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Sample records for source ho ni

  1. Magnetic ordering of YPd2Si-type HoNi2Si and ErNi2Si compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Isnard, O.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic properties of YPd2Si-type HoNi2Si and ErNi2Si were investigated via neutron diffraction and magnetisation measurements. HoNi2Si and ErNi2Si show ferromagnetic-like ordering at TC of 9 K and 7 K, respectively. The paramagnetic Weiss temperatures are 9 K and 11 K and the effective magnetic moments are 10.76 μB/fu and 9.79 μB/fu for HoNi2Si and ErNi2Si compounds, respectively. The HoNi2Si and ErNi2Si are soft ferromagnets with saturation magnetization of 8.1 μB/fu and 7.5 μB/fu, respectively at 2 K and in field of 140 kOe. The isothermal magnetic entropy change, ΔSm, has a maximum value of -15.6 J/kg·K at 10 K for HoNi2Si and -13.9 J/kg·K at 6 K for ErNi2Si for a field change of 50 kOe. Neutron diffraction study in zero applied field shows mixed ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic ordering of HoNi2Si at 9 K and its magnetic structure is a sum of a-axis ferromagnetic Fa, b-axis antiferromagnetic AFb and c-axis antiferrromagnetic AFc components of Pn‧a21‧={1, mx‧/[1/2, 1/2, 1/2], 2y‧/[0, 1/2, 0], mz/[1/2, 0, 1/2]} magnetic space group and propagation vector K0=[0, 0, 0]. The holmium magnetic moment reaches a value of 9.23(9) μB at 1.5 K and the unit cell of HoNi2Si undergoes isotropic contraction around the temperature of magnetic transition.

  2. Magnetic properties of a new intermetallic compound Ho2Ni2Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Sandoval, E.; Chinchure, A. D.; Hendrikx, R. W. A.; Mydosh, J. A.

    2001-10-01

    Single-phase, textured samples of a new orthorhombic intermetallic compound Ho2Ni2Pb have been fabricated (space group Cmmm). Here the bulk magnetic properties are presented as determined via magnetization, susceptibility, heat capacity and resistivity measurements. The results exhibit two distinct magnetic transitions and large metamagnetic effects. Such behaviour is related to the unusual rare-earth symmetry of the highly anisotropic crystal structure.

  3. Large reversible magnetocaloric effect induced by metamagnetic transition in antiferromagnetic HoNiGa compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Xu; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Mei-Ling; Tao, Kun; Li, Ya-Wei; Yan, Tim; Long, Ke-Wen; Long, Teng; Pang, Zheng; Long, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects (MCE) of HoNiGa compound are investigated systematically. The HoNiGa exhibits a weak antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state below the Ńeel temperature TN of 10 K, and the AFM ordering could be converted into ferromagnetic (FM) ordering by external magnetic field. Moreover, the field-induced FM phase exhibits a high saturation magnetic moment and a large change of magnetization around the transition temperature, which then result in a large MCE. A large -ΔSM of 22.0 J/kg K and a high RC value of 279 J/kg without magnetic hysteresis are obtained for a magnetic field change of 5 T, which are comparable to or even larger than those of some other magnetic refrigerant materials in the same temperature range. Besides, the μ0H2/3 dependence of well follows the linear fitting according to the mean-field approximation, suggesting the nature of second-order FM-PM magnetic transition under high magnetic fields. The large reversible MCE induced by metamagnetic transition suggests that HoNiGa compound could be a promising material for magnetic refrigeration in low temperature range. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51671022 and 51427806), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 2162022), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. FRF-TP-15-002A3).

  4. Family of defect-dicubane Ni4Ln2 (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and Ni4Y2 complexes: rare Tb(III) and Ho(III) examples showing SMM behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lang; Wu, Jianfeng; Ke, Hongshan; Tang, Jinkui

    2014-04-07

    Reactions of Ln(III) perchlorate (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho), NiCl2·6H2O, and a polydentate Schiff base resulted in the assembly of novel isostructural hexanuclear Ni4Ln2 complexes [Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4)] with an unprecedented 3d-4f metal topology consisting of two defect-dicubane units. The corresponding Ni4Y2 (5) complex containing diamagnetic Y(III) atoms was also isolated to assist the magnetic studies. Interestingly, complexes 2 and 3 exhibit SMM characteristics and 4 shows slow relaxation of the magnetization. The absence of frequency-dependent in-phase and out-of-phase signals for the Ni-Y species suggests that the Ln ions' contribution to the slow relaxation must be effectual as previously observed in other Ni-Dy samples. However, the observation of χ″ signals with zero dc field for the Ni-Tb and Ni-Ho derivatives is notable. Indeed, this is the first time that such a behavior is observed in the Ni-Tb and Ni-Ho complexes.

  5. Enhanced ferromagnetic properties in Ho and Ni co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. S.; Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, J. S.; Lee, Y. P.; Kang, J.-H.; Lee, B. W.

    2014-01-07

    The magnetic properties of polycrystalline Bi{sub 1-x}Ho{sub x}Fe{sub 1-y}Ni{sub y}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.1; y = 0, 0.03), which were prepared by the solid-state method, have been investigated. The powder X-ray diffraction reveals that all the samples are polycrystalline and show rhombohedral perovskite structure. The micro-Raman scattering studies confirm that Bi{sub 0.9}Ho{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.97}Ni{sub 0.03}O{sub 3} has a compressive lattice distortion induced by the simultaneous substitution of Ho and Ni ions at A and B-sites, respectively. From the magnetization dependences at room temperature, Bi{sub 0.9}Ho{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.97}Ni{sub 0.03}O{sub 3} has enhanced magnetization (0.2280 emu/g) and low coercive field (280 Oe). It was revealed that the Ni dopant plays an important role for the improved ferromagnetic properties and the Ho dopant favors the magnetic exchange interactions in the co-doped ceramic.

  6. Vortex imaging of magnetic superconductor HoNi 2B 2C by scanning SQUID microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Y.; Suzuki, J.; Kakeya, I.; Kadowaki, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nagata, A.; Odawara, A.; Chinone, K.

    2002-10-01

    We have observed vortex trapped images in the ab-plane of a HoNi 2B 2C single crystal in a magnetic field of 1.2 μT at 4 K using a scanning SQUID microscope. The vortex observed has a fine structure consisting of two regions with opposite signs of the magnetic field which is quantized with multiple flux quanta as a whole. The spatial size of the magnetic field distribution extends over 10 μm. Such giant vortices are also observed at TN< T< TC and disappear above TC where TN is the magnetic transition temperature and TC is the superconducting transition temperature.

  7. Disordered ferromagnetism in Ho2NiMnO6 double perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tirthankar; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Nhalil, Hariharan; Kumar, K. Ramesh; Strydom, André M.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic and dielectric properties of the double perovskite Ho2NiMnO6 are reported. The compound is synthesized by nitrate route and is found to crystallize in monoclinic P21/n space group. Lattice parameters obtained by refining powder x-ray diffraction data are; a  =  5.218(2) Å, b  =  5.543(2) Å, c  =  7.480(3) Å and the monoclinic angle is β ={{90.18}\\circ} (4). A phase transition is observed at {{T}\\text{C}}=86 K in the temperature-dependent magnetization curve, M(T). The inverse magnetic susceptibility, (1/χ (T) ) fits reasonably well with modified Curie-Weiss law by incorporating the paramagnetic response of Ho3+. 1/χ (T) manifests as an upward deviation from ideal Curie-Weiss behaviour well above the ferromagnetic transition. Signs of inherent Griffiths phase pertaining to the Ni/Mn subsystem are visible when one subtracts the Ho3+ paramagnetic contribution from total susceptibility and does the power-law analysis. The magnetic hysteresis at 2 K gives the maximum value of magnetization {{M}\\text{max}}≈ 15 {μ\\text{B}} /f.u. at 50 kOe. Field-derivative of magnetization at 2 K shows discontinuities which indicates the existence of metamagnetic transitions in this compound. This needs to be probed further. Out of the two dielectric relaxations observed, the one at low temperature may be attributed to phononic frequencies and that at higher temperature may be due to Maxwell-Wagner relaxation. A correlation between magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom is plausible since the anomaly in dielectric constant coincides with T C.

  8. Disordered ferromagnetism in Ho2NiMnO6 double perovskite.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tirthankar; Nair, Harikrishnan S; Nhalil, Hariharan; Ramesh Kumar, K; Strydom, André M; Elizabeth, Suja

    2017-01-18

    Magnetic and dielectric properties of the double perovskite Ho2NiMnO6 are reported. The compound is synthesized by nitrate route and is found to crystallize in monoclinic P21/n space group. Lattice parameters obtained by refining powder x-ray diffraction data are; a  =  5.218(2) Å, b  =  5.543(2) Å, c  =  7.480(3) Å and the monoclinic angle is [Formula: see text](4). A phase transition is observed at [Formula: see text] K in the temperature-dependent magnetization curve, M(T). The inverse magnetic susceptibility, (1/[Formula: see text]) fits reasonably well with modified Curie-Weiss law by incorporating the paramagnetic response of Ho(3+). 1/[Formula: see text] manifests as an upward deviation from ideal Curie-Weiss behaviour well above the ferromagnetic transition. Signs of inherent Griffiths phase pertaining to the Ni/Mn subsystem are visible when one subtracts the Ho(3+) paramagnetic contribution from total susceptibility and does the power-law analysis. The magnetic hysteresis at 2 K gives the maximum value of magnetization [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]/f.u. at 50 kOe. Field-derivative of magnetization at 2 K shows discontinuities which indicates the existence of metamagnetic transitions in this compound. This needs to be probed further. Out of the two dielectric relaxations observed, the one at low temperature may be attributed to phononic frequencies and that at higher temperature may be due to Maxwell-Wagner relaxation. A correlation between magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom is plausible since the anomaly in dielectric constant coincides with T C.

  9. Vortex Imaging of REB2Ni2C (RE=Ho,Er) Using Scanning SQUID Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Kakeya, Itsuhiro; Kadowaki, Kazuo; Nakayama, Satoshi; Nagata, Atsushi; Chinone, Kazuo

    2001-03-01

    Scanning SQUID microscopy studies have been carried out on the [001] surface of a REB_2Ni_2C (RE = Ho, Er) single crystal at 2.8 K in weak magnetic field. This SQUID microscopy enables us to observe high resolution image of individual vortices at low temperature. In most of cases this giant vortex accompanies a few small antivortices as satellites. The distance of each vortex is about 10 μm apart and the size of the vortex is about 40 μm in diameter. The total flux of most paired vortices are estimated a few integer multiple of quantum flux. This interesting phenomenon is interpreted by a model proposed by Tachiki & Maekawa that the quantization of magnetic flux may occur in total flux including both supercurrent and spin magnetic moment.

  10. Magnetic ordering of Hf3Ni2Si3-type {Sm, Tb, Er}3Co2Ge3 and {Tb, Ho}3Ni2Ge3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Isnard, O.

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic ordering of Hf3Ni2Si3-type {Sm, Tb, Er}3Co2Ge3 and {Tb, Ho}3Ni2Ge3 compounds (space group Cmcm, oC32) was investigated via magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction study in a zero-applied field. {Sm, Tb, Er}3Co2Ge3 and Ho3Ni2Ge3 exhibit field sensitive complex antiferromagnetic orderings with TN=51 K, Tm=10 K for Sm3Co2Ge3, TN=34 K, Tm=13 K for Tb3Co2Ge3, TN=7 K for Er3Co2Ge3 and TN=11 K for Ho3Ni2Ge3. At 2 K and above the critical field of 5 kOe, 20 kOe, 4 kOe and 7 kOe for Sm3Co2Ge3, Tb3Co2Ge3, Er3Co2Ge3 and Ho3Ni2Ge3, respectively, saturation magnetizations per rare-earth atom are 6.5 μB for Tb3Co2Ge3, 7.0 μB for Er3Co2Ge3 and 8.0 μB for Ho3Ni2Ge3 in the field of 140 kOe, whereas magnetization of Sm3Co2Ge3 has an antiferromagnetic behaviour. The isothermal magnetic entropy change, ΔSm, indicates a field-induced ferromagnetic ordering in Sm3Co2Ge3, Tb3Co2Ge3, Er3Co2Ge3 and Ho3Ni2Ge3 with a maximal ΔSm value of -10.9 J/kg K for Ho3Ni2Ge3 at 11 K for a field change of 50 kOe. In a zero-applied magnetic field, below TN=33 K and down to TmND=15 K Tb3Ni2Ge3 shows an ac-antiferromagnetic ordering with the C2‧/c magnetic space group, a K0=[0, 0, 0] propagation vector and a aTb3Ni2Ge3×bTb3Ni2Ge3×cTb3Ni2Ge3 magnetic unit cell. Below TmND=15 K, its magnetic structure is a sum of the ac-antiferromagnetic component with the C2‧/c magnetic space group of the K0 vector and a sine-modulated a-antiferromagnetic component of the K1=[0, 0, ±1/3] propagation vector (the magnetic unit cell is aTb3Ni2Ge3×bTb3Ni2Ge3×3cTb3Ni2Ge3). The magnetic structure is made from the 'Tb2 - 2Tb1‧ clusters of the Tb1 8f and Tb2 4c sublattices with a dominant role of the Tb2 sublattices in the magnetic ordering of Tb3Ni2Ge3.

  11. Study of morphology and magnetic properties of the HoNi{sub 3} crystalline and ball-milled compound

    SciTech Connect

    Bajorek, Anna; Skornia, Paweł; Prusik, Krystian; Wojtyniak, Marcin; Chełkowska, Grażyna

    2015-03-15

    The morphology and magnetic properties of the HoNi{sub 3} crystalline and ball-milled intermetallic compounds are presented. The polycrystalline HoNi{sub 3} bulk compound crystallizes in the rhombohedral PuNi{sub 3} — type of crystal structure and indicates ferrimagnetic arrangement with the Curie temperature of T{sub C} = 57 ± 2 K, the helimagnetic temperature T{sub h} = 23 ± 2 K with the total saturation magnetic moment of 6.84 μ{sub B}/f.u. at 2 K. The use of the ball-milling method leads to the formation of HoNi{sub 3} nanoflakes with typical thickness of less than 100 nm prone to agglomeration upon milling. The increase of grinding duration leads to the reduction in crystallite size, which was confirmed by various complementary microscopical and diffraction studies. Moreover, the increase in milling duration results in the emergence of the relatively small coercivity (H{sub C}), remanence (M{sub r}) and a variation of the saturation magnetization (M{sub S}). - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The ball-milling method exhibits significant potential for producing RT{sub 3} nanopowders. • The AFM method was used for the first time in analysis of R–T nanoflakes morphology. • HoNi{sub 3} compound forms polycrystalline and textured nanoflakes evolving upon milling. • The decrease in crystallite size via grinding is confirmed by XRD, TEM and AFM. • The magnetic parameters were sensitive to the extension of pulverization b.

  12. Complex Structures in the Reentrant Phase Diagram of HoNi_2B_2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, J.; Zhang, J.; Olinger, A., Jr.; Metlushko, V.; Delong, L.; Canfield, P.

    1996-03-01

    HoNi_2B_2C exhibits a resistive onset to superconductivity near 9.0 K, followed by transitions to incommensurate magnetic order (IMO) at 6.0 K and 5.5 K, and commensurate antiferromagnetic order (AFM) at TN = 5.2 K. Vibrating reed (VR) and resistance data reveal two previously unobserved lines of magnetic anomalies in both the upper superconducting (SC) and lower reentrant SC regions for H || a*b*. The wide region between the upper onset of SC and the first magnetic anomaly reflects weak vortex pinning, possibly due to a subtle buildup of IMO from well above 8K. The interplay between SC and magnetic order is evident in abrupt displacements of transition lines to IMO near their crossing with the reentrant normal transition line for 5.2

  13. Red-Light-Induced Decomposition of an Organic Peroxy Radical: A New Source of the HO2 Radical.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S

    2015-12-21

    The gas-phase decomposition of the α-hydroxy methylperoxy radical has been theoretically examined, and the results provide insight into a new source of the hydroperoxy radical (HO2 ) in the troposphere. Bimolecular peroxy decomposition is promoted by the red-light or near-IR radiation excitation. The calculations suggest for the first time, an important chemical role for the H2 O⋅HO2 radical complex that exist in significant abundance in the troposphere. In particular, the reaction of organic peroxy radicals with the HO2 radical and the H2 O⋅HO2 radical complex represent an autocatalytic source of atmospheric HO2 . This reaction is a new example of red-light-initiated atmospheric chemistry that may help in understanding the discrepancy between the observed and measured levels of the HOx at sunrise. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Electronic structure and optical properties of the HoCoSi and ErNiSi compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazev, Yu. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V. Kuz’min, Yu. I.; Gupta, S.; Suresh, K. G.

    2016-10-15

    The electronic structure and the optical properties of the HoCoSi and ErNiSi compounds are studied. Spin-polarized band calculations are performed in the local electron density approximation corrected for the strong electron–electron interactions in the 4f shell of a rare-earth ion (LSDA + U method [11]). The optical constants are measured by ellipsometry in a wide wavelength range, and the frequency dependences of a number of spectral parameters are determined. The calculated densities of states are used to interpret the structural features of the interband optical conductivities of the intermetallic compounds.

  15. Crystal field effects in the intermetallic R Ni3Ga9 (R =Tb , Dy, Ho, and Er) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, L. S.; Mercena, S. G.; Garcia, D. J.; Bittar, E. M.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Lora-Serrano, R.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we report temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and heat-capacity experiments in the family of intermetallic compounds R Ni3Ga9 (R = Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er). Single-crystalline samples were grown using Ga self-flux method. These materials crystallize in a trigonal ErNi3Al9 -type structure with space group R 32 . They all order antiferromagnetically with TN<20 K . The anisotropic magnetic susceptibility presents large values of the ratio χeasy/χhard indicating strong crystalline electric-field (CEF) effects. The evolution of the crystal-field scheme for each R was analyzed in detail by using a spin model including anisotropic nearest-neighbor Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction and the trigonal CEF Hamiltonian. Our analysis allows one to understand the distinct direction of the ordered moments along the series—the Tb-, Dy-, and Ho-based compounds have the ordered magnetic moments in the easy ab plane and the Er sample magnetization easy axis is along the c ̂ direction.

  16. Influence of Ni substitution at B-site for Fe3+ ions on morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of HoFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Zubida; Majid, Kowsar; Ikram, Mohd.; Sultan, Khalid; Mir, Sajad Ahmad; Asokan, K.

    2016-05-01

    Present study reports the effect of Ni substitution at B-site in HoFeO3 on the morphological, optical and magnetic properties. These compounds were prepared by solid-state reaction method. Scanning electron microscope reveals an increase in average grain sizes with Ni concentration. Absorption and emission spectra show redshift in band gap with increase in Ni ion concentrations. The Tauc plots show direct allowed transitions. Temperature-dependent magnetization studies on these compounds revealed the transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. There is separation between temperature at which zero-field-cooled and field-cooled occurs at varied temperature with Ni substitution. The separation effect is related to the impact of the paramagnetic Ho3+ ions, whose magnitude becomes more prominent at higher temperature. The value of squareness ratio in these materials is below 0.5 indicating presence of multidomain structures.

  17. Low-temperature heat-capacity studies of R2Ni3Si5 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, Chandan; Ghosh, K.; Nagarajan, R.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Padalia, B. D.; Gupta, L. C.

    1999-02-01

    We report here our low temperature (2-30 K) heat capacity, Cp measurements of R2Ni3Si5 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Ho). Large peaks in heat capacity data at magnetic transition temperatures (TN) confirm the bulk nature of magnetic order in these compounds. In Nd2Ni3Si5, Gd2Ni3Si5, and Dy2Ni3Si5, magnetization studies indicated only one magnetic transition, whereas, heat-capacity data show two transitions. TN of the heavier rare-earth member, Tb2Ni3Si5, showing significant deviation from de Gennes scaling is notable. Magnetic entropy, ΔS, estimated from heat-capacity data suggest that the magnetic ground state is a doublet in R2Ni3Si5 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm, Dy, Ho) and a quartet in Tb2Ni3Si5. In all the cases, ΔS, at TN is slightly less than that expected due to the suggested states, which we attribute to the occurrence of precursor effects of magnetic order above TN. Except for Gd2Ni3Si5, ΔS of the compounds does not reach the saturation limit of R ln(2J+1) even at 30 K, indicating the presence of crystalline electric field (CEF) effects. A hump in Cp is observed below TN in Gd2Ni3Si5 which is interpreted in terms of a possible amplitude-modulated magnetic spin structure.

  18. Magnetocaloric properties of R2NiMnO6 (R=Pr, Nd, Tb, Ho and Y) double perovskite family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tirthankar; Nhalil, Hariharan; Yadav, Ruchika; Wagh, Aditya A.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2017-04-01

    Double perovskite R2NiMnO6 (R=Pr, Nd, Tb, Ho and Y) composites are prepared via solid state synthesis or nitrate route. Isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔSM (T , H)) and relative cooling power (RCP) for all systems are calculated and compared. All of them possess relatively high values of ΔSM (T , H) and RCP as compared to many perovskite and double perovskite systems reported previously. Ho2NiMnO6 has the highest value for | ΔSM (T , H) | and RCP as 8.4 JKg-1K-1 at 70 kOe and 59.18 J Kg-1 at 20 kOe respectively. This study highlights the potential of magnetocaloric refrigerant materials at low temperature.

  19. Large magnetic entropy change and relative cooling power in the rare earth intermetallic HoCo0.25Ni1.75 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Rajib; Nirmala, R.; Arout Chelvane, J.; Malik, S. K.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of cubic Laves phase rare earth intermetallic HoCo0.25Ni1.75 compound have been investigated. Magnetization measurements show that HoCo0.25Ni1.75 orders ferromagnetically at 22 K (TC). The magnetization vs field (M-μ0H) isotherm at 2 K shows negligible hysteresis. The isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔSm) is calculated from the measured M-μ0H data near TC. The maximum value of ΔSm, ΔSmmax, is about -18.9 J/kg-K at TC for a field change of 5 T with a refrigerant capacity of 572 J/kg. The material exhibits large ΔSmmax of -9.4 J/kg-K even for a low field change of 2 T. Universal master curve is constructed by rescaling ΔSm vs T curves for various fields to confirm the second order nature of the magnetic transition at TC. Large ΔSmmax value, wide temperature span of cooling and high relative cooling power make HoCo0.25Ni1.75 a potential magnetic refrigerant for low temperature applications such as hydrogen liquefaction.

  20. Magnetic structures of R5Ni2In4 and R11Ni4In9 ( R = Tb and Ho): Strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic ordering in the multiple rare-earth sublattices

    DOE PAGES

    Ritter, C.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; ...

    2015-11-09

    In this study, the magnetic properties and magnetic structures of the R5Ni2In4 and the microfibrous R 11Ni4In9 compounds with R = Tb and Ho have been examined using magnetization, heat capacity, and neutron diffraction data. Rare earth atoms occupy three and five symmetrically inequivalent rare earth sites in R5Ni2In4 and R 11Ni4In9 compounds, respectively. As a result of the intra- and inter-magnetic sublattice interactions, the magnetic exchange interactions are different for various rare earth sites; this leads to a cascade of magnetic transitions with a strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic orderings.

  1. Metamagnetism and giant magnetoresistance of the rare-earth intermetallic compounds R2Ni2Pb (R=Er,Ho,Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchure, Aravind D.; Muñoz Sandoval, E.; Mydosh, J. A.

    2002-07-01

    We have measured the magnetization and magnetoresistance for a series of rare-earth (R=Er,Ho,Dy) plumbide intermetallic compounds, R2Ni2Pb. These materials form in an unusual orthorhombic structure with space group Cmmm. After multiple magnetic transitions, the ground state exhibits a steplike series of large-moment metamagnetic transitions in low fields (1-2 T) concomitant with switchinglike properties of the magnetoresistance where sharp changes of up to 30% are found. We relate these properties to the layered magnetic structure of the compound.

  2. Observed OH and HO2 in the upper troposphere suggest a major source from convective injection of peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeglé, L.; Jacob, D. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Spivakovsky, C. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Lanzendorf, E. J.; Hintsa, E. J.; Fahey, D. W.; Keim, E. R.; Proffitt, M. H.; Atlas, E. L.; Flocke, F.; Schauffler, S.; McElroy, C. T.; Midwinter, C.; Pfister, L.; Wilson, J. C.

    ER-2 aircraft observations of OH and HO2 concentrations in the upper troposphere during the NASA/STRAT campaign are interpreted using a photochemical model constrained by local observations of O3, H2O, NO, CO, hydrocarbons, albedo and overhead ozone column. We find that the reaction Q(¹D) + H2O is minor compared to acetone photolysis as a primary source of HOx (= OH + peroxy radicals) in the upper troposphere. Calculations using a diel steady state model agree with observed HOx concentrations in the lower stratosphere and, for some flights, in the upper troposphere. However, for other flights in the upper troposphere, the steady state model underestimates observations by a factor of 2 or more. These model underestimates are found to be related to a recent (< 1 week) convective origin of the air. By conducting time-dependent model calculations along air trajectories determined for the STRAT flights, we show that convective injection of CH3OOH and H2O2 from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere could resolve the discrepancy. These injections of HOx reservoirs cause large HOx increases in the tropical upper troposphere for over a week downwind of the convective activity. We propose that this mechanism provides a major source of HOx in the upper troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of peroxides, formaldehyde and acetone along with OH and HO2 are needed to test our hypothesis.

  3. Adapting TESLA technology for future cw light sources using HoBiCaT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugeler, O.; Neumann, A.; Anders, W.; Knobloch, J.

    2010-07-01

    The HoBiCaT facility has been set up and operated at the Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin and BESSY since 2005. Its purpose is testing superconducting cavities in cw mode of operation and it was successfully demonstrated that TESLA pulsed technology can be used for cw mode of operation with only minor changes. Issues that were addressed comprise of elevated dynamic thermal losses in the cavity walls, necessary modifications in the cryogenics and the cavity processing, the optimum choice of operational parameters such as cavity temperature or bandwidth, the characterization of higher order modes in the cavity, and the usability of existing tuners and couplers for cw.

  4. Evolution of magnetic layers stacking sequence within the magnetic structure of Ho(CoxNi1-x)2B2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElMassalami, M.; Takeya, H.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Gomes, A. M.; Paiva, T.; dos Santos, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of Co substitution on the magnetic structure of Ho(CoxNi1-x)2B2C (x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) using neutron diffraction, magnetization and specific heat studies. Different modes are stabilized: an AFM k=(0,0,1) mode for x=0.2, a spiral k=(0,0,0.49) mode for x=0.4, a spiral k=(0,0,0.26) mode for x=0.6, and a FM k=(0,0,0) mode for x=0.8. Recalling that for x=0.0, k=(0,0,1) while for x=1.0, k=(0,0,0), then all these magnetic structures can be visualized as a variation in the stacking sequence, along the z-axis, of the intra-planar FM-coupled Ho sheets as such Co substitution controls the z-component of the k=(0,0,ux) vector where ux=0,0.26,0.49, or 1. We discuss this inference and the observation that in spite of such a diversity of magnetic structures, the critical temperatures and the saturated moments are only weakly influenced by substitution.

  5. Phase diagrams of anisotropic ferrimagnet HoCo{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} with T{sub comp} = T{sub SR1}

    SciTech Connect

    Zawadzki, J.; Szymczak, R.; Zvezdin, A.K.; Krynetski, I.

    1994-03-01

    The magnetic phase diagrams of the hexagonal intermetallic ferrimagnet HoCo{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} showing the spin reorientation transition are presented. The diagrams have been calculated from the thermodynamic potential including the exchange energy as well as the anisotropy energy, taking into consideration the second and fourth-order anisotropy terms. The obtained phase diagrams differ substantially from those of the isotropic or uniaxial ferrimagnets. In fields parallel to the basal plane, the new cone-canting phase with constant susceptibility has been found In the spin reorientation range. In fields parallel to the hexagonal axis there exists a narrow link between low and high-field canted phases. The existence of the new cone-canting phase has been confirmed by magnetization measurements on a single crystal using both ballistic and SQUID magnetometers.

  6. Spherical neutron polarimetry of the magnetic structure in HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C: Interplay between magnetic phases and superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.; Zaharko, O.; Gasser, U.; Kreyssig, A.; Brown, P. J.; Canfield, P. C.

    2006-09-01

    Spherical neutron polarimetry has been used to answer open questions about different magnetic phases in HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C, which are important in their interplay with superconductivity. We established that the incommensurate a{sup *} structure of k{sub 3}=(0.585 0 0) at 5.4 K in a zero magnetic field is a transverse-amplitude modulated wave with the magnetic moment along the b direction of the tetragonal structure. The depolarization of a neutron beam scattered from the k{sub 2}=(0 0 0.915) reflections reveals a multidomain state but does not allow an unambiguous determination of the spin configuration. Based on present knowledge of borocarbides and other rare-earth systems we give preference to a long-range incommensurate helical structure as the origin of the k{sub 2}=(0 0 0.915) reflections.

  7. Sources of stress gradients in electrodeposited Ni MEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Hearne, Sean Joseph; Floro, Jerrold Anthony; Dyck, Christopher William

    2004-06-01

    The ability of future integrated metal-semiconductor micro-systems such as RF MEMS to perform highly complex functions will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity and reflectivity over polysilicon structures. For example, metal-based RF MEMS technology could replace the bulky RF system presently used in communications, navigation, and avionics systems. However, stress gradients that induce warpage of active components have prevented the implementation of this technology. Figure 1, is an interference micrograph image of a series of cantilever beams fabricated from electrodeposited Ni. The curvature in the beams was the result of stress gradients intrinsic to the electrodeposition process. To study the sources of the stress in electrodeposition of Ni we have incorporated a wafer curvature based stress sensor, the multibeam optical stress sensor, into an electrodeposition cell. We have determined that there are two regions of stress induced by electrodepositing Ni from a sulfamate-based bath (Fig 2). The stress evolution during the first region, 0-1000{angstrom}, was determined to be dependent only on the substrate material (Au vs. Cu), whereas the stress evolution during the second region, >1000{angstrom}, was highly dependent on the deposition conditions. In this region, the stress varied from +0.5 GPa to -0.5GPa, depending solely on the deposition rate. We examined four likely sources for the compressive intrinsic stress, i.e. reduction in tensile stress, and determined that only the adatom diffusion into grain boundaries model of Sheldon, et al. could account for the observed compressive stress. In the presentation, we shall discuss the compressive stress generation mechanisms considered and the ramifications of these results on fabrication of electrodeposited Ni for MEMS applications.

  8. Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type (Gd, Tb, Dy){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} and La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type (Dy, Ho){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} compounds: Crystal structure and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Morozkin, A.V.; Isnard, O.; Nirmala, R.; Malik, S.K.

    2015-05-15

    The crystal structure of new Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type (Gd, Tb, Dy){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} (Immm, No. 71, oI10) and La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type (Dy, Ho){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} (Cmce No. 64, oC20) compounds has been established using powder X-ray diffraction studies. Magnetization measurements show that the Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} undergoes a ferromagnetic transition at ~66 K, whereas isostructural Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} shows an antiferromagnetic transition at ~52 K and a field-induced metamagnetic transition at low temperatures. Neutron diffraction study shows that, in zero applied field, Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} exhibits c-axis antiferromagnetic order with propagation vector K=[1/2, 0, 1/2] below its magnetic ordering temperature and Tb magnetic moment reaches a value of 8.32(5) μ{sub B} at 2 K. The La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} exhibits ferromagnetic like transition at ~42 K with coexisting antiferromagnetic interactions and field induced metamagnetic transition below ~17 K. The magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65}, Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} and Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} is calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches a maximum value of −14.3 J/kg K, −5.3 J/kg K and −10.3 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near 66 K, 52 K and 42 K, respectively. Low temperature magnetic ordering with enhanced anisotropic effects in Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} and Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} is accompanied by a positive magnetocaloric effect with isothermal magnetic entropy changes of +12.8 J/kg K and ~+9.9 J/kg K, respectively at 7 K for a field change of 50 kOe. - Graphical abstract: The (Gd, Tb, Dy){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} supplement the series of Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type rare earth compounds, whereas the (Dy, Ho){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} supplement the series of La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type rare

  9. Magnetic and Electronic Properties of R3Ni7B2 Compounds where R = Dy, Ho, Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, N.; Vlaic, P.; Burzo, E.

    2007-04-01

    Band structure calculations show the presence of small magnetic moments at Ni sites. Magnetic measurements at 4.2 K evidenced a relative high anisotropy. Magnetic behavior of nickel is analyzed in spin fluctuation model.

  10. Rare-Earth Oxide Ion (Tm3+, Ho3+, and U3+) Doped Glasses and Fibres for 1.8 to 4 Micrometer Coherent and Broadband Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-24

    other optical devices. The transmission range of tellurium based glasses extends into the mid infra red up to around 5 µm and has a low cut-off phonon...the high rare earth ion solubility, makes tellurium based glass a good host within which to examine the longer wavelength transitions of Tm3+ and Ho3...Earth Oxide Ion (Tm3+, Ho3+, And U3+) Doped Glasses And Fibres For 1.8 To 4 Micrometer Coherent And Broadband Sources 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d

  11. Development and performance characteristics of flash lamp pumped Yb:YAG, Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG, Er:Tm:Ho:YLF laser sources and investigation of their potential biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadimitriou, N.; Klinkenberg, B.; Papadopoulos, D. N.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2007-07-01

    Laser ablation for the formation of apodized patterns on intraocular lenses, as an alternative of the conventional injection molding, has been proved to be a very promising new technique. For the precise lenses ablation, the use of suitable laser wavelength and pulse duration, resulting in a small optical penetration depth in the lens and in confinement of the energy deposition in a small volume, as well as the reduced thermal damage to the surrounding tissue, is essential. Mid-infrared laser wavelengths, at which the organic biological simulators absorption coefficient is large, meet well the above conditions. Towards the complete understanding of the intraocular lens ablation procedure and therefore the choice of the optimum laser beam characteristics for the most accurate, efficient and safe surgical application, the comparative study of various mid-infrared laser sources is of great interest. In this work we investigate the potential of the development of three different mid-infrared laser sources, namely the Yb:YAG, the Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG and the Er:Tm:Ho:YLF laser, operating at 1029 nm, 2060 nm and 2080 nm respectively and their ability in forming patterns on biomaterials. Pumping was achieved with conventional Xe flash lamps in a double elliptical pump chamber. A properly designed Pulse-Forming- Network capable of delivering energy up to 800 J, in variable lamp illumination durations is used. Several hundreds of mJoules were achieved from the Yb:YAG laser oscillator and several Joules from the Ho:YAG and Ho:YLF laser oscillators. Free running and Q-switched laser operation studies and preliminary experiments on laser and biomaterials (biopolymers and animal tissues) interactions will be reported.

  12. Missing OH source in a suburban environment near Beijing: observed and modelled OH and HO2 concentrations in summer 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K. D.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Fuchs, H.; Hu, M.; Häseler, R.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Li, X.; Lou, S. R.; Oebel, A.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Wahner, A.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, Y. H.; Rohrer, F.

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of ambient OH and HO2 radicals were performed by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) during CAREBeijing2006 (Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006) at the suburban site Yufa in the south of Beijing in summer 2006. On most days, local air chemistry was influenced by aged air pollution that was advected by a slow, almost stagnant wind from southern regions. Observed daily maxima of OH and HO2* were in the range of (4-17) × 106 cm-3 and (2-24) × 108 cm-3, respectively. During daytime, OH reactivities were generally high (10-30 s-1) and mainly contributed by VOCs and their oxidation products. The comparison of modelled and measured HOx concentrations reveals a systematic underprediction of OH as a function of NO. A large discrepancy of a factor 2.6 is found at the lowest NO concentration encountered (0.1 ppb), whereas the discrepancy becomes insignificant above 1 ppb NO. This study extends similar observations from the Pearl-River Delta (PRD) in South China to a more urban environment. The OH discrepancy at Yufa can be resolved, if NO-independent additional OH recycling is assumed in the model. The postulated Leuven Isoprene Mechanism (LIM) has the potential to explain the gap between modelled and measured OH at Beijing taking into account conservative error estimates, but still lacks experimental confirmation. This and the hereby unresolved discrepancy at PRD suggest that other VOCs besides isoprene might be involved in the required, additional OH recycling. Fast primary production of ROx radicals up to 7 ppb h-1 was determined at Beijing which was dominated by the photolysis of O3, HONO, HCHO, and dicarbonyls. For a special case, 20 August, when the plume of Beijing city was encountered, a missing primary HOx source (≈ 3 ppb h-1) was determined under high NOx conditions similar to other urban areas like Mexico city. CAREBeijing2006 emphasizes the important role of OVOCs as a radical source and sink, and the need for

  13. Missing OH source in a suburban environment near Beijing: observed and modelled OH and HO2 concentrations in summer 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K. D.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Fuchs, H.; Hu, M.; Häseler, R.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Li, X.; Lou, S. R.; Oebel, A.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Wahner, A.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, Y. H.; Rohrer, F.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of ambient OH and HO2 radicals were performed by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) during CAREBeijing2006 (Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006) at the suburban site Yufa in the south of Beijing in summer 2006. On most days, local air chemistry was influenced by aged air pollution that was advected by a slow, almost stagnant wind from southern regions. Observed daily concentration maxima were in the range of (4-17) × 106 cm-3 for OH and (2-24) × 108 cm-3 for HO2 (including an estimated interference of 25% from RO2). During daytime, OH reactivities were generally high (10-30 s-1) and mainly contributed by observed VOCs and their calculated oxidation products. The comparison of modelled and measured HOx concentrations reveals a systematic underprediction of OH as a function of NO. A large discrepancy of a factor 2.6 is found at the lowest NO concentration encountered (0.1 ppb), whereas the discrepancy becomes insignificant above 1 ppb NO. This study extends similar observations from the Pearl-River Delta (PRD) in South China to a more urban environment. The OH discrepancy at Yufa can be resolved, if NO-independent additional OH recycling is assumed in the model. The postulated Leuven Isoprene Mechanism (LIM) has the potential to explain the gap between modelled and measured OH at Beijing taking into account conservative error estimates, but lacks experimental confirmation. This and the hereby unresolved discrepancy at PRD suggest that other VOCs besides isoprene might be involved in the required, additional OH recycling. Fast primary production of ROx radicals up to 7 ppb h-1 was determined at Beijing which was dominated by the photolysis of O3, HONO, HCHO, and dicarbonyls. For a special case, 20 August, when the plume of Beijing city was encountered, a missing primary HOx source (about 3 ppb h-1) was determined under high NOx conditions similar to other urban areas like Mexico City. CAREBeijing2006 emphasizes the

  14. Broadband Ho{sup 3+}-doped fibre radiation source emitting at 2 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, A S; Sholokhov, E M; Paramonov, V M; Kosolapov, A F

    2008-10-31

    A 2-{mu}m broadband radiation source based on a fibre doped with holmium ions, which is pumped by a 1.12-{mu}m ytterbium fibre laser, is developed. The maximum output power of 8 mW is achieved for the emission spectrum width of 45 nm. (active optical fibres)

  15. Bonding Strength of Ceromer with Direct Laser Sintered, Ni-Cr-Based, and ZrO2 Metal Infrastructures After Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Ho:YAG Laser Surface Treatments-A Comparative In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Gorler, Oguzhan; Ozdemir, Ali Kemal

    2016-08-01

    Laser modalities instead of conventional surface treatment techniques have been suggested to obtain an adequate micromechanical bonding between dental super- and infrastructures. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of surface treatment with Ho:YAG, Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG laser modalities on the shear bond strength (SBS) of ceromer to different types of metal infrastructures in in vitro settings. The study specimens consisted of 40 direct laser sintered (DLS), 40 Ni-Cr-based, and 40 zirconium oxide (ZrO2) infrastructures. In each infrastructure group, the specimens were divided randomly into five treatment modalities (n = 8): no treatment (controls), sandblasting, Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Ho:YAG lasers. The DLS, Ni-Cr-based, and ZrO2 infrastructures were prepared in the final dimensions of 7 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness in line with the ISO 11405 standard. Ceromer as superstructure was applied to all the infrastructures after their surface treatments according to the selected treatment modality. SBS test was performed to test the effectiveness of surface treatments. A stereomicroscope was used to determine the changes in the surface morphology of specimens. Among the laser modalities and sandblasting, Ho:YAG laser caused the most important increase in the DLS and Ni-Cr-based infrastructures but sandblasting caused the most important increase in the ZrO2 infrastructure. In all the infrastructures, Nd:YAG laser has the least effectiveness, and Er:YAG laser makes an intermediate success. The stereomicroscopy images presented that the applications of laser surface treatments altered the surface in all the infrastructures. Overall, in current experimental settings, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG lasers, in order of strength, are effective in improving the bonding of ceromer to all the infrastructures. Ho:YAG laser is more effective in the DLS and Ni-Cr-based infrastructures, but sandblasting is more effective in the ZrO2 infrastructure. The studied

  16. OH Oxidation of α-Pinene in the Atmosphere Simulation Chamber SAPHIR: Investigation of the Role of Pinonaldehyde Photolysis as an HO2 Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, M.; Acir, I. H.; Bohn, B.; Dorn, H. P.; Fuchs, H.; Häseler, R.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Li, X.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wegener, R.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wahner, A.

    2015-12-01

    About one third of the land surface is covered by forests, emitting approximately 75% of the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). The main atmospheric sink of these BVOCs during daytime is the oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH). Over the last decades field campaigns investigating the radical chemistry in forested regions showed that atmospheric chemistry models are often not able to describe the measured OH concentration well. At low NO concentrations and an OH reactivity dominated by BVOCs the OH was underestimated. This discrepancy could only partly be explained by the discovery of new OH regeneration pathways in the isoprene oxidation mechanism. Field campaigns in the U.S.A and Finland (Kim 2013 ACP, Hens 2014 ACP) demonstrated that in monoterpene (e.g. α-pinene) dominated environments model calculations also underpredict the observed HO2 and OH concentrations significantly even if the OH budget was closed by the measured OH production and destruction terms. These observations suggest the existence of an unaccounted source of HO2. One potential HO2 source in forests is the photolysis of monoterpene degradation products such as aldehydes. In the present study the photochemical degradation mechanism of α-pinene was investigated in the Jülich atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. The focus of this study was in particular on the investigation of the role of pinonaldehyde, a main first generation product of α-pinene, as a possible HO2 source. For that purpose the pinonaldehyde yields of the reaction α-pinene + OH were determined at ambient monoterpene concentrations (<5 ppb) under low NOx as well as high NOx conditions. The pinonaldehyde yield under high NOx conditions (30.5 %) is in agreement with literature values of Wisthaler (2001 AE) and Aschmann (2002 JGR), under low NOx conditions the yield (10.8 %) is approximately a factor of three lower than the value published by Eddingsaas (2012 ACP). In a second set of experiments the photolysis

  17. Antimonide-Based Heterostructure p-Channel MOSFETs With Ni-Alloy Source/Drain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 34, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2013 1367 Antimonide-Based Heterostructure p-Channel MOSFETs With Ni-Alloy Source/Drain Ze...density of 2×1012cm−2. Index Terms— Antimonide semiconductors, metal source/drain (S/D), Ni-GaSb, p-channel MOSFET . I. INTRODUCTION ANTIMONIDE-based...channel MOSFETs [3], [4], performance of III–V p- MOSFETs traditionally lagged behind. Recently, high-performance antimonide p- MOSFETs have been

  18. Magnetic structures of R5Ni2In4 and R11Ni4In9 ( R = Tb and Ho): Strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic ordering in the multiple rare-earth sublattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, C.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Dhar, S. K.

    2015-11-09

    In this study, the magnetic properties and magnetic structures of the R5Ni2In4 and the microfibrous R 11Ni4In9 compounds with R = Tb and Ho have been examined using magnetization, heat capacity, and neutron diffraction data. Rare earth atoms occupy three and five symmetrically inequivalent rare earth sites in R5Ni2In4 and R 11Ni4In9 compounds, respectively. As a result of the intra- and inter-magnetic sublattice interactions, the magnetic exchange interactions are different for various rare earth sites; this leads to a cascade of magnetic transitions with a strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic orderings.

  19. A Source Manual for Information on NITINOL and NiTi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-13

    NSWC/WOL TR 78-26/ A SOURCE MANUAL FOR INFORMATION ON <z NITINOL AND NiTi BY DAVID GOLDSTEIN RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT 13 FEBRUARY 1978 C...Conthinua owevess, side it necessary and identity by bWeck ammmber) NITINOL Nickel-Titanium Alloys NiTi Shape Memory Effect Heat Engines W0. A WRACT...Conshnue an reverse Wde Ifftoeseat and Identify by Weoek nmmer) This manual is a current listing of most of the published literature on NITINOL and NiTi

  20. Source of Scatter in the Creep Lives of NiAl(Hf) Single Crystals Revealed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis in developing NiAl-based alloys for high- temperature applications in aircraft engines. In comparison to commercial superalloys, binary NiAl has a higher melting temperature, lower density, larger thermal conductivity, and better oxidation resistance. These properties make it a desirable material to replace superalloys as blades and vanes in aircraft engines. Despite this attractive combination of properties, binary NiAl cannot be used as a reliable structural material because of its low-temperature brittleness and poor high-temperature creep strength. GE Aircraft Engines in Cincinnati, Ohio, has recently developed NiAl(Hf) alloys that have creep strengths comparable to commercial superalloys while maintaining the other desirable properties of binary NiAl. The microstructures of these alloys consist of finely distributed G-phase (Ni_(16)Hf_(6)Si_(7)) precipitates, which strengthen the NiAl matrix. However, while the creep properties of these alloys were being evaluated, considerable scatter was observed in the creep lives of specimens tested under identical stress and temperature conditions. Although these alloys had nominally the same composition, the test specimens were obtained from four different ingots (A, B, C, and D) that had been heat treated under similar conditions. The NASA Lewis Research Center began the present study at the request of GE Aircraft Engines under a Space Act Agreement to identify the source of this scatter.

