the interplay of viscous, capillary, and gravity forces are described. In addition results of a computational investigation of the limitations of the streamline approach are reported. The results presented in this report establish that it is possible to use the compositional streamline approach in many reservoir settings to predict performance of gas injection processes. When that approach can be used, it requires substantially less (often orders of magnitude) computation time than conventional finite difference

  19. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  20. [Microbial Processes and Genesis of Methane Gas Jets in the Coastal Areas of the Crimea Peninsula].

    PubMed

    Malakhova, T V; Kanapatskii, T A; Egorov, V N; Malakhova, L V; Artemov, Yu G; Evtushenko, D B; Gulin, S B; Pimenov, N V

    2015-01-01

    Hydroasoustic techniques were used for detection and mapping of gas jet areas in the coastal regions of the Crimean peninsula. Gas seep areas in the bays Laspi, Khersones, and Kazach'ya were chosen for detailed microbiological investigation. The first type of gas jets, observed in the Laspi Bay, was probably associated with discarge of deep thermogenic methane along the faults. Methane isotopic composition was char- acterized by Δ13C of -35.3 degrees. While elevated rates of aerobic methane oxidation were revealed in the sandy sediments adjacent to the methane release site, no evidence of bacterial mats was found. The second type of gas emission, observed in the Khersones Bay, was accompanied by formation of bacterial biofilms of the "Thiodendron" microbial community type, predominated by filamentous, spirochete-like organisms, in the areas of gas seepage. The isotopic composition of methane was there considerably lower (-60.4 degrees), indicating a considerable contribution of modern microbial methane to the gas bubbles discharged in this bay. Activity of the third type of gas emission, the seeps of the Kazach'ya Bay, probably depended directly on modern microbial processes of organic matter degradation in the upper sediment layers. The rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were 260 and 34 μmol dm(-3) day(-1), respectively. Our results indicate different mechanisms responsible for formation of methane jets in the Laspi Bay and in the coastal areas of the Heracles Peninsula, where the bays Kazach'ya and Khersones are located.

  1. Qualitative gas temperature distribution in positive DC glow corona using spectral image processing in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Inada, Yoichi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Izawa, Yasuji; Nishijima, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method of determining a qualitative two-dimensional image of the gas temperature in stationary atmospheric nonthermal plasma by spectral image processing was presented. In the experiment, a steady-state glow corona discharge was generated by applying a positive DC voltage to a rod-plane electrode in synthetic air. The changes in the gas temperature distribution due to the amplitude of applied voltage and the ambient gas pressure were investigated. Spectral images of a positive DC glow corona were taken using a gated ICCD camera with ultranarrow band-pass filters, corresponding to the head and tail of a N2 second positive system band (0-2). The qualitative gas temperature was obtained from the emission intensity ratio between the head and tail of the N2 second positive system band (0-2). From the results, we confirmed that the gas temperature and its distribution of a positive DC glow corona increased with increasing applied voltage. In particular, just before the sparkover voltage, a distinctly high temperature region was formed in the positive DC glow at the tip of the rod electrode. In addition, the gas temperature decreased and its distribution spread diffusely with decreasing ambient gas pressure.

  2. [Recovery of CO from an ammonia plant tail gas with pressure swing adsorption process].

    PubMed

    Yi, Hong-hong; Ning, Ping; Hao, Ji-ming; Yang, Hao

    2004-09-01

    Ammonia plant tail gas is an important CO source for C1 chemistry if an efficient separation/purification technology is available. Presented is pressure swing adsorption using a home made catalyst PU1 for recovery of CO from ammonia plant tail gas. A performance comparison of PU1 with a commercial zeolite was also presented. The pilot plant experiments were carried out in an intermission one-bed PSA unit with ammonia plant tail gas and a feed flow rate of 0.2-0.8 m3/h. The purity and recovery of CO was studied under various operating conditions. The operating conditions for the process were optimized and an optimum cyclic sequence of operation steps was proposed. A good performance of PU1 in the process was experimentally demonstrated. Product gas with a CO purity over 98% could be produced at a CO recovery of 75% for a feed gas CO concentration of 30% and gas pressure of 0.3 MPa.

  3. The Texaco coal gasification process for manufacture of medium BTU gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinger, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the Texaco coal gasification process is discussed with particular emphasis on its close relationship to the fully commercialized Texaco synthesis gas generation process for residual oil gasification. The end uses of the product gas are covered, with special attention to electric power generation via combined cycle technology. Control of SO2, NOx, and particulate emissions in the power generating mode is also covered. The application of this technology in a proposed Texaco-Southern California Edison demonstration project is mentioned. Investment information released for a 1000-megawatt advanced combined cycle gasification facility, is also reviewed.

  4. Experiences of the Application of Hot Gas Filtration to Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, B.T.

    2002-09-18

    Hot Gas Filtration (HGF) is defined as the dry scrubbing of gaseous process effluent above 250 degrees. The potential applications for this technology can be found in Atmospheric Pollution Control (APC) and In-Line Equipment Protection (ILETP). In recent years novel rigid refractory filter media have emerged with several advantages over conventional fabric bag filters and other particulate arrestment systems e.g. electrostatic precipitators. A study has been made of the effect of a wide range of operational conditions, including gas volume and velocity, temperature, particle size distribution, and organic/moisture content, in real process situations on filter elements performance and life expectancy.

  5. Process for hydrogen isotope concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, William H.

    1976-09-21

    A process for hydrogen isotope exchange and concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas, wherein liquid water and hydrogen gas are contacted, in an exchange section, with one another and with at least one catalyst body comprising at least one metal selected from Group VIII of the Periodic Table and preferably a support therefor, the catalyst body has a liquid-water-repellent, gas permeable polymer or organic resin coating, preferably a fluorinated olefin polymer or silicone coating, so that the isotope concentration takes place by two simultaneously occurring steps, namely, ##EQU1## WHILE THE HYDROGEN GAS FED TO THE EXCHANGE SECTION IS DERIVED IN A REACTOR VESSEL FROM LIQUID WATER THAT HAS PASSED THROUGH THE EXCHANGE SECTION.

  6. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J.

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  7. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. However, a small test system was installed at a Twin Bottoms Energy well in Kentucky. This unit operated successfully for six months, and demonstrated the technology's reliability on a small scale. MTR then located an alternative test site with much larger gas flow rates and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, California, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; both units will be delivered by the end of 2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

  8. CNG acid gas removal process. Technical progress report No. 5, November 1, 1981-January 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R.J.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.; Cook, W.J.; Liu, Y.C.; Petrik, M.

    1982-11-01

    Three tasks were active during the fifth quarter of the CNG Acid Gas Removal project: Subtask 1.3 design and construction of a bench-scale triple-point crystallizer; Subtask 2.4 slurry pumping; and Task 4 fate of trace components. Within Subtask 1.3, safety considerations for the present CNG triple-point crystallizer system are summarized. These include: (1) building safety features, (2) crystallizer safety features, and (3) personnel safety features. Within Subtask 2.4, the minimum net positive suction head required for a MicroPump gear pump to successfully pump slurries of solid carbon dioxide in an organic liquid carrier solvent has been determined. Task 4, determination of the fate of trace contaminants in the CNG acid gas removal process, is complete. Trace contaminants anticipated in the crude gas entering acid gas removal are removed to acceptably low levels by the CNG process and rejected with the acid gases. With the possible exception of benzene, no recycle loops or accumulation of contaminants occur in the CNG process. Combinations of feed gas pressure and benzene contamination which may cause deposition of solid benzene are defined. 21 references, 10 figures, 6 tables.

  9. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P.

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  10. 30 CFR 1206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 1206.181 Section 1206.181 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.181 How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting...

  11. Three-Dimensional Model for Electrospinning Processes in Controlled Gas Counterflow

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of a controlled gas flow on the dynamics of electrified jets in the electrospinning process. The main idea is to model the air drag effects of the gas flow by using a nonlinear Langevin-like approach. The model is employed to investigate the dynamics of electrified polymer jets at different conditions of air drag force, showing that a controlled gas counterflow can lead to a decrease of the average diameter of electrospun fibers, and potentially to an improvement of the quality of electrospun products. We probe the influence of air drag effects on the bending instabilities of the jet and on its angular fluctuations during the process. The insights provided by this study might prove useful for the design of future electrospinning experiments and polymer nanofiber materials. PMID:26859532

  12. Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.

  13. Gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD) process for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Dandina N

    2012-07-10

    A rapid and inexpensive process for increasing the amount of hydrocarbons (e.g., oil) produced and the rate of production from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by displacing oil downwards within the oil reservoir and into an oil recovery apparatus is disclosed. The process is referred to as "gas-assisted gravity drainage" and comprises the steps of placing one or more horizontal producer wells near the bottom of a payzone (i.e., rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities) of a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir and injecting a fluid displacer (e.g., CO.sub.2) through one or more vertical wells or horizontal wells. Pre-existing vertical wells may be used to inject the fluid displacer into the reservoir. As the fluid displacer is injected into the top portion of the reservoir, it forms a gas zone, which displaces oil and water downward towards the horizontal producer well(s).

  14. Three-Dimensional Model for Electrospinning Processes in Controlled Gas Counterflow.

    PubMed

    Lauricella, Marco; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2016-07-14

    We study the effects of a controlled gas flow on the dynamics of electrified jets in the electrospinning process. The main idea is to model the air drag effects of the gas flow by using a nonlinear Langevin-like approach. The model is employed to investigate the dynamics of electrified polymer jets at different conditions of air drag force, showing that a controlled gas counterflow can lead to a decrease of the average diameter of electrospun fibers, and potentially to an improvement of the quality of electrospun products. We probe the influence of air drag effects on the bending instabilities of the jet and on its angular fluctuations during the process. The insights provided by this study might prove useful for the design of future electrospinning experiments and polymer nanofiber materials.

  15. Precise and high-speed control of partial pressures of multiple gas species in plasma process chamber using pulse-controlled gas injection

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Sadaharu; Goto, Tetsuya; Nagase, Masaaki; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2009-05-15

    Multiprocesses in a single plasma process chamber with high throughput require precise, sequential, high-speed alteration of partial pressures of multiple gas species. A conventional gas-distribution system cannot realize this because the system seriously overshoots gas pressure immediately following valve operation. Furthermore, chamber volume and conductance of gas piping between the system and chamber should both be considered because they delay the stabilizing time of gas pressure. Therefore, the authors proposed a new gas-distribution system without overshoot by controlling gas flow rate based on pressure measurement, as well as a method of pulse-controlled gas injection immediately following valve operation. Time variation of measured partial pressure agrees well with a calculation based on an equivalent-circuit model that represents the chamber and gas piping between the system and chamber. Using pulse-controlled gas injection, the stabilizing time can be reduced drastically to 0.6 s for HBr added to pure Ar plasma, and 0.7 s for O{sub 2} added to Ar/HBr plasma; without the pulse control, the stabilizing times are 3 and 7 s, respectively. In the O{sub 2} addition case, rapid stabilization can be achieved during the period of line/space pattern etching of poly-Si on a thin SiO{sub 2} film. This occurs without anomalous etching of the underlying SiO{sub 2} film or the Si substrate near the sidewall, thus obtaining a wide process margin with high throughput.

