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Sample records for sour gas processing

  1. Two combined cryogenic processes cut sour natural-gas processing cost

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, R.D.; Rule, D.D.

    1985-08-19

    Acid gases can be separated by cryogenic distillation and the combining of this process with other low-temperature processing steps such as LNG or LPG production and/or nitrogen rejection holds many advantages as are discussed in this article. The processing of sour natural gas is described by examining how processes such as acid gas removal, liquefaction, and nitrogen rejection could be integrated in a cost-effective fashion. The results of this work are two combined cryogenic processes which efficiently integrate acid gas removal with downstream low temperature processing. The advantages of this technology are that it produces no waste, uses only hydrocarbons and the process steams are noncorrosive. Technology in sour gas separation is evolving rapidly. The use of acid gas stream in the low-BTU turbine fuel can significantly reduce the horsepower and capital costs associated with the integration.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE AT SOUR GAS PROCESSING PLANT SITES-PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen

    1999-02-01

    Alkanolamines are commonly used by the natural gas industry to remove hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and other acid gases from the natural gas in which they occur (''sour'' gas if hydrogen sulfide is present). At sour gas-processing plants, as at all plants that use alkanolamines for acid gas removal (AGR), spills and on-site management of wastes containing alkanolamines and associated reaction products have occasionally resulted in subsurface contamination that is presently the focus of some environmental concern. In 1994, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) initiated a three-phase program to investigate the natural attenuation processes that control the subsurface transport and fate of the most commonly used alkanolamine in Canada, monoethanolamine (MEA). Funding for the MEA research program was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. (CanOxy), Gas Research Institute (GRI), Environment Canada, and the National Energy Board of Canada. The MEA research program focused primarily on examining the biodegradability of MEA and MEA-related waste materials in soils and soil-slurries under a variety of environmentally relevant conditions, evaluating the mobility of MEA in soil and groundwater and the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques for removing contaminants and toxicity from MEA-contaminated soil. The presently inactive Okotoks sour gas-processing plant, owned by CanOxy in Alberta, Canada, was the source of samples and field data for much of the laboratory-based experimental work and was selected to be the location for the field-based efforts to evaluate remediation techniques. The objective of the research program is to provide the natural gas industry with ''real world'' data and insights developed under laboratory and field conditions regarding the effective and environmentally sound use of biological methods for the remediation of soil

  3. Sour gas distribution in the Amudaria Basin, Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, D.; Ivlev, A.; Shkutnik, E.

    1995-08-01

    The Amudaria Basin is the main sour-gas bearing region in Central Asia. In this region, sour gases occur in Upper Jurassic carbonate-reservoir rocks as well as in terrigenous rocks of Cretareous age, but the Upper Jurassic sulfate-carbonate complex is the main sour-gas bearing and producing complex. The chemical and isotopic composition of fluids in Upper Jurassic rocks show that sulfate reduction is the main process responsible for sour gas formation in the central part of the basin, where Kimmeridgian-Tithonian evaporites occur. The H{sub 2}S content of gases varies widely (0 to 10 percent by volume), even within similar carbonate traps located close to one another in the same temperature zone. Analyses of sour-gas distribution and composition in fluids in these areas indicate the main factors which control the variation of H{sub 2}S content in Upper Jurassic hydrocarbon pools in the same temperature zones. These factors include (1) the carbonate sediment facies type (shelf, barrier reef, deep water facies), and (2) within the same facies, the characteristics of traps and pools (tight, gentle, structural, phase-type, etc). The most favorable conditions for H{sub 2}S accumulation occur in hydrocarbon pools confined to the barrier reef flat and the parts of the shelf closest to it. The least favorable conditions are in pools confined to local reefs or carbonate build-ups located within the deep-water facies zone. These results are important for the prediction of H{sub 2}S in hydrocarbon pools. In most cases, H{sub 2}S in the Cretaceous complex is epigenetic. With the exception of Central Karakum zone H{sub 2}S distribution in this complex depends on the distribution and composition of Upper Jurassic evaporites.

  4. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  5. Michigan plant opens up nearby sour-gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R.J.

    1987-08-31

    The article discusses several shut-in sour-gas wells in the Manistee, Mich., area which prompted the construction and subsequent start-up in May 1986 of the Manistee gas-processing plant. The plant is currently serving several wells (operated by independent oil and gas producers) which were in need of processing prior to gas sales. The new plant consists of an MDEA (methyldiethanolamine) gas-processing unit, a conventional glycol dehydrator, and a Lo-Cat (registered trademark) hydrogen sulfide oxidation process for conversion of the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. Rated at 20 MMscfd, it is capable of removing 13.3 light tons/day of sulfur. The combination of an amine plant followed by a Lo-Cat unit has been used in several smaller plants but never before on this large a scale. The Manistee plant's Lo-Cat is the largest autocirculation unit yet build, the next largest being approximately one tenth its capacity.

  6. Preventative safety management supported by an emergency response system for sour gas production in North Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Grossmann, U.M.; Schoenbach, H.C.

    1996-12-31

    In general, the onshore production of oil and gas in North place in densely populated areas. Approximately 800 MMSCFD of gas are produced from sour gas reservoirs, with H{sub 2}S-concentrations of up to 20 Vol.-% being involved. Despite a high technical safety standard and different organizational measures in the production of sour gas, emergency cases cannot be absolutely ruled out. H{sub 2}S concentrations of more than 700 ppm will cause immediate death. In Germany the production of hydrocarbons is regulated by the Federal Mining Law. According to these regulations an extensive gas protection plan and gas alarm plan have to be set up for sour gas operations. This includes establishing an emergency response organization and a gas alarm management guide. Beyond the legal requirements Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH (MEEG) has implemented an emergency response management system in compliance with Mobil Oil`s worldwide safety philosophy to minimize the risk for the population, the employees and the environment. The installation of two electronic data systems enables the crisis management team to respond faster, more safely and in a less complicated manner to accidental sour gas releases. The introduction of the Emergency Information and Response System (EMIS) makes possible the display and manipulation of maps in different scales and geographically oriented data. The expansion of the process master computer by installing an H{sub 2}S-Gas alarm system has achieved the online measurements of H{sub 2}S concentrations, wind direction and wind velocity at sour gas production facilities. The system, which is operated at the gas dispatcher center, gives the crisis response team the opportunity to predict the location of sour gas release and the area being impacted. Consequently rescue parties will be directed to the location in a safe manner and, if necessary, measures will be managed for evacuating the residents living in the danger zones around sour gas facilities.

  7. Inhibitors, cladded trees protect sour gas wells in Abu Dhabi

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, K.M. )

    1994-06-13

    Continuous chemical inhibition has prevented corrosion downhole, and tests indicate that Inconel 625 cladding will protect the christmas trees on wells producing sour gas from the Thamama C reservoir. Metallic corrosion is a costly problem. Estimates indicate that corrosion costs the oil industry several billion dollars per year. In addition, oil companies spend over $100 million/year on corrosion inhibitors for combating downhole tubular and casing corrosion. Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. (Adnoc) has successfully completed wells in extremely harsh operating conditions with high temperatures, pressures, and high concentrations of H[sub 2]S, CO[sub 2], and brine. Such environments require special materials for downhole and surface equipment. The Thamama C reservoir, in an onshore gas field, produces gas containing H[sub 2]S and CO[sub 2] in the range of 0.7--8.0 mole % and 4.0--8.0 mole %, respectively. The Thamama C gas-gathering system comprises 19 wells connected to four trunk lines that transport produced gas and associated condensate to a central processing plant. The paper discusses material and inhibitor selection.

  8. Recovery of elemental sulfur from sour gas

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.L.

    1984-07-31

    Excess heat generated in a thermal reaction zone of a Claus sulfur recovery plant is used, by means of a high boiling point heat transfer medium, to reheat the Claus plant process stream prior to high temperature Claus catalytic conversion, and/or to regenerate Claus catalyst on which sulfur is deposited, or for other functions. In another aspect, low temperature Claus catalytic converters are operated at equivalent pressures during a cycle comprising an adsorption phase, a regeneration phase, and a cooling phase.

  9. BIODESULF(TM), A Novel Biological Technology for the Removal of H2S From Sour Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, K.C.; Stashick, J.J.; Johnson, P.E.; Kaushik, N.K.

    1997-10-01

    The state-of-the-art technologies for the removal of sulfur compounds from Sour Natural Gas (SNG) are not cost-effective when scaled down to approximately 2-5 MMSCFD. At the same time, the SNG Production is increasing at 3-6 TCF/Yr and -78 TCF potential reserves are also sour. Assuming only 3% treatment of this potential SNG market is for small volume processing, the potential U.S. Market is worth $0.14 to $0.28 billion. Therefore, the Gas Processing Industry is seeking novel, cost-effective, environmentally compatible and operator friendly technologies applicable to the small volume producers in the range of less than 1 MMSCFD to - 5 MMSCFD. A novel biological process, BIODESTJLFTM (patent pending), developed at ARCTECH removes H{sub 2}S and other sulfur contaminants that make the Natural Gas Sour. The removal is accomplished by utilizing an adapted mixed microbial culture (consortium). A variety of anaerobic microbial consortia from ARCTECH`s Microbial Culture Collection were grown and tested for removal of H{sub 2}S. One of these consortia, termed SS-11 was found to be particularly effective. Utilizing the SS-11 consortium, a process has been developed on a laboratory-scale to remove sulfur species from Sour Natural Gas at well head production pressures and temperatures. The process has been independently evaluated and found to be promising in effectively removing H{sub 2}S and other sulfur species cost effectively.

  10. Pulmonary symptoms and spirometric values in Kangan Sour Gas Refinery workers.

    PubMed

    Mostaghni, A A; Nabipour, I; Dianat, M; Hamidi, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the author measured the frequency of symptoms and/or alterations in respiratory functions in workers of the sour gas refining industry. All workers (n = 62) were employed in the most-exposed units of the Kangan Sour Gas Refinery. The refinery is approximately 250 km east of Bushehr Port along the Persian Gulf. This cross-sectional study involved a comprehensive health questionnaire, standardized clinical examinations by physicians blinded to subjects' symptoms and concerns, and multiple spirometric values. Although gas refinery workers experienced more respiratory symptoms than the 30 controls (i.e., 37.7% vs. 23.3%, respectively), who were matched for age and smoking status, pulmonary function data were not statistically different (p > .05) between the groups. The authors concluded, therefore, that in Kangan Sour Gas Refinery workers there were no respiratory or spirometric values associated with chronic low-dose exposure to sour gas plant emissions, including hydrogen sulfide. PMID:11063403

  11. Sour-gas potential in Devonian of western Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Podruski, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada is presently conducting an assessment of the undiscovered gas resources of the Western Canada sedimentary basin using the exploration play analysis technique. The first system being examined is the Devonian, which as been divided into four exploration districts based on differences in depositional and tectonic histories, hydrocarbon compositions, and exploration practices. The western Alberta sour gas district contains most of the Devonian gas reserves (10 trillion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas) and potential in 12 exploration plays. Production in the Upper Devonian Swan Hills, Leduc, and Nisku formations is from the updip (northeast), basinward termination of carbonate shelves or large reef complexes and their associated patch and pinnacle reefs. Mapping the reef or shelf carbonate transition to basinal shale and carbonate delineates the play areas in these formations. Production in the Upper Devonian Wabamun Formation is from stratigraphic traps at shelf carbonate/shelf evaporite transitions and in structural-stratigraphic traps in dolomitized shelf carbonate. Pools in these plays typically contain from 50 to 500 billion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas, have 10-30% H/sub 2/S, and occur at depths from 8000 to 15,000 ft. Potential in most plays is large, considering that between 90 and 99% of the play areas are unexplored. Present exploration is still concentrating on the conventional shelf margin or reef traps, such as in the area of the recent Caroline discovery. Subtle intrashelf traps are only beginning to be explored and could constitute a major resource target of the future, provided that economic conditions and improvements in seismic technology and geologic understanding will sustain the exploration effort in this district.

  12. Photolytic purification of sour natural gas. Final report, November 1992-November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    Amine contact and other bulk-oriented processes are most cost effective for purifying the more highly contaminated sour gases but become expensive as scavengers of low level contaminants. An exploratory experimental project was performed to provide the basis for an evaluation of selective photodissociation of the H2S molecule as the core of a process to purify lightly contaminated natural gas. Deep cleaning of contaminated natural gas was demonstrated down to 10 ppm of H2S, and no apparent reason to preclude deeper purification was evident. Preliminary capital and operating cost projections indicate that the photolytic process would be most cost effective in purifying natural gas with initial H2S levels of less than 300ppm.

  13. Evaluation of corrosion testing techniques for selection of corrosion resistant alloys for sour gas service

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, R.B.; Hibner, E.L.

    1996-08-01

    Slow strain rate (SSR) and C-ring stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests have historically been used to screen alloys for sour gas environments. The relevance of these testing techniques in predicting actual field corrosion behavior was evaluated for age-hardenable nickel base alloy 925 (UNS N09925) and alloy 718 (UNS N07718). While SSR testing provides an acceptable accelerated screening tool for ranking alloys in sour oil field environments, C-ring SCC testing ranks alloys higher in sour environments than SSR testing.

  14. CrystaSulf{sup SM} liquid redox and TDA gas phase H{sub 2}S conversion technologies for sour gas treating

    SciTech Connect

    Dalrymple, D.A.; Deberry, D.W.; Srinivas, G.

    1999-07-01

    Sour natural gas that contains hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) accounts for 15 to 25% of the gas processed in the US. Worldwide, as much as 30% of the gas reserves are sour. The need for more cost-effective approaches to process subquality gas is becoming more evident as new drilling occurs deeper within existing fields and in new fields. These types of producing zones tend to be sour. Gas containing very small amounts of sulfur (e.g., less than 0.2 long tons per day (LTPD)) can be cost-effectively treated with nonregenerable scavengers. This can be performed by injecting a liquid scavenger directly into a pipe containing the sour gas (direct injection) or by passing the sour gas through a tower containing a liquid or solid scavenger. Gas containing more than 25 to 30 LTPD of sulfur is generally processed by first separating the acid gases with an amine unit and then processing the amine offgas in a Claus plant to produce molten elemental sulfur. However, gas streams with sulfur amounts between 0.2 and 25 LTPD have generally posed treatment challenges to industry. This paper describes two emerging technologies for treating gases containing H{sub 2}S--the CrystaSulf{sup SM} liquid redox process and the TDA gas phase direct oxidation process. Both convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur and both are being pilot tested during 1999. Radian International is commercializing both processes. CrystaSulf appears to be well suited to treat sour streams containing between 0.2 and 25 LTPD of sulfur. CrystaSulf can achieve sulfur control efficiencies of 99.8% or greater and can be applied directly to sour streams or to tailgases from amine units or Clause plants. The TDA direct oxidation process provides a cost effective way to treat amine unit tailgas and in a single stage can achieve 85 to 97% sulfur control efficiencies for that stream. Following successful pilot plant testing, both processes will be available commercially.

  15. Identifying Optimal Zeolitic Sorbents for Sweetening of Highly Sour Natural Gas.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mansi S; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2016-05-10

    Raw natural gas is a complex mixture comprising methane, ethane, other hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. For sour gas fields, selective and energy-efficient removal of H2 S is one of the crucial challenges facing the natural-gas industry. Separation using nanoporous materials, such as zeolites, can be an alternative to energy-intensive amine-based absorption processes. Herein, the adsorption of binary H2 S/CH4 and H2 S/C2 H6 mixtures in the all-silica forms of 386 zeolitic frameworks is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Adsorption of a five-component mixture is utilized to evaluate the performance of the 16 most promising materials under close-to-real conditions. It is found that depending on the fractions of CH4 , C2 H6 , and CO2 , different sorbents allow for optimal H2 S removal and hydrocarbon recovery. PMID:27087591

  16. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  17. Use of optimization modeling to evaluate industrial waste reduction options: Application to a sour gas plant

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, H.D. ); Sikora, R.P. ); Baetz, B.W. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    This note reports on a study of waste reduction options for the upstream oil and gas industry and involves the application of a waste reduction optimization model to a generic sour gas plant. The waste reduction optimization model is meant as an aid for decision-making relating to the implementation of waste reduction options. The generic facility was developed from process knowledge provided by industry members of a project steering committee, as well as waste management information from industry manuals and represents a facility of average capacity and typical configuration. Several waste minimization options were modeled for selected waste streams. The selected streams were chosen based upon waste flows and disposal costs and their potential for waste reduction. The results of the modeling for the generic sour gas plant have shown that a set of cost-effective waste reduction options exist, there is significant potential for reducing the total quantity of waste to be managed and disposed of, and that implementation of the options would lead to considerable cost savings. The value and usefulness of the modeling approach lie not only in the generated results, but also in the fact that to construct the model, relevant waste flows and every possible manner that these waste flows can be minimized or processed are systematically identified. Once modeled, the parameters can be readily manipulated to determine various possible waste management strategies. To effectively use the modeling approach, the waste reduction team should have knowledge of the plant processes, existing waste management practices and costs, information on potential waste reduction options and technologies, as well as experience in mathematical modeling and analysis.

  18. Sour gas plant remediation technology research and demonstration project, Task 7.53. Topical report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.; Schmit, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. Research performed under this project was designed to supplement and be coordinated with research activities being conducted at an operational sour gas plant located in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada. These research tasks included hydrogeological site characterization, subsurface contaminant characterization, ex situ treatment of groundwater, and subsurface remediation of residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Ex situ treatment of groundwater included evaluations of air stripping, steam stripping, advanced oxidation, and biological treatment, as well as the development of an artificial freeze crystallization process. Soil vapor extraction was evaluated as a technique to address residual contamination in the unsaturated zone.

  19. Corrosion in MDEA sour gas treating plants: Correlation between laboratory testing and field experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bich, N.N.; Vacha, F.; Schubert, R.

    1996-08-01

    Corrosion in MDEA sour gas treating systems operating in severely loaded conditions is investigated using both laboratory data and actual gas plant experience. Effects of acid gas loading, flow turbulence, solution quality, temperature, etc. on corrosion are being studied. Preliminary results indicated severe corrosion of several mm/y would occur if acid gas loading, circulation rate and level of suspended solids are all high. A mitigation strategy based on operating envelopes is formulated.

  20. Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Thomas David

    2009-11-03

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing acidic gas to a subsurface formation is described herein. The method may include providing heat from one or more heaters to a portion of a subsurface formation; producing fluids that include one or more acidic gases from the formation using a heat treatment process. At least a portion of one of the acidic gases may be introduced into the formation, or into another formation, through one or more wellbores at a pressure below a lithostatic pressure of the formation in which the acidic gas is introduced.

  1. Gas souring by thermochemical sulfate reduction at 140{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.H.; Smalley, P.C.; Oxtoby, N.H.

    1995-06-01

    Natural gas in the Permian-Triassic Khuff Formation of Abu Dhabi contains variable amounts of H{sub 2}S. Gas souring occurred through thermochemical sulfate reduction of anhydrite by hydrocarbon gases. Sour gas is observed only in reservoirs hotter than a critical reaction temperature: 140{degrees}C. Petrographic examination of core from a wide depth range showed that the anhydrite reactant has been replaced by calcite reaction product only in samples deeper than 4300 m. Gas composition data show that only reservoirs deeper than 4300 m contain large quantities of H{sub 2}S (i.e., >10%). At present-day geothermal gradients, 4300 m is equivalent to 140{degrees}C. Fluid inclusion analysis of calcite reaction product has shown that calcite growth only became significant at temperatures greater than 140{degrees}C. Thus, three independent indicators all show that 140{degrees}C is the critical temperature above which gas souring by thermochemical sulfate reduction begins. The previously suggested lower temperature thresholds for other sour gas provinces (80-130{degrees}C) derive from gas composition data that may not allow adequately either for the reservoir temperature history or for the migration of gas generated at higher temperatures into present traps. Conversely, published proposals for higher threshold temperature (180-200{degrees}C) derive from short duration experimental data that are not easily extrapolated to geologically realistic temperatures and time scales. Therefore, the temperature of 140{degrees}C derived from our study of the Khuff Formation may be the best estimate of temperature required for in-situ thermochemical sulfate reduction to produce the high H{sub 2}S concentrations encountered in deep carbonate gas reservoirs.

  2. Small diameter concentric tubing extends economical life of high water - sour gas Edwards producers

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    Seven small-diameter tubing installations have been completed in two Edwards sour gas fields, Texas, which have high water production. Although there has been further decline in reservoir pressure, continuous production has been maintained without stop-cocking. Corrosion inhibition has been effective and the cost has been nominal compared to the previous expense of displacing the inhibitor each month with nitrogen. Thus, the economical life of the wells has been extended. 5 refs.

  3. Production of hot rolled steel strip for sour gas service pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Issartel, C.; Fromm, M.C.; Audebert, S.; Sauermann, M.

    1999-11-01

    Linepipe steels intended for use in sour gas environments must combine high strength, superior toughness and excellent resistance to hydrogen induced cracking. Steel-making techniques for HIC resistant steel grades (from X52 to X65) have been developed, through selective chemistry, clean steel-making practices, nonmetallic inclusion control and hot strip mill process control. The typical chemical analysis is low carbon (< 0.06 %wt), low manganese (< 1 %wt) and low phosphorus content (< O.015 %wt). The level of sulfur is restricted to 0.002 %wt with the careful addition of calcium in order to avoid the formation of elongated MnS. Special conditions adopted in the steelshop and during continuous casting allow the production of very clean steels with limited and controlled centerline segregation. These conditions gave very satisfactory HIC results. Thermomechanical hot rolling leads to a very fine ferrite-perlite microstructure with good notch toughness and consistent mechanical properties throughout the coil length. Examples of results from HIC resistant X56 and X60 industrial production are shown.

  4. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOEpatents

    Kustes, William A.; Hausberger, Arthur L.

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  5. Severe sour gas service performance of HIP-clad alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarowicz, T.A.; Byrd, J.D.; Raymond, E.L.; Bunch, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    A cladding method/material combination has been developed to provide reliable service for high-temperature and pressure sour gas wells producing extremely corrosive fluids. Over the past 10 years, extensive laboratory evaluations combined with field testing and service have demonstrated the desirable performance of hot isostatically pressed (HIP) age-hardenable alloy 625 (UNS N06625) clad oilfield components. The product appears particularly well suited for offshore applications due to the limited inclination to use chemical inhibition and the high degree of product integrity required for environmentally sensitive geographical locations.

  6. Task 21 - Evaluation of Artificial Freeze Crystallization and Natural Freeze-Thaw Processes for the Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater at the Strachan Gas Plant in Alberta, Canada - Sour Gas Remediation Technology R{ampersand}D

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    During the period from 1993 to 1996, a long-term program was initiated to conduct remediation research at the Strachan Gas Plant in Alberta, Canada. As part of this research program, optimization of the existing pump-and-treat (P{ampersand}T) facility was of interest. The cost-effective treatment of contaminated groundwater produced from the P{ampersand}T system was complicated by several factors, including: (1) increased cost and reduced effectiveness of most water treatment processes because of the cold temperatures and severe winter conditions prevalent in Alberta, (2) interference caused by the mixture of inorganic and organic contaminants found in the groundwater that can reduce the effectiveness of many water treatment processes, and (3) pretreatment to prevent scaling in existing treatment process unit operations caused by the iron, manganese, and hardness of the contaminated groundwater.

  7. Microbially-Enhanced Redox Solution Reoxidation for Sour Natural Gas Sweetening

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Brezinsky

    2008-01-15

    The specific objective of this project are to advance the technology and improve the economics of the commercial iron-based chelate processes such as LO-CAT II and SulFerox process utilizing biologically enhanced reoxidation of the redox solutions used in these processes. The project is based on the use of chelated ferric iron as the catalyst for the production of elemental sulfur, and then oxidizing bacteria, such as Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans (ATCC 23270) as an oxidizer. The regeneration of Fe{sup 3+} - chelate is accomplished by the use of these same microbes under mild conditions at 25-30 C and at atmospheric pressure to minimize the chelate degradation process. The pH of the redox solution was observed to be a key process parameter. Other parameters such as temperature, total iron concentration, gas to liquid ratio and bacterial cell densities also influence the overall process. The second part of this project includes experimental data and a kinetic model of microbial H{sub 2}S removal from sour natural gas using thiobacillus species. In the experimental part, a series of experiments were conducted with a commercial chelated iron catalyst at pH ranges from 8.7 to 9.2 using a total iron concentration range from 925 ppm to 1050 ppm in the solution. Regeneration of the solution was carried out by passing air through the solution. Iron oxidizing bacteria were used at cell densities of 2.3 x 10{sup 7}cells/ml for optimum effective performance. In the modeling part, oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ions by the iron oxidizing bacteria - Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans was studied for application to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The factors that can directly affect the oxidation rate such as dilution rate, temperature, and pH were analyzed. The growth of the microorganism was assumed to follow Monod type of growth kinetics. Dilution rate had influence on the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. Higher dilution rates caused washout of the biomass. The oxidation rate was

  8. Accelerated field facility development for hot sour gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, L.K.

    1983-10-01

    This paper presents the chronological plan by which a grass roots sweetening facility was constructed in a minimum amount of time. The facility design was based on production with 9% carbon dioxide and 40 ppm hydrogen sulfide. Flowing wellhead temperatures were predicted to be approximately 300/sup 0/F with flowing wellhead pressures to 11,500 psi. The production facility, with a current total nominal capacity of 100 MMcf/D, was installed as five separate parallel sweetening units. The units were put on-stream in phases in order to maintain a sweetening capacity schedule compatible with wells being put on production. The first units were available for service in three months. All five units were complete in nine months, and a permanent facility installation was commissioned three months later. The process design, equipment procurement, and installation phases of the project were pursued concurrently. Three different sweetening systems were operated during the facility development. A conventional DEA (diethanolamine) system was used because of its simple operation. Conversions were made to a proprietary MDEA (methyldiethanolamine) system in order to increase capacity. A proprietary activated MDEA was tested and operated in order to determine sweetening system selection for future facility capacity and for other applications. Included is a discussion of the project development procedure and key considerations that led to minimal development time. General comparisons are made concerning the performance of several sweetening systems.

  9. a Real-Time GIS Platform for High Sour Gas Leakage Simulation, Evaluation and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Liu, H.; Yang, C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of high-sulfur gas fields, also known as sour gas field, is faced with a series of safety control and emergency management problems. The GIS-based emergency response system is placed high expectations under the consideration of high pressure, high content, complex terrain and highly density population in Sichuan Basin, southwest China. The most researches on high hydrogen sulphide gas dispersion simulation and evaluation are used for environmental impact assessment (EIA) or emergency preparedness planning. This paper introduces a real-time GIS platform for high-sulfur gas emergency response. Combining with real-time data from the leak detection systems and the meteorological monitoring stations, GIS platform provides the functions of simulating, evaluating and displaying of the different spatial-temporal toxic gas distribution patterns and evaluation results. This paper firstly proposes the architecture of Emergency Response/Management System, secondly explains EPA's Gaussian dispersion model CALPUFF simulation workflow under high complex terrain and real-time data, thirdly explains the emergency workflow and spatial analysis functions of computing the accident influencing areas, population and the optimal evacuation routes. Finally, a well blow scenarios is used for verify the system. The study shows that GIS platform which integrates the real-time data and CALPUFF models will be one of the essential operational platforms for high-sulfur gas fields emergency management.

  10. Stopping a water crossflow in a sour-gas producing well

    SciTech Connect

    Hello, Y. Le; Woodruff, J.

    1998-09-01

    Lacq is a sour-gas field in southwest France. After maximum production of 774 MMcf/D in the 1970`s, production is now 290 MMcf/D, with a reservoir pressure of 712 psi. Despite the loss of pressure, production is maintained by adapting the surface equipment and well architecture to reservoir conditions. The original 5-in. production tubing is being replaced with 7-in. tubing to sustain production rates. During openhole cleaning, the casing collapsed in Well LA141. The primary objective was to plug all possible hydraulic communication paths into the lower zones. The following options were available: (1) re-entering the well from the top and pulling the fish before setting cement plugs; (2) sidetracking the well; and (3) drilling a relief well to intercept Well LA141 above the reservoirs. The decision was made to start with the first option and switch to a sidetrack if this option failed.

  11. Localized corrosion testing of CRA materials in elevated temperature sour gas environments

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, P.; Oldfield, J.W.; Al-Maslamani, M.

    1999-11-01

    An exposure test program has been undertaken to investigate the localized corrosion resistance of Alloys 28, 825, G3 and 625 in two simulated sour gas environments at 150 C. The chloride levels in these test environments, containing 30 psi (0.21 MPa) H{sub 2}S and 101 psi (0.70 MPa) CO{sub 2}, were 150 ppm and 30,000 ppm. The general corrosion rate of each material was found to be negligible in each test. Alloy 825 alone was susceptible to minor pitting and crevice initiation in the 150 ppm chloride environment. Increasing the chloride level to 30,000 ppm resulted in more severe crevice attack of Alloy 825 and crevice corrosion of Alloy 28. Alloys G3 and 625 were not susceptible to localized corrosion in either test environment. The exposure tests were supported by complementary electrochemical polarization curves in the low chloride environment. The curves did not exhibit clearly defined passive regions, which were masked by additional anodic current from the oxidation of H{sub 2}S.

  12. Application of two-phase flow modeling as a basis for scheduling corrosion maintenance activities in wet sour gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, D.; Bich, N.N.

    1997-08-01

    Pipeline failures attributed to internal corrosion in the oil and gas producing industry have not been decreasing despite the many corrosion mitigation, monitoring and inspection programs implemented. This paper describes how preliminary investigations for evaluating the susceptibility of internal corrosion for wet sour gas pipelines have been based on integrating the latest knowledge in fluid flow and sour gas corrosion mechanisms. It is anticipated future efforts to correlate the onset of slug flow regime with historical corrosion and inspection data may lead to development of an improved criteria for predicting the onset of corrosive water traps and for triggering appropriate maintenance activities. This paper provides details of two corrosion failure Case Studies where application of flow modeling has improved the understanding of the operating hazards that contributed to the formation of a corrosive environment leading to high-rate initiation and growth of localized pitting corrosion. Preliminary analysis indicates slug flow pattern, and long water residence time of water within stagnant traps increases the likelihood of pitting corrosion.

  13. HPLC and MS/MS study of polar contaminants in a wetland adjoining a sour-gas plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, L.C.; Headley, J.V.; Peru, K.; Spiegel, K.; Gandrass, J.

    1995-12-31

    An analytical methodology was developed for target analyses and broad spectrum characterization of polar contaminants such as nitrogenous and organosulfur compounds in wetlands using the complementary techniques of HPLC with electrochemical (EC) detection and tandem MS with probe and electrospray ionization. Tandem MS was well suited for the identification and quantification of mixtures of polar compounds in water samples and soil extracts, while HPLC-EC provided sensitive detection of compounds transparent to MS detection and conventional methods. The usefulness of the methodology is demonstrated by studying the removal of polar contaminants from a wetland in western Canada affected by releases of hydrocarbon-rich condensate and free product from an adjoining sour-gas plant. The concern is that the mobile water-soluble polar contaminants may not be as efficiently attenuated by volatilization or adsorption processes as the more hydrophobic hydrocarbons and that some of the polar toxic compounds may break through to contaminate groundwater and surface waters. Samples of groundwater, surface water, and aqueous soil extracts were analyzed to quantify levels of polar contaminants in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons. The use of water extracts reduced the background interference from hydrocarbons and other non-polar compounds that were present in the soil samples. HPLC-EC was used to quantify the target compounds that included monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and methyldiethanolamine and sulfolane-derived compounds while tandem MS was used to identify related compounds and degradation products. Influent concentrations were in the ppm range and discharge concentrations were in the ppb range.

  14. "Sour gas" hydrothermal jarosite: Ancient to modern acid-sulfate mineralization in the southern Rio Grande Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lueth, V.W.; Rye, R.O.; Peters, L.

    2005-01-01

    deeply circulating meteoric water. Jarosite ??34S values range from -24??? to 5???, overlapping the values for barite and gypsum at the high end of the range and for sulfides at the low end. Most ??34S values for barite are 10.6??? to 13.1???, and many ??34S values for gypsum range from 13.1??? to 13.9??? indicating that a component of aqueous sulfate was derived from Permian evaporites (??34 S=12??2???). The requisite H2SO4 for jarosite formation was derived from oxidation of H2S which was likely largely sour gas derived from the thermochemical reduction of Permian sulfate. The low ??34S values for the precursor H2S probably resulted from exchange deeper in the basin with the more abundant Permian SO42- at ???150 to 200 ??C. Jarosite formed at shallow levels after the pH buffering capacity of the host rock (typically limestone) was neutralized by precipitation of earlier minerals. Some limestone-hosted deposits contain caves that may have been caused by the low pH of the deep basin fluids due to the addition of deep-seated HF and other magmatic gases during periods of renewed rifting. Caves in other deposits may be due to sulfuric acid speleogenesis as a result of H2S incursion into oxygenated groundwaters. The isotopic data in these "sour gas" jarosite occurrences encode a record of episodic tectonic or hydrologic processes that have operated in the rift over the last 10 my. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Caroline pipeline failure: Findings on corrosion mechanisms in wet sour gas systems containing significant CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bich, N.N.; Goerz, K.

    1996-08-01

    A leak occurred in the 5-32S flowline between Junction 1 and the South Compressor Station in the Canada Limited Caroline Complex gathering system near Sundre, Alberta, due to internal wet H{sub 2}S (hydrogen sulfide) and CO{sub 2} (carbon dioxide) pitting corrosion at the bottom of the pipeline. The significant contributing factors to the extremely high pitting corrosion rate, approximately 30 mm/y (1,200 mpy), are considered to be unexpectedly high amounts of chloride ions in the produced well fluids, settling of the produced water under low flow conditions, high condensate/water ratio, inadequate inhibition and pigging, and insufficient monitoring programs. Corrosion mechanisms in sour gas gathering systems with significant CO{sub 2} concentration were reviewed. Preliminary findings pointed to CO{sub 2} partial pressure, not H{sub 2}S, as a main corrosion rate determining factor. The steps taken to prevent similar future incidents were also reviewed.

  16. Iron control in west Texas sour-gas wells provides sustained production increases

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.L.; Dill, W.R.; Besler, M.R.; McFatridge, D.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Permian Basin operators have recorded sustained production increases in oil wells by preventing precipitation of iron sulfide and other sulfur-containing species. This improvement has resulted largely from cleaning out tubing before acidizing and from preventing the precipitation of ferrous sulfide and the formation of elemental sulfur by simultaneous use of iron chelants and sulfide-control agents. Previously used methods gave only temporary production increases that terminated when iron dissolved by the stimulation acid reprecipitated in the pay zone and damage the formation after the stimulation acid was spent. This paper describes a method to optimize iron sulfide control, methods to minimize reprecipitation, and case histories from the Permian Basin that show improved methods to control iron in sour-well environments.

  17. Gas souring by thermochemical sulfate reduction at 140{degree}C: Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Baric, G.; Jungwirth, M.

    1997-05-01

    The authors of this discussion paper describe the relationship of the findings described by Worden et al (1995) to their recent research in Croatia. Baric and Jungwirth examined the origin of hydrogen sulfide and other organic sulfur compounds in produced gas from gas condensate-filled Stari Gradac field. Based on their findings, they consider Worden`s basic assumption to be over simplified. In this article they present other disagreements with the findings described in Worden et al (1995).

  18. TSR versus non-TSR processes and their impact on gas geochemistry and carbon stable isotopes in Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate gas reservoirs in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. Y.; Worden, R. H.; Jin, Z. J.; Liu, W. H.; Li, J.; Gao, B.; Zhang, D. W.; Hu, A. P.; Yang, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeozoic and lowermost Mesozoic marine carbonate reservoirs of the Sichuan Basin in China contain variably sour and very dry gas. The source of the gas in the Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs is not known for certain and it has proved difficult to discriminate and differentiate the effects of thermal cracking- and TSR-related processes for these gases. Sixty-three gas samples were collected and analysed for their composition and carbon stable isotope values. The gases are all typically very dry (alkane gases being >97.5% methane), with low (<1%) nitrogen and highly variable H2S and CO2. Carboniferous gas is negligibly sour while the Lower Triassic gas tends to be most sour. The elevated H2S (up to 62%) is due to thermochemical sulphate reduction with the most sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs being deeper than 4800 m. The non-TSR affected Carboniferous gas is a secondary gas that was derived from the cracking of sapropelic kerogen-derived oil and primary gas and is highly mature. Carboniferous (and non-sour Triassic and Permian) gas has unusual carbon isotopes with methane and propane being isotopically heavier than ethane (a reversal of typical low- to moderate-maturity patterns). The gas in the non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs has the same geochemical and isotopic characteristics (and therefore the same source) as the Carboniferous gas. TSR in the deepest Triassic reservoirs altered the gas composition reaching 100% dryness in the deepest, most sour reservoirs showing that ethane and propane react faster than methane during TSR. Ethane evolves to heavier carbon isotope values than methane during TSR leading to removal of the reversed alkane gas isotope trend found in the Carboniferous and non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs. However, methane was directly involved in TSR as shown by the progressive increase in its carbon isotope ratio as gas souring proceeded. CO2 increased in concentration as gas souring proceeded, but

  19. Iron sulfide as a water-deposited scale in sour gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Claassen, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Iron is soluble in reservoir waters which have high salinity and high hydrogen sulfide content. As the well produces, iron sulfide is precipitated due to the drop in pressure with the resultant increase in pH. The crystallines attach to the lower portion of the tubing, where either bimetallic or crevice corrosion occur beneath the crystallines. Gas condensate wells deposit a high molecular weight material, such as asphaltene, on the iron sulfide crystallites as they deposit. Under these conditions the scale cannot be removed by hydrochloric acid, surfactants, or chelating agents. Corrosion of the metal continues if the combination layer of iron sulfide and asphaltene is cracked, porous, or spalls, but stops if the layer is dense and non-friable. The layer of scale can be removed only by mechanical means, or by removing the binder chemically.

  20. Cancer downwind from sour gas refineries: the perception and the reality of an epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, M T; Spitzer, W O; Hutcheon, M E; Dales, R E; Eastridge, L M; Steinmetz, N; Tousignant, P; Hobbs, C

    1989-01-01

    A rural population in southwestern Alberta, Canada, living downwind from natural gas refineries, has expressed concerns about an excess of adverse health outcomes over the last 25 years. This has escalated to the point of causing a prominent sociopolitical controversy within the province. As part of a large field epidemiologic study undertaken during the summer of 1985 to investigate possible health effects, a residential cohort study was carried out to study cancer incidence. The cohort was defined as all those individuals who resided in the area in 1970. A total of 30,175 person-years of risk within Alberta were experienced by this cohort from 1970 to 1984. The incident cancers during this period were enumerated by computerized record linkage with the Alberta Cancer Registry. Age- and sex-standardized incidence ratios, based on expected rates from three prespecified demographically similar, nonmetropolitan Southern Alberta populations, were 1.05, 1.09, and 1.03, respectively, none of which was significantly different from unity. Although they do not address the issue of etiologic association, these data can provide considerable reassurance to a community that was convinced it had experienced an epidemic of cancer. PMID:2785032

  1. Novel single stripper with side-draw to remove ammonia and sour gas simultaneously for coal-gasification wastewater treatment and the industrial implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, D.C.; Yu, Z.J.; Chen, Y.; Qian, Y.