  1. A 15 W 1152 nm Raman fiber laser with 6 nm spectral width for Ho3+-doped crystal's pumping source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiuyan; Jiang, Huawei

    2016-12-01

    A 11.5 W 1152 nm Raman fiber laser with 6 nm spectral width was demonstrated based on the resonator constructed with one fiber loop mirror and one fiber Bragg grating. By mans of experimental measurement and theoretical calculation, the reflectivity of the fiber loop mirror was confirmed as 0.93. The Yb3+-doped 1090 nm fiber length was about 5 m. When the maximum pumping power of 976 nm laser was 54.8 W, 32.2 W 1090 nm laser was obtained and the optical to optical conversion efficiency from 1090 nm to 1152 nm light was 48%. Finally, the 1152 nm Raman fiber laser was used for pumping Ho3+:LLF crystal, and the 1194 nm fluorescence emission peak was detected for the first time.

  2. Measurement of thermal neutron cross-section and resonance integral for the 165Ho(n,γ) 166gHo reaction using electron linac-based neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Do; Pham, Duc Khue; Kim, Tien Thanh; Kim, Guinyun; Lee, Manwoo; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kang, Heung-Sik; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Ko, In Soo; Namkung, Won

    2011-01-01

    The thermal neutron cross-section and the resonance integral of the 165Ho(n,γ) 166gHo reaction have been measured by the activation method using a 197Au(n,γ) 198Au monitor reaction as a single comparator. The high-purity natural Ho and Au foils with and without a cadmium shield case of 0.5 mm thickness were irradiated in a neutron field of the Pohang neutron facility. The induced activities in the activated foils were measured with a calibrated p-type high-purity Ge detector. The correction factors for the γ-ray attenuation ( Fg), the thermal neutron self-shielding ( Gth), the resonance neutron self-shielding ( Gepi) effects, and the epithermal neutron spectrum shape factor ( α) were taken into account. The thermal neutron cross-section for the 165Ho(n,γ) 166gHo reaction has been determined to be 59.7 ± 2.5 barn, relative to the reference value of 98.65 ± 0.09 barn for the 197Au(n,γ) 198Au reaction. By assuming the cadmium cut-off energy of 0.55 eV, the resonance integral for the 165Ho(n,γ) 166gHo reaction is 671 ± 47 barn, which is determined relative to the reference value of 1550 ± 28 barn for the 197Au(n,γ) 198Au reaction. The present results are, in general, good agreement with most of the previously reported data within uncertainty limits.

  3. Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K. D.; Rohrer, F.; Holland, F.; Fuchs, H.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Chang, C. C.; Häseler, R.; Hu, M.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Li, X.; Lou, S. R.; Nehr, S.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Wahner, A.; Zhang, Y. H.; Hofzumahaus, A.

    2011-04-01

    Ambient OH and HO2 concentrations were measured by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) during the PRIDE-PRD2006 (Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta, 2006) campaign at a rural site downwind of the megacity of Guangzhou in Southern China. The observed OH concentrations reached daily peak values of (15-26) × 106 cm-3 which are among the highest values so far reported for urban and suburban areas. The observed OH shows a consistent high correlation with j(O1D) over a broad range of NOx conditions. The correlation cannot be reproduced by model simulations, indicating that OH stabilizing processes are missing in current models. The observed OH exhibited a weak dependence on NOx in contrast to model predictions. While modelled and measured OH agree well at NO mixing ratios above 1 ppb, a continuously increasing underprediction of the observed OH is found towards lower NO concentrations, reaching a factor of 8 at 0.02 ppb NO. A dependence of the modelled-to-measured OH ratio on isoprene cannot be concluded from the PRD data. However, the magnitude of the ratio fits into the isoprene dependent trend that was reported from other campaigns in forested regions. Hofzumahaus et al. (2009) proposed an unknown OH recycling process without NO, in order to explain the high OH levels at PRD in the presence of high VOC reactivity and low NO. Taking a recently discovered interference in the LIF measurement of HO2 into account, the need for an additional HO2 → OH recycling process persists, but the required source strength may be up to 20% larger than previously determined. Recently postulated isoprene mechanisms by Lelieveld et al. (2008) and Peeters and Müller (2010) lead to significant enhancements of OH expected for PRD, but an underprediction of the observed OH by a factor of two remains at low NO (0.1-0.2 ppb). If the photolysis of hydroperoxy aldehydes from isoprene is as efficient as proposed by Peeters and Müller (2010), the

  4. Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K. D.; Rohrer, F.; Holland, F.; Fuchs, H.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Chang, C. C.; Häseler, R.; Hu, M.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Li, X.; Lou, S. R.; Nehr, S.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Wahner, A.; Zhang, Y. H.; Hofzumahaus, A.

    2012-02-01

    Ambient OH and HO2 concentrations were measured by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) during the PRIDE-PRD2006 (Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta, 2006) campaign at a rural site downwind of the megacity of Guangzhou in Southern China. The observed OH concentrations reached daily peak values of (15-26) × 106 cm-3 which are among the highest values so far reported for urban and suburban areas. The observed OH shows a consistent high correlation with j(O1D) over a broad range of NOx conditions. The correlation cannot be reproduced by model simulations, indicating that OH stabilizing processes are missing in current models. The observed OH exhibited a weak dependence on NOx in contrast to model predictions. While modelled and measured OH agree well at NO mixing ratios above 1 ppb, a continuously increasing underprediction of the observed OH is found towards lower NO concentrations, reaching a factor of 8 at 0.02 ppb NO. A dependence of the modelled-to-measured OH ratio on isoprene cannot be concluded from the PRD data. However, the magnitude of the ratio fits into the isoprene dependent trend that was reported from other campaigns in forested regions. Hofzumahaus et al. (2009) proposed an unknown OH recycling process without NO, in order to explain the high OH levels at PRD in the presence of high VOC reactivity and low NO. Taking a recently discovered interference in the LIF measurement of HO2 into account, the need for an additional HO2 → OH recycling process persists, but the required source strength may be up to 20% larger than previously determined. Recently postulated isoprene mechanisms by Lelieveld et al. (2008) and Peeters and Müller (2010) lead to significant enhancements of OH expected for PRD, but an underprediction of the observed OH by a factor of two remains at low NO (0.1-0.2 ppb). If the photolysis of hydroperoxy aldehydes from isoprene is as efficient as proposed by Peeters and Müller (2010), the

  5. Theoretical Studies of the HO/HO2 Catalytic Cycle for Ozone Destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, Steve R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Recently it has been determined that the HO/HO2 catalytic cycle accounts for nearly one-half of the total ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere. The catalytic cycle is: (1) HO + O3 yields HO2 + O2; (2) HO2 + O3 yields HO + O2 + O2. The net reaction is 2O3 yields 3O2. The rate limiting step in this process is the reaction of HO2 with ozone. There is a problem extending the experimental measurement of the rate of this reaction over the range 233-400 K down to stratospheric temperatures of 210-220 K. Therefore we have undertaken a project to determine the temperature dependence of the rate constant for this reaction in the low temperature region. The first step in this project, which is described in this poster, is the determination of the relevant potential energy surfaces. The calculations use CASSCF/derivative methods to define the pathways followed by CASSCF/ACPF to determine the energetics. The HO + O3 reaction is found to proceed through an HO4 complex, which is unstable with respect to HO2 + O2. The HO2 +O3 reaction is more complex. One pathway, which has been characterized, is the formation of an HO5 complex which decomposes to HO3 + O2 and subsequently to HO + O2 + O2. Another pathway, which is believed to also play a role, is hydrogen abstraction to give O2 + HO3 and subsequent decomposition of HO3 to HO + O2. Isotopic labeling experiments indicate that the later pathway is dominant. However, so far attempts to locate the saddle point for this pathway have not been successful. We have also characterized the potential energy surfaces for a number of species involved in these reactions, including HO3 and triplet O4. The triplet O4 species is probably involved in the reaction of vibrationally excited O2 with ground state O2 leading to O3 + O. The latter reaction is believed to be important as an additional source of stratospheric ozone.

  6. Theoretical Studies of the HO/HO2 Catalytic Cycle for Ozone Destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, Steve R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Recently it has been determined that the HO/HO2 catalytic cycle accounts for nearly one-half of the total ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere. The catalytic cycle is: (1) HO + O3 yields HO2 + O2; (2) HO2 + O3 yields HO + O2 + O2. The net reaction is 2O3 yields 3O2. The rate limiting step in this process is the reaction of HO2 with ozone. There is a problem extending the experimental measurement of the rate of this reaction over the range 233-400 K down to stratospheric temperatures of 210-220 K. Therefore we have undertaken a project to determine the temperature dependence of the rate constant for this reaction in the low temperature region. The first step in this project, which is described in this poster, is the determination of the relevant potential energy surfaces. The calculations use CASSCF/derivative methods to define the pathways followed by CASSCF/ACPF to determine the energetics. The HO + O3 reaction is found to proceed through an HO4 complex, which is unstable with respect to HO2 + O2. The HO2 +O3 reaction is more complex. One pathway, which has been characterized, is the formation of an HO5 complex which decomposes to HO3 + O2 and subsequently to HO + O2 + O2. Another pathway, which is believed to also play a role, is hydrogen abstraction to give O2 + HO3 and subsequent decomposition of HO3 to HO + O2. Isotopic labeling experiments indicate that the later pathway is dominant. However, so far attempts to locate the saddle point for this pathway have not been successful. We have also characterized the potential energy surfaces for a number of species involved in these reactions, including HO3 and triplet O4. The triplet O4 species is probably involved in the reaction of vibrationally excited O2 with ground state O2 leading to O3 + O. The latter reaction is believed to be important as an additional source of stratospheric ozone.

  7. Sources of global warming in upper ocean temperature during El Niño

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Mike; Auad, Guillermo

    2001-01-01

    Global average sea surface temperature (SST) from 40°S to 60°N fluctuates ±0.3°C on interannual period scales, with global warming (cooling) during El Niño (La Niña). About 90% of the global warming during El Niño occurs in the tropical global ocean from 20°S to 20°N, half because of large SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific associated with El Niño and the other half because of warm SST anomalies occurring over ∼80% of the tropical global ocean. From examination of National Centers for Environmental Prediction [Kalnay et al., 1996] and Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set [Woodruff et al., 1993] reanalyses, tropical global warming during El Niño is associated with higher troposphere moisture content and cloud cover, with reduced trade wind intensity occurring during the onset phase of El Niño. During this onset phase the tropical global average diabatic heat storage tendency in the layer above the main pycnocline is 1–3 W m−2above normal. Its principal source is a reduction in the poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropical ocean of 2–5 W m−2. Subsequently, peak tropical global warming during El Niño is dissipated by an increase in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere of 2–5 W m−2, with reduced shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes in response to increased cloud cover tending to cancel each other. In the extratropical global ocean the reduction in poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropics during the onset of El Niño tends to be balanced by reduction in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere. Thus global warming and cooling during Earth's internal mode of interannual climate variability arise from fluctuations in the global hydrological balance, not the global radiation balance. Since it occurs in the absence of extraterrestrial and anthropogenic forcing, global warming on decadal, interdecadal, and centennial period scales may also occur in association with Earth's internal modes of climate variability on those scales.

  8. Characterization of a Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG laser with a Cr:GSAG laser as pumping source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, George W.

    1989-01-01

    Rare earth lasers were in existance since the first laser was developed. The primary lasing elements for the class of lasers in the infrared was neodymium and chromium. However, the need for eye safe lasers in the mid-infrared range has prompted an enormous amount of research to the use of other elements. Holmium was investigated extensively as the source of infrared radiation for atmospheric research as well as medical research. The results and procedure are briefly discussed.

  9. Long-term monitoring of airborne nickel (Ni) pollution in association with some potential source processes in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Mauulida, Puteri T; Song, Sang-Keun

    2014-09-01

    The environmental behavior and pollution status of nickel (Ni) were investigated in seven major cities in Korea over a 13-year time span (1998-2010). The mean concentrations of Ni measured during the whole study period fell within the range of 3.71 (Gwangju: GJ) to 12.6ngm(-3) (Incheon: IC). Although Ni values showed a good comparability in a relatively large spatial scale, its values in most cities (6 out of 7) were subject to moderate reductions over the study period. To assess the effect of major sources on the long-term distribution of Ni, the relationship between their concentrations and the potent source processes like non-road transportation sources (e.g., ship and aircraft emissions) were examined from some cities with port and airport facilities. The potential impact of long-range transport of Asian dust particles in controlling Ni levels was also evaluated. The overall results suggest that the Ni levels were subject to gradual reductions over the study period irrespective of changes in such localized non-road source activities. The pollution of Ni at all the study sites was maintained well below the international threshold (Directive 2004/107/EC) value of 20ngm(-3).

  10. Chemistry of HO x radicals in the upper troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeglé, Lyatt; Jacob, Daniel J.; Brune, William H.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    Aircraft observations from three recent missions (STRAT, SUCCESS, SONEX) are synthesized into a theoretical analysis of the factors controlling the concentrations of HO x radicals (HO x=OH+peroxy) and the larger reservoir family HO y (HO y=HO x+2H 2O 2+2CH 3OOH+HNO 2+HNO 4) in the upper troposphere. Photochemical model calculations capture 66% of the variance of observed HO x concentrations. Two master variables are found to determine the variance of the 24 h average HO x concentrations: the primary HO x production rate, P(HO x), and the concentration of nitrogen oxide radicals (NO x=NO+NO 2). We use these two variables as a coordinate system to diagnose the photochemistry of the upper troposphere and map the different chemical regimes. Primary HO x production is dominated by the O( 1D)+H 2O reaction when [H 2O]>100 ppmv, and by photolysis of acetone (and possibly other convected HO x precursors) under drier conditions. For the principally northern midlatitude conditions sampled by the aircraft missions, the HO x yield from acetone photolysis ranges from 2 to 3. Methane oxidation amplifies the primary HO x source by a factor of 1.1-1.9. Chemical cycling within the HO x family has a chain length of 2.5-7, while cycling between the HO x family and its HO y reservoirs has a chain length of 1.6-2.2. The number of ozone molecules produced per HO y molecule consumed ranges from 4 to 12, such that ozone production rates vary between 0.3 and 5 ppbv d -1 in the upper troposphere. Three chemical regimes (NO x-limited, transition, NO x-saturated) are identified to describe the dependence of HO x concentrations and ozone production rates on the two master variables P(HO x) and [NO x]. Simplified analytical expressions are derived to express these dependences as power laws for each regime. By applying an eigenlifetime analysis to the HO x-NO x-O 3 chemical system, we find that the decay of a perturbation to HO y in the upper troposphere (as from deep convection) is represented

  11. Room-temperature metal-hydride discharge source, with observations on NiH and FeH.

    PubMed

    Vallon, Raphaël; Ashworth, Stephen H; Crozet, Patrick; Field, Robert W; Forthomme, Damien; Harker, Heather; Richard, Cyril; Ross, Amanda J

    2009-11-26

    A metal sputtering source suitable for laboratory production of metal hydrides is described. Sputtering from pure nickel or iron in an Ar/H(2) discharge is analyzed at low resolution. High resolution laser excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectra of NiH have also been recorded. The source has been designed to operate with a ferromagnetic circuit for Zeeman spectroscopy. Signals from the source are strong enough to record dispersed fluorescence from NiH by Fourier transform interferometry in magnetic fields up to 1 T. We establish that FeH can also be formed in this source.

  12. Hetero-metallic {3d-4f-5d} complexes: preparation and magnetic behavior of trinuclear [(L(Me2)Ni-Ln){W(CN)(8)}] compounds (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Y; L(Me2) = Schiff base) and variable SMM characteristics for the Tb derivative.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Dhers, Sébastien; Rajamani, Raghunathan; Ramasesha, S; Costes, Jean-Pierre; Duhayon, Carine; Vendier, Laure

    2009-07-06

    Assembling bimetallic {Ni-Ln}(3+) units and {W(CN)(8)}(3-) is shown to be an efficient route toward heteronuclear {3d-4f-5d} compounds. The reaction of either the binuclear [{L(Me2)Ni(H(2)O)(2)}{Ln(NO(3))(3)}] complexes or their mononuclear components [L(Me2)Ni] and Ln(NO(3))(3) with (HNBu(3))(3){W(CN)(8)} in dmf followed by diffusion of tetrahydrofuran yielded the trinuclear [{L(Me2)NiLn}{W(CN)(8)}] compounds 1 (Ln = Y), 2a,b (Gd), 3a,b (Tb), 4 (Dy), 5 (Ho), and 6 (Er) as crystalline materials. All of the derivatives possess the trinuclear core resulting from the linkage of the {W(CN)(8)} to the Ni center of the {Ni-Ln} unit. Differences are found in the solvent molecules acting as ligands and/or in the lattice depending on the crystallization conditions. For all the compounds ferromagnetic {Ni-W} and {Ni-Ln} (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, and Er} interactions are operative resulting in high spin ground states. Parameterization of the magnetic behaviors for the Y and Gd derivatives confirmed the strong cyano-mediated {Ni-W} interaction (J(NiW) = 27.1 and 28.5 cm(-1)) compared to the {Ni-Gd} interaction (J(NiGd) = 2.17 cm(-1)). The characteristic features for slow relaxation of the magnetization are observed for two Tb derivatives, but these are modulated by the crystal phase. Analysis of the frequency dependence of the alternating current susceptibility data yielded U(eff)/k(B) = 15.3 K and tau(0) = 4.5 x 10(-7) s for one derivative whereas no maxima of chi(M)'' appear above 2 K for the second one.

  13. Corrosion and wear-corrosion behavior of NiTi modified by plasma source ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Tan, L; Dodd, R A; Crone, W C

    2003-10-01

    The understanding of corrosion behavior in NiTi is critical for the devices using this shape-memory alloy. In order to improve the surface properties of NiTi such as corrosion resistance, plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique was employed with oxygen as incident ions at three levels of implantation dose (5x10(16), 1x10(17) and 3x10(17) ions/cm(-2)). Pitting corrosion and wear-corrosion behavior of control and PSII-modified Ti-50.7at% Ni alloy were evaluated by cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and wear-corrosion measurements. Surface characterization was used to interpret the different corrosion behavior observed between control and oxygen-implanted samples. Results showed that corrosion behavior was influenced by both heat treatment and surface modification. The best pitting corrosion resistance was observed for samples with Af=21 degrees C modified by oxygen implantation at a dose of 1x10(17) ions/cm(-2). Better wear-corrosion resistance was observed for oxygen-implanted samples.

  14. Contributions of the different water sources to the Elqui river runoff (northern Chile) evaluated by H/O isotopes.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Gerhard; Oyarzun, Jorge; Fiebig-Wittmaack, Melitta; González, Edmundo; Weise, Stephan M

    2006-09-01

    We present the results of an isotope (2H and 18O) and hydrogeochemical study in order to constrain the origin, recharge, and evolution of the surface and groundwater in the arid Andean realm of the Elqui watershed. The results of 2H and18O analyses of water samples obtained during our summer and winter campaigns indicate a generally meteoric origin of the river and spring waters of the watershed. The isotope signature of water of the Elqui river and its tributaries as well as that of groundwater in the coastal region fits the 2H-18O relation of delta2H =7.61delta18O+6.1. A relatively fast discharge and a quasi-closed catchment area can be asserted for water along the river flow path. The tributaries from the more arid coastal area, north of the Elqui river, differ in their isotopic signature due to evaporation and hydrochemically due to interactions with the strongly altered and fractured volcanic rocks of the basement. In the Andean zone, the18O-enriched hydrothermal spring of Baños del Toro exhibits the influence of water-rock interaction processes. The chemistry of the river water changes from sulphate- to chloride-rich along the river course from the high Andean mountains to the coast. The sulphate-rich character of these Andean waters reflects their passage through sulphide-rich rock massifs that were subjected to strong oxidation processes in the near superficial environment. This sulphate signature is enforced by past and present mining of precious metal epithermal deposits (e.g. those of El Indio-Tambo Au-Cu-As district), in which mineralised zones were developed during a series of Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal episodes in the Andean realm. Owing to the proximity of the lower Elqui river waters and its tributaries to the Pacific coast, the chloride character may be induced by agricultural and marine (sea spray, fog) sources. Generally, the main source of the Elqui river water is mainly attributed to surface runoff and less to contributions from the

  15. Ternary rare-earth aluminium intermetallics RE10TAl3 (RE = Y, Ho, Tm, Lu; T = Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt) with an ordered anti-Co2Al5 structure.

    PubMed

    Benndorf, Christopher; Eckert, Hellmut; Janka, Oliver

    2017-01-24

    Twenty new rare-earth metal rich intermetallic aluminium compounds, RE10TAl3 (RE = Y, Ho, Tm, Lu; T = Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt), were synthesized by arc melting the elements. The compounds crystallize, in analogy to e.g. the respective Cd representatives, with a ternary ordered structure as anti-type to the hexagonal Co2Al5 type, with the space group P63/mmc. The three crystallographically independent rare-earth metal sites occupy the aluminium positions of the aristotype, while the transition metal and aluminium atoms are ordered on the two cobalt sites. Like other rare-earth rich compounds the RE10TX3 members also exhibit transition-metal-centred T@RE6 trigonal prisms as striking structural building units. The prepared compounds have been investigated by susceptibility measurements and (27)Al solid-state MAS-NMR measurements conducted on the Pauli-paramagnetic Y and Lu compounds. Some compounds show a certain amount of disorder as seen from the single crystal structure analysis and from signal broadening in the NMR investigations. By separating Knight shifts from second-order quadrupolar shifts via field dependent measurements, monotonic trends can be discerned regarding the effect of the T atom valence electron concentration and period number, as well as the effect of the closed 4f shell contributed in the Lu compounds. The results confirm that a comparison of Knight shifts within a series of isotypic compounds can reveal important electronic structure information in intermetallic systems.

  16. Rare earth-copper-magnesium compounds RECu{sub 9}Mg{sub 2} (RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm-Ho, Yb) with ordered CeNi{sub 3}-type structure

    SciTech Connect

    Solokha, P. . E-mail: solokha_pavlo@yahoo.com; Pavlyuk, V.; De Negri, S.; Prochwicz, W.

    2006-10-15

    A series of ternary compounds RECu{sub 9}Mg{sub 2} (RE=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb) have been synthesized via induction melting of elemental metal ingots followed by annealing at 400 deg. C for 4 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) was used for examining microstructure and phase composition. These phases crystallize with an ordered version of the binary hexagonal structure type first reported for CeNi{sub 3}. The crystal structure was solved for TbCu{sub 9}Mg{sub 2} from single crystal X-ray counter data (TbCu{sub 9}Mg{sub 2}-structure type, P6{sub 3} /mmc-space group, hP24-Pearson symbol, a=0.49886 (7) nm, c=1.61646 (3) nm, R {sub F}=0.0474 for 190 unique reflections). The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray powder diffraction patterns of RECu{sub 9}Mg{sub 2} confirmed the same crystal structure for the reported rare earth metals. The unit cell volumes for RECu{sub 9}Mg{sub 2} smoothly follow the lanthanide contraction. The existence of a RECu{sub 9}Mg{sub 2} phase was excluded for RE=Er Tm under the investigated experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: The perspective view of the arrangement of the icosahedrons and anti-cubooctahedrons in the structure of TbCu{sub 9}Mg{sub 2}.

  17. Derivation of hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) levels at an urban site via measurement of pernitric acid (HO2NO2) by iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I(-)-CIMS).

    PubMed

    Chen, Dexian; Huey, L Gregory; Tanner, David J; Li, Jianfeng; Ng, Nga Lee; Wang, Yuhang

    2017-02-17

    Hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) is a key species to atmospheric chemistry. At warm temperatures, the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) and NO2 come to a rapid steady state with pernitric acid (HO2NO2). This paper presents the derivation of HO2 from observations of HO2NO2 and NO2 in metropolitan Atlanta, US in winter 2014 and summer 2015. HO2 was observed to have a diurnal cycle with morning concentrations suppressed by high NO from the traffic. At night, derived HO2 levels were nonzero and exhibited correlations with O3 and NO3, consistent with previous studies that ozonolysis and oxidation by NO3 are sources of nighttime HO2. Measured and model calculated HO2 were in reasonable agreement: Without the constraint of measured HO2NO2 , the model reproduced HO2 with a model-to-observed ratio (M/O) 1.27 (r = 0.54) for winter, 2014, and 0.70 (r = 0.80) for summer, 2015. Adding measured HO2NO2 as a constraint, the model predicted HO2 with M/O = 1.13 ((r = 0.77) for winter 2014, and 0.90 ((r = 0.97) for summer 2015. These results demonstrate the feasibility of deriving HO2 from HO2NO2 measurements in warm regions where HO2NO2 has a short lifetime.

  18. Infrared Identification of HO2 and HO3 Radicals in Irradiated Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, P. D.; Moore, M. H.; Hudson, R. L.

    2006-05-01

    Absorption bands at 1259 and 1142 cm-1 in H2O-O2 ice mixtures irradiated with 0.8 MeV protons at 9 K, have been assigned to the HO3 and HO2 radicals respectively. The assignment of these bands is based upon isotopic shift measurements when 18O2 is used. These bands are also observed in irradiated H2O-O3 and pure H2O2 ices. In each case, they are formed by the following reactions: H + O3 → HO3 H + O2 → HO2 While neither radical has been observed in ice using infrared spectroscopy before, the HO2 radical is known to form in irradiated water ice, but remarkably, the lesser known HO3 is the more prominent spectral feature. These species are probably formed in the surfaces of icy outer solar system bodies where O2 and O3 have already been observed. Their ability to remain trapped in ice is unknown and their reactivity at typical surface temperatures may prevent signficant concentrations being produced. However, even as intermediate species, due to their reactivity they may constitute an important component of the oxidant population in such ices. If they can remain trapped, they may provide a potential energy source for organic reactions or even microbial life in places such as Europa's sub-surface ocean.

  19. Behavior of OH and HO 2 in the winter atmosphere in New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xinrong; Brune, William H.; Mao, Jingqiu; Mitchell, Michael J.; Lesher, Robert L.; Simpas, James B.; Metcalf, Andrew R.; Schwab, James J.; Cai, Chenxia; Li, Yongquan; Demerjian, Kenneth L.; Felton, Henry D.; Boynton, Garry; Adams, Allen; Perry, Jacqueline; He, Yi; Zhou, Xianliang; Hou, Jian

    Hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperxy (HO 2) radicals, collectively known as HO x, were measured during an intensive field study in January and February 2004 in New York City. Much less OH and HO 2 levels were observed than in the summer of 2001 at the same site. On average, the maximum daytime mixing ratios were 0.05 pptv (1.4×10 6 cm -3) for OH and 0.7 pptv for HO 2, which were about one fifth of the levels in the summer of 2001. A zero-dimensional chemical model, based on the regional atmospheric chemical mechanism (RACM) and constrained by the measured concentrations of O 3, NO, NO 2, CO, SO 2, speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and meteorological parameters, was used to study the HO x chemistry in this environment. The model generally reproduced the daytime OH well, with a median measured-to-model ratio of 0.98. However, HO 2 was significantly under-predicted both at day and at night, with a median measured-to-model ratio of 6.0 during daytime. The discrepancy is pronounced when NO concentrations were high, a result that is consistent with some previous studies in urban environments. Photolysis of HONO was the dominant calculated HO x source during daytime; O 3 reactions with alkenes became the main calculated HO x source at night. The main calculated HO x sink was the OH reaction with NO 2. The discrepancy between measured and modeled HO 2 may be caused by significant HO x production that is missing in the model. An additional HO 2 production of up to 3×10 7 cm -3 s -1 (1.1 pptv s -1), which is three times the calculated HO x production, is needed. This HO 2 production can come either from unknown new HO x production or from unknown HO 2 recycling that does not go through OH.

  20. Minfong Ho: Politics in Prose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Joy L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author interviews Minfong Ho, an award-winning Thai writer of children's and young adult novels. Ho was born in Burma to Chinese parents in 1951, raised in Singapore and Thailand, educated in Bangkok, Taiwan, and at Cornell University in New York. Ho's first novel, "Sing to the Dawn," won first prize from the Council of…

  1. Minfong Ho: Politics in Prose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Joy L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author interviews Minfong Ho, an award-winning Thai writer of children's and young adult novels. Ho was born in Burma to Chinese parents in 1951, raised in Singapore and Thailand, educated in Bangkok, Taiwan, and at Cornell University in New York. Ho's first novel, "Sing to the Dawn," won first prize from the Council of…

  2. Tropospheric HO determination by FAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hard, T. M.; Obrien, R. J.; Chan, C. Y.; Mehrabzadeh, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    In the detection of tropospheric HO by laser excited fluorescence, and alternative air-sampling method, named FAGE (Fluorescence Assay with Gas Expansion) was introduced. Here the air is expanded through a nozzle prior to excitation, in order to improve the ratio of the HO signal to the scattered, fluorescent, and photolytic backgrounds. The improvement comes from the differing pressure dependence of the intensities of these four terms, as well as the distinguishability of their temporal waveforms at low pressures when excited by a pulsed laser. HO has been excited by a YAG/dye laser. Other lasers and pumping paths may perform as well or better in this method. With FAGE, chemical modulation of the HO signal was achieved by hydrocarbon addition to the nozzle flow, converting photolytic HO from an interference to a background. Chemical calibration of the instrumental response to external HO was also achieved, by hydrocarbon decay, at HO concentrations within the ambient range.

  3. Ni distribution in MORB-source-mantle pyroxenites: Traces of melt-rock reaction on a cm-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, D.; Dijkstra, A.; Pettke, T.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction The origin of pyroxenites in mantle peridotites is widely discussed as they represent the most important observed lithological inhomogeneity in the upper mantle. We have studied a case of such mantle heterogeneity, consisting of 1-10 cm thick concordant layers of websteritic pyroxenites within residual MORB-source mantle peridotites, in the Jurassic Pindos Ophiolite (N. Greece). Here we report Ni concentrations in minerals in pyroxenites and we compare them with those in the enclosing peridotites We use this data to test whether these pyroxenite layers are cumulate veins, or the product of melt-rock reactions. Results Ni concentrations analysed by Laser ablation ICP-MS on single olivine grains in thick sections show values for the wall-rock peridotites 2580-3480 μg/g, while 2825-3815 μg/g are measured in pyroxenites layers. We consistently observe higher Ni concentrations (10-20%) in pyroxenites compared to peridotites and we observe the same trend in thick sections containing peridotite and pyroxenite parts. The highest Ni concentrations, up to 4145 μg/g, are found in olivine inclusions - older grains surrounded by newly formed orthopyroxene in pyroxenites. Similar elevated Ni concentrations are also characteristic for single orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene grains in pyroxenites compared to peridotites. Intermediate values are typical for transition zones, as there is no strict contact line on the thick section scale between peridotite and pyroxenite. Discussion The data is consistent with a melt-rock reaction origin for the pyroxenites. Melt-rock reaction in the upper mantle between peridotites and SiO2-rich melts would not significantly lower the whole-rock Ni concentration in the newly-formed hybrid rock (pyroxenites). The transformation of olivine to orthopyroxene would strongly concentrate Ni in the remaining olivine and would also enrich other minerals (Sobolev et al. 2007). This interpretation is fully supported by petrographical

  4. HO(x) Measurements in PEM Tropics B with the Airborne Tropospheric Hydrogen Oxides Sensor (ATHOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, William H.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of PEM Tropics B was to study the processes responsible for the production and loss of tropospheric ozone over the tropical Pacific. This region of the globe contains very clean air as well as aged, polluted air that was advected from both the Asian and American continents. Understanding ozone requires understanding of HO(x) (HO(x) = OH + HO2) chemistry, since the reaction between H02 and NO leads to ozone production and the production of OH often requires ozone loss. In addition, OH is the atmosphere's primary oxidant. Since most atmospheric oxidation is thought to occur in the tropical lower troposphere, measurements during PEM Tropics B should provide an important test of the OH abundances and distributions. Thus, understanding and thoroughly testing HO(x) processes was an important objective of PEM Tropics B. Several issues need to be tested, One is HO, production rates and sources, since HO,, production directly affects ozone production and loss. Another is HO(x) behavior in and around clouds, since HO(x) is lost to cloud particles, but convection may bring HO(x) precursors from near the surface to the upper troposphere. A third is the rise and fall of HO(x) at sunrise and sunset, since these variations give strong indications of the important sources and sinks of HO(x). Making and interpreting high-quality OH and H02 measurements from the NASA DC-8 during PEM Tropics B is the objective of this research effort.

  5. Orbital degeneracy as a source of frustration in LiNiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernay, F.; Penc, K.; Fazekas, P.; Mila, F.

    2004-07-01

    Motivated by the absence of cooperative Jahn-Teller effect and of magnetic ordering in LiNiO2 , a layered oxide with triangular planes, we study a general spin-orbital model on the triangular lattice. A mean-field approach reveals the presence of several singlet phases between the SU(4) symmetric point and a ferromagnetic phase, a conclusion supported by exact diagonalizations of finite clusters. We argue that one of the phases, characterized by a large number of low-lying singlets associated to dimer coverings of the triangular lattice, could explain the properties of LiNiO2 , while a ferro-orbital phase that lies nearby in parameter space leads to a new prediction for the magnetic properties of NaNiO2 .

  6. Flashlamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:LuAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Mahendra G. (Inventor); Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Murray, Keith E. (Inventor); Kokta, Milan R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A room temperature solid-state laser is provided. A laser crystal is disposed in a laser cavity. The laser crystal has a LuAG host material doped with a concentration of about 0.35% Ho ions, about 5.57% Tm ions and at least about 1.01% Cr ions. A broadband energizing source such as a flashlamp is disposed transversely to the laser crystal to energize the Ho ions, Tm ions and Cr ions.

  7. Tropospheric HO2 determination by FAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hard, Thomas M.; George, L. A.; Obrien, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    In the present work, HO2 is determined by FAGE, a method which employs low-pressure laser-excited fluorescence to observe the hydroxyl radical HO, using chemical modulation to distinguish the desired signal from the background. In the HO2 determination mode, NO is added to the low-pressure flowing sample, converting HO2 to HO.

  8. Modifications in surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass using laser induced Ni plasma as an ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, M. Shahid; Yousaf, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Laser induced Ni plasma has been employed as source of ion implantation for surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass. Excimer laser (248 nm, 20 ns, 120mJ and 30 Hz) was used for the generation of Ni plasma. Thomson parabola technique was employed to estimate the energy of generated ions using CR39 as a detector. In response to stepwise increase in number of laser pulses from 3000 to 12000, the ion dose varies from 60 × 1013 to 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 with constant energy of 138 KeV. SEM analysis reveals the growth of nano/micro sized cavities, pores, pits, voids and cracks for the ion dose ranging from 60 × 1013 to 70 × 1015 ions/cm2. However, at maximum ion dose of 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 the granular morphology is observed. XRD analysis reveals that new phase of CuZnNi (200) is formed in the brass substrate after ion implantation. However, an anomalous trend in peak intensity, crystallite size, dislocation line density and induced stresses is observed in response to the implantation with various doses. The increase in ion dose causes to decrease the Yield Stress (YS), Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and hardness. However, for the maximum ion dose the highest values of these mechanical properties are achieved. The variations in the mechanical properties are correlated with surface and crystallographical changes of ion implanted brass.

  9. Heterogeneous Uptake of HO2 Radicals onto Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, I. J.; Matthews, P. S.; Brooks, B.; Goddard, A.; Whalley, L. K.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Heard, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals, together known as HOx, play a vital role in atmospheric chemistry by controlling the oxidative capacity of the troposphere. The atmospheric lifetime and concentrations of many trace reactive species, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are determined by HOx radical levels. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict atmospheric HOx concentrations from a detailed knowledge of their sources and sinks is a very useful diagnostic tool to assess our current understanding of atmospheric chemistry. Several recent field studies have observed significantly lower concentrations of HO2 radicals than predicted using box models, where HO2 loss onto aerosols was suggested as a possible missing sink [1, 2]. However, the mechanism on HO2 uptake onto aerosols and its impact on ambient HOx levels are currently not well understood. To improve our understanding of this process, we have conducted laboratory experiments to measure HO2 uptake coefficients onto submicron aerosol particles. The FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique, a highly sensitive laser induced fluorescence based detection method, was used to monitor HO2 uptake kinetics onto aerosol particles in an aerosol flow tube. The application of the FAGE technique allowed for kinetic experiments to be performed under low HO2 concentrations, i.e. [HO2] < 109 molecules cm-3. HO2 radicals were produced by the photolysis of water vapour in the presence of O2 and aerosol particles were produced either by atomizing dilute salt solutions or by homogeneous nucleation. HO2 uptake coefficients (γ) have been measured for single-component solid and aqueous inorganic salt and organic aerosol particles with a wide range of hygroscopicities. HO2 uptake coefficients on solid particles were below the detection limit (γ < 0.001), whereas on aqueous aerosols uptake coefficients were somewhat larger (γ = 0.001 - 0.008). HO2 uptake coefficients were highest on aerosols

  10. Cobalt internal standard for Ni to assist the simultaneous determination of Mo and Ni in plant materials by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry employing direct solid sample analysis.

    PubMed

    de Babos, Diego Victor; Bechlin, Marcos André; Barros, Ariane Isis; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta; de Oliveira, Silvana Ruella

    2016-05-15

    A new method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of Mo and Ni in plant materials by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS), employing direct solid sample analysis (DSS) and internal standardization (IS). Cobalt was used as internal standard to minimize matrix effects during Ni determinations, enabling the use of aqueous standards for calibration. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves were typically better than 0.9937. The performance of the method was checked by analysis of six plant certified reference materials, and the results for Mo and Ni were in agreement with the certified values (95% confidence level, t-test). Analysis was made of different types of plant materials used as renewable sources of energy, including sugarcane leaves, banana tree fiber, soybean straw, coffee pods, orange bagasse, peanut hulls, and sugarcane bagasse. The concentrations found for Mo and Ni ranged from 0.08 to 0.63 ng mg(-1) and from 0.41 to 6.92 ng mg(-1), respectively. Precision (RSD) varied from 2.1% to 11% for Mo and from 3.7% to 10% for Ni. Limits of quantification of 0.055 and 0.074 ng were obtained for Mo and Ni, respectively.

  11. Microstructural sources of toughness in QLT-Treated 5.5Ni cryogenic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. I.; Syn, C. K.; Morris, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In commercial practice 5.5Ni steel is toughened for cryogenic service by a three-step heat treatment designated the “QLT” treatment. To determine why this treatment is necessary and successful, a series of two-step heat treatments was applied to 5.5Ni steel and the resulting microstructural states were characterized and compared with that obtained through the QLT treatment. It was concluded from this analysis that the QLT treatment lowers the ductile-brittle transition temperature by precipitating a dense distribution of thermally stable austenite along the boundaries of martensite laths, which interrupts the crystallographic alignment of laths within martensite packets and prevents cooperative trans-packet cleavage. Essentially, it reduces the mean free fracture path for cleavage. The multistep heat treatment is necessary because of the low nickel content; a single step heat treatment leads to an austenite precipitate which is either too lean in solute to be retained or too coarse in its distribution to be effective. The problem is avoided in the QLT treatment since the intercritical anneal (L) serves to create regions of high solute content along the prior martensite lath boundaries. The intercritical temper (T) then precipitates a dense distribution of high solute, stable austenite within these enriched regions.

  12. HO:LULF and HO:LULF Laser Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Morrison, Clyde A. (Inventor); Filer, Elizabeth D. (Inventor); Jani, Mahendra G. (Inventor); Murray, Keith E. (Inventor); Lockard, George E. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A laser host material LULF (LuLiF4) is doped with holmium (Ho) and thulium (Tm) to produce a new laser material that is capable of laser light production in the vicinity of 2 microns. The material provides an advantage in efficiency over conventional Ho lasers because the LULF host material allows for decreased threshold and upconversion over such hosts as YAG and YLF. The addition of Tm allows for pumping by commonly available GaAlAs laser diodes. For use with flashlamp pumping, erbium (Er) may be added as an additional dopant. For further upconversion reduction, the Tm can be eliminated and the Ho can be directly pumped.

  13. {sup 163}Ho based experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gastaldo, Loredana

    2015-07-15

    The analysis of the endpoint region of the calorimetrically measured {sup 163}Ho electron capture spectrum is a very promising way to determine the mass of the electron neutrino. The achievable sensitivity of {sup 163}Ho-based experiments and the experimental challenges will be presented. Three large collaborations aim at developing large scale experiments able to reach sub-eV sensitivity. Presently pilot experiments are performed to demonstrate the possibility to calorimetrically measure high precision and high statistics {sup 163}Ho spectra. The different approaches as well as the state of the art of the experimental efforts for the three collaborations will be discussed.

  14. The electron capture in 163Ho experiment - ECHo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastaldo, L.; Blaum, K.; Chrysalidis, K.; Day Goodacre, T.; Domula, A.; Door, M.; Dorrer, H.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eliseev, S.; Enss, C.; Faessler, A.; Filianin, P.; Fleischmann, A.; Fonnesu, D.; Gamer, L.; Haas, R.; Hassel, C.; Hengstler, D.; Jochum, J.; Johnston, K.; Kebschull, U.; Kempf, S.; Kieck, T.; Köster, U.; Lahiri, S.; Maiti, M.; Mantegazzini, F.; Marsh, B.; Neroutsos, P.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Ranitzsch, P. C. O.; Rothe, S.; Rischka, A.; Saenz, A.; Sander, O.; Schneider, F.; Scholl, S.; Schüssler, R. X.; Schweiger, Ch.; Simkovic, F.; Stora, T.; Szücs, Z.; Türler, A.; Veinhard, M.; Weber, M.; Wegner, M.; Wendt, K.; Zuber, K.

    2017-06-01

    Neutrinos, and in particular their tiny but non-vanishing masses, can be considered one of the doors towards physics beyond the Standard Model. Precision measurements of the kinematics of weak interactions, in particular of the 3H β-decay and the 163Ho electron capture (EC), represent the only model independent approach to determine the absolute scale of neutrino masses. The electron capture in 163Ho experiment, ECHo, is designed to reach sub-eV sensitivity on the electron neutrino mass by means of the analysis of the calorimetrically measured electron capture spectrum of the nuclide 163Ho. The maximum energy available for this decay, about 2.8 keV, constrains the type of detectors that can be used. Arrays of low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) are being developed to measure the 163Ho EC spectrum with energy resolution below 3 eV FWHM and with a time resolution below 1 μs. To achieve the sub-eV sensitivity on the electron neutrino mass, together with the detector optimization, the availability of large ultra-pure 163Ho samples, the identification and suppression of background sources as well as the precise parametrization of the 163Ho EC spectrum are of utmost importance. The high-energy resolution 163Ho spectra measured with the first MMC prototypes with ion-implanted 163Ho set the basis for the ECHo experiment. We describe the conceptual design of ECHo and motivate the strategies we have adopted to carry on the present medium scale experiment, ECHo-1K. In this experiment, the use of 1 kBq 163Ho will allow to reach a neutrino mass sensitivity below 10 eV/ c 2. We then discuss how the results being achieved in ECHo-1k will guide the design of the next stage of the ECHo experiment, ECHo-1M, where a source of the order of 1 MBq 163Ho embedded in large MMCs arrays will allow to reach sub-eV sensitivity on the electron neutrino mass.

  15. Evaluation of solid sampling for determination of Mo, Ni, Co, and V in soil by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babos, Diego Victor; Barros, Ariane Isis; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Neto, José Anchieta Gomes

    2017-04-01

    New methods are proposed for the determination of Mo, Ni, Co, and V in soils using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with direct solid sampling. Cobalt and V were simultaneously determined, and different analytical lines of Ni and V were monitored to adjust sensitivity for each sample. Accuracy was checked by means of soil certified reference materials, and also by flame atomic absorption spectrometry as comparative technique. The results for Mo, Ni, Co, and V found by proposed methods were in agreement with certified values and with those obtained by the comparative technique at 95% confidence level. The concentrations found in different soil samples were in the ranges 0.19-1.84 mg kg- 1 (Mo), 9.2-22.7 mg kg- 1 (Ni), 1.1-10.7 mg kg- 1 (Co), and 35.6-426.1 mg kg- 1 (V). The relative standard deviations were in the ranges 3.2-10% (Mo), 2.8-9.8% (Ni), 4.0-9.2% (Co), and 1.2-8.0% (V). The limits of quantification for Mo, Ni, Co, and V were 0.027, 0.071, 0.15, and 1.43 ng, respectively.

  16. Compact Ho:YLF Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.

    1988-01-01

    Longitudinal pumping by laser diodes increases efficiency. Improved holmium:yttrium lithium fluoride laser radiates as much as 56 mW of power at wavelength of 2.1 micrometer. New Ho:YLF laser more compact and efficient than older, more powerful devices of this type. Compact, efficient Ho:YLF laser based on recent successes in use of diode lasers to pump other types of solid-state lasers.

  17. Hybrid Open-frameworks: structure determinations and ferromagnetism of MIL-41 or (V(IV)O) 2M(II)(H 2O) 4{HO 3PCH 2PO 3} 2 · 2H 2O (M=Mn, Co, Ni, Zn): four mixed metallomethylendiphosphonates hydrothermally synthesized by using pre-assembled building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelet, Karin; Jouve, Cyril; Riou, Didier; Férey, Gérard

    2000-12-01

    MIL-41 or (V(IV)O) 2M(II)(H 2O) 4{HO 3PCH 2PO 3} 2 · 2H 2O was hydrothermally synthesized at 443 K with M(II)=Mn, Co, Ni, Zn. The structures of the four compounds were solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction in the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic space group Fdd2 (no. 43). The lattice parameters of the Mn compound are a=22.0237(3) Å, b=22.3722(4) Å, c=7.2962(2) Å, V=3595.0(1) Å 3, Z=8 and the reliability factors R1=0.0352, w R2=0.0840 for 2142 reflections with I≥2 σ( I). The structure of MIL-41 is two-dimensional (2-D) with layers built from mixed vanadomethylendiphosphonate chains linked by MO 2(H 2O) 4 octahedra. These solids are ferromagnetic below 5 K due to dipolar interactions.