  16. Chemical absorption process for degradation of VOC gas using heterogeneous gas-liquid photocatalytic oxidation: toluene degradation by photo-Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Tokumura, Masahiro; Nakajima, Rina; Znad, Hussein Tawfeek; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2008-10-01

    A novel process for degradation of toluene in the gas-phase using heterogeneous gas-liquid photocatalytic oxidation has been developed. The degradation of toluene gas by photo-Fenton reaction in the liquid-phase has experimentally examined. The photo-Fenton reaction in the liquid-phase could improve the overall toluene absorption rate by increasing the driving force for mass transfer and as a result enhance the removal of toluene in the exhaust gas. The toluene concentrations in the inlet gas were varied in the range from 0.0968 to 8.69 g m(-3) with initial hydrogen peroxide concentration of 400 mg l(-1) and Fe dose of 5.0 mg l(-1). It was found that toluene in the inlet gas was almost completely dissolved into water and degraded in the liquid-phase for the inlet toluene gas concentration of less than 0.42 g m(-3). The dynamic process of toluene gas degradation by the photo-Fenton reaction providing information for reaction kinetics and mass transfer rate was examined. Toluene removal kinetic analysis indicated that photo-Fenton degradation was significantly affected by H(2)O(2) concentration. The experimental results were satisfactorily described by the predictions simulated using the simplified tanks-in-series model combined with toluene removal kinetic analysis. The present results showed that the proposed chemical absorption process using the photo-Fenton heterogeneous gas-liquid photocatalytic oxidation is very effective for degradation of volatile organic gases.

  17. Direct Chlorination Process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5% hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90% excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  18. METC`s pilot-scale hot-gas desulfurization Process Development Unit

    SciTech Connect

    McMillian, M.H.; Bissett, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    801The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has designed and is currently constructing an on-site, hot gas desulfurization (HGD) Process Development Unit (PDU). The PDU is designed to use regenerable solid metal oxide sorbents that absorb hydrogen sulfide from high-temperature, high-pressure simulated coal-gasification fuel gas that is generated by a METC-designed syngas generator. The simulated coal gas is a mixture of partially combusted natural gas, water, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. PDU process conditions will be representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling. The PDU supports the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) mission at METC by providing a test bed for development of IGCC cleanup systems that offer low capital cost, operating costs, and costs of electricity. METC intends to develop additional industrial involvement opportunities as the project progresses towards operations. Objectives The primary objectives of the PDU are to: (1) fill the gap between small-scale testing and large-scale demonstration projects by providing a cost effective test site for transport and fluid-bed desulfurization reactor and sorbent development, (2) demonstrate sorbent suitability over a wide range of parameters and (3) generate significant information on process control for transport and fluidized bed based desulfurization. PDU data is expected to be used to optimize process performance by expanding the experience for larger-scale demonstration projects, such as Sierra Pacific Power Company`s Clean Coal Technology project.

  19. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid Removal Process

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient NGL recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale testing - so that it can be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization.

  20. Worldwide gas processing: Capacities as of January 1, 1997, and average production

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-02

    Tables are presented on the capacity for and average production of ethane, propane, isobutane, butane, liquid petroleum gases, natural gas liquids, and natural gasoline. Data are presented by country and by company within each country, state, or province. Another table presents data on sulfur production by company within each country, state, or province. Design capacity, production, desulfurization process, and sulfur source are listed.

  1. Process for removal of hydrogen halides or halogens from incinerator gas

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Hann S.; Sather, Norman F.

    1988-01-01

    A process for reducing the amount of halogens and halogen acids in high temperature combustion gases and through their removal, the formation of halogenated organics at lower temperatures, with the reduction being carried out electrochemically by contacting the combustion gas with the negative electrode of an electrochemical cell and with the halogen and/or halogen acid being recovered at the positive electrode.

  2. Microemulsion impregnated catalyst composite and use thereof in a synthesis gas conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Abrevaya, Hayim; Targos, William M.

    1987-01-01

    A catalyst composition for synthesis gas conversion comprising a ruthenium metal component deposited on a support carrier wherein the average metal particle size is less than about 100 A. The method of manufacture of the composition via a reverse micelle impregnation technique and the use of the composition in a Fischer-Tropsch conversion process is also disclosed.

  3. A novel solvent extraction process with bottom gas injection for liquid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, H.Y.; Doungdeethaveeratana, D.

    1996-12-31

    A novel solvent extraction process in which the emulsion is generated by bottom gas injection rather than mechanical stirring has been developed. This process has a number of advantages over the mixer-settler unit or the spray column in terms of simple equipment configuration and the ease of cleaning and process control while providing a large interfacial area for mass transfer. The equipment consists of a horizontal cylindrical vessel in which the two immiscible liquids flow countercurrently. High-strength gas jets are injected from the bottom at certain intervals along the length of the vessel. The gas jet creates a plume zone consisting of an emulsion of the two liquids which contains a large interfacial area for rapid mass transfer. The two liquids then disengage and flow in the opposite directions before entering another plume zone. Thus, the process combines the simplicity of a cylindrical vessel, having no moving parts, with the contacting efficiency of a mixer-settler. The gas can be recycled in a closed loop, thus eliminating mist and other emission problems. These advantages would be especially significant for treating large-volume/low-value liquid streams which contain hazardous substances and/or suspended solid particulates. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Microemulsion impregnated catalyst composite and use thereof in a synthesis gas conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Abrevaya, H.; Targos, W.M.

    1987-12-22

    A catalyst composition is described for synthesis gas conversion comprising a ruthenium metal component deposited on a support carrier wherein the average metal particle size is less than about 100 A. The method of manufacture of the composition via a reverse micelle impregnation technique and the use of the composition in a Fischer-Tropsch conversion process is also disclosed.

  5. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ELI ECO Logic International, Inc.'s Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) is specifically designed for use with Eco Logic's Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Process. The technology uses an externally heated bath of molten tin in a hydrogen atmosphere to desorb hazardous organic compounds fro...

  6. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  7. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: a consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-11-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions.

  8. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  9. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  10. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  11. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  12. Computational Modeling of the Working Process in the Combustion Chamber for Casing-Head Gas Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachev, N. L.; Betinskaya, O. A.; Bul‧bovich, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper considers problems of computational modeling of the working process in multizone combustion chambers (CC) forming a part of gas-turbine power plants for recovering casing-head and other process gases. To investigate the turbulent flow and combustion, we use the LES method with a Smagorinskii subnet model. Various schemes of feeding components into combustion and dilution zones are considered. A comparison is made between the calculated and experimental data on the temperature in the combustion zone.

  13. Kinetic investigation of microbial souring in porous media using microbial consortia from oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Chen, C I; Reinsel, M A; Mueller, R F

    1994-07-01

    Microbial souring (H2S production) in porous media was investigated in an anaerobic upflow porous media reactor at 60 degrees C using microbial consortia obtained from oil reservoirs. Multiple carbon sources (formate, acetate, propionate, iso- and n-butyrates) found in reservoir waters as well as sulfate as the electron acceptor was used. Kinetics and rates of souring in the reactor system were analyzed. Higher volumetric substrate consumption rates (organic acids and sulfate) and a higher volumetric H(2)S production rate were found at the from part of the reactor column after H(2)S production had stabilized. Concentration gradients for the substrates (organic acids and sulfate) and H(2)S were generated along the column. Biomass accumulation throughout the entire column was observed. The average specific sulfate reduction rate (H(2)S production rate) in the present reactor after H(2)S production had stabilized was calculated to be 11062 +/-2.22 mg sulfate-S/day g biomass.

  14. Growth requirements of san francisco sour dough yeasts and bakers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Henry, N

    1976-03-01

    The growth requirements of several yeasts isolated from San Francisco sour dough mother sponges were compared with those of bakers' yeast. The sour dough yeasts studied were one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum, one strain of S. inusitatus, and four strains of S. exiguus. S. inusitatus was the only yeast found to have an amino acid requirement, namely, methionine. All of the yeasts had an absolute requirement for pantothenic acid and a partial requirement for biotin. Inositol was stimulatory to all except bakers' yeast. All strains of S. exiguus required niacin and thiamine. Interestingly, S. inusitatus, the only yeast that required methionine, also needed folic acid. For optimal growth of S. exiguus in a molasses medium, supplementation with thiamine was required.

  15. Cloning, sequencing and application of the LEU2 gene from the sour dough yeast Candida milleri.

    PubMed

    Turakainen, Hilkka; Korhola, Matti

    2005-07-30

    We have cloned by complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sequenced a LEU2 gene from the sour dough yeast Candida milleri CBS 8195 and studied its chromosomal location. The LEU2 coding sequence was 1092 nt long encoding a putative beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase protein of 363 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence in the coding region had 71.6% identity to S. cerevisiae LEU2 sequence. On the protein level, the identity of C. milleri Leu2p to S. cerevisiae Leu2p was 84.1%. The CmLEU2 DNA probe hybridized to one to three chromosomal bands and two or three BamHI restriction fragments in C. milleri but did not give any signal to chromosomes or restriction fragments of C. albicans, S. cerevisiae, S. exiguus or Torulaspora delbrueckii. Using CmLEU2 probe for DNA hybridization makes it easy to quickly identify C. milleri among other sour dough yeasts.

  16. Degradation process of grease due to SF/sub 6/ gas dissociation products

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Koyama, A.; Tomimuro, S.; Yoshiba, H.

    1982-08-01

    It is known that some insulating materials are degraded due to dissociation products of SF/sub 6/ gas. Many studies related to the degradation of insulating materials have been accomplished. But no studies related to sealing materials, for instance (lubricating) grease and rubber have been made. This paper presents the degradation process of grease as follows. Properties of Lithium grease easily change in SF/sub 6/ gas including dissociation products owing to the degradation of Lithium soap used as thickner of grease. However, in the case of Bentonite grease and Urea grease, any changes of properties are not observed.

  17. Electricity generation from synthesis gas by microbial processes: CO fermentation and microbial fuel cell technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehee; Chang, In Seop

    2009-10-01

    A microbiological process was established to harvest electricity from the carbon monoxide (CO). A CO fermenter was enriched with CO as the sole carbon source. The DGGE/DNA sequencing results showed that Acetobacterium spp. were enriched from the anaerobic digester fluid. After the fermenter was operated under continuous mode, the products were then continuously fed to the microbial fuel cell (MFC) to generate electricity. Even though the conversion yield was quite low, this study proved that synthesis gas (syn-gas) can be converted to electricity with the aid of microbes that do not possess the drawbacks of metal catalysts of conventional methods.

  18. Effect of variables in inert gas condensation processing on nanoparticle trajectory simulated by finite volume method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Min; Juhng, Woo-Nam; Choi, Bo-Young

    2006-11-01

    The finite volume method was applied to the determination of the three-dimensional convection current during inert gas condensation (IGC) processing by using the commercially available software, "Fluent". The lower velocity of the convection current at higher evaporation temperature resulted from the lower value of the coefficient of thermal expansion. The velocity of the convection current increased with increasing chamber pressure, because the driving force of the buoyancy was directly proportional to the gas density. 13% and 17.3% of the particles were trapped during the first period of circulation in the case of the single and double heaters, respectively.