    2009-06-15

    A large amount of wastewater is produced in the Lurgi coal-gasification process with the complex compounds carbon dioxide, ammonia, phenol, etc., which cause a serious environmental problem. In this paper, a novel stripper operated at elevated pressure is designed to improve the pretreatment process. In this technology, two noticeable improvements were established. First, the carbon dioxide and ammonia were removed simultaneously in a single stripper where sour gas (mainly carbon dioxide) is removed from the tower top and the ammonia vapor is drawn from the side and recovered by partial condensation. Second, the ammonia is removed before the phenol recovery to reduce the pH value of the subsequent extraction units, so as the phenol removal performance of the extraction is greatly improved. To ensure the operational efficiency, some key operational parameters are analyzed and optimized though simulation. It is shown that when the top temperature is kept at 40 C and the weight ratio of the side draw to the feed is above 9%, the elevated pressures can ensure the removal efficiency of NH{sub 3} and carbon dioxide and the desired purified water as the bottom product of the unit is obtained. A real industrial application demonstrates the attractiveness of the new technique: it removes 99.9% CO{sub 2} and 99.6% ammonia, compared to known techniques which remove 66.5% and 94.4%, respectively. As a result, the pH value of the wastewater is reduced from above 9 to below 7. This ensures that the phenol removal ratio is above 93% in the following extraction units. The operating cost is lower than that of known techniques, and the operation is simplified.

  2. Hydrocarbon Processing`s gas processes `96

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This review summarizes 71 processes, describing the process, its application, products, operating conditions, economics, installations, and licensor. Processes include desulfurization, CO{sub 2} removal, sulfur recovery, NGL recovery, deoxygenation, hydrogen production and separation, cryogenic separation of hydrocarbon fractions, dehydration, liquefaction of natural gas, LPG recovery, denitrogenation, and synthesis gas production. While most processes apply to natural gas, some are also useful for refinery gas, synthesis gas, coal mine gas, and tail gas from other processes.

  3. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  4. Failures in sour services of southwestern China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Xia, D.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Xian, A.; Shan, Y.

    1995-12-31

    There were several catastrophes that occurred because of material failures in sour services during the past decades, from the 1960s to the 1980s, in the Sichuan natural gas fields. The factors which induced these destructive accidents are summarized. The remedial measures and effects are reviewed. The work of anticorrosion and failure in sour service is a comprehensive study -- a systematic engineering. There are quite different failure mechanisms in sour service from the drilling, production, gathering, desulfurization, and transportation procedures. Therefore, the counter measures also should be diversified; i.e., the material and techniques selection, instruments, inhibitors, coating, the technique of construction, and the structure design, etc. All the above-listed factors could influence the anticorrosion ability of the equipment or apparatus. It is one of the major concerns for the exploitation of natural gas.

  5. Biological souring and mitigation in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gieg, Lisa M; Jack, Tom R; Foght, Julia M

    2011-10-01

    Souring in oil field systems is most commonly due to the action of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes, a diverse group of anaerobic microorganisms that respire sulfate and produce sulfide (the key souring agent) while oxidizing diverse electron donors. Such biological sulfide production is a detrimental, widespread phenomenon in the petroleum industry, occurring within oil reservoirs or in topside processing facilities, under low- and high-temperature conditions, and in onshore or offshore operations. Sulfate reducers can exist either indigenously in deep subsurface reservoirs or can be "inoculated" into a reservoir system during oil field development (e.g., via drilling operations) or during the oil production phase. In the latter, souring most commonly occurs during water flooding, a secondary recovery strategy wherein water is injected to re-pressurize the reservoir and sweep the oil towards production wells to extend the production life of an oil field. The water source and type of production operation can provide multiple components such as sulfate, labile carbon sources, and sulfate-reducing communities that influence whether oil field souring occurs. Souring can be controlled by biocides, which can non-specifically suppress microbial populations, and by the addition of nitrate (and/or nitrite) that directly impacts the sulfate-reducing population by numerous competitive or inhibitory mechanisms. In this review, we report on the diversity of sulfate reducers associated with oil reservoirs, approaches for determining their presence and effects, the factors that control souring, and the approaches (along with the current understanding of their underlying mechanisms) that may be used to successfully mitigate souring in low-temperature and high-temperature oil field operations. PMID:21858492

  6. Effect of plasma treatments on the steam-sour gas resistance and lubricity of elastomers. [Rubbers used: copoly(ethene-propene); copoly(1,1-difluoroethane-hexafluoropropene); copoly(2-propenenitrile-1,3 butadiene); plasma polymerized tetrafluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Bieg, K.W.; Cuthrell, R.E.; Nelson, G.C.

    1982-03-01

    Elastomers are widely used in drilling and logging applications as static seals such as casing packers and dynamic seals such as o-rings for drill bits. Static seals often fail in service because of thermochemical degradation due to the combined effects of steam and sour gas at elevated temperatures that are characteristic of deep wells. Dynamic seals frequently fail because of abrasive wear that occurs even at the low temperatures that prevail in shallow wells. We have shown that improved steam-sour gas resistance of a fully formulated ethylene-propylene rubber at elevated temperatures can be achieved by coating the rubber with a thin film of plasma polymerized tetrafluoroethylene. Thus, no change in the mechanical properties of the coated rubber was observed after exposure to steam and sour gas at 275/sup 0/C for 48 h. In contrast, the shear modulus of the upcoated rubber increased by 96% after the same exposure. While the effectiveness of the fluorocarbon coating decreased at longer exposure times, short-term protection of elastomers could be beneficial in certain logging operations. It was also found that the coefficient of friction of a nitrile rubber (Buna N) was reduced by 20% after treatment with a carbon tetrafluoride plasma. This enhanced lubricity could lead to better wear characteristics in conventional drill bits where the seal is in contact with a moving metal surface. The surfaces of the plasma treated elastomers were characterized by water contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

  7. Gas-separation process

    DOEpatents

    Toy, Lora G.; Pinnau, Ingo; Baker, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    A process for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material.

  8. Gas processing handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Brief details are given of processes including: BGC-Lurgi slagging gasification, COGAS, Exxon catalytic coal gasification, FW-Stoic 2-stage, GI two stage, HYGAS, Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi pressure gasification, Saarberg-Otto, Shell, Texaco, U-Gas, W-D.IGI, Wellman-Galusha, Westinghouse, and Winkler coal gasification processes; the Rectisol process; the Catacarb and the Benfield processes for removing CO/SUB/2, H/SUB/2s and COS from gases produced by the partial oxidation of coal; the selectamine DD, Selexol solvent, and Sulfinol gas cleaning processes; the sulphur-tolerant shift (SSK) process; and the Super-meth process for the production of high-Btu gas from synthesis gas.

  9. Effects of Ultrasound Assistance on Dehydration Processes and Bioactive Component Retention of Osmo-Dried Sour Cherries.

    PubMed

    Siucińska, Karolina; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Połubok, Aleksandra; Konopacka, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Despite having numerous health benefits, dried sour cherries have proven to be more acceptable to consumers when infused with sugar or other sweeteners to enhance their flavor, which, in turn, leads to serious anthocyanin losses. For this reason, a consideration was made for the application of ultrasound to accelerate solid gain and shorten drying time, thus favoring bioactive component retention. To determine the usefulness of ultrasound as a tool for sour cherry osmotic infusion enhancement, the effect of sonication time on dehydration effectiveness, as well as the stability of bioactive components during osmotic treatment and consecutive convective drying, was investigated. Fruits were osmo-dehydrated using a 60% sucrose solution for 120 min (40 °C), during which, ultrasound of 25 kHz (0.4 W/cm(2) ), was applied for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, after which, the fruits were convectively dried. In the range of the applied ultrasound energy no significant effect of sonication on mass transfer intensification was observed; moreover, longer acoustic treatment seemed to retard moisture removal during subsequent convective drying, which can be related to the breakdown of the parenchyma cell walls caused by the prolonged ultrasound (US) action. It was concluded that although US assistance could be considered neutral for bioactive component retention, excessive sonication time can lead to some anthocyanin deterioration. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the particular anthocyanin alterations, both during dehydration and final drying, occurred in a similar way. Sonication time prolongation caused approximately 10% more bioactive compound deterioration, than earlier, shorter trials. PMID:27299365

  10. Methanol simplifies gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Minkkinen, A.; Jonchere, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    Recent development of a simple single solvent technology goes far to meet the complete gas processing needs. The use of methanol, as practiced in the IPFEXOL process, where it is used not only as a hydrate inhibitor and antifreeze agent but as an acid gas extraction solvent makes the complete gas processing scheme simple and probably the most cost effective as well. This paper presents several gas processing applications where water, hydrocarbon liquids and acid gases are removed from natural wellhead production gases. Water and hydrocarbon liquids removal is achieved to the extent necessary to make a pipeline transportable gas or meet downstream cryogenic processing demands. These are illustrated with recent applications of the IFPEX-1 process successfully operating today in North America and the Far East. A recent North Sea offshore project is highlighted showing the particular advantages in offshore applications. For the removal of water and hydrocarbon liquids together with a substantial quantity of not only CO{sub 2} but H{sub 2}S, the most complete methanol use scheme is presented. This is illustrated with the development of an advanced version of the IFPEX-2 process containing some innovative but simple equipment concepts which yields high pressure dry acid gases for reinjection or a high quality acid gas destined to Claus type sulfur recovery.

  11. Gas-separation process

    DOEpatents

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.; Baker, R.W.

    1994-01-25

    A process is described for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material. 6 figures.

  12. HOT GAS CLEANUP PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify and classify 22 hot gas cleanup (HGC) processes for desulfurizing reducing gases at above 430 C according to absorbent type into groups employing solid, molten salt, and molten metal absorbents. It describes each process in terms of...

  13. Gas treating process

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, R.H.

    1990-01-09

    This patent describes a process for preventing oxygen from deactivating a catalyst susceptible to deactivation by oxygen. It comprises: scavenging oxygen contained in a feed gas stream comprising carbon monoxide and water vapor as reactant gases in the presence of an oxidation catalyst under conditions which remove essentially all of the oxygen by reaction with hydrogen sulfide and contacting the resultant gas stream, containing the reactants but essentially free of oxygen, with a catalyst susceptible to deactivation by oxygen but active for the water gas shift reaction. The contacting being under conditions resulting in the conversion of at least some of the carbon monoxide and water vapor to hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

  14. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Korosy, L.B.; Senatore, P.J.

    1982-12-28

    A regenerative process for the desulfurization of gas containing from about 100 ppm to about 30 volume percent sulfur dioxide in which the gas is contacted at from about 15/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/C with an about 0.1 molar to saturated aqueous solution of potassium citrate at a ph of from about 3 to 9 and the contacted solution is then heated to strip sulfur dioxide therefrom.

  15. Organic constituents in sour condensates from shale-oil and petroleum-crude runs at Sohio's Toledo refinery: identification and wastewater-control-technology considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wingender, R J; Harrison, W; Raphaelian, L A

    1981-02-01

    Samples of sour condensate generated from the continuous processing of both crude shale oil and petroleum crude were collected and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at Argonne National Laboratory and Radian Corporation. Qualitatively, the predominant types of organic compounds present in the shale-oil sour condensate were pyridines and anilines; semiquantitatively, these compounds were present at a concentration of 5.7 ppM, or about 78% of the total concentration of components detected. In contrast, straight-chain alkanes were the predominant types of compounds found in the sour condensate produced during isocracking of conventional crude oil. The approximate concentration of straight-chain alkanes, 8.3 ppM, and of other branched and/or unsaturated hydrocarbons, 6.8 ppM, amounted to 88% of the total concentration of components detected in the sour condensate from the petroleum-crude run. Nitrogen compounds in the shale-oil sour condensate may necessitate alterations of the sour water and refinery wastewater-treatment facilities to provide for organics degradation and to accommodate the potentially greater ammonia loadings. This would include use of larger amounts of caustic to enhance ammonia removal by steam stripping. Possible problems associated with biological removal of organic-nitrogen compounds should be investigated in future experimental shale-oil refining runs.

  16. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, O.M.

    1987-11-10

    An improved process for converting all natural gas hydrocarbon components with carbon numbers of 1 to 4 into liquid hydrocarbons with carbon numbers equal to or greater than 5, and into a hydrogen-rich gaseous by-product which is described comprising the following steps: A. Splitting the natural gas feed into a rich gas stream comprising C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons and a lean gas stream comprising C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons; B. Catalytically converting the rich gas stream in a catalytic bed reactor in which the gas-suspended solid phase is a catalyst maintained at a temperature not exceeding 600/sup 0/C.; Separating the gaseous effluent from the catalytic bed reactor into (1) a hydrogen-rich stream; (2) a lean gas stream comprising hydrogen, C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons, (3) a rich gas stream comprising C/sub 2/ and C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons and (4) a liquid product stream comprising C/sub 5/ + hydrocarbons; D. Pre-heating all lean gas streams, including recycle, in a furnace; E. Transferring the catalyst into a short residence time reactor; F. Reacting an ionized plasma derived from the hydrogen stream with the pre-heated lean gas stream; G. Separating the gas-solid stream resulting from the reaction into a spent catalyst phase stream and a gaseous effluent stream; H. Separating the gaseous effluent stream from the disengagement means into four streams; I. Regenerating the spent catalyst stream in a regenerator by combustion of the carbon build-up on the spent catalyst in an oxidizing gas stream; J. Transferring the regenerated catalyst back into the catalytic bed reactor and into the short residence time reactor; K. Recycling all rich gas streams obtained in steps C and H back to the catalytic bed reactor; L. Recycling the lean gas stream obtained in step H back to the pre-heating furnace of step D.

  17. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, SUCCiOlC acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  18. Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems using sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios: The example of oil reservoir souring control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope ratios in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had δ18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in δ18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that

  19. Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1995-10-10

    Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode. 5 figs.

  20. Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode.

  1. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  2. The use of fixed bed absorbents for flexible operation on the SAGE gas processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carnell, P.J.H.; Joslin, K.W.; Woodham, P.R.

    1995-11-01

    Mobil North Sea Ltd. operates the SAGE Gas Terminal at St. Fergus, Scotland on behalf of the SAGE partners. This terminal is capable of processing 1,150 MMscfd of sour gas with the sales gas being delivered into the British Gas distribution network and NGL`s exported by pipelines to Shell`s NGL fractionation plant at Mossmorran and BP`s fractionation plant at Kinneil. In order to meet the specifications for the sales gas and NGL produced while processing different mixtures of three separate feed gases produced by three independently operated production platforms the SAGE Gas Terminal has utilized ICI Katalco`s PURASPEC{trademark} processes to provide flexibility and reduce cost. This paper discusses how and where these fixed bed processes are utilized.

  3. Process for removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hansford, R.C.; Hass, R.H.

    1981-01-06

    A process for the removal of H/sub 2/S from a feed gas, and the production of sulfur therefrom, is effected by oxidation with oxygen and/or SO/sub 2/ at temperatures between 250* and 450* F. The oxidation is conducted in the presence of an extremely stable oxidation catalyst comprising an oxide and/or sulfide of vanadium supported on a non-alkaline porous refractory oxide. Sulfur deposition and consequent catalyst deactivation are prevented by maintaining the partial pressure of free sulfur in the oxidation reactor below that necessary for condensation. H/sub 2/, CO, and light hydrocarbons present in the feed gas are not oxidized. Typical uses of the process include the removal of H/sub 2/S and the production of sulfur from sour natural gases or gases obtained from the gasification of coal. Feed gases which contain SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S in mole ratios greater than 5, or which contain other gaseous sulfur compounds such as CO, CS/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/ and mercaptans, can be desulfurized by hydrogenating all of such sulfur components to H/sub 2/S and subsequently removing the H/sub 2/S from the hydrogenated feed gas by the oxidation process of the invention. This hydrogenation-oxidation combination is especially contemplated for the desulfurization of claus tail gases and stack gas effluents.

  4. Process for removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hansford, R.C.; Hass, R.H.

    1982-01-19

    A process for the removal of H2S from a feed gas, and the production of sulfur therefrom, is effected by oxidation with oxygen and/or SO2 at temperatures between 250 and 450/sup 0/F. The oxidation is conducted in the presence of an extremely stable oxidation catalyst comprising an oxide and/or sulfide of vanadium supported on a non-alkaline porous refractory oxide. Sulfur deposition and consequent catalyst deactivation are prevented by maintaining the partial pressure of free sulfur in the oxidation reactor below that necessary for condensation. H2, CO, and light hydrocarbons present in the feed gas are not oxidized. Typical uses of the process include the removal of H2S and the production of sulfur from sour natural gases or gases obtained from the gasification of coal. Feed gases which contain SO2 and H2S in mole ratios greater than 5, or which contain other gaseous sulfur compounds such as CO CS2, SO3 and mercaptans, can be desulfurized by hydrogenating all of such sulfur components to H2S and subsequently removing the H2S from the hydrogenated feed gas by the oxidation process of the invention. This hydrogenation-oxidation combination is especially contemplated for the desulfurization of claus tail gases and stack gas effluents.

  5. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  6. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Description. Sour cream results from the souring, by lactic acid producing bacteria, of pasteurized cream... titratable acidity of not less than 0.5 percent, calculated as lactic acid. (b) Optional ingredients....

  7. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Description. Sour cream results from the souring, by lactic acid producing bacteria, of pasteurized cream... titratable acidity of not less than 0.5 percent, calculated as lactic acid. (b) Optional ingredients....

  8. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Description. Sour cream results from the souring, by lactic acid producing bacteria, of pasteurized cream... titratable acidity of not less than 0.5 percent, calculated as lactic acid. (b) Optional ingredients....

  9. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Description. Sour cream results from the souring, by lactic acid producing bacteria, of pasteurized cream... titratable acidity of not less than 0.5 percent, calculated as lactic acid. (b) Optional ingredients....

  10. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Description. Sour cream results from the souring, by lactic acid producing bacteria, of pasteurized cream... titratable acidity of not less than 0.5 percent, calculated as lactic acid. (b) Optional ingredients....

  11. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  12. Trials of flexible pipe in sour service reveal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Maslamani, M.J.

    1996-11-04

    Field trials on flexible pipe offshore Qatar have shown that, under sour conditions, the layered, composite material can suffer severe degradation leading to failure. The failure demonstrates the significant effects of stress level, environmental aggressiveness, and localized hard zones in promoting sulfide stress cracking. Permeability of the sour gas through the composite layer of the flexible pipe resulted in varying degrees of sulfide attack and hydrogen embrittlement, depending on the susceptibility of the multilayered material. In the trials, the material was used as a gas-lift line in a sour-oil field in the Arabian Gulf. Flexible pipes have been used successfully for transporting methanol, benzene, and gas condensates in wet sweet environments at temperatures of up to 80 C. Little or no information, however, has been available as to its corrosion resistance in sour-service wells containing 6% CO{sub 2} with 3% H{sub 2}S partial pressures and at moderate temperatures. The paper discusses an underwater survey to evaluate the damage, visual inspection, mechanical tests, metallographic exam, and trial results.

  13. Relating sensory and chemical properties of sour cream to consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shepard, L; Miracle, R E; Leksrisompong, P; Drake, M A

    2013-09-01

    Sour cream is a widely popular acidified dairy product. Volatile compounds and organic acids and their specific contributions to flavor or acceptance have not been established, nor has a comprehensive study been conducted to characterize drivers of liking for sour cream. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical and sensory properties of sour cream and to determine the drivers of liking for sour cream. Descriptive sensory and instrumental analyses followed by consumer testing were conducted. Flavor and texture attributes of 32 (22 full-fat, 6 reduced-fat, and 4 fat-free) commercial sour creams were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel. Percent solids, percent fat, pH, titratable acidity, and colorimetric measurements were conducted to characterize physical properties of sour creams. Organic acids were evaluated by HPLC and volatile aroma active compounds were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing (n=201) was conducted on selected sour creams, followed by external preference mapping. Full-fat sour creams were characterized by the lack of surface gloss and chalky textural attributes, whereas reduced-fat and fat-free samples displayed high intensities of these attributes. Full-fat sour creams were higher in cooked/milky and milk fat flavors than the reduced-fat and fat-free samples. Reduced-fat and fat-free sour creams were characterized by cardboard, acetaldehyde/green, and potato flavors, bitter taste, and astringency. Lactic acid was the prominent organic acid in all sour creams, followed by acetic and citric acids. High aroma-impact volatile compounds in sour creams were 2,3-butanedione, acetic acid, butyric acid, octanal, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 1-octene-3-one, and acetaldehyde. Positive drivers of liking for sour cream were milk fat, cooked/milky and sweet aromatic flavors, opacity, color intensity, and adhesiveness. This comprehensive study established

  14. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Work continued on Task No. 3. Particular attention was given to the back pressure control at the two gaseous effluent outlets and to the incineration of these effluents prior to their disposal. Temperature of the riser/regenerator and steam requirements were predicted from the gasification kinetics of coke and of coal char experimentally determined at atmospheric pressure, but at somewhat lower temperatures by H. Heinemann. The results of interactions of CH4 molecules with a Hydrogen Plasma in the adsorbed layer at the surface of refractory oxides were compared with those in the gas phase in order to select the optimum temperature range in the Cyclone reactor.

  15. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  16. Cryogenic gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, E.P.

    1984-04-24

    Higher boiling constituents are separated from a normally gaseous feed mixture, predominating in lower boiling constituents and containing significant amounts of such higher boiling constituents, such as natural gas by fractionally distilling a feed mixture having a temperature substantially below atmospheric temperature at a pressure substantially above atmospheric pressure at which temperature and pressure the feed mixture comprises both vapor and liquid phases to produce a first vapor phase substantially enriched in lower boiling constituents and a first liquid phase substantially enriched in higher boiling constituents, expanding at least a part of the first vapor phase to reduce the pressure and temperature and produce an expanded fluid stream comprising a second vapor phase and a second liquid phase, separating the second vapor phase from the second liquid phase, recycling the second liquid phase to the fractional distillation step as a reflux, recovering the second vapor phase as a product and recovering the first liquid phase as a product. In another embodiment, at least a part of the feed mixture is expanded prior to fractional distillation. In other embodiments, the feed mixture is separated into a vapor phase and a liquid phase and at least a part of the vapor phase is expanded and/or the feed mixture is first cooled by indirect heat exchange with the second vapor phase prior to recovery of the latter as a product.

  17. Process gas solidification system

    DOEpatents

    Fort, William G. S.; Lee, Jr., William W.

    1978-01-01

    It has been the practice to (a) withdraw hot, liquid UF.sub.6 from various systems, (b) direct the UF.sub.6 into storage cylinders, and (c) transport the filled cylinders to another area where the UF.sub.6 is permitted to solidify by natural cooling. However, some hazard attends the movement of cylinders containing liquid UF.sub.6, which is dense, toxic, and corrosive. As illustrated in terms of one of its applications, the invention is directed to withdrawing hot liquid UF.sub.6 from a system including (a) a compressor for increasing the pressure and temperature of a stream of gaseous UF.sub.6 to above its triple point and (b) a condenser for liquefying the compressed gas. A network containing block valves and at least first and second portable storage cylinders is connected between the outlet of the condenser and the suction inlet of the compressor. After an increment of liquid UF.sub.6 from the condenser has been admitted to the first cylinder, the cylinder is connected to the suction of the compressor to flash off UF.sub.6 from the cylinder, thus gradually solidifying UF.sub.6 therein. While the first cylinder is being cooled in this manner, an increment of liquid UF.sub.6 from the condenser is transferred into the second cylinder. UF.sub.6 then is flashed from the second cylinder while another increment of liquid UF.sub.6 is being fed to the first. The operations are repeated until both cylinders are filled with solid UF.sub.6, after which they can be moved safely. As compared with the previous technique, this procedure is safer, faster, and more economical. The method also provides the additional advantage of removing volatile impurities from the UF.sub.6 while it is being cooled.

  18. Gas plant converts amine unit to MDEA-based solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, H.Y. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) has successfully replaced monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent at one of Canada's largest gas processing plants. This acid gas treating solvent lowered costs associated with pumping horsepower, reboiler duty, solvent losses, corrosion and other gas processing problems. Not all operating conditions at a gas processing plant favor MDEA or MEA. In the Rimbey plant, originally designed to process sour gas, more sweet gas feed (per volume) called for considering advantages of the lesser-used MDEA. Gulf Canada Resources operates several major sour gas plants in Alberta. The Rimbey Plant was designed in 1960 to process 400 MMscfd of sour gas with 2% H[sub 2]S and 1.32% CO[sub 2]. The amine unit was designed to circulate 2,400 gpm of 20 wt% MEA solution. The single train amine plant has four gas conductors and two amine regenerators. The present raw inlet gas flowrate to the Rimbey Plant is about 312 MMscfd which is made up of three sources: 66 MMscfd of sour gas with 1.5% H[sub 2]S and 1.8% CO[sub 2]; 65 MMscfd of high CO[sub 2] gas with 400 ppmv H[sub 2]S and 3.9% CO[sub 2]; and 181 MMscfd of sweet gas with 2.2% CO[sub 2].

  19. Process for absorbing toxic gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.G.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a process for removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen halides from a gas contaminated with same in which the gas is contacted at a temperature below 250/sup 0/C with particulate solid acceptor comprising a mineral support having a coating containing divalent metal oxide, hydroxide, or both, the support being water-moistened particles selected from the group consisting of exfoliated vermiculite, expanded perlite, or a mixture thereof, the improvement which comprises: heating the acceptor before its first use at a temperature of at least about 400/sup 0/C until it is conditioned for the accepting purpose; dampening the conditioned acceptor with water; contacting contaminated gas with the acceptor; and separating resulting cleansed gas from the acceptor.

  20. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  1. HIP clad nickel base Alloy 625 for deep sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, W.K.; Pendley, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    The hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process was used to clad nickel base Alloy 625 to AISI 4130 low alloy steel. The performance of the HIP clad material in the corrosive environment characteristic of deep, sour oil and gas wells was evaluated in laboratory tests. Included in the test program were NACE TM-01-77 sulfide stress cracking tests, chloride stress corrosion cracking tests in boiling MgCl /SUB 2'/ , and pitting and crevice corrosion tests. The HIP clad 625 performed excellently, displaying essentially the same corrosion resistance as wrought 625. Specifically the HIP clad 625 resisted sulfide stress cracking at applied stresses as high as 120% of yield strength and resisted chloride stress corrosion cracking at stresses exceeding 100% of yield. The HIP clad 625 also displayed immunity to pitting and crevice corrosion, with corrosion rates of <0.025 mm/y (1 mil/y). The 4130 base metal, however, was attacked severly in all tests. SEM/EDX analysis of the 625/4130 interface demonstrated that dilution of the cladding by the base metal was essentially eliminated.

  2. Experience with flexible pipe in sour service environment: A case study (the Arabian Gulf)

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Maslamani, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The suitability of a flexible pipe was evaluated on a trial basis for a lift gas line in a sour oil field in the State of Qatar, in the Arabian Gulf. Flexible pipes have been successfully used in the oil and gas industries for transportation of methanol, benzene and gas condensates in wet sweet environment at temperatures of up to 80 C. However, there is little or no information available as to its corrosion resistance in sour service wells containing 6% CO{sub 2} with 3% mole H{sub 2}S and at moderate temperatures. The present experience with a flexible pipe in the gas field of Qatar has shown that under sour service conditions, the layered, composite material can suffer severe degradation leading to failure. A detailed inspection and failure analysis of the flexible pipe forms the basis of this paper. The failure demonstrates the significant effects of stress level, environmental aggressiveness, and localized hard zones in promoting Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC). Permeability of this sour gas through the composite layer of the flexible pipe resulted in varying degree of sulfide attack and hydrogen embrittlement depending on the susceptibility of the multi layered material.

  3. Integrated Microbial Trait Based-Reactive Transport Modeling Approach Towards Understanding Microbial Reservoir Souring and Desouring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Coates, J. D.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Microbially mediated sulfate reduction is the major metabolic process that leads to the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oil reservoirs. Biogenesis of H2S (souring) has detrimental impacts on oil production operations and can cause significant environmental and health problems. Understanding the processes that control the rates and patterns of sulfate reduction is a crucial step in developing a predictive understanding of reservoir souring and associated mitigation processes. In this study, we describe the development of a microbial trait-based model that is coupled to a reactive transport model. The model represents several anaerobic microbial functional guilds with different resource acquisition (e.g., electron donor, sulfate) traits. The integrated model was used to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of the primary chemical species (e.g. sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate) and the microbial community dynamics involved in the souring and desouring processes as revealed in a recent laboratory column experiment comparing the effectiveness of nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate treatments as souring control strategies. Simulation of the laboratory experimental results shows that the model captured the spatio-temporal trend of the chemical species and microbial guilds during both souring and desouring. Model parameters derived through modeling of the column data are utilized in subsequent field-scale model simulations across a set of reservoir relevant environmental conditions. This integrated model demonstrates that interactions between SRBs and other heterotrophs can significantly impact the occurrence and extent of H2S production.

  4. Worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Statistics are presented on the following: US refining; Canada refining; Europe refining; Africa refining; Asia refining; Latin American refining; Middle East refining; catalyst manufacturers; consulting firms; engineering and construction; US gas processing; international gas processing; plant maintenance providers; process control and simulation systems; and trade associations.

  5. Solar/gas industrial process heat assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, D. W.

    1982-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of solar/gas industrial process heat systems, including consideration of market applications, the status and cost of applicable solar technologies, potential technical barriers to the efficient interfacing of solar with conventional gas fired equipment, and a detailed evaluation comparing solar/gas systems to competing options.

  6. A field demonstration of sour produced-water remediation by microbial treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L. ); Morse, D.E.; Raterman, K.T. )

    1994-08-01

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sour produced waters by microbial treatment was evaluated under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe Thiobacillus denitrificans was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the lease automatic custody transfer (LACT) Unit 10 at the Salt Creek field in Wyoming. Field produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flow rate of 5,000 B/D with a potential maximum of 98,000 B/D. Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS), 100 mg/L sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107 F. An aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to this water to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. Pilot operations were initiated in Oct. 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000-bbl pit with 40 lbm of dry-weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lbm/D sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused on process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading owing to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. From this evidence, the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T. denitrificans appears to represent a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  7. Sour rot-damaged grapes are sources of wine spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; González, Sara; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Querol, Amparo; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2008-11-01

    Yeast species of sound and sour rot-damaged grapes were analysed during fermentation and grape ripening in the vineyard, using general and selective culture media. During 2003 and 2004 vintages, microvinifications were carried out with sound grapes to which different amounts of grapes with sour rot were added. The wine spoilage species Zygosaccharomyces bailii was only recovered during fermentations with sour rot, reaching 5.00 log CFU mL(-1) (2003) and 2.48 log CFU mL(-1) (2004) at the end of fermentation. The study of yeast populations during the sour rot ripening process (2005 vintage) showed that the veraison-damaged grapes always exhibited higher total yeast counts and a much greater diversity of species. From a total of 22 ascomycetous species, 17 were present only in damaged grapes. The most frequent species were Issatchenkia occidentalis and Zygoascus hellenicus. The spoilage species Z. bailii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus were consistently isolated exclusively from damaged grapes. This work demonstrates that one of the most dangerous wine spoilage species, Z. bailii, is strongly associated with sour rot grapes and survives during fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The use of selective media provides a more accurate characterization of grape contamination species. PMID:18554306

  8. Limonoid content of sour orange varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern Citrus cultivars are thought to have arisen from three parents- the (pummelo), the mandarin, and citron. Taxological and genetic data support that sweet and sour oranges share a common parentage. However, as their name suggests the organoleptic properties of the fruit from these two familie...

  9. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  10. Process for treatment of residual gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nolden, K.

    1980-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

  11. Results of field application and laboratory testing of thermal spray UNS N10276 coating for sour amine vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.J.; Hay, M.G.; Goerz, K.G.; Schubert, R.W.; Easterly, F.B.

    1998-12-31

    The Caroline sour gas processing plant pressure vessels were constructed of bare carbon-manganese steel. Early detection of internal surface corrosion and hydrogen blistering led to a decision to field-apply a UNS N10276 coating. The dual-wire arc-spray technique was chosen following a careful review of the technical merits and costs of the alternatives. It was used to coat portions of eight vessels during a planned plant turnaround in 1995. A laboratory program was subsequently initiated in order to define the coating`s corrosion resistance and its effectiveness in preventing corrosion of, and hydrogen damage to, the steel substrate. This program examined the effect of variations in coating thickness and coverage, and steel substrate surface topography on coating performance in simulated rich amine (plant) and standard NACE International sour environments. In addition, an effective field repair procedure was qualified. The results of the inspection of the coating in three vessels after eighteen months` service justified the selection of the coating material and application technique. Only minor repairs to the coating in one vessel were required. This paper gives the results of the laboratory program and plant inspections, and provides guidelines for the application of thermal spray coatings in the field.

  12. Exhaust gas clean up process

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.

    1989-04-11

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/. and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt.

  13. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  14. Methanation process utilizing split cold gas recycle

    DOEpatents

    Tajbl, Daniel G.; Lee, Bernard S.; Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Lam, Henry W.

    1976-07-06

    In the methanation of feed gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen in multiple stages, the feed gas, cold recycle gas and hot product gas is mixed in such proportions that the mixture is at a temperature sufficiently high to avoid carbonyl formation and to initiate the reaction and, so that upon complete reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen, an excessive adiabatic temperature will not be reached. Catalyst damage by high or low temperatures is thereby avoided with a process that utilizes extraordinarily low recycle ratios and a minimum of investment in operating costs.

  15. Heat resistant process gas line

    SciTech Connect

    Venable, C.R. Jr.

    1987-05-12

    A method is described of forming a heat resistant gas transfer line comprising a tubular metal outer shell, a tubular inner liner formed of prefired refractory rings joined together by shiplap joints having expansion gaps, and an intermediate liner comprising bubble alumina concrete filing the annular space between the inner liner and the outer shell. The method comprises placing on the inside lower surface of the outershell bubble alumina concrete forms capable of supporting the refractory rings in the desired location within the outer shell, securing decomposable rings to the refractory rings in the area where the shiplap joints are to be so that a suitable expansion gap will be provided in the shiplap joints when the combustible rings are destroyed.

  16. Rate processes in gas phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction-rate theory and experiment are given a critical review from the engineers' point of view. Rates of heavy-particle, collision-induced reaction in gas phase are formulated in terms of the cross sections and activation energies for reaction. The effect of cross section function shape and of excited state contributions to reaction both cause the slope of Arrhenius plots to differ from the true activation energy, except at low temperature. The master equations for chemically reacting gases are introduced, and dissociation and ionization reactions are shown to proceed primarily from excited states about kT from the dissociation or ionization limit. Collision-induced vibration, vibration-rotation, and pure rotation transitions are treated, including three-dimensional effects and conservation of energy, which have usually been ignored. The quantum theory of transitions at potential surface crossing is derived, and results are found to be in fair agreement with experiment in spite of some questionable approximations involved.

  17. U-GAS process for chemical manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.; Leppin, D.; Patel, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of two important industrial chemicals, methanol and ammonia, are described. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of manufacture of methanol and ammonia are presented.

  18. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    PubMed

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware. PMID:17772808

  19. Natural gas gathering and transportation issues, 1998 Texas perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchens, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    In 1996 and 1997, the natural gas industry was intensely focused on the debate surrounding proposed new rules governing the gathering and transportation of natural gas in Texas by the Railroad Commission. This paper reviews that debate and several other regulatory issues that could impact the natural gas and gas processing industries over the next few years. In addition to the review of the Code of Conduct, this paper focuses on results of the informal complaint process, implementation of new legislation requiring the approval of construction of sour gas pipelines and several other natural gas related issues.

  20. Gas-Liquid Processing in Microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; Twitchell, Alvin

    2005-09-01

    Processing gases and liquids together in microchannels having at least one dimension <1 mm has unique advantages for rapid heat and mass transfer. One approach for managing the two phases is to use porous structures as wicks within microchannels to segregate the liquid phase from the gas phase. Gas-liquid processing is accomplished by providing a gas flow path and inducing flow of the liquid phase through or along the wick under an induced pressure gradient. A variety of unit operations are enabled, including phase separation, partial condensation, absorption, desorption, and distillation. Results are reported of an investigation of microchannel phase separation in a transparent, single-channel device. Next, heat exchange is integrated with the microchannel wick approach to create a partial condenser that also separates the condensate. Finally, the scale-up to a multi-channel phase separator is described.

  1. The chemistry and physiology of sour taste – A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sour taste is the key element in the flavor profile of food acidulants. Understanding the chemistry and physiology of sour taste is critical for efficient control of flavor in the formulation of acid and acidified foods. After a brief introduction to the main applications of food acidulants, several...

  2. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Luo, Li-Siang

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD) was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (ΔR/R) of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost. PMID:25010696

  3. Sweet and Sour: Attenuating Sulfidogenesis in an Advective Flow Column System with Perchlorate or Nitrate Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrektson, A. L.; Hubbard, C. G.; Piceno, Y.; Boussina, A.; Jin, Y.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Tom, L.; Hu, P.; Conrad, M. E.; Anderson, G. L.; Coates, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biogenesis in oil reservoirs is a primary cause of souring and of associated costs in reservoir and pipeline maintenance. In addition to the corrosive effects of the H2S itself, abiotic and biological oxidation also generates sulfuric acid, further degrading metallic surfaces. Amending these environments with perchlorate (ClO4-) resolves these problems by inhibition of biological sulfate reduction and re-oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur by dissimilatory (per)chlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB). Triplicate flow through columns packed with San Francisco bay sediment were flushed with bay water ([SO4=] = 25-30 mM) containing yeast extract with 50 mM inhibitor concentrations (NO3-or ClO4-) decreasing to 25 mM and finally 12.5 mM. Influent and effluent geochemistry was monitored and DNA was prepared from the sediment bed for microbial community analysis. Souring was reversed by both treatments (at 50 mM) compared to the control columns that had no ion addition. Nitrate began to re-sour when treatment concentration was decreased to 25 mM but treatment had to be decreased to 12.5 mM before the perchlorate treated columns began to re-sour. However, the treated columns re-soured to a lesser extent than the control columns. Phylochip microbial community analyses indicated microbial community shifts and phylogenetic clustering by treatment. Isotopic analysis of sulfate showed trends that broadly agreed with the geochemistry but also suggested further sulfur cycling was occurring. This study indicates that perchlorate shows great promise as an inhibitor of sulfidogenesis in natural communities and provides insight into which organisms are involved in this process.