  18. Topics in Ho Morphophonology and Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucilowski, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Ho, an under-documented North Munda language of India, is known for its complex verb forms. This dissertation focuses on analysis of several features of those complex verbs, using data from original fieldwork undertaken by the author. By way of background, an analysis of the phonetics, phonology and morphophonology of Ho is first presented. Ho has…

  19. Topics in Ho Morphophonology and Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucilowski, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Ho, an under-documented North Munda language of India, is known for its complex verb forms. This dissertation focuses on analysis of several features of those complex verbs, using data from original fieldwork undertaken by the author. By way of background, an analysis of the phonetics, phonology and morphophonology of Ho is first presented. Ho has…

  20. Heterogeneous Uptake of HO2 Radicals onto Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, I. J.; Brooks, B.; Goddard, A.; Whalley, L. K.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Heard, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals, known collectively as HOx radicals, are the key reactants that control the oxidative capacity of the troposphere and the atmospheric lifetimes and concentrations of most trace reactive species, i.e. NOx, O3 and volatile organic compounds. Therefore, in order to gain an overall understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to predict the fate of atmospheric pollutants, a detailed knowledge of the sources and sinks of HOx species and their steady-state atmospheric concentrations is crucial. To this end, field measurements of atmospheric HOx concentrations have been recently compared to model predictions to gauge our level of understanding of atmospheric chemistry of trace reactive species. Box models incorporating known gas-phase chemistry have significantly overpredicted steady-state HO2 levels in comparison to field observations, suggesting heterogeneous uptake onto aerosols as a possible missing atmospheric sink for HO2 radicals [1-2]. However, relatively few laboratory studies have been performed to determine the kinetic parameters for HO2 loss onto aerosols, and thus the ability to assess the impact of this mechanism on HOx levels is limited. The goal of this laboratory study is to improve our understanding of the tropospheric HOx budget by measuring HO2 uptake kinetics onto aerosol particles. In this work, HO2 radicals were produced by the photolysis of water vapour and the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique was used to monitor HO2 loss kinetics onto aerosol particles in an aerosol flow tube setup. FAGE is a highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence based detection method for HOx radicals that has allowed for kinetic measurements to be performed under low HO2 concentrations minimizing gas-phase HO2 self reaction, i.e. for [HO2] < 109 molecules cm-3. The mass accommodation coefficient was determined by measuring HO2 uptake onto Cu(II)-doped ammonium sulfate aerosols. Reactive uptake coefficients

  1. Layer-structured LiNi0.8Co0.2O2: A new triple (H+/O2-/e-) conducting cathode for low temperature proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liangdong; Su, Pei-Chen

    2016-02-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells with proton conducting electrolytes (H-SOFCs) show great potential for more efficient energy conversion over their oxygen ionic conducting counterparts at temperatures below 650 °C, providing a comparably high performance cathode material can be available. A brief review of current development of cathode materials shows that materials with triple (oxygen ionic, protonic, and electronic) conducting properties are most promising for H-SOFCs. In this work, a triple-conducting LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 (LNCO) with layered structure, allowing simultaneous conduction of intrinsic oxygen ion and electron as well as the extrinsic proton, is proposed as a cathode material for H-SOFC. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of LNCO shows the good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with a considerably low activation energy of 0.88 eV, and an evident water uptake capability those facilitate the cathode reaction process. Fuel cells using LNCO cathode on a BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3 proton-conducting electrolyte render a peak power density of 410 mW cm-2 at 650 °C under H2/air condition, which is higher than most of the typical cathode materials reported with similar cell configurations. This work also demonstrated a new series of simple and low cost cathode materials simultaneously possessing interesting triple-conduction and good ORR activities for low temperature H-SOFCs.

  2. Infrared spectra of products of the reaction of H atoms with O2 trapped in solid neon: HO2, HO2(+), HOHOH(-), and H2O(HO).

    PubMed

    Jacox, Marilyn E; Thompson, Warren E

    2013-10-03

    When a Ne/O2 mixture is codeposited at 4.3 K with a Ne/H2 mixture that has been passed through a microwave discharge, the infrared spectrum of the resulting deposit includes prominent absorptions of the three vibrational fundamentals of HO2 and seven relatively weak absorptions in the infrared and near-infrared, only one of them previously reported, that can be assigned to overtones and combination bands of that product. Similar assignments are made for DO2. A new, broad absorption at 702.9 cm(-1) appears close to the gas-phase absorption of HOHOH(-) at 697 cm(-1). Isotopic substitution experiments support that assignment. Evidence is also presented for the stabilization of HOHO(-). Absorptions near the vibrational fundamentals of H2O and an absorption at 3472.4 cm(-1) grow on exposure of the deposit to radiation of wavelength shorter than 345 nm. These absorptions are assigned to the H2O(HO) complex, in agreement with the results of an earlier argon-matrix study. In both studies, photodestruction of HO2 molecules that have H2O trapped in a nearby site results in formation of the complex. Because the discharge through Ne/H2 supports ion production, photodetachment of the resulting HOHOH(-) is an additional source of the complex. Other absorptions may be contributed by the bending fundamental of HO2(+) and by a cation complex with H2.

  3. NdHO, a novel oxyhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Wideroe, Marius; Fjellvag, Helmer; Norby, Truls; Willy Poulsen, Finn; Willestofte Berg, Rolf

    2011-07-15

    A new metal oxyhydride; neodymium oxyhydride, NdHO, has been synthesized from a reactant mixture of metal hydride (CaH{sub 2} or NdH{sub 3}) and neodymium oxide (Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The unit cell dimensions decrease smoothly in the series from LaHO, CeHO, PrHO to NdHO, in line with the lanthanide contraction. The crystal structure of NdHO is described on the basis of Rietveld refinement on neutron powder diffraction data: Space group: P4/nmm (no. 129, D{sub 4h}{sup 7}). Axis lengths: a=7.8480(5) A, c=5.5601(8) A. Volume: V=342.46(6) A{sup 3}. The tetragonal structure is derived from the fluorite structure, showing complete ordering of hydride and oxide ions over the anion sublatttice. The formation of NdHO was further substantiated by Raman spectroscopy. - Graphical Abstract: View of the NdHO structure. Highlights: > CaH{sub 2} or NdH{sub 3} react with Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in reducing atmospheres forming a new oxyhydride, NdHO. > NdHO crystalises in tetragonal space group P4/nmm with axes a=b=7.8480(5) A and c=5.5601(8) A. > The structure is similar to the fluorite structure with complete ordering of hydride and oxide ions. > Unit cell dimensions decrease smoothly in the series from LaHO, CeHO, PrHO to NdHO. > The formation of NdHO is substantiated by Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Effect of rapid quenching on the magnetism and magnetocaloric effect of equiatomic rare earth intermetallic compounds RNi (R = Gd, Tb and Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajivgandhi, R.; Arout Chelvane, J.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.; Nirmala, R.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in RNi (where R = Gd, Tb and Ho) compounds has been studied in their arc-melted and melt-spun forms. The compound GdNi has the orthorhombic CrB-type structure (Space group Cmcm, No. 63) and the compound HoNi has the orthorhombic FeB-type structure (Space group Pnma, No. 62) at room temperature regardless of their synthesis condition. However, arc-melted TbNi orders in a monoclinic structure (Space group P21/m, No. 11) and when it is rapidly quenched to a melt-spun form, it crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure (Space group Pnma, No. 62). The arc-melted GdNi, TbNi and HoNi compounds order ferromagnetically at ∼69 K, ∼67 K and ∼36 K (TC) respectively. While the melt-spun GdNi shows about 6 K increase in TC, the ordering temperature of TbNi remains nearly the same in both arc-melted and melt-spun forms. In contrast, a reduction in TC by about 8 K is observed in melt-spun HoNi, when compared to its arc-melted counterpart. Isothermal magnetic entropy change, ∆Sm, calculated from the field dependent magnetization data indicates an enhanced relative cooling power (RCP) for melt-spun GdNi for field changes of 20 kOe and 50 kOe. A lowered RCP value is observed in melt-spun TbNi and HoNi. These changes could have resulted from the competing shape anisotropy and the granular microstructure induced by the melt-spinning process. Tailoring the MCE of rare earth intermetallic compounds by suitably controlled synthesis techniques is certainly one of the directions to go forward in the search of giant magnetocaloric materials.

  5. Crystalline Ni3C as both carbon source and catalyst for graphene nucleation: a QM/MD study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Menggai; Li, Kai; Guan, Wei; Wang, Ying; Wu, Zhijian; Page, Alister; Morokuma, Keiji

    2015-07-01

    Graphene nucleation from crystalline Ni3C has been investigated using quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QM/MD) simulations based on the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) method. It was observed that the lattice of Ni3C was quickly relaxed upon thermal annealing at high temperature, resulting in an amorphous Ni3C catalyst structure. With the aid of the mobile nickel atoms, inner layer carbon atoms precipitated rapidly out of the surface and then formed polyyne chains and Y-junctions. The frequent sinusoidal-like vibration of the branched carbon configurations led to the formation of nascent graphene precursors. In light of the rapid decomposition of the crystalline Ni3C, it is proposed that the crystalline Ni3C is unlikely to be a reaction intermediate in the CVD-growth of graphene at high temperatures. However, results present here indicate that Ni3C films can be employed as precursors in the synthesis of graphene with exciting possibility.

  6. Crystalline Ni3C as both carbon source and catalyst for graphene nucleation: a QM/MD study

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Menggai; Li, Kai; Guan, Wei; Wang, Ying; Wu, Zhijian; Page, Alister; Morokuma, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nucleation from crystalline Ni3C has been investigated using quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QM/MD) simulations based on the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) method. It was observed that the lattice of Ni3C was quickly relaxed upon thermal annealing at high temperature, resulting in an amorphous Ni3C catalyst structure. With the aid of the mobile nickel atoms, inner layer carbon atoms precipitated rapidly out of the surface and then formed polyyne chains and Y-junctions. The frequent sinusoidal-like vibration of the branched carbon configurations led to the formation of nascent graphene precursors. In light of the rapid decomposition of the crystalline Ni3C, it is proposed that the crystalline Ni3C is unlikely to be a reaction intermediate in the CVD-growth of graphene at high temperatures. However, results present here indicate that Ni3C films can be employed as precursors in the synthesis of graphene with exciting possibility. PMID:26169042

  7. Measurements of HO2 chemical kinetics with a new detection method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Manzanares, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    In this research program, HO2 was detected by the OH(A-X) photofragment from dissociative excitation of HO2 at 147 nm. This detection method was applied to measure the reaction rate constant of HO2 + O3. This reaction rate constant is needed for the understanding of stratospheric chemistry. Since C12 was used in the flow system, photoexcitation of C12 may produce fluorescence to interfere with the measurements. Thus, the photoexcitation process of C12 in the vacuum ultraviolet region was also examined in this research period using synchrotron radiation as a light source. The research results are summarized.

  8. Enhancement of programming speed on gate-all-around poly-silicon nanowire nonvolatile memory using self-aligned NiSi Schottky barrier source/drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chiou, Y. L.

    2013-08-01

    The programming characteristics of gate-all-around silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide silicon (SONOS) nonvolatile memories are presented using NiSi/poly-Si nanowires (SiNW) Schottky barrier (SB) heterojunctions. The non-uniform thermal stress distribution on SiNW channels due to joule heating affected the carrier transport behavior. Under a high drain voltage, impact ionization was found as a large lateral field enhances carrier velocity. As gate voltage (Vg) increased, the difference in the drain current within a range of various temperature conditions can be mitigated because a high gate field lowers the SB height of a NiSi source/SiNW/NiSi drain junction to ensure efficient hot-carrier generation. By applying the Fowler-Nordheim programming voltage to the SONOS nanowire memory, the SB height (Φn = 0.34 eV) could be reduced by image force; thus, hot electrons could be injected from SB source/drain electrodes into the SiN storage node. To compare both SiNW and Si nanocrystal SONOS devices, the SB SiNW SONOS device was characterized experimentally to propose a wider threshold-voltage window, exhibiting efficient programming characteristics.

  9. The study of Nickel Resistant Bacteria (NiRB) isolated from wastewaters polluted with different industrial sources.

    PubMed

    Alboghobeish, Hoda; Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Doudi, Monir

    2014-01-29

    Pollution due to the heavy metals is a problem that may have negative consequences on the hydrosphere. One of the best procedures in removing the toxic metals from the environment is using metal resistant bacteria. In the present study eight nickel resistant bacteria were isolated from industrial wastewaters. Three of them were selected as the most resistant based on their Maximum tolerable concentration (8, 16 and 24 mM Ni2+). Their identification was done according to morphological, biochemical characteristics and 16SrDNA gene sequencing and they were identified as Cupriavidus sp ATHA3, Klebsiella oxytoca ATHA6 and Methylobacterium sp ATHA7. The accession numbers assigned to ATHA3, ATHA6 and ATHA7 strains are JX120152, JX196648 and JX457333 respectively. The Growth rate of the most resistant isolate, Klebsiella oxytoca strain ATHA6, in the presence of Ni2+ and the reduction in Ni2+ concentration was revealed that K oxytoca ATHA6 could decrease 83 mg/mL of nickel from the medium after 3 days. It can be concluded that the identified Ni resistant bacteria could be valuable for the bioremediation of Ni polluted waste water and sewage.

  10. A Reevaluation of Airborne HO(x) Observations from NASA Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Jennifer; Crawford, James H.; Chen, Gao; Brune, William H.; Faloona, Ian C.; Tan, David; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica

    2006-01-01

    In-situ observations of tropospheric HO(x) (OH and HO2) obtained during four NASA airborne campaigns (SUCCESS, SONEX, PEM-Tropics B and TRACE-P) are reevaluated using the NASA Langley time-dependent photochemical box model. Special attention is given to previously diagnosed discrepancies between observed and predicted HO2 which increase with higher NO(x) levels and at high solar zenith angles. This analysis shows that much of the model discrepancy at high NO(x) during SUCCESS can be attributed to modeling observations at time-scales too long to capture the nonlinearity of HO(x) chemistry under highly variable conditions for NO(x). Discrepancies at high NO(x) during SONEX can be moderated to a large extent by complete use of all available precursor observations. Differences in kinetic rate coefficients and photolysis frequencies available for previous studies versus current recommendations also explain some of the disparity. Each of these causes is shown to exert greater influence with increasing NO(x) due to both the chemical nonlinearity between HO(x) and NO(x) and the increased sensitivity of HO(x) to changes in sources at high NO(x). In contrast, discrepancies at high solar zenith angles will persist until an adequate nighttime source of HO(x) can be identified. It is important to note that this analysis falls short of fully eliminating the issue of discrepancies between observed and predicted HO(x) for high NO(x) environments. These discrepancies are not resolved with the above causes in other data sets from ground-based field studies. Nevertheless, these results highlight important considerations in the application of box models to observationally based predictions of HO(x) radicals.

  11. Development of a Chemiluminescence Method for Gas-Phase HO2 Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Lloyd, J.; Springston, S.

    2003-12-01

    Hydroperoxyl Radical (HO2) is a highly reactive intermediate species that participates in photochemical processes in the troposphere. Accurate measurement of HO2 will facilitate the verification of the ozone production mechanism used by the atmospheric chemistry community. HO2 is also the major source of H2O2, which is responsible for the oxidation of SO2 in droplets. Here, we describe a new HO2 detection method based on flow injection analysis (FIA) with a chemiluminescence detector. Gas-phase HO2 is first scrubbed into a pH 9 borax buffer solution, then injected into a chemiluminescence detector, where HO2 and its conjugate base O2- react with MCLA, a synthetic analog of the luciferin from the crustacean Cypridina, to emit light at 465 nm. This technique shows high sensitivity (DL = 0.1 nM in liquid phase or 1 pptv in gas phase) and selectivity for the HO2 / O2- system. A unique feature of our technique is the calibration with a radiolytic method that uses a 60Co gamma ray source to quantitatively produce stable aqueous HO2 / O2- standards. This calibration method is highly reproducible, producing an instrument response that varies less than 5% from day to day. We tested our instrument in the meteorology field at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which is considered a clean remote rural site with background ozone levels about 30 ppbv. On July 17, 2003, a clear sunny day, with a steady NW wind, HO2 started to build up after sunrise and reached a maximum of 9 pptv at about 3 pm local time, approximately two hours after the maximum solar intensity. Our technique has the advantages of simplicity, low cost and ease of operation. It is especially suitable for field measurements, where space and energy resources are usually limited.

  12. Shape coexistence in 153Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Dibyadyuti; Sarkar, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Dasgupta, Shinjinee; Chakraborty, A.; Krishichayan, Kshetri, Ritesh; Ray, Indrani; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Ray Basu, M.; Raut, R.; Ganguly, G.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Basu, S. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Banerjee, P.; Goswami, A.

    2016-08-01

    The high-spin states in 153Ho have been studied by the La57(20Ne139,6 n ) reaction at a projectile energy of 139 MeV at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata, India, utilizing an earlier campaign of the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) setup. Data from γ -γ coincidence, directional correlation, and polarization measurements have been analyzed to assign and confirm the spins and parities of the levels. We have suggested a few additions and revisions of the reported level scheme of 153Ho. The RF-γ time difference spectra have been useful to confirm the half-life of an isomer in this nucleus. From the comparison of experimental and theoretical results, it is found that there are definite indications of shape coexistence in this nucleus. The experimental and calculated lifetimes of several isomers have been compared to follow the coexistence and evolution of shape with increasing spin.

  13. Tm:YLF Pumped Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Walsh, Brian M.; Axenson, Theresa J.

    2004-01-01

    Room temperature Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG lasers pumped by a Tm:YLF laser demonstrated a 3.4 mJ threshold and 0.41 slope efficiency, incident optical to laser output energy. Results for numerous rod lengths, Ho concentrations, and output mirror reflectivities are presented.

  14. Cobalt-related features of spectral and magnetic properties of RNi4Co (R=Ho, Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukoyanov, A. V.; Knyazev, Yu. V.; Kuz`min, Yu. I.; Kuchin, A. G.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we investigate spectral and magnetic properties of RNi4Co (R=Ho, Er) intermetallics to reveal the features associated with the presence of Co substituting ion in comparison with the parent HoNi5 and ErNi5 compounds. Our ab initio LSDA+U calculations show that in the electronic structure Co states are strongly manifested near the Fermi energy for the case of Co in 2c position, while Co in 3g position results only in weak changes of the total DOS curve. Theoretical optical conductivity calculated assuming Co equally redistributed among 2c or 3g positions agrees well with the experimental optical conductivity. Cobalt ion in RNi4Co (R=Ho, Er) is characterized by magnetic moment of 1 μB that increases exchange interaction in the 3d sublattice by several times that contributes to the growth of Curie temperature in comparison with the parent compounds.

  15. Injection-seeded operation of a Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Hale, Charley P.; Magee, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Single-frequency Tm,Ho:YAG lasers operating near 2 microns are attractive sources for several applications including eye-safe laser radar (lidar) and pumping of AgGaSe2 parametric oscillators for efficient generation of longer wavelengths. As part of a program to develop a coherent lidar system using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers, a diode laser-pumped tunable CW single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser and a flashlamp-pumped single-transverse-mode Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser were developed. The CW laser was used to injection-seed the flashlamp-pumped laser, resulting in SLM Q-switched output. Operational characteristics of the CW and Q-switched lasers and injection-seeding results are reported.

  16. Injection-seeded operation of a Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Hale, Charley P.; Magee, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Single-frequency Tm,Ho:YAG lasers operating near 2 microns are attractive sources for several applications including eye-safe laser radar (lidar) and pumping of AgGaSe2 parametric oscillators for efficient generation of longer wavelengths. As part of a program to develop a coherent lidar system using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers, a diode laser-pumped tunable CW single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser and a flashlamp-pumped single-transverse-mode Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser were developed. The CW laser was used to injection-seed the flashlamp-pumped laser, resulting in SLM Q-switched output. Operational characteristics of the CW and Q-switched lasers and injection-seeding results are reported.

  17. Level structure of 154Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chang-Bum; Komatsubara, Tetsuro; Furuno, Kohei

    2013-10-01

    The excited states of the odd-odd 154Ho nucleus have been studied by using in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy with the 141Pr (16O, 3n) 154Ho reaction at Elab=75 MeV. The beam was provided by the 12UD Pelletron accelerator at the University of Tsukuba. In this work, the complicated decay pattern of low energy transitions just above the T1/2=3.10 min isomer have been established. In addition, a number of new states and γ-ray transitions, especially those associated with energetically favored band termination, have been observed for the first time in 154Ho. A negative collective band and its signature partner built on the 11- level are interpreted as being based on the πh11/2⊗νi13/2 configuration. A positive band built on the 10+ level is based on the πh11/2⊗νh9/2 configuration while another positive band built on the 9+ level is being associated with the πh11/2⊗νf7/2 configuration. An energetically favored level Jπ=19- can be interpreted as being attributed to the πh11/2⊗νi13/2 configuration coupled to the 8+ state in neighboring core 152Dy, namely, a four-quasiparticle alignment based on the [πh11/2νi13/2]11-⊗[ν(h9/2f7/2)]8- configuration. Another energetically favored state at Jπ=27- is assigned the six-quasiparticle [π(h11/2)3]27/2-⊗[ν(f7/2h9/2i13/2)]27/2- configuration.

  18. Ferroelectricity and competing interactions in Ho-deficient non-stoichiometric orthorhombic HoMnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. X.; Yan, Z. B.; Xie, Y. L.; Zhou, X. H.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-05-07

    We investigate the consequences of the Ho-deficient non-stoichiometry in orthorhombic HoMnO{sub 3} in terms of microscopic mechanisms for ferroelectricity modulation. It is suggested that the Ho-deficiency (then Mn excess) results in Ho-vacancies and then Mn occupation of the Ho-site with increasing non-stoichiometry. The Ho-deficiency enhances the Mn-Mn symmetric exchange striction by suppressing the independent Ho-Ho interaction, and thus benefits to the induced Ho spin ordering against the independent Ho spin ordering. The symmetric Ho-Mn exchange striction is thus enhanced by this induced Ho spin ordering, leading to remarkably enhanced ferroelectric polarization as observed. This work presents an alternative scheme to modulate the multiferroicity in rare-earth manganites of strong 4f-3d coupling.

  19. Ferroelectricity and competing interactions in Ho-deficient non-stoichiometric orthorhombic HoMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. X.; Yan, Z. B.; Xie, Y. L.; Zhou, X. H.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the consequences of the Ho-deficient non-stoichiometry in orthorhombic HoMnO3 in terms of microscopic mechanisms for ferroelectricity modulation. It is suggested that the Ho-deficiency (then Mn excess) results in Ho-vacancies and then Mn occupation of the Ho-site with increasing non-stoichiometry. The Ho-deficiency enhances the Mn-Mn symmetric exchange striction by suppressing the independent Ho-Ho interaction, and thus benefits to the induced Ho spin ordering against the independent Ho spin ordering. The symmetric Ho-Mn exchange striction is thus enhanced by this induced Ho spin ordering, leading to remarkably enhanced ferroelectric polarization as observed. This work presents an alternative scheme to modulate the multiferroicity in rare-earth manganites of strong 4f-3d coupling.

  20. Increasing Accuracy and Increasing Tension in Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Wendy L.

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Constant, Ho, provides a measure of the current expansion rate of the universe. In recent decades, there has been a huge increase in the accuracy with which extragalactic distances, and hence Ho, can be measured. While the historical factor-of-two uncertainty in Ho has been resolved, a new discrepancy has arisen between the values of Ho measured in the local universe, and that estimated from cosmic microwave background measurements, assuming a Lambda cold dark matter model. I will review the advances that have led to the increase in accuracy in measurements of Ho, as well as describe exciting future prospects with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Gaia, which will make it feasible to measure extragalactic distances at percent-level accuracy in the next decade.

  1. Ni-Co laterite deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Erin E.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are an important source of nickel (Ni). Currently, there is a decline in magmatic Ni-bearing sulfide lode deposit resources. New efforts to develop an alternative source of Ni, particularly with improved metallurgy processes, make the Ni-Co laterites an important exploration target in anticipation of the future demand for Ni. This deposit model provides a general description of the geology and mineralogy of Ni-Co laterite deposits, and contains discussion of the influences of climate, geomorphology (relief), drainage, tectonism, structure, and protolith on the development of favorable weathering profiles. This model of Ni-Co laterite deposits represents part of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program's effort to update the existing models to be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment.

  2. Thermochemistry of HO2 + HO2 → H2O4: Does HO2 Dimerization Affect Laboratory Studies?

    PubMed

    Sprague, Matthew K; Irikura, Karl K

    2015-07-09

    Self-reaction is an important sink for the hydroperoxy radical (HO2) in the atmosphere. It has been suggested (Denis, P. A.; Ornellas, F. R. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2009, 113 (2), 499-506) that the minor product hydrogen tetroxide (HO4H) may act as a reservoir of HO2. Here, we compute the thermochemistry of HO2 self-reactions to determine if either HO4H or the cyclic hydrogen-bound dimer (HO2)2 can act as reservoirs. We computed electronic energies using coupled-cluster calculations in the complete basis set limit, CCSD(T)/CBS[45]//CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ. Our model chemistry includes corrections for vibrational anharmonicity in the zero-point energy and vibrational partition functions, core-valence correlation, scalar relativistic effects, diagonal Born-Oppenheimer, spin-orbit splitting, and higher-order corrections. We compute the Gibbs energy of dimerization to be (-20.1 ± 1.6) kJ/mol at 298.15 K (2σ uncertainty), and (-32.3 ± 1.5) kJ/mol at 220 K. For atmospherically relevant [HO2] = 10(8) molecules per cm(3), our thermochemistry indicates that dimerization will be negligible, and thus H2O4 species are atmospherically unimportant. Under conditions used in laboratory experiments ([HO2] > 10(12) molecules per cm(3), 220 K), H2O4 formation may be significant. We compute two absorption spectra that could be used for laboratory detection of HO4H: the OH stretch overtone (near-IR) and electronic (UV) spectra.

  3. AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HEME OXYGENASE (HO-1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ELISA assay for heme oxygenase (HO-l )

    Abstract

    A double antibody capture ELISA for the HO-l protein has been developed to separately quantitate HO-I protein. The use of 2.5% NP40 detergent greatly assists in freeing HO-l protein from membranes and/or other cel...

  4. Registration of "HoCP 00-950" Sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    HoCP 00-950 sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross HoCP 93-750 x HoCP 92-676 made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 00-950 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Stati...

  5. AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HEME OXYGENASE (HO-1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ELISA assay for heme oxygenase (HO-l )

    Abstract

    A double antibody capture ELISA for the HO-l protein has been developed to separately quantitate HO-I protein. The use of 2.5% NP40 detergent greatly assists in freeing HO-l protein from membranes and/or other cel...

  6. Ho:YLF pumped HBr laser.

    PubMed

    Botha, L R; Bollig, C; Esser, M J D; Campbell, R N; Jacobs, C; Preussler, D R

    2009-10-26

    A Ho:YLF laser pumped HBr molecular laser was developed that produced up to 2.5 mJ of energy in the 4 micron wavelength region. The Ho:YLF laser was fiber pumped using a commercial Tm:fibre laser. The Ho:YLF laser was operated in a single longitudinal mode via injection seeding with a narrow band diode laser which in turn was locked to one of the HBr transitions. The behavior of the HBr laser was described using a rate equation mathematical model and this was solved numerically. Good agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively between the model and experimental results was obtained.

  7. Tracing sources of crustal contamination using multiple S and Fe isotopes in the Hart komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit, Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebert, R. S.; Bekker, A.; Houlé, M. G.; Wing, B. A.; Rouxel, O. J.

    2016-10-01

    Assimilation by mafic to ultramafic magmas of sulfur-bearing country rocks is considered an important contributing factor to reach sulfide saturation and form magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element (PGE) sulfide deposits. Sulfur-bearing sedimentary rocks in the Archean are generally characterized by mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes that is a result of atmospheric photochemical reactions, which produces isotopically distinct pools of sulfur. Likewise, low-temperature processing of iron, through biological and abiotic redox cycling, produces a range of Fe isotope values in Archean sedimentary rocks that is distinct from the range of the mantle and magmatic Fe isotope values. Both of these signals can be used to identify potential country rock assimilants and their contribution to magmatic sulfide deposits. We use multiple S and Fe isotopes to characterize the composition of the potential iron and sulfur sources for the sulfide liquids that formed the Hart deposit in the Shaw Dome area within the Abitibi greenstone belt in Ontario (Canada). The Hart deposit is composed of two zones with komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization; the main zone consists of a massive sulfide deposit at the base of the basal flow in the komatiite sequence, whereas the eastern extension consists of a semi-massive sulfide zone located 12 to 25 m above the base of the second flow in the komatiite sequence. Low δ56Fe values and non-zero δ34S and Δ33S values of the komatiitic rocks and associated mineralization at the Hart deposit is best explained by mixing and isotope exchange with crustal materials, such as exhalite and graphitic argillite, rather than intrinsic fractionation within the komatiite. This approach allows tracing the extent of crustal contamination away from the deposit and the degree of mixing between the sulfide and komatiite melts. The exhalite and graphitic argillite were the dominant contaminants for the main zone of mineralization and the eastern

  8. Local Measurement of Tropospheric HO(x)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosley, David R.

    1994-01-01

    In March of 1992 a workshop sponsored by NASA and NSF was held at SRI International to assess the current ability to measure atmospheric OH and HO2. The measurement techniques reviewed during the workshop for detection of OH included five laser-induced fluorescence schemes, five laser-based adsorption techniques, and four non-laser methods. Six instruments or instrument concepts for HO2 detection, including chemical amplification, conversion to OH with subsequent OH detection, or direct spectroscopic detection of the HO2 were also discussed. The conclusions from the workshop identify several measurement techniques for OH and HO2 that are ready for field tests. These have the ability to measure the radicals with sufficient sensitivity and accuracy to form meaningful comparison with atmospheric model predictions. The workshop conclusions also include recommendations for informal and formal intercomparison protocols.

  9. LiHo(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zarkouna, Emna; Driss, Ahmed; Férid, Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Lithium holmium(III) polyphosphate(V), LiHo(PO3)4, belongs to the type I of polyphosphates with general formula ALn(PO3)4, where A is a monovalent cation and Ln is a trivalent rare earth cation. In the crystal structure, the polyphosphate chains spread along the b-axis direction, with a repeat period of four tetra­hedra and 21 inter­nal symmetry. The Li and Ho atoms are both located on twofold rotation axes and are surrounded by four and eight O atoms, leading to a distorted tetra­hedral and dodeca­hedral coordination, respectively. The HoO8 polyhedra are isolated from each other, the closest Ho⋯Ho distance being 5.570 (1) Å. PMID:21581738

  10. HO-1 expression control in the rat glomerulus.

    PubMed

    Detsika, Maria G; Duann, Pu; Lianos, Elias A

    2015-05-08

    The differential localization of HO-1 in renal cells under conditions of injury, and the demonstration that exaggerated HO-1 expression can have detrimental rather than beneficial effects, raises the question of whether HO-1 expression in these cells is subject to control. The present study identifies a unique HO-1 expression pattern in the renal glomerulus indicative of presence of HO-1 expression control following prolonged HO-1 induction. HO-1 and HO-2 expression in response to the natural HO substrate/inducer Fe(++) protoporphyrin (PP) IX (hemin) was assessed in normal rat glomeruli. Following 18 h incubations with hemin (0-200 μM), HO-1 expression increased in a concentration-dependent manner and via a hemopexin (HPX) independent mechanism with no effect on HO-2. In incubations with higher hemin concentrations (400 μM), likely to be encountered in hemolytic disorders, HO-1 expression, decreased. This was preceded by a prolonged and sustained increase in HO-1 protein and was independent of the Fe(++) moiety as incubations with Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) resulted in an identical expression pattern. The decrease of HO-1 protein could not be accounted for by proteasomal degradation since it was not reversed in co-incubations with hemin and the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, at concentrations sufficient to increase HO-1 glomerular content when used alone. Moreover, in the presence of MG132, a decrease of HO-1 expression also occurred at 100 and 200 μM hemin. The effect of MG132 was mimicked by two additional mechanistically different approaches which also raised HO-1 content: a) co-incubations of hemin with ZnPP which increased HO-1 protein when used alone, and b) glomerular HO-1 over expression achieved by SB transposon mediated transgenesis. In contrast, the decrease in HO-1 levels observed at high hemin concentrations was reversed in co-incubations with hemin and SnPP, which reduced HO-1 content when used alone. Expression of NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2

  11. [Ni(cod)2][Al(ORF)4], a Source for Naked Nickel(I) Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Miriam M.; Himmel, Daniel; Kacprzak, Sylwia; Kratzert, Daniel; Radtke, Valentin; Weis, Philippe; Ray, Kallol; Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Scherer, Wolfgang; de Bruin, Bas; Weber, Stefan; Krossing, Ingo

    2015-10-13

    The straightforward synthesis of the cationic, purely organometallic NiI salt [Ni(cod)2]+[Al(ORF)4]- was realized through a reaction between [Ni(cod)2] and Ag[Al(ORF)4] (cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene). Crystal-structure analysis and EPR, XANES, and cyclic voltammetry studies confirmed the presence of a homoleptic NiI olefin complex. Weak interactions between the metal center, the ligands, and the anion provide a good starting material for further cationic NiI complexes.

  12. The interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in RNi 2B 2C (R dbnd Lu, Tm, Er, Ho, Dy, Tb, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Massalami, M.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Giordanengo, B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. M.

    1995-02-01

    The superconducting and magnetic phase diagram (characteristic temperatures versus effective ionic radii) of the RNi 2B 2C (R dbnd Lu, Tm, Er, Ho, Dy, Tb, Gd) compounds are considered. Although the gradual degradation of superconductivity can be scaled to the de Gennes factor, ( g-1) 2J( J + 1), the unique reentrant behavior of the HoNi 2B 2C compound and the abrupt quenching of superconductivity for R lighter than Ho are most probably unaccountable within this scheme. Rather, it is argued that their low- T magnetic and transport properties as well as the main features of the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity can be accounted for if the low- T magnetism of HoNi 2B 2C, as reported by Grigereit et al., is generalized to the other isomorphous R members. Thus the onset of the 4f moments antiferromagnetic state at T1 is accompanied by an oscillatory component, which transforms to a commensurate antiferromagnetic state at T2. For HoNi 2B 2C, the pressure and magnetic-field influence on Tc, T1 and T2 will be discussed.

  13. The Unimolecular Decomposition and H Abstraction Reactions by HO and HO2 from n-Butanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moc, Jerzy; Black, Gráinne; Simmie, John M.; Curran, Henry J.

    2009-08-01

    By using correlated ab initio (MP2, CCSD(T)) and multi-level (G3, CBS-QB3) methods we have studied unimolecular and bimolecular reactions of n-butanol in the gas phase. The specific processes investigated include H2O elimination and hydrogen abstraction by the hydroxy (HO) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals from this alcohol.

  14. HO(x) Measurements in SONEX with the Airborne Tropospheric Hydrogen Oxides Sensor (ATHOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, William M.

    1997-01-01

    SONEX, which was delayed by aircraft inspection problems, began the second week of October and concluded in mid-November with 16 flights. These flights covered the Pacific Ocean off the western United States, transits across the United States, the western coast of Europe, and the North and Central Atlantic Ocean. Particular attention was paid to the North Atlantic Flight Corridor. ATHOS collected high-quality HO(x) data on 15 flights. Observations taken at 5 Hz were typically averaged into 20-second measurements. Each 20-second measurement has precision 1(sigma) of less than 0.01 pptv. OH measurements were generally made from the surface to flight altitudes. HO2 measurements, which require reagent NO flow, were made from flight altitudes to near the top of the planetary boundary layer. Measured OH and HO2 during SONEX was generally lower than the measured OH and HO2 during SUCCESS (April-May, 1996, central United States). Whereas during SUCCESS midday OH was 0.1-0.5 pptv and HO2 was 3-15 pptv, during SONEX midday OH was 0.02-0.2 pptv and HO2 was 0.5-8 pptv. Part of this difference results from the midday solar zenith angles, which were larger during SONEX than during SUCCESS due to both the season and the generally higher latitudes sampled during SONEX. However, some of the difference may be due to differences in HOx sources, since less air influenced by convection was sampled during SONEX. These possibilities await post-flight calibrations of ATHOS and analysis of observations of HO(x) and simultaneously measured meteorology and trace species.

  15. Therapeutic potential of HO-1 in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Bao-Zhu; Guo, Biao; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Liu, Juan; Tao, Sha-Sha; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2014-10-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO), has raised a lot of concerns in recent years due to its multiple functions. HO-1 was found to be a pivotal cytoprotective, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, immunosuppressive, as well as anti-inflammatory molecule. Recent studies have clarified its significant functions in many diseases with substantial findings. In autoimmune diseases, HO-1 may have promising therapeutic potential. Here, we briefly reviewed recent advances in this field, aiming at hopefully exploring the potential therapeutic roles of HO-1, and design HO-1-based strategies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  16. High Energy Double-Pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF Laser Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Braud, Alain; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2002-01-01

    A high energy double-pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF 2-micrometer laser amplifier has been demonstrated. 600 mJ per pulse pair under Q-switch operation is achieved with the gain of 4.4. This solid-state laser source can be used as lidar transmitter for multiple lidar applications such as coherent wind and carbon dioxide measurements.

  17. Estimation of human absorbed dose for (166)Ho-PAM: comparison with (166)Ho-DOTMP and (166)Ho-TTHMP.

    PubMed

    Vaez-Tehrani, Mahdokht; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Afarideh, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the human absorbed dose of holmium-166 ((166)Ho)-pamidronate (PAM) as a potential agent for the management of multiple myeloma was estimated. (166)Ho-PAM complex was prepared at optimized conditions and injected into the rats. The equivalent and effective absorbed doses to human organs after injection of the complex were estimated by radiation-absorbed dose assessment resource and methods proposed by Sparks et al based on rat data. The red marrow to other organ absorbed dose ratios were compared with these data for (166)Ho-DOTMP, as the only clinically used (166)Ho bone marrow ablative agent, and (166)Ho-TTHMP. The highest absorbed dose amounts are observed in the bone surface and bone marrow with 1.11 and 0.903 mGy MBq(-1), respectively. Most other organs would receive approximately insignificant absorbed dose. While (166)Ho-PAM demonstrated a higher red marrow to total body absorbed dose ratio than (166)Ho-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo dodecane-1,4,7,10 tetra ethylene phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and (166)Ho-triethylene tetramine hexa (methylene phosphonic acid) (TTHMP), the red marrow to most organ absorbed dose ratios for (166)Ho-TTHMP and (166)Ho-PAM are much higher than the ratios for (166)Ho-DOTMP. The result showed that (166)Ho-PAM has significant characteristics than (166)Ho-DOTMP and therefore, this complex can be considered as a good agent for bone marrow ablative therapy. In this work, two separate points have been investigated: (1) human absorbed dose of (166)Ho-PAM, as a potential bone marrow ablative agent, has been estimated; and (2) the complex has been compared with (166)Ho-DOTMP, as the only clinically used bone marrow ablative radiopharmaceutical, showing significant characteristics.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of liver cancer treatment with 166Ho-loaded glass microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa Guimarães, Carla; Moralles, Maurício; Roberto Martinelli, José

    2014-02-01

    Microspheres loaded with pure beta-emitter radioisotopes are used in the treatment of some types of liver cancer. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is developing 166Ho-loaded glass microspheres as an alternative to the commercially available 90Y microspheres. This work describes the implementation of a Monte Carlo code to simulate both the irradiation effects and the imaging of 166Ho and 90Y sources localized in different parts of the liver. Results obtained with the code and perspectives for the future are discussed.

  19. Determination of the absolute photon emission intensities of some gamma rays of (166m)Ho.

    PubMed

    Peyres, Virginia; García-Toraño, Eduardo

    2017-06-24

    This paper presents the results of the absolute measurement of some photon emission intensities in the decay of (166m)Ho. Point sources from a reference solution standardized in the frame of the EURAMET.RI (II)-K2. Ho-166m activity comparison were measured by gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency was obtained by Monte Carlo calculations including the complete decay scheme. Results obtained for 27 gamma and X-ray emissions are compared to reference values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of loss processes of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Bair, C. H.; Inge, A. T.; Hess, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    The loss of excitation from various manifolds of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG as a function of temperature and concentration is studied. Two probable loss mechanisms - a Tm up-conversion and a Ho up-conversion - are identified. A 785-nm CW diode laser with 400-nW peak power was focused to a small spot on the sample. The emission from the sample observed at 90 deg was monitored through a monochromator with slits open to 3 mm. Intensity of emission was measured by varying the power of the excitation source using a set of neutral density filters. Power is reported as the percentage of the peak power, and the intensity curves were normalized below 20 percent of transmission. The fact that there is emission above the pump energy indicates an up-conversion from excited manifolds. Nonlinear changes in the intensity of the emission from the Tm 3F4 manifold with the pump power reveals a loss of excitation from this manifold. The linear dependence of the 5I7 manifold emission with pump power at low Tm and high Ho concentrations and the gain of energy in the 5I6 manifold of Ho indicate that the 5I7 manifold loss is due to the coupling of Tm and Ho ions.

  1. Investigation of loss processes of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Bair, C. H.; Inge, A. T.; Hess, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    The loss of excitation from various manifolds of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG as a function of temperature and concentration is studied. Two probable loss mechanisms - a Tm up-conversion and a Ho up-conversion - are identified. A 785-nm CW diode laser with 400-nW peak power was focused to a small spot on the sample. The emission from the sample observed at 90 deg was monitored through a monochromator with slits open to 3 mm. Intensity of emission was measured by varying the power of the excitation source using a set of neutral density filters. Power is reported as the percentage of the peak power, and the intensity curves were normalized below 20 percent of transmission. The fact that there is emission above the pump energy indicates an up-conversion from excited manifolds. Nonlinear changes in the intensity of the emission from the Tm 3F4 manifold with the pump power reveals a loss of excitation from this manifold. The linear dependence of the 5I7 manifold emission with pump power at low Tm and high Ho concentrations and the gain of energy in the 5I6 manifold of Ho indicate that the 5I7 manifold loss is due to the coupling of Tm and Ho ions.

  2. Cardy-Verlinde entropy in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luongo, Orlando; Pisani, Giovanni Battista; Quevedo, Hernando

    2016-03-01

    We investigate homogeneous cosmological models with perfect-fluid sources in the framework of the Hořava-Lifshitz model for quantum gravity. We show that the Hamiltonian constraint of such spacetimes can be rewritten as the Cardy formula for the entropy in conformal field theory. The Cardy entropy is shown to depend explicitly on the value of the Hořava parameter λ so that it can be interpreted as determining the entropy and the gravitational interaction of the theory. Moreover, we show that Verlinde's Pythagorean representation of the Hamiltonian constraint is also valid in the case of homogeneous Hořava-Lifshitz spacetimes. We interpret these results as a further indication of a deep relationship between gravity, thermodynamics and holography in the quantum regime.

  3. Powerful visible (530???770 nm) luminescence in Yb,Ho:GGG with IR diode pumping.

    PubMed

    Kir'yanov, Alexander; Aboites, V; Belovolov, A; Timoshechkin, M; Belovolov, M; Damzen, M; Minassian, A

    2002-08-12

    Powerful visible luminescence in a Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG) crystal, co-activated with Yb3+ (~15 at.%) and Ho3+ (~0.1 at.%) ions, is investigated under CW laser diode pumping (lambda = 938 and 976 nm). The main visible emission band is observed in the green with its peak at lambda ~540 nm) and measured to be about 10% with respect to Yb3+ IR luminescence (lambda ~1000 nm). Red (lambda ~650 nm) and near-IR (lambda ~755 nm) emission bands are also observed but are weaker (about 3-5%). Analysis of the crystal absorption and luminescence spectra allows one to conclude that Yb3+ - Ho3+ stepwise up-conversion is the mechanism explaining the phenomenon. Ho3+ ions embedded in the crystal in small concentration are shown to form an effective reservoir for energy transferred from the excited Yb3+ subsystem and to be an efficient source of the visible emission.

  4. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Reaction NO + OH + O2 → HO2 + NO2.

    PubMed

    Fittschen, Christa; Assaf, Emmanuel; Vereecken, Luc

    2017-06-22

    Photolysis of NO2 is the only major pathway for O3 formation as products from the reaction of OH and NO under atmospheric conditions in competition to the formation of HONO has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Experiments have been carried out by directly measuring the formation of HO2 radicals using laser photolysis coupled to cw-CRDS. OH radicals have been generated from the reaction of F atoms with H2O, and absolute HO2 and OH profiles have been recorded at different NO concentrations. The potential energy surface has been calculated and the rate constant has been obtained from RRKM master equation modeling. Both experiment and theory show that the OH + NO reaction in the presence of O2 bath gas is not a competitive source of HO2 + NO2.

  5. Temperature changes under Ho:YLF irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezell, Denise M.; Cecchini, Silvia C. M.; Pinotti, Marcos; Eduardo, Carlos d. P.

    1996-04-01

    A prototype of Er:Tm:Ho:LiYF4 (Ho:YLF) laser, emitting at 2,065 micrometers , 1,25 J 5 Hz, with pulsewidth of 250 microsecond(s) was developed for biomedical applications. In order to verify the possibility of using this laser for cavities preparation in vivo, temperature rise in the pulp chamber must be known. Temperature changes were measured during Ho:YLF irradiation with 500 mJ/pulse, 30 pulses/position with energy density of 2079 J/cm2/pulse. Two groups of teeth were used: group I with pulp chamber empty and group II with pulp chamber filled with phase change material. In both cases, there were no temperature rise above 3,8 degree(s)C in the pulp chamber.

  6. Water dependence of the HO2 self reaction: kinetics of the HO2-H2O complex.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Nozomu; Tonokura, Kenichi; Tezaki, Atsumu; Koshi, Mitsuo

    2005-04-14

    Transient absorption spectra and decay profiles of HO2 have been measured using cw near-IR two-tone frequency modulation absorption spectroscopy at 297 K and 50 Torr in diluent of N2 in the presence of water. From the depletion of the HO2 absorption peak area following the addition of water, the equilibrium constant of the reaction HO2 + H2O <--> HO2-H2O was determined to be K2 = (5.2 +/- 3.2) x 10(-19) cm3 molecule(-1) at 297 K. Substituting K2 into the water dependence of the HO2 decay rate, the rate coefficient of the reaction HO2 + HO2-H2O was estimated to be (1.5 +/- 0.1) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at 297 K and 50 Torr with N2 as the diluent. This reaction is much faster than the HO2 self-reaction without water. It is suggested that the apparent rate of the HO2 self-reaction is enhanced by the formation of the HO2-H2O complex and its subsequent reaction. Results are discussed with respect to the kinetics and atmospheric chemistry of the HO2-H2O complex. At 297 K and 50% humidity, the concentration ratio of [HO2-H2O]/[HO2] was estimated from the value of K2 to be 0.19 +/- 0.11.