  19. Process for forming integral edge seals in porous gas distribution plates utilizing a vibratory means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Haim (Inventor); Pudick, Sheldon (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A process for forming an integral edge seal in a gas distribution plate for use in a fuel cell. A seal layer is formed along an edge of a porous gas distribution plate by impregnating the pores in the layer with a material adapted to provide a seal which is operative dry or when wetted by an electrolyte of a fuel cell. Vibratory energy is supplied to the sealing material during the step of impregnating the pores to provide a more uniform seal throughout the cross section of the plate.

  20. Sodium-limestone double alkali flue gas desulfurization process with improved limestone utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Biolchini, R.J.; Boward, W.L. Jr.; Wang, K.H.

    1987-08-18

    This patent describes a sodium-limestone double alkali process for the continuous desulfurization of flue gas, having the steps of absorbing sulfur dioxide from an SO/sub 2/-containing gas stream in an absorber with an aqueous solution of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite, diverting at least a portion of the absorber effluent solution for regeneration with limestone, introducing limestone into the diverted absorber effluent solution to convert bisulfite to sulfite, separating by-product solids from the limestone-treated solution, and returning regenerated solution to the absorber, the improvement for increasing the utilization of the limestone used during the regeneration operation.

  1. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Blando, Federica; Gerardi, Carmela; Nicoletti, Isabella

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW).

  2. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Blando, Federica

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW). PMID:15577186

  3. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., < 50 m from potential on-site WHR applications) and minimal impact criteria on the performance and safety of existing installations, for potential waste heat recovery. The total amount of waste heat meeting these criteria were estimated at 256 MW and 289 MW at ASAB0 and ASAB1 plants, respectively, both of which are substantial. Of the 289 MW waste generated at ASAB1, approximately 173 MW are recovered by waste heat

  4. Characterization of thermophilic consortia from two souring oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.F.; Nielsen P.H.

    1996-09-01

    Contamination of crude oil and fuel gas with hydrogen sulfide decreases the value of the product and increases refining costs. Injection of seawater into oil field reservoirs for secondary oil recovery is a common practice. However, seawater contains sulfate and other substances essential for bacterial growth, eventually growth requirements of sulfate-reducing bacteria; are met, resulting in the production of hydrogen sulfide. This paper presents results on substrate characterization for microbial consortia from two oil field reservoirs at a temperature range of 35 to 75 C. The competition of sulfate-reducing bacteria and other groups of microorganisms is discussed. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Novel cellulose derivative, process for preparing the same and sulfur dioxide gas permselective membrane comprising the same

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, K.; Shiomi, T.; Tezuka, Y.

    1987-09-15

    This patent relates to a novel cellulose derivative and a sulfur dioxide gas permselective membrane comprising the same, and particularly to hydrocarbylsulfinylethyl cellulose, a process for preparing the same and the sulfur dioxide gas permselective membrane comprising the same. An object of the present invention is to provide hydrocarbylsulfinylethyl cellulose which is a novel cellulose derivative and useful as a material for the sulfur dioxide gas permselective membrane and a process for preparing the same. Another object of the present invention is to supply a novel sulfur dioxide gas permselective membrane having an excellent sulfur dioxide gas permselectivity. The present invention provides hydrocarbylsulfinylethyl cellulose. The novel hydrocarbylsulfinylethyl cellulose of the present invention indicates markedly high sulfur dioxide gas permselectivity compared with the conventional cellulose derivatives, for example, cellulose acetate, ethyl cellulose, etc. Accordingly, the sulfur dioxide gas permselective membrane of the present invention can be utilized for separation, purification of sulfur dioxide gas from a gas mixture such as air or for concentration of sulfur dioxide gas in a gas mixture, and is highly practical in industrial use. More specifically, the sulfur dioxide gas permselective membrane is useful for, for example, removal of harmful sulfur dioxide gas from discharged gases from the viewpoint of environmental protection and purification of starting gases for synthesis, etc. from the viewpoint of industrial production. Further, the hydrocarbylsulfinylethyl cellulose of the present invention is useful for a thickening agent, binder, protective colloidal agent, etc.

  6. Applications of gas chemistry in evaluating physical processes in the Southern Negros (Palinpinon) geothermal field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amore, F.; Nuti, S.; Ramos-Candelaria, M.N.; Seastres, J.S. Jr.; Ruaya, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Three major physical processes have occurred in the Palinpinon geothermal system due to exploitation from 1985 to 1991. They were identified using gas compositions and equilibria involving H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} to calculate temperature and vapor fraction in the reservoir. The first process is pressure drawdown in the southern part of the field, producing a local increase in the vapor fraction, with the liquid maintaining a high measured temperature, close to 300 C. The second process is vapor loss from an original liquid phase during its ascent through fractures. Wells affected by this process show high degrees of vapor loss (> 10%) when evaluated at the original high temperature of the liquid (290--300 C). But if vapor loss is modeled to occur at much lower temperatures (220--250 C), more realistic vapor losses (1--3%) are calculated. The last process involves mixing and cooling due to injection fluid returns to wells located in the northeastern part of the field. For some wells the fraction of injected brine in total temperatures can decline from 290 to 300 C to as low as 215--220 C, corresponding to periods when most of the produced fluids are derived from injected brine. Gas geothermometry gives a more reliable temperature estimate than quartz geothermometry for fluids with high fractions of injected brine, as the gas equilibria reflects the local reservoir temperature.

  7. Evaluation of oxygen transfer efficiency under process conditions using the dynamic off-gas method.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, A; Libra, J A; Sahlmann, C; Wiesmann, U; Gnirss, R

    2007-05-01

    The off-gas method can be used to investigate standard oxygen transfer efficiencies under process conditions (alphaSOTE) over the operating life of an aeration system. A method to evaluate alphaSOTE is described in detail by US and German standards. The standards, however, do not describe how to evaluate dynamic changes in aSOTE over a day, which can be useful to uncover problems and unfavourable process conditions. Based on over three years experience gained in off-gas testing in Berlin wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under operating conditions, a method to evaluate and interpret the dynamic changes in oxygen transfer is presented. The application of the dynamic off-gas method brings important additional information, which can be used to increase operational efficiency of the aeration basin and to increase process reliability, with a relatively small increase in effort. This paper shows how to perform dynamic measurements under process conditions. Some results of such measurements under dynamic process conditions, performed in a Berlin WWTP, are discussed.

  8. Flow chemistry: intelligent processing of gas-liquid transformations using a tube-in-tube reactor.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, Martin; O'Brien, Matthew; Ley, Steven V; Polyzos, Anastasios

    2015-02-17

    reactive gas in a given reaction mixture. We have developed a tube-in-tube reactor device consisting of a pair of concentric capillaries in which pressurized gas permeates through an inner Teflon AF-2400 tube and reacts with dissolved substrate within a liquid phase that flows within a second gas impermeable tube. This Account examines our efforts toward the development of a simple, unified methodology for the processing of gaseous reagents in flow by way of development of a tube-in-tube reactor device and applications to key C-C, C-N, and C-O bond forming and hydrogenation reactions. We further describe the application to multistep reactions using solid-supported reagents and extend the technology to processes utilizing multiple gas reagents. A key feature of our work is the development of computer-aided imaging techniques to allow automated in-line monitoring of gas concentration and stoichiometry in real time. We anticipate that this Account will illustrate the convenience and benefits of membrane tube-in-tube reactor technology to improve and concomitantly broaden the scope of gas/liquid/solid reactions in organic synthesis.

  9. Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Phase I. Process evaluation report, conceptual commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    This Process Evaluation Report (PER) contains the results and recommendations of comprehensive analyses and studies which were made to optimize the ICGG Commercial Plant Baseline Process Concept for producing synthetic pipeline gas (SPG) from coal. Design studies to optimize the thermal efficiency and economic attractiveness of the COGAS Process Areas of the plant were conducted along with design studies and trade-off studies of available process subsystems to complement the COGAS Process Areas. The results, recommendations and description of the work accomplished in developing the PER are contained in six separately bound sections. Section 4 describes those trade-off studies which were made to select processes which would best complement the COGAS Process Areas and provide the most efficient and economical Commercial Plant Concept.

  10. Numerical simulation of gas-dynamic, thermal processes and evaluation of the stress-strain state in the modeling compressor of the gas-distributing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmakov, A. F.; Modorskii, V. Ya.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical modeling of gas-dynamic processes occurring in the flow path, thermal analysis and evaluation of the stress-strain state of a three-stage design of the compressor gas pumping unit. Physical and mathematical models of the processes developed. Numerical simulation was carried out in the engineering software ANSYS 13. The problem is solved in a coupled statement, in which the results of the gas-dynamic calculation transferred as boundary conditions for the evaluation of the thermal and stress-strain state of a three-stage design of the compressor gas pumping unit. The basic parameters, which affect the stress-strain state of the housing and changing gaps of labyrinth seals in construction. The method of analysis of the pumped gas flow influence on the strain of construction was developed.

  11. Optimisation of the Fischer-Tropsch process using zeolites for tail gas separation.

    PubMed

    Perez-Carbajo, J; Gómez-Álvarez, P; Bueno-Perez, R; Merkling, P J; Calero, S

    2014-03-28

    This work is aimed at optimizing a Fischer-Tropsch Gas To Liquid (GTL) process by recycling compounds of the expelled gas mixture using zeolites for the separation. To that end, we have performed a computational study on four structures widely used in industry. A range of Si/Al ratios have been explored and the effects of their distribution assessed. The ability of the considered force fields and molecular models to reproduce experimental results has been widely proved in previously reported studies. Since this tail gas is formed by a five-component mixture, namely carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and hydrogen, molecular simulations present clear advantages over experiments. In addition, the viability of the Ideal Adsorption Solution Theory (IAST) has been evaluated to easily handle further separation steps. On the basis of the obtained results, we provide a separation scheme to perform sequentially the separation of CO2, CH4, CO, N2 and H2.

  12. Calcium bisulfite oxidation rate in the wet limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Lancia, A.; Musmarra, D.

    1999-06-01

    In this paper oxidation of calcium bisulfite in aqueous solutions was studied, in connection with the limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization process. Experimental measurements of the oxidation rate were carried out in a laboratory scale stirred reactor with continuous feeding of both gas and liquid phase. A calcium bisulfite clear solution was used as liquid phase, and pure oxygen or mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen were used as gas phase. Experiments were carried out at T = 45 C varying the composition of the liquid phase and the oxygen partial pressure. Manganous sulfate was used as catalyst. The analysis of the experimental results showed that the kinetics of bisulfite oxidation in the presence of MnSO{sub 4} follow a parallel reaction mechanism, in which the overall reaction rate can be calculated as the sum between the uncatalyzed rate (3/2 order in bisulfite ion) and the catalyzed reaction rate (first order in manganous ion).

  13. A membrane process to recover chlorine from chloralkali plant tail gas

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhandwala, K.A.; Segelke, S.; Nguyen, P.; Baker, R.W.; Su, T.T.; Pinnau, I.