  4. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Morse, D.; Raterman, K.

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  5. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice.

    PubMed

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2014-12-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice cultivar Kanto in tartaric-acidified hydrocolloid solutions of κ-carrageenan and CMC (0.30 % w/v, 50 ± 2 °C for 1 h) at pH 2.75 and 2.90, respectively. The acidified cooked rice in pouches were pasteurized in boiling water (100 °C) to reach 95 °C for 5 min. The pasteurized products were categorized under acidified foods with final Aw < 0.85 and pH < 4.00. No perceivable sour tastes from 1 to 12 week storage at 28 ± 2 °C were noted in the pasteurized rice products. The shelf-stable pasteurized products were described as white, translucent, with distinct natural rice aroma and flavor, firm, and slightly elastic mouth and hand feel. PMID:25477672

  6. Investigation of the stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steel weldments in sour conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, M.J.; Bradshaw, R.; Cottis, R.A.

    1995-10-01

    Duplex stainless steels are increasingly widely used in the oil and gas production industry for a variety of applications. The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of wrought material is reasonably well understood, and limits of use are placed upon these alloys in NACE MR0175, for sour service. However, the SCC behavior of weldments is less well understood, and this has limited the use of welded material in H{sub 2}S-containing conditions. The SCC resistance of duplex stainless steels is influenced by their microstructure as well as their chemical composition and the objective of the research reported in this paper is to investigate the SCC behavior of welded 22%Cr and 25%Cr alloys in a simulated oilfield environment. Mechanized orbital TIG was used to butt weld 168mm outside diameter tubes. The shielding gas contained nitrogen additions of up to 10% (in the case of UNS S32760) and 7% (in the case of UNS S31803). Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was conducted on cross-weld specimens in sodium chloride solutions overpressured with varying partial pressures of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}. The SSRT results, in terms of ductility parameters and secondary cracking, are correlated with fractography and metallurgical examination of crack morphology in order to establish the effects of the welding process and the nitrogen content of the shielding gas. It was found that the nitrogen uptake from the shielding gas has a detrimental effect on SCC resistance of duplex stainless steel weldments. While this effect is only modes, it is in direct contrast to the beneficial effect it has on pitting corrosion resistance.

  7. Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Wolfenbarger, James K.; Najjar, Mitri S.

    1993-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

  8. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association.

  9. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  10. Factors Governing the Germination of Sulfate-Reducing Desulfotomaculum Endospores Involved in Oil Reservoir Souring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, A.; Bell, E.; Cueto, G.; Suarez-Suarez, A.; Pilloni, G.; Hubert, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir souring is caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in subsurface oil reservoirs, and is often induced by seawater injection during secondary oil recovery. Souring can potentially contribute to corrosion of infrastructure, health and safety hazards to the workforce, and reduction in value by increasing refining costs associated with producing the oil resource. Souring causes annual losses in the billions of dollars to the oil industry. Endospore-forming SRM, such as Desulfotomaculum spp., are often suspected culprits in reservoir souring. Endospores can survive unfavourable conditions for long periods, yet remain poised to germinate and become active if conditions become more favourable. Factors governing endospore germination are poorly understood, but are thought to include availability of nutrients, possibly metabolic by products of other anaerobic bioprocesses, and/or variations in temperature. Most research has focused on aerobic Bacillus spp., with very few studies dedicated to spore germination among anaerobes (order Clostridiales) including the sulfate-reducing Desulfotomaculum found in anoxic subsurface petroleum reservoirs. For Desulfotomaculum spores in deep hot oil reservoirs, cold seawater introduction during secondary oil recovery may create thermal viability zones for sulfate reduction near the injection wellbore. To evaluate these processes, sulfate-containing microcosms were prepared with different marine sediments as a source of spores, and amended with organic substrates in the presence or absence of oil. Incubation at 80°C for six days was followed by a down-shift in temperature to 60°C to mimic cold seawater injection into a hot reservoir. Souring did not occur at 80°C, but commenced within hours at 60°C. Microcosms were monitored for sulfate reduction and organic acids in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes (Ion Torrent, Illumina MiSeq). Through a combination of high

  11. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  12. Psychophysical assessments of sourness in citric acid-ethanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Guirao, Miguelina; Greco Driano, Ezequiel J; Evin, Diego; Calviño, Amalia

    2013-12-01

    The effect of ethanol in modulating the intensity and duration of the perceived sourness induced by citric acid was studied. Magnitude Estimation-Converging Limits method was applied to rate the sourness of seven solutions (3-70 mM) of citric acid in aqueous solution presented alone and mixed with 8% V/V or 15% V/V ethanol. Dynamic sourness ratings of 5, 15, and 45 mM citric acid alone and mixed with the same two ethanol levels were assessed by the Time Intensity Method (TI). Results were consistent with both methods. Sourness changed with citric acid concentration and ethanol levels. From TI measurements, a similar interactive pattern was obtained for parameters as duration, area under the curve, peak and average intensity. PMID:24665803

  13. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with safe and suitable acidifiers, with or without addition of lactic acid producing bacteria.... Acidified sour cream has a titratable acidity of not less than 0.5 percent, calculated as lactic acid....

  14. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with safe and suitable acidifiers, with or without addition of lactic acid producing bacteria.... Acidified sour cream has a titratable acidity of not less than 0.5 percent, calculated as lactic acid....

  15. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with safe and suitable acidifiers, with or without addition of lactic acid producing bacteria.... Acidified sour cream has a titratable acidity of not less than 0.5 percent, calculated as lactic acid....

  16. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with safe and suitable acidifiers, with or without addition of lactic acid producing bacteria.... Acidified sour cream has a titratable acidity of not less than 0.5 percent, calculated as lactic acid....

  17. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... with safe and suitable acidifiers, with or without addition of lactic acid producing bacteria.... Acidified sour cream has a titratable acidity of not less than 0.5 percent, calculated as lactic acid....

  18. Sensing the gas metal arc welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, N. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Smartt, H. B.; Watkins, A. D.; Larsen, E. D.; Taylor, P. L.; Waddoups, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Control of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) requires real-time sensing of the process. Three sensing techniques for GMAW are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These are (1) noncontacting ultrasonic sensing using a laser/EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) to detect defects in the solidified weld on a pass-by-pass basis, (2) integrated optical sensing using a CCD camera and a laser stripe to obtain cooling rate and weld bead geometry information, and (3) monitoring fluctuations in digitized welding voltage data to detect the mode of metal droplet transfer and assure that the desired mass input is achieved.

  19. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  20. Molecular diversity of lactic acid bacteria from cassava sour starch (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Omar, N B; Ampe, F; Raimbault, M; Guyot, J P; Tailliez, P

    2000-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria and more particularly lactobacilli and Leuconostoc, are widely found in a wide variety of traditional fermented foods of tropical countries, made with cereals, tubers, meat or fish. These products represent a source of bacterial diversity that cannot be accurately analysed using classical phenotypic and biochemical tests. In the present work, the identification and the molecular diversity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cassava sour starch fermentation were assessed by using a combination of complementary molecular methods: Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA fingerprinting (RAPD), plasmid profiling, hybridization using rRNA phylogenetic probes and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. The results revealed a large diversity of bacterial species (Lb. manihotivorans, Lb. plantarum, Lb. casei, Lb. hilgardii, Lb. buchneri, Lb. fermentum, Ln. mesenteroides and Pediococcus sp.). However, the most frequently isolated species were Lb. plantarum and Lb. manihotivorans. The RAPD analysis revealed a large molecular diversity between Lb. manihotivorans or Lb. plantarum strains. These results, observed on a rather limited number of samples, reveal that significant bacterial diversity is generated in traditional cassava sour starch fermentations. We propose that the presence of the amylolytic Lb. manihotivorans strains could have a role in sour starch processing. PMID:10930082

  1. Effects of sour crude oil on fatigue properties of steel plates for shipbuilding

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchi, H.; Kobayashi, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Takezawa, H.; Ebara, R.; Yamada, Y.

    1994-12-31

    The concentration of diffusible hydrogen introduced into steel was measured, and fatigue crack growth tests and fatigue life tests were carried out in sour crude oil containing a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide and under electrolytic hydrogen-charging conditions in neutral solution, using a high strength steel produced by the thermo-mechanical control process (TMCP) and a mild steel which are steels for hull plates. Comparison of the results demonstrated that a very small amount of hydrogen such as that introduced into steel from sour crude oil under atmospheric pressure accelerated the fatigue crack growth in the high {Delta}K regime and shortened the fatigue life in the high stress range region, but did not shorten the fatigue life in the low stress region. The electrolytic hydrogen-charging condition appeared to be appropriate as a fatigue-crack-growth test environment to simulate sour crude oil. The deterioration of fatigue characteristics of the TMCP high strength steel was similar with that of the mild steel.

  2. Elastomer-induced crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel heat exchanger plates in sour amine service

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.G.; Baron, J.J.; Moffat, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    Types S31600 and S31254 stainless steel heat exchanger plates have suffered crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking under gaskets in rich amine service in a sour gas plant. The gasket material, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), has been used successfully for many years at other sour gas plants. Laboratory testing has duplicated the corrosion observed and shown that the mechanism is synergistic sulfide-halide attack. The use of a bromine plus chlorine-activated curing system for the EPDM rubber gaskets provided the necessary halides. Laboratory testing identified some nickel-based superalloys which were resistant to this corrosion and also demonstrated that essentially halogen-free, peroxide-cured EPDM gaskets do not cause attack of S31600 or S31254. The heat exchanger packs were replaced with S31600 plates and peroxide-cured EPDM gaskets having a specified total halogen concentration of 200 ppm maximum. Field operating experience has been excellent.

  3. Alloy Effects on the Gas Nitriding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Sisson, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Alloy elements, such as Al, Cr, V, and Mo, have been used to improve the nitriding performance of steels. In the present work, plain carbon steel AISI 1045 and alloy steel AISI 4140 were selected to compare the nitriding effects of the alloying elements in AISI 4140. Fundamental analysis is carried out by using the "Lehrer-like" diagrams (alloy specific Lehrer diagram and nitriding potential versus nitrogen concentration diagram) and the compound layer growth model to simulate the gas nitriding process. With this method, the fundamental understanding for the alloy effect based on the thermodynamics and kinetics becomes possible. This new method paves the way for the development of new alloy for nitriding.

  4. Gas treating alternatives for LNG plants

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.S.; Sibal, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    This paper covers the various gas treating processes available for treating sour natural gas to specifications required for LNG production. The LNG product specification requires that the total sulfur level be less than 30--40 ppmv, the CO{sub 2} level be less than 50 ppmv and the water level be less than 100 ppmv to prevent freezing problems in the LNG cryogenic column. A wide variety of natural gas compositions are encountered in the various fields and the gas treating process selection is dependent on the type of impurities present in the gas, namely, levels of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, mercaptans and other organic sulfur compounds. This paper discusses the implications various components in the feed to the LNG plant can have on process selection, and the various treating processes that are available to condition the gas. Process selection criteria, design and operating philosophies are discussed. An economic comparison for two treating schemes is provided.

  5. 30 CFR 1202.151 - Royalty on processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....151 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal Gas § 1202.151 Royalty on processed gas. (a)(1) A royalty, as provided.... Processing allowances shall be determined in accordance with 30 CFR part 1206 subpart D for gas...

  6. 30 CFR 1202.151 - Royalty on processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....151 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal Gas § 1202.151 Royalty on processed gas. (a)(1) A royalty, as provided.... Processing allowances shall be determined in accordance with 30 CFR part 1206 subpart D for gas...

  7. 30 CFR 1202.151 - Royalty on processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....151 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal Gas § 1202.151 Royalty on processed gas. (a)(1) A royalty, as provided.... Processing allowances shall be determined in accordance with 30 CFR part 1206 subpart D for gas...

  8. Portable spectrometer monitors inert gas shield in welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, E. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable spectrometer using photosensitive readouts, monitors the amount of oxygen and hydrogen in the inert gas shield of a tungsten-inert gas welding process. A fiber optic bundle transmits the light from the welding arc to the spectrometer.

  9. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to develop hydrogen-selective membranes for an innovative gas-separation process based on a water-gas-shift membrane reactor (WGS-MR) for the production of hydrogen.

  10. PROCESS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY STUDY OF A SELEXOL ACID GAS REMOVAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of continuous compositional monitoring by process gas chromatography (GC) for three gas streams associated with the Selexol acid gas removal system at the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, PA. Data were obtained from the inlet and outlet streams of the Se...

  11. Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Zaida; Del Paggio, Alan Anthony; Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria

    2011-12-06

    A method of producing methane is described. The method includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ conversion process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. At least the olefins in the first gas stream are contacted with a hydrogen source in the presence of one or more catalysts and steam to produce a second gas stream. The second gas stream is contacted with a hydrogen source in the presence of one or more additional catalysts to produce a third gas stream. The third gas stream includes methane.

  12. Synthesis gas generation complex and process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.

    1989-01-17

    A synthesis gas generation complex is described including: (a) a coal gasification plant, including at least one gasifier for the gasification of coal to produce synthesis gas at a temperature of about 2000/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F, the gasifier having heat exchange surfaces adapted for indirect heat exchange with steam and water; (b) a heat exchange section comprising at least one heat exchanger in gas flow communication with the gasifier, the heat exchanger comprising at least one segment adapted to generate superheated steam, and lower temperature heat exchange segments; (c) a gas cleanup section in flow communication with the heat exchanger, the cleanup section comprising means for removing particulates and H/sub 2/S from the synthesis gas; (d) a steam turbine adapted to receive and utilize superheated steam and to produce a low temperature vapor, the steam turbine driving an electrical generator.

  13. Numerical modeling of the gas lift process in gas lift wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temirbekov, N. M.; Turarov, A. K.; Baigereyev, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, one-dimensional and two-dimensional axisymmetric motion of gas, liquid and a gas-liquid mixture in a gas-lift well is studied. Numerical simulation of the one-dimensional model of gas-lift process is considered where the movement in a gas-lift well is described by partial differential equations of hyperbolic type. Difference schemes for the gas-lift model of the process are developed on a nonuniform grid condensing in subdomains with big gradients of the solution. The results of the proposed algorithm are illustrated on the example of a real well.

  14. New process makes production of highly acid gas economical

    SciTech Connect

    Gazzi, L.; Cotone, G.; Rescalli, C.; Soldati, G.F.; Vetere, A.

    1982-08-01

    Development of cryogenic processing combined with a new solvent for removing H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ from natural gas has significantly reduced the costs for plant equipment and the energy needed to run it. This results in much lower treatment costs per Mcf and makes natural gas containing as much as 80% acid gas profitable to produce.

  15. 30 CFR 1206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... paragraph (h) of this section, if the maximum price permitted by Federal law at which any residue gas or gas... accordance with the Freedom of Information Act regulation of the Department of the Interior, 43 CFR part 2. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Valuation standards-processed gas....

  16. 30 CFR 1206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... permitted by Federal law at which any residue gas or gas plant products may be sold is less than the value... Interior, 43 CFR part 2. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Valuation standards-processed gas....

  17. 30 CFR 1206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... paragraph (h) of this section, if the maximum price permitted by Federal law at which any residue gas or gas... accordance with the Freedom of Information Act regulation of the Department of the Interior, 43 CFR part 2. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Valuation standards-processed gas....

  18. 30 CFR 1206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraph (h) of this section, if the maximum price permitted by Federal law at which any residue gas or gas... accordance with the Freedom of Information Act regulation of the Department of the Interior, 43 CFR part 2. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Valuation standards-processed gas....

  19. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Cha, C.Y.

    1993-09-21

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. 1 figure.

  20. Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

  1. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tastandieva, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of "cooling down" liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  2. Gas condensate reservoir characterisation for CO2 geological storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    During oil and gas production hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is significantly increased by injecting miscible CO2 gas in order to displace hydrocarbons towards producing wells. This process of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) might be used for the total CO2 storage after complete hydrocarbon reservoir depletion. This kind of potential storage sites was selected for detailed studies, including generalised development study to investigate the applicability of CO2 for storages. The study is focused on compositional modelling to predict the miscibility pressures. We consider depleted gas condensate field in Kazakhstan as important target for CO2 storage and EOR. This reservoir being depleted below the dew point leads to retrograde condensate formed in the pore system. CO2 injection in the depleted gas condensate reservoirs may allow enhanced gas recovery by reservoir pressurisation and liquid re-vaporisation. In addition a number of geological and petrophysical parameters should satisfy storage requirements. Studied carbonate gas condensate and oil field has strong seal, good petrophysical parameters and already proven successful containment CO2 and sour gas in high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions. The reservoir is isolated Lower Permian and Carboniferous carbonate platform covering an area of about 30 km. The reservoir contains a gas column about 1.5 km thick. Importantly, the strong massive sealing consists of the salt and shale seal. Sour gas that filled in the oil-saturated shale had an active role to form strong sealing. Two-stage hydrocarbon saturation of oil and later gas within the seal frame were accompanied by bitumen precipitation in shales forming a perfect additional seal. Field hydrocarbon production began three decades ago maintaining a strategy in full replacement of gas in order to maintain pressure of the reservoir above the dew point. This was partially due to the sour nature of the gas with CO2 content over 5%. Our models and

  3. 30 CFR 1202.151 - Royalty on processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal leases. Processing allowances shall be determined in accordance with 30 CFR part 1206 subpart D for gas production from Federal leases and 30 CFR part 1206 subpart E for gas production from Indian... marketing, except as provided in 30 CFR part 1206. In those situations where a processing plant...

  4. 10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS PRODUCER PROCESS, BUILDING 10A.' Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Holston Defense Corporation. August 29, 1974. Delineator: G. A. Horne. Drawing # SK-1942. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  5. Lithium bromide chiller technology in gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, M.A.; Leppin, D.

    1995-12-31

    Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption Chillers have been in use for more than half a century, mainly in the commercial air conditioning industry. The Gas Research Institute and EnMark Natural Gas Company co-funded a field test to determine the viability of this commercial air conditioning technology in the gas industry. In 1991, a 10 MMCFC natural gas conditioning plant was constructed in Sherman, Texas. The plant was designed to use a standard, off-the-shelf chiller from Trane with a modified control scheme to maintain tight operating temperature parameters. The main objective was to obtain a 40 F dewpoint natural gas stream to meet pipeline sales specifications. Various testing performed over the past three years has proven that the chiller can be operated economically and on a continuous basis in an oilfield environment with minimal operation and maintenance costs. This paper will discuss how a LiBr absorption chiller operates, how the conditioning plant performed during testing, and what potential applications are available for LiBr chiller technology.

  6. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.

  7. A study to investigate the performance of the Benfield-HiPure process of natural gas sweetening using computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochieng, Richard

    The removal of CO2 and H2S from natural gas is currently a global issue. Apart from meeting the customer's contract, pipeline, and LNG specifications; it is also a measure for reducing the global environmental emissions. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of ADGAS' Train#3 plant through process simulations. ADGAS' Train#3 plant uses the Benfield HiPure design commissioned by Universal Oil Product (UOP Honeywell) in 1993. The Benfield HiPure process uses two independent but compatible circulating solutions in series to achieve high product purity in terms of acid gas concentrations that meet the LNG industry specifications. The ability to remove contaminants up to very low levels (1ppm H2S, 50ppm CO2 and 2ppm COS) makes the HiPure process an excellent choice for purifying natural gas for LNG requirement. At Das Island, ADGAS' Train#3 facility receives sour gas containing about 6-7 mole % acid gas content. This gas is first contacted with hot potassium carbonate (30wt% K2CO3) promoted with diethanolamine solution (3wt% DEA) followed by a contact with aqueous amine solution (20wt% DEA) alone as the second solvent. In this thesis, ADGAS Train#3 model was developed using the simulator tool ProMax®. Simulation outputs were found to match reasonably well the design and plant operating data. Based on the model predictions, the carbonate absorber seemed to be over designed with much of the acid gases being absorbed at the bottom of the packing. With the confidence that the model is a reliable replicate of the real plant facility, a parametric sensitivity analysis was carried out to develop a strategy of controlling operational uncertainties and enable plant optimization. The parametric sensitivity analysis showed that the liquid circulation rates, solvent concentrations, trim cooler temperatures, feed gas flow rate, and feed gas H2S/CO2 ratio have a considerable effect on the performance of the plant with respect to acid gas removal, gas production

  8. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  9. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    SciTech Connect

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  10. Risk analysis of a gas-processing complex in India.

    PubMed

    Garg, R K; Khan, A A

    1991-09-01

    ONGC's Hazira Gas-Processing Complex (HGPC) consists of facilities for receiving natural gas along with associated condensate from an off-shore field at a rate of 20 MMN M3 per day. After separating the condensate, which is processed in condensate fractionation units, the gas is processed through various steps to recover LPG and to reduce its dew point to less than 5 degrees C in order to make it suitable for transportation over long distances. The acid gas recovered during the gas-sweetening step is processed to obtain sulphur. The major products manufactured at HGPC therefore are lean sweet gas, LPG, NGL, and sulphur. The Oil and Natural Gas Commission awarded the assignment on Hazard Study and Risk Analysis of their Hazira Gas-Processing Complex (HGPC) to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in association with the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO). The scope of this assignment covered a number of closely related and fully defined activities normally encountered in this type of work. Identification of hazards through the most appropriate methods, assigning frequency of occurrence of major unwanted incidents, quantification and assessment of probable damage to plant equipment, environment, human and animal life due to an unexpected event, and evaluation of various methods for reducing risk, together constituted the methodology for this assignment. Detailed recommendations aimed at reducing risk and enhancing reliability of plant and machinery were made. This article gives an overview of the assignment. PMID:1947347

  11. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Peterson, Kurt D.; Riha, Brian D.

    2008-04-01

    A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

  12. Aerobic biodegradation of sludge with high hydrocarbon content generated by a Mexican natural gas processing facility.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Carrillo, T; Castorena-Cortés, G; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Olguín-Lora, P

    2012-03-01

    The biodegradation of oil sludge from Mexican sour gas and petrochemical facilities contaminated with a high content of hydrocarbons, 334.7 ± 7.0 g kg(-1) dry matter (dm), was evaluated. Studies in microcosm systems were carried out in order to determine the capacity of the native microbiota in the sludge to reduce hydrocarbon levels under aerobic conditions. Different carbon/nitrogen/phosphorous (C/N/P) nutrient ratios were tested. The systems were incubated at 30 °C and shaken at 100 rpm. Hydrocarbon removals from 32 to 51% were achieved in the assays after 30 days of incubation. The best assay had C/N/P ratio of 100/1.74/0.5. The results of the Microtox(®) and Ames tests indicated that the original sludge was highly toxic and mutagenic, whereas the best assay gave a final product that did not show toxicity or mutagenicity. PMID:21600691

  13. Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, R.

    1985-06-04

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  14. Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  15. Gas processing program: Status as of August 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-14

    Projects of the Gas Research Institute`s Gas Processing Program are summarized in this report. Activities of the following teams are described: Multivariable Control (MVC) system team, acid gas removal/sulfur recovery team, dehydration team, and natural gas liquids (NGL) extraction team. For each team, research objectives are outlined, contractors are listed, work scope and product status are characterized for each project, and the accomplished work is detailed. Separate sections of the report describe efforts not assigned to a team and completed efforts.

  16. An ionic liquid process for mercury removal from natural gas.

    PubMed

    Abai, Mahpuzah; Atkins, Martin P; Hassan, Amiruddin; Holbrey, John D; Kuah, Yongcheun; Nockemann, Peter; Oliferenko, Alexander A; Plechkova, Natalia V; Rafeen, Syamzari; Rahman, Adam A; Ramli, Rafin; Shariff, Shahidah M; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Zou, Yiran

    2015-05-14

    Efficient scrubbing of mercury vapour from natural gas streams has been demonstrated both in the laboratory and on an industrial scale, using chlorocuprate(II) ionic liquids impregnated on high surface area porous solid supports, resulting in the effective removal of mercury vapour from natural gas streams. This material has been commercialised for use within the petroleum gas production industry, and has currently been running continuously for three years on a natural gas plant in Malaysia. Here we report on the chemistry underlying this process, and demonstrate the transfer of this technology from gram to ton scale. PMID:25722100

  17. Gas phase atomic and molecular processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng

    We perform fully quantum mechanical calculations of the lithium 2 p -2 s and sodium 3 p -3 s resonance lines pressure broadened by collisions with helium atoms. Using carefully constructed potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moments, we have obtained the emission and absorption coefficients at temperatures from 200 to 3000 K at wavelengths between 500 and 1000 nm for lithium and at temperatures from 158 to 3000 K at wavelengths between 500 and 760 nm for sodium. Contributions from quasi-bound levels are included. Our results are in good agreement with experiment. These broadened line profiles are important in developing effective diagnostics on the temperatures, densities, albedos and composition of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets. We compute the diffusion coefficients of ground and excited-state lithium and sodium atoms in a helium gas. They are valuable in predicting the sign and magnitude of the light-induced drift for the gas mixture. We calculate the dispersion coefficients of the long range interactions of alkali-metal atoms with molecular hydrogen and helium atoms. The uncertainties in our results are less than 2%. We study the relaxation of the v = 1 vibrational level of carbon monoxide induced by collisions with helium three atoms in ultracold temperatures. We confirm the Wigner's threshold law which states that in the zero temperature limit the inelastic quenching cross sections are inversely proportional to the velocity of the incident atom. Our calculations agree well with experiment and we find enhanced rate coefficients as compared to those for 4 He-CO. We study the chemistry of hydrogen fluoride in the interstellar medium. We consider fine-structure collisions and find that most fluorine atoms reside in the ground 2 P 3/ 2 state. We calculate the rate coefficients for the reaction of F( 2 P 3/2 ) atoms in collisions with H 2 . Our results agree well with experiment. We confirm the conclusions of Neufeld et al

  18. Process for making ceramic hot gas filter

    DOEpatents

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  19. Sour Ageusia in Two Individuals Implicates Ion Channels of the ASIC and PKD Families in Human Sour Taste Perception at the Anterior Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Huque, Taufiqul; Cowart, Beverly J.; Dankulich-Nagrudny, Luba; Pribitkin, Edmund A.; Bayley, Douglas L.; Spielman, Andrew I.; Feldman, Roy S.; Mackler, Scott A.; Brand, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    Background The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli. Methods and Findings Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) 1a, 1β, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-β2, the δ-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as β-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1β, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-β2, and δ-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells. Conclusions These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals (“natural knockouts”) suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities. PMID:19812697

  20. Natural gas operations: considerations on process transients, design, and control.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Flavio

    2012-03-01

    This manuscript highlights tangible benefits deriving from the dynamic simulation and control of operational transients of natural gas processing plants. Relevant improvements in safety, controllability, operability, and flexibility are obtained not only within the traditional applications, i.e. plant start-up and shutdown, but also in certain fields apparently time-independent such as the feasibility studies of gas processing plant layout and the process design of processes. Specifically, this paper enhances the myopic steady-state approach and its main shortcomings with respect to the more detailed studies that take into consideration the non-steady state behaviors. A portion of a gas processing facility is considered as case study. Process transients, design, and control solutions apparently more appealing from a steady-state approach are compared to the corresponding dynamic simulation solutions. PMID:22056010

  1. Synthesis and deposition of metal nanoparticles by gas condensation process

    SciTech Connect

    Maicu, Marina Glöß, Daniel; Frach, Peter; Schmittgens, Ralph; Gerlach, Gerald; Hecker, Dominic

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the synthesis of Pt and Ag nanoparticles by means of the inert gas phase condensation of sputtered atomic vapor is presented. The process parameters (power, sputtering time, and gas flow) were varied in order to study the relationship between deposition conditions and properties of the nanoparticles such as their quantity, size, and size distribution. Moreover, the gas phase condensation process can be combined with a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition procedure in order to deposit nanocomposite coatings consisting of metallic nanoparticles embedded in a thin film matrix material. Selected examples of application of the generated nanoparticles and nanocomposites are discussed.

  2. U-GAS process for production of hydrogen from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.J.; Patel, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Today, hydrogen is produced mainly from natural gas and petroleum fractions. Tomorrow, because reserves of natural gas and oil are declining while demand continues to increase, they cannot be considered available for long-term, large-scale production of hydrogen. Hydrogen obtained from coal is expected to be the lowest cost, large-scale source of hydrogen in the future. The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of hydrogen is discussed. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of hydrogen manufactured are presented.

  3. Analysis of Yeast Flora Associated with Grape Sour Rot and of the Chemical Disease Markers

    PubMed Central

    Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Marchetti, Rosa

    1987-01-01

    The frequency and the density of the species associated with grape sour rot in different cultivars were determined. The most frequent species in the rotten grapes, Candida krusei, Kloeckera apiculata, and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and a less frequent species, Issatchenkia occidentalis, when inoculated with Saccharomycopsis crataegensis were able to induce in vitro the symptoms of the disease. The gas chromatographic determination of the volatile compounds in the headspace was used to evaluate the metabolic role of the different species associated with the disease. These analyses made it possible to presume that, whereas some species, such as Candida krusei and Hanseniaspora uvarum, can be considered responsible for these modifications and in particular for the ethyl acetate production, others, such as Saccharomycopsis crataegensis, can promote the development of the former species. PMID:16347305

  4. Competitive position of natural gas: Manufacturing automation and process controls

    SciTech Connect

    Karamchetty, S.D.; Kothari, V.S.; Holmes, J.G.; Minsker, B.S. )

    1989-04-01

    In previous GRI studies, the need for improvements in industrial automation and process controls has been mentioned most frequently and ranked highest by industry managers suggesting R D needs for gas equipment. Significant energy savings have been achieved through automation in many applications. Within the manufacturing sector, process heat applications constitute a significant use of natural gas and total energy. Therefore, widespread implementation of manufacturing automation can have significant impacts on gas use in process heat applications. In the study of manufacturing automation, three interacting areas were examined --- industrial processes, process components, and automation components. Taxonomies were developed for each of these areas to focus the analysis. The interactions between automation developments and gas use was studied in detail for five processes --- metal heat treating, steel reheating, forging, glass making, and paper drying. Recent developments reported in the literature were reviewed and within each industry, areas of gas and automation systems, vendors of manufacturing automation systems, and systems designs and integrators were interviewed. Through this approach, current and future developments in automation and their impacts were identified. R D opportunities for the five specific processes studied, and generic areas were also identified. 97 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Combustion process with waste gas purification

    SciTech Connect

    Almlof, G.; Hagqvist, P.

    1983-07-12

    The invention relates to a combustion process with cleansing of the waste gases by compressing, cooling and expanding said gases. The invention provides a continuous process in which highly contaminated low-grade fuels having a high water content can be effectively burned and the waste gases efficiently cleansed, by subjecting the cooled waste gases, together with residual non-desired substances, to a rapid drop in pressure in one or more stages by means of an expansion means, whereat the input drive power of the compressor, required for compressing said gases, is so high that the temperature downstream of the expansion means is sufficiently low for the condensation and precipitation of frozen contaminants in the waste gases, together with ice crystals. The invention can be applied to all forms of combustion plants, primarily combined power and heating plants fired with fuel having a high sulphur and water content.

  6. Diagnostics of metal inert gas and metal active gas welding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrlandt, D.

    2016-08-01

    The paper gives a review on studies on metal inert gas (MIG) and metal active gas (MAG) welding processes with the focus on diagnostics of the arc, the material transfer, and the temporal process behaviour in welding experiments. Recent findings with respect to an improved understanding of the main mechanisms in the welding arc and the welding process are summarized. This is linked to actual developments in welding arc and welding process modelling where measurements are indispensable for validation. Challenges of forthcoming studies are illustrated by means of methods under development for welding process control as well as remaining open questions with respect to arc-surface interaction and arc power balance.

  7. Research targets lower gas-processing operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, H.S.; Leppin, D.

    1997-12-29

    Increasing natural-gas demand and declining gas quality at the wellhead require the gas-processing industry to look to new technologies to stay competitive. The Gas Research Institute (GRI), Chicago, is managing a research, development, design, and deployment program that could save industry $230 million/year in operating and capital costs from NGL extraction and recovery, dehydration, acid-gas removal/sulfur recovery, and nitrogen rejection. Three technologies are addressed here. (1) Multivariable control (MVC) technology for predictive process control and optimization is installed or in design at 14 facilities, treating a combined total of more than 30 billion normal cu m/year (bcmy; 1.1 trillion standard cu ft/year, tcfy). Simple paybacks are typically less than 6 months. (2) A new acid-gas-removal process based on N-formyl morpholine (NFM) is being field tested that offers 40--50% savings in operating costs and 15--30% savings in capital costs relative to a commercially available physical solvent. (3) The GRI-MemCalc computer program for membrane separations and the GRI-Scavenger CalcBase computer program for scavenging technologies are screening tools that engineers can use to determine the best practice for treating their gas.

  8. Radon gas distribution in natural gas processing facilities and workplace air environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Shwiekani, R

    2008-04-01

    Evaluation was made of the distribution of radon gas and radiation exposure rates in the four main natural gas treatment facilities in Syria. The results showed that radiation exposure rates at contact of all equipment were within the natural levels (0.09-0.1 microSvh(-1)) except for the reflex pumps where a dose rate value of 3 microSvh(-1) was recorded. Radon concentrations in Syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bq m(-3) and 1141 Bq m(-3); natural gas associated with oil production was found to contain higher concentrations than the non-associated natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities than the wellheads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its decay products. Moreover, the lowest 222Rn concentration was in the natural gas fraction used for producing sulfur; a value of 80 Bq m(-3) was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas and its decay product concentrations in workplace air environments were found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratories; a value of 458 Bq m(-3) was observed. However, all reported levels in the workplaces in the four main stations were below the action level set by IAEA for chronic exposure situations involving radon, which is 1000 Bq m(-3). PMID:17905489

  9. Cryogenic process for fractionally removing acidic gases from gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gazzi, L.; Cotone, G.; Ginnasi, A.; Rescalli, C.; Soldati, G.; Vetere, A.

    1985-07-16

    A process is described for stripping acidic gases, mainly hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, from natural gas or synthesis gas, especially when the percentages of such acidic gases are high and the conventional processes become economically objectionable. The process is based on the use of a number of selective solvents, generally belonging to the class of esters, ethers, mixed ester-ethers and lactones, in combination with sequential absorbing cycles which start from the stripping of hydrogen sulphide, and comprise the regeneration of the solvents used by several expansion cycles: H2S and CO2 are recovered and the regenerated solvents recycled.

  10. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-05-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{trademark} (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting periods new catalyst formulations were tested. The experiments showed that the newest catalyst has slightly better performance, but catalyst TDA No.2 is still superior overall for use with the hybrid CrystaSulf process due to lower costs. Plans for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described.

  11. Simulation of the Process of Odorizing a Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukmakov, A. L.; Mubarakshin, B. R.; Tonkonog, V. G.

    2016-01-01

    A model of odorizing a natural gas is built on the basis of the system of motion of viscous, compressible, heatconducting, two-component medium with account for the odorant diffusion. Calculations of convective and diffusional mixing, in a channel, of a gaseous methane main flow interacting with its side jets containing an odorizing gas has been performed. The regimes of flow at different gas velocities in the main and side channels are considered, and the process of the equalization of the odorant concentration by convective and diffusional mechanisms are considered.

  12. Electrolytic trapping of iodine from process gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Horner, Donald E.; Mailen, James C.; Posey, Franz A.

    1977-01-25

    A method for removing molecular, inorganic, and organic forms of iodine from process gas streams comprises the electrolytic oxidation of iodine in the presence of cobalt-III ions. The gas stream is passed through the anode compartment of a partitioned electrolytic cell having a nitric acid anolyte containing a catalytic amount of cobalt to cause the oxidation of effluent iodine species to aqueous soluble species.

  13. North Sea gas plants get process, scheduling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, A.

    1998-11-16

    Mobil North Sea Ltd. has installed an operator guidance tool at its SAGE gas-processing plant at St. Fergus, Scotland (SAGE: Scottish Area Gas Evacuation). The system, supplied by MDC Technology, Teesside, U.K., will aid process decision making at the plant under MDC Technology`s RTO+ software. In addition, Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (Shell Expro) has installed a pipeline-scheduling system, also supplied by MDC Technology, at its Aberdeen control center. The system aids gas-movement scheduling through Shell Expro`s St. Fergus gas plant. The Northern Systems and Plant Scheduling (NSPS) system integrates MDC Technology`s RTO+ package with Microsoft Visual Basic and Excel. Mobil`s SAGE gas terminal at St. Fergus has two identical process trains (NGL recovery and acid-gas treatment), each with a capacity of 16.25 million std. cu m/day. The paper describes the guidance tool, the scheduling aid, and the installation of the NSPS.

  14. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES AND PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Bikson; Sal Giglia; Jibin Hao

    2003-03-01

    In the second phase of this project, the newly developed membrane module for natural gas dehydration was tested and evaluated in a pilot plant located at a commercial natural gas treatment site. This phase was undertaken jointly with UOP LLC, our commercialization partner. The field test demonstrated that a commercial-size membrane module for natural gas dehydration was successfully manufactured. The membrane module operated reliably over 1000 psi differential pressure across the membrane in the field test. The effects of feed gas pressure, permeate gas pressure, feed flow rate, purge ratio (flow rate ratio of permeate outlet to feed), and feed gas dew point on the membrane module performance were determined and found to meet the design expectations. Although water vapor permeance was lower than expected, substantial natural gas dehydration was demonstrated with low purge ratio. For example, dew point was suppressed by as much as 30 F with only about 2 {approx} 3% purge ratio. However the bore side pressure drops were significantly higher than the projected value from the fluid dynamic calculation. It is likely that not all the fibers were open in either the sweep or the permeate tube sheet end. This could help to explain the relatively low water vapor permeances that were measured in the field. An economic evaluation of the membrane process and the traditional Triethylene Glycol (TEG) process to dehydrate natural gas was performed and the economics of the two processes were compared. Two sets of membrane module performance properties were used in the economic analysis of the membrane process. One was from the results of this field test and the other from the results of the previous small-scale test with a medium pressure membrane variant conducted at 750 psig. The membrane process was competitive with the TEG process for the natural gas feed flow rate below 10 MMSCFD for the membrane with previously measured water vapor permeance. The membrane process was

  15. Process for enhancing recovery of oil from oil-bearing earth formations

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.M.; Butler, J.R.

    1984-04-03

    A process is claimed for increasing recovery of oil from oil-bearing earth formations wherein H/sub 2/S from sour wellhead gas is oxidized to SO/sub 3/ which in turn is reacted with a petroleum hydrocarbon mixture to produce a petroleum sulfonate. The petroleum sulfonate is incorporated into an oil recovery enhancing fluid and introduced through an injection well into an oil-bearing earth formation to displace oil toward a production well.