  7. 75 FR 52534 - Su Van Ho: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Salmonella bacteria, with verification of such exportation or destruction by FDA. Mr. Ho concealed and... with Salmonella bacteria. As a result of his conviction, on June 10, 2010, FDA sent Mr. Ho a notice by...

  8. Correlation of acoustic emission generated during uniform biaxial loading to microstructural sources in 7075-T651 aluminum and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, E.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1981-12-01

    This paper reports on the effect on acoustic emission (AE) of uniform biaxial loading of a thin-walled tube designed by Hamstad, Patterson and Mukherjee. The AE generated during biaxial loading of 7075-T651 aluminum and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel had several anomalous features relative to tensile generated AE. The biaxial AE data was of a much higher level and peaked at a lower strain than the uniaxial AE response. A particle cracking model was proposed in which inclusions with the largest projected surface area perpendicular to the principal axis of applied loading will crack before smaller inclusions, and the resulting energy released per AE will be proportional to the crack surface area. The inclusion contents were studied with respect to size, shape, density, hardness, and fracture/decohesion behavior. The inclusions in both 7075-T651 and 21-6-9 display the preferred cracking orientation predicted in the Hamstad, et al. model and are shown to be associated with the generated AE. However, other factors appear to contribute to the total AE responses. There is evidence that for 7075-T651 subjected to biaxial loading, a grain boundary-related mechanism becomes a significant source of AE in the latter stages of strain hardening. Also, for both materials, the complex applied load during biaxial loading appears to amplify the level of AE.

  9. Magnetic structures in RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C (R = Ho, Er) superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Stassis, C.; Goldman, A.I.; Dervenagas, P.; Zarestky, J.; Canfield, P.C.; Cho, B.K.; Johnston, D.C.; Sternlieb, B.; Sternlieb, B.

    1994-12-31

    Single crystal neutron diffraction techniques have been employed to study the evolution of magnetic structures in RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C compounds in an attempt to understand the relationship between magnetic ordering and superconductivity in several members of this series. For HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C, below the superconducting transition (T{sub c} = 8 K), an incommensurate magnetic structure characterized by two wave vectors (0.585 a* and 0.915 c*) is found in a narrow temperature range between 4.7 K and 6 K. This is the same temperature range where bulk measurements find a deep minimum in the upper critical field, H{sub c2}. Below 4.7 K, HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C is a simple collinear antiferromagnet. ErNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C ({Tc} = 11 K) orders in an incommensurate modulated antiferromagnetic state characterized by an ordering wave vector 0.553 a* below 7 K, which coexists with superconductivity.

  10. Spectroscopic properties of Ho3+ ions doped in tellurite glass.

    PubMed

    Rai, S B; Singh, Anant Kumar; Singh, Shiv Kumar

    2003-12-01

    Spectroscopic properties of Ho3+ doped tellurite glass (1 mol.% of Ho3+) have been studied. The absorption and fluorescence spectra have been recorded and analysed using the Judd-Offelt theory. The analysis indicates that Ho doped tellurite glasses can show lasing on the 5F4 (5S2)-5I8 transition (548.0 nm).

  11. Kinetics of the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Peterson, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The flash photolysis/ultraviolet absorption technique was used to measure the rate constants for the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M over the pressure range 50-700 torr and temperature range 229-362 K using He, O2, and N2 as diluent gases. The data were fit to the expression derived by Troe (1979) and co-workers for describing the pressure and temperature dependence of reactions in the falloff region. By combining these data with recent measurements of the rate constant for HO2NO2 thermal decomposition values of 73.8 + or - 2 eu for the standard entropy and -12.6 + or - kcal/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation of HO2NO2 were obtained. A significant enhancement in the rate constant was observed when water vapor was added to the system.

  12. Inter-basin sources for two-year predictability of the multi-year La Niña event in 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Liu, Guoqiang; Hendon, Harry; Alves, Oscar; Yamagata, Toshio

    2017-05-23

    Multi-year La Niña events often induce persistent cool and wet climate over global lands, altering and in some case mitigating regional climate warming impacts. The latest event lingered from mid-2010 to early 2012 and brought about intensive precipitation over many land regions of the world, particularly Australia. This resulted in a significant drop in global mean sea level despite the background upwards trend. This La Niña event is surprisingly predicted out to two years ahead in a few coupled models, even though the predictability of El Niño-Southern Oscillation during 2002-2014 has declined owing to weakened ocean-atmosphere interactions. However, the underlying mechanism for high predictability of this multi-year La Niña episode is still unclear. Experiments based on a climate model that demonstrates a successful two-year forecast of the La Niña support the hypothesis that warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans act to intensify the easterly winds in the central equatorial Pacific and largely contribute to the occurrence and two-year predictability of the 2010-2012 La Niña. The results highlight the importance of increased Atlantic-Indian Ocean SSTs for the multi-year La Niña's predictability under global warming.

  13. Kinetics of Reactions of HO2 with HO2 and with organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyndall, G. S.; Orlando, J. J.; Tang, Y.; Hasson, A. S.; Scaldaferri, M. C.; Pimentel, A. S.; Wallington, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Reactions of HO2 radicals with organics are in general assumed to be quite slow. However, it has been known for a number of years that HO2 adds reversibly to HCHO, in a reaction which can lead to the production of formic acid, particularly at low temperature. We have studied the reaction of HO2 with a number of carbonyls as a function of temperature using both time resolved diode laser absorption and FTIR analysis. In the time resolved studies, HO2 is produced by flash photolysis and detected in the overtone of the OH stretching mode by diode laser spectroscopy. The self reaction of HO2 was first studied as a function of temperature and added complexing gases (H2O, CH3OH). The rate coefficient of the self reaction was found to have a moderate negative temperature dependence, in agreement with older studies of this reaction. The addition of carbonyls (HCHO, CH3CHO, CF3CHO, acetone) led to an increase in the loss rate of HO2, enabling kinetic and thermodynamic information to be obtained about the equilibria. Complementary experiments were conducted to examine the products in an environmental chamber using FTIR detection of reactants and products. The reaction mechanisms and environmental impacts of the results will be discussed.

  14. Black strings in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Alikram N.; Şentürk, Çetin

    2011-08-01

    We examine a class of cylindrically symmetric solutions in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. For the relativistic value of the coupling constant, λ=1, we find the hedgehog-type static black string solution with the nonvanishing radial shift in the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner-type decomposition of the spacetime metric. With zero radial shift, this solution corresponds to the usual Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black string in general relativity. However, unlike the general relativity case, the BTZ-type black strings do naturally exist in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity, without the need for any specific source term. We also find a rotating BTZ-type black string solution which requires the nonvanishing radial shift for its very existence. We calculate the mass and the angular momentum of this solution, using the canonical Hamiltonian approach. Next, we discuss the Lemos-type black string, which is inherent in general relativity with a negative cosmological constant, and present the static metric for any value of λ>1/3. Finally, we show that while, for λ=1, the entropy of the Lemos-type black string is given by one quarter of the horizon area, the entropy of the static BTZ-type black string is one half of its horizon area.

  15. OH and HO2 chemistry in clean marine air during SOAPEX-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommariva, R.; Haggerstone, A.-L.; Carpenter, L. J.; Carslaw, N.; Creasey, D. J.; Heard, D. E.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Pilling, M. J.; Zádor, J.

    2004-01-01

    Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO]<3 ppt) are reported. Measurements were made during the second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX-2), held in austral summer 1999 at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in north-western Tasmania, Australia. The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 15 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx) concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5-10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL) air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D) and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D) to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30-40% for OH and 25-30% for HO2 was

  16. HO-1/CO system in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metabolism - Targeting HO-1 as an anti-tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Loboda, Agnieszka; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, hmox-1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the heme degradation processes. Out of three by-products of HO-1 activity, biliverdin, iron ions and carbon monoxide (CO), the latter was mostly shown to mediate many beneficial HO-1 effects, including protection against oxidative injury, regulation of apoptosis, modulation of inflammation as well as contribution to angiogenesis. Mounting evidence suggests that HO-1/CO systemmay be of special benefit in protection inmany pathological conditions, like atherosclerosis or myocardial infarction. By contrast, the augmented expression of HO-1 in tumor tissues may have detrimental effect as HO-1 accelerates the formation of tumor neovasculature and provides the selective advantage for tumor cells to overcome the increased oxidative stress during tumorigenesis and during treatment. The inhibition of HO-1 has been proposed as an anti-cancer therapy, however, because of non-specific effects of known HO-1 inhibitors, the discovery of ideal drug lowering HO-1 expression/activity is still an open question. Importantly, in several types of cancer HO-1/CO system exerts opposite activities, making the possible treatment more complicated. All together indicates the complex role for HO-1/CO in various in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  17. The Secret Lives of Cepheids: The prototype Classical Cepheid δ Cephei is a Pulsed Variable X-ray and FUV Source - Implications for achieving a high precision Hubble Constant (Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.; Neilson, Hilding; Harper, Graham M.; Remage Evans, Nancy

    2016-06-01

    As part of our “Secret Lives of Cepheids” program, we report that the prototype Classical Cepheid - δ Cep is an X-ray source with pulsation-modulated X-ray & FUV emissions. Recent Chandra X-ray observations, when combined with our previous Chandra & XMM-Newton data, confirm a periodic sharp ~ 5 fold increase in X-ray flux at ~ 0.5φ. The X-ray emission phases with the star's pulsation P = 5.366-d, confirms that the X-ray emissions arise from the Cepheid itself and not from a companion. The X-ray variation is “spike-like” with an Lx (max) ~ 2.1 x1029 erg/s, with plasma temperatures of ~ 2 - 6 MK. The HST-COS FUV fluxes increase ~10-20 times and reach maximum strengths during ~0.88-0.97φ - prior to maximum brightness. The FUV emissions arise from ionized plasmas with T ~10 - 300 x103 K. The FUV emission lines show turbulent broadening near the maximum fluxes. The FUV emissions are best explained by pulsation-induced collisional shocks originating from the star’s pulsating atmosphere. However, the X-ray emissions occur 0.5 - 0.6 φ (~3 days) later than the FUV emission line maxima. Thus, it appears that the X-ray emissions arise further out from the star. We suggests that to produce the observed high temperature X-ray emitting plasmas, that the X-rays most likely arise from pulsation-shock induced turbulent-magnetic heated plasmas. If this behavior is extended to other Cepheids, the presence of pulsation induced X-ray and FUV emissions could play major roles in the dynamics and heating of Cepheid atmospheres and could have consequences affecting the Cepheid Period-Luminosity (P-L) law. For example, the additional energy and shock-heating could produce enhanced mass loss leading to the formation of circumstellar shells. For example, the presence of circumstellar matter could bias the P-L relation if not accounted for. Similar X-ray - UV behavior is indicated by at least one other Cepheid, β Doradus.This research is supported from grants from NASA for

  18. All fiber thulium-doped fiber laser pumped Q-switched Ho:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ting; Ye, Xisheng; Yang, Zhongguo; Chen, Xiaolong; Xia, Wenbin; Zhang, Jiayang; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jianyu; Si, Jiliang; Chen, Weibiao

    2017-05-01

    The high power infrared 2μm lasers have been extensively investigated for a number of commercial, scientific and engineering applications, such as remote chemical sensing, medical diagnostics, eye-safe laser radar, and environmental monitoring. Furthermore, high-power 2μm lasers are effective pump sources of optical parametrical oscillators and optical parametrical amplifications to generate mid-infrared 3-5μm laser. In recent years, Ho:YAlO3(Ho:YAP) crystal has drawn great attention as a promising efficient laser material for its long emission wavelength at 2118nm. An acoustic-optical Q-switched Ho:YAP laser pumped by an all fiber thulium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated. The all fiber thulium-doped fiber laser can emit 80W output power, and the output laser wavelength is 1915nm. By using this 1915nm laser to end pump the AO Q-switched Ho:YAP laser system, 2118nm laser with 30W average power and 45ns pulse width at 20kHz repetition rates was obtained.

  19. Yields of O2(b 1 Sigma g +) from reactions of HO2. [in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, L. F.; Choo, K. Y.; Leu, M. T.

    1985-01-01

    The production of O2(b 1 Sigma g +) has been monitored for several reactions of the HO2 radical at 300 K using a discharge-flow apparatus with resonance fluorescence and chemiluminescence detection. In all cases, the resulting quantum efficiencies were found to be less than 0.03. O2(b) was observed when F atoms were added to H2O2 in the gas phase. The signal strengths of O2(b) were proportional to initial concentrations of HO2 formed by the F + H2O2 reaction. Observed /O2(b)/, /HO2/, and /OH/ vs /F/0 were analyzed using a simple three-step mechanism and a more complete computer simulation with 22 reaction steps. The results indicate that the F + HO2 reaction yields O2(b) with an efficiency of (3.6 + or - 1.4) x 10 to the -3rd. Yields from the O + OH2 reaction were less than 0.02, indicating that this reaction cannot be a major source of the O2(b) emission observed in the earth's nightglow.

  20. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    Heme oxygenase (HO) occurs in biological tissues as two major isoforms HO-1 and HO-2. HO-1 is inducible by many treatments, particularly oxidative stress-related conditions such as depletion of gl...

  1. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    Heme oxygenase (HO) occurs in biological tissues as two major isoforms HO-1 and HO-2. HO-1 is inducible by many treatments, particularly oxidative stress-related conditions such as depletion of gl...

  2. Low noise, tunable Ho:fiber soliton oscillator for Ho:YLF amplifier seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Ruehl, Axel; Bransley, Colleen; Hartl, Ingmar

    2016-06-01

    We present a passively mode-locked, tunable soliton Ho:fiber ring oscillator, optimized for seeding of holmium-doped yttrium lithium flouride (Ho:YLF) amplifiers. The oscillator is independently tunable in central wavelength and spectral width from 2040 to 2070 nm and from 5 to 10 nm, respectively. At all settings the pulse energy within the soliton is around 800 pJ. The soliton oscillator was optimized to fully meet the spectral requirements for seeding Ho:YLF amplifiers. Its Kelly sidebands are located outside the amplifier gain spectrum, resulting in a train of about 1 ps long pedestal-free pulses with relative intensity noise of only 0.13% RMS when integrated from 1 Hz to Nyquist frequency.

  3. Effect of thermomechanical pre-treatment on short- and long-term Ni release from biomedical NiTi.

    PubMed

    Freiberg, Katharina E; Bremer-Streck, Sibylle; Kiehntopf, Michael; Rettenmayr, Markus; Undisz, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The effect of annealing and deformation on short-term (21days) and long-term (8months) Ni release from biomedical NiTi wires is studied. The deformation of annealed NiTi wires causes cracking and flaking of the surface oxide layer. Flaking of oxide particles does not uncover the Ni-rich layer underneath the surface oxide layer, since at sites where flaking occurs, a thin (∼25nm) layer of oxide remains on top of this Ni-rich layer. The number of cracks in the oxide and Ni-rich layer, respectively, increases with deformation, and intercrystalline crack propagation into the Ni-rich layer and the NiTi bulk is observed. In plastically deformed wires, the cracks may remain opened, providing access of immersion liquid to these zones. Characteristics and quantity of short-term Ni release are significantly affected by the pre-deformation, resulting in an up to 2 times higher total Ni release within the first 21days of deformed compared to annealed wires. Pre-deformation does not significantly influence long-term Ni release; all annealed and deformed samples exhibit similar long-term Ni release rates. The source of Ni during short-term release is the Ni contained in the surface zone of the oxide layer. For high pre-deformation, the Ni-rich layer is a second source for Ni. This second source is also the cause for Ni release in long-term immersion experiments.

  4. High Energy Directly Pumped Ho:YLF Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Ji-Rong; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, Norman P.

    2000-01-01

    The most commonly used crystal architecture to produce 2 micrometer laser is co-doping Ho and Tm into a single host crystal. In this method, the stored energy transfer from the Tm (3)F4 to the Ho (5)I7 manifold is not fast enough to warrant high efficiency for short pulse applications. By separating the Ho and the Tm ions and doping the Tm in YALO3 and the Ho in YLF, we were able to directly pump the Ho (5)I7 manifold with 1.94 micrometers. The Ho:YLF laser has produced 33 mJ at 2.062 micrometers with a quantum efficiency of 0.88. The performance of each laser will be presented.

  5. Hydration and mobility of HO-(aq)

    PubMed Central

    Asthagiri, D.; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Kress, J. D.; Gomez, Maria A.

    2004-01-01

    The hydroxide anion plays an essential role in many chemical and biochemical reactions. But a molecular-scale description of its hydration state, and hence also its transport, in water is currently controversial. The statistical mechanical quasichemical theory of solutions suggests that \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{HO}}{\\cdot}[{\\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\\mathrm{O}}]_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} is the predominant species in the aqueous phase under standard conditions. This result agrees with recent spectroscopic studies on hydroxide water clusters and with the available thermodynamic hydration free energies. In contrast, a recent ab initio molecular dynamics simulation has suggested that \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{HO}}{\\cdot}[{\\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\\mathrm{O}}]_{4}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} is the only dominant aqueous solution species. We apply adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and find good agreement with both the quasichemical theoretical predictions and experimental results. The present results suggest a picture that is simpler, more traditional, but with additional subtlety. These coordination structures are labile but the tricoordinate species is the prominent case. This conclusion is unaltered with changes in the electronic density functional. No evidence is found for rate-determining activated interconversion of a \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength

  6. Room temperature 2 μm Tm,Ho : YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronti, B.; Cornacchia, F.; Di Lieto, A.; Maroni, P.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.

    2003-03-01

    We present the results obtained with a Tm,Ho : YLF crystal, grown in the new crystals growth facility realized in the Dipartimento di Fisica of the Università di Pisa. The 2 μm laser performance has been studied for three different pump sources, a Ti : Sapphire, a diode—tuned at 792.7 nm—and a Co : MgF 2 laser, tuned at 1.682 μm.

  7. Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Filer, Elizabeth D.; Naranjo, Felipe L.; Rodriguez, Waldo J.; Kokta, Milan R.

    1993-01-01

    Ho:Tm:LuAG has been grown, examined spectroscopically, and lased at 2.1 microns. Ho:Tm:LuAG was selected for this experimental investigation when quantum-mechanical modeling predicted that it would be a good laser material for Ho laser operation on one of the 5I7 to 5I8 transitions. Lasing was achieved at 2.100 microns, one of the three wavelengths predicted to be most probable for laser action.

  8. The chemistry of OH and HO2 radicals in the boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Furneaux, K. L.; Goddard, A.; Lee, J. D.; Mahajan, A.; Oetjen, H.; Read, K. A.; Kaaden, N.; Carpenter, L. J.; Lewis, A. C.; Plane, J. M. C.; Saltzman, E. S.; Wiedensohler, A.; Heard, D. E.

    2009-07-01

    Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE) has been used to detect ambient levels of OH and HO2 radicals at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory, located in the tropical Atlantic marine boundary layer, during May and June 2007. Midday radical concentrations were high, with maximum concentrations of 9×106 molecule cm-3 and 6×108 molecule cm-3 observed for OH and HO2, respectively. A box model incorporating the detailed Master Chemical Mechanism, extended to include halogen chemistry, and constrained by all available measurements including halogen and nitrogen oxides, has been used to assess the chemical and physical parameters controlling the radical chemistry. IO and BrO, although present only at a few pptv, constituted ~23% of the instantaneous sinks for HO2. Modelled HO2 was sensitive to both HCHO concentration and the rate of heterogeneous loss to the ocean surface and aerosols. However, a unique combination of these parameters could not be found that gave optimised (to within 15%) agreement during both the day and night. The results imply a missing nighttime source of HO2. The model underpredicted the daytime (sunrise to sunset) OH concentration by 12%. Photolysis of HOI and HOBr accounted for ~13% of the instantaneous rate of OH formation. Taking into account that halogen oxides increase the oxidation of NOx (NO→NO2), and in turn reduce the rate of formation of OH from the reaction of HO2 with NO, OH concentrations were estimated to be 10% higher overall due to the presence of halogens. The increase in modelled OH from halogen chemistry gives an estimated 10% shorter lifetime for methane in this region, and the inclusion of halogen chemistry is necessary to model the observed daily cycle of ozone destruction that is observed at the surface. Due to surface losses, we hypothesise that HO2 concentrations increase with height and therefore contribute a larger fraction of the ozone destruction than at the surface.

  9. Heterogeneous photochemistry of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde: HO2 radical formation and aerosol growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Palacios, Laura; Corral Arroyo, Pablo; Aregahegn, Kifle Z.; Steimer, Sarah S.; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Nozière, Barbara; George, Christian; Ammann, Markus; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The multiphase chemistry of glyoxal is a source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), including its light-absorbing product imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC). IC is a photosensitizer that can contribute to additional aerosol ageing and growth when its excited triplet state oxidizes hydrocarbons (reactive uptake) via H-transfer chemistry. We have conducted a series of photochemical coated-wall flow tube (CWFT) experiments using films of IC and citric acid (CA), an organic proxy and H donor in the condensed phase. The formation rate of gas-phase HO2 radicals (PHO2) was measured indirectly by converting gas-phase NO into NO2. We report on experiments that relied on measurements of NO2 formation, NO loss and HONO formation. PHO2 was found to be a linear function of (1) the [IC] × [CA] concentration product and (2) the photon actinic flux. Additionally, (3) a more complex function of relative humidity (25 % < RH < 63 %) and of (4) the O2 / N2 ratio (15 % < O2 / N2 < 56 %) was observed, most likely indicating competing effects of dilution, HO2 mobility and losses in the film. The maximum PHO2 was observed at 25-55 % RH and at ambient O2 / N2. The HO2 radicals form in the condensed phase when excited IC triplet states are reduced by H transfer from a donor, CA in our system, and subsequently react with O2 to regenerate IC, leading to a catalytic cycle. OH does not appear to be formed as a primary product but is produced from the reaction of NO with HO2 in the gas phase. Further, seed aerosols containing IC and ammonium sulfate were exposed to gas-phase limonene and NOx in aerosol flow tube experiments, confirming significant PHO2 from aerosol surfaces. Our results indicate a potentially relevant contribution of triplet state photochemistry for gas-phase HO2 production, aerosol growth and ageing in the atmosphere.

  10. Measurement of free radicals OH and HO2 in Los Angeles smog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, L. A.; Hard, T. M.; O'Brien, R. J.

    1999-05-01

    Atmospheric free radicals hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl (OH and HO2, collectively HOx) are the catalysts that cause secondary or photochemical air pollution. Chemical mechanisms for oxidant and acid formation, on which expensive air pollution control strategies are based, must accurately predict these radical concentrations. We have used the fluorescence assay with gas expansion (FAGE) technique to carry out the first simultaneous, in situ measurements of these two radicals in highly polluted air during the Los Angeles Free Radical Experiment. A complete suite of ancillary measurements was also made, including speciated hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, aldehydes, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone along with meteorological parameters. Using this suite of measurements, we tested the ability of a lumped chemical mechanism to accurately predict radical concentrations in polluted air. Comparison of model predictions with measured radical concentrations revealed generally good agreement for OH early and late in the day, including the early evening hours, when OH persisted at low concentrations after dark. During midday, however, modeled [OH] was high by about 50%. Agreement for HO2 was quite good in the early morning hours, but model-calculated HO2 concentrations were significantly too high during midday. When we used our measured HO2 concentrations as model input, agreement between calculated and measured OH concentrations was improved. It seems likely that (1) the model's HOx sources are too large, (2) there are unaccounted HOx loss processes in Los Angeles air, and/or (3) the complex parameterization of RO2/HO2 radical chemistry in the reaction mechanism does not adequately describe the behavior of these radicals in the Los Angeles atmosphere.

  11. Role of the Recombination Channel in the Reaction between the HO and HO2 Radicals.

    PubMed

    Badenes, María P; Tucceri, María E; Cobos, Carlos J

    2017-01-19

    The kinetics of the gas phase recombination reaction HO + HO2 + He → HOOOH + He has been studied between 200 and 600 K by using the SACM/CT model and the unimolecular rate theory. The molecular properties of HOOOH were derived at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ ab initio level of theory, while relevant potential energy features of the reaction were calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level. The resulting high and low pressure limit rate coefficients are k∞ = 3.55 × 10(-12) (T/300)(0.20) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k0 = [He] 1.55 × 10(-31) (T/300)(-3.2) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The rate coefficients calculated over the 6 × 10(-4) - 400 bar range are smaller at least in a factor of about 60 than the consensus value determined for the main reaction channel HO + HO2 → H2O + O2, indicating that the recombination pathway is irrelevant.

  12. Crystal structure of Tb5Ni2In4 and Y5Ni2In4, and magnetic properties of Dy5Ni2In4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provino, A.; Mudryk, Y.; Paudyal, D.; Smetana, V.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A.; Corbett, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    The crystal structure of the R5Ni2In4 intermetallic compounds was earlier reported for R = Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu (Lu5Ni2In4-type, oP22, Pbam); more recently the isostructural phases Dy5Ni2In4 and Sc5Ni2In4 have also been identified. Three inequivalent crystallographic sites are occupied by the R atoms in these compounds. We have synthesized and characterized Dy5Ni2In4 and the two new isotypic compounds Tb5Ni2In4 and Y5Ni2In4. So far, none of the physical properties have been reported on any of these phases; in this article we report on the physical properties of the Dy5Ni2In4 and the crystal structure of Tb5Ni2In4 and Y5Ni2In4 compounds. Measurements of the magnetic properties performed on Dy5Ni2In4 show a ferromagnetic-like ordering with a TC ≈105 K, followed by multiple magnetic orderings at lower temperatures. The fit of the inverse susceptibility in the paramagnetic state follows the Curie-Weiss law, where μeff. = 10.3 μB/Dy-atom (close to theoretical value of 10.64 μB for the free ion Dy3+) and a positive paramagnetic Curie temperature θp = 58 K. Ni atoms are most likely to be nonmagnetic. The heat capacity also shows three peaks: a large one at 103 K and two weaker at 12 and 8 K, respectively; the in-field heat capacity data corroborate these results, suggesting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orderings at the temperature of 103 and 12 K, respectively. Low temperature x-ray diffraction has shown that the compound does not undergo any structural change down to 5 K.

  13. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun

    2010-05-28

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1{sup -/-} MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  14. Monitoring DNA recombination initiated by HO endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Neal; Haber, James E

    2012-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) have proven to be very potent initiators of recombination in yeast and other organisms. A single, site-specific DSB initiates homologous DNA repair events such as gene conversion, break-induced replication, and single-strand annealing, as well as nonhomologous end joining, microhomology-mediated end joining, and new telomere addition. When repair is either delayed or prevented, a single DSB can trigger checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest. In budding yeast, expressing the HO endonuclease under the control of a galactose-inducible promoter has been instrumental in the study of these processes by providing us a way to synchronously induce a DSB at a unique site in vivo. We describe how the HO endonuclease has been used to study the recombination events in mating-type (MAT) switching. Southern blots provide an overview of the process by allowing one to examine the formation of the DSB, DNA degradation at the break, and formation of the product. Denaturing gels and slot blots as well as PCR have provided important tools to follow the progression of resection in wild-type and mutant cells. PCR has also been important in allowing us to follow the kinetics of certain recombination intermediates such as the initiation of repair DNA synthesis or the removal of nonhomologous Y sequences during MAT switching. Finally chromatin immunoprecipitation has been used to follow the recruitment of key proteins to the DSB and in subsequent steps in DSB repair.

  15. Towards Performance Portability with GungHo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Rupert; Glover, Matthew; Ham, David; Hobson, Mike; Maynard, Chris; Mitchell, Lawrence; Mullerworth, Steve; Pickles, Stephen; Rezny, Mike; Riley, Graham; Wood, Nigel; Ashworth, Mike

    2014-05-01

    The Met Office's numerical weather prediction and climate model code, the Unified Model (UM), is almost 25 years old. Up to the present day the UM has been able to be run efficiently on many of the worlds most powerful computers, helping to keep the Met Office at the forefront of climate prediction and weather forecasting. However, with performance increases from each new generation of computers now being primarily provided by an increase in the amount of parallelism rather than an increase in the clock-speed of the processors themselves, running higher resolutions of the UM now faces the double challenge of code scalability and numerical accuracy. The UM's atmospheric dynamical core makes use of a finite-difference scheme on a regular latitude-longitude grid. The regular latitude-longitude mesh results in an increasingly disparate grid resolution as the mesh resolution increases due to lines of longitude converging at the poles. For example, a 10km resolution at mid-latitudes would result in a 12m resolution at the poles. The difference in resolution leads to increased communication at the poles and load balance issues which are known to impair scalability; it also leads to issues with numerical accuracy and smaller time-steps due to the difference in scale. To address this problem the Met Office, NERC and STFC initiated the GungHo project. The primary aim of this project is to deliver a scalable, numerically accurate dynamical core. This dynamical core is scheduled to become operational around the year 2022. The project is currently investigating the use of quasi-uniform meshes, such as triangular, icosahedral and cubed-sphere meshes, using finite element methods. The associated GungHo software infrastructure is being developed to support multiple meshes and element types thus allowing for future model development. GungHo is also proposing a novel separation of concerns for the software implementation of the dynamical core. This approach distinguishes between

  16. Heterogeneous Reaction of HO2 Radical with Dicarboxylic Acid Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketani, F.; Kanaya, Y.

    2010-12-01

    HOx(OH+ HO2) radical plays a central role in the tropospheric chemistry. Recently, the heterogeneous loss of HO2 by aerosol particles is a potentially important HOx sink in the troposphere suggested from observation study. However, there have been few studies for loss of HO2 by aerosols. In this study, we measured the HO2 uptake coefficients for four dicarboxylic acids (succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, and pimelic acid) aerosol particles under ambient conditions (760Torr and 296K) using an aerosol flow tube(AFT) coupled with a chemical conversion /laser-induced fluorescence(CC/LIF) technique. The CC/LIF technique enabled experiments to be performed at almost the same HO2 radical concentration as that in the atmosphere(-10^8 molecules/cm^3). In this system, the effect of the self-reaction of HO2 in the gas phase can be neglected. HO2 radicals were injected into the AFT through a vertically movable Pyrex tube. Injector position dependent profiles of LIF intensity were measured as a function of aerosol concentration at 30% and 70% of relative humilities (RH). Determined HO2 uptake coefficients by succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, and pimelic acid aerosol particles at 30% RH were 0.05 +/- 0.02, 0.07 +/- 0.03, 0.02 +/- 0.01, and 0.06 +/- 0.03, respectively, while the uptake coefficients by those particles at 70% RH were 0.13 +/- 0.05, 0.13 +/- 0.03, 0.06 +/- 0.01, and 0.11 +/- 0.03, respectively. These results suggest that compositions and relative humidity are significant to the HO2 uptake. We will discuss the potential HO2 loss processes.

  17. The Use of Sculptures to Augment Naming of Buildings in Honor of Heroes and Heroines in Ho Polytechnic, Ho, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokpokpo, Adja-Koadade

    2016-01-01

    It is important to celebrate our heroes and heroines, who in diverse ways, bring development to nations, peoples and places. These important personalities should be identified and acknowledged by the beneficiaries of their labor, and be given the due recognition. It is in light of this that Ho Polytechnic, now Ho Technical University, decided to…

  18. CO synthesized from the central one-carbon pool as source for the iron carbonyl in O2-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Bürstel, Ingmar; Siebert, Elisabeth; Zebger, Ingo; Friedrich, Bärbel

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenases are nature’s key catalysts involved in both microbial consumption and production of molecular hydrogen. H2 exhibits a strongly bonded, almost inert electron pair and requires transition metals for activation. Consequently, all hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that contain at least one iron atom in the catalytic center. For appropriate interaction with H2, the iron moiety demands for a sophisticated coordination environment that cannot be provided just by standard amino acids. This dilemma has been overcome by the introduction of unprecedented chemistry—that is, by ligating the iron with carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide (or equivalent) groups. These ligands are both unprecedented in microbial metabolism and, in their free form, highly toxic to living organisms. Therefore, the formation of the diatomic ligands relies on dedicated biosynthesis pathways. So far, biosynthesis of the CO ligand in [NiFe]-hydrogenases was unknown. Here we show that the aerobic H2 oxidizer Ralstonia eutropha, which produces active [NiFe]-hydrogenases in the presence of O2, employs the auxiliary protein HypX (hydrogenase pleiotropic maturation X) for CO ligand formation. Using genetic engineering and isotope labeling experiments in combination with infrared spectroscopic investigations, we demonstrate that the α-carbon of glycine ends up in the CO ligand of [NiFe]-hydrogenase. The α-carbon of glycine is a building block of the central one-carbon metabolism intermediate, N10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate (N10-CHO-THF). Evidence is presented that the multidomain protein, HypX, converts the formyl group of N10-CHO-THF into water and CO, thereby providing the carbonyl ligand for hydrogenase. This study contributes insights into microbial biosynthesis of metal carbonyls involving toxic intermediates. PMID:27930319

  19. Ternary system Er-Ni-In at T=870 K

    SciTech Connect

    Dzevenko, M.; Tyvanchuk, Yu.; Bratash, L.; Zaremba, V.; Havela, L.; Kalychak, Ya.

    2011-10-15

    Isothermal section of the Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed by means of X-ray powder diffraction and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds, namely ErNi{sub 9}In{sub 2} (YNi{sub 9}In{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 1-1.22}Ni{sub 4}In{sub 1-0.78} (MgCu{sub 4}Sn-type), Er{sub 10}Ni{sub 9.07}In{sub 20} (Ho{sub 10}Ni{sub 9}In{sub 20}-type), ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} (ZrNiAl-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}In (Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 1.78}In (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4} (Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Er{sub 13.53}Ni{sub 3.14}In{sub 3.33} (Lu{sub 14}Co{sub 2}In{sub 3}-type), exist in the Er-Ni-In system at this temperature. The substitution of Ni for In was observed for ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} and In for Er in the case of related compounds ErNi{sub 2} and ErNi{sub 4}In. Er can enter NiIn (CoSn-type) leading to including-substitution type of compound Er{sub 0-0.12}NiIn{sub 1-0.89}. Basic magnetic properties of the Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97}, ErNi{sub 2}, Er{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 0.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected. Electrical-resistivity studies were performed on the ErNiIn, ErNi{sub 0.9}In{sub 1.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases. - Graphical Abstract: Phase relations in the ternary system Er-Ni-In have been established for the isothermal section at T=870 K based on X-ray phase and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds were observed. Highlights: > Isothermal section of Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed. > Nine ternary compounds were detected. > Basic magnetic properties of Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97} and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected.

  20. Does acetone react with HO2 in the upper-troposphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, T. J.; Pozzer, A.; Vereecken, L.; Crowley, J. N.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-02-01

    Recent theoretical calculations showed that reaction with HO2 could be an important sink for acetone (CH3C(O)CH3) and source of acetic acid (CH3C(O)OH) in cold parts of the atmosphere (e.g. the tropopause region). This work details studies of HO2 + CH3C(O)CH3 (CH3)2C(OH)OO (R1) in laboratory-based and theoretical chemistry experiments; the atmospheric significance of Reaction (R1) was assessed in a global 3-D chemical model. Pulsed laser-kinetic experiments were conducted, for the first time, at the low-temperatures representative of the tropopause. Reaction with NO converted HO2 to OH for detection by laser induced fluorescence. Reduced yields of OH at T < 220 K provided indirect evidence for the sequestration of HO2 by CH3C(O)CH3 with a forward rate coefficient greater than 2 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. No evidence for Reaction (R1) was observed at T > 230 K, probably due to rapid thermal dissociation back to HO2 + CH3C(O)CH3. Numerical simulations of the data indicate that these experiments were sensitive to only (R1a) HO2-CH3C(O)CH3 complex formation, the first step in (R1). Rearrangement (R1b) of the complex to form peroxy radicals, and hence the atmospheric significance of (R1) has yet to be rigorously verified by experiment. Results from new quantum chemical calculations indicate that K1 is characterised by large uncertainties of at least an order of magnitude at T < 220 K. The large predicted values from Hermans et al. lie at the top end of the range of values obtained from calculations at different (higher) levels of theory. Atmospheric modelling studies demonstrated that whilst (R1) chemistry may be a significant loss process for CH3C(O)CH3 near the tropopause, it cannot explain observations of CH3C(O)OH throughout the troposphere.

  1. Adaptation of an In Situ Ground-Based Tropospheric OH/HO2 Instrument for Aircraft Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, William H.

    1997-01-01

    In-situ HO(x) (OH and HO2) measurements are an essential part of understanding the photochemistry of aircraft exhaust in the atmosphere. HO(x) affects the partitioning of nitrogen species in the NO(y) family. Its reactions are important sources and sinks for tropospheric ozone, thus providing a link between the NO(x) in aircraft exhaust and tropospheric ozone. OH mixing ratios are enhanced in aircraft wakes due to the photolysis of the HONO that is made close to the engine. Measurements of HO(x) in aircraft wakes, along with NO(x) measurements, thus provides a constraint on chemical models of the engine combustion and exhaust. The development of the Airborne Tropospheric Hydrogen Oxides Sensor (ATHOS) is reported. We designed, developed, and successfully flew this instrument. It was part of the instrument complement on board the NASA DC-8 during SUCCESS, which took place in Kansas in April and May, 1996. ATHOS has a limit-of-detection for OH (S/N = 2) of 10(exp 5) OH molecules cm(exp -3) in less than 150 seconds. While this sensitivity is about 2-3 times less than the initial projections in the proposal, it is more than adequate for good measurements of OH and HO2 from the planetary boundary layer to the stratosphere. Our participation in SUCCESS was to be engineering test flights for ATHOS; however, the high-quality measurements we obtained are being used to study HO(x) photochemistry in contrails, clouds, and the clear air.

  2. Laser flash photolysis studies of radical-radical reaction kinetics: The HO{sub 2} + IO reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkhite, J.M.; Stickel, R.E.; Nicovich, J.M.; Wine, P.H.

    1999-04-29

    Reactive iodine as a potential tropospheric O{sub 3} sink has received considerable attention recently. Laser flash photolysis of Cl{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}OH/O{sub 2}/I{sub 2}/NO{sub 2}/SF{sub 6}N{sub 2} mixtures at 308 nm has been coupled with simultaneous time-resolved detection of HO{sub 2} (by infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) and IO (by visible absorption spectroscopy) to investigate the kinetics of the atmospherically important reaction HO{sub 2} + IO {r_arrow} products over the temperature range 274--373 K in N{sub 2} buffer gas at pressures of 12 and 25 Torr. All experiments were performed under near pseudo-first-order conditions with HO{sub 2} in excess over IO. At 298 K, the rate coefficient was determined to be (9.7 {+-} 2.9) {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}, with the primary source of uncertainty being knowledge of the infrared line strength(s) required to convert measured HO{sub 2} absorbances to absolute concentrations. The temperature dependence of the HO{sub 2} + IO rate coefficient was found to be adequately described by the Arrhenius expression k = 9.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} exp(680/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The results reported in this study are compared with other recent studies of HO{sub 2} + IO kinetics, and the potential roles of this reaction in atmospheric chemistry are discussed.

  3. White up-conversion emission in Ho3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ tri-doped glass ceramics embedding BaF2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenxia; Xu, Shiqing; Ye, Rengguang; Deng, Degang; Hua, Youjie; Zhao, Shilong; Zhuang, Songlin

    2011-04-01

    Ho3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ tri-doped glass ceramics with white light emitting have been developed and demonstrated. Pumped by 980 nm laser diode (LD), intensive red, green and blue up-conversions (UC) were obtained. The green emission is assigned to Ho3+ ion and the blue emission is assigned to Tm3+ ion, whereas the red emission is the combination contribution of the Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions. The RGB intensities could be adjusted by tuning the rare-earth ion concentration and pump power intensity. Thus, multicolor of the luminescence, including perfect white light with CIE-X=0.329 and CIE-Y=0.342 in the 1931 CIE chromaticity diagram can be obtained in 0.15 Ho3+/0.2Tm3+/3Yb3+ tri-doped glass ceramics embedding BaF2 nanocrystals pumped by a single infrared laser diode source of 980 nm at 500 mW. The up-conversion luminescence mechanism of Yb3+ sensitize Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions and the energy transfer from Ho3+ to Tm3+ in oxy-fluoride silicate glass ceramics were analyzed.

  4. Fine Structure in Multi-Phase Zr8Ni21-Zr7Ni10-Zr2Ni7 Alloy Revealed by Transmission Electron Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Haoting; Bendersky, Leonid A.; Young, Kwo; Nei, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure of an annealed alloy with a Zr8Ni21 composition was studied by both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presence of three phases, Zr8Ni21, Zr2Ni7, and Zr7Ni10, was confirmed by SEM/X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy compositional mapping and TEM electron diffraction. Distribution of the phases and their morphology can be linked to a multi-phase structure formed by a sequence of reactions: (1) L → Zr2Ni7 + L’; (2) peritectic Zr2Ni7 + L’ → Zr2Ni7 + Zr8Ni21 + L”; (3) eutectic L” → Zr8Ni21 + Zr7Ni10. The effect of annealing at 960 °C, which was intended to convert a cast structure into a single-phase Zr8Ni21 structure, was only moderate and the resulting alloy was still multi-phased. TEM and crystallographic analysis of the Zr2Ni7 phase show a high density of planar (001) defects that were explained as low-energy boundaries between rotational variants and stacking faults. The crystallographic features arise from the pseudo-hexagonal structure of Zr2Ni7. This highly defective Zr2Ni7 phase was identified as the source of the broad X-ray diffraction peaks at around 38.4° and 44.6° when a Cu-K was used as the radiation source. PMID:28793460

  5. HoBi-like viruses: an emerging group of pestiviruses.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, Fernando V; Ridpath, Julia F; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F

    2013-01-01

    The genus Pestivirus is composed of 4 important pathogens of livestock: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and Border disease virus of sheep (BDV). BVDV are major pathogens of cattle, and infection results in significant economic loss worldwide. A new putative pestivirus species, tentatively called "HoBi-like," "BVDV-3," or "atypical pestiviruses," was first identified in Europe in fetal bovine serum (FBS) imported from Brazil. HoBi-like viruses are related to BVDV at the genetic and antigenic levels. Further, the disease caused by these new viruses resembles clinical presentations historically associated with BVDV infection, including growth retardation, reduced milk production, respiratory disease, reduced reproductive performance, and increased mortality among young stock. Current BVDV diagnostic tests may fail to detect HoBi-like viruses or to differentiate between BVDV and HoBi-like viruses. Further, commercial tests for BVDV exposure, based on serological response, do not reliably detect HoBi-like virus exposure, and cross protection against HoBi-like viruses conferred by current BVDV vaccines is likely limited. As many HoBi-like viruses, characterized to date, were isolated from FBS originating from Brazil, it is assumed that the agent is probably widespread in Brazilian herds. Nevertheless, reports of natural infection in Southeast Asia and Europe demonstrate that these viruses are not restricted to South America. Increased demand for FBS has led to widespread distribution of FBS originating in HoBi-like virus endemic regions. The contamination of such FBS with HoBi-like viruses may lead to spread of this virus to other regions.

  6. Magnetic properties of epitaxial hexagonal HoFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Xiao, Zhuyun; Xu, Xiaoshan; Wang, Wenbin; Keavney, David; Liu, Yaohua; Cheng, X. M.

    2014-03-01

    Multiferroic materials exhibit multiple ferroic orders simultaneously and thus have great potential applications in information technology, sensing and actuation. Epitaxial hexagonal HoFeO3 (h-HFO) films are very promising candidates as multiferroic materials with room temperature ferromagnetism, because magnetic Ho3+ ions are expected to have stronger exchange interactions with Fe3+ ions than the well-studied h-LuFeO3 films. We report study of magnetic properties of epitaxial h-HFO thin films deposited using laser molecular beam epitaxy on Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the epitaxial registry and six-fold symmetry of the film. Temperature dependence of magnetization of the film measured by a Quantum Design SQUID magnetometer shows dominating paramagnetic characteristic. Element specific x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements performed at beamline 4-ID-C of the Advanced Photon Source show a ferromagnetic ordering of Fe and an exchange coupling between Ho3+ and Fe3+ ions. Work at BMC is supported by NSF Career award (DMR 1053854). Work at ANL is supported by US-DOE, Office of Science, BES (No. DE-AC02-06CH11357).

  7. Ho:YAG laser application in cerebellopontine angle tumor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yaohua; Wang, Yu; Li, Xiaoxiong; Xiong, Xiong; Wang, Yong-ling; Li, Shanquan; Luo, Qizhong; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Weiguo

    2005-07-01

    We reported 25 cases of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumor operation with Ho:YAG laser assistance during the operative procedure. We analysed the surgical effects of Ho:YAG laser, compare it with CO2 Nd:YAG argon laser, and illustrated its features and parameters. We think that Ho:YAG laser can be used to ablate and vaporize the tumor efficiently in the operation of the CPA tumors whose vascular supply is abundant and the texture is very tough. It can be used to reduce the bleeding and cooperate to incise tumor in the operation and improve the curable effect of the surgery.

  8. Operation of Ho:YAG ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide lasers.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Sean; Thorburn, Fiona; Lancaster, Adam; Stites, Ronald; Cook, Gary; Kar, Ajoy

    2017-04-20

    We report fabrication and operation of multi-watt level waveguide lasers utilizing holmium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG). The waveguides were fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription, which relies on a chirped pulse ytterbium fiber laser to create depressed cladding structures inside the material. A variety of waveguides were created inside the Ho:YAG samples. We demonstrate output powers of ∼2  W from both a single-mode 50 μm waveguide laser and a multimode 80 μm waveguide laser. In addition, laser action from a co-doped Yb:Ho:YAG sample under in-band pumping conditions was demonstrated.

  9. Review of Tm and Ho Materials; Spectroscopy and Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    A review of Tm and Ho materials is presented, covering some fundamental aspects on the spectroscopy and laser dynamics in both single and co-doped systems. Following an introduction to 2- m lasers, applications and historical development, the physics of quasi-four level lasers, energy transfer and modeling are discussed in some detail. Recent developments in using Tm lasers to pump Ho lasers are discussed, and seen to offer some advantages over conventional Tm:Ho lasers. This article is not intended as a complete review, but as a primer for introducing concepts and a resource for further study.