    1999-10-01

    Chlorine is manufactured by the electrolysis of brine. The chlorine product is a gas, which is collected, dried, compressed, and cooled to produce a liquid. This paper describes the development and field demonstration of a membrane process to recover chlorine from the liquefaction tail gas of chloralkali plants. The tail gas consists of about 20% chlorine and 50--70% air, with the balance being hydrogen and carbon dioxide. A number of membrane materials can achieve a selectivity of 20 or more for chlorine from nitrogen, but degradation of the membrane materials in the presence of high concentrations of chlorine gas often occurs. However, modified silicone rubber membranes are stable to chlorine gas streams. Silicone rubber composite membranes were prepared and formed into modules of 1--2 m{sup 2} membrane area. The modules were tested in the laboratory and in a field test on a slip stream from a chlorine liquefaction unit. In the laboratory, chlorine/nitrogen membrane selectivities of more than 40 were obtained, but selectivities of 6--10 were measured in the field test. This decrease in selectivity was caused by low gas flow rates through the modules, which resulted in concentration polarization effects. However, the membrane maintained essentially constant fluxes and selectivities in field tests lasting more than 1 month. Calculated plant designs based on a selectivity of 8 are able to recover more than 95% of the chlorine in the tail gas. Typical project payback times based on the value of the recovered chlorine and avoided caustic scrubber chemical use are expected to be 1--2 years.

  14. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  15. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term (< 6 months) and long-term (> 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation.

  16. NO x Reduction in the Iron Ore Sintering Process with Flue Gas Recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Fan, Xiaohui; Gan, Min; Chen, Xuling; Lv, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Flue gas recirculation (FGR) has been implemented for exhaust gas emissions reduction in iron ore sintering. However, the mechanism of NO x reduction through FGR is still unclear. In this paper, the laboratory pot-grate sintering test showed a 30% reduction in gas flow and 15.51% reduction in NO x emissions achieved with a 30% FGR ratio, and the sinter indexes almost matched those of the conventional process. In the sinter zone, NO-CO catalytic reduction occurs in the range of 500-900°C. When the sinter temperature is 700°C, the highest nitrogen reduction ratio (NRR) achieved is 8%; however, the NO x reduction is inhibited as the post-combustion of CO starts when the temperature increases beyond 700°C. NO x in the flue gas is mainly a product of the fuel combustion in the combustion zone, as the nitrogen conversion rate reaches 50-60%, because the N-containing intermediates exist during the fuel combustion. The existence of NO in the FGR gas inhibits the NO x generation from the fuel combustion, and the NO elimination—through the NO-carbon reaction—is significant in the combustion zone. The NRR in the combustion zone reaches a range of 18-20%.

  17. Gas processing developments/purify CO/sub 2/ for use in enhanced recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    The total installed capital cost of a Selexol plant to produce 10.9 million cu ft/day of acid gas with 91-96% CO/sub 2/ and 1.3 million cu ft/day of treated gas with < 2% CO/sub 2/ from 12.2 million std cu ft/day of natural gas containing 70-85% CO/sub 2/ would be $8.5 million, which could be reduced by approx. 10% if the CO/sub 2/ content of the treated gas were increased to approx. 3-5% by vol. An alternative scheme, which would cost < 67% of the Selexol scheme, would involve compression of the raw feed to 300-600 psig, dehydration with a solvent such as triethylene glycol, and cooling to a temperature at which most of the carbon dioxide and heavier hydrocarbons would condense. The removal of water from the CO/sub 2/ to prevent plugging due to freezing or hydrate formation and to reduce pipeline and equipment corrosion may be achieved by processes that use triethylene glycol or ethylene glycol injection. Other recovery schemes for CO/sub 2/ from natural gas and from ammonia and hydrogen plants, are discussed.

  18. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and process economics of the fluid milk process.

    PubMed

    Tomasula, P M; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Bonnaillie, L M

    2013-05-01

    Energy-savings measures have been implemented in fluid milk plants to lower energy costs and the energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although these measures have resulted in reductions in steam, electricity, compressed air, and refrigeration use of up to 30%, a benchmarking framework is necessary to examine the implementation of process-specific measures that would lower energy use, costs, and CO2 emissions even further. In this study, using information provided by the dairy industry and equipment vendors, a customizable model of the fluid milk process was developed for use in process design software to benchmark the electrical and fuel energy consumption and CO2 emissions of current processes. It may also be used to test the feasibility of new processing concepts to lower energy and CO2 emissions with calculation of new capital and operating costs. The accuracy of the model in predicting total energy usage of the entire fluid milk process and the pasteurization step was validated using available literature and industry energy data. Computer simulation of small (40.0 million L/yr), medium (113.6 million L/yr), and large (227.1 million L/yr) processing plants predicted the carbon footprint of milk, defined as grams of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kilogram of packaged milk, to within 5% of the value of 96 g of CO 2e/kg of packaged milk obtained in an industry-conducted life cycle assessment and also showed, in agreement with the same study, that plant size had no effect on the carbon footprint of milk but that larger plants were more cost effective in producing milk. Analysis of the pasteurization step showed that increasing the percentage regeneration of the pasteurizer from 90 to 96% would lower its thermal energy use by almost 60% and that implementation of partial homogenization would lower electrical energy use and CO2e emissions of homogenization by 82 and 5.4%, respectively. It was also demonstrated that implementation of steps to lower non-process

  19. Optimization and analysis of mixed refrigerant composition for the PRICO natural gas liquefaction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiongwen; Liu, Jinping; Cao, Le

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the energy optimization of the PRICO natural gas liquefaction (LNG) process was performed with the genetic algorithm (GA) and the process simulation software Aspen Plus. Then the characteristics of the heat transfer composite curves of the cold box were obtained and analyzed. Based on it, the heat exchange process in the cold box was divided into three regions. At last, in order to find the relationship between the energy consumption and the composition of the mixed refrigerant, the effects of the refrigerant flow composition on the temperature difference and the pinch point location were deeply investigated, which would be useful to guide the refrigerant charging.

  20. Diaryl disulfide solves sulfur-deposition problems at sour gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, R.J. ); Thomas, E.R. ); Kennelley, K.J. )

    1991-09-02

    This paper reports on use of diaryl disulfide (DADS) sulfur solvent which was successful in removing sulfur from tubulars and flow lines at Exxon Co. USA's LaBarge field in Wyoming. Additionally, the company's experience indicates that sulfur deposition can be a concern for gases with {lt}5% H{sub 2}S and that phase behavior and well bore hydraulic models can be used to predict where, and how much, sulfur can be expected to be deposited. Deposition of elemental sulfur in tubulars and flow lines can lead to decreased production, increased corrosion, and higher filtration-water disposal costs. These problems have been seen at LaBarge field even though its 5% H{sub 2}S concentration is below a level at which sulfur deposition is normally a concern. In its LaBarge application, Exxon found DADS to be preferable for sulfur-deposition problems because it was cheaper, less volatile, and easier to regenerate with no disposal needed when compared with the more commonly used solvent, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS).

  1. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Hewett; Franklin M. Orr Jr.

    2000-12-31

    Gas injection in oil reservoirs offers huge potential for improved oil recovery. However, successful design of a gas injection process requires a detailed understanding of a variety of different significant processes, including the phase behavior of multicomponent mixtures and the approach to multi-contact miscibility in the reservoir, the flow of oil, water and gas underground, and the interaction of phase behavior reservoir heterogeneity and gravity on overall performance at the field scale. This project attempts to tackle all these issues using a combination of theoretical, numerical and laboratory studies of gas injection. The aim of this work is to develop a set of ultra-fast compositional simulation tools that can be used to make field-scale predictions of the performance of gas injection processes. To achieve the necessary accuracy, these tools must satisfy the fundamental physics and chemistry of the displacement from the pore to the reservoir scales. Thus this project focuses on four main research areas: (1) determination of the most appropriate methods of mapping multicomponent solutions to streamlines and streamtubes in 3D; (2) development of techniques for automatic generation of analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow along a streamline; (3) experimental investigations to improve the representation of physical mechanisms that govern displacement efficiency along a streamline; and (4) Theoretical and experimental investigations to establish the limitations of the streamline/streamtube approach. In this report they briefly review the status of the research effort in each area. They then give a more in depth discussion of the development of a CT scanning technique which can measure compositions in a two-phase, three-component system in-situ.

  2. Elimination of methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process by immobilized methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Min; Yang, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Fu, Shan-Fei; Sun, Meng-Ting; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2017-01-13

    Biogas upgrading is essential for the comprehensive utilization of biogas as substitute of natural gas. However, the methane in the biogas can be fully recovered during the upgrading process of biogas, and the exhaust gas produced during biogas upgrading may contain a very low concentration of methane. If the exhaust gas with low concentration methane releases to atmosphere, it will be harmful to environment. In addition, the utilization of large amounts of digestate produced from biogas plant is another important issue for the development of biogas industry. In this study, solid digestate was used to produce active carbon, which was subsequently used as immobilized material for methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in biofilter. Biofilter with MOB immobilized on active carbon was used to eliminate the methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process. Results showed porous active carbon was successfully made from solid digestate. The final methane elimination capacity of immobilized MOB reached about 13molh(-1)m(-3), which was more 4 times higher than that of MOB without immobilization.

  3. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly report No. 8, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the work performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) during the eighth program quarter from April 1 to June 30, 1995, under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92114. This program has coordinated funding for Task 1 from IGT`s Sustaining Membership Program (SMP), while DOE is funding Tasks 2 through 8. Progress in all tasks is reported here. The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this quarter, progress in the following areas has been made: (1) Short duration activity. test on catalyst IGT-MS-103 showed that no deactivation over a 10 hour period. (2) A preliminary economic estimate for the application of the HSM process technology in a refinery showed potential for profitable commercialization. Engineers at oil companies have requested further information. (3) Tests with equimolar amounts of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in the feed showed that CS{sub 2} yield decrease with the addition of CO{sub 2}.

  4. Compound heat pump gas turbine: an approach to energy conservation for process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Fejer, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A compound heat pump gas turbine engine is proposed to achieve energy conservation in industrial processes that require cooling or refrigeration as well as electric power and process heat. This novel machine is basically the combination of a reversed cycle Brayton engine driven by a gas tubine, with the two engines having a common compressor. Because of this arrangement, the machine is very compact and should be relatively inexpensive to produce. Also, it can be adapted to a variety of fuels. The thermodynamic cycle and some performance characteristics of the compound engine are presented and the potential of such a machine for a meat packing plant is demonstrated. It was concluded from this study that this engine layout will result in significant reductions in engine cost, compared with systems consisting of separate components for power generation, refrigeration, and process heating. In addition, significant savings in energy consumption may be realized. Furthermore, it appears that engines of this type can be made to meet widely differing specifications as far as the split between process heat refrigeration and shaftpower is concerned. Finally, the engine can be made up of compressors, turbine stages, and heat exchangers of relatively simple design without penalties in economy, because the energy savings are achieved in this type of engine by reduction or complete elimination of waste heat, rather than high efficiencies of engine components. The possible energy savings for the meat packing industry indicate that the compound heat pump gas turbine deserves further study, including its cost, operating expenses, and environmental aspects. (LCL)

  5. Gas transport processes in sea ice: How convection and diffusion processes might affect biological imprints, a challenge for modellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tison, J.-L.; Zhou, J.; Thomas, D. N.; Rysgaard, S.; Eicken, H.; Crabeck, O.; Deleu, F.; Delille, B.