  16. Process for separating hydrocarbon gas constituents utilizing a fractionator

    SciTech Connect

    Aghili, H.K.

    1987-10-06

    A process is described for separating the constituents of a gas stream comprising: (a) lowering the temperature of the gas stream; (b) supplying the lower temperature gas stream to a high pressure separator; (c) lowering the pressure of the predominantly vapor stream; (d) supplying the lower pressure vapor stream to an upper region of a demethanizer column; (e) lowering the pressure of the predominantly fluid stream; (f) supplying the lower pressure fluid stream to the demethanizer column at an elevation below the vapor stream; (g) removing cold vapor residue gas from an upper region of the demethanizer column; (h) passing the vapor residue gas through at least one heat exchanger to raise the temperature of the vapor residue gas; (i) compressing the vapor residue gas for delivery elsewhere; (j) removing a cold demethanized product from a lower region of the demethanizer column; (k) supplying at least a portion of the demethanized product to a fractionator wherein the fractionator operates as a distillation column; (l) separating the demethanized product into an ethane overhead product and a deethanized bottom product; (m) removing a generally liquid deethanized product from a lower region of the fractionator; (n) drawing off a portion of the deethanized product; (o) lowering the temperature of the drawn off product; and, (p) supplying the lower temperature deethanized product to the top of the demethanizer column.

  17. Gas phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion process equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.; Neiswander, D.W.

    1994-03-01

    D&D of the process facilities at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) will be an enormous task. The EBASCO estimate places the cost of D&D of the GDP at the K-25 Site at approximately $7.5 billion. Of this sum, nearly $4 billion is associated with the construction and operation of decontamination facilities and the dismantlement and transport of contaminated process equipment to these facilities. In situ long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas phase decontamination is being developed and demonstrated at the K-25 site as a technology that has the potential to substantially lower these costs while reducing criticality and safeguards concerns and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The objective of gas phase decontamination is to employ a gaseous reagent to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to form volatile LJF6, which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The LTLT process permits the decontamination of the inside of gas-tight GDP process equipment at room temperature by substituting a long exposure to subatmospheric C1F for higher reaction rates at higher temperatures. This paper outlines the concept for applying LTLT gas phase decontamination, reports encouraging laboratory experiments, and presents the status of the design of a prototype mobile system. Plans for demonstrating the LTLT process on full-size gaseous diffusion equipment are also outlined briefly.

  18. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2003-10-01

    This third quarter report of 2003 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and off-shore applications. CrystaSulf{reg_sign} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas.

  19. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-04-01

    This first quarter report of 2004 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and off-shore applications. CrystaSulf{reg_sign} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane while avoiding methane oxidation and fouling due to coking from other hydrocarbon contaminants. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas.

  20. Mechanistic Processes Controlling Gas Sorption in Shale Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaef, T.; Loring, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Davidson, C. L.; Owen, T.; Hoyt, D.; Glezakou, V. A.; McGrail, B. P.; Thompson, C.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of CO2 to stimulate natural gas production in previously fractured shale-dominated reservoirs where CO2 remains in place for long-term storage may be an attractive new strategy for reducing the cost of managing anthropogenic CO2. A preliminary analysis of capacities and potential revenues in US shale plays suggests nearly 390 tcf in additional gas recovery may be possible via CO2 driven enhanced gas recovery. However, reservoir transmissivity properties, optimum gas recovery rates, and ultimate fate of CO2 vary among reservoirs, potentially increasing operational costs and environmental risks. In this paper, we identify key mechanisms controlling the sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto phyllosilicates and processes occurring in mixed gas systems that have the potential of impacting fluid transfer and CO2 storage in shale dominated formations. Through a unique set of in situ experimental techniques coupled with molecular-level simulations, we identify structural transformations occurring to clay minerals, optimal CO2/CH4 gas exchange conditions, and distinguish between adsorbed and intercalated gases in a mixed gas system. For example, based on in situ measurements with magic angle spinning NMR, intercalation of CO2 within the montmorillonite structure occurs in CH4/CO2 gas mixtures containing low concentrations (<5 mol%) of CO2. A stable montmorillonite structure dominates during exposure to pure CH4 (90 bar), but expands upon titration of small fractions (1-3 mol%) of CO2. Density functional theory was used to quantify the difference in sorption behavior between CO2 and CH4 and indicates complex interactions occurring between hydrated cations, CH4, and CO2. The authors will discuss potential impacts of these experimental results on CO2-based hydrocarbon recovery processes.

  1. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  2. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  3. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  4. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  5. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  6. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  7. A chemical basis for sour taste perception of acid solutions and fresh-pack dill pickles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sour taste is influenced by pH and acids present in foods. It is not currently possible, however, to accurately predict and modify sour taste intensity in foods containing organic acids. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of protonated (undissociated) organic acid species and h...

  8. [Characteristics of industrial noise at the Astrakhan gas processing plant].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, V I; Dotsenko, Iu I; Boĭko, O V

    2011-01-01

    The level and nature of air pollution were studied in various objects of the Astrakhan gas processing plant. The necessity of introducing technical-hygienic, organizational, and medical measures to reduce the adverse effect of the noise on workers is warranted. PMID:21899100

  9. Operational performance comparisons in the gas processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Salahor, G.S.

    1996-12-31

    Comparison and benchmarking of operational performance measures in the natural gas processing and gathering industry has helped operators to identify and prioritize improvement initiatives and has led to direct and tangible improvements in operating efficiency. However, proper interpretation and utilization of performance benchmarking data in a complex operation such as gas processing must reflect due consideration of the technical factors which influence the overall economic performance and resource requirements. Plant operators must be able to use the data to understand the key technical influences reflected in their results, and thereby set performance targets commensurate with the structural considerations particular to their facility. Ernst and Young has developed an analytical framework for gas processing and gathering operations incorporating such considerations, and conducted a study involving North American and international participants for the past four years. The information obtained form this work has revealed a wide range of performance results across plants, and has served to challenge much of the conventional wisdom regarding what levels of performance are attainable, and to provide understanding as to how gas processing operational resource requirements are influenced by technical parameters.

  10. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  11. Nitrogen addition using a gas blow in an ESR process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Momoi, Y.; Kajikawa, K.

    2016-07-01

    A new nitrogen method for adding in an ESR process using nitrogen gas blown in through the electrode was investigated. Nitrogen gas blown through a center bore of the electrode enabled contact between the nitrogen gas and the molten steel directly underneath the electrode tip. A ɸ 145mm diameter, laboratory-sized PESR furnace was used for the study on the reaction kinetics. Also, we carried out a water-model experiment in order to check the injection depth of the gas blown in the slag. The water model showed that the gas did not reach the upper surface of the molten metal and flowed on the bottom surface of the electrode only. An EPMA was carried out for a droplet remaining on the tip of the electrode after melting. The molten steel from the tip of the electrode shows that nitrogen gas absorption occurred at the tip of the electrode. The mass transfer coefficient was around 1.0x10-2 cm/sec in the system. This value is almost the same as the coefficient at the molten steel free surface.

  12. U.S. gas conditioning and processing plant survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Tannehill, C.; Echterhoff, L.; Trimble, K.

    1995-11-01

    A database of information on 1,427 natural gas conditioning and processing plants in the lower 48 states has been compiled with the assistance of over 50 operating companies and several engineering and construction firms. The database was updated in 1994 with NGL recovery plants now numbering 724. Acid gas (CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) is removed by 617 plants. Sulfur is recovered at over 100 plants. Nitrogen is rejected at 12 plants, and helium is recovered at eight plants. The plants are categorized into 12 regions with the number of plants and combined inlet capacity for each region categorized as follows: Built before 1970; Built in each year between 1970 and 1994; Removing H{sub 2}S and/or CO{sub 2}; Using direct conversion H{sub 2}S removal processes (iron sponge, ARI LO-CAT{reg_sign}, SulFerox); Using chemical solvents for acid gas removal (MEA, DEA, MDEA, DGA, Benfield, Other); Using physical solvents for acid gas removal (Sulfinol, Selexol, other); Recovering sulfur (Claus, Selectox, other); Tail gas clean-up (SCOT, CBA, MCRC, other); NGL recovery (refrigeration, cryogenic expander, refrigerated lean oil, adsorption, other); Nitrogen rejection; Helium recovery; and Shutdown plants.

  13. Indirect gas chromatographic measurement of water for process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.

    1993-05-01

    This project was conducted to develop a moisture measurement method for process gas streams of fossil fuels. Objective was to from pyrolysis to measure the molar concentration of water in a gas stream without flow measurements. The method developed has been incorporated into the hydrocarbon gas analysis method currently used at Western Research Institute. A literature search of types of direct measuring moisture sensors was conducted, and a list of sensors available is given; most of them could not survive in the environment of the process streams. Indirect methods of measuring water involve changing the water via reaction to a compound that can be more readily measured. These methods react water with various reagents to form hydrogen, acetylene, and acetone. The method chose for this study uses a calcium carbide reaction column to convert the water present in the gas stream to acetylene for analysis. Relative deviation for the daily determination of water varied from 0.5 to 3.4%. The method chosen was tested for linearity over a wide range of gas stream water content. Response over 2 to 15 mole % water appears to be linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.991.

  14. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  15. Managing your gas processing plant: Fundamentalist, fashionable, farsighted or fantastic!

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    The challenges facing the gas processing industry have motivated managers to consider a variety of interesting new initiatives in managing a gas processing business. Using direct industry experience and a brief survey of participating companies, the author reviews the state of five popular programs that have become common cornerstones of many optimization and reengineering efforts in the gas processing business. Several lesser initiatives are also briefly discussed. The five major programs are: Maintenance Management, Field Information Handling, Work Process Optimization, Compensation Design, and Procurement Optimization. The success of these programs and initiatives depends greatly on the company culture in which they are implemented. Critical success factors and pitfalls are discussed for each program. Particular attention is paid to practical considerations that undermine idealistic theory. The conclusion is that the future belongs to the Farsighted, who will be able to mix equal parts of vision, intelligence, common sense, understanding of both human nature and the processing business, execution and determination into a formidable formula for success in the new world of gathering and processing.

  16. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K. ); Silveston, P.L. )

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of activated carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. In the previous three quarters, a detailed project management plan was prepared describing the experimental setup, work plan, and test plan. The experimental system was completed for SO{sub 2} conversion at Waterloo and for NO{sub x} conversion at RTI. Shakedown experiments were completed. In the present quarter, the NO{sub x} removal performance of two additional modified carbon catalysts (MCCII and MCCIII) was studied. MCCII showed NO{sub x} removal efficiency which was similar to that observed for MCCI. However, MCCI was considerably less active for NO{sub x} removal. SO{sub 2} removal experiments with NO present in the feed gas were performed with MCCI. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was consistently about 98% over each of 10 cycles and was very similar to that observed earlier with no NO present in the feed. Finally, a preliminary economic evaluation of the process was performed and a project review meeting was held. The economic evaluation showed that the Rn-Waterloo process was competitive with SCR/IFGD and other combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, removal processes.

  17. Development of sour resistant modified 13Cr OCTG

    SciTech Connect

    Asahi, H.; Hara, T.; Kawakami, A.; Takahashi, A.

    1995-10-01

    Sour resistant 13% Cr martensitic OCTG (Oil Country Tubular Goods) with so far unexpected high CO{sub 2} corrosion resistance was developed. CO{sub 2} corrosion resistance was remarkably increased by complex additions of Cu and Ni, of which contribution to CO{sub 2} corrosion resistance corresponds to that by a further addition of 6% Cr at 180 C. SSC resistance was improved by an addition of Mo. Based on such knowledge of roles of chemical elements on corrosion properties and phase stability, 0.02%C-12.5%Cr-4.5%Ni-1.5%Mo-1.5%Cu steel was developed. This steel has good hot-workability and was produced into seamless OCTG. Corrosion rates in a high pressure CO{sub 2} environment were less than 0.1 mm/y at temperatures up to 200 C (392 F) compared with 100 C of conventional API L80-13CR. No SSC occurred in sour environments with partial pressure of 0.001MPA or less even at low pH of 3.5. At elevated temperatures no cracking and no pitting was observed in H{sub 2}S containing CO{sub 2}-brine environments. The properties of the developed steel are much better in CO{sub 2} corrosion and SSC resistance compared with those of conventional 13Cr steel and are close to those of duplex stainless steel.

  18. Design, Control and in Situ Visualization of Gas Nitriding Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ratajski, Jerzy; Olik, Roman; Suszko, Tomasz; Dobrodziej, Jerzy; Michalski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of time, as well as possibilities to predict the properties of nitrided layers. For in situ visualization of the growth of the nitrided layer, computer procedures were developed which make use of the results of the correlations of direct and differential voltage and time runs of the process result sensor (magnetic sensor), with the proper layer growth stage. Computer procedures make it possible to combine, in the duration of the process, the registered voltage and time runs with the models of the process. PMID:22315536

  19. Design, control and in situ visualization of gas nitriding processes.

    PubMed

    Ratajski, Jerzy; Olik, Roman; Suszko, Tomasz; Dobrodziej, Jerzy; Michalski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of time, as well as possibilities to predict the properties of nitrided layers. For in situ visualization of the growth of the nitrided layer, computer procedures were developed which make use of the results of the correlations of direct and differential voltage and time runs of the process result sensor (magnetic sensor), with the proper layer growth stage. Computer procedures make it possible to combine, in the duration of the process, the registered voltage and time runs with the models of the process. PMID:22315536

  20. Methane gas seepage - Disregard of significant water column filter processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Schmale, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Marine methane seepage represents a potential contributor for greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and is discussed as a driver for climate change. The ultimate question is how much methane is released from the seafloor on a global scale and what fraction may reach the atmosphere? Dissolved fluxes from methane seepage sites on the seabed were found to be very efficiently reduced by benthic microbial oxidation, whereas transport of free gas bubbles from the seabed is considered to bypass the effective benthic methane filter. Numerical models are available today to predict the fate of such methane gas bubble release to the water column in regard to gas exchange with the ambient water column, respective bubble lifetime and rise height. However, the fate of rising gas bubbles and dissolved methane in the water column is not only governed by dissolution, but is also affected by lateral oceanographic currents and vertical bubble-induced upwelling, microbial oxidation, and physico-chemical processes that remain poorly understood so far. According to this gap of knowledge we present data from two study sites - the anthropogenic North Sea 22/4b Blowout and the natural Coal Oil point seeps - to shed light into two new processes gathered with hydro-acoustic multibeam water column imaging and microbial investigations. The newly discovered processes are hereafter termed Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism. Spiral Vortex describes the evolution of a complex vortical fluid motion of a bubble plume in the wake of an intense gas release site (Blowout, North Sea). It appears very likely that it dramatically changes the dissolution kinetics of the seep gas bubbles. Bubble Transport Mechanism prescribes the transport of sediment-hosted bacteria into the water column via rising gas bubbles. Both processes act as filter mechanisms in regard to vertical transport of seep related methane, but have not been considered before. Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism represent the

  1. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  2. Cryogenic process for removing acidic gases from gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gazzi, L.; Cotone, G.; Ginnasi, A.; Rescalli, C.; Soldati, G.; Vetere, A.

    1985-04-30

    Low temperature treatments are combined with solvent treatments using particularly selective solvents for stripping acidic gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide from natural gas or from synthetic gases. The preferred solvents are a wide range of compounds having an esteric or an etheric function in their molecule, but there are also examples of compounds which have the two functions simultaneously. The stripping process is comparatively simple, is efficient, especially for high contents of acidic gases in the raw gas streams, and is economically acceptable.

  3. U.S. gas processing consolidates while world tempo increases

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Consolidation characterized US gas processing in 1995, while plants in Canada, Western Europe, Middle East, and Asia displayed growth in capacities and NGL production. The US and Canada continued to lead the rest of the world in capacity, throughput, and NGL production, although by smaller margins. A rash of consolidations underway in the US among gatherers and processors, shrunk capacity by more than 1.8 bcfd ({minus}2.6%) and production by nearly 950,000 gpd ({minus}1.3%). US capacity stood at slightly more than 69 bcfd as of Jan. 1, 1996; throughput for 1995 averaged nearly 48.4 bcfd; and NGL production exceeded 74,550 gpd. Canada saw its gas-processing capacity increase last year by more than 2.3 bcfd (6.3%) led by a handful of major expansions at large Alberta scavenger plants that straddle major gas export pipelines to the US. Gas-processing capacity in Canada as of Jan. 1 was nearly 39 bcfd; throughput for 1995 averaged nearly 30.5 bcfd; NGL production fell to slightly more than 43,000 gpd. This paper discusses these trends in the US and Canada, and briefly world wide.

  4. Fission gas bubble identification using MATLAB's image processing toolbox

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Collette, R.; King, J.; Keiser, Jr., D.; Miller, B.; Madden, J.; Schulthess, J.

    2016-06-08

    Automated image processing routines have the potential to aid in the fuel performance evaluation process by eliminating bias in human judgment that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. In addition, this study presents several MATLAB based image analysis routines designed for fission gas void identification in post-irradiation examination of uranium molybdenum (U–Mo) monolithic-type plate fuels. Frequency domain filtration, enlisted as a pre-processing technique, can eliminate artifacts from the image without compromising the critical features of interest. This process is coupled with a bilateral filter, an edge-preserving noise removal technique aimed at preparing the image for optimal segmentation. Adaptive thresholding provedmore » to be the most consistent gray-level feature segmentation technique for U–Mo fuel microstructures. The Sauvola adaptive threshold technique segments the image based on histogram weighting factors in stable contrast regions and local statistics in variable contrast regions. Once all processing is complete, the algorithm outputs the total fission gas void count, the mean void size, and the average porosity. The final results demonstrate an ability to extract fission gas void morphological data faster, more consistently, and at least as accurately as manual segmentation methods.« less

  5. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of activated carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed-bed of activated carbon catalyst. The project is being carried over 14 months (June 4, 1991 to July 31, 1992). The experimental work is divided between Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). RTI will conduct the NO{sub x} removal studies, whereas Waterloo will conduct the SO{sub 2} removal studies. The ultimate goal of the project is to demonstrate that the process can reduce the cost of electricity by 20% over conventional SCR/flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. In the present quarter, a detailed project management plan was prepared describing the experimental set-up, work plan and test plan. The experimental equipment is being constructed and is nearly complete with shakedown experiments scheduled to begin on or about November 1, 1991. Also, a paper was prepared and presented for the Seventh Annual Contractor's Conference. The first set of experiments will be completed in the next quarter. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-07-01

    This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. This report describes testing using the laboratory apparatus but operated at the pilot plant using the actual pilot plant

  7. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2003-07-01

    This second quarter report of 2003 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and off-shore applications. CrystaSulf{reg_sign} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. Bench-scale catalyst testing at the CrystaSulf pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas was successful, and

  8. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Lundeen; Girish Srinivas; David W. DeBerry

    2003-01-01

    This fourth quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. Bench-scale catalyst testing at the CrystaSulf pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas was successful and a skid

  9. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2003-04-01

    This first quarter report of 2003 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and off-shore applications. CrystaSulf{reg_sign} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. Bench-scale catalyst testing at the CrystaSulf pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas was successful, and

  10. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-08-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H{sub 2}S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H{sub 2}S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H{sub 2}S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not change the

  11. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOEpatents

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Corbeels, Roger J.; Kokturk, Uygur

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  12. Palladium coated porous anodic alumina membranes for gas reforming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jeremy P.; Brown, Ian W. M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kemmitt, Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Nanostructured ceramic membranes with ultrathin coatings of palladium metal have been demonstrated to separate hydrogen gas from a gas mixture containing nitrogen with 10% carbon dioxide and 10% hydrogen at temperatures up to 550 °C. The mechanically robust and thermally durable membranes were fabricated using a combination of conventional and high-efficiency anodisation processes on high purity aluminium foils. A pH-neutral plating solution has also been developed to enable electroless deposition of palladium metal on templates which were normally prone to chemical corrosion in strong acid or base environment. Activation and thus seeding of palladium nuclei on the surface of the template were essential to ensure uniform and fast deposition, and the thickness of the metal film was controlled by time of deposition. The palladium coated membranes showed improved hydrogen selectivity with increased temperature as well as after prolonged exposure to hydrogen, demonstrating excellent potential for gas separation technologies.

  13. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  14. Process for producing and recovering elemental sulfur from acid gas

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R. L.

    1985-03-26

    A system and process produce high actual levels of sulfur recovery from acid gas. The system includes two conventional Claus reactors and two cold bed adsorption (CBA) reactors. Four condensers are provided, one disposed before each of the catalytic reactors, and one disposed after the CBA reactor. The system includes a gas clean-up treatment zone for hydrogenation, drying and oxidation of gas to provide stoichiometric ratio of H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/. The gas is passed through the clean-up treatment zone prior to being fed to the first of the CBA reactors. The system is designed to operate either in a recovery mode or in a regeneration mode. In the recovery mode, the reactors are in series and the CBA reactors are operated below dew point of sulfur. In regeneration mode, effluent from the clean-up treatment zone is heated in a heat exchanger using effluent from the first catalytic reactor as the heat source. The resulting regeneration gas is fed to one of the two CBA reactors to vaporize sulfur and regenerate the catalyst. The vaporized sulfur is recovered in the condenser. The effluent from the condenser is passed to the other CBA reactor which is operated in the recovery mode during regeneration.

  15. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Pence, Dallas T.; Chou, Chun-Chao

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

  16. Flexibility can boost profits in cryogenic gas-processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.E.

    1980-07-14

    Many factors influence the selection and design of a cryogenic gas processing plant, including the expected product values. For a minimal increase in investment, operating flexibility can be designed into the plant to allow for a wide range of product recovery levels. This minimal increase in capital expenditure may significantly enhance future profits. At a reduced price for ethane, producers were concerned with the recovery of the propane-plus fraction. Ethane was rejected to the residue gas. As the value of ethane increases, a plant with adequate operating flexibility will be able to recover ethane and realize increased profits. During the 1970s, the price of ethane reached a level high enough to stimulate the development of economic and cryogenic expander gas processing units. Designs are now relatively simple. Operating experience shows that onstream reliability is quite good. Control schemes also are simple, and some plants are completely automated. These factors combine to allow plants to operate with a wide range of process flow conditions, with minimal operator attention. Some key considerations typically enhance the selection of the expander process.

  17. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-04-01

    This first quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{sup SM} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. In a previous reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H{sub 2}S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H{sub 2}S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H{sub 2}S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not change

  18. Atomic Processes in X-ray Photoionized Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that photoionization and photoabsorption play a dominant role in determining the state of gas in nebulae surrounding hot stars and in active galaxies. Recent observations of X-ray spectra demonstrate that these processes are also dominant in highly ionized gas near compact objects, and also affect the transmission of X-rays from the majority of astronomical sources. This has led to new insights into the understanding of what is going on in these sources. It has also pointed out the need for a better atomic cross sections for photoionization and absorption, notably for processes involving inner shells. In this talk I will discuss these issues, what is known and where more work is needed.

  19. Ceramics in gas turbines - Powder and process characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1977-01-01

    The role of powder and process characterization in producing high quality silicon nitride and silicon carbide components, for gas turbine applications, is described. Some of the intrinsic properties of various forms of Si3N4 and SiC are listed and limitations of such materials' availability have been pointed out. The essential features/parameters to characterize a batch of powder have been discussed including the standard techniques for such characterization. In process characterization, parameters in sintering, reaction sintering, and hot pressing processes are discussed including the factors responsible for strength limitations in ceramic bodies. It is inevitable that significant improvements in material properties can be achieved by reducing or eliminating the strength limiting factors with consistent powder and process characterization along with process control.

  20. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  1. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes an acidizing composition for treating a sour well. It comprises: a base acid solution having an initial ph below 1.9; an iron sequestering agent to combine with iron present in the solution comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution; and a sulfide modifier to combine with sulfides present in the solution comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming an aldehyde in solution, present in an amount of from about 1 to about 4 percent by weight of the acid solution, whereby precipitation of ferric hydroxide, ferrous sulfide and elemental sulfur is inhibited as acid spending occurs.

  2. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method of treating a sour well penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises: introducing into the well a treating fluid comprising an acid solution having a pH below 1.9, an iron sequestering agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution, and a sulfide modifier comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming aldehydes in the acid solution, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent of the acid solution; and treating the subterranean formation with the treating fluid.

  3. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-06-01

    This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize a

  4. Pressure swing permeation: Novel process for gas separation by membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Pan, C.Y.; Ivory, J.

    2000-04-01

    A novel process for gas separation, called pressure swing permeation, was investigated to elevate the relatively low permeate pressure by pressurization with high-pressure feed gas, thereby reducing or eliminating additional permeate compression costs where a pressurized permeate is required. This process uses two or more membrane modules and operates in a cyclic fashion, with each module repeatedly undergoing the sequential steps of feed admission and permeation, residual removal, permeate reception, permeate pressurization, and product withdrawal. The unsteady-state permeation associated with pressure swing permeation was studied parametrically, and a bench-scale unit compromising two hollow-fiber membrane modules in parallel was tested for H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation to demonstrate the effectiveness of the process. The permeate product at a pressure as high as the feed pressure can be produced without using a compressor. This is impossible with traditional steady-state processes where a pressure differential across the membrane must be maintained. The pressure swing permeation is analogous to pressure swing adsorption and has the potential to be synergistically integrated with the pressure swing adsorption process for enhanced separation of gases.

  5. Measuring gas temperature during spin-exchange optical pumping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, E.; Jiang, C. Y.; Brown, D. R.; Robertson, L.; Crow, L.; Tong, X.

    2016-04-01

    The gas temperature inside a Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) laser-pumping polarized 3He cell has long been a mystery. Different experimental methods were employed to measure this temperature but all were based on either modelling or indirect measurement. To date there has not been any direct experimental measurement of this quantity. Here we present the first direct measurement using neutron transmission to accurately determine the number density of 3He, the temperature is obtained using the ideal gas law. Our result showed a surprisingly high gas temperature of 380°C, compared to the 245°C of the 3He cell wall temperature and 178°C of the optical pumping oven temperature. This experiment result may be used to further investigate the unsolved puzzle of the "X-factor" in the SEOP process which places an upper bound to the 3He polarization that can be achieved. Additional spin relaxation mechanisms might exist due to the high gas temperature, which could explain the origin of the X-factor.

  6. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRAL SEPARATOR FOR A CENTRIFUGAL GAS PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    LANCE HAYS

    2007-02-27

    A COMPACT GAS PROCESSING DEVICE WAS INVESTIGATED TO INCREASE GAS PRODUCTION FROM REMOTE, PREVIOUSLY UN-ECONOMIC RESOURCES. THE UNIT WAS TESTED ON AIR AND WATER AND WITH NATURAL GAS AND LIQUID. RESULTS ARE REPORTED WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK.

  7. Surface Studies of Ultra Strength Drilling Steel after Corrosion Fatigue in Simulated Sour Environment

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; J.A. Hawk; R. Thodla; F. Gui

    2012-05-06

    The Unites States predicted 60% growth in energy demand by 2030 makes oil and natural gas primary target fuels for energy generation. The fact that the peak of oil production from shallow wells (< 5000 m) is about to be reached, thereby pushing the oil and natural gas industry into deeper wells. However, drilling to depths greater than 5000 m requires increasing the strength-to weight ratio of the drill pipe materials. Grade UD-165 is one of the ultra- high yield strength carbon steels developed for ultra deep drilling (UDD) activities. Drilling UDD wells exposes the drill pipes to Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and H{sub 2}S-containig corrosive environments (i.e., sour environments) at higher pressures and temperatures compared to those found in conventional wells. Because of the lack of synergism within the service environment, operational stresses can result in catastrophic brittle failures characteristic for environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Approximately 75% of all drill string failures are caused by fatigue or corrosion fatigue. Since there is no literature data on the corrosion fatigue performance of UD-165 in sour environments, research was initiated to better clarify the fatigue crack growth (FCGR) behavior of this alloy in UDD environments. The FCGR behavior of ultra-strength carbon steel, grade UD-165, was investigated by monitoring crack growth rate in deaerated 5%NaCl solution buffered with NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in contact with H{sub 2}S. The partial pressure of H{sub 2}S (p{sub H2S}) was 0.83 kPa and pH of the solution was adjusted by NaOH to 12. The fatigue experiments were performed at 20 and 85 C in an autoclave with surface investigations augmented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. In this study, research focused on surface analyses supported by the fatigue crack growth rate measurements. Fig. 1 shows an SEM micrograph of the crack that propagated from the

  8. Atomic Processes in X-ray Photoioinzed Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that photoionization and photoabsorption play a dominant role in determining the state of gas in nebulae surrounding hot stars and in active galaxies. Recent observations of X-ray spectra demonstrate that these processes are also dominant in highly ionized gas near compact objects, and also affect the transmission of X-rays from the majority of astronomical sources. This has led to new insights into the understanding of what is going on in these sources. It has also pointed out the need for accurate atomic cross sections for photoionization and absorption, notably for processes involving inner shells. The xstar code can be used for calculating the heating, ionization and reprocessing of X-rays by gas in a range of ionization states and temperatures. It has recently been updated to include an improved treatment of inner shell transitions in iron. I will review the capabilities of xstar, the atomic data, and illustrate some applications to recent X-ray spectral observations.

  9. Educational software for illustrating gas-exchange processes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D.; Hanson, P.J. ); Sage, R.F. )

    1991-05-01

    Simulation models are increasingly being used to describe physiological processes in the plant sciences. These models, while useful for research purposes, also offer tremendous potential for demonstrating a wide array of scientific topics to students. The authors have developed an educational software package, based on currently accepted principles, that illustrates the environmental and biochemical control of plant gas-exchange. Graphic and tabular presentations, coupled with on-screen requests for student input, serve to effectively convey the basic fundamentals of photosynthesis and transpiration, as well as the diurnal patterns of plant gas-exchange in response to fluctuating environmental conditions. More advanced topics focus on the biochemical limitations to photosynthesis imposed by Rubisco activity, electron transport capacity, and the regeneration of inorganic phosphorus. Also included is an exercise that challenges students to call upon the lessons learned in order to optimize carbon assimilation, while minimizing water losses, over a 72-h simulation period.

  10. 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant gas systems. Design baseline package. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume 9 contains the Selexol process and the Ammonia Sulfide Water Stripping Unit. Much of the Selexol process data is proprietary so little information is included on that. The Ammonia Sulfide Water Stripping Unit (ASWS) removes volatile pollutants from contaminated water. The products of the ASWS are a sour gas product composed primarily of NH/sub 3/, H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/ and water vapor and a stripped water product which is suitable for biological treatment. This process is described in some detail. (LTN)

  11. The K+ channel KIR2.1 functions in tandem with proton influx to mediate sour taste transduction

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wenlei; Chang, Rui B.; Bushman, Jeremy D.; Tu, Yu-Hsiang; Mulhall, Eric M.; Wilson, Courtney E.; Cooper, Alexander J.; Chick, Wallace S.; Hill-Eubanks, David C.; Nelson, Mark T.; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Liman, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Sour taste is detected by a subset of taste cells on the tongue and palate epithelium that respond to acids with trains of action potentials. Entry of protons through a Zn2+-sensitive proton conductance that is specific to sour taste cells has been shown to be the initial event in sour taste transduction. Whether this conductance acts in concert with other channels sensitive to changes in intracellular pH, however, is not known. Here, we show that intracellular acidification generates excitatory responses in sour taste cells, which can be attributed to block of a resting K+ current. We identify KIR2.1 as the acid-sensitive K+ channel in sour taste cells using pharmacological and RNA expression profiling and confirm its contribution to sour taste with tissue-specific knockout of the Kcnj2 gene. Surprisingly, acid sensitivity is not conferred on sour taste cells by the specific expression of Kir2.1, but by the relatively small magnitude of the current, which makes the cells exquisitely sensitive to changes in intracellular pH. Consistent with a role of the K+ current in amplifying the sensory response, entry of protons through the Zn2+-sensitive conductance produces a transient block of the KIR2.1 current. The identification in sour taste cells of an acid-sensitive K+ channel suggests a mechanism for amplification of sour taste and may explain why weak acids that produce intracellular acidification, such as acetic acid, taste more sour than strong acids. PMID:26627720

  12. The K+ channel KIR2.1 functions in tandem with proton influx to mediate sour taste transduction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenlei; Chang, Rui B; Bushman, Jeremy D; Tu, Yu-Hsiang; Mulhall, Eric M; Wilson, Courtney E; Cooper, Alexander J; Chick, Wallace S; Hill-Eubanks, David C; Nelson, Mark T; Kinnamon, Sue C; Liman, Emily R

    2016-01-12

    Sour taste is detected by a subset of taste cells on the tongue and palate epithelium that respond to acids with trains of action potentials. Entry of protons through a Zn(2+)-sensitive proton conductance that is specific to sour taste cells has been shown to be the initial event in sour taste transduction. Whether this conductance acts in concert with other channels sensitive to changes in intracellular pH, however, is not known. Here, we show that intracellular acidification generates excitatory responses in sour taste cells, which can be attributed to block of a resting K(+) current. We identify KIR2.1 as the acid-sensitive K(+) channel in sour taste cells using pharmacological and RNA expression profiling and confirm its contribution to sour taste with tissue-specific knockout of the Kcnj2 gene. Surprisingly, acid sensitivity is not conferred on sour taste cells by the specific expression of Kir2.1, but by the relatively small magnitude of the current, which makes the cells exquisitely sensitive to changes in intracellular pH. Consistent with a role of the K(+) current in amplifying the sensory response, entry of protons through the Zn(2+)-sensitive conductance produces a transient block of the KIR2.1 current. The identification in sour taste cells of an acid-sensitive K(+) channel suggests a mechanism for amplification of sour taste and may explain why weak acids that produce intracellular acidification, such as acetic acid, taste more sour than strong acids. PMID:26627720

  13. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  14. Physical processes in grid control gas discharge device Tacitron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, Alexander; Vereschagin, Nicolay; Kruglov, Sergey

    2003-10-01

    Physical processes in grid control gas discharge device Tacitron Arefjev A.S., Vereschagin N.M., Kruglov S. A. Radioengineering Academy, Ryazan, Russia Nowdays pulsed power units is getting widely used for cleaning biogas and water. Their parameters and dimension defines by the current commutator, which is used as a switch for interrupting the current in the circuit. Experimental investigations have been carried out to find out the propeties of the one type of the current commutator - the so-called tacitron. It has specific construction of the control grid ,which enables to control the moment of the discharge plasma distinguish and consequently a tacitron has ability to distinguish the discharge, e.i. to interrupt the current, flowing through the device. The grid of a tacitron is constructed of small-mesh metal. The dimension of the small-mesh cell must be compare with Debay radius at the proper discharge conditions. It is stipulated by the fact that if the dimensions of the grid cell are compare with Debay radius then ionic sheaths on the negative electrode as if 'overlap' each other. Then if to supply the controlling impulse to the grid of the tacitron one can ensure interrupting the current through the tacitron. Thus a tacitron is full controlling discharge current commutator. There has been performed experimental investigation of the process of the current interruption.(distinguishing of the gas discharge), taking place in the discharge space between the anode and the cathode of the tacitron. The outcomes of experiments show that the process of the distinguishing may be divided on 4 stages, which differ one from another by elementary processes, going on there : - delay of the distinguishing of the discharge; - so-called 'slow ' stage; - decay of plasma inside the anode - grid gap; - decay of plasma inside the cathode - grid gap. The whole duration of the process of the discharge distinguishing equals mostly the second and the third stages together. The duration

  15. Process Simulation of Gas Metal Arc Welding Software

    2005-09-06

    ARCWELDER is a Windows-based application that simulates gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of steel and aluminum. The software simulates the welding process in an accurate and efficient manner, provides menu items for process parameter selection, and includes a graphical user interface with the option to animate the process. The user enters the base and electrode material, open circuit voltage, wire diameter, wire feed speed, welding speed, and standoff distance. The program computes the size andmore » shape of a square-groove or V-groove weld in the flat position. The program also computes the current, arc voltage, arc length, electrode extension, transfer of droplets, heat input, filler metal deposition, base metal dilution, and centerline cooling rate, in English or SI units. The simulation may be used to select welding parameters that lead to desired operation conditions.« less

  16. The intelligent control of an inert-gas atomization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osella, S. A.; Ridder, S. D.; Biancaniello, F. S.; Espina, P. I.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent control is an attempt to specify the function of a controller in ways which mimic the decision-making capabilities of humans. Traditionally, issues relating to the emulation of human-like capabilities have fallen in the domain of artificial intelligence. Intelligent processing is a specific form of intelligent control in which the system to be controlled is a process rather than the more conventional mechanical or electrical system. The National Institute of Standards and Technology's program on intelligent processing of metal powders is a multi-disciplinary research initiative investigating the application of intelligent control technologies to improve the state of the art of metal powder manufacturing. This paper reviews the design of the institute's supersonic inert-gas metal-atomizer control system.

  17. Reactive gas atomization processing for Fe-based ODS alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Joel R; Anderson, Iver E; Kramer, Matthew J; Odette, G R; Stergar, E; Haney, E

    2011-08-24

    Gas atomization reaction synthesis was employed as a simplified method for processing oxide dispersion forming precursor Fe-based powders (e.g., Fe–Cr–Y–Hf). During this process a reactive atomization gas (i.e., Ar–O2) was used to oxidize the powder surfaces during primary break-up and rapid solidification of the molten alloy. This resulted in envelopment of the powders by an ultra-thin (t < 50 nm) metastable Cr-enriched oxide shell that was used as a vehicle to transport oxygen into the consolidated microstructure. Subsequent elevated temperature heat treatment promoted thermodynamically driven oxygen exchange reactions between trapped films of Cr-enriched oxide and internal (Y, Hf)-enriched intermetallic precipitates, resulting in highly stable nano-metric mixed oxide dispersoids (i.e., Y–Hf–O) that were identified with X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography results also revealed that the size and distribution of the dispersoids were found to depend strongly on the original rapidly solidified microstructure. To exploit this, several oxide dispersion strengthened microstructures were engineered from different powder particle size ranges, illustrating microstructural control as a function of particle solidification rate. Additionally, preliminary thermal–mechanical processing was used to develop a fine scale dislocation substructure for ultimate strengthening of the alloy.

  18. Shock wave processes in collisional gas particle mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmel, T. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Structures and propagation of shock waves in high density particle suspensions in gas are investigated theoretically and numerically. A physical and mathematical model which takes into account integral collisions between the particles on the basis of molecular-kinetic approaches of theory of granular materials is applied. The possibility of different types of shock waves, including double front structures is revealed. The role of particle collisions in the dynamics of particle dense layer expansion under an influence of divergent shock wave and in processes of shock wave diffraction past a backward-facing step is analyzed.