  10. Hořava-Lifshitz gravity and effective theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chaolun; Wu, Shao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We show that Hořava-Lifshitz gravity theory can be employed as a covariant framework to build an effective field theory for the fractional quantum Hall effect that respects all the spacetime symmetries such as non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance and anisotropic Weyl invariance as well as the gauge symmetry. The key to this formalism is a set of correspondence relations that maps all the field degrees of freedom in the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity theory to external background (source) fields among others in the effective action of the quantum Hall effect, according to their symmetry transformation properties. We originally derive the map as a holographic dictionary, but its form is independent of the existence of holographic duality. This paves the way for the application of Hořava-Lifshitz holography on fractional quantum Hall effect. Using the simplest holographic Chern-Simons model, we compute the low energy effective action at leading orders and show that it captures universal electromagnetic and geometric properties of quantum Hall states, including the Wen-Zee shift, Hall viscosity, angular momentum density and their relations. We identify the shift function in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity theory as minus of guiding center velocity and conjugate to guiding center momentum. This enables us to distinguish guiding center angular momentum density from the internal one, which is the sum of Landau orbit spin and intrinsic (topological) spin of the composite particles. Our effective action shows that Hall viscosity is minus half of the internal angular momentum density and proportional to Wen-Zee shift, and Hall bulk viscosity is half of the guiding center angular momentum density.

  11. Measurements of OH and HO2 yields from the gas phase ozonolysis of isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, T. L.; Goddard, A.; Heard, D. E.; Seakins, P. W.

    2010-02-01

    The reactions of ozone with alkenes are an important source of hydroxyl (OH) radicals; however, quantification of their importance is hindered by uncertainties in the absolute OH yield. Hydroxyl radical yields for the gas-phase ozonolysis of isoprene are determined in this paper by four different methods: (1) The use of cyclohexane as an OH scavenger, and the production of cyclohexanone, (2) The use of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene as an OH tracer, and the diminution in its concentration, (3) A kinetic method in which the OH yield was obtained by performing a series of pseudo-first-order experiments in the presence or absence of an OH scavenger (cyclohexane), (4) The OH and HO2 yields were determined by fitting the temporal OH and HO2 profiles following direct detection of absolute OH and HO2 concentrations by laser induced fluorescence at low pressure (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion- FAGE). The following OH yields for the ozonolysis of isoprene were obtained, relative to alkene consumed, for each method: (1) Scavenger (0.25±0.04), (2) Tracer (0.25±0.03), (3) Kinetic study (0.27±0.02), and (4) Direct observation (0.26±0.02), the error being one standard deviation. An averaged OH yield of 0.26±0.02 is recommended at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and this result is compared with recent literature determinations. The HO2 yield was directly determined for the first time using FAGE to be 0.26±0.03.

  12. Ultrafast Alkaline Ni/Zn Battery Based on Ni-Foam-Supported Ni3S2 Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pu; Wang, Tianshi; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Chuanjian; Ma, Jun; Du, Huiping; Wang, Xiaogang; Cui, Guanglei

    2015-12-09

    Self-supported Ni3S2 ultrathin nanosheets were in situ formed by direct sulfurization of commercially available nickel foam using thioacetamide as sulfur source under hydrothermal process. The morphology and structure of the as-obtained sample were analyzed by using XRD, XPS, SEM, and TEM, revealing that an ultrathin nanosheets Ni3S2 were grown on the surface of Ni form. The as-obtained Ni3S2/Ni composite with uniform architecture was used as cathode material for alkaline Ni/Zn battery, which delivered high capacity of 125 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles with no obvious capacity fading, extraordinary rate capability (68 mAh g(-1) at the current density of 5.0 A g(-1)), and high operating voltage (1.75 V).

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of HO2 and DO2 disproportionations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kircher, C. C.; Sander, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    A flash photolysis/UV abosrption technique was used to study the HO2 + HO2 and DO2 + DO2 reactions in the gas phase. Rate constants were measured at pressures between 100 and 700 torr of Ar and N2, and at temperatures between 230 and 420 K with up to 10 torr of added water vapor. The overall disproportionation rate constants for the reaction is given as the sum of pressure-independent and pressure-dependent terms. A kinetic analysis shows that both reactions have a zero-pressure bimolecular component and a termolecular component which is linearly dependent on pressure up to 700 torr. A priori estimates of the vibrational frequencies of the product of the HO2 + HO2 reaction suggest binding energies of 12-20 kcal per mol (for the initial association).

  14. High-spin yrast structure of {sup 159}Ho

    SciTech Connect

    Ollier, J.; Simpson, J.; Riley, M. A.; Wang, X.; Aguilar, A.; Teal, C.; Paul, E. S.; Nolan, P. J.; Petri, M.; Rigby, S. V.; Thomson, J.; Unsworth, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Darby, I. G.; Hartley, D. J.; Kondev, F. G.

    2011-08-15

    An investigation of the yrast structure of the odd-Z {sup 159}Ho nucleus to high spin has been performed. The {sup 159}Ho nucleus was populated by the reaction {sup 116}Cd({sup 48}Ca,p4n{gamma}) at a beam energy of 215 MeV, and resulting {gamma} decays were detected by the Gammasphere spectrometer. The h{sub 11/2} yrast band has been significantly extended up to I{sup {pi}=}75/2{sup -} (tentatively 79/2{sup -}). A lower frequency limit for the second (h{sub 11/2}){sup 2} proton alignment was extracted consistent with the systematics of this alignment frequency, indicating an increased deformation with neutron number in the Ho isotopes. The energy-level splitting between the signature partners in the h{sub 11/2} structures of the Ho isotopes and the neighboring N=92 isotones is discussed.

  15. HoCaMA: Home Care Hybrid Multiagent Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile, Juan A.; Bajo, Javier; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Juan M.

    Home Care is one of the main objectives of Ambient Intelligence. Nowadays, the disabled and elderly population, which represents a significant part of our society, requires novel solutions for providing home care in an effective way. In this chapter, we present HoCaMA, a hybrid multiagent architecture that facilitates remote monitoring and care services for disabled patients at their homes. HoCaMA combines multiagent systems and Web services to facilitate the communication and integration with multiple health care systems. In addition, HoCaMA focuses on the design of reactive agents capable of interacting with different sensors present in the environment, and incorporates a system of alerts through SMS and MMS mobile technologies. Finally, it uses Radio Frequency IDentification and JavaCard technologies to provide advanced location and identification systems, as well as automatic access control facilities. HoCaMA has been implemented in a real environment and the results obtained are presented within this chapter.

  16. Road to Victory: Building the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Marianne

    1993-01-01

    Presents a secondary school lesson on the building of the Ho Chi Minh Trail during the Vietnam War. Helps students link history and geographical skills through cooperative group learning. Includes maps, diagrams, and three student readings. (CFR)

  17. Kinetics and product yields of the acetyl peroxy + HO2 radical reaction studied by photoionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, L. G.; Shen, L.; Savee, J. D.; Eddingsaas, N. C.; Welz, O.; Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Sander, S. P.; Okumura, M.

    2013-12-01

    The acetyl peroxy radical (CH3C(O)O2) is a key intermediate in the oxidation of carbonyl-containing hydrocarbons in the troposphere. Reaction of acetyl peroxy radicals with HO2 has been suggested as a source of OH radicals in low-NOx environments. Previous work on this reaction observed only two product channels forming (1) peracetic acid and (2) acetic acid. Recent experiments have shown that there is a third channel that generates the radicals OH and acetoxy: CH3C(O)O2 + HO2 → (1) CH3C(O)OOH + O2 (2) CH3C(O)OH + O3 (3) CH3C(O)O + O2 + OH This last pathway to OH formation would then contribute to the apparent isoprene OH recycling suggested by discrepancies between atmospheric models and field observations of OH. There have, however, been significant disagreements among experiments on the yield of OH from reaction of acetyl peroxy radicals with HO2. We report our preliminary studies of acetyl peroxy self-reaction and its reaction with HO2 at 298 K and 8 Torr. Experiments were conducted at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron at the Lawerence Berkeley National Laboratory using tunable VUV ionizing radiation coupled to the Sandia National Laboratory pulsed-laser-photolysis multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer to detect the time- and isomer-resolved formation of radical intermediates and products. From these results, we report new branching fractions of the three product channels in the acetyl peroxy + HO2 radical reaction.

  18. Line Identification of Atomic and Ionic Spectra of Holmium in the Near-UV. II. Spectra of Ho II and Ho III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Başar, Gö.; Al-Labady, N.; Özdalgiç, B.; Güzelçimen, F.; Er, A.; Öztürk, I. K.; Ak, T.; Bİlİr, S.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Kröger, S.

    2017-02-01

    Fourier Transform spectra of holmium (Ho) in the UV spectral range from 31,530 to 25,000 cm‑1 (317 to 400 nm) have been investigated, particularly focusing on the ionic lines. The distinction between the different degrees of ionization (I, II, and III) is based on differences in signal-to-noise ratios from two Ho spectra, which have been measured with different buffer gases, i.e., neon and argon. Based on 106 known Ho ii and 126 known Ho iii energy levels, 97 lines could be classified as transitions of singly ionized Ho and 9 lines could be classified as transitions of doubly ionized Ho. Of the 97 Ho ii lines, 6 have not been listed in the extant literature. Another 215 lines have been assigned to Ho ii, though they could not be classified on the basis of the known energy levels.

  19. Uptake of HO2 Radicals Onto Dust Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, P. S.; Whalley, L. K.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Heard, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    OH and HO2 radicals play an important role in the troposphere by controlling its oxidative capacity and therefore the concentration of many trace species. Several field studies have observed significantly lower concentrations of HO2 radicals than predicted using box models (1,2). HO2 loss onto aerosols has been suggested as a possible sink. Mineral dust has an estimated annual flux of 2000 Tg year-1 (3). However, there has only been one study of HO2 uptake onto Arizona Test Dust (ATD) surfaces (4) and there are currently no published studies for dust aerosols. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the HO2 uptake coefficient onto ATD aerosols over a range of humidities and for different HO2 concentrations, as well as investigating the uptake as a function of the exposure time to the aerosol, for which a dependence had been observed for aqueous salt aerosols (5). Uptake coefficients were measured for ATD aerosols at atmospheric pressure and at 291 K using a Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE) detector combined with a flow tube. HO2 was formed from the photolysis of water vapour and was injected into the flow tube using a moveable injector, which was placed in six different positions along the flow tube. The non stable aerosol output was produced by stirring ATD in a bottle producing a dust cloud which was entrained into a flow. The aerosol number concentration was measured using a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and was converted into a surface area using the average radius of one aerosol. The uptake coefficient was then able to be calculated by assuming first order kinetics. The HO2 uptake coefficient was measured at a relative humidity of between 6 and 75% and at initial HO2 concentrations of ~ 0.3 - 1 × 10^9 molecule cm-3. Average uptake coefficients of 0.018 × 0.006 and 0.031 × 0.008 were measured for the higher and lower HO2 concentrations respectively, and the impact investigated using a constrained box model. A time dependence was also

  20. Registration of 'HoCP 91-552' sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    HoCP 91-552’ sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross ‘LCP 81-10’ x ‘CP 72-356’ made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 91-552 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Sugarcane Research Unit, the Louisiana A...

  1. Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated by HO-1 Upregulation: Potential Role of Antioxidant Therapy to Target Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Komal; Hilgefort, Jordan; Banks, George; Gilliam, Chelsea; Stevens, Sarah; Ansinelli, Hayden A.; Getty, Morghan; Abraham, Nader G.; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels. We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis markers C/EBPα, PPARγ, and Mest, while decreasing small lipid droplets and Wnt10b levels. We treated MSCs with fructose, a fuel source that increases uric acid levels. Our results showed that fructose increased XO expression as compared to the control and concomitant treatment with CoPP significantly decreased XO expression and uric acid levels. These beneficial effects of CoPP were reversed by SnMP, supporting a role for HO activity in mediating these effects. These findings demonstrate that increased levels of HO-1 appear crucial in modulating the phenotype of adipocytes exposed to uric acid and in downregulating XO and NADPH oxidase levels. PMID:26681956

  2. Comparison of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their variability causes in the ambient air in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Osaka, Japan, during 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Hien, To Thi; Nam, Pham Phuong; Yasuhiro, Sadanaga; Takayuki, Kameda; Norimichi, Takenaka; Hiroshi, Bandow

    2007-08-15

    A comparative study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particulate matter (TSP) in the ambient air in an urban area in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Osaka, Japan was carried out from 2005 to 2006. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental levels, emission sources, seasonal variations and health risk of eleven PAHs in the two cities, especially Ho Chi Minh City where air pollution is becoming a serious concern. The results showed that the concentrations of TSP and total PAHs were significantly higher in Ho Chi Minh City than levels in Osaka. The concentrations of 5- and 6-ring PAHs (BeP, BbF, BkF, BaP, BghiP and InP) were much higher in TSP samples in Ho Chi Minh City than in Osaka, accounting for 82% and 51% of total PAHs, respectively. These PAHs are known to be highly carcinogenic and mutagenic in humans. Vehicular emission is suggested as one of the main pollution sources of PAHs in both cities. Motorcycles and gasoline automobiles are suggested as the main emission sources of PAHs in Ho Chi Minh City, whereas diesel automobiles are the primary source in Osaka. Seasonal variations of PAHs were observed in this study; higher concentrations of PAHs were found in the rainy season (May-December) and lower concentrations corresponded to the dry season (February-April) in Ho Chi Minh City, while higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the winter (November-January) in Osaka. The number of sunshine hours was an important meteorological factor affecting seasonal variations of PAHs in Ho Chi Minh City, while the temperature was a main factor causing the variations of PAHs in Osaka. The high BaP equivalent concentration of 5- and 6-ring PAHs even in the ambient air is an alarming signal for harmfulness to human health and environmental quality in Ho Chi Minh City.

  3. Is the 'Bromine Explosion' generated from the reaction BrO HO2 alone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, Wolfgang; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2010-05-01

    We observed bromine explosions (a fast production of atomic Br and Cl under tropospheric conditions) in various smog chamber experiments in Teflon bags at room temperature at a relative humidity of about 80% in the presence of NaCl/NaBr-aerosol, simulated sunlight and ozone (200 - 400 ppb). Time profiles of ozone and hydrocarbons (HCs: n-butane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, tetramethylbutane and toluene, initially about 2 ppb each) were monitored to determine concentrations and source strengths of OH radicals, atomic Cl and Br and the corresponding time profiles of BrCl and Br2 as their photolytic precursors. The number and size of aerosols are measured as well as their chemical composition (Br-, Cl- and oxalic acid). Full records of raw data from the smog chamber runs are available at www.eurochamp.org for potential users. Chemical box model calculations deliver concentrations of various intermediates, such as aldehydes, HO2 and RO2 radicals and the inorganic halogen compounds ClO, BrO, HOCl and HOBr, where HOBr from O3 + Br- => BrO- + O2 in the aqueous/adsorbed phase induces the following gas-phase/ heterogeneous chain reaction Br + O3 => BrO + O2(1) BrO + HO2 => HOBr + O2(2a) HOBr + (Aerosol) => HOBrad(3) Surface-adsorbed HOBr reacts with Br- or Cl- to produce Br2 or BrCl, both of which are released and photolysed. Formation of Br2 should prevail up to Cl-/Br- -ratios of about 104 (Fickert, S., J.W. Adams, J.N. Crowley, J. Geophys. Res., D104, 23719-23727, 1999). A maximum of this ratio is reached about 30 minutes after the beginning and decreases during the next hours - probably by reaction of Br2 with oxalate and absorption of HBr, formed from the reaction of Br with aldehydes. Parallel to chain reaction (1)-(3) a chain reaction replacing Br by Cl seems possible but can not be realized, since the main sink of atomic Cl is its reaction with hydrocarbons - leading to chain termination - in contrast to atomic Br (ratio of rates: kCl[O3]/kCl[HC] ~ 0.1; kBr[O3]/k

  4. Comparisons of observed and modeled OH and HO2 concentrations during the ambient measurement period of the HOxComp field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Y.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Dorn, H.-P.; Brauers, T.; Fuchs, H.; Holland, F.; Rohrer, F.; Bohn, B.; Tillmann, R.; Wegener, R.; Wahner, A.; Kajii, Y.; Miyamoto, K.; Nishida, S.; Watanabe, K.; Yoshino, A.; Kubistin, D.; Martinez, M.; Rudolf, M.; Harder, H.; Berresheim, H.; Elste, T.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Stange, G.; Kleffmann, J.; Elshorbany, Y.; Schurath, U.

    2012-03-01

    A photochemical box model constrained by ancillary observations was used to simulate OH and HO2 concentrations for three days of ambient observations during the HOxComp field campaign held in Jülich, Germany in July 2005. Daytime OH levels observed by four instruments were fairly well reproduced to within 33% by a base model run (Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism with updated isoprene chemistry adapted from Master Chemical Mechanism ver. 3.1) with high R2 values (0.72-0.97) over a range of isoprene (0.3-2 ppb) and NO (0.1-10 ppb) mixing ratios. Daytime HO2(*) levels, reconstructed from the base model results taking into account the sensitivity toward speciated RO2 (organic peroxy) radicals, as recently reported from one of the participating instruments in the HO2 measurement mode, were 93% higher than the observations made by the single instrument. This also indicates an overprediction of the HO2 to OH recycling. Together with the good model-measurement agreement for OH, it implies a missing OH source in the model. Modeled OH and HO2(*) could only be matched to the observations by addition of a strong unknown loss process for HO2(*) that recycles OH at a high yield. Adding to the base model, instead, the recently proposed isomerization mechanism of isoprene peroxy radicals (Peeters and Müller, 2010) increased OH and HO2(*) by 28% and 13% on average. Although these were still only 4% higher than the OH observations made by one of the instruments, larger overestimations (42-70%) occurred with respect to the OH observations made by the other three instruments. The overestimation in OH could be diminished only when reactive alkanes (HC8) were solely introduced to the model to explain the missing fraction of observed OH reactivity. Moreover, the overprediction of HO2(*) became even larger than in the base case. These analyses imply that the rates of the isomerization are not readily supported by the ensemble of radical observations. One of the measurement days

  5. Reaction of HO2 with O3 and the effect of water vapor on HO2 kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of temperature and water vapor concentration on the ratio of the rate constant of the reaction HO2 + O3 yields OH + 2(O2) to the square root of the rate constant for the reaction HO2 + HO2 yields H2O2 + O2 are determined. Photolysis of H2-O2-O3 mixtures at 253.7 nm was carried out with H2O pressures in the range 0 to 15 torr at a temperature range of -42.5 to 61 C along with 184.9 nm photolysis of H2O-O2-O3 mixtures. It is shown that the rate of O3 photolysis is suppressed by the addition of water vapor and it is suggested that this effect is realized in the HO2 + HO2 yields H2O2 + O2 reaction. The calculated expression for the temperature dependence of the rate constant ratio is found to be in good agreement with that calculated from separate rate constants. Rate constants determined for the reaction OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 are found to be higher than those previously determined, presumably due to increased pressure, indicating that atmospheric models should take into account the possible pressure dependences of the reactions considered.

  6. Heterogeneous Uptake of HO2 Radicals onto Submicron Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, P. S.; George, I. J.; Brooks, B.; Whalley, L. K.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    OH and HO2 (HOx) radicals are closely coupled and OH is responsible for the majority of the oxidation in the troposphere and controls the concentrations of many trace species. Therefore, it is important to be able to accurately predict HOx concentrations. However, some field measurement studies have reported significantly lower HO2 radical concentrations than calculated by constrained box models using detailed chemical mechanisms. Although the inclusion of halogen chemistry into the mechanisms can explain much of the differences in the marine boundary layer (MBL) (1,2), HO2 uptake by aerosols has been suggested as a possible sink in the MBL (2), the Arctic troposphere (3) and the upper troposphere (4). There have been very few laboratory studies (5,6) on HO2 uptake by aerosols and the rates and mechanism is still uncertain. The HO2 uptake coefficients were measured for a variety of atmospherically relevant inorganic and organic aerosols. The measurements were performed using an aerosol flow tube combined with a Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE) detector. The sensitive FAGE cell allowed low HO2 concentrations (108-109 molecule cm-3) to be injected into the flow tube using a moveable injector. By moving the injector along the flow tube, position dependent HO2 decays were able to be recorded which when plotted against the total aerosol surface area allowed an uptake coefficient to be obtained. The aerosols were generated using an atomiser or by homogeneous nucleation and the total aerosol surface area was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The HO2 uptake coefficient (γ) was measured at room temperature for dry inorganic salts and dry organics (γ< 0.004), wet inorganic salts and wet organics (γ= 0.002-0.005), wet copper doped ammonium sulfate aerosols (γ= 0.28± 0.05) and ammonium sulfate aerosols doped with different molar amounts of iron (γ= 0.003-0.06). The pH dependence of the HO2 uptake coefficient was investigated, however no

  7. Does acetone react with HO2 in the upper-troposphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, T. J.; Pozzer, A.; Crowley, J. N.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-07-01

    Recent theoretical calculations showed that reaction of HO2 with acetone (CH3C(O)CH3) could be a potentially important sink for acetone and source for acetic acid in cold parts of the atmosphere (e.g. the tropopause region). The reaction HO2+CH3C(O)CH3⇌(CH3)2C(OH)OO (R1, R-1) was therefore studied experimentally at low-temperatures for the first time. HO2 was generated by pulsed laser photolysis, and converted by reaction with NO to OH for detection by laser induced fluorescence. Reduced yields of OH at T<220 K provided evidence for stabilisation of (CH3)2C(OH)OO at such temperatures. In contrast, no evidence for (R1) was observed at T>230 K, probably due to rapid thermal dissociation of the peroxy radical product back to reactants (R-1). The experimental data indicate that the rate coefficient for the forward reaction, k1(207 K), is larger than 1.6×10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, in line with recent quantum mechanical calculations. In contrast, an upper limit for the equilibrium constant K1(T)=k1(T)/k-1(T) of 7.8×1028exp(50.6 kJ mol-1/RT) was obtained, considerably smaller than calculated from theory. Incorporation of these results into a global 3-D chemical model demonstrated that (R1) is neither a significant loss process for CH3C(O)CH3 nor a significant source of acetic acid in the atmosphere.

  8. New orthorhombic derivative of CaCu{sub 5}-type structure: RNi{sub 4}Si compounds (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Ho), crystal structure and some magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Morozkin, A.V.; Knotko, A.V.; Yapaskurt, V.O.; Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Nirmala, R.

    2013-12-15

    The crystal structure of new YNi{sub 4}Si-type RNi{sub 4}Si (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Ho) compounds has been established using powder X-ray diffraction. The YNi{sub 4}Si structure is a new structure type, which is orthorhombic derivative of CaCu{sub 5}-type structure (space group Cmmm N 65, oC12). GdNi{sub 4}Si and DyNi{sub 4}Si compounds order ferromagnetically at 25 and 19 K, respectively whereas YNi{sub 4}Si shows antiferromagnetic nature. At 15 K, DyNi{sub 4}Si shows second antiferromagnetic-like transition. The magnetic moment of GdNi{sub 4}Si at 5 K in 50 kOe field is ∼7.2 μ{sub B}/f.u. suggesting a completely ordered ferromagnetic state. The magnetocaloric effect of GdNi{sub 4}Si is calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches the maximum value of −12.8 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near T{sub C} ∼25 K. - Graphical abstract: The RNi{sub 4}Si (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Ho) compounds crystallize in new YNi{sub 4}Si-type structure which is orthorhombic derivative of the basic CaCu{sub 5}-type structure. GdNi{sub 4}Si and DyNi{sub 4}Si compounds show the ferromagnetic-like ordering, whereas.YNi{sub 4}Si has the antiferromagnetic nature. The GdNi{sub 4}Si demonstrates the big magnetocaloric effect near temperature of ferromagnetic ordering. The relationship between initial CaCu{sub 5}-type DyNi{sub 5} and YNi{sub 4}Si-type DyNi{sub 4}Si lattices.

  9. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields HO + O. II - The potential for H atom exchange in HO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael

    1989-01-01

    The results of CASSCF multireference contracted CI calculations with large ANO basis sets are presented for the exchange region of the HO2 potential-energy surface. The saddle point for H atom exchange is about 13 kcal/mol below the energy of H + O2; therefore, this region of the surface should be accessible during H + O2 recombination and methathesis reactions.

  10. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields HO + O. II - The potential for H atom exchange in HO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael

    1989-01-01

    The results of CASSCF multireference contracted CI calculations with large ANO basis sets are presented for the exchange region of the HO2 potential-energy surface. The saddle point for H atom exchange is about 13 kcal/mol below the energy of H + O2; therefore, this region of the surface should be accessible during H + O2 recombination and methathesis reactions.

  11. 1.88 Micrometers InGaAsP Pumped, Room Temperature Ho: LuAG Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George; Leisher, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A room temperature, directly diode pumped Ho:LuAG laser oscillated for the first time. Direct pumping of the Ho upper laser manifold maximizes efficiency, minimizes heating, and eliminates Ho:Tm energy sharing. Design and performance are presented.

  12. 1.88 Micrometers InGaAsP Pumped, Room Temperature Ho: LuAG Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George; Leisher, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A room temperature, directly diode pumped Ho:LuAG laser oscillated for the first time. Direct pumping of the Ho upper laser manifold maximizes efficiency, minimizes heating, and eliminates Ho:Tm energy sharing. Design and performance are presented.

  13. Buffer-gas loaded MOTs for Ho, Yb,Tm, and Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Eunmi; Drayna, Garrett; Hemmerling, Boerge; Hutzler, Nick; Ravi, Aakash; Collopy, Alejandra; Hummon, Matthew; Stuhl, Benjamin; Yeo, Mark; Ye, Jun; Doyle, John

    2014-05-01

    We report on direct loading of lanthanide atoms into MOTs from a two-stage slow buffer-gas beam source, which has a peak forward velocity of ~ 30 - 60 m/s, considerably lower than other beam implementations. The low velocity combined with species generality makes this source useful for loading magneto-optical traps (MOTs), especially for species that are not well suited to the traditional approach of oven plus Zeeman slower. We report loading MOTs with Yb, Tm, Er, and Ho, without any additional slowing stages. Application of a single frequency slowing laser to the buffer-gas beam of Yb results in an unprecedentedly high loading rate of 2 . 0 (1 . 0) ×1010 Yb atoms/s and 1 . 3 (0 . 7) ×108 Yb atoms in the MOT. We plan to use this versatile source to load a MOT with CaF, following the same general approach to that used with YO and SrF.

  14. Quantum yields of OH, HO2 and NO3 in the UV photolysis of HO2NO2.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Elena; Gierczak, Tomasz; Stark, Harald; Burkholder, James B; Ravishankara, A R

    2005-01-21

    Quantum yields, phi, of OH and HO2 in the ultraviolet photolysis of HO2NO2 (peroxynitric acid, PNA) at 193 and 248 nm and that of NO3 at 193, 248 and 308 nm are reported. Quantum yields were measured using pulsed excimer laser photolysis combined with pulsed laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) detection of OH radicals and cavity ring-down (CRD) detection of NO3 radicals. HO2 radicals were quantified by converting them to OH via the HO2 + NO --> OH + NO2 reaction and detecting OH. The quantum yields obtained at 296 K are: phi193 nm(OH) = 0.21 +/- 0.12, phi248 nm(OH) = 0.085 +/- 0.08, phi193 nm(HO2) = 0.56 +/- 0.09, phi248 nm(HO2) = 0.89 +/- 0.26, phi193 nm(NO3) = 0.35 +/- 0.09, phi248 nm(NO3) = 0.08 +/- 0.04 and phi308 nm(NO3) = 0.05 +/- 0.02. The quoted uncertainties are 2sigma (95% confidence level) and include estimated systematic errors. Our results are compared with the previous quantum yield measurements of OH (MacLeod et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1988, 93, 3813) and NO2 (Roehl et al., 2001, J. Phys. Chem., 105, 1592) at 248 nm and the discrepancies are discussed. The rate coefficients at 298 K for reactions of OH with HO2NO2, H2O2, HNO3 and NO are also reported.

  15. Role of Yb3+ ions on enhanced ~2.9 μm emission from Ho3+ ions in low phonon oxide glass system

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Sathravada; Gupta, Gaurav; Biswas, Kaushik; Ghosh, Debarati; Annapurna, Kalyandurg

    2016-01-01

    The foremost limitation of an oxide based crystal or glass host to demonstrate mid- infrared emissions is its high phonon energy. It is very difficult to obtain radiative mid-infrared emissions from these hosts which normally relax non-radiatively between closely spaced energy levels of dopant rare earth ions. In this study, an intense mid-infrared emission around 2.9 μm has been perceived from Ho3+ ions in Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped oxide based tellurite glass system. This emission intensity has increased many folds upon Yb3+: 985 nm excitation compared to direct Ho3+ excitations due to efficient excited state resonant energy transfer through Yb3+: 2F5/2 → Ho3+: 5I5 levels. The effective bandwidth (FWHM) and cross-section (σem) of measured emission at 2.9 μm are assessed to be 180 nm and 9.1 × 10−21 cm2 respectively which are comparable to other crystal/glass hosts and even better than ZBLAN fluoride glass host. Hence, this Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxide glass system has immense potential for the development of solid state mid-infrared laser sources operating at 2.9 μm region. PMID:27374129

  16. Role of Yb(3+) ions on enhanced ~2.9 μm emission from Ho(3+) ions in low phonon oxide glass system.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Sathravada; Gupta, Gaurav; Biswas, Kaushik; Ghosh, Debarati; Annapurna, Kalyandurg

    2016-07-04

    The foremost limitation of an oxide based crystal or glass host to demonstrate mid- infrared emissions is its high phonon energy. It is very difficult to obtain radiative mid-infrared emissions from these hosts which normally relax non-radiatively between closely spaced energy levels of dopant rare earth ions. In this study, an intense mid-infrared emission around 2.9 μm has been perceived from Ho(3+) ions in Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) co-doped oxide based tellurite glass system. This emission intensity has increased many folds upon Yb(3+): 985 nm excitation compared to direct Ho(3+) excitations due to efficient excited state resonant energy transfer through Yb(3+): (2)F5/2 → Ho(3+): (5)I5 levels. The effective bandwidth (FWHM) and cross-section (σem) of measured emission at 2.9 μm are assessed to be 180 nm and 9.1 × 10(-21) cm(2) respectively which are comparable to other crystal/glass hosts and even better than ZBLAN fluoride glass host. Hence, this Ho(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped oxide glass system has immense potential for the development of solid state mid-infrared laser sources operating at 2.9 μm region.

  17. Ni-Co oxide formation with Cu assisted method on Ni foam: Unexpected higher areal capacitance of inner layer with naturally formed nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Diwen; Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2017-09-01

    Ni Foam substrate directly serves as the Ni source for the final Ni-Co oxide product with a Cu assisted chemical method. Especially, after shaking off top layer of Ni-Co oxide grown on Ni Foam, the sample unexpectedly exhibits a greatly enhanced areal capacitance from 4.17 to 11.44 F cm-2 (1 mA cm-2). Finer structures including oxide nanotubes are interestingly found underneath the top layer, which may account for this extraordinary phenomenon.

  18. Electron microscopy study of Ni induced crystallization in amorphous Si thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Radnóczi, G. Z.; Battistig, G.; Pécz, B.; Dodony, E.; Vouroutzis, N.; Stoemenos, J.; Frangis, N.; Kovács, A.

    2015-02-17

    The crystallization of amorphous silicon is studied by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of Ni on the crystallization is studied in a wide temperature range heating thinned samples in-situ inside the microscope. Two cases of limited Ni source and unlimited Ni source are studied and compared. NiSi{sub 2} phase started to form at a temperature as low as 250°C in the limited Ni source case. In-situ observation gives a clear view on the crystallization of silicon through small NiSi{sub 2} grain formation. The same phase is observed at the crystallization front in the unlimited Ni source case, where a second region is also observed with large grains of Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. Low temperature experiments show, that long annealing of amorphous silicon at 410 °C already results in large crystallized Si regions due to the Ni induced crystallization.

  19. Critical budget of metal sources and pathways in the Seine River basin (1994-2003) for Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn.

    PubMed

    Thévenot, Daniel R; Moilleron, Régis; Lestel, Laurence; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Rocher, Vincent; Cambier, Philippe; Bonté, Philippe; Colin, Jean-Louis; de Pontevès, Claire; Meybeck, Michel

    2007-04-01

    River basin metal pollution originates from heavy industries (plating, automobile) and from urban sources (Paris conurbation: 2740 km(2), 9.47 million inhabitants). The natural sources of metal have been found to be limited due to sedimentary nature of this catchment and to the very low river sediment transport (10 t km(-2) y(-1)). Several types of data have been collected to build the metal budget within the whole Seine River basin: field surveys, economical statistics and environmental models. Environmental contamination and related fluxes have been measured on atmospheric fallout, rural streams particles, and Seine River particles upstream and downstream of Paris and at river mouth. Metal pathways and budgets have been set up for (i) a typical cultivated area, (ii) a Paris combined sewer system, (iii) Paris conurbation and (iv) the whole catchment metal retention effect in floodplain and dredged material. Metal fluxes to the estuary have been decomposed into natural, urban domestic and other sources. The latter are within 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than waste water fluxes directly released into rivers according to an industrial census. These fluxes have been further compared to the annual use (1994-2003) of these metals. Metal excess fluxes exported by the river are now a marginal leak of metal inputs to the catchment (i.e. "raw" metals, metals in goods, atmospheric fallout), generally from 0.2 to 5 per thousand. However, due to the very limited dilution power in this basin, the contamination of particles is still relatively high. The Seine River basin is gradually storing metals, mostly in manufactured products used in construction, but also in various waste dumps, industrial soils, agricultural and flood plain soils.

  20. Measurements of the HO2 uptake coefficients onto single component organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Lakey, P S J; George, I J; Whalley, L K; Baeza-Romero, M T; Heard, D E

    2015-04-21

    Measurements of HO2 uptake coefficients (γ) were made onto a variety of organic aerosols derived from glutaric acid, glyoxal, malonic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, squalene, monoethanol amine sulfate, monomethyl amine sulfate, and two sources of humic acid, for an initial HO2 concentration of 1 × 10(9) molecules cm(-3), room temperature and at atmospheric pressure. Values in the range of γ < 0.004 to γ = 0.008 ± 0.004 were measured for all of the aerosols apart from the aerosols from the two sources of humic acid. For humic acid aerosols, uptake coefficients in the range of γ = 0.007 ± 0.002 to γ = 0.09 ± 0.03 were measured. Elevated concentrations of copper (16 ± 1 and 380 ± 20 ppb) and iron (600 ± 30 and 51 000 ± 3000 ppb) ions were measured in the humic acid atomizer solutions compared to the other organics that can explain the higher uptake values measured. A strong dependence upon relative humidity was also observed for uptake onto humic acid, with larger uptake coefficients seen at higher humidities. Possible hypotheses for the humidity dependence include the changing liquid water content of the aerosol, a change in the mass accommodation coefficient or in the Henry's law constant.

  1. Fe-Ni and Al-Mg isotope records in UOC chondrules: Plausible stellar source of 60Fe and other short-lived nuclides in the early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Goswami, J. N.

    2014-05-01

    The short-lived now-extinct nuclide 60Fe, present in the early Solar System, is a unique product of stellar nucleosynthesis. Even though the first hint for its presence in the early Solar System was obtained more than two decades back, a robust value for Solar System initial (SSI) 60Fe/56Fe is yet to be established. A combined study of 26Al-26Mg and 60Fe-60Ni isotope systematics in chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites of low petrologic type, Semarkona (LL3.0), LEW 86134 (L3.0), and Y 791324 (L3.1), has been conducted to infer the value of SSI 60Fe/56Fe. Seven of the analysed chondrules host resolved radiogenic excess in both 60Ni and 26Mg resulting from in situ decay of the short-lived nuclides 60Fe and 26Al, respectively. The initial 26Al/27Al values for these chondrules range from (6.9 ± 5.8) × 10-6 to (3.01 ± 1.78) × 10-5 that suggest their formation between 2.1 and 0.6 Ma after CAIs. The initial 60Fe/56Fe at the time of formation of these chondrules ranges from (3.2 ± 1.3) × 10-7 to (1.12 ± 0.39) × 10-6 and show a good correlation with their initial 26Al/27Al values suggesting co-injection of the two short-lived nuclides, 60Fe and 26Al, into the protosolar cloud from the same stellar source. Considering 26Al as a reliable early Solar System chronometer, this data set yield a SSI 60Fe/56Fe value of (7.0 ± 1.2) × 10-7, if we adopt a half-life value of 2.6 Ma for 60Fe reported in a recent study. Model stellar nucleosynthesis yields suggest that both a high mass (5-6.5 M⊙) Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star or a supernova (SN) could be the source of 60Fe and 26Al present in the early Solar System. A high mass (˜25 M⊙) SN appears more plausible because of the much higher probability of its close association with the protosolar molecular cloud than a high mass AGB star. Such a SN can also account for SSI abundance of 26Al and its correlated presence with 60Fe in chondrules.

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of the glyoxal + HO2 reaction: conversion of HO2 to OH by carbonyls.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel

    2011-01-27

    The kinetics of the glyoxal + HO(2) reaction have been investigated using computational chemistry and statistical reaction rate theory techniques, with consideration of a novel pathway that results in the conversion of HO(2) to OH. Glyoxal is shown to react with HO(2) to form an α-hydroxyperoxy radical with additional α-carbonyl functionality. Intramolecular H atom abstraction from the carbonyl moiety proceeds with a relatively low barrier, facilitating decomposition to OH + CO + HC(O)OH (formic acid). Time-dependent master equation simulations demonstrate that direct reaction to form OH is relatively slow at ambient temperature. The major reaction product is predicted to be collisionally deactivated HC(OH)(OO)CHO, which predominantly dissociates to reform the reactants under low-NO(x) conditions. The mechanism described here for the conversion of OH to HO(2) is available to a diverse range of carbonyls, including methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, and glyoxylic acid, and energy surfaces are reported for the reaction of these species with HO(2).

  3. Asymptotic Freedom in Hořava-Lifshitz Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Giulio; Saueressig, Frank; Schutten, Marrit

    2014-10-01

    We use the Wetterich equation for foliated spacetimes to study the renormalization group flow of projectable Hořava-Lifshitz gravity coupled to n Lifshitz scalars. Using novel results for anisotropic heat kernels, the matter-induced beta functions for the gravitational couplings are computed explicitly. The renormalization group flow exhibits an UV attractive anisotropic Gaussian fixed point where Newton's constant vanishes and the extra scalar mode decouples. This fixed point ensures that the theory is asymptotically free in the large-n expansion, indicating that projectable Hořava-Lifshitz gravity is perturbatively renormalizable. Notably, the fundamental fixed point action does not obey detailed balance.

  4. Magnetic properties of HoMn2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulov, I.; Lovchinov, V.; Dimitrov, D.; Apostolov, A.; Nizhankovskii, V.; Daszkiewicz, M.

    2007-04-01

    We have investigated the detailed field and temperature dependence of the dielectric constant, dielectric losses, electric polarization, magnetization and magnetostriction (MS) in orthorhombic HoMn2O5 single crystals. HoMn2O5 displays incommensurate antiferromagnetic ordering below 39 K, becoming commensurate on further cooling. The commensurate-incommensurate transition takes place at low temperatures. The inherent magnetic frustration in this material is lifted by a small lattice distortion, primarily involving shifts of the Mn3+ cations and giving rise to a canted antiferroelectric phase. Colossal magnetostriction (CMS) effect was observed and a novel phase transition diagram was build.

  5. Measurements of uptake coefficients for heterogeneous loss of HO2 onto submicron inorganic salt aerosols.

    PubMed

    George, I J; Matthews, P S J; Whalley, L K; Brooks, B; Goddard, A; Baeza-Romero, M T; Heard, D E

    2013-08-21

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the kinetics of HO2 radical uptake onto submicron inorganic salt aerosols. HO2 reactive uptake coefficients were measured at room temperature using an aerosol flow tube and the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE) technique that allowed for measurements to be conducted under atmospherically relevant HO2 concentrations ([HO2] = 10(8) to 10(9) molecule cm(-3)). The uptake coefficient for HO2 uptake onto dry inorganic salt aerosols was consistently below the detection limit (γ(HO2) < 0.004). The mass accommodation coefficient of HO2 radicals onto Cu(II)-doped (NH4)2SO4 aerosols was measured to be α(HO2) = 0.4 ± 0.3 representing the kinetic upper limit to γ. For aqueous (NH4)2SO4, NaCl and NH4NO3 aerosols not containing traces of transition metal ions, a range of γ(HO2) = 0.003-0.02 was measured. These values were much lower than γ values previously measured on aqueous (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl aerosols and also those typically used in atmospheric models (γ(HO2) = 0.1-1.0). Evidence is presented showing that the HO2 uptake coefficients onto aqueous salt aerosol particles are dependent both on the exposure time to the aerosol and on the HO2 concentration used.

  6. Formation of fine particles enriched by V and Ni from heavy oil combustion: Anthropogenic sources and drop-tube furnace experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Ha-Na; Seo, Yong-Chil; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Hwang, Kyu-Won; Yoo, Jong-Ik; Sok, Chong-Hui; Kim, Seong-Heon

    The present study attempts to investigate the emission characteristics of fine particles with special emphasis on nickel and vanadium metal elements emitted from the heavy oil combustion in industrial boilers and power plant, which are typical anthropogenic sources in Korea. A series of combustion experiments were performed to investigate the emission characteristics of particles in the size range of submicron by means of drop-tube furnace with three major domestic heavy oils. Cascade impactors were utilized to determine the size distribution of particulates as well as to analyze the partitioning enrichment of vanadium and nickel in various size ranges. Experimental results were compared with field data of particle size distribution and metal partitioning at commercial utility boilers with heavy oil combustion. Such data were interpreted by chemical equilibrium and particle growth mechanism by means of computational models. In general, fine particles were the major portion of PM 10 emitted from the heavy oil combustion, with significant fraction of ultra-fine particles. The formation of ultra-fine particles through nucleation/condensation/coagulation from heavy oil combustion was confirmed by field and experimental data. Vanadium and nickel were more enriched in fine particles, particularly in ultra-fine particles. The conventional air pollution devices showed inefficient capability to remove ultra-fine particles enriched with hazardous transition metal elements such as vanadium and nickel.

  7. Microscopic insight into the study of band spectra of 158Ho and 159,161,163Ho isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slathia, Barun; Devi, Rani; Khosa, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    The nuclear structure properties of the low-lying and excited states of Holmium isotopes have been studied within the framework of Projected Shell Model. The theoretical results are found to be in the reasonable agreement with the observed ones. The theoretical B (M 1) / B (E 2) estimates of 158Ho are seen to reproduce the same systematics as shown by the observed ones. However, for 159,161,163Ho, the B (E 2) transition probabilities for the ground state band have been predicted for transitions for which the experimental values are not available.

  8. Theoretical characterization of the minimum energy path for the reaction H + O2 to HO2(asterisk) to HO + O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael; Melius, Carl F.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The potential energy surface for the H + O2 to HO2(asterisk) to HO + O reaction has been investigated in the region of the minimum energy path using CASSCF/contracted CI (CCI) calculations with a large basis set. The results show no barrier for the addition of an H atom to O2, in agreement with previous studies. A crossing between the surface for electrostatic (OH dipole-O quadrupole) interaction and that for the formation of an O-O chemical bond, at r(infinity) of about 5.5 a(0), results in a small (about 0.5 kcal/mol) barrier.

  9. Theoretical characterization of the minimum energy path for the reaction H + O2 to HO2(asterisk) to HO + O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael; Melius, Carl F.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The potential energy surface for the H + O2 to HO2(asterisk) to HO + O reaction has been investigated in the region of the minimum energy path using CASSCF/contracted CI (CCI) calculations with a large basis set. The results show no barrier for the addition of an H atom to O2, in agreement with previous studies. A crossing between the surface for electrostatic (OH dipole-O quadrupole) interaction and that for the formation of an O-O chemical bond, at r(infinity) of about 5.5 a(0), results in a small (about 0.5 kcal/mol) barrier.

  10. Flash-lamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG and Ho:Tm:Er:YLF lasers: experimental results of a single, long pulse length comparison.

    PubMed

    Jani, M G; Barnes, N P; Murray, K E

    1997-05-20

    Flash-lamp-pumped, room-temperature Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG and Ho:Tm:Er:YLF are compared for single but long pulse operation, with pulse lengths of approximately 1.0 mus. Under similar operating conditions in normal-mode operation, a slope efficiency of 0.0331 was observed for Ho:Tm:Er:YLF compared with 0.0047 for Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG. For Q-switched operation, Ho:Tm:Er:YLF yielded a slope efficiency of 0.0075. In comparison, a slope efficiency of 0.0012 was obtained for Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG. Two methods of producing long pulse lengths are compared: pulse selection of normal-mode relaxation oscillations and Q-switching in a long resonator. Theoretical models developed in a companion paper for normal-mode relaxation oscillations and Q-switching in quasi-four-level solid-state lasers are in agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Measurements of OH and HO2 at a tropical marine location as part of the SOLAS Seasonal Oxidant Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Stewart; Ingham, Trevor; Stone, Daniel; Whalley, Lisa; Evans, Mathew; Heard, Dwayne

    2010-05-01

    trends of both OH and HO2. A preliminary comparison shows that the model overpredicts the daytime concentrations of both HOx-species by factors of ~1.9 and ~1.6 for SOS1 and SOS2, respectively, suggesting an overestimation of HOx-sources and/or an underprediction of HOx-sinks; modelling analysis of the data for SOS3 will take place in spring 2010. Attempts to resolve the differences between the model predictions and the measurements, including a sensitivity analysis with respect to halogen oxides, will be discussed.