    2012-04-01

    Recent data from a year-round survey of landfast sea ice growth in Barrow (Alaska) have shown how O2/N2 and O2/Ar ratios could be used to pinpoint primary production in sea ice and derive net productivity rates from the temporal evolution of the oxygen concentration at a given depth within the sea ice cover. These rates were however obtained surmising that neither convection, nor diffusion had affected the gas concentration profiles in the ice between discrete ice core collections. This paper discusses examples from three different field surveys (the above-mentioned Barrow experiment, the INTERICE IV tank experiment in Hamburg and a short field survey close to the Kapisilit locality in the South-East Greenland fjords) where convection or diffusion processes have clearly affected the temporal evolution of the gas profiles in the ice, therefore potentially affecting biological signatures. The INTERICE IV and Barrow experiment show that the initial equilibrium dissolved gas entrapment within the skeletal layer basically governs most of the profiles higher up in the sea ice cover during the active sea ice growth. However, as the ice layers age and cool down under the temperature gradient, bubble nucleation occurs while the concentration in the ice goes well above the theoretical one, calculated from brine equilibrium under temperature and salinity changes and observed brine volumes. This phase change locks the gases within the sea ice structure, preventing "degassing" of the ice, as is observed for salts under the mushy layer brine convection process. In some cases, mainly in the early stages of the freezing process (first 10-20 cm) where temperature gradients are strong and the ice still permeable on its whole thickness, repeated convection and bubble nucleation can actually increase the gas concentration in the ice above the one initially acquired within the skeletal layer. Convective processes will also occur on ice decay, when ice permeability is restored and the

  6. Flue gas cleanup using the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, Henry W; Hoffman, James S

    2013-10-01

    The use of copper oxide on a support had been envisioned as a gas cleanup technique to remove sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation. In general, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup techniques that use a sorbent can have various advantages, such as simultaneous removal of pollutants, production of a salable by-product, and low costs when compared to commercially available wet scrubbing technology. Due to the temperature of reaction, the placement of the process into an advanced power system could actually increase the thermal efficiency of the plant. The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is capable of simultaneously removing sulfur oxides and nitric oxides within the reactor system. In this regenerable sorbent technique, the use of the copper oxide sorbent was originally in a fluidized bed, but the more recent effort developed the use of the sorbent in a moving-bed reactor design. A pilot facility or life-cycle test system was constructed so that an integrated testing of the sorbent over absorption/regeneration cycles could be conducted. A parametric study of the total process was then performed where all process steps, including absorption and regeneration, were continuously operated and experimentally evaluated. The parametric effects, including absorption temperature, sorbent and gas residence times, inlet SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} concentration, and flyash loadings, on removal efficiencies and overall operational performance were determined. Although some of the research results have not been previously published because of previous collaborative restrictions, a summary of these past findings is presented in this communication. Additionally, the potential use of the process for criteria pollutant removal in oxy-firing of fossil fuel for carbon sequestration purposes is discussed.

  7. Industrial fuel gas demonstration plant program. License agreements for proprietary processes. (Deliverable No. 30)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The proprietary processes included within the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant are listed. Draft license agreements covering the use of these processes, with the exception of the Westfield Process (Conoco), have been included at the end of this document. Except for the Claus Process (Amoco) all draft license agreements will be executed directly between MLGW and the licensor. All the draft license agreements provided have been prepared by the licensors after preliminary discussions. Presently these agreements are being reviewed by MLGW for acceptability. As stated above, the Amoco Sulfur Recovery Process will be covered by an existing agreement between Standard Oil and FWEC. Suitable clauses have been provided under Tab V. These clauses will be incorporated into the MLGW/FWEC subcontract for the protection of MLGW, FWEC, and licensor. At this writing the Industrial Team has no secrecy agreement executed with Conoco Methanation Company (Westfield Methanation Process) nor has any draft license agreement been transmitted by Conoco.

  8. Use of Sulphur and Boron Isotopes to Identify Natural Gas Processing Emissions Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, C. E.; Norman, A.; Wieser, M. E.

    2003-12-01

    Natural gas processing results in the emission of large amounts of gaseous pollutants as a result of planned and / or emergency flaring, sulphur incineration, and in the course of normal operation. Since many gas plants often contribute to the same air shed, it is not possible to conclusively determine the sources, amounts, and characteristics of pollution from a particular processing facility using traditional methods. However, sulphur isotopes have proven useful in the apportionment of sources of atmospheric sulphate (Norman et al., 1999), and boron isotopes have been shown to be of use in tracing coal contamination through groundwater (Davidson and Bassett, 1993). In this study, both sulphur and boron isotopes have been measured at source, receptor, and control sites, and, if emissions prove to be sufficiently distinct isotopically, they will be used to identify and apportion emissions downwind. Sulphur is present in natural gas as hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which is combusted to sulphur dioxide (SO2) prior to its release to the atmosphere, while boron is present both in hydrocarbon deposits as well as in any water used in the process. Little is known about the isotopic abundance variations of boron in hydrocarbon reservoirs, but Krouse (1991) has shown that the sulphur isotope composition of H2S in reservoirs varies according to both the concentration and the method of formation of H2S. As a result, gas plants processing gas from different reservoirs are expected to produce emissions with unique isotopic compositions. Samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler placed directly downwind of several gas plants, as well as at a receptor site and a control site. Aerosol sulphate and boron were collected on quartz fibre filters, while SO2 was collected on potassium hydroxide-impregnated cellulose filters. Solid sulphur samples were taken from those plants that process sulphur in order to compare the isotopic composition with atmospheric measurements. A

  9. Proof of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the potential for application of the NOXSO Flue Gas Treatment (FGT) technology to coal-fired utility boilers in the 1990s. To accomplish this, the NOXSO team will design, construct, operate, and test a proof-of-concept scale NOXSO test facility at Ohio Edison's Toronto Station. The goal of the proof-of-concept test is to obtain the engineering data required to prepare a cost-effective design of a commercial scale NOXSO process module at an acceptable level of technical risk. A secondary goal of the test program is to optimize process performance, i.e., achieve 90% removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas at the lowest possible cost, while maintaining the high level of system reliability dictated by the utility market. Progress is reported. 5 figs.

  10. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, Jean E; De Visscher, Alex; Gebert, Julia; Hilger, Helene A; Huber-Humer, Marion; Spokas, Kurt

    2009-08-01

    Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials utilizing oxygen that diffuses into the cover layer from the atmosphere. The methane oxidation process, which is governed by several environmental factors, can be exploited in engineered systems developed for methane emission mitigation. Mathematical models that account for methane oxidation can be used to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed.

  11. Ni-base superalloy powder-processed porous layer for gas cooling in extreme environments

    DOE PAGES

    White, Emma M. H.; Heidloff, Andrew J.; Byrd, David J.; ...

    2016-05-26

    Extreme high temperature conditions demand novel solutions for hot gas filters and coolant access architectures, i.e., porous layers on exposed components. These high temperatures, for example in current turbine engines, are at or exceeding current material limits for high temperature oxidation/corrosion, creep resistance, and, even, melting temperature. Thus novel blade designs allowing greater heat removal are required to maintain airfoil temperatures below melting and/ or rapid creep deformation limits. Gas atomized Ni-base superalloy powders were partially sintered into porous layers to allow full-surface, transpirational cooling of the surface of airfoils. Furthermore, these powder-processed porous layers were fully characterized for surface,more » morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, and mechanical strength characteristics. A sintering model based on pure Ni surface diffusion correlated well with the experimental results and allowed reasonable control over the partial sintering process to obtain a specified level of porosity within the porous layer.« less

  12. Ni-base superalloy powder-processed porous layer for gas cooling in extreme environments

    SciTech Connect

    White, Emma M. H.; Heidloff, Andrew J.; Byrd, David J.; Anderson, Ross D.; Anderson, Iver E.

    2016-05-26

    Extreme high temperature conditions demand novel solutions for hot gas filters and coolant access architectures, i.e., porous layers on exposed components. These high temperatures, for example in current turbine engines, are at or exceeding current material limits for high temperature oxidation/corrosion, creep resistance, and, even, melting temperature. Thus novel blade designs allowing greater heat removal are required to maintain airfoil temperatures below melting and/ or rapid creep deformation limits. Gas atomized Ni-base superalloy powders were partially sintered into porous layers to allow full-surface, transpirational cooling of the surface of airfoils. Furthermore, these powder-processed porous layers were fully characterized for surface, morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, and mechanical strength characteristics. A sintering model based on pure Ni surface diffusion correlated well with the experimental results and allowed reasonable control over the partial sintering process to obtain a specified level of porosity within the porous layer.

  13. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-06-30

    This report outlines progress in the third 3 quarter of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' A simple theoretical formulation of vertical flow with capillary/gravity equilibrium is described. Also reported are results of experimental measurements for the same systems. The results reported indicate that displacement behavior is strongly affected by the interfacial tension of phases that form on the tie line that extends through the initial oil composition.

  14. Results of the GCMS Effluent Gas Analysis for the Brine Processing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Lee, Jeffrey; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Harris, Linden

    2015-01-01

    The effluent gas for the Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) were analyzed using Headspace GCMS Analysis in the recent AES FY14 Brine Processing Test. The results from the analysis describe the number and general chemical species of the chemicals produced. Comparisons were also made between the different chromatograms for each system, and an explanation of the differences in the results is reported.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  16. Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee O. Nelson

    2011-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540°C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625–925°C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

  17. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  18. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  19. Process for the manufacture of an attrition resistant sorbent used for gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Venkataramani, Venkat S.; Ayala, Raul E.

    2003-09-16

    This process produces a sorbent for use in desulfurization of coal gas. A zinc titanate compound and a metal oxide are mixed by milling the compounds in an aqueous medium, the resulting mixture is dried and then calcined, crushed, sleved and formed into pellets for use in a moving-bed reactor. Metal oxides suitable for use as an additive in this process include: magnesium oxide, magnesium oxide plus molybdenum oxide, calcium oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, cupric oxide, and tin oxide. The resulting sorbent has a percentage of the original zinc or titanium ions substituted for the oxide metal of the chosen additive.

  20. Dry injection flue gas desulfurization process using absorptive soda ash sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Cyran, M.J.; Copenhafer, W.C.

    1986-05-13

    A dry injection flue gas desulfurization process is described which comprises injecting a dry soda ash sorbent, which is a particulate solid derived from calcination under non-sintering conditions of a NaHCO/sub 3/-containing compound, into a SO/sub 2/-contaminated flue gas stream that contains moisture in an amount of 0.5-10 wt% H/sub 2/O and is at a temperature of 100/sup 0/-175/sup 0/C; providing an amount of injected sorbent and sufficient gas-sorbent contact time such that a substantial portion, at least 40%, of the sorbent sodium content is utilized at NSR=1, in reducing the concentration of SO/sub 2/ in the gas stream, collecting the sorbent in a solids-collection device which is a fabric filter baghouse or an electrostatic precipitator; discharging collected sorbent from the solids-collection device; the dry soda ash sorbent being a porous calcine obtained from calcination of sodium sesquicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, Wegscheider's salt or mixtures of these, and further characterized by having a minimum surface area of at least 2 m/sup 2//g and a residual bicarbonate content of less than 10 wt% NaHCO/sub 3/.