  19. In vitro enamel erosion associated with commercially available original and sour candies

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, Stephanie N.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Qian, Fang; Wefel, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to acidic foods and beverages is thought to increase risk of dental erosion. We hypothesized that the erosion potential of sour candies was greater than the erosion potentials of original candies. Methods The pH and titratable acidity of candies dissolved in artificial saliva or water were measured. Lesion depths of enamel surfaces exposed to candy slurries for 25 hours were measured. Statistics included two sample t-tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to identify differences between original and sour candies and correlations to identify relationships between lesion depths, pH and titratable acidity. Results Lesion depths were generally higher following exposure to sour candies compared to original candies, and for candies dissolved in water compared to artificial saliva. Lesion depths were negatively associated with initial slurry pH and positively associated with titratable acidity. Conclusions Both original and sour candies are potentially erosive, with sour candies being of greater concern. Although saliva might protect against the erosive effects of original candies, saliva is much less likely to protect against the erosive effects of sour candies. Clinical Implications Individuals at risk for candy-associated erosion, particularly those with high intakes, pocketing behaviors or decreased salivary flow, should be provided preventive guidance regarding candy habits. PMID:19571054

  20. Inactivation of Penicillum expansum in sour cherry juice, peach and apricot nectars by pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir; Tok, Fatih M; Soylu, E Mine; Soylu, Soner

    2008-08-01

    Inhibitory effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on Penicillum expansum inoculated into sour cherry juice, apricot and peach nectars were determined based on germination tube elongation, spore germination rate, and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations in this study. After inoculation of juice/nectar samples with P. expansum spores at the level of 10(5)-10(6)cfu/mL, the samples were processed by bench scale PEF pulse generator as a function of differing electric field strengths (0, 13, 17, 20, 23, 27, 30 and 34kV/cm) and processing times (0, 62, 94, 123, 163, 198 and 218mus). Results revealed that with an increase in electric field strength and processing time, germination tube elongation and spore germination rate were completely inhibited. Light and SEM observations revealed considerable morphological alterations in fungal conidia such as cytoplasmic coagulation, vacuolations, shrinkage and protoplast leakage. PEF processing of juice/nectars was demonstrated to be effective in inactivating P. expansum. To our knowledge, this is the first study confirming the inhibitory effects of PEF on germination tube elongation and spore germination rate of P. expansum in fruit juice/nectars. PMID:18541164

  1. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and process economics of the fluid milk process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On-farm activities associated with fluid milk production contribute approximately 70% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while off-farm activities arising from milk processing, packaging, and refrigeration, contribute the remainder in the form of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. W...

  2. Natural gas recovery, storage, and utilization SBIR program

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, H.D.

    1993-12-31

    A Fossil Energy natural-gas topic has been a part of the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program since 1988. To date, 50 Phase SBIR natural-gas applications have been funded. Of these 50, 24 were successful in obtaining Phase II SBIR funding. The current Phase II natural-gas research projects awarded under the SBIR program and managed by METC are presented by award year. The presented information on these 2-year projects includes project title, awardee, and a project summary. The 1992 Phase II projects are: landfill gas recovery for vehicular natural gas and food grade carbon dioxide; brine disposal process for coalbed gas production; spontaneous natural as oxidative dimerization across mixed conducting ceramic membranes; low-cost offshore drilling system for natural gas hydrates; motorless directional drill for oil and gas wells; and development of a multiple fracture creation process for stimulation of horizontally drilled wells.The 1993 Phase II projects include: process for sweetening sour gas by direct thermolysis of hydrogen sulfide; remote leak survey capability for natural gas transport storage and distribution systems; reinterpretation of existing wellbore log data using neural-based patter recognition processes; and advanced liquid membrane system for natural gas purification.

  3. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.

    PubMed

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. PMID:19092182

  4. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2013-03-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation (t 1), the base temperature (T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date (t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  5. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2014-07-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation ( t 1), the base temperature ( T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date ( t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  6. Surfactant process for promoting gas hydrate formation and application of the same

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Rudy E.; Zhong, Yu

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of storing gas using gas hydrates comprising forming gas hydrates in the presence of a water-surfactant solution that comprises water and surfactant. The addition of minor amounts of surfactant increases the gas hydrate formation rate, increases packing density of the solid hydrate mass and simplifies the formation-storage-decomposition process of gas hydrates. The minor amounts of surfactant also enhance the potential of gas hydrates for industrial storage applications.

  7. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Monitoring and Preventing Reservoir Souring Using Molecular Microbiological Methods (MMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittel, Antje

    The injection of seawater during the process of secondary oil recovery in offshore oilfields supplies huge amounts of sulphate to the prokaryotic reservoir communities. Together with the presence of oil organics and their degradation products as electron donors, this facilitates the enrichment and growth of sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) in the reservoir, as well as in pipings and top-side installations (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Vance and Thrasher, 2005). The activity of SRP causes severe economic problems due to the reactivity and toxicity of the produced hydrogen sulphide (H2S), one of the major problems being reservoir souring. Besides the use of broad-spectrum biocides or inhibitors for sulphate reduction, the addition of nitrate effectively decreased the net production of H2S in model column studies (Myhr et al., 2002; Hubert et al., 2005; Dunsmore et al., 2006) and field trials (Telang et al., 1997; Bødtker et al., 2008). The mechanisms by which nitrate addition might affect souring control are (i) the stimulation of heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that outcompete SRP for electron donors, (ii) the activity of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidising bacteria (NR-SOB), and (iii) the inhibition of SRP by the production of nitrite and nitrous oxides (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Hubert and Voordouw, 2007).

  8. Falling microbead counter-flow process for separating gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Hornbostel, Marc D.; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2015-07-07

    A method and reactor for removing a component from a gas stream is provided. In one embodiment, the method includes providing the gas stream containing the component that is to be removed and adsorbing the component out of the gas stream as the gas stream rises via microbeads of a sorbent falling down an adsorber section of a reactor.

  9. Falling microbead counter-flow process for separating gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbostel, Marc D.; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2015-10-27

    A method and reactor for removing a component from a gas stream is provided. In one embodiment, the method includes providing the gas stream containing the component that is to be removed and adsorbing the component out of the gas stream as the gas stream rises via microbeads of a sorbent falling down an adsorber section of a reactor.

  10. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  11. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for Clean Power and Syngas Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Amy, Fabrice; Hufton, Jeffrey; Bhadra, Shubhra; Weist, Edward; Lau, Garret; Jonas, Gordon

    2015-06-30

    Air Products has developed an acid gas removal technology based on adsorption (Sour PSA) that favorably compares with incumbent AGR technologies. During this DOE-sponsored study, Air Products has been able to increase the Sour PSA technology readiness level by successfully operating a two-bed test system on coal-derived sour syngas at the NCCC, validating the lifetime and performance of the adsorbent material. Both proprietary simulation and data obtained during the testing at NCCC were used to further refine the estimate of the performance of the Sour PSA technology when expanded to a commercial scale. In-house experiments on sweet syngas combined with simulation work allowed Air Products to develop new PSA cycles that allowed for further reduction in capital expenditure. Finally our techno economic analysis of the use the Sour PSA technology for both IGCC and coal-to-methanol applications suggests significant improvement of the unit cost of electricity and methanol compared to incumbent AGR technologies.

  12. Evaluation of thiosulfate as a substitute for hydrogen sulfide in sour corrosion fatigue studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappes, Mariano Alberto

    This work evaluates the possibility of replacing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) with thiosulfate anion (S2O32- ) in sour corrosion fatigue studies. H2S increases the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and can be present in carbon steel risers and flowlines used in off-shore oil production. Corrosion tests with gaseous H2S require special facilities with safety features, because H2S is a toxic and flammable gas. The possibility of replacing H2S with S2O32-, a non-toxic anion, for studying stress corrosion cracking of stainless and carbon steels in H2S solutions was first proposed by Tsujikawa et al. ( Tsujikawa et al., Corrosion, 1993. 49(5): p. 409-419). In this dissertation, Tsujikawa work will be extended to sour corrosion fatigue of carbon steels. H2S testing is often conducted in deareated condition to avoid oxygen reaction with sulfide that yields sulfur and to mimic oil production conditions. Nitrogen deareation was also adopted in S2O3 2- testing, and gas exiting the cell was forced through a sodium hydroxide trap. Measurements of the sulfide content of this trap were used to estimate the partial pressure of H2S in nitrogen, and Henry's law was used to estimate the content of H2S in the solution in the cell. H2S was produced by a redox reaction of S2O 32-, which required electrons from carbon steel corrosion. This reaction is spontaneous at the open circuit potential of steel. Therefore, H2S concentration was expected to be maximum at the steel surface, and this concentration was estimated by a mass balance analysis. Carbon steel specimens exposed to S2O32- containing solutions developed a film on their surface, composed by iron sulfide and cementite. The film was not passivating and a good conductor of electrons. Hydrogen permeation experiments proved that this film controls the rate of hydrogen absorption of steels exposed to thiosulfate containing solutions. The absorption of hydrogen in S2O3 2- solutions was compared with the absorption of hydrogen in

  13. GENETIC VARIATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PROMISING SOUR CHERRIES INFERRED FROM MICROSATELLITE MARKERS.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, R; Arzani, K; Bouzari, N; Saei, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the group of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for identification of promising sour cherries. From among 30 tested microsatellite (SSR) markers, 19 were selected to profile genetic variation in sour cherries due to high polymorphisms. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the accessions based on these markers. Totally 148 alleles were generated at 19 SSR loci which 122 alleles were polymorphic. The number of total alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 15 with an average of 7.78 and polymorphism percentage varied from 50 to 100% with an average of 78.76%. Also, PIC varied from 0.47 to 0.89 with an average of 0.79 and heterozygosity ranged from 0.35 to 0.55 with a mean of 0.45. According to these results, these markers specially PMS3, PS12A02, PceGA34, BPPCT021, EMPA004, EMPA018, and Pchgms3 produced good and various levels of amplifications and showed high heterozygosity levels. By the way, the genetic similarity showed a high diversity among the sour cherries. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising sour cherries, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the studied sour cherries were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these sour cherries can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that the set of microsatellite markers employed in this study demonstrated usefulness of microsatellite markers for the identification of sour cherry genotypes. PMID:27183795

  14. Effect of sour tea (Lipicom) pill versus captopril on the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Ali-Reza; Akbari, Hossein; Soleimani, Saeid; Beladi Mousavi, Seyed Seifollah; Tamadon, Mohamad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines are traditionally prescribed to manage blood pressure. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate effect of sour tea pill containing the herb’s extract versus captopril on the treatment of hypertension. Patients and Methods: In our crossover clinical trial 20 patients were enrolled in the study and advised for life style modification then the participants were randomly divided into 2 groups. Sour tea pills was prescribed at a dose of 500 mg and captopril at a dose of 12.5 mg twice daily. In order to improve precision and final measurement, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed both prior and after measuring the hypertension in 2 successive visits. After 6 weeks of therapy, the methods changed and 6 weeks later ABPM was performed three times (baseline, at end of the 6th and 12th week). The 2 groups were merged together before data analysis. Results: Of the 20 patients, 13 (65%) were male and 7 (35%) were female. No significant difference of sex, age, and job was detected between 2 groups (P ≥ 0.05). Mean decreasing in systolic blood pressure was 7.75 ± 8.3 and 13.3 ± 16.1 mm Hg in the captopril and sour tea groups, respectively. Also, mean decline in diastolic blood pressure decreases was 2.15 ± 4.14 and 5.8 ± 7.8 mm Hg for captopril and sour tea groups, respectively. No side effect was observed in the sour tea pill group in the study. Conclusion: According to the effect of sour tea pill on decreasing blood pressure, without giving priority over captopril, sour tea pill containing the herb’s extract can be prescribed as an adjuvant therapy for lowering the prescribed dosage of captopril. PMID:26468478

  15. Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, W.N.; May, S.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Winter, J.K.; Beard, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx. 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.

  16. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  17. Process gas chromatography study of a Selexol acid gas removal system. Final report Mar-Sep 82

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The report gives results of continuous compositional monitoring by process gas chromatography (GC) for three gas streams associated with the Selexol acid gas removal system at the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, PA. Data were obtained from the inlet and outlet streams of the Selexol system during tests in April and May 1982. Product gas composition data were logged for 55 hours of plant operation. The Bi-Gas pilot plant, utilizing a two-stage, entrained-bed, high-pressure slagging gasifier, produces a product gas that is low in tars and heavy oils. This gas stream required very little cleanup prior to instrumental analysis. However, some problems were encountered in the analysis of the Selexol acid gas stream due to the presence of high levels of naphthalene. The process gas chromatographs performed well and remained very stable during the tests. Material balances based on GC analyses and process flow rate data show a high degree of material accountability. The H/sub 2/S removal efficiency of the Selexol absorber was about 99% during the tests.

  18. Microwave processing of silicon nitride for advanced gas turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Kiggans, J.O.

    1993-04-01

    Results from previous studies on microwave processing of silicon nitride-based ceramics are reviewed to ascertain the application of this technology to advanced gas turbine (AGT) materials. Areas of microwave processing that have been examined in the past are (1) sintering of powder compacts; (2) heat treatment of dense materials; and (3) nitridation of Si for reactionbonded silicon nitride. The sintering of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder compacts showed improved densification and enhanced grain growth. However, the high additive levels required to produce crack-free parts generally limit these materials to low temperature applications. Improved high-temperature creep resistance has been observed for microwave heat-treated materials and therefore has application to materials used in highly demanding service conditions. In contrast to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, Si couples well in the microwave and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride materials have been fabricated in a one-step process with cost-effective raw materials. However, these materials are also limited to lower temperature applications, under about 1000{degrees}C.

  19. Microwave processing of silicon nitride for advanced gas turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Kiggans, J.O.

    1993-01-01

    Results from previous studies on microwave processing of silicon nitride-based ceramics are reviewed to ascertain the application of this technology to advanced gas turbine (AGT) materials. Areas of microwave processing that have been examined in the past are (1) sintering of powder compacts; (2) heat treatment of dense materials; and (3) nitridation of Si for reactionbonded silicon nitride. The sintering of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] powder compacts showed improved densification and enhanced grain growth. However, the high additive levels required to produce crack-free parts generally limit these materials to low temperature applications. Improved high-temperature creep resistance has been observed for microwave heat-treated materials and therefore has application to materials used in highly demanding service conditions. In contrast to Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], Si couples well in the microwave and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride materials have been fabricated in a one-step process with cost-effective raw materials. However, these materials are also limited to lower temperature applications, under about 1000[degrees]C.

  20. Advanced solidification processing of an industrial gas turbine engine component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Mei Ling; Price, Allen; Bellows, Richard S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper will describe the efforts of the Advanced Turbine Airfoil Manufacturing Technology Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Howmet Research Corporation. The purpose of the program is to develop single-crystal and directionally solidified casting technologies to benefit Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) industrial and utility gas turbine engines. The focus is on defining and implementing advanced Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) furnace enhancements that provide precise control of mold temperatures during solidification. Emphasis was placed on increasing the total magnitude of thermal gradients while minimizing the difference in maximum and minimum gradients produced during the solidification process. Advanced VIM casting techniques were applied to Solar Turbines Incorporated’s Titan 130 First Stage High Pressure Turbine Blade under the ATS program. A comparison of the advanced VIM casting process to the conventional Bridgeman casting process will be presented as it pertains to the thermal gradients achieved during solidification, microstructure, elemental partitioning characterization, and solution heat treat response.

  1. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arend, C.

    1995-12-31

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  2. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  3. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO₂ permeance

  4. Natural Gas Processing: The Crucial Link Between NG Production & Its Transportation to Market

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This special report examines the processing plant segment of the natural gas industry, providing a discussion and an analysis of how the gas processing segment has changed following the restructuring of the natural gas industry in the 1990s and the trends that have developed during that time.

  5. Changes in sour rotten grape berry microbiota during ripening and wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2012-03-15

    This study investigated the microbiota of sour rotten wine grapes and its impact on wine fermentations. Yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were enumerated and identified on sound and sour rot grapes during the ripening stage. The alteration of the ecological balance induced by sour rot was particularly evidenced by the unequivocal increase of yeast and AAB counts on rotten grapes, since the beginning of ripening. Yeast and AAB species diversity in rotten grape samples were much higher than those found in sound grapes. LAB populations were low detected from both healthy and sour rotten grapes. The yeast species Issatchenkia occidentalis, Zygoascus hellenicus and Zygosaccharomyces bailii and the AAB species Gluconacetobacter hansenii, Gluconacetobacter intermedius and Acetobacter malorum, were recovered from damaged grapes and resulting grape juices in the winery. Acetobacter orleaniensis and Acetobacter syzygii were only recovered from sour rotten grapes. Dekkera bruxellensis and Oenococcus oeni were only recovered after wine fermentation induced by starter inoculation, irrespective of grape health, probably originating from cellar environment. After malolactic fermentation, racking and sulphur dioxide addition the only remaining species were the yeast Trigonopsis cantarellii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, independently of the grape health status. PMID:22277696

  6. 30 CFR 202.151 - Royalty on processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances shall be determined in accordance with 30 CFR part 206 subpart D for gas production from Federal leases and 30 CFR part 206 subpart E for gas production from Indian leases. (b) A reasonable amount of... made for boosting residue gas or other expenses incidental to marketing, except as provided in 30...

  7. Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW. PMID:17537573

  8. Sour cherry pomace extract encapsulated in whey and soy proteins: Incorporation in cookies.

    PubMed

    Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Pajin, Biljana; Djilas, Sonja; Petrović, Jovana; Lončarević, Ivana; Stajčić, Slađana; Vulić, Jelena

    2016-09-15

    One of the potential sources of valuable bioactives is pomace, a by-product from fruit juice processing industry. In the presented study, bioactive compounds extracted from cherry pomace, encapsulated in whey and soy proteins, have been incorporated in cookies, replacing 10% (WE10 and SE10) and 15% (WE15 and SE15) of flour. Total polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and colour characteristics of enriched cookies were followed during 4 months of storage. Total polyphenols of WE10, SE10, WE15 and SE15 have shown a slight increase (23.47, 42.00, 4.12 and 1.16%, respectively), while total anthocyanins (67.92, 64.33, 58.75 and 35.91%, respectively) and antioxidant activity (9.31, 24.30, 11.41 and 12.98%, respectively) decreased. Colour parameters (L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗)) of cookies were influenced by the colour of encapsulates. Fortified cookies received satisfactory sensory acceptance as well. Encapsulated sour cherry pomace bioactives have positively influenced functional characteristics of fortified cookies and their preservation. PMID:27080876

  9. Orally delivered sour cherry seed extract (SCSE) affects cardiovascular and hematological parameters in humans.

    PubMed

    Csiki, Zoltan; Papp-Bata, Agnes; Czompa, Attila; Nagy, Aniko; Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Javor, Andras; Haines, David D; Balla, Gyorgy; Tosaki, Arpad

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of sour cherry seed extract (SCSE) on a variety of systemic processes that contribute to general health and viability of human subjects. The experiments were conducted according to a double-blind protocol in which six healthy individuals were administered 250-mg/day SCSE for 14 days, while four were treated with placebo. Peripheral blood was collected before and after the treatment period. Samples were analyzed for levels of selected cells, enzymes, or metabolites. Subjects that received SCSE showed increases in the values of mean cell volume, serum transferrin, mean peroxidase index, and representation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. On the other hand, decreases were observed in circulating neutrophils and ferritin levels. Changes observed in the present study do not fit into a clear pattern that might yield additional in-depth understanding of SCSE-mediated alterations in physiologic responses. The most encouraging result of the present study is the absence of any indication of toxicity by subjects consuming the extract. PMID:25640007

  10. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  11. Characterization of Thermophilic Consortia from Two Souring Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, R. F.; Nielsen, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial consortia from produced water at two different oil fields in Alaska (Kuparuk) and the North Sea (Ninian) were investigated for sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activity over a range of temperatures and for a variety of substrates. The consortia were sampled on site, and samples were either incubated on site at 60(deg)C with various substrates or frozen for later incubation and analyses. Temperature influenced the rates of sulfate reduction, hydrogen sulfide production, and substrate oxidation, as well as the cell morphology. The highest rates of sulfate reduction and substrate oxidation were found between 50 and 60(deg)C. Formate and n-butyrate were the most favorable electron donors at any tested temperature. Acetate was utilized at 35(deg)C but not at 50 or 70(deg)C and was produced at 60(deg)C. This indicates that the high levels of acetate found in produced water from souring oil formations are due mainly to an incomplete oxidation of volatile fatty acids to acetate. The cell size distribution of the microbial consortium indicated a nonuniform microbial composition in the original sample from the Kuparuk field. At different temperatures, different microbial morphologies and physiologies were observed. Methane-producing activity at thermophilic temperatures (60(deg)C) was found only for the Kuparuk consortium when hydrogen and carbon dioxide were present. No methane production from acetate was observed. Suppression of methanogenic activity in the presence of sulfate indicated a competition with sulfate-reducing bacteria for hydrogen. PMID:16535394

  12. Catalytic process for removing toxic gases from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Baglio, J.A.; Gaudet, G.G.; Palilla, F.C.

    1983-02-22

    A multi-stage process for reducing the content of sulfurcontaining gases-notably hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide-in waste gas streams is provided. In the first stage, the gas stream is passed through a reaction zone at a temperature between about 150 and 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a pretreated novel catalyst of the formula xLn/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in which Ln is yttrium or a rare earth element and T is cobalt, iron or nickel, and each of x and y is independently a number from 0 to 3, said catalyst being substantially non-crystalline and having a surface area of from about 10 m/sup 2//g to about 40 m/sup 2//g. The preferred catalyst is one in which Ln is lanthanum, T is cobalt, and x and y range from 1 to 3, including non-integers. The first stage yields a product stream having a reduced content of sulfur-containing gases, including specifically, substantial reduction of carbonyl sulfide and virtual elimination of carbon disulfide. An intermediate stage is a claus reaction, which may take place in one or more reaction zones, at temperatures less than about 130/sup 0/ C, in the presence of known catalysts such as bauxite, alumina or cobalt molybdates. The final stage is the air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide at a temperature between about 150 and 300/sup 0/ C in the presence of a catalyst usable in first stage.

  13. Gas powered, closed loop power system and process for using same

    SciTech Connect

    Cardone, J.T.; Dill, J.M.; Shatz, K.J.

    1982-06-08

    This invention relates to a gas powered, closed loop power generating system which generates power substantially as a result of the flow of gas through its power generating means. Gas flows through the power generating means because of a pressure drop caused by dissolving the gas in a solvent medium on the exit side of the power generating means. The solution is then separated into the solvent medium, and the gas. The gas pressure is raised and it is then fed back into the power generating means while the separated solvent medium is recycled to redissolve more exiting gas. A process for generating power is also disclosed.

  14. Near-infrared Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging for Early Detection of Sour Skin Disease in Vidalia Sweet Onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sour skin is a major onion disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia). It not only causes substantial economic loss from diseased onions but also could lead to pulmonary infection in humans. It is critical to prevent onions infected by sour skin from entering storage rooms or ...

  15. New insights into the ecological interaction between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila flies during the development of sour rot.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; Santos, Sara Correia; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we studied the ecological interactions between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila sp. flies involved in sour rot disease during grape ripening. After veráison the total microbial counts of grape berries affected by sour rot increased from about 2 log CFU/g of berries to more than 7 log CFU/g. Berry damage provoked a clear shift in yeast diversity from basidiomycetes to ascomycetous fermentative species. The latter were mostly Pichia terricola, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, and Zygoascus hellenicus. However, these species were not able to produce the metabolites characteristic of sour rot (gluconic and acetic acids) in inoculated berries. On the contrary, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans produced high levels of these acids, mainly when berries were incubated in the presence of the insect Drosophila sp. Sour rot was not observed when grape bunches were physically separated from insects, even when berries were artificially injured. The wounds made in berry skin healed in the absence of insects, thus preventing the development of sour rot. Therefore, in the vineyard, the induction of sour rot depends on the contamination of wounded berries by a microbial consortium--yeasts and acetic acid bacteria--transported by drosophilid insects which disseminate sour rot among damaged berries. In the absence of these insects, plant defense mechanisms are effective and lead to skin healing, preventing disease spread. Thus, we showed that Drosophila sp. act as a vector for microorganisms associated with grape sour rot disease. PMID:22438040

  16. Dissipation process of binary gas mixtures in thermally relativistic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, dissipation process of binary gas mixtures in thermally relativistic flows is discussed with focus on characteristics of diffusion flux. As an analytical object, we consider the relativistic rarefied-shock layer around a triangular prism. Numerical results for the diffusion flux are compared with the Navier–Stokes–Fourier (NSF) order approximation of the diffusion flux, which is calculated using the diffusion and thermal-diffusion coefficients by Kox et al (1976 Physica A 84 165–74). In the case of uniform flow with small Lorentz contraction, the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is roughly approximated by the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, whereas the diffusion flux in the vicinity of a wall is markedly different from the NSF order approximation. The magnitude of the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is similar to that of the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, unlike the pressure deviator, dynamic pressure and heat flux, even when the Lorentz contraction in the uniform flow becomes large, because the diffusion flux does not depend on the generic Knudsen number from its definition in Eckart’s frame. Finally, the author concludes that for accuracy diffusion flux must be calculated using the particle four-flow and averaged four velocity, which are formulated using the four velocity defined by each species of hard spherical particles.

  17. Compatibility of a corrosion inhibitor with gas sweetening agents

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkez, M.; Morales, J.L.; Afonso, M.E.; Viloria, A.

    1998-12-31

    A methodology to establish the effect of a corrosion inhibitor on the behavior of two gas sweetening agents namely an amine (A) and a solid product constituted by iron oxides (B), has been developed. This information will be useful in case of traces of inhibitor passing through these two sweetening systems. Tests conducted in a static autoclave tester in gas sweetening conditions were made to determine the sour gas absorption power of the two agents, A and B, in presence or absence of inhibitor. Additionally, the effect of the inhibitor on the foaming power of agent A was evaluated, at room conditions. According to the results obtained, in the range of conditions considered in this study, neither does the inhibitor affect the sour gas absorption power nor the foaming power of agent A. Nevertheless, the anticorrosive product diminished by 12.5% the sour gas removal capability of agent B.

  18. Qualification of welded super 13%Cr martensitic stainless steels for sour service applications

    SciTech Connect

    Enerhaug, J.; Eliassen, S.L.; Kvaale, P.E.

    1997-08-01

    A test program has been carried out to qualify welded super 13%Cr stainless steels for sour service applications. The test program included weldability trials, weld simulations, mechanical testing and corrosion testing of 13%Cr steels from five different steel mills. Two of the tested steels have been qualified for use as flowline materials in some parts of new sour service fields. The result shows excellent weldability properties and acceptable corrosion properties. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the welds improved the resistance towards sulfide stress corrosion cracking significantly.

  19. 75 FR 71733 - Requirements for Measurement Facilities Used for the Royalty Valuation of Processed Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Requirements for Measurement Facilities... measurement equipment at gas plants and other processing facilities. SUMMARY: This notice provides information... measurement of Federal production at gas processing plants when royalty is reported and paid on processed...

  20. Evaluation of natural gas processing technology. Task 3, Volume 2. Topical report, September-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Changela, M.K.; McKee, R.L.; Neshan, H.; Pathak, V.K.; Quinlan, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    The report establishes the costs of producing pipeline quality gas on a small scale from subquality natural gas. The processing technologies evaluated include: carbon dioxide (CO2) and acid gas removal employing conventional diethanolamine (DEA) absorption; modified Claus sulfur recovery; triethylene glycol (TEG) dehydration; natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery employing the expander, lean oil and Joule-Thomson processes; and cryogenic nitrogen (N2) rejection. The results show that the size and investment cost of a DEA unit for CO2/acid gas removal increase with increasing CO2/acid gas concentration of the feed gas due to the increasing DEA circulation rate requirement. Due to economies of scale, processing costs for DEA units decrease at higher feed flow rates. The Claus process is not economical for very low inlet sulfur rates, but becomes economical at about 20 LT/D sulfur capacity (at a $100/LT sulfur product price). The size and investment cost of a TEG dehydration unit increase as the water content of the feed gas increases due to the increasing TEG circulation rate requirement. Processing costs associated with TEG dehydration units decrease at higher feed flow rates. At the same feed flow rate, the plant investment cost of a cryogenic N2 rejection unit increases with increasing N2 content of the feed gas primarily due to the increasing sales gas compression requirements. Processing costs for cryogenic N2 rejection units also increase with increasing N2 content of the feed gas.

  1. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  2. 30 CFR 206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section, if the maximum price permitted by Federal law at which any residue gas or gas plant... to 30 CFR 218.54. If the lessee is entitled to a credit, MMS will provide instructions for the taking... the Freedom of Information Act regulation of the Department of the Interior, 43 CFR part 2....

  3. SUMMARY REPORT: SULFUR OXIDES CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SERIES: FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION - SPRAY DRYER PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Described spray dryer flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from flue gas by an atomized lime slurry [Ca(OH)2]. he hot flue gas dries the droplets to form a dry waste product, while the absorbent reacts with sulfur d...

  4. SHELL NOX/SO2 FLUE GAS TREATMENT PROCESS: PILOT PLANT EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the Shell Flue Gas Treatment process in a pilot-scale test for simultaneously reducing the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas produced in a coal-fired utility boiler. Flue gas leaving the economiz...

  5. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

  6. New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

  7. Process of preparing nitrogen trifluoride by gas-solid reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Aramaki, M.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, H.; Suenaga, T.

    1985-09-24

    NF3 is prepared with good yields by reaction between fluorine gas and an ammonium complex of a metal fluoride, such as (NH4)3AIF6, in solid phase. The metal flouride ammonium complex may be one additionally containing an alkali metal, such as (NH4)2NaAIF6. The gas-solid reaction is carried out preferably at temperatures above 80 C. and at relatively low partial pressures of fluorine in the gas phase of the reaction system, so that the reaction is easy to control.

  8. Silica membranes for hydrogen separation in coal gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gavalas, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The general objective of this project was to synthesize permselective membranes suitable for hydrogen separation from coal gas. The specific objectives were: (i) to synthesize membranes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of SiO[sub 2] or other oxides on porous support tubes, (ii) characterize the membranes by permeation measurements of various gases and by electron microscopy, and (iii) obtain information about the mechanism and kinetics Of SiO[sub 2] deposition, and model the process of membrane formation. Silica glass and certain other glasses, in dense (nonporous) form, are highly selective to hydrogen permeation. Since this high selectivity is accompanied by low permeability, however, a practical membrane must have a composite structure consisting of a thin layer of the active oxide supported on a porous tube or plate providing mechanical support. In this project the membranes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of SiO[sub 2], TiO[sub 2], Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and B[sub 2]O[sub 3] layers inside the walls of porous Vycor tubes (5 mm ID, 7 mm OD, 40 [Angstrom] mean pore diameter). Deposition of the oxide layer was carried out using the reaction of SiCl[sub 4] (or TiCl[sub 4], AlCl[sub 3], BCl[sub 3]) and water vapor at elevated temperatures. The porous support tube was inserted concentrically into a larger quartz tube and fitted with flow lines and pressure gauges. The flow of the two reactant streams was regulated by mass flow controllers, while the temperature was controlled by placing the reactor into a split-tube electric furnace.

  9. Process for recovery of sulfur values from a gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, W.G.; Arbo, J.C.; Gryka, G.E.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes a method for recovering sulfur. It comprises contacting a gas containing SO{sub 2} in a gas contacting zone with a lean solution containing about a 1.0 to about 3.5 molar solution of potassium citrate at a pH from about 4.5-7.0 to form a rich solution containing from about 40 to about 160 grams per liter of SO{sub 2}; containing the rich solution with a gas containing H{sub 2}S in a reaction zone at a temperature above the melting point of sulfur to form liquid sulfur and a lean solution; removing the lean solution from the reaction zone; recovering the sulfur from the lean solution after the solution has contacted the H{sub 2}S; and passing the lean solution to the gas contacting zone to contract SO{sub 2}.

  10. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes.

  11. Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.; Wicks, George G.

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

  12. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

    1999-06-22

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

  13. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Pennline, Henry W.; Granite, Evan J.; Freeman, Mark C.; Hargis, Richard A.; O'Dowd, William J.

    2003-02-18

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  14. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35 min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness. PMID:23685565

  15. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...

  16. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...

  17. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...

  18. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...

  19. Sour orange fine root distribution after seventeen years of atmospheric CO2 enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Belowground responses to CO2 enrichment remain understudied relative to aboveground parameters. Further, there is a paucity of information on the long-term effects of CO2 on tree species. Sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.), grown in an Avondale loam in Phoenix, AZ, were exposed to ambient and e...

  20. Control system for an MP refining unit receiving heavy sour charge oil

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, F.L.; Sequeira, A.J.

    1980-09-23

    A refining unit treats heavy sour charge oil with n-methyl-2pyrrolidone solvent, hereafter referred to as MP, in a refining extractor to yield raffinate and extract mix. The MP is recovered from the raffinate and from the extract mix and returned to the refining extractor. A system controlling the refining unit includes a gravity analyzer, a sulfur analyzer and viscosity analyzers; all analyzing the heavy sour charge oil and providing corresponding signals, a refractometer samples the charge oil and provides a signal corresponding to the ri, sensors sense the flow rates of the charge oil and the MP flowing into the refining tower and the temperature of the extract mix and provide corresponding signals. One of the flow rates of the heavy sour charge oil and the MP flow rates is controlled in accordance with the signals from all the analyzers, the refractometer and all the sensors, while the other flow rate of the heavy sour charge oil and the MP flow rates is constant.

  1. Simulation of gas-assisted injection mold-cooling process using line source model approach for gas channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.P.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, S.C.

    1998-10-01

    Gas-assisted injection molding (GAIM) process, being an innovative injection molding process, can substantially reduce production expenses through reduction in material cost, reduction in clamp tonnage and reduction in cycle time. Whether it is feasible to perform an integrated simulation for process simulation based on a unified CAE model for gas-assisted injection molding (GAIM) is a great concern. In the present study, numerical algorithms based on the same CAE model used for process simulation regarding filling and packaging stages were developed to simulate the cooling phase of GAIM using a cycle-averaged three-dimensional modified boundary element technique similar to that used for conventional injection molding. However, to use the current CAE model for analysis, gas channel was modeled by two-node elements using line source approach. It was found that this new modeling not only affects the mold wall temperature calculation very slightly but also reduces the computer time by 95% as compared with a full gas channel modeling required a lot of triangular elements on gas channel surface. This investigation indicates that it is feasible to achieve an integrated process simulation for GAIM under one CAE model resulting in great computational efficiency for industrial application.

  2. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  3. Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that address common plant-related gas-process misconceptions held by middle school students. The…

  4. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation of Eco Logic International's gas-phase chemical reduction process, with an emphasis on their Reactor System. he Eco Logic process employees a high temperature reactor filled with hydrogen gas as the means to destr...

  5. PHYSICS PROCESSES IN DISRUPTION MITIGATION USING MASSIVE NOBLE GAS INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. HUMPHREYS; D.G. WHYTE; T.C. JERNIGAN; T.E.EVANS; D.S. GRAY; E.M. HOLLMANN; A.W. HYATT; A.G. KELLMAN; C.J. LASNIER; P.B. PARKS; P.L. TAYLOR

    2002-07-01

    Methods for detecting imminent disruptions and mitigating disruption effects using massive injection of noble gases (He, Ne, or Ar) have been demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak [1]. A jet of high injected gas density (> 10{sup 24} m{sup -3}) and pressure (> 20 kPa) penetrates the target plasma at the gas sound speed ({approx}300-500 m/s) and increases the atom/ion content of the plasma by a factor of > 50 in several milliseconds. UV line radiation from the impurity species distributes the plasma energy uniformly on the first wall, reducing the thermal load to the divertor by a factor of 10. Runaway electrons are almost completely eliminated by the large density of free and bound electrons supplied by the gas injection. The small vertical plasma displacement before current quench and high ratio of current decay rate to vertical growth rate result in a 75% reduction in peak halo current amplitude and attendant forces.

  6. Effects of superficial gas velocity on process dynamics in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, T. T.; Kumar, B.

    2014-06-01

    Present work analyzes the flow hydrodynamics and mass transfer mechanisms in double Rushton and CD-6 impeller on wide range (0.0075-0.25 m/s) of superficial gas velocity ( v g) in a gas-liquid phase bioreactor by employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The volume averaged velocity magnitude and dissipation rate are found higher with increasing superficial gas velocity. Higher relative power draw ( P g/ P 0) is predicted in CD-6 than the Rushton impeller but no significant difference in volume averaged mass transfer coefficient ( k L a) observed between these two types of impeller. The ratio of power draw with mass transfer coefficient has been found higher in CD-6 impeller (25-50 %) than the Rushton impeller.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  8. Numerical analysis of gas-dynamic instabilities during the laser drilling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. H.; O'Neill, W.; Tunna, L.; Sutcliffe, C. J.

    2006-08-01

    The use of high-pressure gas jets in the laser-drilling process has significant influence on the melt ejection mechanism. These jets are highly unstable and this directly relates to the gas pressure and the geometry of the hole being drilled. The evolution of gas-dynamic instabilities during the laser-drilling process was investigated numerically. A minimum length nozzle (MLN) with a 300 μm throat diameter was modelled at various gas pressures, with the gas jet impinging on a range of simulated holes with different aspect ratios. The simulations predict the formation of surface pressure fluctuations that have a broad spectrum due to both the turbulent nature of the jet and the blunt shock oscillation on the surface. The surface pressure variations and the blunt shock oscillation govern the gas dynamic conditions inside the hole, which strongly influence the melt ejection phenomena during the laser-drilling process.

  9. Selection of an acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.B.; Jones, G.N.; Denton, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Acid gas contaminants, such as, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and mercaptans, must be removed to a very low level from a feed natural gas before it is liquefied. CO{sub 2} is typically removed to a level of about 100 ppm to prevent freezing during LNG processing. Sulfur compounds are removed to levels required by the eventual consumer of the gas. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly classified as: solvent-based, adsorption, cryogenic or physical separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these processes will be discussed along with design and operating considerations. This paper will also discuss the important considerations affecting the choice of the best acid-gas removal process for LNG plants. Some of these considerations are: the remoteness of the LNG plant from the resource; the cost of the feed gas and the economics of minimizing capital expenditures; the ultimate disposition of the acid gas; potential for energy integration; and the composition, including LPG and conditions of the feed gas. The example of the selection of the acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant.

  10. Multipass optical device and process for gas and analyte determination

    DOEpatents

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2011-01-25

    A torus multipass optical device and method are described that provide for trace level determination of gases and gas-phase analytes. The torus device includes an optical cavity defined by at least one ring mirror. The mirror delivers optical power in at least a radial and axial direction and propagates light in a multipass optical path of a predefined path length.