  12. Materials Data on NiHO2 (SG:156) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-05-24

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Materials Data on HoNi4B (SG:191) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on Ho3Ni19B10 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on HoNiO3 (SG:62) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-22

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on HoNi (SG:62) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-05-16

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on Ho2(Ni2B)5 (SG:61) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on BaHo2NiO5 (SG:71) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on Ho2(Ni5B3)3 (SG:64) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on Ho2Ni12P7 (SG:174) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on Ho2NiAs2 (SG:194) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Materials Data on Ho2Ni2Pb (SG:65) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on Ho2(Ni5B2)3 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on Ho2Si5Ni3 (SG:72) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-07

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on Ho2NiGe6 (SG:38) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-01-27

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on HoNi2B2C (SG:139) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-07-14

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Materials Data on Ni(HO)2 (SG:156) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Materials Data on Ho(SiNi)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Materials Data on Ho(NiB)2 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on Ho(NiP)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on Ni(HO)2 (SG:5) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Materials Data on Ho(NiGe)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Materials Data on HoNi2 (SG:227) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on Ho5NiPb3 (SG:193) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-07-25

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on Ho(SiNi5)2 (SG:129) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on Ni(HO)2 (SG:5) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on Ho2NiIr (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-08-28

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Programme Note: Realities and Opportunities in Ho Chi Minh City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchet, Chi Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of street children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is characterized by marginalization from society through street vending, begging, theft, and prostitution. Evaluation of a drop-in center serving children without family linkages indicates need for needs assessments, follow-up activities, measurement of individual child progress,…

  19. Registration of ‘Ho 00-961’ sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ho 00-961’ (Reg. No., PI) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., S. barberi Jeswiet, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit, and evaluated cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, an...

  20. Registration of ‘Ho 02-113’ Sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ho 02-113’ sugarcane was released by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit working cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugarcane League of the U.S.A. This high-fiber sugarcane variety was released for use as a biofuel feedstock to fill the rising i...

  1. Single-frequency lasing of monolithic Ho,Tm:YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Deyst, John P.; Storm, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    Single-frequency lasing in monolithic crystals of holmium-thulium-doped YLF (Ho,Tm:YLF) is reported. A maximum single-frequency output power of 6 mW at a wavelength of 2.05 microns is demonstrated. Frequency tuning is also described.

  2. Low temperature magnetic transitions of single crystal HoBi

    SciTech Connect

    Fente, A.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.; Nemes, N. M.; García-Hernández, M.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2013-10-01

    We present resistivity, specific heat and magnetization measurements in high quality single crystals of HoBi, with a residual resistivity ratio of 126. We find, from the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization, an antiferromagnetic transition at 5.7 K, which evolves, under magnetic fields, into a series of up to five metamagnetic phases.

  3. Atomic transition rates for neutral holmium (Ho I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Gillian

    2003-10-01

    Transition rates for 321 lines between 345 and 1080 nm from 73 levels of Ho I are presented. They have been measured by combining branching fractions obtained by Fourier transform spectrometry with lifetimes of Den Hartog et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2278 (1999)]. The uncertainty of the transition rates is 5%-10%.

  4. Resonantly pumped room temperature Ho:LuVO₄ laser.

    PubMed

    Yao, B Q; Cui, Z; Duan, X M; Du, Y Q; Han, L; Shen, Y J

    2014-11-01

    Spectroscopic characterization of a Ho:LuVO4 crystal grown by the Czochralski method has been performed, including the absorption and emission spectra. We demonstrate a 2 μm room temperature Ho:LuVO4 laser, resonantly pumped by a 1.94 μm Tm:YAP laser. By use of an output coupler with T=10% transmission, the Ho:LuVO4 laser generated continuous-wave output power of 2.5 W at 2074.18 nm, with a beam quality factor of Mx2=My2=1.3, for a total incident pump power of 19.4 W. The slope efficiency with respect to the pump power was 17.6%, and the optical-to-optical efficiency was 12.9%. Moreover, we obtained a Ho:LuVO4 laser that operated at 2073.77 and 2055.27 nm, by using different output couplers with transmissions of T=15 and 30%.

  5. Programme Note: Realities and Opportunities in Ho Chi Minh City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchet, Chi Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of street children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is characterized by marginalization from society through street vending, begging, theft, and prostitution. Evaluation of a drop-in center serving children without family linkages indicates need for needs assessments, follow-up activities, measurement of individual child progress,…

  6. Conductively Cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF Laser Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo; Petros, M.; Petzar, Paul; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.

    2008-01-01

    A conductively-cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser head can amplify 80mJ/340ns probe pulses into 400mJ when the pump pulse energy is close to amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold, 5.6J. For a small signal, the double-pass amplification exceeds 25.

  7. Temperature Dependence of the O + HO2 Rate Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    A pulsed laser photolysis technique has been employed to investigate the kinetics of the radical-radical reaction O((sup 3)P) + HO2 OH + O2 over the temperature range 266-391 K in 80 Torr of N2 diluent gas. O((sup 3)P) was produced by 248.5-nm KrF laser photolysis of O3 followed by rapid quenching of O(1D) to O((sup 3)P) while HO2 was produced by simultaneous photolysis of H2O2 to create OH radicals which, in turn, reacted with H2O2 to yield HO2. The O((sup 3)P) temporal profile was monitored by using time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy. The HO2 concentration was calculated based on experimentally measured parameters. The following Arrhenius expression describes our experimental results: k(sub 1)(T) equals (2.91 +/- 0.70) x 10(exp -11) exp[(228 +/- 75)/T] where the errors are 2 sigma and represent precision only. The absolute uncertainty in k, at any temperature within the range 266-391 K is estimated to be +/- 22 percent. Our results are in excellent agreement with a discharge flow study of the temperature dependence of k(sub 1) in 1 Torr of He diluent reported by Keyser, and significantly reduce the uncertainty in the rate of this important stratospheric reaction at subambient temperatures.

  8. Performance of Ho:YAG as a function of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Gettemy, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of two multiply doped Ho:YAG lasers has been characterized as a function of the laser rod temperature. From the experimental results, the dependence of the slope efficiency and threshold on temperature has been extracted. Threshold can be correlated with the occupation of the lower laser level. Implications on the optimum operating temperature are discussed.

  9. Living with ghosts in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanov, S.; Arroja, F.; Celoria, M.; Matarrese, S.; Pilo, L.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the branch of the projectable Hořava-Lifshitz model which exhibits ghost instabilities in the low energy limit. It turns out that, due to the Lorentz violating structure of the model and to the presence of a finite strong coupling scale, the vacuum decay rate into photons is tiny in a wide range of phenomenologically acceptable parameters. The strong coupling scale, understood as a cutoff on ghosts' spatial momenta, can be raised up to Λ ˜ 10 TeV. At lower momenta, the projectable Hořava-Lifshitz gravity is equivalent to General Relativity supplemented by a fluid with a small positive sound speed squared (10-42 ≲) c s 2 ≲ 10-20, that could be a promising candidate for the Dark Matter. Despite these advantages, the unavoidable presence of the strong coupling obscures the implementation of the original Hořava's proposal on quantum gravity. Apart from the Hořava-Lifshitz model, conclusions of the present work hold also for the mimetic matter scenario, where the analogue of the projectability condition is achieved by a non-invertible conformal transformation of the metric.

  10. Performance of Ho:YAG as a function of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Gettemy, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of two multiply doped Ho:YAG lasers has been characterized as a function of the laser rod temperature. From the experimental results, the dependence of the slope efficiency and threshold on temperature has been extracted. Threshold can be correlated with the occupation of the lower laser level. Implications on the optimum operating temperature are discussed.

  11. HO2 and HO2* Radical Chemistry during PROPHET-AMOS: Measurement and Model Comparison HO2 and HO2* Radical Chemistry during PROPHET-AMOS: Measurement and Model Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, M.; Bottorff, B.; Stevens, P. S.; Sigler, P. S. R.

    2016-12-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy radicals, both the hydroperoxy radicals (HO2) and organic peroxy radicals (RO2) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. In addition to controlling lifetimes of many trace gases important to issues of global climate change, reactions of these radicals can also lead to the production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Previous measurements of these radicals in forest environments characterized by high mixing ratios of isoprene and low mixing ratios of NOx have shown serious discrepancies with modeled concentrations. These results bring into question our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of isoprene and other biogenic VOCs under low NOxconditions. In the summer of 2016, HO2 and HO2* (S HO2 + αRO2) radicals were measured using the Laser-Induced Fluorescence Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (LIF-FAGE) technique as part of the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHtochemistry, Emissions, and Transport- Atmospheric Measurements of Oxidants in Summer (PROPHET-AMOS). This campaign took place in a forested area in northern Michigan characterized by high mixing ratios of isoprene and low mixing ratios of NOx. Ambient measurements from this campaign will be compared to previous measurements at this site and to modeled predictions.

  12. OH, HO2, and ozone gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Andrey V; Trakhtenberg, Sofia; Bertram, Allan K; Gershenzon, Yulii M; Molina, Mario J

    2007-03-08

    The diffusion of OH, HO2, and O3 in He, and of OH in air, has been investigated using a coated-wall flow tube reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The diffusion coefficients were determined from measurements of the loss of the reactive species to the flow tube wall as a function of pressure. On the basis of the experimental results, D(OH-He) = 662 +/- 33 Torr cm2 s-1, D(OH-air) = 165 +/- 20 Torr cm2 s-1, D(HO2-He) = 430 +/- 30 Torr cm2 s-1, and D(O3-He) = 410 +/- 25 Torr cm2 s-1 at 296 K. We show that the measured values for OH and HO2 are in better agreement with measured values of their polar analogues (H2O and H2O2) compared with measured values of their nonpolar analogues (O and O2). The measured value for OH in air is 25% smaller than that for O (the nonpolar analogue). The difference between the measured value for HO2 and O2 (the nonpolar analogue) in air is expected to be even larger. Also we show that calculations of the diffusion coefficients based on Lennard-Jones potentials are in excellent agreement with the measurements. This gives further confidence that these calculations can be used to estimate accurate diffusion coefficients for conditions where laboratory data currently do not exist.

  13. Temperature Dependence of the O + HO2 Rate Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    A pulsed laser photolysis technique has been employed to investigate the kinetics of the radical-radical reaction O((sup 3)P) + HO2 OH + O2 over the temperature range 266-391 K in 80 Torr of N2 diluent gas. O((sup 3)P) was produced by 248.5-nm KrF laser photolysis of O3 followed by rapid quenching of O(1D) to O((sup 3)P) while HO2 was produced by simultaneous photolysis of H2O2 to create OH radicals which, in turn, reacted with H2O2 to yield HO2. The O((sup 3)P) temporal profile was monitored by using time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy. The HO2 concentration was calculated based on experimentally measured parameters. The following Arrhenius expression describes our experimental results: k(sub 1)(T) equals (2.91 +/- 0.70) x 10(exp -11) exp[(228 +/- 75)/T] where the errors are 2 sigma and represent precision only. The absolute uncertainty in k, at any temperature within the range 266-391 K is estimated to be +/- 22 percent. Our results are in excellent agreement with a discharge flow study of the temperature dependence of k(sub 1) in 1 Torr of He diluent reported by Keyser, and significantly reduce the uncertainty in the rate of this important stratospheric reaction at subambient temperatures.

  14. 2012 Louisiana "Ho" nursery and infield variety trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three years after selection in the seedling stage of the USDA variety program, superior experimental varieties are assigned permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers. These varieties are then planted in replicated yield trials at SRU’s Ardoyne Farm in Schriever and at the LSU AgCenter’s Iberia Research Stati...

  15. 2014 Louisiana "Ho" nursery and infield variety trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the USDA sugarcane variety program, superior experimental varieties are assigned permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers three years after selection in the seedling stage. These varieties are then planted in replicated yield trials at the Sugarcane Research Unit's (SRU) Ardoyne Farm in Schriever and at ...

  16. Luminescence properties of long-lasting phosphor SrMg2(PO4)2:Eu2+, Ho3+, Zr4+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei; Wang, Mingwen; Lin, Wei; Ye, Yaping; Wu, Xue

    2016-12-01

    Novel long lasting phosphors SrMg2(PO4)2:Eu2+, SrMg2(PO4)2:Eu2+, Zr4+, SrMg2(PO4)2:Eu2+, Ho3+ and SrMg2(PO4)2:Eu2+, Ho3+, Zr4+ were synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction method. The luminescent properties were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescent excitation and emission spectra, as well as thermoluminescence spectrum and decay curves. The XRD patterns indicated that the samples belonged to monoclinic phase and co-doping Eu2+, Ho3+ and Zr4+ ions had no effect on the basic crystal structure. These phosphors emitting purplish blue light is related to the characteristic emission of Eu2+. The afterglow time of Eu2+ activated SrMg2(PO4)2 can be greatly enhanced by the co-doping of Ho3+, Zr4+. After the 365 nm UV light excitation source switching off, the Sr0.92Mg1.95(PO4)2:Eu2+0.01, Zr4+0.05, Ho3+0.07 phosphorescence can be observed for more than 1013 s in the limit of light perception of dark-adapted human eyes (0.32 mcd/m2). Different kinds of TL peaks at 423, 448 and 473 K have appeared, and traps densities have increased compared with the Eu2+ single doped SrMg2(PO4)2 phosphor. By analyzing the TL curve the depths of traps were calculated to be 0.846, 0.896 and 0.946 eV, respectively, which suggested that the co-doping of Ho3+, Zr4+ improved the electron storage ability of material. Besides, the mechanism was discussed in this report.

  17. Electron Probe Microanalysis of Ni Silicides Using Ni-L X-Ray Lines.

    PubMed

    Llovet, Xavier; Pinard, Philippe T; Heikinheimo, Erkki; Louhenkilpi, Seppo; Richter, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    We report electron probe microanalysis measurements on nickel silicides, Ni5Si2, Ni2Si, Ni3Si2, and NiSi, which were done in order to investigate anomalies that affect the analysis of such materials by using the Ni L3-M4,5 line (Lα). Possible sources of systematic discrepancies between experimental data and theoretical predictions of Ni L3-M4,5 k-ratios are examined, and special attention is paid to dependence of the Ni L3-M4,5 k-ratios on mass-attenuation coefficients and partial fluorescence yields. Self-absorption X-ray spectra and empirical mass-attenuation coefficients were obtained for the considered materials from X-ray emission spectra and relative X-ray intensity measurements, respectively. It is shown that calculated k-ratios with empirical mass attenuation coefficients and modified partial fluorescence yields give better agreement with experimental data, except at very low accelerating voltages. Alternatively, satisfactory agreement is also achieved by using the Ni L3-M1 line (Lℓ) instead of the Ni L3-M4,5 line.

  18. Relationships between NOS2 and HO-1 in liver of rats with chronic bile duct ligation.

    PubMed

    Flores, Olga; Criado, Manuela; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Angel; Hidalgo, Froilán; Collía, Francisco; López-Novoa, José Miguel; Esteller, Alejandro

    2005-05-01

    An increased expression and activity of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the liver has been observed in models of hepatic damage. Nitric oxide (NO) seems to be involved in HO-1 regulation. The aim of this work is to assess HO-1 induction and heme oxygenase (HO) activity in rats with bile duct ligation (BDL). We have assessed the effect of chronic inhibition of the NO synthesis by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) on HO-1 induction and HO activity. In the BDL animals, compared with sham-operated ones, we found an increased plasma nitrite and bilirubin concentration, and a marked liver expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and HO-1, assessed by both Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Chronic l-NAME treatment prevented plasma nitrite increase in animals subjected to BDL. BDL animals treated with l-NAME, compared with untreated BDL rats, showed an important decrease in HO-1 expression and in HO activity (assessed as a decreased plasma bilirubin and bilirubin excretion). In conclusion, our experiments show parallel changes in expression and activity of HO-1 and NOS2 activity in the BDL model of liver damage and suggest that increased NO production is involved in HO-1 overexpression.

  19. Extratumoral Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Expressing Macrophages Likely Promote Primary and Metastatic Prostate Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Halin Bergström, Sofia; Nilsson, Maria; Adamo, Hanibal; Thysell, Elin; Jernberg, Emma; Stattin, Pär; Widmark, Anders; Wikström, Pernilla; Bergh, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive tumors induce tumor-supporting changes in the benign parts of the prostate. One factor that has increased expression outside prostate tumors is hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1). To investigate HO-1 expression in more detail, we analyzed samples of tumor tissue and peritumoral normal prostate tissue from rats carrying cancers with different metastatic capacity, and human prostate cancer tissue samples from primary tumors and bone metastases. In rat prostate tumor samples, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the main site of HO-1 synthesis was HO-1+ macrophages that accumulated in the tumor-bearing organ, and at the tumor-invasive front. Small metastatic tumors were considerably more effective in attracting HO-1+ macrophages than larger non-metastatic ones. In clinical samples, accumulation of HO-1+ macrophages was seen at the tumor invasive front, almost exclusively in high-grade tumors, and it correlated with the presence of bone metastases. HO-1+ macrophages, located at the tumor invasive front, were more abundant in bone metastases than in primary tumors. HO-1 expression in bone metastases was variable, and positively correlated with the expression of macrophage markers but negatively correlated with androgen receptor expression, suggesting that elevated HO-1 could be a marker for a subgroup of bone metastases. Together with another recent observation showing that selective knockout of HO-1 in macrophages reduced prostate tumor growth and metastatic capacity in animals, the results of this study suggest that extratumoral HO-1+ macrophages may have an important role in prostate cancer.

  20. Role of the apical oxygen in RMnO3 (R = Ho and Lu) low temperature magneto-electric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermette, Jonathan; Jandl, Serge

    2012-02-01

    Multiferroic materials are promising candidates for new innovative devices, particularly in the field of memory storage. The strong coupling between magnetic ordering and ferroelectricity characterizing these compounds allows the modulation of the electric polarization (magnetic moment) with an external magnetic (electric) field. Hexagonal RMnO3 (Ho to Lu) compounds are type-I multiferroics in which ferroelectricity and magnetism have different sources giving a relative weak magneto-electric coupling with a large polarization. In this case ferroelectricity is induced at a relative high temperature (TC ˜ 800K) following a structural transition, while magnetic ordering of Mn^3+ and R^3+ occurs at lower temperatures (T < 100K). In order to determine which atoms play a major role in the giant low temperature magneto-electric effect, we study the evolutions of infrared active phonon frequencies in HoMnO3 and LuMnO3 under applied magnetic field below THo = 5K. By comparing the renormalized force constants and the Born-effective charges, apical oxygen role in Ho^3+-Mn^3+ superexchange interaction is particularly underlined.

  1. Nuclear spectroscopy above isomers in {sub 67}{sup 148}Ho{sub 81} and {sub 67}{sup 149}Ho{sub 82} nuclei: Search for core-excited states in {sup 149}Ho

    SciTech Connect

    Kownacki, J.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Zielinska, M.; Kordyasz, A.; Srebrny, J.; Droste, Ch.; Morek, T.; Grodner, E.; Ruchowska, E.; Korman, A.; Czarnacki, W.; Kisielinski, M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Hadynska-KlePk, K.; Mierzejewski, J.; Lieder, R. M.; Perkowski, J.; Andrzejewski, J.; Krol, A.

    2010-04-15

    The excited states of {sup 148}Ho and {sup 149}Ho isotopes are studied using gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy in off-beam and in-beam modes following {sup 112,114}Sn({sup 40}Ar,xnyp) reactions. Experiments include measurements of single gamma-rays and conversion electron spectra as well as gamma-gamma, electron-gamma, gamma-t, and gamma-gamma-t coincidences with the use of the OSIRIS-II 12-HPGe array and conversion electron spectrometer. Based on the present results, the level schemes of {sup 148}Ho and {sup 149}Ho are revised and significantly extended, up to about 4 and 5 MeV of excitation energy, respectively. Spin and parity of 5{sup -} are assigned to the 9.59-s isomer in {sup 148}Ho based on conversion electron results. Previously unobserved gamma rays feeding the 10{sup +} isomer in {sup 148}Ho and the 27/2{sup -} isomer in {sup 149}Ho nuclei are proposed. Shell-model calculations are performed. Possible core-excited states in {sup 149}Ho are discussed.

  2. South Pole Antarctica observations and modeling results: New insights on HO x radical and sulfur chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, Roy; Kosciuch, Edward; Eisele, Fred; Huey, Greg; Tanner, David; Sjostedt, Steve; Blake, Don; Chen, Gao; Crawford, Jim; Davis, Douglas

    2010-02-01

    Measurements of OH, H 2SO 4, and MSA at South Pole (SP) Antarctica were recorded as a part of the 2003 Antarctic Chemistry Investigation (ANTCI 2003). The time period 22 November, 2003-2 January, 2004 provided a unique opportunity to observe atmospheric chemistry at SP under both natural conditions as well as those uniquely defined by a solar eclipse event. Results under natural solar conditions generally confirmed those reported previously in the year 2000. In both years the major chemical driver leading to large scale fluctuations in OH was shifts in the concentration levels of NO. Like in 2000, however, the 2003 observational data were systematically lower than model predictions. This can be interpreted as indicating that the model mechanism is still missing a significant HO x sink reaction(s); or, alternatively, that the OH calibration source may have problems. Still a final possibility could involve the integrity of the OH sampling scheme which involved a fixed building site. As expected, during the peak in the solar eclipse both NO and OH showed large decreases in their respective concentrations. Interestingly, the observational OH profile could only be approximated by the model mechanism upon adding an additional HO x radical source in the form of snow emissions of CH 2O and/or H 2O 2. This would lead one to think that either CH 2O and/or H 2O 2 snow emissions represent a significant HO x radical source under summertime conditions at SP. Observations of H 2SO 4 and MSA revealed both species to be present at very low concentrations (e.g., 5 × 10 5 and 1 × 10 5 molec cm -3, respectively), but similar to those reported in 2000. The first measurements of SO 2 at SP demonstrated a close coupling with the oxidation product H 2SO 4. The observed low concentrations of MSA appear to be counter to the most recent thinking by glacio-chemists who have suggested that the plateau's lower atmosphere should have elevated levels of MSA. We speculate here that the absence

  3. 2μm fiber laser sources and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jihong; Wang, Qing; Jiang, Shibin

    2011-09-01

    Mid-infrared fiber laser sources have attracted a lot of interest in space and defense applications. We review our latest developments of various fiber laser sources operating near 2μm based on Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions, which include singlefrequency CW laser sources, Q-switched laser sources, mode-locked laser sources. Potential applications of these fiber laser sources are also briefly discussed.

  4. Cluster-size dependent internal dynamics and magnetic anisotropy of Ho ions in HoM2N@C80 and Ho2MN@C80 families (M = Sc, Lu, Y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Krylov, D.; Schiemenz, S.; Rosenkranz, M.; Westerström, R.; Dreiser, J.; Greber, T.; Büchner, B.; Popov, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    The paramagnetic NMR study of HoM2N@C80-Ih and Ho2MN@C80-Ih nitride cluster fullerenes (M = Sc, Lu, Y) reveals strong dependence of Ho-induced paramagnetic shifts (δpara) in 13C NMR spectra on the size of the diamagnetic metal in the cluster. In particular, the δpara value in HoY2N@C80 is almost doubled in comparison to that in HoSc2N@C80. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies show that all Ho-nitride cluster fullerenes have the same magnetic ground state of Ho3+. Point-charge ligand-field splitting calculations show that the increase of the M3+ radius in going from Sc to Y results in a considerable increase of the energy splitting between different Jz states. This leads to a 19% higher magnetic anisotropy of Ho3+ in HoY2N@C80 than in HoSc2N@C80 at 300 K. Variations of the molecular geometry and cluster dynamics with the size of the cluster are found to have even greater influence on δpara values. This work shows that the magnetic properties of the species confined inside the fullerene cages can be tuned using the geometrical factors such as the cluster and the cage size.The paramagnetic NMR study of HoM2N@C80-Ih and Ho2MN@C80-Ih nitride cluster fullerenes (M = Sc, Lu, Y) reveals strong dependence of Ho-induced paramagnetic shifts (δpara) in 13C NMR spectra on the size of the diamagnetic metal in the cluster. In particular, the δpara value in HoY2N@C80 is almost doubled in comparison to that in HoSc2N@C80. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies show that all Ho-nitride cluster fullerenes have the same magnetic ground state of Ho3+. Point-charge ligand-field splitting calculations show that the increase of the M3+ radius in going from Sc to Y results in a considerable increase of the energy splitting between different Jz states. This leads to a 19% higher magnetic anisotropy of Ho3+ in HoY2N@C80 than in HoSc2N@C80 at 300 K. Variations of the molecular geometry and cluster dynamics with the size of the cluster are found to have even greater influence on

  5. Corrigendum to "Hierarchical Ni0.54Co0.46O2 nanowire and nanosheet arrays grown on carbon fiber cloth for high-performance supercapacitors" [J. Power Source 329 (2016) 473-483

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shuangxi

    2016-11-01

    The authors regret that the chemical formula of "Ni0.54Co0.46O2" is incorrect throughout the article and should be changed to "Ni0.54Co0.46O" in all cases. Moreover, there was a clerical mistake in Equation (2) which should be corrected as "E = ∫ I × V(t) dt / 3.6 ". These clerical mistakes do NOT have any effect on the discussion or conclusion of the article.

  6. Magnetic properties and structures of fibrous R11Ni4In9 intermetallics (R = heavy rare earths)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provino, Alessia; Ritter, Clemens; Gschneidner, Karl A.; Manfrinetti, Pietro; Dhar, Sudesh K.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2015-03-01

    The existence and the unusual self-assembled nano/microfibrous morphology of the R11T4In9 (R = rare earth, T = Ni, Pd, Pt) phases has been recently studied [1,2,3]. All the rare earths (but Sc, Eu, Yb) form this ternary compound (orthorhombic Nd11Pd4In9-type, oC48, Cmmm). The bundles of fibers grow parallel to the temperature gradient and along the short c-axis. In this presentation we describe the results of a detailed investigation of the physical properties (electrical resistivity, heat capacity, magnetization measurements) of Tb11Ni4In9, Dy11Ni4In9andHo11Ni4In9 by orienting the fibers parallel and orthogonal, respectively, to the electric current and magnetic field. The unusual fibrous microstructure of these compounds leads to a strong anisotropy in their physical properties, with the c-axis of the orthorhombic cell being the easy magnetization and high electrical-conductivity direction. The magnetic structures of Tb11Ni4In9andHo11Ni4In9, which have multiple magnetic orderings, have been investigated by neutron diffraction. The complex magnetic behavior found in these phases is a result of the competing ferrimagnetic (along the c-axis) and antiferromagnetic (on the a - b plane) orderings of the five R sublattices.

  7. Novel imidazole derivatives as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) inhibitors and their cytotoxic activity in human-derived cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Loredana; Pittalà, Valeria; Romeo, Giuseppe; Modica, Maria N; Marrazzo, Agostino; Siracusa, Maria A; Sorrenti, Valeria; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Vanella, Luca; Parayath, Neha N; Greish, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is a cytoprotective enzyme that can be overexpressed in some pathological conditions, including certain cancers. In this work, novel imidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized as inhibitors of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2). In these compounds the imidazole ring, crucial for the activity, is connected to a hydrophobic group, represented by aryloxy, benzothiazole, or benzoxazole moieties, by means of alkyl or thioalkyl chains of different length. Many of the tested compounds were potent and/or selective against one of the two isoforms of HO. Furthermore, most of the pentyl derivatives showed to be better inhibitors of HO-2 with respect to HO-1, revealing a critical role of the alkyl chain in discriminating between the two isoenzymes. Compounds which showed the better profile of HO inhibition were selected and tested to evaluate their cytotoxic properties in prostate and breast cancer cell lines (DU-145, PC3, LnCap, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7). In these assays, aryloxyalkyl derivatives resulted more cytotoxic than benzothiazolethioalkyl ones; in particular compound 31 was active against all the cell lines tested, confirming the anti-proliferative properties of HO inhibitors and their potential use in the treatment of specific cancers.

  8. Simultaneous, in situ measurements of OH, HO2, O3, and H2O - A test of modeled stratospheric HO(x) chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennberg, P. O.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Weinstock, E. M.; Dessler, A. E.; Lloyd, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneous, in situ measurements of OH, HO2, H2O, and O3 from 37-23 km are reported. The partitioning between OH and HO2 and the total HO(x) concentration are compared with expected steady-state values. The ratio of HO2 to OH varies from less than 2 at 36 km to more than 3 at 25 km; in the lower stratosphere this ratio is nearly a factor of two less than predicted. The data are used to calculate HO(x) production and loss rates. The measured HO(x) mixing ratio is consistent with production dominated by the reaction of O(1D) with H2O, and loss controlled by NOy below 28 km and HO(x) above 30 km. The steady-state concentration of H2O2 is inferred from the measured HO2 concentration and calculated photolysis rate. The maximum H2O2 mixing ratio (at 33 km) is predicted to be less than 0.2 ppb.

  9. Isolation of 163Ho from dysprosium target material by HPLC for neutrino mass measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Mocko, Veronika; Taylor, Wayne  A.; Nortier, Francois M.; ...

    2015-04-29

    The rare earth isotope 163Ho is of interest for neutrino mass measurements. This report describes the isolation of 163Ho from a proton-irradiated dysprosium target and its purification. A Dy metal target was irradiated with 16 MeV protons for 10 h. After target dissolution, 163Ho was separated from the bulk Dy via cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography using 70 mmol dm–3 α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as the mobile phase. Subsequent purification of the collected Ho fraction was performed to remove the α-hydroxyisobutyrate chelating agent and to concentrate the Ho in a low ionic strength aqueous matrix. The final solution was characterized by MC-ICP-MSmore » to determine the 163Ho/165Ho ratio, 163Ho and the residual Dy content. The HPLC purification process resulted in a decontamination factor 1.4E5 for Dy. As a result, the isolated Ho fraction contained 24.8 ±1.3 ng of 163Ho corresponding to holmium recovery of 72 ± 3%.« less

  10. Probing the interphase "HO zone" originated by carbon nanotube during catalytic ozonation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Zheng, Jian-Feng; Wang, Dong

    2017-10-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is an attractive metal-free catalyst that can be explored in combination with ozone treatment. Using fluorescence microscopy image analysis, we investigated the production of hydroxyl radicals (HO) within the solid-liquid interphase for CNT-mediated catalytic ozonation. The visualized results suggest that HO was vastly generated via catalysis and accumulated within a surface region of the CNT (we defined this region as the interphase "HO zone"). In this region, using 7-hydroxycoumarin as a HO marker, the radical abundance was at least 1000 times higher than that in the aqueous bulk phase. Owing to the observed inhomogeneity of HO, the CNT/ozone system effectively decomposed perfluorooctane sulfonate that was fairly resistant to non-catalytic ozonation, and the decomposition kinetics was not much inhibited by tert-butanol as bulk-phase HO scavenger due to the remaining "HO zone" at surface region available for reaction. A longevity trial revealed the sustained formation of the interphase "HO zone" and strongly indicated that the graphitic structure may optimize the density of surface active sites responsible for the proliferation and local concentration of HO. CNT, with good catalytic efficiency, longevity and stability, is anticipated as the basis of future nanomaterials able to promote HO exposure in ozone treatment for advanced oxidation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex-Dependent Effects of HO-1 Deletion from Adipocytes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosick, Peter A.; Weeks, Mary Frances; Hankins, Michael W.; Moore, Kyle H.; Stec, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been demonstrated to decrease body weight and improve insulin sensitivity in several models of obesity in rodents. To further study the role of HO-1 in adipose tissue, we created an adipose-specific HO-1 knockout mouse model. Male and female mice were fed either a control or a high-fat diet for 30 weeks. Body weights were measured weekly and body composition, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were determined every six weeks. Adipocyte-specific knockout of HO-1 had no significant effect on body weight in mice fed a high-fat diet but increased body weight in female mice fed a normal-fat diet. Although body weights were not different in females fed a high fat diet, loss of HO-1 in adipocytes resulted in significant alterations in body composition. Adipose-specific HO-1 knockout resulted in increased fasting hyperglycemia and insulinemia in female but not male mice on both diets. Adipose-specific knockout of HO-1 resulted in a significant loss of HO activity and a decrease in the protein levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that loss of HO-1 in adipocytes has greater effects on body fat and fasting hyperglycemia in a sex-dependent fashion and that expression of HO-1 in adipose tissue may have a greater protective role in females as compared to males. PMID:28287466

  12. Sex-Dependent Effects of HO-1 Deletion from Adipocytes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hosick, Peter A; Weeks, Mary Frances; Hankins, Michael W; Moore, Kyle H; Stec, David E

    2017-03-11

    Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been demonstrated to decrease body weight and improve insulin sensitivity in several models of obesity in rodents. To further study the role of HO-1 in adipose tissue, we created an adipose-specific HO-1 knockout mouse model. Male and female mice were fed either a control or a high-fat diet for 30 weeks. Body weights were measured weekly and body composition, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were determined every six weeks. Adipocyte-specific knockout of HO-1 had no significant effect on body weight in mice fed a high-fat diet but increased body weight in female mice fed a normal-fat diet. Although body weights were not different in females fed a high fat diet, loss of HO-1 in adipocytes resulted in significant alterations in body composition. Adipose-specific HO-1 knockout resulted in increased fasting hyperglycemia and insulinemia in female but not male mice on both diets. Adipose-specific knockout of HO-1 resulted in a significant loss of HO activity and a decrease in the protein levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that loss of HO-1 in adipocytes has greater effects on body fat and fasting hyperglycemia in a sex-dependent fashion and that expression of HO-1 in adipose tissue may have a greater protective role in females as compared to males.

  13. In-band pumped Ho3+:KY3F10 2 μm laser.

    PubMed

    Schellhorn, Martin; Parisi, Daniela; Veronesi, Stefano; Bolognesi, Giacomo; Eichhorn, Marc; Tonelli, Mauro

    2013-02-15

    We report the first observation to our knowledge of room-temperature continuous-wave laser operation on the (5)I(7)→(5)I(8) transition of Ho(3+) ions in a KY(3)F(10) single crystal. Using a Tm-doped silica fiber laser operating at 1938 nm as a pump source, a maximum laser power of 1.8 W was obtained at a wavelength of ~2040 nm for 27 W of absorbed pump power with a slope efficiency of 19.1% with respect to absorbed power. At low cavity output coupling, the lasing wavelength shifted to 2060.5 nm. The beam propagation factor (M(2)) was measured to be <1.06 at the maximum output power, confirming fundamental transverse-mode (TEM(00)) operation. Performing a Caird analysis, we determined resonator round-trip losses and intrinsic slope efficiency of 30% and 43.8%, respectively.

  14. Resonantly pumped continuous-wave mode-locked Ho:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, X. M.; Lin, W. M.; Cui, Z.; Yao, B. Q.; Li, H.; Dai, T. Y.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report a continuous-wave mode-locked Ho:YAP laser for the first time to our knowledge. Mode-locked pulse was produced by using an acousto-optic modulator. A 1.91-μm Tm-fiber laser as the pump source, at incident pump power of 25.9 W, the maximum output power of 2.87 W at 2117.8 nm was achieved in continuous-wave mode-locked regime. Pulse as short as 254.8 ps was obtained at repetition frequency of 81.52 MHz. In addition, the beam quality factor M 2 value of 1.6 was obtained.

  15. A stable gain-switched Ho:CYA laser resonantly pumped at 1922 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. N.; Chen, B. H.; Shen, D. Y.; Xu, X. D.

    2017-04-01

    We report on a gain-switched Ho:CaYAlO4 laser resonantly pumped by a home-constructed high power Tm:fiber laser at ~1922 nm. Stable nanosecond single-pulse operation could be maintained when the continuous-wave pump signal was modulated at repetition rates of 60–100 kHz with an acousto-optic modulator. A pulse duration of 311 ns has been obtained at a 60 kHz repetition rate under a pump power level of 11 W. The temporal stability and simplicity of operation make this laser suitable for a variety of applications, such as spectroscopy, gas sensing, and as the seed source of a master oscillation power amplifier system.

  16. Spontaneous laser-line sweeping in Ho-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Jan; Peterka, Pavel; Koška, Pavel; Honzátko, Pavel; Jelínek, Michal; Kamrádek, Michal; Frank, Milan; Kubeček, Václav; Kašík, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Spontaneous laser-line sweeping refers to fiber laser instabilities with regular laser wavelength drift within a broad range that may exceed 10 nm; other characteristics of the laser output are sustained relaxation self-pulsing and narrow spectral linewidth. The laser wavelength drift is caused by standing-wave in the cavity; it can be regarded as a special case of mode instability of longitudinal modes of the laser resonator. Self-sweeping was observed so far in Yb, Er, Tm and Bidoped fiber lasers. We report on Ho-doped fiber laser self-sweeping in interval of 3-5 nm near 2100 nm. The sweeping rate was typically 0.7-0.9 nm/s. The thulium-doped fiber lasers at around 2030 nm and 1950 nm were tested as pump sources. The self-sweeping was registered by FTIR spectrometer and the data processing is discussed.

  17. Reaction of HO2 with NO and NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonaitis, R.; Heicklen, J.

    1974-01-01

    A kinetic study is made of the reaction of HO2 with NO2, and relative rate coefficients are derived for this reaction and for the reaction of HO2 with NO. It is shown that irradiation of mixtures of N2O-O2-H2 in the presence of small amounts of NO2 at 2139 A and 25 C leads to the consumption of NO2. The results clearly indicate that NO2 is consumed during irradiation to form a product which thermally decomposes to regenerate NO2 thermally and that this product is undoubtedly HONO. In the case of mixtures of N2O-O2-H2 and N2O-O2-H2-CO in the presence of small amounts of both NO and NO2 the NO2 pressure increases initially, reaches a maximum, and then decreases at a constant rate.

  18. The uptake of HO2 radicals to organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Pascale; Krapf, Manuel; Dommen, Josef; George, Ingrid; Whalley, Lisa; Ingham, Trevor; Baeza-Romero, Maria Teresa; Ammann, Markus; Heard, Dwayne

    2014-05-01

    HOx (OH + HO2) radicals are responsible for the majority of the oxidation in the troposphere and control the concentrations of many trace species in the atmosphere. There have been many field studies where the measured HO2 concentrations have been smaller than the concentration predicted by model calculations [1,2]. The difference has often been attributed to HO2 uptake by aerosols. Organics are a major component of aerosols accounting for 10 - 70 % of their mass [3]. However, there have been very few laboratory studies measuring HO2 uptake onto organic aerosols [4]. Uptake coefficients (γ) were measured for a range of aerosols using a Fluorescence Assay By Gas Expansion (FAGE) detector combined with an aerosol flow tube. HO2 was injected into the flow tube using a moveable injector which allowed first order HO2 decays to be measured along the flow tube both with and without aerosols. Laboratory generated aerosols were made using an atomiser or by homogeneous nucleation. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were made using the Paul Scherrer Institute smog chamber and also by means of a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber. The total aerosol surface area was then measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Experiments were carried out on aerosols containing glutaric acid, glyoxal, malonic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and squalene. The HO2 uptake coefficients for these species were measured in the range of γ < 0.004 to γ = 0.008 ± 0.004. Humic acid was also studied, however, much larger uptake coefficients (γ = 0.007 - 0.09) were measured, probably due to the fact that these aerosols contained elevated levels of transition metal ions. For humic acid the uptake coefficient was highly dependent on humidity and this may be explained by the liquid water content of the aerosols. Measurements were also performed on copper doped aerosols containing different organics. An uptake coefficient of 0.23 ± 0.07 was measured for copper doped ammonium sulphate

  19. Itinerant and Localized Magnetization Dynamics in Antiferromagnetic Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettig, L.; Dornes, C.; Thielemann-Kühn, N.; Pontius, N.; Zabel, H.; Schlagel, D. L.; Lograsso, T. A.; Chollet, M.; Robert, A.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Glownia, J. M.; Schüßler-Langeheine, C.; Johnson, S. L.; Staub, U.

    2016-06-01

    Using femtosecond time-resolved resonant magnetic x-ray diffraction at the Ho L3 absorption edge, we investigate the demagnetization dynamics in antiferromagnetically ordered metallic Ho after femtosecond optical excitation. Tuning the x-ray energy to the electric dipole (E 1 , 2 p →5 d ) or quadrupole (E 2 , 2 p →4 f ) transition allows us to selectively and independently study the spin dynamics of the itinerant 5 d and localized 4 f electronic subsystems via the suppression of the magnetic (2 1 3 -τ ) satellite peak. We find demagnetization time scales very similar to ferromagnetic 4 f systems, suggesting that the loss of magnetic order occurs via a similar spin-flip process in both cases. The simultaneous demagnetization of both subsystems demonstrates strong intra-atomic 4 f -5 d exchange coupling. In addition, an ultrafast lattice contraction due to the release of magneto-striction leads to a transient shift of the magnetic satellite peak.

  20. Itinerant and Localized Magnetization Dynamics in Antiferromagnetic Ho.

    PubMed

    Rettig, L; Dornes, C; Thielemann-Kühn, N; Pontius, N; Zabel, H; Schlagel, D L; Lograsso, T A; Chollet, M; Robert, A; Sikorski, M; Song, S; Glownia, J M; Schüßler-Langeheine, C; Johnson, S L; Staub, U

    2016-06-24

    Using femtosecond time-resolved resonant magnetic x-ray diffraction at the Ho L_{3} absorption edge, we investigate the demagnetization dynamics in antiferromagnetically ordered metallic Ho after femtosecond optical excitation. Tuning the x-ray energy to the electric dipole (E1, 2p→5d) or quadrupole (E2, 2p→4f) transition allows us to selectively and independently study the spin dynamics of the itinerant 5d and localized 4f electronic subsystems via the suppression of the magnetic (2 1 3-τ) satellite peak. We find demagnetization time scales very similar to ferromagnetic 4f systems, suggesting that the loss of magnetic order occurs via a similar spin-flip process in both cases. The simultaneous demagnetization of both subsystems demonstrates strong intra-atomic 4f-5d exchange coupling. In addition, an ultrafast lattice contraction due to the release of magneto-striction leads to a transient shift of the magnetic satellite peak.

  1. Ho:Tm:Er:LuAG and Two Wavelength Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Murray, Keith E.; Walsh, Brian M.; Hutcheson, Ralph L.

    1997-01-01

    Ho:Tm:Er:LuAG demonstrated simultaneous laser oscillation associated with two different transitions and different atoms. Two wavelength oscillation, or TWO, can be achieved in a single laser and single resonator. Moreover, the wavelength can be electronically controlled by varying the pump pulse length, Either the short wavelength, the Ho (5)1(sub 7) to (5)1(sub 8) transition at 2.1 microns, or the long wavelength, the Er (4)1(sub 11/2) to (4)1(sub 13/2) transition at 2.7 microns, or both wavelengths simultaneously can be produced without resorting to mechanical intervention. Consequently, a single laser system can easily switch between producing either of these useful wavelengths. Laser operation of both transitions has been characterized and is presented.

  2. Degradation of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) [P(3HO)] by bacteria: Purification and properties of a P(3HO) depolymerase from Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, A.; Jendrossek, D.; Schlegel, H.G. )

    1993-04-01

    Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid)[P(3HO)] and other poly(hydroxyalkanoic acids) PHA are widespread bacterial storage compounds of carbon and reducing power. They are biodegradable to carbon dioxide and water, and both aerobic and anaerobic P(3HB)-degradable bacteria are widely distributed in various ecosytems: soil, activated sludge, lake water and air, sea water, estuarine sediment, and anaerobic sewage sludge. This study describes the isolation and characterization of P(3HO) degrading bacteria: Alcaligenes eutrophus, Comamonas violaceum, Pseudomonas citronellolis, and P. fluorescenes (2 strains). The authors also describe purified P(3HO) depolymerase and compared it to PHB and PHA deploymerases. P(3HO) depolymerase activity was found not only in the sulture supernatant but also in the soluble fraction and membrane fractions of P(3HO) grown cells.39 refs.,5 figs.,3 tabs.

  3. The uptake of HO2 on meteoric smoke analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Alexander D.; Moon, Daniel R.; Feng, Wuhu; Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Frankland, Victoria L.; Heard, Dwayne E.; Plane, John M. C.

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of heterogeneous HO2 uptake onto meteoric smoke particles (MSPs) has been studied in the laboratory using analogues of MSP aerosol entrained into a flow tube. The uptake coefficient, γ, was determined on synthetic amorphous olivine (MgFeSiO4) to be (6.9 ± 1.2) × 10-2 at a relative humidity (RH) of 10%. On forsterite (Mg2SiO4), γ = (4.3 ± 0.4) × 10-3 at RH = 11.6% and (7.3 ± 0.4) × 10-2 at RH = 9.9% on fayalite (Fe2SiO4). These results indicate that Fe plays a more important mechanistic role than Mg in the removal of HO2 from the gas phase. Electronic structure calculations show that Fe atoms exposed at the particle surface provide a catalytic site where HO2 is converted to H2O2 via an Eley-Rideal mechanism, but this does not occur on exposed surface Mg atoms. The impact of this heterogeneous process in the middle atmosphere was then investigated using a whole atmosphere chemistry-climate model which incorporates a microphysical treatment of MSPs. Using a global MSP production rate from meteoric ablation of 44 t/day, heterogeneous uptake (with γ = 0.2) on MSPs significantly alters the HOx budget in the nighttime polar vortex. This impact is highly latitude dependent and thus could not be confirmed using currently available satellite measurements of HO2, which are largely unavailable at latitudes greater than 70°.

  4. Crystallization of Al-Co-Dy(Ho) amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, V.; Petrova, S.; Svec, P., Sr.; Svec, P.; Janickovic, D.; Palitsina, A.

    2016-10-01

    Amorphous ribbons of Al92-xCo8Dy(Ho)x (x = 6 and 10 at.%) composition were produced by a standard planar flow casting method. Their kinetics of crystallization was studied by X-rays, DSC and electric resistivity. The phase composition was determined at each stage of crystallization. In order to increase the stability of amorphous state, use of alloy with high REM content and holmium is preferred to dysprosium.

  5. Crystallization of Al-Co-Dy(Ho) amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, V.; Petrova, S.; Svec, P., Sr.; Svec, P.; Janickovic, D.; Palitsina, A.

    2017-04-01

    Amorphous ribbons of Al92- x Co8Dy(Ho) x ( x = 6 and 10 at.%) composition were produced by a standard planar flow casting method. Their kinetics of crystallization was studied by X-rays, DSC and electric resistivity. The phase composition was determined at each stage of crystallization. In order to increase the stability of amorphous state, use of alloy with high REM content and holmium is preferred to dysprosium.

  6. Identical gamma-vibrational bands in {sup 165}Ho

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Janzen, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    The structure of {sup 165}Ho at moderate spins has been investigated by means of Coulomb excitation. Two {gamma}-vibrational bands (K{sup {pi}} = 11/2{sup {minus}} and K{sup {pi}} = 3/2{sup {minus}}) are observed, with very nearly identical in-band {gamma}-ray energies. Gamma-ray branching ratios are analyzed to extract information on Coriolis mixing, and the role of the K quantum number in identical bands is discussed.