  1. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  2. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an oil shale retort by effluent off gas heating value

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1981-07-21

    A processing zone advances through a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort has an effluent gas passing therefrom. The effluent gas has a heating value which is dependent on the kerogen content of the oil shale then in contact with the processing zone. To determine the locus of the processing zone, the formation is assayed at selected locations in the retort for kerogen content before processing the selected locations, and effluent gas from the retort is monitored for its heating value.

  3. Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process for In-Situ Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    2000-01-01

    This report focuses on the development of mathematical models and simulation tools developed for the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process. This process is a candidate technology for oxygen production on Mars under the In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) project. An analysis of the RWGS process was performed using a material balance for the system. The material balance is very complex due to the downstream separations and subsequent recycle inherent with the process. A numerical simulation was developed for the RWGS process to provide a tool for analysis and optimization of experimental hardware, which will be constructed later this year at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Attempts to solve the material balance for the system, which can be defined by 27 nonlinear equations, initially failed. A convergence scheme was developed which led to successful solution of the material balance, however the simplified equations used for the gas separation membrane were found insufficient. Additional more rigorous models were successfully developed and solved for the membrane separation. Sample results from these models are included in this report, with recommendations for experimental work needed for model validation.

  4. A technique to control mercury from flue gas: The Thief Process

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dowd, W.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Freeman, M.C.; Granite, E.J.; Hargis, R.A.; Lacher, C.J.; Karash, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Thief Process is a mercury removal process that may be applicable to a broad range of pulverized coal-fired combustion systems. This is one of several sorbent injection technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy for capturing mercury from coal-fired electric utility boilers. A unique feature of the Thief Process involves the production of a thermally activated sorbent in situ at the power plant. The sorbent is obtained by inserting a lance, or thief, into the combustor, in or near the flame, and extracting a mixture of partially combusted coal and gas. The partially combusted coal or sorbent has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of vapor-phase mercury at flue gas temperatures that are typical downstream of a power plant preheater. One proposed scenario, similar to activated carbon injection (ACI), involves injecting the extracted sorbent into the downstream ductwork between the air preheater and the particulate collection device of the power plant. Initial laboratory-scale and pilot-scale testing, using an eastern bituminous coal, focused on the concept validation. Subsequent pilot-scale testing, using a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, focused on the process development and optimization. The results of the experimental studies, as well as an independent experimental assessment, are detailed. In addition, the results of a preliminary economic analysis that documents the costs and the potential economic advantages of the Thief Process for mercury control are discussed.

  5. Experimental study on a new sterilization process using plasma source ion implantation with N2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Tanaka, T.; Watanabe, S.; Takagi, T.; Shinohara, M.; Fujii, S.

    2003-07-01

    Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) with negative high voltage pulses has been applied to the sterilization process as a technique suitable for sterilization of three-dimensional work pieces. Pulsed high negative voltage (0-10 μs pulse width, 900 pulses/s, -9 to -16 kV) was applied to the electrode in this process at a gas pressure of 2-7 Pa of N2. This process has been found to be capable of generating glow discharge plasma around a stainless electrode, on which quartz glass samples with biological materials are placed. We found that the PSII process reduced the numbers of active Bacillus pumilus cells using N2 gas plasma generated by pulsed dc voltages. The number of bacteria survivors was reduced by 105×with 5-10 min exposure. The state of cells on quartz glass was observed by scanning electron microscopy with and without exposure. We found that the ion energy is the most important processing parameter. The technique is demonstrated to be an effective means of low-temperature surface sterilization, with very little damage to the target.

  6. A Frequency Model of Vibrational Processes in Gas-Turbine Drives of Compressor Stations of Main Gas Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekardovskiy, M. N.; Chekardovskiy, S. M.; Razboynikov, A. A.; Ponomareva, T. G.

    2016-10-01

    At compressor stations, systematic measurements of noise and vibration of power equipment - gas compressor units - are carried out. The article presents basic equations for calculating natural and forced frequencies at which the main defects appear. According to the studied dependences, results of calculations are obtained on the following types of drives for gas-compressor units GTK-10-4, Avon-1534, DG-90.

  7. Adapting British gas LNG facilities to varying gas compositions: The SELEXOL {reg_sign} process and cryogenic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Dewing, R.A.; Waring, S.; Burns, D.

    1996-12-31

    The original design of the UK National Transmission System (NTS) included five peak shave LNG storage sites strategically located around the country. They now form part of the Storage business that offers gas services to gas transportation companies-these include non British Gas companies as well as other parts of British Gas itself. At these sites, natural gas can be taken from the NTS at the request of the gas transportation companies, treated to cryogenic specifications, and liquefied for storage. LNG can then be re-vaporized and re-injected into the NTS or local mains as required. In this way the whole NTS does not have to be sized for peak rates and increases in demand can be met very quickly. Each peak-shave site was originally designed to handle natural gas with CO{sub 2} levels of up to 1 mol% and with ethane and higher hydrocarbon (C{sub 2}+) levels that needed only limited reduction. However, as different natural gas reservoirs came on stream in the early 1990`s the level of CO{sub 2} and C{sub 2}+ in the NTS network began to rise, and significant modifications were required at four of the five LNG sites. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Tick loads in cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands in the low-input farming areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare tick loads and prevalence in Nguni and non-descript cattle in the sweet (palatable throughout the year) and sour (palatable only in the rainy season) communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Engorged adult female ixodid ticks were collected and identified seasonally from 144 cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands from August 2007 to April 2008. Three tick species were identified in the sweet and sour rangelands namely Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi with prevalences of 71.1%, 29.2%, and 40.2%, respectively. Hyalomma species (19.0%) occurred only in the sour rangeland. Higher tick counts were recorded in the hot-wet season than in the cool-dry season (P < 0.05). Cattle in the sweet rangeland had significantly lower tick loads than those in the sour rangeland in all the seasons except the hot-dry season. The Nguni breed had lower (P < 0.05) tick loads of R. appendiculatus in the hot-wet and post-rainy season and Hyalomma species in all seasons than the non-descript cattle. The use of a tick-resistant Nguni breed in the integrated control of ticks on cattle in the communal areas of South Africa is recommended.

  9. 30 CFR 206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 206.181 Section 206.181 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Processing Allowances § 206.181 How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I...

  10. An Investigation of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process and Operating Alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    2002-01-01

    The Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process can produce water and ultimately oxygen through electrolysis. This technology is being investigated for possible use in the exploration of Mars as well as a potential process to aid in the regeneration of oxygen from carbon dioxide. The initial part of this report summarizes the results obtained from operation of the RWGS process at Kennedy Space Center during May and June of this year. It has been demonstrated that close to complete conversion can be achieved with the RWGS process under certain operating conditions. The report also presents results obtained through simulation for an alternative staged configuration for RWGS which eliminates the recycle compressor. This configuration looks promising and hence seems worthy of experimental investigation.

  11. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-03-31

    This report outlines progress in the second 3 months of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The development of an automatic technique for analytical solution of one-dimensional gas flow problems with volume change on mixing is described. The aim of this work is to develop a set of ultra-fast compositional simulation tools that can be used to make field-scale predictions of the performance of gas injection processes. To achieve the necessary accuracy, these tools must satisfy the fundamental physics and chemistry of the displacement from the pore to the reservoir scales. Thus this project focuses on four main research areas: (1) determination of the most appropriate methods of mapping multicomponent solutions to streamlines and streamtubes in 3D; (2) development of techniques for automatic generation of analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow along a streamline; (3) experimental investigations to improve the representation of physical mechanisms that govern displacement efficiency along a streamline; and (4) theoretical and experimental investigations to establish the limitations of the streamline/streamtube approach. In this report they briefly review the status of the research effort in each area. They then give a more in depth discussion of their development of techniques for analytic solutions along a streamline including volume change on mixing for arbitrary numbers of components.

  12. Development of economical compact type wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Shigeru; Kaku, Hiroyuki

    1995-06-01

    In the last quarter of this century Environmental Protection has become a major global issue. For the removal of SO{sub 2} emitted from thermal power plants, the wet limestone-gypsum process has widely been adopted. However, a more noteworthly economical method has been desired for its spreading. Under these circumstances, Babcock-Hitachi has developed a new compact type Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system by improving the conventional type wet limestone-gypsum process incorporating its advantages. The compact absorber was realized by increasing its gas velocity and the flue gas duct has been minimized by adopting a horizontal flow spray tower instead of a vertical flow spray tower which is commonly adopted in the conventional type. Through this a considerable reduction in construction costs have been achieved. The design study of this compact type FGD plant shows that it can be applied not only new plants but also existing power plants, Features of this compact type FGD, pilot plant test results and examples of the design study are introduced in this paper.

  13. Optimizing spray drying conditions of sour cherry juice based on physicochemical properties, using response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Arasb Dabbagh; Pero, Milad; Askari, Gholam Reza

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of main spray drying conditions such as inlet air temperature (100-140 °C), maltodextrin concentration (MDC: 30-60%), and aspiration rate (AR) (30-50%) on the physicochemical properties of sour cherry powder such as moisture content (MC), hygroscopicity, water solubility index (WSI), and bulk density were investigated. This investigation was carried out by employing response surface methodology and the process conditions were optimized by using this technique. The MC of the powder was negatively related to the linear effect of the MDC and inlet air temperature (IT) and directly related to the AR. Hygroscopicity of the powder was significantly influenced by the MDC. By increasing MDC in the juice, the hygroscopicity of the powder was decreased. MDC and inlet temperature had a positive effect, but the AR had a negative effect on the WSI of powder. MDC and inlet temperature negatively affected the bulk density of powder. By increasing these two variables, the bulk density of powder was decreased. The optimization procedure revealed that the following conditions resulted in a powder with the maximum solubility and minimum hygroscopicity: MDC = 60%, IT = 134 °C, and AR = 30% with a desirability of 0.875.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical formation of iron oxidation products on steel immersed in sour acid media.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Espejel, Antonio; Palomar-Pardavé, Manuel; Cabrera-Sierra, Román; Romero-Romo, Mario; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Arce-Estrada, Elsa M

    2011-03-03

    From electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, potential steps, and EIS), XRD, and SEM-EDX, the kinetics and mechanism of anodic film formation applying anodic potential steps on steel immersed in sour acid media was determined. It was found, from a thermodynamic analysis, based on equilibrium phase diagrams of the system considered in this work, that iron oxidation may produce different new solid phases, depending on the applied potential, the first being the iron oxidation associated with formation of FeS((c)) species, which in turn can be reoxidized to FeS(2(c)) or even to Fe(2)O(3(c)) at higher potential values. From analysis of the corresponding experimental potentiostatic current density transients, it was concluded that the electrochemical anodic film formation involves an E(1)CE(2) mechanism, whereby the first of the two simultaneous processes were the Fe electrochemical oxidation (E(1)) followed by FeS precipitation (C) that occurs by 3D nucleation and growth limited by mass transfer reaction and FeS oxidation (E(2)) forming a mix of different stoichiometry iron sulphides and oxides. From EIS measurements, it was revealed that the anodic film's charge transfer resistance diminishes as the potential applied for its formation becomes more anodic, thus behaving poorly against corrosion.