  11. A Gas Kinetic Explanation of Simple Thermodynamic Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Boyd A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat is defined as a random or nondirected internal energy transfer between different bodies at different temperatures. Work is defined as oriented or nonrandom internal energy transfer. Both heat and work are demonstrated to lead to increases in temperature via interpretations from gas kinetic theory. (JN)

  12. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  13. [Removal of CO2 from simulated flue gas of power plants by membrane-based gas absorption processes].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Fen; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Wang, Shu-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2005-07-01

    Three typical absorbents such as aqueous of aminoacetic acid potassium (AAAP), monoethanolamine (MEA) and methyldiethanolamine(MDEA) are selected to investigate the performance of CO2 separation from flue gas via membrane contactors made of hydrophobic hollow fiber polypropylene porous membrane. Impacts of absorbents, concentrations and flow rates of feeding gas and absorbent solution, cyclic loading of CO2 on the removal rate and the mass transfer velocity of CO2 are discussed. The results demonstrate that the mass transfer velocity was 7.1 mol x (m2 x s)(-1) for 1 mol x L(-1) MEA with flow rate of 0.1 m x s(-1) and flue gas with that of 0.211 m x s(-1). For 1 mol L(-1) AAAP with flow rate of 0.05 m x s(-1) and flue gas of 0.211 m x s(-1), CO2 removal rate (eta) was 93.2 % and eta was 98% for 4 mol x L(-1) AAAP under the same conditions. AAAP being absorbent, eta was higher than 90% in a wider range of concentrations of CO2. It indicates that membrane-based absorption process is a widely-applied and promising way of CO2 removal from flue gas of power plants, which not only appropriates for CO2 removal of flue gas of widely-used PF and NGCC, but also for that of flue gas of IGCC can be utilized widely in future. PMID:16212162

  14. Process for producing dry, sulfur-free, CH[sub 4]-enriched synthesis or fuel gas

    SciTech Connect

    Child, E.T.; Lafferty, W.L. Jr.; Suggitt, R.M.; Jahnke, F.C.

    1993-08-03

    A process is described for the production of a dry, sulfur-free methane enriched synthesis gas or fuel gas stream comprising: (1) cooling a particulate-free raw synthesis or fuel gas feed stream comprising H[sub 2], CO, CO[sub 2], H[sub 2]O, N[sub 2], H[sub 2]S, COS and with or without methane to a temperature in the range of about 60 F to 130 F and separating out at least a portion of water condensate; (2) mixing together said cooled raw synthesis or fuel gas from (1) and a portion of cryogenic liquefied natural gas (LNG) thereby further cooling the new synthesis or fuel gas to a temperature in the range of about [minus]75 F to 60 F; (3) directly contacting the mixture from (2) in an acid-gas removal zone with liquid acid-gas absorbent solvent thereby absorbing sulfur-containing compounds, water, and at least a portion of the CO[sub 2], and thereby producing acid-gas rich liquid absorbent solvent containing dissolved water and a dry stream of methane enriched synthesis or fuel gas; (4) separating said acid-gas rich liquid absorbent from said dry stream of methane enriched synthesis or fuel gas comprising H[sub 2], CO, CH[sub 4], and substantially no sulfur-containing gas or moisture; (5) regenerating the separated acid-gas rich liquid absorbent solvent to remove the sulfur-containing gas and the dissolved water; and (6) introducing regenerated liquid acid-gas absorbent solvent into said acid gas removal zone.

  15. Comparison of oil removal in surfactant alternating gas with water alternating gas, water flooding and gas flooding in secondary oil recovery process

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mehdi Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Sahraei, Eghbal; Nejad, Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei

    2014-01-01

    Growing oil prices coupled with large amounts of residual oil after operating common enhanced oil recovery methods has made using methods with higher operational cost economically feasible. Nitrogen is one of the gases used in both miscible and immiscible gas injection process in oil reservoir. In heterogeneous formations gas tends to breakthrough early in production wells due to overriding, fingering and channeling. Surfactant alternating gas (SAG) injection is one of the methods commonly used to decrease this problem. Foam which is formed on the contact of nitrogen and surfactant increases viscosity of injected gas. This increases the oil–gas contact and sweep efficiency, although adsorption of surfactant on rock surface can causes difficulties and increases costs of process. Many parameters must be considered in design of SAG process. One of the most important parameters is SAG ratio that should be in optimum value to improve the flooding efficiency. In this study, initially the concentration of surfactant was optimized due to minimization of adsorption on rock surface which results in lower cost of surfactant. So, different sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations of 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm were used to obtain the optimum concentration at 70 °C and 144.74×105 Pa. A simple, clean and relatively fast spectrophotometric method was used for determination of surfactant which is based on the formation of an ion-pair. Then the effect of surfactant to gas volume ratio on oil recovery in secondary oil recovery process during execution of immiscible surfactant alternating gas injection was examined experimentally. The experiments were performed with sand pack under certain temperature, pressure and constant rate. Experiments were performed with surfactant to gas ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 and 1.2 pore volume injected. Then, comparisons were made between obtained results (SAG) with water flooding, gas flooding and water alternating gas

  16. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  17. Imaging wet gas separation process by capacitance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Nguyen, Van T.; Betting, Marco; Chondronasios, Athanasios; Nattras, Steve; Okimoto, Fred; McCann, Hugh

    2002-03-01

    Natural gas from a well contains water and hydrocarbons. It is necessary to separate the liquid components from such gas streams before use. An innovative type of separation facility, called Twister, has been developed for this purpose, and CFD models have been developed to assist in the design of Twister. However, it is difficult to verify the mathematical models directly and experimentally. To investigate the behavior of Twister and to verify the CFD models, a simulator using air and water vapor was set up in the laboratory. This simulator was instrumented with a highly sensitive electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system based on an HP LCR meter and a purpose-designed multiplexer. Two ECT sensors, each with 8 measurement electrodes, were built taking into consideration the demanding operational conditions, such as sensitivity, temperature, pressure, geometry and location. This paper presents the first experimental results, showing that water droplets distributions in a flowing gas can be visualized using ECT, and the tomography system developed is robust and offers the possibility for further development to field operations.

  18. SIMPLIFIED INJECTION OF OXYGEN GAS INTO AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Las Virgenes Municipal Water District conducted a pilot investigation of the Simplox process at their Tapia Water Reclamation Facility in Calabasas, California. The Simplox process, developed by the Cosmodyne Division of Cordon International, involves covering an activated sl...

  19. Process for removing SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ compounds from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, R.H.

    1989-02-14

    A process is described for removing SO/sub x/ compounds from a feed gas stream and producing a purified gas stream of reduced SO/sub x/ content, which process comprises: contacting a feed gas stream containing SO/sub x/ compounds; withdrawing from step (1) a liquid stream of spent absorbent containing the absorbed SO/sub x/ compounds; regenerating the spent absorbent back to a form active for absorbing SO/sub x/ compounds; separating the products of step (3) into a liquid stream containing a regenerated absorbent and a product gas stream containing H/sub 2/S; recycling at least some of the liquid stream containing regenerated absorbent; and recovering the purified gas stream of reduced SO/sub x/ content and the product gas stream containing H/sub 2/S.

  20. Blow-by gas processing arrangement for automotive internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Anno, N.; Arai, T.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes a blow-by gas processing arrangement for an internal combustion engine, comprising: a cylinder block having a chamber for collecting a blow-by gas, a blow-by gas passage communicating with the chamber, and spaced journal walls for supporting a crankshaft; a relatively large oil mist separating passage defined in the cylinder block and laterally extending into one of the journal walls beyond the blow-by gas passage. The oil mist separates passage communicating with the blow-by gas passage for preliminary separating an oil mist from the blow-by gas supplied from the chamber; an oil separator communicating with the oil mist separates passage for separating an oil mist from the blow-by gas supplied from the oil mist separating passage; and a PCV valve is connected to the oil mist separator; and an intake manifold connected to the PCV valve.

  1. WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Xiaomei Qi; Scott Kronewitter

    2004-02-01

    This project involved fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2} -separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams were examined in the project. Cu-cerium oxide was identified as the most promising high-temperature water-gas shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. The high-temperature shift catalyst composition was optimized by proper selection of dopant type and amount in ceria. The formulation 10at%Cu-Ce(30at%La)O{sub x} showed the best performance, and was selected for further kinetic studies. WGS reaction rates were measured in a simulated coal-gas mixture. The apparent activation energy, measured over aged catalysts, was equal to 70.2 kJ/mol. Reaction orders in CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} were found to be 0.8, 0.2, -0.3, and -0.3, respectively. This shows that H{sub 2}O has very little effect on the reaction rate, and that both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} weakly inhibit the reaction. Good stability of catalyst performance was found in 40-hr long tests. A flat (38 cm{sup 2}) Pd-Cu alloy membrane reactor was used with the catalyst washcoated on oxidized aluminum screens close coupled with the membrane. To achieve higher loadings, catalyst granules were layered on the membrane itself to test the combined HTS activity/ H{sub 2} -separation efficiency of the composite. Simulated coal gas mixtures were used and the effect of membrane on the conversion of CO over the catalyst was evidenced at high space

  2. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

    2010-02-15

    A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy. PMID:20078033

  3. Cooling and condensing of sulfur and water from claus process gas

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, J. W.; Kunkel, L. V.

    1985-07-02

    The Claus process gas is cooled in a condenser to condense most of the sulfur vapor in solid form. The gas leaving the condenser is then further cooled to condense water without producing substantially any sulfur in an undesirable form. The resulting gas of reduced water content is useful in Claus reaction, particularly the low temperature Claus reaction in which the product sulfur is adsorbed on the catalyst.

  4. CNG process, a new approach to physical-absorption acid-gas removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hise, R.E.; Massey, L.G.; Adler, R.J.; Brosilow, C.B.; Gardner, N.C.; Brown, W.R.; Cook, W.J.; Petrik, M.

    1982-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process embodies three novel features: (1) scrubbing with liquid carbon dioxide to remove all sulfurous molecules and other trace contaminants; (2) triple-point crystallization of carbon dioxide to concentrate sulfurous molecules and produce pure carbon dioxide; and (3) absorption of carbon dioxide with a slurry of solid carbon dioxide in organic carrier liquid. The CNG process is discussed and contrasted with existing acid gas removal technology as represented by the Benfield, Rectisol, and Selexol acid gas removal processes.

  5. Electrochemical processes at solid electrode-electrolyte-gas interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, G.E.; Weber, W.J; Bates, J.L.

    1991-05-01

    Electrochemical reactions at solid electrolyte-electrode-gas interfaces are being investigated with ac impedance and dc polarization techniques using an unbonded interface cell (UIC). The UIC approach eliminates influence of sample size and interface morphology resulting from electrode-electrolyte fabrication. The electrochemical reactions of oxygen with solid electrode (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} or Pt) and solid electrolyte (0.08Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 0.92ZrO{sub 2}) interfaces are described. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus

  7. THE INTEGRATION OF PROCESS HEAT APPLICATIONS TO HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    A high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, can produce industrial process steam, high-temperature heat-transfer gases, and/or electricity. In conventional industrial processes, these products are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, resulting in significant emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Heat or electricity produced in an HTGR could be used to supply process heat or electricity to conventional processes without generating any greenhouse gases. Process heat from a reactor needs to be transported by a gas to the industrial process. Two such gases were considered in this study: helium and steam. For this analysis, it was assumed that steam was delivered at 17 MPa and 540 C and helium was delivered at 7 MPa and at a variety of temperatures. The temperature of the gas returning from the industrial process and going to the HTGR must be within certain temperature ranges to maintain the correct reactor inlet temperature for a particular reactor outlet temperature. The returning gas may be below the reactor inlet temperature, ROT, but not above. The optimal return temperature produces the maximum process heat gas flow rate. For steam, the delivered pressure sets an optimal reactor outlet temperature based on the condensation temperature of the steam. ROTs greater than 769.7 C produce no additional advantage for the production of steam.

  8. Ceramics in gas turbine: Powder and process characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the intrinsic properties of various forms of Si3N4 and SiC are listed and limitations of such materials' availability are pointed out. The essential features/parameters to characterize a batch of powder are discussed including the standard techniques for such characterization. In process characterization, parameters in sintering, reaction sintering, and hot pressing processes are discussed including the factors responsible for strength limitations in ceramic bodies. Significant improvements in material properties can be achieved by reducing or eliminating the strength limiting factors with consistent powder and process characterization along with process control.

  9. Process for removal of hydrogen halides or halogens from incinerator gas

    DOEpatents

    Huang, H.S.; Sather, N.F.

    1987-08-21

    A process for reducing the amount of halogens and halogen acids in high temperature combustion gas and through their removal, the formation of halogenated organics at lower temperatures, with the reduction being carried out electrochemically by contacting the combustion gas with the negative electrode of an electrochemical cell and with the halogen and/or halogen acid being recovered at the positive electrode.

  10. Dynamic processes in active medium of small diameter gas discharge lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schishov, S. I.

    2008-03-01

    Review of electrodynamics properties for gas discharge lasers of small diameter has been completed with consideration of inertia typical for ionisation processes and transient nature of electron diffusion from unipolar to ambipolar. Procedure for calculation of transfer function and elements of equivalent electrical circuit for substitution of gas discharge laser discharge space.

  11. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (Eco Logic) process thermally separates organics, then chemically reduces them in a hydrogen atmosphere, converting them to a reformed gas that consists of light hydrocarbons and water. A scrubber treats the reformed gas to remove hydrogen chl...

  12. SUMMARY REPORT: SULFUR OXIDES CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SERIES: FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION - DUAL ALKALI PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Describes dual alkali (or double alkali) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from the flue gas by a soluble sodium-based scrubbing liquor. he collected SO2 is precipitated as calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium sulfate...

  13. Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyele, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,…

  14. Technology of ultrasonic control of gas-shielded welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodsky, S. A.; Sarychev, V. D.; Borisov, I. S.

    2016-04-01

    A new approach to implementation of electrode metal transfer control under MAG, MIG welding is suggested. The process ensures control of thermal and crystallization processes, stabilizes the time of electrode metal drop formation. The results of the research allow formulating the basic criteria of electrode metal transfer control via ultrasonic exposure, determining the conditions of producing a more equilibrium structure of deposit metal.

  15. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOEpatents

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.M.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Suggitt, R.M.

    1995-03-28

    A partial oxidation process is described for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF, H{sub 2}S, COS, N{sub 2}, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000 F. 1 figure.

  16. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    DOEpatents

    Leininger, Thomas F.; Robin, Allen M.; Wolfenbarger, James K.; Suggitt, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    A partial oxidation process for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O, CH.sub.4, NH.sub.3, HCl, HF, H.sub.2 S, COS, N.sub.2, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000.degree. F.

  17. Study of X80 grade high strength line pipe for sour service

    SciTech Connect

    Kushida, T.; Okaguchi, S.; Hamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Fujino, J.

    1997-08-01

    X80 grade high strength large diameter line pipe (UOE Pipe) for sour service have been studied. Increasing Mn content to provide strength of X80 increases HIC susceptibility due to center segregation of Mn in continuously cast slabs. The Mn content should be controlled less than 1.4% to maintain HIC resistance in the NACE TM0177 solution. The required strength can be obtained by addition of 0.5% Cr and accelerated controlled cooling after rolling. It has been clarified that Cr is very useful in providing high strength X70 without accelerating the center segregation of Mn. SSC resistance can be improved by controlling maximum hardness of weld metal lower than 230 Hv. Sour service X80 UOE pipes of two sizes were manufactured on large scales based on these experimental results. These pipes showed good low temperature toughness and HIC resistance in the NACE TM0177 solution.

  18. CO/sub 2/ removal from ammonia synthesis gas with SELEXOL Solvent Process

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The high cost of energy which has prevailed since the 70's has forced ammonia producers to seek new methods to save energy and lower the ammonia production cost. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of SELEXOL Solvent Process for treatment of ammonia synthesis gas and discuss a patented SELEXOL process scheme which permits substantially 100% carbon dioxide recovery. This paper also describes: the SELEXOL Process Technology; treating of Ammonia Synthesis Gas; philosophy; high CO/sub 2/ Recovery Process; 100% CO2 Recovery Process; cost and Utility Requirement; plant Performance Data.

  19. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  20. Sorption Processes in Gas Sterilization in the Medical Sector

    PubMed Central

    Jordy, A.; Suhr, H.

    1973-01-01

    Sorption of ethylene oxide during and after gaseous sterilization is influenced by numerous factors. It was found that ethylene oxide desorption not only depends on material to be fumigated but also to a considerable degree on the wrapping material. Although polyethylene, polyamide (nylon), polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), silicone, aluminum, and glass beads contained no quantities of ethylene oxide detectable by gas chromatography after 72 h of aeration, residual amounts were definitely determined, even after 76 h of aeration in polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride, paper products, and compound products of various plastics and paper mixtures. Desorption was, in all cases, found to be better when a mixture of ethylene oxide and methyl formate was used instead of pure ethylene oxide. PMID:4751803

  1. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuousmore » formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.« less

  2. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuous formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.

  3. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-12-22

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

  4. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-02-28

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd nitrogen removal/gas treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project field test at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  5. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-12-15

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is now working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

  6. Ceramic component processing development for advanced gas-turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcentire, B. J.; Hengst, R. R.; Collins, W. T.; Taglialavore, A. P.; Yeckley, R. L.; Bright, E.; Bingham, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    A review of ceramic component advancements directed at developing manufacturing technologies for rotors, stators, vane-seat platforms and scrolls is presented. The first three components are being produced from HIPed Si3N4, while scrolls were prepared from a series of siliconized silicon-carbide materials. Developmental work has been conducted on all aspects of the fabrication process utilizing Taguchi experimental design methods. An assessment of material properties for various components from each process and material are made.

  7. Corrosion risk associated with microbial souring control using nitrate or nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Nemati, Mehdi; Jenneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2005-08-01

    Souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in oil reservoirs, can be controlled through nitrate or nitrite addition. To assess the effects of this containment approach on corrosion, metal coupons were installed in up-flow packed-bed bioreactors fed with medium containing 8 mM sulfate and 25 mM lactate. Following inoculation with produced water to establish biogenic H(2)S production, some bioreactors were treated with 17.5 mM nitrate or up to 20 mM nitrite, eliminating souring. Corrosion rates were highest near the outlet of untreated bioreactors (up to 0.4 mm year(-1)). Nitrate (17.5 mM) eliminated sulfide but gave pitting corrosion near the inlet of the bioreactor, whereas a high nitrite dose (20 mM) completely eliminated microbial activity and associated corrosion. More gradual, step-wise addition of nitrite up to 20 mM resulted in the retention of microbial activity and localized pitting corrosion, especially near the bioreactor inlet. We conclude that: (1) SRB control by nitrate or nitrite reduction shifts the corrosion risk from the bioreactor outlet to the inlet (i.e. from production to injection wells) and (2) souring treatment by continuous addition of a high inhibitory nitrite dose is preferable from a corrosion-prevention point of view. PMID:15711941

  8. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Blando, Federica

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW). PMID:15577186

  9. Chemiresistive gas sensors employing solution-processed metal oxide quantum dot films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Huan Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Shao, Gang; Zhang, Wenkai; Wei, Wendian; He, Mingze; Song, Huaibing; Gao, Liang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2014-10-20

    We report low-temperature chemiresistive gas sensors based on tin oxide colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), in which the benefits of CQDs such as extremely small crystal size, solution-processability, and tunable surface activity are exploited to enhance the gas-sensing effect. The sensor fabrication is simply employing spin-coating followed by a solid-state ligand exchange treatment at room temperature in air ambient. The optimal gas sensor exhibited rapid and significant decrease in resistance upon H{sub 2}S gas exposure when operated at 70 °C, and it was fully recoverable upon gas release. We observed a power law correlation between the sensor response and H{sub 2}S gas concentration, and the sensing mechanism was discussed using the completely depletion model with a flat band diagram.

  10. A biological process effective for the conversion of CO-containing industrial waste gas to acetate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Wan; Bae, Seung Seob; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Sung-Mok; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kang, Sung Gyun

    2016-07-01

    Acetogens have often been observed to be inhibited by CO above an inhibition threshold concentration. In this study, a two-stage culture consisting of carboxydotrophic archaea and homoacetogenic bacteria is found to be effective in converting industrial waste gas derived from a steel mill process. In the first stage, Thermococcus onnurineus could grow on the Linz-Donawitz converter gas (LDG) containing ca. 56% CO as a sole energy source, converting the CO into H2 and CO2. Then, in the second stage, Thermoanaerobacter kivui could grow on the off-gas from the first stage culture, consuming the H2 and CO in the off-gas completely and producing acetate as a main product. T. kivui alone could not grow on the LDG gas. This work represents the first demonstration of acetate production using steel mill waste gas by a two-stage culture of carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic microbes and homoacetogenic bacteria. PMID:27106591

  11. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... statement that there are no crossover or entry points for sour gas (high H2S content) to be introduced into... for fuel gas combustion devices. 60.107a Section 60.107a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Commenced After May 14, 2007 § 60.107a Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas...

  12. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... statement that there are no crossover or entry points for sour gas (high H2S content) to be introduced into... for fuel gas combustion devices. 60.107a Section 60.107a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Commenced After May 14, 2007 § 60.107a Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas...

  13. A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, T.C.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.; Cicero, D.C.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning IGCC generated syngas to meet contaminant tolerance limits for fuel cell and chemical production applications. The specific goals are to develop processes for (1) removal of reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removal of hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface-area material; and (3) removal of NH3 with acidic adsorbents followed by conversion of this NH3 into nitrogen and water. Existing gasification technologies can effectively and efficiently convert a wide variety of carbonaceous feedstocks (coal, petcoke, resids, biomass, etc.) into syngas, which predominantly contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Unfortunately, the impurities present in these carbonaceous feedstocks are converted to gaseous contaminants such as H2S, COS, HCl, NH3, alkali macromolecules and heavy metal compounds (such as Hg) during the gasification process. Removal of these contaminants using conventional processes is thermally inefficient and capital intensive. This research and development effort is focused on investigation of modular processes for removal of sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen and mercury compounds from syngas at elevated temperature and pressures at significantly lower costs than conventional technologies.

  14. Process for removing SOX and NOX compounds from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, R.H.

    1987-06-23

    A process is described for treating a feed aqueous solution containing one or more anions selected from the group consisting of sulfite, bisulfite, thiosulfite, and polythionate ions. The process comprises: (1) contacting, in the presence of formate ion, the feed aqueous solution with a water-insoluble, solid substance containing a tertiary amine functional group. Conditions, include an elevated temperature above about 270F, such that a least 50 percent of the anions are converted to hydrogen sulfide and (2) separating the hydrogen sulfide from a product aqueous solution of reduced sulfur-containing anions content.

  15. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C.; Baker, Richard W.

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  16. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Final technical report, June 1993--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.

    1996-07-01

    The overall objective of this research project was to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) to convert natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) to convert CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data generated in this project were for use in evaluating the commercial potential of the process.

  17. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  18. [Evaluation of high-efficiency gas-liquid contactors for natural gas processing]. Semiannual technical progress report, October 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this proposed program is to evaluate the potential of rotating gas-liquid contactors for natural gas processing by expanding the currently available database. This expansion will focus on application of this technology to environments representative of those typically encountered in natural gas processing plants. Operational and reliability concerns will be addressed while generating pertinent engineering data relating to the mass-transfer process. This report presents results on fluid dynamics and mass transfer coefficient studies.

  19. Competitive position of natural gas: Manufacturing automation and process controls: Topical report, April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Karamchetty, S.D.; Kothari, V.S.; Holmes, J.G.; Minsker, B.S.

    1989-04-01

    In the study of manufacturing automation, three interacting areas were examined: industrial process, process components, and automation components. Taxonomies were developed for each of these areas to focus the analysis. The interactions between automation developments and gas use were studied in detail for five processes: metal heat treating, steel reheating, forging, glass making, and paper drying. Recent developments reported in the literature were reviewed and within each industry, areas of gas and automation systems, vendors of manufacturing automation systems, and systems designs and integrators were interviewed. Through this approach, current and future developments in automation and their impacts were identified. R D opportunities for the five specific processes studied and generic areas were also identified. Automation trends in industrial process heat applications will continue, with continued reduction in energy and gas use.

  20. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Charles R; Torczynski, John R; Brady, Patrick V; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F

    2013-11-19

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  1. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Charles R.; Torczynski, John R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F.

    2014-06-17

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  2. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Charles R; Torczynski, John R; Brady, Patrick V; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F

    2013-09-17

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  3. Investigation on Carbon-Deposition Behavior from Heating Cycle Gas in Oxygen Blast Furnace Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinzhou; Wang, Jingsong; She, Xuefeng; Zhang, Shiyang; Xue, Qingguo

    2015-02-01

    Among the different ways to study carbon deposition in the ironmaking process, not much attention was paid to that of heating the gas mixture, especially cycle gas in an oxygen blast furnace. In this work, the carbon-deposition characteristics of heating 100 pct CO, CO-H2 gas mixture, and cycle gas in the oxygen blast furnace process were, respectively, experimentally and theoretically investigated. First, the thermodynamics on carbon-deposition reactions were calculated. Then, the impacts of discharging operation temperature, the proportion of CO/H2 in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture, and the CO2 concentration in heating the cycle gas of an oxygen blast furnace on the carbon deposition were tested and investigated. Furthermore, the carbon-deposition behaviors in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture were compared with the thermodynamic calculation results for discussing the role of H2. In addition, carbon deposition in heating cycle gas includes CO decomposition and a carbon-deposition reaction by hybrid of CO and H2; the possible roles of each were analyzed by comparing thermodynamic calculation and experimental results. The deposited carbon was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the deposited carbon microstructure.

  4. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-09-01

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  5. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2003-12-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. System fabrication was completed in January 2004 and the membrane inserts were loaded. Additional pressure testing and verification will be completed prior to shipment, which is expected in early February 2004.

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPERATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-01-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. System fabrication was completed in January 2004 and the membrane inserts were loaded. Additional pressure testing and verification will be completed prior to shipment, which is expected in early February 2004.

  7. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-11-15

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  8. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Andre Da Costa

    2003-11-24

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During precommissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. The target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  9. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual tracer flux measurements and onsite observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with onsite tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions, and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  10. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2015-05-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission, and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual-tracer flux measurements and on-site observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with on-site tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  11. Defect-related relaxation processes in irradiated rare gas solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, E. V.; Grigorashchenko, O. N.; Gumenchuk, G. B.; Ogurtsov, A. N.; Frankowski, M.; Smith-Gicklhorn, A. M.; Bondybey, V. E.

    Electronic and atomic relaxation processes in preirradiated solid Ar doped with N-2 were studied with a focus on the role of radiative electronic transitions in relaxation cascades. Combining methods of activation spectroscopy - thermally stimulated and photon-stimulated exoelectron emission, a new channel of relaxation induced by photon emission from metastable N atoms was detected. It was shown that in insulating materials with a wide conduction band photons of visible range can release electrons from both kinds of traps - shallow (lattice defects) and deep thermally disconnected ones. Correlation in the charge recombination reaction yield and the yield of low temperature desorption - important relaxation channel in a preirradiated solid - clearly demonstrates interconnection between atomic and electronic processes of relaxation.

  12. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

  13. Reactive Species Processes in Plasma-, Gas-, and Liquid-Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Stephan; Winter, Joern; Hammer, Malte; Schmidt-Bleker, Ansgar; Iseni, Sylvain; Tresp, Helena; Dünnbier, Mario; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2013-09-01

    Especially for the field of plasma medicine, plasmas interacting with liquids are of great interest for environmental, chemical, and biomedical applications. In this work we present optical diagnostics on atmospheric pressure plasma jets interacting with liquids. Combining the diagnostic results with numerical simulations yields an understanding of fundamental processes such as air species diffusion into the jet effluents or the influence on humidity. Especially for plasma treatment of physiological liquids in ambient air, atmospheric species play a key role. To achieve a desired reactive component output, the generation processes from these ambient air species are controlled. Plasma jets are characterized by planar laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy, by absorption and emission spectroscopy, and by flow simulations. With the gained knowledge we are able to tailor the reactive component composition and to influence plasma jet-liquid interaction. We show that reactive species generation within plasma treated liquid can be tuned and apply the findings to biological cells to investigate the effect of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). The plasma treated liquids are investigated regarding their pH value, OH radicals, nitrate and nitrite, and H2O2 content. From the tailored plasma treatment a significant insight into the relevant transport processes in plasma treatment of liquids has been gained. Support by the German BMBF 03Z2DN11&12 is acknowledged.

  14. Process for the separation of components from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Merriman, J.R.; Pashley, J.H.; Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.

    1973-10-01

    A process for the removal, from gaseous mixtures of a desired component selected from oxygen, iodine, methyl iodide, and lower oxides of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur is described. The gaseous mixture is contacted with a liquid fluorocarbon in an absorption zone maintained at superatmospheric pressure to preferentially absorb the desired component in the fluorocarbon. Unabsorbed constituents of the gaseous mixture are withdrawn from the absorption zone. Liquid fluorocarbon enriched in the desired component is withdrawn separately from the zone, following which the desired component is recovered from the fluorocarbon absorbent. (Official Gazette)

  15. A novel carbon-based process for flue-gas cleanup. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Howe, G.B.; McMichael, W.J.; Spivey, J.J.

    1993-10-01

    A low-temperature process employing activated carbon-based catalysts and operating downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was evaluated jointly by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). The RTI-Waterloo process was projected to be capable of removing more than 95% SO{sub 2} and 75% NO{sub x }from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, the flue gas leaving the ESP is first cooled to approximately 100{degree}C. The SO{sub 2} is then catalytically oxidized to SO{sub 3} which is removed as medium-strength sulfuric acid in a series of periodically flushed trickle-bed reactors containing an activated carbon-based catalyst. The SO{sub 2}-free gas is then reheated to approximately 150{degree}C and NH{sub 3} is injected into the gas stream. It is then passed over a fixed bed of another activated carbon-based catalyst to reduce the NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The clean flue gas is then vented to the stack. The feasibility of the process has been demonstrated in laboratory-scale experiments using simulated flue gas. Catalysts have been identified that gave the required performance for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal with <25 ppM NH{sub 3} slip. Potential for producing up to 10 N sulfuric acid by periodically flushing the SO{sub 2} removal reactor and further concentration to industrial strength 93.17% sulfuric acid was also demonstrated. Using the results of the experimental work, an engineering evaluation was conducted. Cost for the RTI-Waterloo process was competitive with conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) -- flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process and other emerging combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal processes.

  16. Noble Gas Signatures in Antrim Shale Gas in the Michigan Basin - Assessing Compositional Variability and Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, T.; Castro, M. C.; Ellis, B. R.; Hall, C. M.; Lohmann, K. C.; Bouvier, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies in the Michigan Basin looked at the atmospheric and terrigenic noble gas signatures of deep brines to place constraints on the past thermal history of the basin and to assess the extent of vertical transport processes within this sedimentary system. In this contribution, we present noble gas data of shale gas samples from the Antrim shale formation in the Michigan Basin. The Antrim shale was one of the first economic shale-gas plays in the U.S. and has been actively developed since the 1980's. This study pioneers the use of noble gases in subsurface shale gas in the Michigan Basin to clarify the nature of vertical transport processes within the sedimentary sequence and to assess potential variability of noble gas signatures in shales. Antrim Shale gas samples were analyzed for all stable noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) from samples collected at depths between 300 and 500m. Preliminary results show R/Ra values (where R and Ra are the measured and atmospheric 3He/4He ratios, respectively) varying from 0.022 to 0.21. Although most samples fall within typical crustal R/Ra range values (~0.02-0.05), a few samples point to the presence of a mantle He component with higher R/Ra ratios. Samples with higher R/Ra values also display higher 20Ne/22Ne ratios, up to 10.4, and further point to the presence of mantle 20Ne. The presence of crustally produced nucleogenic 21Ne and radiogenic 40Ar is also apparent with 21Ne/22Ne ratios up to 0.033 and 40Ar/36Ar ratios up to 312. The presence of crustally produced 4He, 21Ne and 40Ar is not spatially homogeneous within the Antrim shale. Areas of higher crustal 4He production appear distinct to those of crustally produced 21Ne and 40Ar and are possibly related the presence of different production levels within the shale with varying concentrations of parent elements.

  17. A study of the processes in the RF hydrogen gas dissociator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, L.

    1980-01-01

    The role of the RF gas dissociator in the hydrogen maser is examined. Based on collisional and plasma transport processes, the performance of the source is investigated. It is found that while the complexity of the collisional processes in the RF dissociator prohibits an easily obtained quantitative expression for the performance of the source, it is nevertheless possible to make general inferences concerning the qualitative performance based on collisional effects. An analytical expression for the efficiency of the source in atom production is obtained based on plasma transport processes. On the basis of this study some recommendations are made for the development of more efficient RF hydrogen gas dissociators for use in masers.

  18. Operation, Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Reverse Water Gas Shift process is a candidate technology for water and oxygen production on Mars under the In-Situ Propellant Production project. This report focuses on the operation and analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process, which has been constructed at Kennedy Space Center. A summary of results from the initial operation of the RWGS, process along with an analysis of these results is included in this report. In addition an evaluation of a material balance model developed from the work performed previously under the summer program is included along with recommendations for further experimental work.

  19. Principles of gas phase processing of ceramics during combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zachariah, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, ceramic materials have found applications in an increasingly wider range of industrial processes, where their unique mechanical, electrical and optical properties are exploited. Ceramics are especially useful for applications in high temperature, corrosive environments, which impose particularly stringent requirements on mechanical reliability. One approach to provide such materials is the manufacture of submicron (and more recently nanometer scale) particles, which may subsequently be sintered to produce a material with extremely high mechanical integrity. However, high quality ceramic materials can only be obtained if particles of known size, polydispersity, shape and chemical purity can be produced consistently, under well controlled conditions. These requirements are the fundamental driving force for the renewed interest in studying particle formation and growth of such materials.

  20. Clusters: elucidating gas-to-particle conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Why is there currently so much interest in the subject of fine particles. First, fine particles are ubiquitous throughout the universe: They are present in interstellar media (e.g., in dense clouds as well as comets); they are ultimately responsible for the rings around Saturn, and, in some theories of planetary evolution, they are invoked to explain the origin of planets themselves. In high altitudes of our own planet there are layers of meteoritic ablation where dust layers are known and noctilucent clouds form, possibly enhanced by ion-induced nucleation processes. For more down-to-earth reasons, fine particles are of interest to environmental scientists, who must contend with them in ways more germane to our everyday life in terms of visibility and health.

  1. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2011-09-01

    This report is a summary of analyses performed by the NGNP project to determine whether it is technically and economically feasible to integrate high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) technology into industrial processes. To avoid an overly optimistic environmental and economic baseline for comparing nuclear integrated and conventional processes, a conservative approach was used for the assumptions and calculations.

  2. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed in the U.S. The Hg associated with petroleum and natural gas production and processing enters the environment primarily via solid waste streams (drilli...

  3. IMPACT OF NOX SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION PROCESSES ON FLUE GAS CLEANING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the impact of the ammonia leaving a nitrogen oxide (NOx) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process on downstream flue gas cleaning processes. (NOx emissions from electric utility boilers may be reduced 80-90% by the application of pollutio...

  4. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A SODIUM/LIMESTONE DOUBLE-ALKALI FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparison of results from a recent forced-oxidation limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process evaluation and those from a conceptual design and economic evaluation of a sodium/limestone double-alkali FGD process, based on recent EPA-sponsored...

  5. Adsorption process to recover hydrogen from feed gas mixtures having low hydrogen concentration

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Novosat, Paul Anthony

    2010-04-13

    A process for selectively separating hydrogen from at least one more strongly adsorbable component in a plurality of adsorption beds to produce a hydrogen-rich product gas from a low hydrogen concentration feed with a high recovery rate. Each of the plurality of adsorption beds subjected to a repetitive cycle. The process comprises an adsorption step for producing the hydrogen-rich product from a feed gas mixture comprising 5% to 50% hydrogen, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas withdrawal steps, a provide purge step resulting in a first pressure decrease, a blowdown step resulting in a second pressure decrease, a purge step, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas introduction steps, and a repressurization step. The second pressure decrease is at least 2 times greater than the first pressure decrease.

  6. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. MTR then located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; the units will be delivered in mid-2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

  7. Numerical Studies of the Application of Shock Tube Technology for Cold Gas Dynamic Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, R.; Bobzin, K.; Lugscheider, E.; Parkot, D.; Varava, W.; Olivier, H.; Luo, X.

    2007-12-01

    A new method for a combustion-free spraying is studied fundamentally by modeling and simulation in comparison with first experiments. The article focuses on the numerical simulation of the gas-particle nozzle flow, which is generated by the shock reflection at the end wall section of a shock tube. To study the physical fundamentals of this process, at present only a single shot operation is considered. The particles are injected downstream of the nozzle throat into a supersonic nozzle flow. The measurements of the particle velocity made by a laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) set up show that the maximum velocity amounts to 1220 m/s for stainless steel particles of 15 μm diameter. The CFD-Code (Fluent) is first verified by a comparison with available numerical and experimental data for gas and gas-particle flow fields in a long Laval-nozzle. The good agreement implied the great potential of the new dynamic process concept for cold-gas coating applications. Then the flow fields in the short Laval nozzle designed and realized by the Shock Wave Laboratory (SWL) are investigated. The gas flow for experimentally obtained stagnation conditions is simulated. The gas-particle flow without and with the influence of the particles on the gas flow is calculated by the Surface Engineering Institute (IOT) and compared with experiments. The influence of the injection parameters on the particle velocities is investigated, as well.

  8. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-09-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we continue, but have as yet been unsuccessful in our attempts, to negotiate with Atmos Energy for a final test of the original project demonstration unit. In the meantime, MTR has located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract with Towne Exploration for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA, to be run through May 2007. Several commercial sales have resulted from the partnership with ABB, and total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units are now approaching $2.6 million.

  9. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-03-20

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we are now negotiating with Atmos Energy for a final test of the project demonstration unit. Several commercial sales have also resulted from the partnership with ABB, and sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units now total $2.3 million.

  10. A study of gas-surface energy exchange processes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kunc, J.A.; Shemansky, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this theoretical research program was to study the fundamental characteristics of gas-surface energy exchange reactions. The interaction process refers to low density conditions in the gas component and therefore has general application to a number of disparate disciplines, including the maintenance of clean high vacuum systems for research in subjects such as fusion reactions, and many other important areas in engineering and technology. The approach to the calculations is to construct accurate theoretical models of the solid structure on a microscopic scale, and account for the aggregate gas-surface physical interaction using Monte Carlo techniques. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Efficient gas-separation process to upgrade dilute methane stream for use as fuel

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C.; Lin, Haiqing; Thompson, Scott; Daniels, Ramin

    2012-03-06

    A membrane-based gas separation process for treating gas streams that contain methane in low concentrations. The invention involves flowing the stream to be treated across the feed side of a membrane and flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side. Carbon dioxide permeates the membrane preferentially and is picked up in the sweep air stream on the permeate side; oxygen permeates in the other direction and is picked up in the methane-containing stream. The resulting residue stream is enriched in methane as well as oxygen and has an EMC value enabling it to be either flared or combusted by mixing with ordinary air.