  7. Smart Ho:YAG laser lithotriptor using optical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaj, Jahja O.; Marafi, Mustafa A.; Makdisi, Yacob; Bhatia, Kuldip S.; Mathew, K. J.; Caka, Nebi; Hasani, Rexhep

    1998-03-01

    Ultra fast imaging and destruction of the gall bladder stone is performed using Ho:YAG laser. A laser guided approach for lithotropsy is proposed. The correlation output peak is introduced as a feedback signal for firing the laser pulse for stone destruction and 'discrimination' of the tissue image so that the risk of damaging and perforation of the tissue is reduced. A system constituted by correlation of ballistic images and fluorescent signals is proposed.

  8. Spectroscopic investigations on Ho 3+ doped mixed alkali phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnakaram, Y. C.; Srihari, N. V.; Naidu, D. Thirupathi; Vijayakumar, A.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.

    2008-06-01

    Optical absorption and emission properties of Ho3+ doped mixed alkali phosphate glasses of the type 69.5NH4H2PO4 · xLi2CO3 · (30 - x)K2CO3 and 69.5NH4H2PO4 · xNa2CO3 · (30 - x)K2CO3 (where x = 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25) were studied. Racah (E1, E2, E3), spin-orbit (ξ4f) and configuration interaction (α, β) parameters are calculated and these values are compared for different x values in the glass matrix. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) are calculated for all the Ho3+ doped mixed alkali phosphate glasses. From these parameters and from the spectral profiles of the hypersensitive transition structural studies have obtained. Radiative transition probabilities (A), radiative lifetimes (τ), branching ratios (β) and integrated absorption cross-sections (Σ) are obtained from the intensity parameters. Emission cross-sections (σ) are calculated for the two transitions, 5F4, 5S2 → 5I8 and 5F5 → 5I8 of Ho3+ in these two mixed alkali phosphate glasses. Optical band gaps (Eopt) for both direct and indirect transitions are reported.

  9. Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped antimony-silicate optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żmojda, Jacek; Dorosz, Dominik; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Dorosz, Jan

    2012-05-01

    The emission properties of Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped antimony-silicate optical fiber has been investigated. Luminescence at 2.1 μm corresponding to 5I7--> 5I8 transition in holmium was obtained by energy transfer between Yb3+ and Ho3+ ions. According to the Dexter-Miyakawa model, the parameters of energy migration CDD of the 2F5/2 (Yb3+) <--> 2F5/2 (Yb3+) transition and direct energy transfer CDA of the 2F5/2 (Yb3+) --> 5I6 (Ho3+) transition was calculated. The optimization of the activator content and the concentration ratio were conducted with the purpose of maximizing the efficiency of energy transfer. It made possible to select best-suited glass which was used to manufacture double-clad optical fiber. Strong and narrow bands of spontaneous emission which formed as a result of energy transfer between ytterbium and holmium ions were observed in the fiber under exciting with radiation at 978 nm wavelength.

  10. Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped antimony-silicate optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żmojda, Jacek; Dorosz, Dominik; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Dorosz, Jan

    The emission properties of Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped antimony-silicate optical fiber has been investigated. Luminescence at 2.1 μm corresponding to 5I7--> 5I8 transition in holmium was obtained by energy transfer between Yb3+ and Ho3+ ions. According to the Dexter-Miyakawa model, the parameters of energy migration CDD of the 2F5/2 (Yb3+) <--> 2F5/2 (Yb3+) transition and direct energy transfer CDA of the 2F5/2 (Yb3+) --> 5I6 (Ho3+) transition was calculated. The optimization of the activator content and the concentration ratio were conducted with the purpose of maximizing the efficiency of energy transfer. It made possible to select best-suited glass which was used to manufacture double-clad optical fiber. Strong and narrow bands of spontaneous emission which formed as a result of energy transfer between ytterbium and holmium ions were observed in the fiber under exciting with radiation at 978 nm wavelength.

  11. Treatment of condylomata acuminata with Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongmin; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Mei-Jue

    2005-07-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study to evaluate the effectiveness of Ho: YAG laser irradiation in treatment of condylomata acuminata. Methods: 1025 patients of condylomata acuminata, in which the lesions of 620 patients were interior of different lacuna, the lesions in 79 patients were huge (the diameter of lesion is over than 5cm), and 26 patients were pregnant, were treated with Ho:YAG laser (0.5-0.8J/pulse, 5-15 pulses/sec) to melt all the lesions. Results: All lesions in 1025 patients were removed after one laser treatment. The recrudescent and regenerative lesions could be removed completely after repeated treatment. No scarring and stricture on the peristome of the urethra was observed. No abortion, premature delivery and other syndrome were occurred among the total 26 pregnant patients. Conclusion: The technique of treatment of condylomata acuminata with Ho:YAG laser is an effective and safe therapeutics with the characteristic of better function of the homeostasis, shorter period of the concrescence and easy to operate.

  12. Brillouin Light Scattering study of the rotatable magnetic anisotropy in exchange biased bilayers of Ni81 Fe19 Ir20 Mn80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Roberto; Oliveira, Alexandre; Estrada, Francisco; Santos, Obed; Azevedo, Antonio; Rezende, Sergio

    It is known that when a ferromagnet (FM) is in atomic contact with an antiferromagnet (AF) the exchange coupling between the FM and AF spins at the interface induces a unidirectional anisotropy in the ferromagnetic film. This effect is known as exchange bias (EB). Despite the large amount of research on this topic there are still several aspects of the EB mechanism that are not well understood. One of this aspects is the origin of the rotatable anisotropy in polycrystalline AFs. By means of Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS) measurements, we investigated the dependence of the rotatable anisotropy field HRA and exchange field HE with the magnitude of the external magnetic field (Ho) in FM/AM bilayers of Ni81Fe19(10nm)/Ir20Mn80(tAF) . We developed an algorithm to numerically fit the in-plane angular dependence of the magnon frequency, at a fixed value of Ho measured by BLS. From the fit parameters we were able to investigate HRA and HE dependency on Ho. The results reveal that HRA value depends on Ho, so we argue that AF grain distribution at the interface is partially modified by the applied field strength. Contrary to this, the relation between HE and Ho is not straightforward, remaining constant at high values of Ho.

  13. Water-catalyzed gas-phase hydrogen abstraction reactions of CH3O2 and HO2 with HO2: a computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianlei; Wang, Wenliang; Zhang, Pei; Lü, Jian; Zhang, Yue

    2011-12-14

    The gas-phase hydrogen abstraction reactions of CH(3)O(2) and HO(2) with HO(2) in the presence and absence of a single water molecule have been studied at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311G(2d,2p) level of theory. The calculated results show that the process for O(3) formation is much faster than that for (1)O(2) and (3)O(2) formation in the water-catalyzed CH(3)O(2) + HO(2) reaction. This is different from the results for the non-catalytic reaction of CH(3)O(2) + HO(2), in which almost only the process for (3)O(2) formation takes place. Unlike CH(3)O(2) + HO(2) reaction in which the preferred process is different in the catalytic and non-catalytic conditions, the channel for (3)O(2) formation is the dominant in both catalytic and non-catalytic HO(2) + HO(2) reactions. Furthermore, the calculated total CVT/SCT rate constants for water-catalyzed and non-catalytic title reactions show that the water molecule doesn't contribute to the rate of CH(3)O(2) + HO(2) reaction though the channel for O(3) formation in this water-catalyzed reaction is more kinetically favorable than its non-catalytic process. Meanwhile, the water molecule plays an important positive role in increasing the rate of HO(2) + HO(2) reaction. These results are in good agreement with available experiments.

  14. Kinetics of HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2: Implications for Stratospheric H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, L. E.; Okumura, M.; Sander, S. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Blavier, J.-F.; Jucks, K. W.

    2002-05-01

    The reaction HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2(1) has been studied at 100 Torr and 222 K to 295 K. Experiments employing photolysis of Cl2/CH3OH/O2/N2 and F2/H2/O2/N2 gas mixtures to produce HO2 confirmed that methanol enhanced the observed reaction rate. At 100 Torr, zero methanol, k1 = (8.8 +/- 0.9) 10-13 × exp[(210 +/- 26)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1 (2σ uncertainties), which agrees with current recommendations at 295 K but is nearly 2 times slower at 231 K. The general expression for k1, which includes the dependence on bath gas density, is k1 = (1.5 +/- 0.2) × 10-12 × exp[(19 +/- 31)/T] + 1.7 × 10-33 × [M] × exp[1000/T], where the second term is taken from the JPL00-3 recommendation. The revised rate largely accounts for a discrepancy between modeled and measured [H2O2] in the lower to middle stratosphere.

  15. High-power and highly efficient diode-cladding-pumped Ho3+-doped silica fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Stuart D; Bugge, Frank; Erbert, Götz

    2007-11-15

    We demonstrate high-power operation from a singly Ho3+-doped silica fiber laser that is cladding pumped directly with diode lasers operating at 1150 nm. Internal slope efficiencies approaching the Stokes limit were produced, and the maximum output power was 2.2W. This result was achieved using a low Ho3+-ion concentration and La3+-ion codoping, which together limit the transfer of energy between excited Ho3+ ions.

  16. Brg1-mediated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway activation alleviates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mian; Yao, Weifeng; Yuan, Dongdong; Zhou, Shaoli; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Yihan; Li, Haobo; Xia, Zhengyuan; Hei, Ziqing

    2017-06-01

    Cytoprotective gene heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) could be induced by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1), a catalytic subunit of SWI2/SNF2-like chromatin remodeling complexes, in Nrf2/HO-1 pathway activation during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR). Our results showed that hepatic Brg1 was inhibited during early HIR while Brg1 overexpression reduced oxidative injury in CMV-Brg1 mice subjected to HIR. Moreover, promoter-driven luciferase assay showed that overexpression of Brg1 by adenovirus transfection in AML12 cells selectively enhanced HO-1 gene expression after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment but did not affect the other Nrf2 target gene NQO1. Furthermore, inhibition of HO-1 by the selective HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyria could partly reverse the hepatic protective effects of Brg1 overexpression while HO-1-Adv attenuated AML12 cells H/R damage. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Brg1 overexpression, which could significantly increase the recruitment of Brg1 protein to HO-1 but not NQO1 promoter, was recruited by Nrf2 to the HO-1 regulatory regions in AML12 hepatocytes subjected to H/R. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that restoration of Brg1 during reperfusion could enhance Nrf2-mediated inducible expression of HO-1 during HIR to effectively increase antioxidant ability to combat against hepatocytes damage.

  17. Low Temperature Chlorine-Initiated Oxidation of Small-Chain Methyl Esters: Quantification of Chain-Terminating HO2-Elimination Channels.

    PubMed

    Muller, Giel; Scheer, Adam; Osborn, David L; Taatjes, Craig A; Meloni, Giovanni

    2016-03-17

    Cl-initiated oxidation reactions of three small-chain methyl esters, methyl propanoate (CH3CH2COOCH3; MP), methyl butanoate (CH3CH2CH2COOCH3; MB), and methyl valerate (CH3CH2CH2CH2COOCH3; MV), are studied at 1 or 8 Torr and 550 and 650 K. Products are monitored as a function of mass, time, and photoionization energy using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry coupled to tunable synchrotron photoionization radiation. Pulsed photolysis of molecular chlorine is the source of Cl radicals, which remove an H atom from the ester, forming a free radical. In each case, after addition of O2 to the initial radicals, chain-terminating HO2-elimination reactions are observed to be important. Branching ratios among competing HO2-elimination channels are determined via absolute photoionization spectra of the unsaturated methyl ester coproducts. At 550 K, HO2-elimination is observed to be selective, resulting in nearly exclusive production of the conjugated methyl ester coproducts, methyl propenoate, methyl-2-butenoate, and methyl-2-pentenoate, respectively. However, in MV, upon raising the temperature to 650 K, other HO2-elimination pathways are observed that yield methyl-3-pentenoate and methyl-4-pentenoate. In each methyl ester oxidation reaction, a peak is observed at a mass consistent with cyclic ether formation, indicating chain-propagating OH loss/ring formation pathways via QOOH intermediates. Evidence is observed for the participation of resonance-stabilized QOOH in the most prominent cyclic ether pathways. Stationary point energies for HO2-elimination pathways and select cyclic ether formation channels are calculated at the CBS-QB3 level of theory and assist in the assignment of reaction pathways and final products.

  18. Nanoscale η-NiSi formation via ion irradiation of Si/Ni/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banu, Nasrin; Satpati, Biswarup; Bhukta, Anjan; Dev, B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Nickel monosilicide (NiSi) has emerged as an excellent material of choice for source-drain contact applications below 45 nm node complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. We have investigated the formation of nanoscale NiSi by ion irradiation of Si (˜5 nm)/Ni(˜15 nm)/Si, grown in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. Irradiation was carried out at room temperature with 1 MeV Si+ ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed for analysis. With increasing ion fluence, ion beam mixing occurs and more and more Si is incorporated into the Ni layer, and this layer gets amorphized. At an even higher fluence, a recrystallized uniform nickel monosilicide (η-NiSi) layer is formed. Several planar spacings of different Miller indices of η-NiSi have been observed in XRD and TEM. Additionally, an interesting amorphization and recrystallization behavior has been observed in the substrate Si with increasing ion fluence. To our knowledge, this has never been observed in ion irradiation of bare Si in decades of work in this area. This kind of amorphization/recrystallization in Si is apparently Ni-induced. Irradiation displaces Ni and produces a distribution of Ni in amorphized Si. Irradiation at a higher fluence produces two recrystallized Si bands in amorphous Si with concomitant accumulation of Ni at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces. On a further increase in irradiation fluence, the recrystallized Si bands again pass through amorphization and recrystallization. The total thickness of recrystallized, as well as amorphous Si, shows an oscillatory behavior as a function of ion fluence.

  19. New oxide-ion conductor Ho2(Ti1.904Ho0.096)O6.952: structure and conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrantes, J. C. C.; Savvin, S. N.; Shlyakhtina, A. V.; Shcherbakova, L. G.; Nunez, P.

    2011-03-01

    The crystal structure and conductivity of pyrochlore-like Ho2(Ti2-xHox)O7-x/2 (x=0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.096) ceramics are studied by X-ray diffraction and impedance spectroscopy as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure in the temperature range 700-1000 °C. According to the Rietveld refinement data the fraction of cation anti-site pairs in Ho2(Ti1.904Ho0.096)O6.952 sintered at 1400 and 1600 °C is 1.5% and 4.3% respectively. Heat treatment of Ho2(Ti1.904Ho0.096)O6.952 between 1400 and 1600 °C was shown to lead to the formation of pyrochlore-like solid solutions with pure oxide ion conductivities of about 4×10-4 and 1.5×10-3 S/cm at 800 °C, respectively. The ionic transport number is ∼1 at 800 °C and pO2>10 Pa. The electrolyte domain was observed for a wide range of oxygen partial pressures (10 Pa>pO2>10 Pa), which turns the Ho2(Ti1.904Ho0.096)O6.952 ceramic into a typical member of the LANTIOX family, with good oxide ion conductivity.

  20. Predicting the risk for hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) at the time of inpatient admission: HO-CDI risk score.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Ying P; Johannes, Richard S; Sun, Xiaowu; Nunez, Carlos M; McDonald, L Clifford

    2015-06-01

    To predict the likelihood of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) based on patient clinical presentations at admission Retrospective data analysis Six US acute care hospitals Adult inpatients We used clinical data collected at the time of admission in electronic health record (EHR) systems to develop and validate a HO-CDI predictive model. The outcome measure was HO-CDI cases identified by a nonduplicate positive C. difficile toxin assay result with stool specimens collected >48 hours after inpatient admission. We fit a logistic regression model to predict the risk of HO-CDI. We validated the model using 1,000 bootstrap simulations. Among 78,080 adult admissions, 323 HO-CDI cases were identified (ie, a rate of 4.1 per 1,000 admissions). The logistic regression model yielded 14 independent predictors, including hospital community onset CDI pressure, patient age ≥65, previous healthcare exposures, CDI in previous admission, admission to the intensive care unit, albumin ≤3 g/dL, creatinine >2.0 mg/dL, bands >32%, platelets ≤150 or >420 109/L, and white blood cell count >11,000 mm3. The model had a c-statistic of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.81) with good calibration. Among 79% of patients with risk scores of 0-7, 19 HO-CDIs occurred per 10,000 admissions; for patients with risk scores >20, 623 HO-CDIs occurred per 10,000 admissions (P<.0001). Using clinical parameters available at the time of admission, this HO-CDI model demonstrated good predictive ability, and it may have utility as an early risk identification tool for HO-CDI preventive interventions and outcome comparisons.

  1. An Efficient Single Frequency Ho:YLF Laser for IPDA Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, J.; Bai, Y.; Wong, T.; Reithmeier, K.; Petros, M.

    2016-01-01

    A highly efficient, versatile, single frequency 2-micron pulsed laser can be used in a pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) / Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) instrument to make precise, high-resolution measurements to investigate sources and sinks of CO2. For a direct detection IPDA lidar, the desired 2 ?m Ho:YLF laser should generate 30-40 mJ pulses at the repetition rate of 100 to 200 Hz, with short pulse length (<100 ns) and better than 2% wall plug efficiency. A Tm fiber laser in-band pumped Ho:YLF laser has been developed to meet this technical challenge. This Ho:YLF laser is designed in a four mirror ring resonator with bow tie configuration, which helps to obtain high beam quality. It is end-pumped by a 40 W linearly polarized Tm fiber laser at 1.94µm. The resonator length is 1.10 meters with output coupler reflectivity at 45%. The laser crystal size is 3 x 3 x 60 mm (w, h, l) with a doping concentration of 0.5% Holmium. The laser beam and pump beam are mode-matched in the active medium. Thus, the pump and laser beams have the same confocal parameters. Mode-matching is also helpful for operating the laser in a single transverse mode. The laser beam waist is slightly less than 0.5 mm at the center of the laser crystal. Based on quasi-four level modeling, pump absorption and saturation depend on laser intensity. Laser amplification and saturation also depend on the pump intensity in the crystal. The laser is injection seeded to obtain the single frequency required by an IPDA lidar measurement. The seed beam is entered into the resonator through an output coupler. The laser is mounted on a water cooled optical bench for stable and reliable operation. The size of the optical bench is 22.16 x 9.20 x 1.25 inches. It is stiffened so that the laser can be operated in any orientation of the optical bench. This packaged Ho:YLF laser is designed for either mobile trailer or airborne platform operation. The engineering prototype Ho:YLF laser has

  2. OH, HO2, partially speciated RO2 and OH reactivity measurements over a range of NOx during day and night (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, D. E.; Whalley, L. K.; Gallaway, S.; Stone, D. J.; Ingham, T.; Walker, H.; Evans, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements will be reported for OH, HO2, partially speciated RO2 (distinguishing smaller alkane related RO2 from larger alkane/alkene/aromatic related RO2) and OH reactivity measurements taken during the ClearfLo campaigns in central London in the winter and summer of 2012. Comparison with calculations from a detailed box model utilising the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2 tested our ability to reproduce radical levels, and enabled detailed radical budgets to be determined, highlighting for example the important role of the photolysis of nitrous acid and carbonyl species as radical sources. Speciation of RO2 enabled the break-down of ozone production from different classes of VOCs to be calculated directly, and clear differences in the contribution from different types of RO2 were seen during warmer and cooler periods. Comparison of the total calculated chemical O3 production with observations showed that most of the ozone production observed was generated locally. The missing OH reactivity was greatest during morning and evening rush hours, with good agreement at other times. Long-term seasonal measurements of OH and HO2 radicals in the tropical marine boundary layer at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory were reported in a recent publication [1] and here comparisons will be reported with both box model calculations utilising the Master Chemical Mechanism and the three-dimensional global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Both approaches result in over-predictions of OH and HO2 suggesting an incomplete description of sinks. In the box model bromine/iodine chemistry increases OH by ~10%, whereas the global model incorporating bromine chemistry decreases OH by ~ 5%. In the global model the impact of O3 destruction from bromine chemistry (and hence reduction of OH) is greater than the increase in OH from changes in HOx partitioning, whereas in the box model O3 is constrained to measurements, and hence the impact of halogens on OH can only derive from HOx

  3. Superdeformation studies in {sup 150}Tb and {sup 153}Ho

    SciTech Connect

    Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B.

    1995-08-01

    There are now over 40 superdeformed (SD) bands known in the A {approximately} 150 region and in most cases the properties of these bands are understood in terms of single-particle excitations in the absence of pairing. By continuing the search for new SD bands we hope to gain insight into (1) the ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals near the Fermi surface in the SD well, (2) the effects that the alignment of those orbitals has on the moments of inertia, and (3) the collective excitations in the SD well. For {sup 150}Tb, which is one proton and one neutron away from the SD doubly-magic nucleus {sup 152}Dy, it should be possible to study SD bands based on both proton and neutron hole excitations. By adding one proton to the {sup 152}Dy nucleus (i.e. {sup 153}Ho) proton excitations above the Z = 66 shell gap can be studied. These excitations are important as calculations suggested that the proton intruder orbital N = 7 might become occupied. Interactions between this orbital and a N = 5 level may result in softness towards octupole vibrations. High spin states in {sup 150}Th and {sup 153}Ho were populated using the {sup 124}Sn({sup 31}P,5n) and {sup 120}Sn({sup 37}Cl,4n) reactions, respectively. In both cases the early implementation phase of Gammasphere was used to detect the decay gamma rays and over 1 x 10{sup 9} triple and higher fold coincidence events were recorded. In {sup 150}Tb, the data analysis is complete and two new SD bands were identified. The fact that Im{sup (2)} moments of inertia are sensitive to the specific high-N intruder content of the SD bands was used to suggest configurations for the two new bands. A paper reporting these results is being prepared. For {sup 153}Ho, data analysis is still in its early stages.

  4. Detailed course of the O + HO2 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, U. C.; Klein, F. S.; Kaufman, F.

    1985-01-01

    The elementary radical-radical reactions that are of such importance in laser, astrophysical, atmospheric, and combustion processes are increasingly open to direct rate measurement. Attention is presently given to the O + HO2 reaction, which has only one exothermic product channel: OH + O2. Isotopic product analysis was conducted spectroscopically using laser-induced fluorescence of OH. It is found that the simple atom-radical reaction takes place by way of the rapid formation and breakup of an unexpected radical intermediate, thereby raising questions as to the formation, thermochemistry, and decomposition of poorly known products in many other radical-radical reaction systems.

  5. Dy163-Ho163 branching: an s-process barometer

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, H.; Walter, G.; Macklin, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of Dy163 and Er164 have been measured to analyze the s-process branching at Dy163-Ho163. The reproduction of the s-process abundance of Er164 via this branching is sensitive to temperature kT, neutron density, and electron density n/sub e/. The calculations using information from other branchings on kT and the neutron density n/sub n/ give constraints for n/sub e/ at the site of the s-process.

  6. Dy163-Ho163 branching: An s-process barometer

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, H.; Walter, G.; Macklin, R.L.

    1985-01-15

    The neutron capture cross sections of Dy163 and Er164 have been measured to analyse the s-process branching at Dy163-Ho163. The reproduction of the s-process abundance of Er164 via this branching is sensitive to temperature kT, neutron density, and electron density n/sub e/. The calculations using information from other branchings on kT and the neutron density n/sub n/ give constraints for n/sub e/ at the site of the s-process.

  7. Chaplygin gas Hořava-Lifshitz quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardehali, Hossein; Pedram, Pouria

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we study the Chaplygin gas Hořava-Lifshitz quantum cosmology. Using Schutz formalism and Arnowitt-Deser-Misner decomposition, we obtain the corresponding Schrödinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We obtain exact classical and quantum mechanical solutions and construct wave packets to study the time evolution of the expectation value of the scale factor for two cases. We show that unlike classical solutions and upon choosing appropriate initial conditions, the expectation value of the scale factor never tends to the singular point which exhibits the singularity-free behavior of the solutions in the quantum domain.

  8. Scalar field perturbations in Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Anzhong; Wands, David; Maartens, Roy

    2010-03-01

    We study perturbations of a scalar field cosmology in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity, adopting the most general setup without detailed balance but with the projectability condition. We derive the generalized Klein-Gordon equation, which is sixth-order in spatial derivatives. Then we investigate scalar field perturbations coupled to gravity in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background. In the sub-horizon regime, the metric and scalar field modes have independent oscillations with different frequencies and phases except in particular cases. On super-horizon scales, the perturbations become adiabatic during slow-roll inflation driven by a single field, and the comoving curvature perturbation is constant.

  9. Auxin 2012: a rich mea ho'oulu.

    PubMed

    Strader, Lucia C; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2013-03-01

    In December 2012, scientists from around the world gathered in Waikoloa, Hawaii for 'Auxin 2012', a meeting organized by Paula McSteen (University of Missouri, USA), Ben Scheres (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Yunde Zhao (University of California, San Diego, USA). At the meeting, participants discussed the latest advances in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling research, in addition to providing context for how these pathways intersect with other aspects of plant physiology and development. Fittingly, the meeting began with a traditional Hawaiian ceremony that recognized the centrality of the harvest of plant life ('mea ho'oulu' in Hawaiian) for continued human survival.

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ho-198 (Holmium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ho-198 (Holmium, atomic number Z = 67, mass number A = 198).

  11. Ho:YLF Laser Pumped by TM:Fiber Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Kohei; Ishii, Shoken; Itabe, Toshikazu; Asai, Kazuhiro; Sato, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    A 2-micron Ho:YLF laser end-pumped by 1.94-micron Tm:fiber laser is described. A ring resonator of 3m length is adopted for the oscillator. The laser is a master oscillator and an amplifier system. It is operated at high repetition rate of 200-5000 Hz in room temperature. The laser outputs were about 9W in CW and more than 6W in Q-switched operation. This laser was developed to be used for wind and CO2 measurements.

  12. 2-.mu.m fiber amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Shibin (Inventor); Wu, Jianfeng (Inventor); Geng, Jihong (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A 2-.mu.m fiber Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) source provides a wide emission bandwidth and improved spectral stability/purity for a given output power. The fiber ASE source is formed from a heavy metal oxide multicomponent glass selected from germanate, tellurite and bismuth oxides and doped with high concentrations, 0.5-15 wt. %, thulium oxides (Tm.sub.2O.sub.3) or 0.1-5 wt% holmium oxides (Ho.sub.2O.sub.3) or mixtures thereof. The high concentration of thulium dopants provide highly efficient pump absorption and high quantum efficiency. Co-doping of Tm and Ho can broaden the ASE spectrum.

  13. HoCP 04-838 – A new sugarcane variety for Louisiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    HoCP 04-838 was released to the Louisiana sugar industry on May 3, 2011 by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A., Inc. HoCP 04-838 re...

  14. Ho 07-613 – A potential new sugarcane variety for Louisiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The clone Ho 07-613 will be up for release to Louisiana sugarcane farmers in May of 2014. This potential new variety is a joint release of the United States Department of Agriculture, the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A., Inc. Ho 07-613...

  15. Diurnal HO2 cycles at clean air and urban sites in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hard, T. M.; Chan, C. Y.; Mehrabzadeh, A. A.; O'Brien, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    HO2 concentrations at two Oregon sites were determined for continuous periods of 36 to 48 hours, using fluorescence assay with gas expansion. At the sea level coastal site, NNW winds prevailed during daytime, and a point measurement of very low total nonmethane hydrocarbon concentration indicated the presence of remote tropospheric air of oceanic origin. At the urban site, HO2 was determined during moderately low ozone pollution levels. At both sites, maximum daily (HO2) was in the range of 1-2 x 10 exp 8/cu cm under clear-sky conditions, with an estimated overall uncertainty of 40 percent. HO2 was detected by continuous low-pressure sampling with flowing chemical conversion to HO, which was detected by laser-excited fluorescence. The instrumental response to HO2 was calibrated by the self-decay of HO2 at atmospheric pressure. Interference in the measured daytime HO2 concentrations by RO2 was estimated at less than 20 percent.

  16. Intense red upconversion emission of Yb/Tm/Ho triply-doped tellurite glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Huan; Zhou, Zhiguang; He, Jianli; Lin, Aoxiang

    2012-05-20

    By conventional melting and quenching methods, 3Yb2O3-0.2Tm2O3-xHo2O3 (wt%, x=0.2~1.2) was doped into an easily fiberized tellurite glass with composition of 78TeO2-10ZnO-12Na2O (mol%) to form YTH-TZN78 glasses. Under 976 nm excitation, the direct sensitizing effect of Yb ions (Yb→Ho) and indirect sensitizing and self-depopulating effects of Tm ions (Yb→Tm→Ho) were found to present intense red upconversion emission at 657 nm (Red, Ho:5F5→5I8) and were responsible for the absence of the usually observed 484 nm emission (Blue, Tm:1G4→3H36). Regardless of the dopant concentration of Ho ions, the intensity of the red emission at 657 nm (Red, Ho:5F5→5I8) is about three times stronger than that of the green one at 543 nm (Green, Ho:5S2→5I8). For this certain red emission at 657 nm, 0.4 wt% Ho2O3-doped YTH-TZN78 glass was found to present the highest emission intensity and is therefore determined as a promising active tellurite glass for red fiber laser development.

  17. Photoluminescence properties of Ho3+/Tm3+-doped YAGG nano-crystalline powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, R.; Sameera, V. Sravani; Babu, P.; Basavapoornima, Ch.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2017-10-01

    Y3Al4GaO12 (YAGG):(Tm3+, Ho3+) nanoparticles have been synthesized by Pechini sol-gel method and characterised their X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscope image, energy dispersive and photoluminescence spectra. From XRD results, phase purity and structure have been confirmed. Excitation spectra reveal that 363 nm excitation is suitable to excite the co-doped samples. Under ultraviolet excitation at 363 nm, the characteristic emissions of Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions have been observed in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Concentration dependent luminescence and energy transfer between Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions have been studied. The CIE chromaticity coordinates and correlated colour temperature values have been obtained from the emission spectra. Moreover, the emission colour of the YAGG:TmHo nano-powders was slightly shifted to red colour while increasing the Ho concentration and can be tuned from blue/green to white by adjusting the Tm3+/Ho3+ ions concentration. The optimum concentration of Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions were found to be 1:1 ratio in the YAGG host. The optimized single component white light emitting YAGG:TmHo phosphors could be a potential candidate for phosphor-converted white light emitting diode and full colour display applications.

  18. Diurnal HO2 cycles at clean air and urban sites in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hard, T. M.; Chan, C. Y.; Mehrabzadeh, A. A.; O'Brien, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    HO2 concentrations at two Oregon sites were determined for continuous periods of 36 to 48 hours, using fluorescence assay with gas expansion. At the sea level coastal site, NNW winds prevailed during daytime, and a point measurement of very low total nonmethane hydrocarbon concentration indicated the presence of remote tropospheric air of oceanic origin. At the urban site, HO2 was determined during moderately low ozone pollution levels. At both sites, maximum daily (HO2) was in the range of 1-2 x 10 exp 8/cu cm under clear-sky conditions, with an estimated overall uncertainty of 40 percent. HO2 was detected by continuous low-pressure sampling with flowing chemical conversion to HO, which was detected by laser-excited fluorescence. The instrumental response to HO2 was calibrated by the self-decay of HO2 at atmospheric pressure. Interference in the measured daytime HO2 concentrations by RO2 was estimated at less than 20 percent.

  19. Insights into the photochemical transformation pathways of triclosan and 2'-HO-BDE-28.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Xie, Qing; Chen, Jingwen; Li, Yingjie; Fu, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-30

    Hydroxylated polyhalogenated diphenyl ethers (HO-PXDEs) have been recognized as a group of widely detected emerging contaminants in natural waters. Photolysis was proved to be an important transformation pathway for these compounds and their direct phototransformation results in highly toxic dioxins. However, the roles of excited states and reactive oxygen species in the photochemical transformation of these compounds are still unclear. In this study, 2'-HO-2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl ether (triclosan) and 2'-HO-2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (2'-HO-BDE-28) were selected as model compounds to investigate their phototransformation processes. Results showed that the direct photolysis reactions of both triclosan and 2'-HO-BDE-28 occurred via their respective excited singlet states, leading to the generation of dioxins. In addition, the energy and electron transfer reactions between excited states of model compounds and molecular O2 can lead to the generation of (1)O2 and OH, which results in self-sensitized photolysis. We also found that both the k, Φ dioxin yield for anionic triclosan were higher than those of anionic 2'-HO-BDE-28. This study revealed the roles of the excited states in direct photolysis and the generation pathway of reactive oxygen species in self-sensitized photolysis of HO-PXDEs, which is important for understanding the phototransformation mechanisms of HO-PXDEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quercetin and tin protoporphyrin attenuate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury: role of HO-1.

    PubMed

    Atef, Yara; El-Fayoumi, Hassan M; Abdel-Mottaleb, Yousra; Mahmoud, Mona F

    2017-06-06

    Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many clinical situations such as organ transplantation and hepatectomies resulting in oxidative stress and immune activation. Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is the rate-limiting step in the heme-degradation pathway and has a critical cytoprotective role. Induction of HO-1 improves liver I/R injury. Quercetin, a plant pigment (flavonoid), is an antioxidant and HO-1 inducer. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) is a HO-1 inhibitor. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of quercetin in hepatic I/R injury and the role of HO-1. Wister rats were randomly divided into four groups (sham, I/R, quercetin, and SnPP). Liver ischemia was induced for 45 min then reperfusion was allowed for 1 h. Quercetin and surprisingly SnPP ameliorate the deleterious effect of I/R by reducing the oxidative stress and hepatocyte degeneration. Both agents decreased the elevated inflammatory cytokines and improved the inhibition of the antiapoptotic marker, Bcl2. They induced HO-1 content and expression. Quercetin has better cytoprotective effect than SnPP. These findings suggest that quercetin has a hepatoprotective effect against I/R injury via HO-1 induction and unexpectedly, SnPP showed the similar effect. Quercetin has more prominent protective effect than SnPP because of its superior ability to induce HO-1.

  1. Telegram from Ho Chi Minh to Harry S. Truman. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann; Schamel, Wynell

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on a telegram sent from Hanoi, Vietnam, by Ho Chi Minh through the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) station in Kunming, China, to President Truman in which Ho asked for support of Vietnam's independence from France. Provides background information, a reproduction of the telegram, and ideas for teaching activities. (CMK)

  2. A Total Organic Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Employing Low Cost and Sustainable Methyl Viologen Anolyte and 4-HO-TEMPO Catholyte

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2016-02-04

    The worldwide increasing energy demands and rising CO2 emissions motivate a search of new technologies to take advantage of renewable energy such as solar and wind. Rechargeable redox flow batteries (RFBs) with their high power density, high energy efficiency, scalability (up to MW and MWh), and safety features are one suitable option for integrating such energy sources and overcoming their intermittency. Source limitation and forbidden high system costs of current RFBs technologies impede wide implementation. Here we report a total organic aqueous redox flow battery (OARFB), using low cost and sustainable MV (anolyte) and 4-HO-TEMPO (catholyte), and benign NaCl supporting electrolyte. The electrochemical properties of the organic redox active materials were studied using cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode voltammetry. The MV/4-HO-TEMPO ARFB has an exceptionally high cell voltage, 1.25 V. Prototypes of the organic ARFB can be operated at high current densities ranging from 20 to 100 mA/cm2, and deliver stable capacity for 100 cycles with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. The overall technical characters of the MV/4-HO-TEMPO ARFB are very attractive for continuous technic development.

  3. Controllable synthesis and up-conversion properties of tetragonal BaYF5:Yb/Ln (Ln=Er, Tm, and Ho) nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Niu, Na; Yang, Piaoping; Liu, Yanchao; Li, Chunxia; Wang, Dong; Gai, Shili; He, Fei

    2011-10-15

    The nanocrystals (NCs) of tetragonal barium yttrium fluoride (BaYF(5)) doped 1 mol% Ln(3+) (Ln=Er, Tm, Ho) and 20 mol% Yb(3+) with different morphologies and sizes have been successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The influences of pH values of the initial solution and fluorine sources on the final structure and morphology of the products have been well investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to characterize the size, structure and morphology of these samples prepared at different conditions. And it is found that BaYF(5):Yb/Ln NCs prepared at pH value of 10 using NaBF(4) as F(-) source have a uniform spherical morphology with average diameter of 25 nm. Additionally, the up-conversion (UC) properties of Yb/Er, Yb/Tm, and Yb/Ho doped BaYF(5) nanoparticles were also discussed. Under 980 nm laser excitation, the BaYF(5):Yb/Er, BaYF(5):Yb/Tm, and BaYF(5):Yb/Ho NCs exhibit green, whitish blue, and yellow green UC luminescence, respectively. The luminescence mechanisms for the doped lanthanide ions were thoroughly analyzed.

  4. Peroxone chemistry: Formation of H2O3 and ring-(HO2)(HO3) from O3/H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Goddard, William A.

    2002-01-01

    The recent observation [Wentworth, P., Jones, L. H., Wentworth, A. D., Zhu, X. Y., Larsen, N. A., Wilson, I. A., Xu, X., Goddard, W. A., Janda, K. D., Eschenmoser, A. & Lerner, R. A. (2001) Science 293, 1806–1811] that antibodies form H2O2 from 1O2 plus H2O was explained in terms of the formation of the H2O3 species that in the antibody reacts with a second H2O3 to form H2O2. There have been few reports of the chemistry for forming H2O3, but recently Engdahl and Nelander [Engdahl, A. & Nelander, B. (2002) Science 295, 482–483] reported that photolysis of the ozone–hydrogen peroxide complex in argon matrices leads to significant concentrations of H2O3. We report here the chemical mechanism for this process, determined by using first-principles quantum mechanics. We show that in an argon matrix it is favorable (3.5 kcal/mol barrier) for H2O2 and O3 to form a [(HO2)(HO3)] hydrogen-bonded complex [head-to-tail seven-membered ring (7r)]. In this complex, the barrier for forming H2O3 plus 3O2 is only 4.8 kcal/mol, which should be observable by means of thermal processes (not yet reported). Irradiation of the [(HO2)(HO3)-7r] complex should break the HO–OO bond of the HO3 moiety, eliminating 3O2 and leading to [(HO2)(HO)]. This [(HO2)(HO)] confined in the matrix cage is expected to rearrange to also form H2O3 (observed experimentally). We show that these two processes can be distinguished isotopically. These results (including the predicted vibrational frequencies) suggest strategies for synthesizing H2O3 and characterizing its chemistry. We suggest that the [(HO2)(HO3)-7r] complex and H2O3 are involved in biological, atmospheric, and environmental oxidative processes. PMID:12438699

  5. Measurement of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 59}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry using characteristic projectile x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    McAninch, J.E.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Marchetti, A.A.

    1996-05-01

    The long-lived isotopes of nickel ({sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni) have current and potential use in a number of applications including cosmic radiation studies, biomedical tracing, characterization of low-level radioactive wastes, and neutron dosimetry. Methods are being developed at LLNL for the routine detection of these isotopes by AMS. One intended application is in Hiroshima dosimetry. The reaction {sup 63}Cu(n,p){sup 63}Ni has been identified as one of a small number of reactions which might be used for the direct determination of the fast neutron fluence emitted by the Hiroshima bomb. AMS measurement of {sup 63}Ni(t{sub 1/2} = 100 y) requires the chemical removal of {sup 63}Cu, which is a stable isobar of {sup 63}Ni. Following the electrochemical separation of Ni from gram-sized copper samples, the Cu concentration is further lowered to < 2 x 10{sup -8} (Cu/Ni) using the reaction of Ni with carbon monoxide to form the gas Ni(CO){sub 4}. The Ni(CO){sub 4} is thermally decomposed directly in sample holders for measurement by AMS. After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions are identified using characteristic projectile x-rays, allowing further rejection of remaining {sup 63}Cu. In a demonstration experiment, {sup 63}Ni was measured in Cu wires (2-20 g) which had been exposed to neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf source. We successfully measured {sup 63}Ni at levels necessary for the measurement of Cu samples exposed near the Hiroshima hypocenter. For the demonstration samples, the Cu content was chemically reduced by a factor of 10{sup 12} with quantitative retention of {sup 63}Ni. Detection sensitivity (3{sigma}) was {approximately}20 fg {sup 63}Ni in 1 mg Ni carrier ({sup 63}Ni/Ni {approx} 2 x 10{sup -11}). Significant improvements in sensitivity are expected with planned incremental changes in the methods. Preliminary results indicate that a similar sensitivity is achievable for {sup 59}Ni (t{sub 1/2} = 10{sup 5} y).

  6. Observation and modelling of the OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals at a rural site (Wangdu) in the North China Plain in summer 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H.; Tan, Z.; Lu, K.; Bohn, B.; Broch, S.; Dong, H.; Gomm, S.; Häseler, R.; He, L. Y.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Li, X.; Liu, Y.; Lu, S.; Rohrer, F.; Shao, M.; Wang, B.; Wang, M.; Wu, Y.; Zeng, L.; Zhang, Y.; Wahner, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive field campaign was carried out in summer 2014 in Wangdu located in the North China Plain. A month of continuous OH, HO2and RO2 measurements were obtained by a laser induced fluorescence system. High daytime OH, HO2 and RO2 radical concentrations were observed. A chemical box model constrained by observed trace gas compounds with state of art chemical mechanism is used to interpret the observed radical concentrations. The model is capable of describing measurements for most of the time. Only during times when NO concentrations ranges around 100pptv, a tendency for higher OH concentrations compared to model calculations is observed. In addition, we found that observed RO2 concentrations were underestimated in the morning hours, which indicated the existence of additional chemical sources of RO2 and an underestimation of the local ozone production rates in the model.

  7. White upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ triply doped K+-Na+ ion-exchanged aluminum germanate glass channel waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Baojie; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Lin, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth ions doped K+-Na+ ion-exchanged aluminum germanate (NMAG) glass channel waveguides have been designed and fabricated. Under 980 nm laser pumping, an intense upconversion white light transmission trace was observed in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ triply doped NMAG glass channel waveguide and a high-brightness light spot was achieved from the output end of the fiber connected to the waveguide channel. The fluorescent colors were diverse and located within or near the white region in CIE chromaticity diagram under various pumping powers. These admirable results indicate that Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ triply doped NMAG channel waveguide is a promising light source for medical and high-precision processing illumination.

  8. tBHQ-induced HO-1 expression is mediated by calcium through regulation of Nrf2 binding to enhancer and polymerase II to promoter region of HO-1.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ka Lung; Yu, Siwang; Pan, Zui; Ma, Jianjie; Wu, Tien Yuan; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2011-05-16

    Induction of Nrf2-mediated detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes is an effective strategy for cancer chemoprevention. The goal of this study was to examine the role of calcium [Ca(2+)] in regulating a well-known phenolic chemopreventive compound tertiary-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) activation of Nrf2 and induction of Nrf2 downstream target gene heme-oxygenase (HO-1). tBHQ alone caused Nrf2 nuclear localization and induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Using RT-PCR and Western blotting, we showed that tBHQ-induced transcription of HO-1 is Ca(2+)-dependent. Chelation of [Ca(2+)](ext) or [Ca(2+)](intra) by EGTA or BAPTA attenuated tBHQ-induced HO-1. Cotreatment of tBHQ with inhibitors of [Ca(2+)]-sensitive protein kinase C and camodulin kinase did not attenuate HO-1 induction. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 induced by tBHQ was also not affected by treatment of EGTA or BAPTA. Additionally, EGTA and BAPTA treatments decreased basal nuclear phosphorylation of CREB and decreased tBHQ-induced Nrf2-CBP binding and Nrf2 binding to enhancer as well as polymerase II binding to the promoter of HO-1 gene. Furthermore, tBHQ in combination with higher [Ca(2+)](ext) augmented HO-1 induction both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the modulation of [Ca(2+)](int) could be used as an adjuvant to increase the efficacy of chemopreventive agents. Taken together, our results indicated that in addition to tBHQ-induced oxidative stress-mediated Nrf2 translocation, HO-1 induction by tBHQ also appears to be dependent on a series of Ca(2+)-regulated mechanisms.

  9. Radical scavenging activity of antioxidants evaluated by means of electrogenerated HO radical.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Raquel; Geraldo, Dulce; Bento, Fátima

    2014-11-01

    A method is proposed and tested concerning the characterization of antioxidants by means of their reaction with electrogenerated HO radicals in galvanostatic assays with simultaneous O2 evolution, using a Pt anode fairly oxidized. The consumption of a set of species with antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (AA), caffeic acid (CA), gallic acid (GA) and trolox (T), is described by a first order kinetics. The rate of the processes is limited by the kinetics of reaction with HO radicals and by the kinetics of charge transfer. Information regarding the scavenger activity of antioxidants is obtained by the relative value of the rate constant of the reaction between antioxidants and HO radicals, k(AO,HO)/k(O2). The number of HO radicals scavenged per molecule of antioxidant is also estimated and ranged from 260 (ascorbic acid) to 500 (gallic acid). The method is applied successfully in the characterization of the scavenger activity of ascorbic acid in a green-tea based beverage.

  10. Theoretical study of reactions of HO{sub 2} in low-temperature oxidation of benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Kennedy, Eric M.; Mackie, John C.

    2010-07-15

    We have generated a set of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for the reactions involving HO{sub 2} in the very early stages of benzene oxidation at low temperatures using density functional theory (DFT). In particular, we report the rate constants for the reactions of HO{sub 2} with benzene and phenyl. The calculated reaction rate constant for the abstraction of H-C{sub 6}H{sub 5} by HO{sub 2} is found to be in good agreement with the limited experimental values. HO{sub 2} addition to benzene is found to be more important than direct abstraction. We show that the reactions of HO{sub 2} with the phenyl radical generate the propagating radical OH in a highly exoergic reaction. The results presented herein should be useful in modeling the oxidation of aromatic compounds at low temperatures. (author)

  11. Magnetic properties of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabáni, S.; Gaz̆o, E.; Pristás̆, G.; Takác̆ová, I.; Flachbart, K.; Shitsevalova, N.; Siemensmeyer, K.; Sluchanko, N.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic properties of the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet HoB12 (with T N = 7.4 K) modified by substitution of magnetic Ho atoms through non-magnetic Lu ones are presented and discussed. In this case, in Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions, both chemical pressure resulting from different Lu3+ and Ho3+ radii and magnetic dilution take place with increasing Lu content ( x) that change properties of the system. The received results show strong indication for the existence of a quantum critical point near x = 0.9, which separates the region of magnetic order (starting with HoB12 for x = 0) and the nonmagnetic region (ending with superconducting LuB12 for x = 1).