  15. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  16. Clean coal demonstration program: Advanced flue gas desulfurization process. Volume 1 - public design report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-03-01

    The single 100 percent absorber is a co-current grid packed tower with an integrated reaction tank at the bottom. It is designed to accomplish several process steps (quenching, absorption of SO{sub 2}, reaction with limestone, oxidation to gypsum) in a single vessel, resulting in a simple configuration of the plant. The co-current absorber is designed for higher flue gas velocities than conventional countercurrent towers, which results in a compact absorber size. The flue gas enters the top of the absorber where it contacts recirculating slurry. Quenching and absorption of SO{sub 2} occur simultaneously. This {open_quotes}wet/dry{close_quotes} interface is washed intermittently with fresh water to prevent the formation and growth of any deposits.

  17. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF IGNITION PROCESSES IN LARGE NATURAL GAS ENGINES USING LASER SPARK IGNITION

    SciTech Connect

    Azer Yalin; Morgan Defoort; Bryan Willson

    2005-01-01

    The current report details project progress made during the first quarterly reporting period of the DOE sponsored project ''Fundamental studies of ignition processes in large natural gas engines using laser spark ignition''. The goal of the overall research effort is to develop a laser ignition system for natural gas engines, with a particular focus on using fiber optic delivery methods. In this report we present our successful demonstration of spark formation using fiber delivery made possible though the use of novel coated hollow fibers. We present results of (high power) experimental characterizations of light propagation using hollow fibers using both a high power research grade laser as well as a more compact laser. Finally, we present initial designs of the system we are developing for future on-engine testing using the hollow fibers.

  18. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Oyenekan, Babatunde A.

    2011-03-08

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  19. Transport—Reaction process in the reaction of flue gas desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Peng, Xiaofeng; Lee, Duu Jong

    2000-12-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted to study the transport-reaction process in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization. A transport-reaction model of single particle was proposed, which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time. Based on this model, the reaction rate and the absorbent utilization can be calculated. The most appropriate particle radius and the initial absorbent concentration can be deduced through comparing the wet lifetime with the residence time, the result shows in the case that the partial pressure of vapor in the bulk flue gas is 2000Pa, the optimum initial radius and absorbent concentration are 210 310 µ m and 23% respectively. The model can supply the optimum parameters for semi-dry FGD system designed.

  20. Carbonation of gypsum from wet flue gas desulfurization process: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenyi; Zhang, Zixin; Li, Hongyi; Li, Youxu; Shen, Zewen

    2017-02-13

    In this paper, waste gypsum from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) mixed with NH3·H2O was applied for CO2 absorption in the solid-liquid-gas phase system. The effects of operation temperature, CO2 flow rates, and ammonia-to-gypsum ratio on carbonation process were discussed. Meanwhile, a model for CO2 absorption in the suspension of WFGD gypsum and ammonia was established. The results indicate that higher temperature favors the reaction, and WFGD gypsum conversion can be achieved above 90% even at lower ammonia-to-gypsum ratio, while CO2 conversion reaches 90% and ammonia utilization is up to 83.69%. The model fits well with the experimental results at various CO2 flow rates and predicts the concentration distribution of the main species, including CO2 absorbed, NH2COO(-), and HCO3(-).

  1. Bioterrorism: processing contaminated evidence, the effects of formaldehyde gas on the recovery of latent fingermarks.

    PubMed

    Hoile, Rebecca; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2007-09-01

    In the present age of heightened emphasis on counter terrorism, law enforcement and forensic science are constantly evolving and adapting to the motivations and capabilities of terrorist groups and individuals. The use of biological agents on a population, such as anthrax spores, presents unique challenges to the forensic investigator, and the processing of contaminated evidence. In this research, a number of porous and non-porous items were contaminated with viable [corrected] spores and marked with latent fingermarks. The test samples were then subjected to a standard formulation of formaldehyde gas. Latent fingermarks were then recovered post decontamination using a range of methods. Standard fumigation, while effective at destroying viable spores, contributed to the degradation of amino acids leading to loss of ridge detail. A new protocol for formaldehyde gas decontamination was developed which allows for the destruction of viable spores and the successful recovery of latent marks, all within a rapid response time of less than 1 h.

  2. The effect of dust and gas energetics on the clustered star formation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Andrea

    The effect of dust/gas heating and cooling is shown to have a significant effect on the process of clustered star formation. Compared to an isothermal simulation, a simulation with a more accurate description of the equation of state produces an order of magnitude fewer stars as well as stars of much greater mass. The energetics algorithm used to calculate the dust and gas temperature includes the radiative heating of dust, dust-gas collisional heating/cooling, cosmic-ray heating, and molecular cooling. It uses DUSTY, a spherical continuum radiative transfer code, to model the dust temperature distribution around young stellar objects with various luminosities and surrounding gas and dust density distributions. The gas temperature is then determined by assuming energy balance. Before the complete energetics algorithm is included in a simulation, first only the dust heating component is included. The gas temperature is then set solely by the dust temperature. The resultant mass functions of our simulations which include heating are compared to those which assume an isothermal equation of state. We find that including dust heating severely limits star formation; we form at least an order of magnitude fewer objects when we include dust heating compared to an isothermal simulation. The mass functions from our simulations which include heating are much more similar than the mass functions from our isothermal simulations to the observed mass functions, in that they are able to form high-mass stars ( M [Special characters omitted.] 10[Special characters omitted.] ). The distribution of the high-mass objects is well- approximated by the Salpeter initial mass function. Including the complete energetics algorithm in a simulation produces results similar to a simulation with only dust heating. Both simulations have similar density profile parameters. The mass accretion, mass, and luminosity evolution of the sinks is also similar. The average temperature, however, is cooler

  3. Degradation of Anthocyanin Content in Sour Cherry Juice During Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Szalóki-Dorkó, Lilla; Ladányi, Márta; Ficzek, Gitta; Stéger-Máté, Mónika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sour cherry juices made from two sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő and Kántorjánosi 3) were investigated to determine their total anthocyanin content and half-life of anthocyanins during heat treatment at different temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C) for 4 h. Before the heat treatment, Érdi bőtermő juice had higher anthocyanin concentration (812 mg/L) than Kántorjánosi 3 juice (513 mg/L). The greatest heat sensitivity of anthocyanins was measured at 90 °C, while the treatments at 80 and 70 °C caused lower thermal degradation. The loss of anthocyanins in Érdi bőtermő juice after treatment was 38, 29 and 18%, respectively, while in Kántorjánosi 3 juice losses of 46, 29 and 19% were observed, respectively. At 90 °C sour cherry Érdi bőtermő juice had higher half-life (t1/2) of anthocyanins, while the Kántorjánosi 3 juice had higher t1/2 values at 70 °C. Cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in higher concentrations in both cultivars (Érdi bőtermő: 348 and Kántorjánosi 3: 200 mg/L) than cyanidin-3-rutinoside (177 and 121 mg/L) before treatment. However, during the experiment, cyanidin-3-rutinoside was proved to be more resistant to heat. Comparing the two varieties, both investigated pigment compounds were more stable in Kántorjánosi 3 than in Érdi bőtermő. Degradation rate of anthocyanins was cultivar-dependent characteristic, which should be taken into account in the food production. PMID:27904369

  4. Redox processes in pore water of anoxic sediments with shallow gas.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Pérez, A M; de Blas, E; García-Gil, S

    2015-12-15

    The Ría de Vigo (NW Spain) has a high organic matter content and high rates of sedimentation. The microbial degradation of this organic matter has led to shallow gas accumulations of methane, currently distributed all along the ría. These peculiar characteristics favor the development of anoxic conditions that can determine the dynamics of iron and manganese. In order to study the role played by iron and manganese in the processes that take place in anoxic sediments with shallow gas, four gravity cores were retrieved in anoxic sediments of the Ría de Vigo in November 2012. Methane was present in two of them, below 90cm in the inner zone and below 200cm, in the outer zone. Pore water was collected and analyzed for vertical profiles of pH, sulfide, sulfate, iron and manganese concentrations. Sulfate concentrations decreased with depth but never reached the minimum detection limit. High sulfide concentrations were measured in all cores. The highest sulfide concentrations were found in the inner zone with methane and the lowest were in the outer zone without methane. Concentrations of iron and manganese reached maximum values in the upper layers of the sediment, decreasing with depth, except in the outer zone without gas, where iron and manganese concentration increased strongly toward the bottom of the sediment. In areas with shallow gas iron reduction, sulfate reduction and methane production processes coexist, showing that the traditional redox cascade is highly simplified and suggesting that iron may be involved in a cryptic sulfur cycle and in the oxidation of methane.

  5. Membrane processes for gas separations: Part I. Removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from low-quality natural gas. Part II. Enrichment of krypton in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jibin

    1998-12-01

    I. The objective of this study was to determine the process design characteristics and economics of membrane separation processes for reducing the concentrations of H2S and CO2 in low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of the two acid gases to pipeline specifications ( ≤ 2 mole-% CO2 and ≤ 4 ppm H2S). The new processes considered the simultaneous use of two different types of polymer membranes for the above application, namely, one with higher CO2/CH4 selectivity and the other with higher H2S/CH4 selectivity. The performance and economics of membrane process configurations comprising one, two, and three permeation stages, with and without recycle streams, were examined and optimized via extensive computer simulations. Most computations assumed as a "base-case", the processing of a medium-size natural gas stream of 35 MMSCFD at 800 psia. The natural gas was taken to contain ≤ 10 mole-% H2S and ≤ 40 mole-% CO2. The most economical process configuration was two permeation stages in series, with H2S-selective membranes in the first stage and CO2-selective membranes in the second stage. The most economical process configurations for upgrading natural gas containing either only substantial amounts of H2S or of CO2 were also determined. The sensitivity of the process economics to feed flow rate, feed pressure, membrane module cost, and wellhead cost of natural gas was studied. A comparison of the processing cost of membrane processes with that of conventional gas absorption processes utilizing diethanolamine as solvent was also investigated. II. A membrane process for enrichment of Kr in air was studied experimentally as a technique of improving the accuracy of Kr analysis. "Asymmetric" silicone rubber membranes were found to be most suitable for this application. The study was investigated with a feed gas mixture containing 0.99 mole-% Kr, 20.70 mole-% O2, and 78.30 mole-% N2. The Kr concentration could be increased from 0.99 to 2.23 mole-% in a

  6. Gas phase laser synthesis and processing of calcium phosphate nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapat, Parimal V.