  12. Process Optimization through Adaptation of Shielding Gas Selection and Feeding during Laser Beam Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patschger, Andreas; Sahib, Christoffer; Bergmann, Jean Pierre; Bastick, André

    For this paper the influence of the shielding gas itself as well as the feeding method on austenitic welding joints was examined with thin sheets frequently used in the household appliance industry. The composition of the shielding gas mixture with active and/or inert gases was varied in the examination, and the effect on the weld seam could be made clear. By comparing different shielding gas feeding concepts, the process was optimized with regard to seam formation. Moreover, the influence of oxygen on the seam shape was examined in the deep welding regime on a specific example.

  13. EQUATIONS FOR GAS RELEASING PROCESS FROM PRESSURIZED VESSELS IN ODH EVALUATION.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.X.; WANG,L.

    2001-07-16

    IN THE EVALUATION OF ODH, THE CALCULATION OF THE SPILL RATE FROM THE PRESSURIZED VESSEL IS THE CENTRAL TASK. THE ACCURACY OF THE ENGINEERING ESTIMATION BECOMES ONE OF THE SAFETY DESIGN ISSUES. THIS PAPER SUMMARIZES THE EQUATIONS FOR THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION CALCULATION IN DIFFERENT CASES, AND DISCUSSES THE EQUATIONS FOR THE GAS RELEASE PROCESS CALCULATION BOTH FOR THE HIGH-PRESSURE GAS TANK AND THE LOW-TEMPERATURE LIQUID CONTAINER.

  14. Worldwide gas processing: Capacities as of January 1, 1996, and average production

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Data are presented for gas plant capacities and production by country, by companies within each country, and by state or province within larger countries. Data are presented for total capacity as well as for average production of ethane, propane, isobutane, butane, LP-gas mixtures, raw NGL mixtures, natural gasoline, and other products. Processes are absorption, refrigerated absorption, refrigeration, compression, adsorption, cryogenic-Joule-Thomson, cryogenic-expander, and H{sub 2}S removal.

  15. Processing and utilization of wet flue gas desulfurization material

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.; Hassett, D.J. |

    1997-05-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) became fully operational in 1981. The two 550-MW units at CCS burn North Dakota lignite. The resulting by-products are fly ash, bottom ash, and wet FGD material. Although disposal of the coal combustion by-products (CCBs) was included in the original site plant at CCS, even early on, consideration was given to utilization of the fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete and as a partial sorbent replacement for the wet scrubbing system. CCS fly ash has been successfully marketed into North Dakota, Minnesota, and the surrounding region as a construction material that is environmentally benign, highly consistent, and an excellent performer in numerous construction applications. Attempts to use CCS fly ash as part of the scrubbing medium in the wet scrubbing system at the site were not as successful as first hoped, primarily due to the abrasive nature of the fly ash. Currently, CCS scrubbers use lime as the scrubbing medium for SO{sub 2} removal. CCS`s efforts to market its fly ash have been successful, so with increased awareness of the economic advantages of by-product utilization, the favorable US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory determination that CCBs are not hazardous, and the improved understanding of potential local and regional markets, Cooperative Power has taken additional steps to investigate the processing and utilization of its wet FGD material. These steps are discussed.

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sour congee in Inner Mongolia of China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Du, Xiaohua; Wang, Weihong; Zhang, Jiachao; Liu, Wenjun; Sun, Zhihong; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

    2011-01-01

    Sour congee is a popular food in the western regions of Inner Mongolia in China. It has a complex microbial population, which contributes to its unique flavor and functional properties. In this study, we chose 28 sour congee samples that were collected from different areas in Inner Mongolia for analysis of the microbial community of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by classical biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multiplex PCR assay of recA gene and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the tuf gene (encoding elongation factor Tu). The results revealed that all the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus (L.) paracasei (38 strains), L. fermentum (28 strains), L. plantarum (7 strains), L. brevis (4 strains), L. reuteri (2 strains), L. amylolyticus (1 strain), Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (3 strains), E. italicus (2 strains) or Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (1 strain). The predominant LAB were L. casei and L. fermentum in sour congee samples. The diversity of LAB derived from sour congee could offer useful information for further research on sour congee, and the results demonstrated that the combination of tuf gene and RFLP patterns can be considered as a useful tool for differentiation of the L. casei group. PMID:21914968

  17. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing Onshore natural gas...

  18. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405 Section 60.5405 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5405 What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  20. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405 Section 60.5405 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5405 What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  2. Finite Element Modeling of Adsorption Processes for Gas Separation and Purification

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Paul H.; Williams, Richard M.; Hayes, James C.

    2009-09-22

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in the design and fabrication of automated radioxenon collection systems for nuclear explosion monitoring. In developing new systems there is an ever present need to reduce size, power consumption and complexity. Most of these systems have used adsorption based techniques for gas collection and/or concentration and purification. These processes include pressure swing adsorption, vacuum swing adsorption, temperature swing adsorption, gas chromatography and hybrid processes that combine elements of these techniques. To better understand these processes, and help with the development of improved hardware, a finite element software package (COMSOL Multiphysics) has been used to develop complex models of these adsorption based operations. The partial differential equations used include a mass balance for each gas species and adsorbed species along with a convection conduction energy balance equation. These equations in conjunction with multicomponent temperature dependent isotherm models are capable of simulating separation processes ranging from complex multibed PSA processes, and multicomponent temperature programmed gas chromatography, to simple two component temperature swing adsorption. These numerical simulations have been a valuable tool for assessing the capability of proposed processes and optimizing hardware and process parameters.

  3. Investigation of Integrated Subsurface Processing of Landfill Gas and Carbon Sequestration, Johnson County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    K. David Newell; Timothy R. Carr

    2007-03-31

    The Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, KS is operated by Deffenbaugh Industries and serves much of metropolitan Kansas City. Refuse, which is dumped in large plastic-underlined trash cells covering several acres, is covered over with shale shortly after burial. The landfill waste, once it fills the cell, is then drilled by Kansas City LFG, so that the gas generated by anaerobic decomposition of the refuse can be harvested. Production of raw landfill gas from the Johnson County landfill comes from 150 wells. Daily production is approximately 2.2 to 2.5 mmcf, of which approximately 50% is methane and 50% is carbon dioxide and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds). Heating value is approximately 550 BTU/scf. A upgrading plant, utilizing an amine process, rejects the carbon dioxide and NMVOCs, and upgrades the gas to pipeline quality (i.e., nominally a heating value >950 BTU/scf). The gas is sold to a pipeline adjacent to the landfill. With coal-bearing strata underlying the landfill, and carbon dioxide a major effluent gas derived from the upgrading process, the Johnson County Landfill is potentially an ideal setting to study the feasibility of injecting the effluent gas in the coals for both enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon sequestration. To these ends, coals below the landfill were cored and then were analyzed for their thickness and sorbed gas content, which ranged up to 79 scf/ton. Assuming 1 1/2 square miles of land (960 acres) at the Johnson County Landfill can be utilized for coalbed and shale gas recovery, the total amount of in-place gas calculates to 946,200 mcf, or 946.2 mmcf, or 0.95 bcf (i.e., 985.6 mcf/acre X 960 acres). Assuming that carbon dioxide can be imbibed by the coals and shales on a 2:1 ratio compared to the gas that was originally present, then 1682 to 1720 days (4.6 to 4.7 years) of landfill carbon dioxide production can be sequestered by the coals and shales immediately under the landfill. Three coal--the Bevier

  4. Aqueous process for recovering sulfur from hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Arunabha

    2015-05-05

    A process for recovering sulfur from a hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas utilizes an aqueous reaction medium, a temperature of about 110-150.degree. C., and a high enough pressure to maintain the aqueous reaction medium in a liquid state. The process reduces material and equipment costs and addresses the environmental disadvantages associated with known processes that rely on high boiling point organic solvents.

  5. Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

    2006-09-30

    This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated three possible

  6. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2004-05-01

    This final technical report describes and summarizes results of a research effort to investigate physical mechanisms that control the performance of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs and to represent those physical effects in an efficient way in simulations of gas injection processes. The research effort included four main lines of research: (1) Efficient compositional streamline methods for 3D flow; (2) Analytical methods for one-dimensional displacements; (3) Physics of multiphase flow; and (4) Limitations of streamline methods. In the first area, results are reported that show how the streamline simulation approach can be applied to simulation of gas injection processes that include significant effects of transfer of components between phases. In the second area, the one-dimensional theory of multicomponent gas injection processes is extended to include the effects of volume change as components change phase. In addition an automatic algorithm for solving such problems is described. In the third area, results on an extensive experimental investigation of three-phase flow are reported. The experimental results demonstrate the impact on displacement performance of the low interfacial tensions between the gas and oil phases that can arise in multicontact miscible or near-miscible displacement processes. In the fourth area, the limitations of the streamline approach were explored. Results of an experimental investigation of the scaling of the interplay of viscous, capillary, and gravity forces are described. In addition results of a computational investigation of the limitations of the streamline approach are reported. The results presented in this report establish that it is possible to use the compositional streamline approach in many reservoir settings to predict performance of gas injection processes. When that approach can be used, it requires substantially less (often orders of magnitude) computation time than conventional finite difference

  7. Evaluation of critical flow intensities for FILC in sour gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, G.; Bosch, C.; Bruckhoff, W.; Siegmund, G.

    1998-12-31

    Using submerged jet impingement experiments critical wall shear stresses for initiation of flow induced localized corrosion (FILC) were evaluated for the system carbon steel/aqueous polysulfide containing monoethylamine (MEA) solutions/H{sub 2}S (22 to 42 bar). Due to an extraordinary MEA concentration effect the critical wall shear stress at 130 C was about 90 N/m{sup 2} in 2.4 M MEA but only 2 N/m{sup 2} in 5 M MEA solution. Inhibition could increase this low value to 17 N/m{sup 2}. Wall shear stresses up to 53 N/m{sup 2} could be reached by precorrosion under subcritical flow conditions and use of an inhibitor yielding sulfide scales with significantly enhanced FILC resistance. The change in FILC susceptibility is accompanied by a change in scale morphology and thickness. In order to quantify erosion corrosion intensities developed by a submerged jet stream, surface roughness profiles were correlated via frequency analysis with wall shear stress related dimensions of impact transferring volume elements of eddies in the hydrodynamic boundary layer.

  8. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  9. Experiences of the Application of Hot Gas Filtration to Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, B.T.

    2002-09-18

    Hot Gas Filtration (HGF) is defined as the dry scrubbing of gaseous process effluent above 250 degrees. The potential applications for this technology can be found in Atmospheric Pollution Control (APC) and In-Line Equipment Protection (ILETP). In recent years novel rigid refractory filter media have emerged with several advantages over conventional fabric bag filters and other particulate arrestment systems e.g. electrostatic precipitators. A study has been made of the effect of a wide range of operational conditions, including gas volume and velocity, temperature, particle size distribution, and organic/moisture content, in real process situations on filter elements performance and life expectancy.

  10. The Texaco coal gasification process for manufacture of medium BTU gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinger, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the Texaco coal gasification process is discussed with particular emphasis on its close relationship to the fully commercialized Texaco synthesis gas generation process for residual oil gasification. The end uses of the product gas are covered, with special attention to electric power generation via combined cycle technology. Control of SO2, NOx, and particulate emissions in the power generating mode is also covered. The application of this technology in a proposed Texaco-Southern California Edison demonstration project is mentioned. Investment information released for a 1000-megawatt advanced combined cycle gasification facility, is also reviewed.

  11. [Effect of flue gas conditions on NO oxidation process by DC corona radical shower].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zu-liang; Gao, Xiang; Li, Ming-bo; Zhang, Yuan-shang; Wu, Zu-cheng; Luo, Zhong-yang; Ni, Ming-jiang; Cen, Ke-fa

    2005-05-01

    Using an air-H2O DC corona radical shower system, the influences of reside time of flue gas in the reactor, velocity of flue gas and NO concentration on NO oxidation process were studied. The results show that the increasing velocity of flue gas can restrain corona development and the increasing NO concentration can make discharge more easy. The reside time of flue gas in the reactor has less effect on the NO oxidation. The NO oxidation rate increased only from 54.5% to 57.6% at 2 W input power when the reside time of flue gas in the reactor increased from 8.5 s to 34.2 s. However, the velocity of flue gas has important effect on the NO oxidation. At 1.7 W x h/m3 energy density, when the velocity of flue gas increased from 1.4 cm/s to 6.3 cm/s, the NO oxidation rate dropped from 60.0% to 38.6% and the energy yield also falled from 20.8 g/(kW x h) to 13.3 g/(kW x h). Under the certain flux of humid air, NO initial concentration has a best value, which was about 100 x 10(-6) in this experiment. PMID:16124460

  12. Sweet for the sour: Incentives in environmental mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, John H.; Soderstrom, Jon; Carnes, Sam A.

    1984-07-01

    The siting of facilities with undesirable environmental characteristics often leads to public conflict. Efforts to resolve the conflict and make siting decisions frequently exacerbate the problem. Environmental mediation, the process of negotiating an agreeable settlement, is an accepted approach to resolving conflict. This paper explores the use of incentive systems as a means of achieving equity in environmental mediation. Obnoxious and noxious characteristics of facilities are discussed as the basis of conflicts. Four types of incentives—mitigation, compensation, reward, and participation—are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the utility and application of incentives for solving environmental conflicts.

  13. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J.

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  14. An optical gas temperature probe for high temperature fossil fuel process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.; Cook, R.L.; Lineberry, J.T.; Litchford, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Reported here are the results of a feasibility study of a modular optical gas temperature probe for direct measurement of gas temperature in fossil-fueled combustion streams. A probe based upon the spectroscopic technique of line reversal would be superior to currently available gas temperature technology. The study concluded that a modular form of the line reversal optical temperature probe is feasible and, as such. the probe should be a commercially viable product with potential economic benefits from improved monitoring and control of utility furnaces. Such a probe will have the capability of making direct measurements of gas temperature in hot (>1500 K) process streams of coal combustion systems and large-scale power plant facilities.

  15. Process for hydrogen isotope concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, William H.

    1976-09-21

    A process for hydrogen isotope exchange and concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas, wherein liquid water and hydrogen gas are contacted, in an exchange section, with one another and with at least one catalyst body comprising at least one metal selected from Group VIII of the Periodic Table and preferably a support therefor, the catalyst body has a liquid-water-repellent, gas permeable polymer or organic resin coating, preferably a fluorinated olefin polymer or silicone coating, so that the isotope concentration takes place by two simultaneously occurring steps, namely, ##EQU1## WHILE THE HYDROGEN GAS FED TO THE EXCHANGE SECTION IS DERIVED IN A REACTOR VESSEL FROM LIQUID WATER THAT HAS PASSED THROUGH THE EXCHANGE SECTION.

  16. The effect of sour milk as a postmilking teat dip for mastitis prevention in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, E; Rantala, M; Saloniemi, H

    1996-01-01

    In a preliminary in vitro study, the growth of Staphylococcus aureus was totally inhibited during incubation for 24 h at 35 degrees C-37 degrees C in a solution of cooked commercial milk with 1% of uncooked commercial sour milk ("A piimä"). In a subsequent clinical trial, "A piimä" sour milk with 5% glycerol was used as a postmilking teat dip from February to June. Quarterly milk samples were drawn once a month aseptically from 133 cows. Percentages of pathogen positive samples and somatic cell count (SCC) from teats dipped with the sour milk were compared with those dipped with a commercial iodine teat dip and those of undipped controls. During March-June there were fewer isolations of S. aureus (2.09%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (2.52%) in the sour-milk group than in the control group (3.09% and 4.07%, respectively). In iodine group, there were fewer isolations of S. aureus (0.83%) but more isolations of coagulase-negative staphylococci (5.26%) than in the control group. During the study period, the percentages of bacterial isolates did not differ statistically significantly between treatments, p = 0.291. The percentage of quarters with a SCC over 125,000 at the end of the study was one third lower in the sour-milk group than in the control group (16.67% and 26.23% respectively) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.074). The results indicate that a sour-milk teat-dip preparation can inhibit new intra mammary infections (IMI). PMID:9050275

  17. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P.

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  18. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. However, a small test system was installed at a Twin Bottoms Energy well in Kentucky. This unit operated successfully for six months, and demonstrated the technology's reliability on a small scale. MTR then located an alternative test site with much larger gas flow rates and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, California, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; both units will be delivered by the end of 2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

  19. Two key processes in dust/gas chemical modelling: photoprocessing of grain mantles and explosive desorption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalabiea, O. M.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1994-10-01

    Two models of the time dependent chemical evolution of stable dense and translucent clouds are presented: one for pure gas phase chemistry and the other in which solid grain chemistry is included along with the gas. Comparing the results using these two schemes for the theoretical abundances of certain key molecules shows that including the dust provides a significantly (often by orders of magnitude) better agreement with the observations than those derived by pure gas phase chemistry models. The initial atomic abundances are those given by observations and are not modified to suit the model. Moreover, the inclusion of grain chemistry appears to minimize the effects of uncertainties in some important gas phase reaction rates, which would otherwise strongly affect the results of pure gas phase models. The grain mantle composition and gas phase abundances have been investigated using a number of different physical assumptions for both dense and translucent cloud models, taking into consideration the accretion, photochemical processing and desorption mechanisms involving the dust grains. The use of triggered explosive desorption is critical to providing reasonable steady state abundances. The abundances of H_2_O, H_2_CO, CH_3_OH and NH_3_ have a particular relevance because they are more abundantly produced in dust than in the gas. The most abundant observed molecules in grain mantles are H_2_O and CO which, under irradiation by ultraviolet light, not only produce H_2_CO but the latter can in turn react with water ice producing CH_3_OH. The reversible transformation between formaldehyde and methanol in the dust affects their gas phase abundances in both translucent and dense clouds. Depth dependent calculations have been performed and it is found that the effects of solid state photochemical molecular production in the inner part of a dense cloud are much larger than in the outer part or in a translucent cloud. In addition to matching observed gas phase abundances

  20. Longevity of Mycobacterium bovis in Raw and Traditional Souring Milk as a Function of Storage Temperature and Dose

    PubMed Central

    Hlokwe, Tiny; Raseleka, Keneilwe; Getz, Wayne M.; Marcotty, Tanguy

    2015-01-01

    Background Unpasteurised fresh and souring dairy products form an essential component of household diets throughout many rural communities in southern Africa. The presence of milk-borne zoonotic pathogens such as Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and zoonotic tuberculosis in humans, constitute a public health threat, especially in remote areas with poor disease surveillance in livestock and highly compromised human health due to HIV/AIDS. Methods In this study we used culture to determine the longevity of M. bovis in experimentally inoculated fresh and naturally souring milk obtained from communal cattle in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The effect of bacterial load and storage temperature on the survival of M. bovis was evaluated by spiking mixtures of fresh milk and starter soured milk (aMasi) culture with three concentrations of bacteria (102, 104, 107 colony forming units/ml), followed by incubation under controlled laboratory conditions that mimicked ambient indoor (20°C) and outdoor (33°C) temperatures and periodic sampling and testing over time (0-56 days). Results M. bovis cultured from samples of the fresh and souring milk was identified by PCR analysis. At the highest spiking concentration (107cfu/ml), M. bovis survived for at least 2 weeks at 20°C; but, at all concentrations in the 33°C treatment, M. bovis was absent by three days after inoculation. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of bacterial concentration and time since inoculation, as well as determine the potential half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk. Given the most favourable tested conditions for bacterial survival (20°C), approximately 25% of mycobacteria were alive after one day of storage (95% CI: 9-53%), giving an estimated half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk of approximately 12 hours (95% CI: 7-27 hours). Conclusions This study demonstrates that M. bovis may survive in fresh and souring milk for

  1. Gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD) process for improved oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Rao, Dandina N.

    2012-07-10

    A rapid and inexpensive process for increasing the amount of hydrocarbons (e.g., oil) produced and the rate of production from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by displacing oil downwards within the oil reservoir and into an oil recovery apparatus is disclosed. The process is referred to as "gas-assisted gravity drainage" and comprises the steps of placing one or more horizontal producer wells near the bottom of a payzone (i.e., rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities) of a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir and injecting a fluid displacer (e.g., CO.sub.2) through one or more vertical wells or horizontal wells. Pre-existing vertical wells may be used to inject the fluid displacer into the reservoir. As the fluid displacer is injected into the top portion of the reservoir, it forms a gas zone, which displaces oil and water downward towards the horizontal producer well(s).

  2. Three-Dimensional Model for Electrospinning Processes in Controlled Gas Counterflow.

    PubMed

    Lauricella, Marco; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2016-07-14

    We study the effects of a controlled gas flow on the dynamics of electrified jets in the electrospinning process. The main idea is to model the air drag effects of the gas flow by using a nonlinear Langevin-like approach. The model is employed to investigate the dynamics of electrified polymer jets at different conditions of air drag force, showing that a controlled gas counterflow can lead to a decrease of the average diameter of electrospun fibers, and potentially to an improvement of the quality of electrospun products. We probe the influence of air drag effects on the bending instabilities of the jet and on its angular fluctuations during the process. The insights provided by this study might prove useful for the design of future electrospinning experiments and polymer nanofiber materials. PMID:26859532

  3. Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.

  4. English-Spanish glossary: offshore exploration and production, gas processing, and valves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This series of articles contains 3 different English-Spanish glossaries of related terms used in the oil industry. The glossary of the offshore exploration and production involves a summary of terms used in the offshore oil activity. It also includes names of singular equipment used in offshore drilling, as well as several navigation terms in relation to the floating oil structures. With the help of the Gas Processors Association it was possible to compile a glossary of gas processing with a concise selection of common terms of the industry of gas processing. The glossary of valves includes more than 200 terms of the industry of valves in a specialized glossary, and several explanations about the application and operation of valves.

  5. Three-Dimensional Model for Electrospinning Processes in Controlled Gas Counterflow

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of a controlled gas flow on the dynamics of electrified jets in the electrospinning process. The main idea is to model the air drag effects of the gas flow by using a nonlinear Langevin-like approach. The model is employed to investigate the dynamics of electrified polymer jets at different conditions of air drag force, showing that a controlled gas counterflow can lead to a decrease of the average diameter of electrospun fibers, and potentially to an improvement of the quality of electrospun products. We probe the influence of air drag effects on the bending instabilities of the jet and on its angular fluctuations during the process. The insights provided by this study might prove useful for the design of future electrospinning experiments and polymer nanofiber materials. PMID:26859532

  6. Alternatives to HIC resistant steels in sour refinery environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, B.L.

    1999-07-01

    Based on recent laboratory data and field experiences, the use of HIC resistant steels as a viable solution to wet H{sub 2}S cracking problems in refineries is being questioned. The use of HIC resistant steels, even with post weld heat treatment (PWHT), may not be a valid means to achieve the common end user goals of both reducing the risk of through wall vessel leaks and reducing inspection and maintenance costs associated with refinery wet H{sub 2}S service vessels. Some currently available data does not support adjusting vessel inspection intervals based on type of steel, PWHT condition, or even prior cracking history, as even subtle changes in process conditions in higher risk services can promote cracking where none existed previously. Prior versions of some refinery wet H{sub 2}S inspection programs allowed for significant adjustments of inspection intervals based upon these parameters. Some current wet H{sub 2}S inspection programs call for frequent WFMT inspection (typically 5 years maximum) for all vessels in high risk wet H{sub 2}S service and allow for extension of inspection intervals only when corrosion barriers (e.g. cladding or coating) are present. This paper provides some specifics on the data behind these recent philosophy changes.

  7. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid Removal Process

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient NGL recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale testing - so that it can be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization.

  8. Microemulsion impregnated catalyst composite and use thereof in a synthesis gas conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Abrevaya, H.; Targos, W.M.

    1987-12-22

    A catalyst composition is described for synthesis gas conversion comprising a ruthenium metal component deposited on a support carrier wherein the average metal particle size is less than about 100 A. The method of manufacture of the composition via a reverse micelle impregnation technique and the use of the composition in a Fischer-Tropsch conversion process is also disclosed.

  9. Microemulsion impregnated catalyst composite and use thereof in a synthesis gas conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Abrevaya, Hayim; Targos, William M.

    1987-01-01

    A catalyst composition for synthesis gas conversion comprising a ruthenium metal component deposited on a support carrier wherein the average metal particle size is less than about 100 A. The method of manufacture of the composition via a reverse micelle impregnation technique and the use of the composition in a Fischer-Tropsch conversion process is also disclosed.

  10. HITACHI ZOSEN NOX FLUE GAS TREATMENT PROCESS. VOLUME 1. PILOT PLANT EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot plant evaluation of the Hitachi Zosen NOx flue gas treatment process. The project--evaluating selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx on a coal-fired source--operated for 1-1/2 years. A newly developed catalyst, NOXNON 600, was successfully ...

  11. Process for removal of hydrogen halides or halogens from incinerator gas

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Hann S.; Sather, Norman F.

    1988-01-01

    A process for reducing the amount of halogens and halogen acids in high temperature combustion gases and through their removal, the formation of halogenated organics at lower temperatures, with the reduction being carried out electrochemically by contacting the combustion gas with the negative electrode of an electrochemical cell and with the halogen and/or halogen acid being recovered at the positive electrode.

  12. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ELI ECO Logic International, Inc.'s Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) is specifically designed for use with Eco Logic's Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Process. The technology uses an externally heated bath of molten tin in a hydrogen atmosphere to desorb hazardous organic compounds fro...

  13. DISPOSAL OF SPENT SORBENT FROM DRY FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of sintering and leaching mechanisms of fly ash/spent sodium sorbent mixtures from a dry injection flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. It includes an estimate of the economics of pelletizing and sintering to handle the fly ash and spent sor...

  14. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 2. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The oil and gas ...

  15. SHELL NOX/SO2 FLUE GAS TREATMENT PROCESS: INDEPENDENT EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an independent evaluation of the Shell Flue Gas Treatment (SFGT) process which simultaneously reduces nitrogen oxide (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. NOx emissions from stationary sources may be reduced by 80-90 percent by applying selective c...

  16. Chemical Characterization of Fruit Wine Made from Oblačinska Sour Cherry

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić, Dragana; Matijašević, Saša; Davidović, Sonja; Dojčinović, Biljana; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Tešić, Živoslav; Natić, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identified based on the accurate mass spectrographic search. Values of total phenolics content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity for cherry wine sample were 1.938 mg gallic acid eqv L−1, 0.113 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside L−1, and 34.56%, respectively. In general, cherry wine polyphenolics in terms of nonanthocyanins and anthocyanins were shown to be distinctive when compared to grape wines. Naringenin and apigenin were characteristic only for cherry wine, and seven anthocyanins were distinctive for cherry wine. PMID:25101316

  17. Antimicrobial effect of sour pomegranate sauce on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kışla, Duygu; Karabıyıklı, Şeniz

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranate sauce is one of the most popular pomegranate products produced in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both traditional and commercial sour pomegranate sauce samples on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The initial microflora of the pomegranate sauce samples was determined by performing the enumerations of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, S. aureus, E. coli, and the determination of Salmonella spp. MIC tests were applied to the neutralized and the original (unneutralized) sour pomegranate sauce samples in order to put forth the inhibition effect depending on low pH value. It was found that inhibitory effect of the traditional and the commercial samples, except one sample, on pathogens was not only due to the acidity of the products. The results of MIC tests indicated that although both traditional and commercial samples showed a considerable inhibitory effect on test microorganisms, the traditional pomegranate sauce samples were more effective than the commercial ones. PMID:23534450

  18. A novel objective sour taste evaluation method based on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Ayaka; Aoki, Soichiro; Kouno, Emi; Ogasawara, Masashi; Onaka, Takashi; Miura, Yutaka; Mamiya, Kanji

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important themes in the development of foods and drinks is the accurate evaluation of taste properties. In general, a sensory evaluation system is frequently used for evaluating food and drink. This method, which is dependent on human senses, is highly sensitive but is influenced by the eating experience and food palatability of individuals, leading to subjective results. Therefore, a more effective method for objectively estimating taste properties is required. Here we show that salivary hemodynamic signals, as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, are a useful objective indicator for evaluating sour taste stimulus. In addition, the hemodynamic responses of the parotid gland are closely correlated to the salivary secretion volume of the parotid gland in response to basic taste stimuli and respond to stimuli independently of the hedonic aspect. Moreover, we examined the hemodynamic responses to complex taste stimuli in food-based solutions and demonstrated for the first time that the complicated phenomenon of the "masking effect," which decreases taste intensity despite the additional taste components, can be successfully detected by near-infrared spectroscopy. In summary, this study is the first to demonstrate near-infrared spectroscopy as a novel tool for objectively evaluating complex sour taste properties in foods and drinks. PMID:24474216

  19. Combined effect of fermentation, sun-drying and genotype on breadmaking ability of sour cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Pedro Maldonado; Grosmaire, Lidwine; Dufour, Dominique; Toro, Andrés Giraldo; Sánchez, Teresa; Calle, Fernando; Santander, Martín Alonso Moreno; Ceballos, Hernán; Delarbre, Jean Louis; Tran, Thierry

    2013-10-15

    The influence of genotype and post-harvest treatments on expansion ability of sour cassava starch was investigated using 13 cassava genotypes from Colombia. Starches from cassava grown at 1000 m and 1700 m.a.s.l (3 lowland and 10 highland clones respectively) were modified by fermentation (0 or 30 days) and drying (oven or sun) treatments. RVA average peak viscosity decreased regularly from 952 cP in native starch to 699 cP in fermented and sun-dried starch. Granule size analysis revealed that fermentation hydrolysed lowland and highland granules by exocorrosion and endocorrosion respectively. This result was corroborated by significantly higher RVA breakdown and lower intrinsic viscosity in highland clones, reflecting different sensitivity to fermentation. For the first time, amylose contents ranging from 15.7 to 21.7% were correlated with expansion ability (3.0-8.6 mL/g) of sour cassava starch. Therefore the combination of cassava genotypes (mainly amylose content) and post-harvest treatments is key for expansion ability. Supra-molecular granule structure influenced sensitivity to fermentation. PMID:23987455

  20. Evaluation of systemic and dermal toxicity and dermal photoprotection by sour cherry kernels.

    PubMed

    Bak, Istvan; Czompa, Attila; Csepanyi, Evelin; Juhasz, Bela; Kalantari, Heibatullah; Najm, Khadija; Aghel, Nasreen; Varga, Balazs; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad

    2011-11-01

    The present report describes outcomes of animal studies conducted to determine the systemic and dermal toxicity of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed kernel contents; and a separate evaluation of the photoprotective capacity of the kernel oil fraction. B6 mice and Hartley guinea-pigs were used for these experiments. Dosage groups of 6-8 animals were administered whole kernel meal in a dose range of 0-3000 mg/kg by gavage for 8 days, following which they were killed. The liver and kidney weights were recorded and histological examination performed on sections of these organs. Kidney function was assessed as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and liver function by measurement of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. Dermal toxicity was evaluated in a Hartley guinea-pig model by comparing UVB-irradiated shaved skin to which the kernel oil had been applied with distilled water controls. In conclusion, no evidence of toxicity was observed to result from the consumption or dermal application of sour cherry seed kernel in the dose range at which it is likely to be used in foods or healthcare. Moreover, it was shown to have a powerful capacity to protect skin from UV damage. These results suggest it will prove to be a highly safe and effective addition to a wide range of products for general use. PMID:21751269

  1. 'Striking a Sour Note': Assessing the Influence of Consonant and Dissonant Music on Taste Perception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report two experiments designed to investigate the consequences of manipulating the harmonic content of background music on taste perception. The participants in the present study evaluated samples of mixed fruit juice whilst listening to soundtracks that had either been harmonised with consonant or dissonant musical intervals. Each sample of juice was rated on three computer-based scales: One scale was anchored with the words sour and sweet, while the other two scales involved hedonic ratings of the music and of the juice. The results of an internet-based pre-test revealed that participants reliably associated the consonant soundtracks with sweetness and the dissonant soundtracks with sourness. The results of the on-site experiments demonstrated that participants rated the juices as tasting significantly sweeter in the consonant than in the dissonant music condition, irrespective of the melody or instrumentation that were evaluated. These results therefore provide empirical support for the claim that the crossmodal correspondence between a higher level musical attribute (namely, harmony) and basic taste can be used to modify the evaluation of the taste of a drink. PMID:27311296

  2. Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of δ-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells. PMID:25149457

  3. One-step method determines sour water H/sub 2/S hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-24

    Shell oil researchers have developed a ''worst case'' hazard analysis methodology for the release of hydrogen sulfide to the atmosphere from potential spills of sour water (water containing hydrogen sulfide). The method, which is applicable to oil field or refining operations, has been reduced to a single graph that can be used to determine over-water hydrogen sulfide in one step. It has been approved by the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC), which has issued regulations to protect the public and workers from the release of hydrogen sulfide from oil industry operations. The development of such a method was prompted by Shell Western Exploration and Production's involvment with a massive enhanced oil recovery project in the Wasson Field in Texas. Shell found that the most desirable option for handling produced sour water from this operation was to reinject it. But the transport and reinjection of this water would have to take place in a populated area, specifically the community of Denver City, Texas, which is above part of the field.

  4. Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Cody M; Veatch, Devon; Covey, Adam; Staton, Caleb; Bochman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    During beer fermentation, the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae experiences a variety of shifting growth conditions, culminating in a low-oxygen, low-nutrient, high-ethanol, acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO2), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. However, medium shock caused by any of these variables can slow, stall, or even kill the yeast, resulting in production delays and economic losses. Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock". Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The effects of low pH/high [lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. Our findings will aid in the production of sour-style beers, a trending category in the American craft beer scene. PMID:27052714

  5. Computational Modeling of the Working Process in the Combustion Chamber for Casing-Head Gas Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachev, N. L.; Betinskaya, O. A.; Bul‧bovich, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper considers problems of computational modeling of the working process in multizone combustion chambers (CC) forming a part of gas-turbine power plants for recovering casing-head and other process gases. To investigate the turbulent flow and combustion, we use the LES method with a Smagorinskii subnet model. Various schemes of feeding components into combustion and dilution zones are considered. A comparison is made between the calculated and experimental data on the temperature in the combustion zone.

  6. Design of a Small Scale High Temperature Gas Loop for Process Heat Exchanger Design Tests

    SciTech Connect

    SungDeok, Hong; DongSeok, Oh; WonJae, Lee; JongHwa, Chang

    2006-07-01

    We designed a small scale gas loop that can simulate reference operating conditions, that is, a temperature up to 950 deg C and a pressure up to 6 MPa. Main objective of the loop is to screen the candidate process-heat-exchanger designs of a very small capacity of 10 {approx} 20 kW. We arranged the components of a primary gas loop and a secondary SO{sub 3} loop. Design requirements are prepared for the safe design of a main heater, a hot-gas-duct and a process heat exchanger that avoid a risk of a failure owing to thermal stresses, a flow-induced vibration or an acoustic vibration in both nitrogen and helium mediums. In the primary and secondary loops, the hot-gas-ducts are internally insulated by a ceramic fiber insulation material to protect the pressure housing from high gas temperatures. We determined a total pressure loss of the primary loop to be 66 kPa and the minimum outer diameter of the loop pressure pipe to be 90 mm at a hot location that will prevent a thermal failure. Very toxic SO{sub 3} secondary loop is needed a scrubber and a SO{sub 3} collector for safety and preventing a contamination of the environment. (authors)

  7. Investigation of physico-chemical processes in hypervelocity MHD-gas acceleration wind tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Alfyorov, V.I.; Dmitriev, L.M.; Yegorov, B.V.; Markachev, Yu.E.

    1995-12-31

    The calculation results for nonequilibrium physicochemical processes in the circuit of the hypersonic MHD-gas acceleration wind tunnel are presented. The flow in the primary nozzle is shown to be in thermodynamic equilibrium at To=3400 K, Po=(2{approximately}3)x10{sup 5} Pa, M=2 used in the plenum chamber. Variations in the static pressure due to oxidation reaction of Na, K are pointed out. The channels of energy transfer from the electric field to different degrees of freedom of an accelerated gas with Na, K seeds are considered. The calculation procedure for gas dynamic and kinetic processes in the MHD-channel using measured parameters is suggested. The calculated results are compared with the data obtained in a thermodynamic gas equilibrium assumption. The flow in the secondary nozzle is calculated under the same assumptions and the gas parameters at its exit are evaluated. Particular attention is given to the influence of seeds on flows over bodies. It is shown that the seeds exert a very small influence on the flow behind a normal shock wave. The seeds behind an oblique shock wave accelerate deactivation of vibrations of N{sub 2}, but this effect is insignificant.

  8. [Quantitative Analysis of the Hydration Process of Mine Gas Mixture Based on Raman Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-yong; Yu, Yue; Wu, Qiang; Gao, Xia

    2015-07-01

    The research on micro crystal structure of mine gas hydrate is especially significant for the technology of gas hydrate separation. Using Raman spectroscopy to observe hydration process of 3 kinds of mine gas mixture on line which contains high concentration of carbon dioxide, this experiment obtained the information of the hydrate crystals including large and small cage occupancy. Meanwhile obtained the hydration number indirectly based on the statistical thermodynamic model of van der Waals and Platteeuw. The results show that cage occupancy and hydration number of mine gas hydrates change little during different growth stages. The large cages of hydrate phases are nearly full occupied by carbon dioxide and methane molecules together, with the occupancy ratios between 97.70% and 98.68%. Most of the guest molecules in large cages is carbon dioxide (78.58%-94.09%) and only a few (4.52%-19.12%) is filled with methane, it is because carbon dioxide concentration in the gas sample is higher than methane and there is competition between them. However the small cage occupancy ratios is generally low in the range from 17.93% to 82.41%, and the guest molecules are all methane. With the increase of methane concentration in gas sample, the cage occupancy both large and small which methane occupied has increased, meanwhile the large cage occupancy which methane occupied is lower than small cage. The hydration numbers of mine gas hydrate during different growth stages are between 6.13 and 7.33. Small cage occupancy has increased with the increase of methane concentration, this lead to hydration number decreases. Because of the uneven distribution of hydrate growth, the hydration numbers of 3 kinds of gas samples show irregular change during different growth stages. PMID:26717751

  9. Precise and high-speed control of partial pressures of multiple gas species in plasma process chamber using pulse-controlled gas injection

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Sadaharu; Goto, Tetsuya; Nagase, Masaaki; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2009-05-15

    Multiprocesses in a single plasma process chamber with high throughput require precise, sequential, high-speed alteration of partial pressures of multiple gas species. A conventional gas-distribution system cannot realize this because the system seriously overshoots gas pressure immediately following valve operation. Furthermore, chamber volume and conductance of gas piping between the system and chamber should both be considered because they delay the stabilizing time of gas pressure. Therefore, the authors proposed a new gas-distribution system without overshoot by controlling gas flow rate based on pressure measurement, as well as a method of pulse-controlled gas injection immediately following valve operation. Time variation of measured partial pressure agrees well with a calculation based on an equivalent-circuit model that represents the chamber and gas piping between the system and chamber. Using pulse-controlled gas injection, the stabilizing time can be reduced drastically to 0.6 s for HBr added to pure Ar plasma, and 0.7 s for O{sub 2} added to Ar/HBr plasma; without the pulse control, the stabilizing times are 3 and 7 s, respectively. In the O{sub 2} addition case, rapid stabilization can be achieved during the period of line/space pattern etching of poly-Si on a thin SiO{sub 2} film. This occurs without anomalous etching of the underlying SiO{sub 2} film or the Si substrate near the sidewall, thus obtaining a wide process margin with high throughput.