    Biochemical processes make pervasive use of calcium and phosphate ions. Calcium phosphate salts that are naturally nontoxic and bioactive have been used for several medical applications in form of coatings and micropowders. Nanoparticle-based calcium phosphates have been shown to be internalized by living cells and be effective in DNA transfection, drug delivery, and transport of fluorophores for imaging of intracellular processes. They are also expected to interact strongly with cell adhesive proteins and are therefore promising elements in approaches to mimic the complex environment of the extra cellular matrix of bone. Harnessing this biomedical potential requires the ability to control the numerous characteristics of nanophase calcium phosphates that affect biological response, including nanoparticle chemical composition, crystal phase, crystallinity, crystallographic orientation of exposed faces, size, shape, surface area, number concentration, and degree of aggregation. This dissertation focuses on the use of laser-induced gas-phase synthesis for creation of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, and corresponding nanoparticle-based substrates that could offer new opportunities for guiding biological responses through well-controlled biochemical and topological cues. Gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles has several characteristics that could enhance control over particle morphology, crystallinity, and surface area, compared to liquid-phase techniques. Synthesis from gas-phase precursors can be carried out at high temperatures and in high-purity inert or reactive gas backgrounds, enabling good control of chemistry, crystal structure, and purity. Moreover, the particle mean free path and number concentration can be controlled independently. This allows regulation of interparticle collision rates, which can be adjusted to limit aggregation. High-temperature synthesis of well-separated particles is therefore possible. In this work high power lasers are employed to

  7. Current advances of integrated processes combining chemical absorption and biological reduction for NO x removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Han; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Lu, Bi-Hong; Li, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emitted from the fossil-fuel-fired power plants cause adverse environmental issues such as acid rain, urban ozone smoke, and photochemical smog. A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process under development is regarded as a promising alternative to the conventional selective catalytic reduction processes for NO x removal from the flue gas because it is economic and environmentally friendly. CABR process employs ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate [Fe(II)EDTA] as a solvent to absorb the NO x following microbial denitrification of NO x to harmless nitrogen gas. Meanwhile, the absorbent Fe(II)EDTA is biologically regenerated to sustain the adequate NO x removal. Compared with conventional denitrification process, CABR not only enhances the mass transfer of NO from gas to liquid phase but also minimize the impact of oxygen on the microorganisms. This review provides the current advances of the development of the CABR process for NO x removal from the flue gas.

  8. The sweet and sour of serological glycoprotein tumor biomarker quantification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant and dysregulated protein glycosylation is a well-established event in the process of oncogenesis and cancer progression. Years of study on the glycobiology of cancer have been focused on the development of clinically viable diagnostic applications of this knowledge. However, for a number of reasons, there has been only sparse and varied success. The causes of this range from technical to biological issues that arise when studying protein glycosylation and attempting to apply it to practical applications. This review focuses on the pitfalls, advances, and future directions to be taken in the development of clinically applicable quantitative assays using glycan moieties from serum-based proteins as analytes. Topics covered include the development and progress of applications of lectins, mass spectrometry, and other technologies towards this purpose. Slowly but surely, novel applications of established and development of new technologies will eventually provide us with the tools to reach the ultimate goal of quantification of the full scope of heterogeneity associated with the glycosylation of biomarker candidate glycoproteins in a clinically applicable fashion. PMID:23390961

  9. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: A review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida and a look at the future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida, but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced. Research was directed towards the selection and...

  10. Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 2, Production of IFG (industrial fuel gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnstecher, L.W.

    1984-12-01

    A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of industrial fuel gas (IFG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based upon a plant producing 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of IFG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant feed, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of industrial fuel gas. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, seven Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, acid gas removal, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots facility located in the area of Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 39 refs., 33 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions of waste management processes and options: A case study.

    PubMed

    de la Barrera, Belen; Hooda, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    Increasing concern about climate change is prompting organisations to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions. Waste management activities also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In the waste management sector, there has been an increasing diversion of waste sent to landfill, with much emphasis on recycling and reuse to prevent emissions. This study evaluates the carbon footprint of the different processes involved in waste management systems, considering the entire waste management stream. Waste management data from the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, London (UK), was used to estimate the carbon footprint for its (Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames) current source segregation system. Second, modelled full and partial co-mingling scenarios were used to estimate carbon emissions from these proposed waste management approaches. The greenhouse gas emissions from the entire waste management system at Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames were 12,347 t CO2e for the source-segregated scenario, and 11,907 t CO2e for the partial co-mingled model. These emissions amount to 203.26 kg CO2e t(-1) and 196.02 kg CO2e t(-1) municipal solid waste for source-segregated and partial co-mingled, respectively. The change from a source segregation fleet to a partial co-mingling fleet reduced the emissions, at least partly owing to a change in the number and type of vehicles.

  12. Solution-Processed Gas Sensors Employing SnO2 Quantum Dot/MWCNT Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Wenkai; Yu, Haoxiong; Gao, Liang; Song, Zhilong; Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Wang, Yang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2016-01-13

    Solution-processed SnO2 colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged as an important new class of gas-sensing materials due to their potential for low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. Here we employed the design strategy based on the synergetic effect from highly sensitive SnO2 CQDs and excellent conductive properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to overcome the transport barrier in CQD gas sensors. The attachment and coverage of SnO2 CQDs on the MWCNT surfaces were achieved by simply mixing the presynthesized SnO2 CQDs and MWCNTs at room temperature. Compared to the pristine SnO2 CQDs, the sensor based on SnO2 quantum dot/MWCNT nanocomposites exhibited a higher response upon exposure to H2S, and the response toward 50 ppm of H2S at 70 °C was 108 with the response and recovery time being 23 and 44 s. Because of the favorable energy band alignment, the MWCNTs can serve as the acceptor of the electrons that are injected from H2S into SnO2 quantum dots in addition to the charge transport highway to direct the electron flow to the electrode, thereby enhancing the sensor response. Our research results open an easy pathway for developing highly sensitive and low-cost gas sensors.

  13. Effect of Orifice Diameter on Bubble Generation Process in Melt Gas Injection to Prepare Aluminum Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianyu; Li, Yanxiang; Wang, Ningzhen; Cheng, Ying; Chen, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    The bubble generation process in conditioned A356 alloy melt through submerged spiry orifices with a wide diameter range (from 0.07 to 1.0 mm) is investigated in order to prepare aluminum foams with fine pores. The gas flow rate and chamber pressure relationship for each orifice is first determined when blowing gas in atmospheric environment. The effects of chamber pressure ( P c) and orifice diameter ( D o) on bubble size are then analyzed separately when blowing gas in melt. A three-dimensional fitting curve is obtained illustrating both the influences of orifice diameter and chamber pressure on bubble size based on the experimental data. It is found that the bubble size has a V-shaped relationship with orifice diameter and chamber pressure neighboring the optimized parameter ( D o = 0.25 mm, P c = 0.4 MPa). The bubble generation mechanism is proposed based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. It is found that the bubbles will not be generated until a threshold pressure difference is reached. The threshold pressure difference is dependent on the orifice diameter, which determines the time span of pre-formation stage and bubble growth stage.

  14. Super-emitters in natural gas infrastructure are caused by abnormal process conditions.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Lyon, David R; Allen, David T; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel J; Hamburg, Steven P

    2017-01-16

    Effectively mitigating methane emissions from the natural gas supply chain requires addressing the disproportionate influence of high-emitting sources. Here we use a Monte Carlo simulation to aggregate methane emissions from all components on natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale production region (Texas). Our total emission estimates are two-thirds of those derived from independent site-based measurements. Although some high-emitting operations occur by design (condensate flashing and liquid unloadings), they occur more than an order of magnitude less frequently than required to explain the reported frequency at which high site-based emissions are observed. We conclude that the occurrence of abnormal process conditions (for example, malfunctions upstream of the point of emissions; equipment issues) cause additional emissions that explain the gap between component-based and site-based emissions. Such abnormal conditions can cause a substantial proportion of a site's gas production to be emitted to the atmosphere and are the defining attribute of super-emitting sites.

  15. Sulfite oxidation catalyzed by cobalt ions in flue gas desulfurization processes.

    PubMed

    Karatza, Despina; Prisciandaro, Marina; Lancia, Amedeo; Musmarra, Dino

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of calcium bisulfite oxidation, a key step in the wet limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, in the presence of catalysts (e.g., cobalt ions and a mixture of ferrous and cobalt ions). A fundamental approach is followed, by reproducing a simplified synthetic FGD liquor in which both catalyst ions, alone or mixed together, are present. A laboratory-scale apparatus is used, in which sulfurous solution is contacted with a gas phase at a fixed oxygen partial pressure (21.3 kPa) and at different temperature levels (25, 45, and 55 degrees C). The experimental results are analyzed using the theory of gas-liquid mass transfer with chemical reaction, showing that the slow reaction regime is explored and the transition from the kinetic to the diffusional subregime is identified. The experimental results are compared with those obtained in the presence of other catalytic species (manganese and ferrous ions), showing that cobalt is effective in catalyzing the oxidation of calcium bisulfite to sulfate, but to a minor extent with respect to iron and manganese.

  16. Super-emitters in natural gas infrastructure are caused by abnormal process conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Lyon, David R.; Allen, David T.; Marchese, Anthony J.; Zimmerle, Daniel J.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Effectively mitigating methane emissions from the natural gas supply chain requires addressing the disproportionate influence of high-emitting sources. Here we use a Monte Carlo simulation to aggregate methane emissions from all components on natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale production region (Texas). Our total emission estimates are two-thirds of those derived from independent site-based measurements. Although some high-emitting operations occur by design (condensate flashing and liquid unloadings), they occur more than an order of magnitude less frequently than required to explain the reported frequency at which high site-based emissions are observed. We conclude that the occurrence of abnormal process conditions (for example, malfunctions upstream of the point of emissions; equipment issues) cause additional emissions that explain the gap between component-based and site-based emissions. Such abnormal conditions can cause a substantial proportion of a site's gas production to be emitted to the atmosphere and are the defining attribute of super-emitting sites. PMID:28091528

  17. Super-emitters in natural gas infrastructure are caused by abnormal process conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A.; Lyon, David R.; Allen, David T.; Marchese, Anthony J.; Zimmerle, Daniel J.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Effectively mitigating methane emissions from the natural gas supply chain requires addressing the disproportionate influence of high-emitting sources. Here we use a Monte Carlo simulation to aggregate methane emissions from all components on natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale production region (Texas). Our total emission estimates are two-thirds of those derived from independent site-based measurements. Although some high-emitting operations occur by design (condensate flashing and liquid unloadings), they occur more than an order of magnitude less frequently than required to explain the reported frequency at which high site-based emissions are observed. We conclude that the occurrence of abnormal process conditions (for example, malfunctions upstream of the point of emissions; equipment issues) cause additional emissions that explain the gap between component-based and site-based emissions. Such abnormal conditions can cause a substantial proportion of a site's gas production to be emitted to the atmosphere and are the defining attribute of super-emitting sites.

  18. Effect of inlet and outlet flow conditions on natural gas parameters in supersonic separation process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Wen, Chuang; Wang, Shuli; Feng, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions.

  19. Effect of Inlet and Outlet Flow Conditions on Natural Gas Parameters in Supersonic Separation Process

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Wen, Chuang; Wang, Shuli; Feng, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions. PMID:25338207

  20. Coal beneficiation kinetics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    The kinetics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process were investigated by monitoring the change in the turbidity of an aqueous particle suspension as the particles were agglomerated with heptane in a closed tank fitted with baffles and an agitator. Measured amounts of air and heptane were added to a suspension of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal under vigorous agitation. The subsequent rate of change of particle concentration was taken to be an indication of the rate of agglomeration. The rate was found to be proportional to the particle number concentration raised to a power and dependent on agitator speed and the amounts of air and oil added.