  10. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and process economics of the fluid milk process.

    PubMed

    Tomasula, P M; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Bonnaillie, L M

    2013-05-01

    Energy-savings measures have been implemented in fluid milk plants to lower energy costs and the energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although these measures have resulted in reductions in steam, electricity, compressed air, and refrigeration use of up to 30%, a benchmarking framework is necessary to examine the implementation of process-specific measures that would lower energy use, costs, and CO2 emissions even further. In this study, using information provided by the dairy industry and equipment vendors, a customizable model of the fluid milk process was developed for use in process design software to benchmark the electrical and fuel energy consumption and CO2 emissions of current processes. It may also be used to test the feasibility of new processing concepts to lower energy and CO2 emissions with calculation of new capital and operating costs. The accuracy of the model in predicting total energy usage of the entire fluid milk process and the pasteurization step was validated using available literature and industry energy data. Computer simulation of small (40.0 million L/yr), medium (113.6 million L/yr), and large (227.1 million L/yr) processing plants predicted the carbon footprint of milk, defined as grams of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kilogram of packaged milk, to within 5% of the value of 96 g of CO 2e/kg of packaged milk obtained in an industry-conducted life cycle assessment and also showed, in agreement with the same study, that plant size had no effect on the carbon footprint of milk but that larger plants were more cost effective in producing milk. Analysis of the pasteurization step showed that increasing the percentage regeneration of the pasteurizer from 90 to 96% would lower its thermal energy use by almost 60% and that implementation of partial homogenization would lower electrical energy use and CO2e emissions of homogenization by 82 and 5.4%, respectively. It was also demonstrated that implementation of steps to lower non-process

  11. Process for reducing the total sulfur content of a high CO/sub 2/-content feed gas

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, H.J.; Schilk, J.A.

    1982-10-26

    In the process for reducing the total sulfur content of a high CO/sub 2/-content feed gas stream, the feed gas is first passed to an absorption column. The unabsorbed, high CO/sub 2/-content gas is then routed to a reduction step where it is combined with Claus offgases and the sulfur compounds are reduced to H/sub 2/S. The treated gas is then passed to a second absorption column and the unabsorbed gas is vented to the atmosphere. The fat solvent from both absorption columns is stripped in a common stripper and the stripped gas is passed to a Claus unit for conversion to elemental sulfur.

  12. Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Phase I. Process evaluation report, conceptual commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    This Process Evaluation Report (PER) contains the results and recommendations of comprehensive analyses and studies which were made to optimize the ICGG Commercial Plant Baseline Process Concept for producing synthetic pipeline gas (SPG) from coal. Design studies to optimize the thermal efficiency and economic attractiveness of the COGAS Process Areas of the plant were conducted along with design studies and trade-off studies of available process subsystems to complement the COGAS Process Areas. The results, recommendations and description of the work accomplished in developing the PER are contained in six separately bound sections. Section 4 describes those trade-off studies which were made to select processes which would best complement the COGAS Process Areas and provide the most efficient and economical Commercial Plant Concept.

  13. Process for forming integral edge seals in porous gas distribution plates utilizing a vibratory means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Haim (Inventor); Pudick, Sheldon (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A process for forming an integral edge seal in a gas distribution plate for use in a fuel cell. A seal layer is formed along an edge of a porous gas distribution plate by impregnating the pores in the layer with a material adapted to provide a seal which is operative dry or when wetted by an electrolyte of a fuel cell. Vibratory energy is supplied to the sealing material during the step of impregnating the pores to provide a more uniform seal throughout the cross section of the plate.

  14. Numerical studies of heat transfer and gas migration processes in relation to in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, G.L.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Murray, P.E.

    1990-09-01

    This document presents numerical studies conducted in support of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) treatability study. These results will be used for support of hardware design and performance assessments of ISV processes. Four models are presented and analyzed using finite element techniques: (1) heat transport and melting during the ISV process, (2) heat transfer calculations on the Intermediate Field Test (IFT) off-gas confinement hood, (3) gas migration in permeable soil surrounding the vitrified zone, and (4) melt rate calculations. Heat transport in the ISV process describes the temperature field and melt growth in the soil. Thermal radiation heat transfer calculations for the IFT hood demonstrate the sensitivity of the hood temperatures to melt temperature, melt radius, and exterior hood emissivity. The study of gas migration in permeable soil resulting from a buried source predicts that gas may migrate to the soil surface. The one-dimensional melt rate calculations conservatively predict a melt rate of 6 cm/hr. 11 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: a consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-11-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions.

  16. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  17. Time resolved Thomson scattering diagnostic of pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn-Kauffeldt, M.; Marquès, J. L.; Schein, J.

    2014-11-01

    In this work a Thomson scattering diagnostic technique was applied to obtain time resolved electron temperature and density values during a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. The investigated GMAW process was run with aluminum wire (AlMg 4,5 Mn) with 1.2 mm diameter as a wire electrode, argon as a shielding gas and peak currents in the range of 400 A. Time resolved measurements could be achieved by triggering the laser pulse at shifted time positions with respect to the current pulse driving the process. Time evaluation of resulting electron temperatures and densities is used to investigate the state of the plasma in different phases of the current pulse and to determine the influence of the metal vapor and droplets on the plasma properties.

  18. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., < 50 m from potential on-site WHR applications) and minimal impact criteria on the performance and safety of existing installations, for potential waste heat recovery. The total amount of waste heat meeting these criteria were estimated at 256 MW and 289 MW at ASAB0 and ASAB1 plants, respectively, both of which are substantial. Of the 289 MW waste generated at ASAB1, approximately 173 MW are recovered by waste heat

  19. Investigation of gas-phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) was begun during World War 2 to produce enriched uranium for defense purposes. These plants, which utilized UF{sub 6} gas, were used primarily for this purpose through 1964. From 1959 through 1968, production shifted primarily to uranium enrichment to supply the nuclear power industry. Additional UF{sub 6}-handling facilities were built in feed and fuel-processing plants associated with the uranium enrichment process. Two of the five process buildings at Oak ridge were shut down in 1964. Uranium enrichment activities at Oak Ridge were discontinued altogether in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to proceed with a permanent shutdown of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). DOE intends to begin decommissioning and decontamination (D D) of ORGDP early in the next century. The remaining two GDPs are expected to be shut down during the next 10 to 40 years and will also require D D, as will the other UF{sub 6}-handling facilities. This paper presents an investigation of gas- phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping using powerful fluorinating reagents that convert nonvolatile uranium compounds to volatile UF{sub 6}. These reagents include ClF{sub 3}, F{sub 2}, and other compounds. The scope of D D at the GDPs, previous work of gas-phase decontamination, four concepts for using gas-phase decontamination, plans for further study of gas-phase decontamination, and the current status of this work are discussed. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Stochastic lattice gas model describing the dynamics of the SIRS epidemic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, David R.; Tomé, Tânia

    2010-03-01

    We study a stochastic process describing the onset of spreading dynamics of an epidemic in a population composed of individuals of three classes: susceptible (S), infected (I), and recovered (R). The stochastic process is defined by local rules and involves the following cyclic process: S → I → R → S (SIRS). The open process S → I → R (SIR) is studied as a particular case of the SIRS process. The epidemic process is analyzed at different levels of description: by a stochastic lattice gas model and by a birth and death process. By means of Monte Carlo simulations and dynamical mean-field approximations we show that the SIRS stochastic lattice gas model exhibit a line of critical points separating the two phases: an absorbing phase where the lattice is completely full of S individuals and an active phase where S, I and R individuals coexist, which may or may not present population cycles. The critical line, that corresponds to the onset of epidemic spreading, is shown to belong in the directed percolation universality class. By considering the birth and death process we analyze the role of noise in stabilizing the oscillations.

  1. Optimisation of the Fischer-Tropsch process using zeolites for tail gas separation.

    PubMed

    Perez-Carbajo, J; Gómez-Álvarez, P; Bueno-Perez, R; Merkling, P J; Calero, S

    2014-03-28

    This work is aimed at optimizing a Fischer-Tropsch Gas To Liquid (GTL) process by recycling compounds of the expelled gas mixture using zeolites for the separation. To that end, we have performed a computational study on four structures widely used in industry. A range of Si/Al ratios have been explored and the effects of their distribution assessed. The ability of the considered force fields and molecular models to reproduce experimental results has been widely proved in previously reported studies. Since this tail gas is formed by a five-component mixture, namely carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and hydrogen, molecular simulations present clear advantages over experiments. In addition, the viability of the Ideal Adsorption Solution Theory (IAST) has been evaluated to easily handle further separation steps. On the basis of the obtained results, we provide a separation scheme to perform sequentially the separation of CO2, CH4, CO, N2 and H2. PMID:24522290

  2. Effectiveness of preharvest applications of fungicides on preharvest bunch rot and postharvest sour rot of ‘Redglobe’ grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest sour rot of ‘Redglobe’ grapes, also called “non-Botrytis slip skin”, “breakdown disorder”, “soft tissue breakdown”, or “melting decay” has affected this cultivar worldwide. The disorder causes berries to discolor, split, lose internal structure, and decay from veraison to harvest (Camero...

  3. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: a review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard F.; Keremane, Manjunath L.

    2013-01-01

    Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the introduction of Toxoptera citricida (also known as the brown citrus aphid) in 1995 there was a greater concern for maintaining production of existing blocks of citrus on sour orange rootstock. Availability of the CTV genome sequence around the same time as well as molecular characterization of in planta CTV populations led to the selection of mild CTV isolates which when inoculated into existing field trees, extended the productive life of the groves and enabled a more graduate replanting of trees on CTV-tolerant rootstocks. The history of CTV in Florida and the methods developed to select mild isolates for use for mild strain cross protection will be reviewed. PMID:24046764

  4. Development and evaluation of a genome-wide 6K SNP array for diploid sweet cherry and tetraploid sour cherry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a commun...

  5. Increased infestation of Asian citrus psyllids on cold treated sour orange seedlings: Its possible relation to biochemical changes in leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold-stressed sour orange seedling (Citrus aurantium L.) attracted significantly more Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) during 5h and 24h recovery periods compared to control plants in choice test experiment. Cold stressed plants were held/ placed at 6 ± 1°C for 6 days and then ...

  6. Flow chemistry: intelligent processing of gas-liquid transformations using a tube-in-tube reactor.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, Martin; O'Brien, Matthew; Ley, Steven V; Polyzos, Anastasios

    2015-02-17

    reactive gas in a given reaction mixture. We have developed a tube-in-tube reactor device consisting of a pair of concentric capillaries in which pressurized gas permeates through an inner Teflon AF-2400 tube and reacts with dissolved substrate within a liquid phase that flows within a second gas impermeable tube. This Account examines our efforts toward the development of a simple, unified methodology for the processing of gaseous reagents in flow by way of development of a tube-in-tube reactor device and applications to key C-C, C-N, and C-O bond forming and hydrogenation reactions. We further describe the application to multistep reactions using solid-supported reagents and extend the technology to processes utilizing multiple gas reagents. A key feature of our work is the development of computer-aided imaging techniques to allow automated in-line monitoring of gas concentration and stoichiometry in real time. We anticipate that this Account will illustrate the convenience and benefits of membrane tube-in-tube reactor technology to improve and concomitantly broaden the scope of gas/liquid/solid reactions in organic synthesis. PMID:25611216

  7. Sour Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetzel, Joan

    1999-01-01

    Presents four activities that involve chemical reactions with vinegar, lemon juice, or orange juice. These activities can be used to teach about acid-base reactions and acids as chemical catalysts. (WRM)

  8. Sour Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Fight songs such as "The Victors" and "Notre Dame Victory March" have become part of the American music lexicon. Along with their sister songs, alma maters, they stir memories of carefree college days, elicit feelings of pride, and sometimes--especially fight songs--poke fun at athletic foes. They are the embodiment of tradition at U.S. colleges…

  9. Optimization and analysis of mixed refrigerant composition for the PRICO natural gas liquefaction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiongwen; Liu, Jinping; Cao, Le

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the energy optimization of the PRICO natural gas liquefaction (LNG) process was performed with the genetic algorithm (GA) and the process simulation software Aspen Plus. Then the characteristics of the heat transfer composite curves of the cold box were obtained and analyzed. Based on it, the heat exchange process in the cold box was divided into three regions. At last, in order to find the relationship between the energy consumption and the composition of the mixed refrigerant, the effects of the refrigerant flow composition on the temperature difference and the pinch point location were deeply investigated, which would be useful to guide the refrigerant charging.

  10. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  11. A membrane process to recover chlorine from chloralkali plant tail gas

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhandwala, K.A.; Segelke, S.; Nguyen, P.; Baker, R.W.; Su, T.T.; Pinnau, I.

    1999-10-01

    Chlorine is manufactured by the electrolysis of brine. The chlorine product is a gas, which is collected, dried, compressed, and cooled to produce a liquid. This paper describes the development and field demonstration of a membrane process to recover chlorine from the liquefaction tail gas of chloralkali plants. The tail gas consists of about 20% chlorine and 50--70% air, with the balance being hydrogen and carbon dioxide. A number of membrane materials can achieve a selectivity of 20 or more for chlorine from nitrogen, but degradation of the membrane materials in the presence of high concentrations of chlorine gas often occurs. However, modified silicone rubber membranes are stable to chlorine gas streams. Silicone rubber composite membranes were prepared and formed into modules of 1--2 m{sup 2} membrane area. The modules were tested in the laboratory and in a field test on a slip stream from a chlorine liquefaction unit. In the laboratory, chlorine/nitrogen membrane selectivities of more than 40 were obtained, but selectivities of 6--10 were measured in the field test. This decrease in selectivity was caused by low gas flow rates through the modules, which resulted in concentration polarization effects. However, the membrane maintained essentially constant fluxes and selectivities in field tests lasting more than 1 month. Calculated plant designs based on a selectivity of 8 are able to recover more than 95% of the chlorine in the tail gas. Typical project payback times based on the value of the recovered chlorine and avoided caustic scrubber chemical use are expected to be 1--2 years.

  12. Industrial fuel gas demonstration plant program. License agreements for proprietary processes. (Deliverable No. 30)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The proprietary processes included within the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant are listed. Draft license agreements covering the use of these processes, with the exception of the Westfield Process (Conoco), have been included at the end of this document. Except for the Claus Process (Amoco) all draft license agreements will be executed directly between MLGW and the licensor. All the draft license agreements provided have been prepared by the licensors after preliminary discussions. Presently these agreements are being reviewed by MLGW for acceptability. As stated above, the Amoco Sulfur Recovery Process will be covered by an existing agreement between Standard Oil and FWEC. Suitable clauses have been provided under Tab V. These clauses will be incorporated into the MLGW/FWEC subcontract for the protection of MLGW, FWEC, and licensor. At this writing the Industrial Team has no secrecy agreement executed with Conoco Methanation Company (Westfield Methanation Process) nor has any draft license agreement been transmitted by Conoco.

  13. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term (< 6 months) and long-term (> 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation.

  14. Gas processing developments/purify CO/sub 2/ for use in enhanced recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    The total installed capital cost of a Selexol plant to produce 10.9 million cu ft/day of acid gas with 91-96% CO/sub 2/ and 1.3 million cu ft/day of treated gas with < 2% CO/sub 2/ from 12.2 million std cu ft/day of natural gas containing 70-85% CO/sub 2/ would be $8.5 million, which could be reduced by approx. 10% if the CO/sub 2/ content of the treated gas were increased to approx. 3-5% by vol. An alternative scheme, which would cost < 67% of the Selexol scheme, would involve compression of the raw feed to 300-600 psig, dehydration with a solvent such as triethylene glycol, and cooling to a temperature at which most of the carbon dioxide and heavier hydrocarbons would condense. The removal of water from the CO/sub 2/ to prevent plugging due to freezing or hydrate formation and to reduce pipeline and equipment corrosion may be achieved by processes that use triethylene glycol or ethylene glycol injection. Other recovery schemes for CO/sub 2/ from natural gas and from ammonia and hydrogen plants, are discussed.

  15. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-22

    While developing dry sorbent duct injection flue gas desulfurization processes may offer significant improvement in capital cost and process simplicity compared to wet scrubbing systems, the economics of this technology can be improved significantly by an improvement in sorbent utilization. While a general understanding of the mechanism by which the sorbents operate is known, a much more detailed knowledge of reaction rate-controlling phenomena, the role of inherent reactivity, and mass transfer effects and their interaction in needed. Objectives of this project are threefold: 1. Mass transfer investigation--determine the controlling physical and chemical processes that limit sorbent utilization. In particular, determine whether mass transfer is a controlling factor in in-duct flue gas desulfurization and establish the relative contributions of gas- and liquid-phase mass transfer and inherent sorbent reactivity. 2. Field test support--evaluate various sorbents, operating conditions and process schemes to support large-scale field testings at Meredosia and Beverly. 3. Mass transfer enhancement--examine various techniques that will enable sorbent utilization rates of at least 75 percent to be achieved. Sorbents investigated were Ca(OH){sub 2}, Mississippi hydrate and Mississippi slaked lime. Epsom Salt was investigated as an additive. Agglomeration of Ca(OH){sub 2} solids was also investigated. 3 refs., 92 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. Flue gas cleanup using the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2013-10-01

    The use of copper oxide on a support had been envisioned as a gas cleanup technique to remove sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation. In general, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup techniques that use a sorbent can have various advantages, such as simultaneous removal of pollutants, production of a salable by-product, and low costs when compared to commercially available wet scrubbing technology. Due to the temperature of reaction, the placement of the process into an advanced power system could actually increase the thermal efficiency of the plant. The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is capable of simultaneously removing sulfur oxides and nitric oxides within the reactor system. In this regenerable sorbent technique, the use of the copper oxide sorbent was originally in a fluidized bed, but the more recent effort developed the use of the sorbent in a moving-bed reactor design. A pilot facility or life-cycle test system was constructed so that an integrated testing of the sorbent over absorption/regeneration cycles could be conducted. A parametric study of the total process was then performed where all process steps, including absorption and regeneration, were continuously operated and experimentally evaluated. The parametric effects, including absorption temperature, sorbent and gas residence times, inlet SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} concentration, and flyash loadings, on removal efficiencies and overall operational performance were determined. Although some of the research results have not been previously published because of previous collaborative restrictions, a summary of these past findings is presented in this communication. Additionally, the potential use of the process for criteria pollutant removal in oxy-firing of fossil fuel for carbon sequestration purposes is discussed.

  17. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Hewett; Franklin M. Orr Jr.

    2000-12-31

    Gas injection in oil reservoirs offers huge potential for improved oil recovery. However, successful design of a gas injection process requires a detailed understanding of a variety of different significant processes, including the phase behavior of multicomponent mixtures and the approach to multi-contact miscibility in the reservoir, the flow of oil, water and gas underground, and the interaction of phase behavior reservoir heterogeneity and gravity on overall performance at the field scale. This project attempts to tackle all these issues using a combination of theoretical, numerical and laboratory studies of gas injection. The aim of this work is to develop a set of ultra-fast compositional simulation tools that can be used to make field-scale predictions of the performance of gas injection processes. To achieve the necessary accuracy, these tools must satisfy the fundamental physics and chemistry of the displacement from the pore to the reservoir scales. Thus this project focuses on four main research areas: (1) determination of the most appropriate methods of mapping multicomponent solutions to streamlines and streamtubes in 3D; (2) development of techniques for automatic generation of analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow along a streamline; (3) experimental investigations to improve the representation of physical mechanisms that govern displacement efficiency along a streamline; and (4) Theoretical and experimental investigations to establish the limitations of the streamline/streamtube approach. In this report they briefly review the status of the research effort in each area. They then give a more in depth discussion of the development of a CT scanning technique which can measure compositions in a two-phase, three-component system in-situ.

  18. Processing of mixed-waste compressed-gas cylinders on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1998-01-01

    To comply with restrictions on the storage of old compressed gas cylinders, the environmental management organization of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems must dispose of several thousand kilograms of compressed gases stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) because the cylinders cannot be taken off-site for disposal in their current configuration. In the ORR Site Treatment Plan, a milestone is cited that requires repackaging and shipment off-site of 21 cylinders by September 30, 1997. A project was undertaken to first evaluate and then either recontainerize or neutralize these cylinders using a transportable compressed gas recontainerization skid (TCGRS), which was developed by Integrated Environmental Services of Atlanta. The transportable system can: (1) sample, analyze, and identify at the site the chemical and radiological content of each cylinder, even those with inoperable valves; (2) breach cylinders, when necessary, to release their contents into a containment chamber; and (3) either neutralize the gas or liquid contents within the containment chamber or transfer the gas or liquids to a new cylinder. The old cylinders and cylinder fragments were disposed of and the gases neutralized or transferred to new cylinders for transportation off-site for disposal. The entire operation to process the 21 cylinders took place in only 5 days once the system was approved for operation. The system performed as expected and can now be used to process the potentially thousands of more cylinders located across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex that have not yet been declared surplus.

  19. Radical scavenging activities of Rio Red grapefruits and Sour orange fruit extracts in different in vitro model systems.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Girennavar, Basavaraj; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2008-07-01

    Antioxidant fractions from two different citrus species such as Rio Red (Citrus paradise Macf.) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) were extracted with five different polar solvents using Soxhlet type extractor. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Ethyl acetate extract of Rio Red and Sour orange was found to contain maximum phenolics. The dried fractions were screened for their antioxidant activity potential using in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdenum method and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction at different concentrations. The methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Rio Red showed the highest radical scavenging activity 42.5%, 77.8% and 92.1% at 250, 500 and 1000 ppm, respectively, while methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Sour orange showed the lowest radical scavenging activity at all the tested concentrations. All citrus fractions showed good antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex at 200 ppm. In addition, superoxide radical scavenging activity was assayed using non-enzymatic (NADH/phenaxine methosulfate) superoxide generating system. All the extracts showed variable superoxide radical scavenging activity. Moreover, methanol:water (80:20) extract of Rio Red and methanol extract of Sour orange exhibited marked reducing power in potassium ferricyanide reduction method. The data obtained using above in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potential of citrus fruit extracts. However, comprehensive studies need to be conducted to ascertain the in vivo bioavailability, safety and efficacy of such extracts in experimental animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antioxidant activity of different polar extracts from Rio Red and Sour oranges. PMID:17935981

  20. Use of Sulphur and Boron Isotopes to Identify Natural Gas Processing Emissions Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, C. E.; Norman, A.; Wieser, M. E.

    2003-12-01

    Natural gas processing results in the emission of large amounts of gaseous pollutants as a result of planned and / or emergency flaring, sulphur incineration, and in the course of normal operation. Since many gas plants often contribute to the same air shed, it is not possible to conclusively determine the sources, amounts, and characteristics of pollution from a particular processing facility using traditional methods. However, sulphur isotopes have proven useful in the apportionment of sources of atmospheric sulphate (Norman et al., 1999), and boron isotopes have been shown to be of use in tracing coal contamination through groundwater (Davidson and Bassett, 1993). In this study, both sulphur and boron isotopes have been measured at source, receptor, and control sites, and, if emissions prove to be sufficiently distinct isotopically, they will be used to identify and apportion emissions downwind. Sulphur is present in natural gas as hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which is combusted to sulphur dioxide (SO2) prior to its release to the atmosphere, while boron is present both in hydrocarbon deposits as well as in any water used in the process. Little is known about the isotopic abundance variations of boron in hydrocarbon reservoirs, but Krouse (1991) has shown that the sulphur isotope composition of H2S in reservoirs varies according to both the concentration and the method of formation of H2S. As a result, gas plants processing gas from different reservoirs are expected to produce emissions with unique isotopic compositions. Samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler placed directly downwind of several gas plants, as well as at a receptor site and a control site. Aerosol sulphate and boron were collected on quartz fibre filters, while SO2 was collected on potassium hydroxide-impregnated cellulose filters. Solid sulphur samples were taken from those plants that process sulphur in order to compare the isotopic composition with atmospheric measurements. A

  1. Comparison of microbial communities involved in souring and corrosion in offshore and onshore oil production facilities in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Chuma; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Lumactud, Rhea; An, Dongshan; Park, Hyung Soo; Voordouw, Johanna; Lomans, Bart P; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-04-01

    Samples were obtained from the Obigbo field, located onshore in the Niger delta, Nigeria, from which oil is produced by injection of low-sulfate groundwater, as well as from the offshore Bonga field from which oil is produced by injection of high-sulfate (2,200 ppm) seawater, amended with 45 ppm of calcium nitrate to limit reservoir souring. Despite low concentrations of sulfate (0-7 ppm) and nitrate (0 ppm), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) were present in samples from the Obigbo field. Biologically active deposits (BADs), scraped from corrosion-failed sections of a water- and of an oil-transporting pipeline (both Obigbo), had high counts of SRB and high sulfate and ferrous iron concentrations. Analysis of microbial community composition by pyrosequencing indicated anaerobic, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation to be a dominant process in all samples from the Obigbo field, including the BADs. Samples from the Bonga field also had significant activity of SRB, as well as of heterotrophic and of sulfide-oxidizing NRB. Microbial community analysis indicated high proportions of potentially thermophilic NRB and near-absence of microbes active in methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation. Anaerobic incubation of Bonga samples with steel coupons gave moderate general corrosion rates of 0.045-0.049 mm/year, whereas near-zero general corrosion rates (0.001-0.002 mm/year) were observed with Obigbo water samples. Hence, methanogens may contribute to corrosion at Obigbo, but the low general corrosion rates cannot explain the reasons for pipeline failures in the Niger delta. A focus of future work should be on understanding the role of BADs in enhancing under-deposit pitting corrosion. PMID:24477567

  2. Ni-base superalloy powder-processed porous layer for gas cooling in extreme environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    White, Emma M. H.; Heidloff, Andrew J.; Byrd, David J.; Anderson, Ross D.; Anderson, Iver E.

    2016-05-26

    Extreme high temperature conditions demand novel solutions for hot gas filters and coolant access architectures, i.e., porous layers on exposed components. These high temperatures, for example in current turbine engines, are at or exceeding current material limits for high temperature oxidation/corrosion, creep resistance, and, even, melting temperature. Thus novel blade designs allowing greater heat removal are required to maintain airfoil temperatures below melting and/ or rapid creep deformation limits. Gas atomized Ni-base superalloy powders were partially sintered into porous layers to allow full-surface, transpirational cooling of the surface of airfoils. Furthermore, these powder-processed porous layers were fully characterized for surface,more » morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, and mechanical strength characteristics. A sintering model based on pure Ni surface diffusion correlated well with the experimental results and allowed reasonable control over the partial sintering process to obtain a specified level of porosity within the porous layer.« less

  3. Design and Evaluation of a Lactobacillus manihotivorans Species-Specific rRNA-Targeted Hybridization Probe and Its Application to the Study of Sour Cassava Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ampe, Frédéric

    2000-01-01

    Based on 16S rRNA sequence comparison, we have designed a 20-mer oligonucleotide that targets a region specific to the species Lactobacillus manihotivorans recently isolated from sour cassava fermentation. The probe recognized the rRNA obtained from all the L. manihotivorans strains tested but did not recognize 56 strains of microorganisms from culture collections or directly isolated from sour cassava, including 29 species of lactic acid bacteria. This probe was then successfully used in quantitative RNA blots and demonstrated the importance of L. manihotivorans in the fermentation of sour cassava starch, which could represent up to 20% of total lactic acid bacteria. PMID:10788405

  4. Conversion of natural gas into heavier hydrocarbons: A process scheme evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez L., C.A.

    1999-07-01

    The high cost of transportation of natural gas, which is an abundant source of energy but often found in remote locations, leads to the idea of converting it into heavier and more valuable products. Oxidative coupling of methane is one of the processes considered for the utilization of natural gas. An evaluation of the economic potential of this process, in combination with ethane dehydrogenation, oligomerization and separations is performed. Conceptual design and process simulation are used, along with cost estimation and profitability analysis, to identify process limitations and areas for research and development. Three scenarios are considered: production of ethylene, production of higher olefins and production of gasoline in a remote location. The evaluation indicates that the current level of the oxidative coupling reaction technology is not sufficient for the production of ethylene. Projects of higher value than that of ethylene, such as linear alpha olefins are required to make the process attractive, considering the conversion and selectivity values obtained at experimental scale. One of the major constraints found in the process is the high cost of separation of the unreacted methane from the ethylene and other products, due to the high recycle rates imposed by the low conversion achieved. Reactor design, along with catalyst development, is identified as research area in order to achieve improved conversion and effective separation of the ethylene as it is produced in the oxidative coupling reactor. Special attention has to be given to the development of heterogeneous catalysts for the oligomerization reactions.

  5. Prediction of the Period of Swirl Motion Appearing in Gas Injection Processes at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Akira; Tsujino, Ryoji; Sasaki, Yasushi; Nishihara, Kazuyoshi; Iguchi, Manabu

    A swirl motion induced by gas injection through a bottom nozzle has high mixing ability and useful for the mixing of a molten steel bath in the refining processes. As one of the fundamental characteristics of the swirl motion, the period is mentioned in this study. A semi-empirical equation is proposed for the period of swirl motion by referring to the rotary sloshing appearing in a cylindrical vessel oscillated in the vertical or the horizontal direction.

  6. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-06-30

    This report outlines progress in the third 3 quarter of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' A simple theoretical formulation of vertical flow with capillary/gravity equilibrium is described. Also reported are results of experimental measurements for the same systems. The results reported indicate that displacement behavior is strongly affected by the interfacial tension of phases that form on the tie line that extends through the initial oil composition.

  7. Histological analysis of pollen-pistil interactions in sour passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    PubMed

    Madureira, Hérika Chagas; Pereira, Telma Nair Santana; Da Cunha, Maura; Klein, Denise Espellet

    2012-08-01

    The success of sexual plant reproduction is directly influenced by specific interactions between the pollen and pistil. Light, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to evaluate the steps of pollination in sour passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims). In the compatible interaction, pollen tubes grow through stigma projections towards the ovary. The pollen grain surface was found to be spheroidal and to consist of heteroreticulate exine with six colpi. Furthermore, analysis in vivo of pollen-pistil interactions indicated that stigmas of flowers 24 hours before anthesis are unable to discriminate compatible (genetically unrelated) and incompatible (genetically related) pollen grains. Taken together, these results provide insight into the cellular mechanisms underlying pollination in passion fruit plants. PMID:23185783

  8. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. PMID:24629952

  9. Critical stress for stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steel in sour environments

    SciTech Connect

    Miyasaka, A.; Kanamaru, T.; Ogawa, H.

    1996-08-01

    The critical stress for initiation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of a duplex stainless steel (DSS) in a sour environment was investigated using three stress application techniques: constant-strain, constant-load, and slow strain rate testing (SSRT). The critical stresses for SCC initiation as determined by detailed observation of the alloy surface after the three tests were in good agreement when a newly proposed index was adopted to express the SSRT results combined with crack observations for each test. The effect of cold work (CW) on SCC and pitting resistance of the DSS also was studied. CW did not accelerate SCC when initiation was controlled by pitting. The critical stress for SCC initiation increased with increasing CW and the resultant increase in yield stress.

  10. Acid-sensing ion channel-2 is not necessary for sour taste in mice.

    PubMed

    Richter, Trevor A; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady A; Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2004-04-21

    The acid-sensitive cation channel acid-sensing ion channel-2 (ASIC2) is widely believed to be a receptor for acid (sour) taste in mammals on the basis of its physiological properties and expression in rat taste bud cells. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we detected expression of ASIC1 and ASIC3, but not ASIC4, in mouse and rat taste buds and nonsensory lingual epithelium. Surprisingly, we did not detect mRNA for ASIC2 in mouse taste buds, although we readily observed its expression in rat taste buds. Furthermore, in Ca2+ imaging experiments, ASIC2 knock-out mice exhibited normal physiological responses (increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations) to acid taste stimuli. Our results indicate that ASIC2 is not required for acid taste in mice, and that if a universal mammalian acid taste transduction mechanism exists, it likely uses other acid-sensitive receptors or ion channels. PMID:15102924

  11. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly report No. 10, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the work performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) during the tenth program quarter from October 1 to December 31, 1995. The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this quarter, progress in the following areas has been made: Short duration activity test on catalyst IGT-MS-103 showed no deactivation over a 6 hour period and preliminary data of CS{sub 2} reaction with H{sub 2} at 400 {minus} 410{degree}C and at atmospheric pressure indicates that IGT-HS-103 is an active catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis from CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}.

  12. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  13. Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee O. Nelson

    2011-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540°C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625–925°C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

  14. Thermodynamic model of the expansion process in a cooled gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romakhova, G. A.

    2015-02-01

    A method for calculating the expansion process in a gas turbine with open cooling, which is represented as a thermodynamic system with a variable mass consisting of two subsystems (a gas subsystem with a constant mass and a coolant subsystem with a variable mass) is proposed. An analytical solution of the system of equations describing the expansion process is presented. The accuracy and validity of the obtained results are demonstrated. This method allows one to analytically calculate the expansion process parameters (including the losses caused by cooling). The results of calculation of these losses for various values of the cooling system efficiency and the gas temperature at the turbine inlet are given. The exergy analysis of losses in a setup with a cooled turbine is performed. It is demonstrated that the cooling losses may amount to 5% (or more) of the fuel energy and may not be compensated by the waste-heat loop efficiency in a combined-cycle unit. The obtained results are compared with the published data on the GTE-65 unit produced by Silovye Mashiny.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  16. Toxicity Evaluation of Microemulsion (Nano Size) of Sour Cherry Kernel Extract for the Oral Bioavailability Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Anayatollah; Motaharitabar, Eisa; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Rezaie, Annahita; Kalantari, Heibatullah

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the recent years nanostructured materials have been the focus of researches due to their wide-spread possibilities to provide new shapes and structures for some materials. Microemulsions can provide uniform nano-sized droplets for templating. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically-stable systems of oil, water and surfactant with a 20-200 nm droplet size. They can be prepared as oil-in-water (o/w), water-in-oil (w/o) or bicontinuous systems, depending on the equilibrium spontaneous curvature of the surfactant layer at the oil-water interface. Objectives: The aim of this study was to introduce a system designed to improve and enhance the bioavailability of bioflavonoids in the Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed kernel extract by developing a novel delivery system, i.e. microemulsion (nanosized particles). Materials and Methods: Microemulsion formulations were prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 20), cosurfactant (propylene glycol) (3:1 ratio), and oil phase (olive oil). The prepared microemulsions were evaluated regarding their mean droplet size, transparency, viscosity, and pH. Sour cherry kernel extract microemulsion was orally administered to mice at doses of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% for 10 days. On the last day, their blood as well as their liver and kidney were used for biochemical and histopathological analyses, respectively. Results: Biochemical factors levels and the pathological study indicated that there were not significant differences in microemulsion extracts compared with the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Not only no toxicity evidence of this product was observed in the dose range used in foods or healthcare, but also it improved the cardiac function recovery. PMID:24644434

  17. Process for the manufacture of an attrition resistant sorbent used for gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Venkataramani, Venkat S.; Ayala, Raul E.

    2003-09-16

    This process produces a sorbent for use in desulfurization of coal gas. A zinc titanate compound and a metal oxide are mixed by milling the compounds in an aqueous medium, the resulting mixture is dried and then calcined, crushed, sleved and formed into pellets for use in a moving-bed reactor. Metal oxides suitable for use as an additive in this process include: magnesium oxide, magnesium oxide plus molybdenum oxide, calcium oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, cupric oxide, and tin oxide. The resulting sorbent has a percentage of the original zinc or titanium ions substituted for the oxide metal of the chosen additive.

  18. Improvement of the control of a gas metal arc welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gött, Gregor; Schöpp, Heinz; Hofmann, Frank; Heinz, Gerd

    2010-02-01

    Up to now, the use of the electrical characteristics for process control is state of the art in gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The aim of the work is the improvement of GMAW processes by using additional information from the arc. Therefore, the emitted light of the arc is analysed spectroscopically and compared with high-speed camera images. With this information, a conclusion about the plasma arc and the droplet formation is reasonable. With the correlation of the spectral and local information of the plasma, a specific control of the power supply can be applied. A corresponding spectral control unit (SCU) is introduced.

  19. Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Terza, R.R. ); Sardesai, U.V. )

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

  20. Aerosol and Trace Gas Processing by Clouds During the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Berg, L.; Berkowitz, C.; Alexander, L.; Lee, Y.; Ogren, J.; Andrews, B.

    2008-12-01

    Clouds play an active role in the processing and cycling of atmospheric constituents. Gases and particles can partition to cloud droplets by absorption and condensation as well as activation and pact scavenging. The Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) aimed at characterizing freshly emitted aerosols above, within and below fields of cumulus humilis (or fair-weather cumulus) in the vicinity of Oklahoma City. The experiment took place in June 2007. Evolution of aerosol and cloud properties downwind of the Oklahoma City is of particular interest in this project. These observations of a mid-size and mid-latitude city can be used in the development and evaluation of regional-scale and global climate model cumulus parameterizations that describes the transport and transformations of these aerosols by fair-weather cumulus. The Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft was one of the main platforms used in CHAPS. It carried a suite of instruments to measure properties of interstitial aerosols behind an isokinetic inlet and a set of duplicate instruments to determine properties of activated particles behind a counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI). The sampling line to the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer was switched between the isokinetic inlet and the CVI to allow characterization of interstitial particles out of clouds in contrast to particles activated in clouds. Trace gases including ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured as were key meteorological state parameters including liquid water content, cloud drop size, and dew point temperature were measured. This presentation will focus on results related to the transformation and transport of aerosols and trace gases observed in fair-weather cumulus and compare these results with concurrent observations made outside these clouds. Our interest will focus on the differences in particle size and composition under varying conditions. The role of