  12. Microcalorimetric studies of the biological effects of Ho(III) on Halobacterium halobium R1.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liu; Yi, Liu; Xi, Li; Ping, Shen

    2008-04-01

    The biological effect of Ho3+ on Halobacterium halobium R1 growth was analyzed using the microcalorimetric method. Using the LKB-2277 Bioactivity Monitor with the ampoule method at 37 degrees C, the thermogenic curves of the growth of H. halobium R1 were obtained. Then, the maximum power (P (m)) and the growth rate constants (k) were determined, and the values of P (m) and k were linked to the concentration of Ho3+. In all, the addition of Ho3+ cause a decrease in the maximum heat production and growth rate constants. To confirm the results, the shapes of H. halobium R1 cell addition with Ho3+ using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were observed. According to the thermogenic curves and TEM photos of H. halobium R1 under different conditions, it is clear that the metabolic mechanism of H. halobium R1 growth has been changed with the addition of Ho3+.

  13. HO-1 Induction in Cancer Progression: A Matter of Cell Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Nitti, Mariapaola; Piras, Sabrina; Marinari, Umberto M; Moretta, Lorenzo; Pronzato, Maria A; Furfaro, Anna Lisa

    2017-05-05

    The upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is one of the most important mechanisms of cell adaptation to stress. Indeed, the redox sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 is the pivotal regulator of HO-1 induction. Through the antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and antinflammatory properties of its metabolic products, HO-1 plays a key role in healthy cells in maintaining redox homeostasis and in preventing carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence have highlighted the role of HO-1 in cancer progression and its expression correlates with tumor growth, aggressiveness, metastatic and angiogenetic potential, resistance to therapy, tumor escape, and poor prognosis, even though a tumor- and tissue-specific activity has been observed. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the pro-tumorigenic role of HO-1 dependent tumor progression as a promising target in anticancer strategy.

  14. Kinetic and Thermochemical Studies of Weakly-Bound HO2 Complexes with Carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Nicovich, J. M.; McKee, M. L.; Wine, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that HO2 radicals are able to form strong hydrogen bonds with some closed-shell species, which can potentially influence our understanding of HO2 chemistry in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In this study, a laser flash photolysis-tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique has been employed to study the formation of HO2 complexes with formic and acetic acids. At low temperatures, equilibration kinetics have been observed, allowing adduct formation and dissociation rate coefficients to be obtained and adduct binding enthalpies to be determined. This is the first experimental study of the HO2-carboxylic acid complexes and the binding energies are in good agreement with the most recent theoretical estimates. The potential role of HO2-RC(O)OH adducts in atmospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  15. The mixmaster universe in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Bourliot, Francois; Lüst, Dieter; Petropoulos, Marios

    2010-02-01

    We consider spatially homogeneous (but generally non-isotropic) cosmologies in the recently proposed Hořava-Lifshitz gravity and compare them to those of general relativity using Hamiltonian methods. In all cases, the problem is described by an effective point particle moving in a potential well with exponentially steep walls. Focusing on the closed-space cosmological model (Bianchi type IX), the mixmaster dynamics is now completely dominated by the quadratic Cotton tensor potential term for a very small volume of the universe. Unlike general relativity, where the evolution toward the initial singularity always exhibits chaotic behavior with alternating Kasner epochs, the anisotropic universe in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity (with parameter λ > 1/3) is described by a particle moving in a frozen potential well with fixed (but arbitrary) energy E. Alternating Kasner epochs still provide a good description of the early universe for very large E, but the evolution appears to be non-ergodic. For very small E there are harmonic oscillations around the fully isotropic model. The question of chaos remains open for intermediate energy levels.

  16. Containment-enhanced Ho:YAG photofragmentation of soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christens-Barry, William A.; Guarnieri, Michael; Carson, Benjamin S.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surgery of soft tissue can exploit the power of brief, intense pulses of light to cause localized disruption of tissue with minimal effect upon surrounding tissue. In particular, studies of Ho:YAG laser surgery have shown that the effects of cavitation upon tissues and bone depend upon the physical composition of structures in the vicinity of the surgical site. For photofragmentation of occluding structures within catheters and other implant devices, it is possible to exploit the particular geometry of the catheter to amplify the effects of photofragmentation beyond those seen in bulk tissue. A Ho:YAG laser was used to photofragment occlusive material (tissue and tissue analogs) contained in glass capillary tubing and catheter tubing of the kind used in ventricular shunt implants for the management of hydrocephalus. Occluded catheters obtained from patient explants were also employed. Selection of operational parameters used in photoablation and photofragmentation of soft tissue must consider the physical composition and geometry of the treatment site. In the present case, containment of the soft tissue within relatively inelastic catheters dramatically alters the extent of photofragmentation relative to bulk (unconstrained) material. Our results indicate that the disruptive effect of cavitation bubbles is increased in catheters, due to the rapid displacement of material by cavitation bubbles comparable in size to the inner diameter of the catheter. The cylindrical geometry of the catheter lumen may additionally influence the propagation of acoustic shock waves that result from the collapse of the condensing cavitation bubbles.

  17. Itinerant and localized magnetization dynamics in antiferromagnetic Ho

    DOE PAGES

    Rettig, L.; Dornes, C.; Thielemann-Kuhn, N.; ...

    2016-06-21

    Using femtosecond time-resolved resonant magnetic x-ray diffraction at the Ho L3 absorption edge, we investigate the demagnetization dynamics in antiferromagnetically ordered metallic Ho after femtosecond optical excitation. Here, tuning the x-ray energy to the electric dipole (E1, 2p → 5d) or quadrupole (E2, 2p → 4f) transition allows us to selectively and independently study the spin dynamics of the itinerant 5d and localized 4f electronic subsystems via the suppression of the magnetic (2 1 3–τ) satellite peak. We find demagnetization time scales very similar to ferromagnetic 4f systems, suggesting that the loss of magnetic order occurs via a similar spin-flipmore » process in both cases. The simultaneous demagnetization of both subsystems demonstrates strong intra-atomic 4f–5d exchange coupling. In addition, an ultrafast lattice contraction due to the release of magneto-striction leads to a transient shift of the magnetic satellite peak.« less

  18. Minimally invasive scoliosis treatment with a Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, Christian G.; Lang, Robert D.; Goetz, Marcus H.

    2000-11-01

    Today most surgical treatment of spinal deformations is concentrated on invasive mechanical techniques with long operation times and major effects on the patient's mobility. The proposed minimally invasive technique using laser light for tissue ablation offers a possibility of gentle scoliosis treatment. It is thought that an early removal of the epiphysial growth zone on the convex side over several vertebrae results in a straightening of the spine. In a first evaluation, four different laser systems including argon ion, Nd:YAG (Q-switched), Nd:YAG (cw), and Ho:YAG laser were compared with respect to thermal damage to adjacent tissue, ablation rates, efficiency and laser handling. For in-vivo investigation, fresh lamb spine was used. Comparison showed that the Ho:YAG laser is the most appropriate laser for the given goal, providing efficient photoablation with moderate thermal effects on the adjacent tissue. In a second step the proposed minimally invasive operation technique was performed in in-vivo experiments on young foxhounds using 3D- thoracoscopic operation techniques. During these operations temperature mapping was done using fiber-optic fluorescent probes. After 12 months of normal growth the animals were sacrificed and x-ray as well as MRI was performed on the spine. First results show a positive effect of scoliotic growth in two cases. Being able to produce a scoliosis by hemiepiphysiodesis on the vertebra, It is thought that this technique is successful for a straightening of the spine on patients with scoliosis.

  19. Structure evolution of HoMnO3 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Dera, P. K.; Yang, W.; Liu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Hexagonal manganites belong to a special group called ferroelectromagnets, in which frustrated antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric orders coexist. These materials attract much attention for the potential applications on transducers, magnetic field sensors, as well as the information storage industry. Hexagonal manganites can be converted to orthorhombic structure at 1000 °C, 4 GPa conditions. The transition can also be realized under high pressure at room temperature, as observed in TmMnO3, YMnO3, LuMnO3, etc. The structure stability of hexagonal manganites is therefore of both fundamental and applied interests. In this paper, X-ray diffraction was performed on HoMnO3 single crystal under pressure up to 43 GPa by using helium as pressure medium. At 35.6 GPa, HoMnO3 converts to another hexagonal phase, whose lattice parameter along c axis reduces to half. The P-V data can be well fitted by 3-order Birch-Murnaghan equation with K0 = 154 GPa and K0' = 4.6.

  20. Kinetics of the gas phase reaction CH3 + HO2.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Manuvesh; Krasnoperov, Lev N

    2013-04-11

    Reaction of methyl radicals with hydroperoxy radicals, CH3 + HO2 → products (1) was studied using pulsed laser photolysis coupled to transient UV-vis absorption spectroscopy at 295 K and 1 bar (He). Photolysis of N2O/H2O2/CH4/H2O/He mixtures at 193.3 nm (ArF excimer laser) was used to simultaneously produce methyl radicals and hydroperoxy radicals in reactions of electronically excited oxygen atoms O((1)D) with CH4 and OH radicals with H2O2, respectively. Temporal profiles of CH3 and HO2 were recorded via absorption at 216.4 and 224 nm. The absolute intensity of the photolysis light inside the reactor was determined by an accurate in situ actinometry based on the ozone formation in the presence of molecular oxygen. The measured rate constant of reaction 1 is k1 = (3.7 ± 1.8 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (295 K, 1 bar, He).

  1. Itinerant and localized magnetization dynamics in antiferromagnetic Ho

    SciTech Connect

    Rettig, L.; Dornes, C.; Thielemann-Kuhn, N.; Pontius, N.; Zabel, H.; Schlagel, D. L.; Lograsso, T. A.; Chollet, M.; Robert, A.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Glownia, J. M.; SchuBler-Langeheine, C.; Johnson, S. L.; Staub, U.

    2016-06-21

    Using femtosecond time-resolved resonant magnetic x-ray diffraction at the Ho L3 absorption edge, we investigate the demagnetization dynamics in antiferromagnetically ordered metallic Ho after femtosecond optical excitation. Here, tuning the x-ray energy to the electric dipole (E1, 2p → 5d) or quadrupole (E2, 2p → 4f) transition allows us to selectively and independently study the spin dynamics of the itinerant 5d and localized 4f electronic subsystems via the suppression of the magnetic (2 1 3–τ) satellite peak. We find demagnetization time scales very similar to ferromagnetic 4f systems, suggesting that the loss of magnetic order occurs via a similar spin-flip process in both cases. The simultaneous demagnetization of both subsystems demonstrates strong intra-atomic 4f–5d exchange coupling. In addition, an ultrafast lattice contraction due to the release of magneto-striction leads to a transient shift of the magnetic satellite peak.

  2. Gravitational collapse in Hořava-Lifshitz theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Jared; Lenells, Jonatan; Satheeshkumar, V. H.; Wang, Anzhong

    2013-07-01

    We study gravitational collapse of a spherical fluid in nonrelativistic general covariant theory of the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity with the projectability condition and an arbitrary coupling constant λ, where |λ-1| characterizes the deviation of the theory from general relativity in the infrared limit. The junction conditions across the surface of a collapsing star are derived under the (minimal) assumption that the junctions be mathematically meaningful in terms of distribution theory. When the collapsing star is made of a homogeneous and isotropic perfect fluid, and the external region is described by a stationary spacetime, the problem reduces to the matching of six independent conditions. If the perfect fluid is pressureless (a dust fluid), it is found that the matching is also possible. In particular, in the case λ=1, the external spacetime is described by the Sch-(anti-)de Sitter solution written in Painlevé-Gullstrand coordinates. In the case λ≠1, the external spacetime is static but not asymptotically flat. Our treatment can be easily generalized to other versions of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity or, more generally, to any theory of higher-order derivative gravity.

  3. Itinerant and localized magnetization dynamics in antiferromagnetic Ho

    SciTech Connect

    Rettig, L.; Dornes, C.; Thielemann-Kuhn, N.; Pontius, N.; Zabel, H.; Schlagel, D. L.; Lograsso, T. A.; Chollet, M.; Robert, A.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Glownia, J. M.; SchuBler-Langeheine, C.; Johnson, S. L.; Staub, U.

    2016-06-21

    Using femtosecond time-resolved resonant magnetic x-ray diffraction at the Ho L3 absorption edge, we investigate the demagnetization dynamics in antiferromagnetically ordered metallic Ho after femtosecond optical excitation. Here, tuning the x-ray energy to the electric dipole (E1, 2p → 5d) or quadrupole (E2, 2p → 4f) transition allows us to selectively and independently study the spin dynamics of the itinerant 5d and localized 4f electronic subsystems via the suppression of the magnetic (2 1 3–τ) satellite peak. We find demagnetization time scales very similar to ferromagnetic 4f systems, suggesting that the loss of magnetic order occurs via a similar spin-flip process in both cases. The simultaneous demagnetization of both subsystems demonstrates strong intra-atomic 4f–5d exchange coupling. In addition, an ultrafast lattice contraction due to the release of magneto-striction leads to a transient shift of the magnetic satellite peak.

  4. Energy transfer and lasing in LiYbF4:Ho, LiYbF4:Ho,Tm, and KYb(WO4)3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandulenko, Alexander V.; Sandulenko, V. A.; Tkachuk, Alexandra M.; Titov, Alexandre N.; Reiterov, V. M.; Ivanov, V. N.

    1998-12-01

    We have studied both theoretically and experimentally the energy transfer processes in YbLiF4:Ho3+ (0.4%) and YbLiF4:Ho3+ (0.4%),Tm3+ (10%) crystals and in the series of crystals KYb(WO4)2:Tm3+,Ho3+ (0.4%) with the thulium concentration 5; 10; and 20%. The population kinetics of the 5I7 holmium level was studied under the 1.047 micrometers Q-switched YLF:Nd3+ laser pumping. The efficiency of energy transfer processes in Ho3+ doped crystals, codoped with Yb3+ and Tm3+, was demonstrated. With an YbLiF4:Ho3+ (0.4%) laser rod we have obtained lasing at 2.06 micrometers with the total efficiency of 4.8% and the slope efficiency of 11%. In the KYb(WO4)2:Tm3+ (10%),Ho3+ (0.4%) crystal, lasing was obtained for the first time at 2 micrometers . The pumping threshold being approximately 150 mJ, total efficiency 6% and slope efficiency 9.7% was achieved.

  5. Induction of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) does not enhance adiponectin production in human adipocytes: Evidence against a direct HO-1 - Adiponectin axis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengliu; Kimura, Masaki; Ng, Choaping; He, Jingjing; Keshvari, Sahar; Rose, Felicity J; Barclay, Johanna L; Whitehead, Jonathan P

    2015-09-15

    Adiponectin is a salutary adipokine and hypoadiponectinemia is implicated in the aetiology of obesity-related inflammation and cardiometabolic disease making therapeutic strategies to increase adiponectin attractive. Emerging evidence, predominantly from preclinical studies, suggests induction of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) increases adiponectin production and reduces inflammatory tone. Here, we aimed to test whether induction of HO-1 enhanced adiponectin production from mature adipocytes. Treatment of human adipocytes with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or hemin for 24-48 h increased HO-1 expression and activity without affecting adiponectin expression and secretion. Treatment of adipocytes with TNFα reduced adiponectin secretion and increased expression and secretion of additional pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and MCP-1, as well as expression of sXBP-1, a marker of ER stress. HO-1 induction failed to reverse these effects. These results demonstrate that induction of HO-1 does not directly enhance adiponectin production or ameliorate the pro-inflammatory effects of TNFα and argue against a direct HO-1 - adiponectin axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ZmHO-1, a maize haem oxygenase-1 gene, plays a role in determining lateral root development.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Xu, Sheng; Xie, Yan-Jie; Huang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Li-Juan; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Chang-He; Sun, Ya; Shen, Wen-Biao; Xie, Gui-Shui

    2012-03-01

    Previous results revealed that haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) system is involved in auxin-induced adventitious root formation. In this report, a cDNA for the gene ZmHO-1, encoding an HO-1 protein, was cloned from Zea mays seedlings. ZmHO-1 has a conserved HO signature sequence and shares highest homology with rice SE5 (OsHO-1) protein. We further discovered that N-1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), haemin, and CO aqueous solution, led to the induction of ZmHO-1 expression as well as the thereafter promotion of lateral root development. These effects were specific for ZmHO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) differentially blocked the above actions. The addition of haemin and CO were able to reverse the auxin depletion-triggered inhibition of lateral root formation as well as the decreased ZmHO-1 transcripts. Molecular evidence showed that the haemin- or CO-mediated the modulation of target genes responsible for lateral root formation, including ZmCDK and ZmCKI2, could be blocked by ZnPPIX. Overexpression of ZmHO-1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants resulted in promotion of lateral root development as well as the modulation of cell cycle regulatory gene expressions. Overall, our results suggested that a maize HO-1 gene is required for the lateral root formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic properties of Ni and Cu-Ni nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganga, B. G.; Santhosh, P. N.; Thomas, P. John

    2012-06-01

    Ni and Cu-Ni nanoparticles were prepared by solution phase method and crystal phase was identified by XRD. SEM and EDX were used to analyze morphology and elemental composition of nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that Ni nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature and blocking temperature is around 103 K. Ferromagnetism is observed in the case of Cu-Ni nanoparticles with decrease in magnetization compared to Ni nanoparticles.

  8. Kinetics of hydroperoxy radical reactions with acetone/HO2 adduct and with acetonylperoxy radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieman, F. J.; VanDerGeest, K.; Newenhouse, E.; Watkins, K.; Noell, A. C.; Hui, A.; Sander, S. P.; Okumura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Reactions of hydroperoxy radical, HO2, with acetone and with acetonylperoxy radical, CH3C(O)CH2OO, may play an important role in the oxidation chemistry of the troposphere. Using a temperature-controlled slow-flow tube cell and laser flash photolysis of Cl2 to produce HO2 and CH3C(O)CH2OO from methanol and acetone, respectively, we studied the chemical kinetics involved over the temperature range of 215 to 298 K at 100 Torr. Rates of chemical reactions were determined by monitoring the HO2 concentration as a function of time by near-IR diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy. (See Fig.1.) The primary reactions are rapid (<100 μsec) reactions to form the adducts HO2-CH3OH and HO2-CH3C(O)CH3 followed by HO2 reactions with itself, the adducts (chaperone mechanisms), and acetonylperoxy radical. The equilibrium constants for adduct formation were determined in previous work.1,2 In this work, rate coefficients were determined for the acetone chaperone mechanism over the entire temperature range. (E.g., see Fig. 2.) The rate coefficients and energies obtained are very similar to those found for the methanol case.1 Rate coefficients for the CH3C(O)CH2OO/HO2 reaction were also determined over a smaller temperature range, extending the measured value beyond room temperature, and yielding an activation energy. 1. Christensen et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 6948-6959. 2. Grieman et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2011, 115, 10527-10538. Fig.1. HO2 decay for HO2/Acetone chemistry at T = 298 K. Fig.2. Determining rate coefficient (k") for HO2/acetone chaperone effect at T = 222.5 K.

  9. Baicalein protects rat insulinoma INS-1 cells from palmitate-induced lipotoxicity by inducing HO-1.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Yang, Dongki; Hwang, Yongha; Jun, Hee-Sook; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2017-01-01

    β-Cell dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the identification of novel approaches to improve β-cell function is essential to treat this disease. Baicalein, a flavonoid originally isolated from the root of Scutellaria Baicalensis, has been shown to have beneficial effects on β-cell function. Here, the authors investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for the protective effects of baicalein against palmitate (PA)-induced impaired β-cell function, and placed focus on the role of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Rat pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 cells or mouse pancreatic islets were cultured with PA (500 μM) to induce lipotoxicity in the presence or absence of baicalein (50 μM), and the expressions of the ER stress markers, ATF-3, CHOP and GRP78 were detected by Western blotting and/or qPCR. The involvement of HO-1 was evaluated by HO-1 siRNA transfection and using the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP. Baicalein reduced PA-induced ER stress and inflammation and enhanced insulin secretion, and these effects were associated with the induction of HO-1. Furthermore, these protective effects were attenuated by ZnPP and by HO-1 siRNA. Pretreatment of PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor) significantly inhibited the protective effects of baicalein and blocked HO-1 induction. On the other hand, CO production by RuCO (a CO donor) ameliorated PA-induced ER stress, suggesting that CO production followed by HO-1 induction may contribute to the protective effects of baicalein against PA-induced β-cell dysfunction. Baicalein protects pancreatic β-cells from PA-induced ER stress and inflammation via an ERK-HO-1 dependent pathway. The authors suggest HO-1 induction in pancreatic β-cells appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy for T2D.

  10. On the space of solutions of the Hořava theory at the kinetic-conformal point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellorín, Jorge; Restuccia, Alvaro

    2017-10-01

    The nonprojectable Hořava theory at the kinetic-conformal point is defined by setting a specific value of the coupling constant of the kinetic term of the Lagrangian. This formulation has two additional second class-constraints that eliminate the extra mode. We show that the space of solutions of this theory in the Hamiltonian formalism is bigger than the space of solutions in the original Lagrangian formalism. In the Hamiltonian formalism there are certain configurations for the Lagrange multipliers that lead to solutions that cannot be found in the original Lagrangian formulation. We show specific examples in vacuum and with a source. The solution with the source has homogeneous and isotropic spatial hypersurfaces. The enhancement of the space of solutions leaves the possibility that new solutions applicable to cosmology, or to other physical systems, can be found in the Hamiltonian formalism.

  11. Review of magnetic features observed in (A,A')Ni 2B 2C solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznietz, Moshe; Gonçalves, António P.; Almeida, Manuel

    2002-08-01

    The nickel-borocarbides ANi 2B 2C [A=Y, Ln (lanthanide), An(actinide)], crystallizing in the body-centred tetragonal LuNi 2B 2C-type structure, are classified according to the existence or coexistence of superconducting and antiferromagnetic states (AF). The magnetic features observed in polycrystalline (A,A')Ni 2B 2C solid solutions, adopting the same crystal structure, are reviewed and discussed. Published data on the magnetism in (A,Ln)Ni 2B 2C systems (ANi 2B 2C nonmagnetic, A=Y,La,Lu) indicate a gradual rise in the threshold content, x( m), in (Y 1- xLn x)Ni 2B 2C (Ln=Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er) for the establishment of AF states. (A,A')Ni 2B 2C systems with magnetic end compounds show gradual variation in magnetic features when A and A' are both heavy Ln. The behaviour of (A,A')Ni 2B 2C systems of light A (Pr or U) and heavy A' (Dy or Tm) depends on the magnetic structures of the end compounds. In intermediate compositions, incomplete moment compensation in (Pr,Dy)Ni 2B 2C decreases TN, while different moment directions in the end compounds in (U,Dy)Ni 2B 2C lead to a directional frustration of ordered moments. Such a frustration in (U,Tm)Ni 2B 2C is related to different magnetic structures of the end compounds.

  12. Neural HO-1/sterol interactions in vivo: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hascalovici, J R; Song, W; Liberman, A; Vaya, J; Khatib, S; Holcroft, C; Laferla, F; Schipper, H M

    2014-11-07

    Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and altered cholesterol (CH) metabolism are characteristic of Alzheimer-diseased (AD) neural tissues. We previously provided evidence of significant HO-1/sterol interactions in vitro (cultured rat astroglia) and in post-mortem human AD brain (Religious Orders Study). The current experiments were designed to further delineate these interactions in vivo by comparing the behavior of HO-1/sterol interactions in two mouse models; (1) a novel HO-1 transgenic mouse (GFAP.HMOX1) engineered to selectively express human HO-1 in the astrocytic compartment and (2) the previously described triple transgenic AD mouse (3xTg-AD). In samples of frontal cortex, total CH, CH precursors and relevant oxysterols were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and HO-1 protein expression was assessed by ELISA. The relationships of HO-1 expression to total CH, CH precursors and total oxysterols were determined for both mouse models using linear regression analysis. HO-1 expression is increased in GFAP.HMOX1 mice relative to wild type and in 11-12-month-old 3xTg-AD mice (with AD-like phenotype) relative to control mice and 5-6-month-old 3xTg-AD mice (no AD-like phenotype). Total oxysterols significantly decreased as HO-1 expression increased in GFAP.HMOX1 mice expressing high levels of HO-1, whereas total oxysterols increased as HO-1 expression increased in aged 3xTg-AD mice. Total CH and total CH precursors increased as HO-1 protein expression increased in 11-12-month-old 3xTg-AD mice relative to 5-6-month old 3xTg-AD mice. Our findings indicate a differential impact of HO-1 on patterns of brain sterol and redox homeostasis that is contingent on the presence or absence of AD-like neuropathology. These data provide fresh insight concerning the regulation of sterol homeostasis within the aging and degenerating CNS which may inform the development of novel therapeutic and preventive strategies for the management of AD and related

  13. Adjustment of temperature coefficient of resistance in NiCr/CuNi(Mn)/NiCr films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, W.; Baunack, St.; Elefant, D.; Reiss, G.

    1996-06-01

    The thin-film system Ni0.37Cr0.63/Cu0.57Ni0.42Mn0.01/Ni0.37Cr0. 63 with a typical thickness of 1 μm is used for low-ohmic precision resistors. The necessary adjustment of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) by annealing has been studied by investigating the irreversible changes of the resistance during various annealing steps of NiCr/CuNi(Mn)/NiCr multilayers in comparison with single layers of CuNi(Mn) and NiCr. Auger depth profiles showed that the interdiffusion of CuNi(Mn) and NiCr results in an impoverishment of Ni in CuNi(Mn), explaining the TCR shift by comparison with data of Cu1-xNix bulk material. The decrease of the resistivity and the reduction of the width of the copper-nickel conductive layer by formation of a Ni0.6Cr0.2Cu0.2 interdiffusion zone phase (in accordance with the Cu-Ni-Cr phase diagram) cause a significant curvature of the resistance-temperature curve. As main result, it is shown that the NiCr base and cover layers and their interdiffusion with CuNi(Mn) play the decisive role in adjusting the TCR. It was checked that oxidation and topography effects have no remarkable influences.

  14. A systematic computational study on the reactions of HO2 with RO2: The HO2 + CH3O2(CD3O2) and HO2 + CH2FO2 reactions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hua; Wang, Baoshan

    2005-01-27

    A systematic theoretical study of the reactions of HO2 with RO2 has been carried out. The major concern of the present work is to gain insight into the reaction mechanism and then to explain experimental observations and to predict new product channels for this class of reactions of importance in the atmosphere. In this paper, the reaction mechanisms for two reactions, namely, HO2 + CH3O2 and HO2 + CH2FO2, are reported. Both singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces are investigated. The complexity of the present system makes it impossible to use a single ab initio method to map out all the reaction paths. Various ab initio methods including MP2, CISD, QCISD(T), CCSD(T), CASSCF, and density function theory (B3LYP) have been employed with the basis sets ranging from 6-31G(d) to an extrapolated complete basis set (CBS) limit. It has been established that the CCSD(T)/cc-pVDZ//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) scheme represents the most feasible method for our systematic study. For the HO2 + CH3O2 reaction, the production of CH3OOH is determined to be the dominant channel. For the HO2 + CH2FO2 reaction, both CH2FOOH and CHFO are major products, whereas the formation of CHFO is dominant in the overall reaction. The computational findings give a fair explanation for the experimental observation of the products.

  15. Cathodic stripping voltammetry of nickel: sonoelectrochemical exploitation of the Ni(III)/Ni(II) couple.

    PubMed

    Davis, James; Vaughan, D Huw; Stirling, David; Nei, Lembit; Compton, Richard G

    2002-07-19

    The exploitation of the Ni(III)/Ni(II) transition as a means of quantifying the concentration of nickel within industrial samples was assessed. The methodology relies upon the reagentless electrodeposition of Ni onto a glassy carbon electrode and the subsequent oxidative conversion of the metallic layer to Ni(III). The analytical signal is derived from a cathodic stripping protocol in which the reduction of the Ni(III) layer to Ni(II) is monitored through the use of square wave voltammetry. The procedure was refined through the introduction of an ultrasonic source which served to both enhance the deposition of nickel and to remove the nickel hydroxide layer that results from the measurement process. A well-defined stripping peak was observed at +0.7 V (vs. Agmid R:AgCl) with the response found to be linear over the range 50 nM to 1 muM (based on a 30 s deposition time). Other metal ions such as Cu(II), Mn(II), Cr(III), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Fe(III) and Co(II) did not interfere with the response when present in hundred fold excess. The viability of the technique was evaluated through the determination of nickel within a commercial copper nickel alloy and validated through an independent comparison with a standard ICP-AES protocol.

  16. Sticking of HO2 on fatty acids aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanega, Delphine; Briquez, Stéphane; Duflot, Denis; Monnerville, Maurice; Toubin, Céline

    2015-04-01

    Models of atmospheric chemistry are widely used to perform projections of future changes in the chemical composition of the global troposphere, including changes in climate related greenhouse gases and aerosol particles. However, large uncertainties are still associated with the chemistry implemented in these models, which in turn can lead to inaccurate long-term predictions. The proposed work seeks to improve our understanding of the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, which drives the lifetime of trace gases, and therefore atmospheric composition. Recent measurements [1] of free radicals made in forested environments characterized by low levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO and NO2) indicate that current models of atmospheric chemistry tend to overestimate the concentration of peroxy radicals (HO2 and RO2). An overestimation of peroxy radicals is an important issue since these radicals are the main precursors of the hydroxyl radical (OH), the most important atmospheric oxidant during daytime. This issue could lead to a significant overestimation of the oxidative capacity of the global atmosphere since more than 86% of the Earth surface is covered by forests, oceans, and polar regions. An analysis of this dataset indicates that the missing sink could be due to an underestimation of the rates of RO2+HO2 reactions, and/or the uptake of peroxy radicals onto aerosol particles. A thorough evaluation of scientific studies published in the literature shows that there is a lack of kinetic and mechanistic data to correctly assess the contribution of these two loss pathways of peroxy radicals in low NOx environments. Classical molecular dynamics simulations, using the Gromacs package [2], are performed to study the interaction of HO2 with organic (carboxylic acid) aerosols. The effect of the presence of water molecules on the surface are also be investigated. These calculations provide theoretical values for observable quantities such as uptake and mass accommodation

  17. Cosmological perturbations in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xian; Wang, Yi; Brandenberger, R.; Riotto, A.

    2010-04-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in Hořava-Lifshitz Gravity, a recently proposed potentially ultraviolet-complete quantum theory of gravity. We consider scalar metric fluctuations about a homogeneous and isotropic space-time. Starting from the most general metric, we work out the complete second order action for the perturbations. We then make use of the residual gauge invariance and of the constraint equations to reduce the number of dynamical degrees of freedom. At first glance, it appears that there is an extra scalar metric degree of freedom. However, introducing the Sasaki-Mukhanov variable, the combination of spatial metric fluctuation and matter inhomogeneity for which the action in general relativity has canonical form, we find that this variable has the standard time derivative term in the second order action, and that the extra degree of freedom is nondynamical. The limit λ→1 is well behaved, unlike what is obtained when expanding about Minkowski space-time. Thus, there is no strong coupling problem for Hořava-Lifshitz gravity when considering cosmological solutions. We also compute the spectrum of cosmological perturbations. If the potential in the action is taken to be of “detailed balance” form, we find a cancellation of the highest derivative terms in the action for the curvature fluctuations. As a consequence, the initial spectrum of perturbations will not be scale-invariant in a general space-time background, in contrast to what happens when considering Hořava-Lifshitz matter leaving the gravitational sector unperturbed. However, if we break the detailed balance condition, then the initial spectrum of curvature fluctuations is indeed scale-invariant on ultraviolet scales. As an application, we consider fluctuations in an inflationary background and draw connections with the “trans-Planckian problem” for cosmological perturbations. In the special case in which the potential term in the action is of detailed balance form and in which

  18. Measurement of peroxy radicals by chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a corona ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weihao; Tham, Yee Jun; Wang, Zhe; Tanner, David; Yu, Chuan; Wang, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Peroxy radicals including hydroperoxyl (HO2) and organic peroxy (RO2) radicals play key roles in atmospheric radical chemistry. However, accurate measurement of these radicals remains a challenge due to low concentration, strong activity and not well known intereference. Here we present the measurement of ambient peroxy (HO2+RO2) radicals at an urban site in Hong Kong using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) with a corona ion source. The peroxy radicals are titrated by NO into OH and further converted into H2SO4, which is detected by the CIMS through the reaction with NO3- ions. Although the corona ion source has advantages as a non-radiative source and with a low cost, it has a higher background and is less stable compared to the widely used radioactive source. We have improved the design of the corona ion source. The detection limit for the corona ion source is 1×108 molecules/cm3 for an integration time of 1 min. Hexafluoropropylene (C3F6), which is widely used as OH scavenger, has been shown to produce HO2 through its reaction with OH in presence of high concentrations of NO, leading to high instrument background for HO2. The measurement results of ambient HO2 and RO2 during a photochemical episode will be presented.

  19. Solvothermal synthesis and upconversion properties of YF3:Ln (Ln = Yb/Er,Yb/Tm,Yb/Ho) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Wang, Lin; Niu, Na; Gai, Shili; Wang, Yan; Yang, Piaoping

    2014-05-01

    YF3 nanoparticles with different morphology, dimension, and dispersity have been synthesized through a simple solvothermal method by using n-octanol and n-octylamine as a mixed solvent and lanthanide acetylacetonate as the RE3+ source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) and up-conversion (UC) photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the samples. The results reveal that the morphology and dimension of the as-prepared nanoparticles can be regulated by adjusting n-octanol/ n-octylamine volume ratio in the initial system. Besides, by doping with different rare-earth elements (Yb/Er, Yb/Tm, Yb/Ho), the as-prepared YF3 samples can emit characteristic green, blue, and yellow light under 980 nm laser excitation. Additionally, when being co-doped with the activator ion-pairs Tm/Er and Tm/Ho, the color of the emission light can be further modified by adjusting the Yb3+ ion content.

  20. High-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser with evanescent field interaction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Yu, Xuechao; Sun, Zhipei; Yan, Zhiyu; Sun, Biao; Cheng, Yuanbing; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Qi Jie

    2015-01-01

    Mid-infrared ultrafast fiber lasers are valuable for various applications, including chemical and biomedical sensing, material processing and military applications. Here, we report all-fiber high-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser at long wavelength with evanescent field interaction. Ultrafast pulses up to 7.8 MHz are generated at a center wavelength of 1879.4 nm, with a pulse width of 4.7 ps. A graphene absorber integrated with a side-polished fiber can increase the damage threshold significantly. Harmonics mode-locking can be obtained till to the 21th harmonics at a pump power of above 500 mW. By using one stage amplifier in the anomalous dispersion regime, the laser can be amplified up to 450 mW and the narrowest pulse duration of 1.4 ps can be obtained simultaneously. Our work paves the way to graphene Tm/Ho co-doped mode-locked all-fiber master oscillator power amplifiers as potentially efficient and economic laser sources for high-power laser applications, such as special material processing and nonlinear optical studies. PMID:26567536

  1. High-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser with evanescent field interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yu, Xuechao; Sun, Zhipei; Yan, Zhiyu; Sun, Biao; Cheng, Yuanbing; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Qi Jie

    2015-11-01

    Mid-infrared ultrafast fiber lasers are valuable for various applications, including chemical and biomedical sensing, material processing and military applications. Here, we report all-fiber high-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser at long wavelength with evanescent field interaction. Ultrafast pulses up to 7.8 MHz are generated at a center wavelength of 1879.4 nm, with a pulse width of 4.7 ps. A graphene absorber integrated with a side-polished fiber can increase the damage threshold significantly. Harmonics mode-locking can be obtained till to the 21th harmonics at a pump power of above 500 mW. By using one stage amplifier in the anomalous dispersion regime, the laser can be amplified up to 450 mW and the narrowest pulse duration of 1.4 ps can be obtained simultaneously. Our work paves the way to graphene Tm/Ho co-doped mode-locked all-fiber master oscillator power amplifiers as potentially efficient and economic laser sources for high-power laser applications, such as special material processing and nonlinear optical studies.

  2. High-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser with evanescent field interaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Yu, Xuechao; Sun, Zhipei; Yan, Zhiyu; Sun, Biao; Cheng, Yuanbing; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Qi Jie

    2015-11-16

    Mid-infrared ultrafast fiber lasers are valuable for various applications, including chemical and biomedical sensing, material processing and military applications. Here, we report all-fiber high-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser at long wavelength with evanescent field interaction. Ultrafast pulses up to 7.8 MHz are generated at a center wavelength of 1879.4 nm, with a pulse width of 4.7 ps. A graphene absorber integrated with a side-polished fiber can increase the damage threshold significantly. Harmonics mode-locking can be obtained till to the 21(th) harmonics at a pump power of above 500 mW. By using one stage amplifier in the anomalous dispersion regime, the laser can be amplified up to 450 mW and the narrowest pulse duration of 1.4 ps can be obtained simultaneously. Our work paves the way to graphene Tm/Ho co-doped mode-locked all-fiber master oscillator power amplifiers as potentially efficient and economic laser sources for high-power laser applications, such as special material processing and nonlinear optical studies.

  3. HO-1 and VEGF gene expressions are time dependant during exposure to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Stark, M; Zubareb, J; Jacovovitz, R; Schwartz, Y; Lerman, Y; Grinberg, N; Fireman, E

    2009-05-01

    Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a defensive enzyme against oxidative stress. Vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent cytokine which promotes angiogenesis. We used induced sputum (IS) technology to study HO-1 and VEGF expressions in neutrophilic inflammation in asymptomatic welders. Aircraft plant employees were divided into three groups: Welders 1 (n=30) had short-term exposure to aluminum/iron, Welders 2 (n=16) had long-term exposure to cadmium/chromium/iron/nickel, and controls (n=27 non-exposed individuals). Participants underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs), IS, differential cell counts, and determination of particle size distribution in IS samples. HO-1 and VEGF gene expressions were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein levels were measured by bilirubin reductase-dependant reaction and ELISA, respectively. All subjects had normal PFTs. Welders 2 had neutrophilic inflammation and higher percentages of particles between 2-5 micron than the other groups. HO-1 inversely correlated with VEGF gene expression: HO-1 was significantly higher and VEGF was significantly lower in the Welders 1 group than in the other groups. There was a correlation between HO-1 expression and protein activity (r=0.33, P=0.05). Particulate matters significantly influenced HO-1 and VEGF gene expressions, caused neutrophilic inflammation and promoted oxidative stress in welders with long-term exposure.

  4. Photocatalytic activity of Ho-doped anatase titanium dioxide coated magnetite.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhongliang; Xiang, Yongfang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yao, Shuhua

    2011-01-01

    A composite photocatalyst (Ho/TiO(2)/Fe(3)O(4)) with Ho-doped anatase titanium dioxide (Ho/TiO(2)) shell and a magnetite core was prepared by coating photoactive Ho/TiO(2) onto a magnetic Fe(3)O(4) core through the hydrolysis of tetrabutyltitanate (Ti(OBu)(4), TBT) in water/oil (w/o) microemulsion with precursors of Ho(NO(3))(3) and TBT in the presence of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffusive reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). The effect of Ho ion content on the photocatalytic activity was studied. The photodegradation behavior of the prepared photocatalyst under UV and visible light was investigated in aqueous solution using methyl orange (MO) as target pollutant. The results showed that the prepared photocatalyst was activated by visible light and used as effective catalyst in photo-oxidation reactions. In addition, the possibility of cyclic usage of the prepared photocatalyst was also confirmed. Moreover, Ho/TiO(2) was tightly bound to Fe(3)O(4) and could be easily recovered from the medium by a simple magnetic process. It can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. Cellular uptake, retention and bioabsorption of HO-3867, a fluorinated curcumin analog with potential antitumor properties

    PubMed Central

    Dayton, Alex; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Kuppusamy, M Lakshmi; Rivera, Brian K; Meduru, Sarath; Kálai, Tamás; Hideg, Kálmán

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin, a naturally-occurring compound found in the rhizome of Curcuma longa plant, is known for its antitumor activities. However, its clinical efficacy is limited due to poor bioabsorption. A new class of synthetic analogs of curcumin, namely diarylidenylpiperidone (DAP), has been developed with substantially higher anticancer activity than curcumin. However, its cellular uptake and bioabsorption have not been evaluated. In this study we have determined the absorption of a representative DAP compound, HO-3867, using optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. The cellular uptake of HO-3867 was measured in a variety of cancer cell lines. HO-3867 was taken in cells within 15 minutes of exposure and its uptake was more than 100-fold higher than curcumin. HO-3867 was also retained in cells in an active form for 72 hours and possibly longer. HO-3867 was substantially cytotoxic to all the cancer cells tested. However, there was no direct correlation between cellular uptake and cytotoxicity suggesting that the cytotoxic mechanisms could be cell-type specific. When administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection, significantly high levels of HO-3867 were found in the liver, kidney, stomach and blood after 3 hours. Also, significant accumulation of HO-3867 was found in murine tumor xenografts with a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth. The results suggest that the curcumin analog has substantially higher bioabsorption when compared to curcumin. PMID:20798598

  6. HO endonuclease-induced recombination in yeast meiosis resembles Spo11-induced events.

    PubMed

    Malkova, A; Klein, F; Leung, W Y; Haber, J E

    2000-12-19

    In meiosis, gene conversions are accompanied by higher levels of crossing over than in mitotic cells. To determine whether the special properties of meiotic recombination can be attributed to the way in which Spo11p creates double-strand breaks (DSBs) at special hot spots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we expressed the site-specific HO endonuclease in meiotic cells. We could therefore compare HO-induced recombination in a well-defined region both in mitosis and meiosis, as well as compare Spo11p- and HO-induced meiotic events. HO-induced gene conversions in meiosis were accompanied by crossovers at the same high level (52%) as Spo11p-induced events. Moreover, HO-induced crossovers were reduced 3-fold by a msh4Delta mutation that similarly affects Spo11p-promoted events. In a spo11Delta diploid, where the only DSB is made by HO, crossing over was significantly higher (27%) than in mitotic cells (HO-induced gene conversion tract lengths are shorter in meiotic than in mitotic cells. We conclude that a hallmark of meiotic recombination, the production of crossovers, is independent of the nature of Spo11p-generated DSBs at special hotspots, but some functions of Spo11p are required in trans to achieve maximum crossing over.

  7. Mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of newly developed biodegradable Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yunfei; Lin, Jixing; Wen, Cuie; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Yuncang

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Mg-Zr-Sr alloys can be anticipated as excellent biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications. In general, rare earth elements (REEs) are widely used in magnesium (Mg) alloys with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties of Mg-based alloys. In this study, the REE holmium (Ho) was added to an Mg-1Zr-2Sr alloy at different concentrations of Mg1Zr2SrxHo alloys (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 wt. %) and the microstructure, mechanical properties, degradation behaviour and biocompatibility of the alloys were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Ho to Mg1Zr2Sr led to the formation of the intermetallic phases MgHo3, Mg2Ho and Mg17Sr2 which resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased degradation rates of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. Furthermore, Ho addition (≤5 wt. %) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. The in vitro biodegradation and the biocompatibility of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys were both influenced by the Ho concentration in the Mg alloys; Mg1Zr2Sr3Ho exhibited lower degradation rates than Mg1Zr2Sr and displayed the best biocompatibility compared with the other alloys. PMID:27553403

  8. Mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of newly developed biodegradable Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yunfei; Lin, Jixing; Wen, Cuie; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Yuncang

    2016-08-24

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Mg-Zr-Sr alloys can be anticipated as excellent biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications. In general, rare earth elements (REEs) are widely used in magnesium (Mg) alloys with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties of Mg-based alloys. In this study, the REE holmium (Ho) was added to an Mg-1Zr-2Sr alloy at different concentrations of Mg1Zr2SrxHo alloys (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 wt. %) and the microstructure, mechanical properties, degradation behaviour and biocompatibility of the alloys were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Ho to Mg1Zr2Sr led to the formation of the intermetallic phases MgHo3, Mg2Ho and Mg17Sr2 which resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased degradation rates of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. Furthermore, Ho addition (≤5 wt. %) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. The in vitro biodegradation and the biocompatibility of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys were both influenced by the Ho concentration in the Mg alloys; Mg1Zr2Sr3Ho exhibited lower degradation rates than Mg1Zr2Sr and displayed the best biocompatibility compared with the other alloys.

  9. Mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of newly developed biodegradable Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yunfei; Lin, Jixing; Wen, Cuie; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Yuncang

    2016-08-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Mg-Zr-Sr alloys can be anticipated as excellent biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications. In general, rare earth elements (REEs) are widely used in magnesium (Mg) alloys with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties of Mg-based alloys. In this study, the REE holmium (Ho) was added to an Mg-1Zr-2Sr alloy at different concentrations of Mg1Zr2SrxHo alloys (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 wt. %) and the microstructure, mechanical properties, degradation behaviour and biocompatibility of the alloys were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Ho to Mg1Zr2Sr led to the formation of the intermetallic phases MgHo3, Mg2Ho and Mg17Sr2 which resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased degradation rates of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. Furthermore, Ho addition (≤5 wt. %) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. The in vitro biodegradation and the biocompatibility of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys were both influenced by the Ho concentration in the Mg alloys; Mg1Zr2Sr3Ho exhibited lower degradation rates than Mg1Zr2Sr and displayed the best biocompatibility compared with the other alloys.

  10. Resonantly pumped high efficiency Ho:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying-Jie; Yao, Bao-Quan; Duan, Xiao-Ming; Dai, Tong-Yu; Ju, You-Lun; Wang, Yue-Zhu

    2012-11-20

    High-efficient CW and Q-switched Ho:YAG lasers resonantly dual-end-pumped by two diode-pumped Tm:YLF lasers at 1908 nm were investigated. A maximum slope efficiency of 74.8% in CW operation as well as a maximum output power of 58.7 W at 83.2 W incident pump power was achieved, which corresponded to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 70.6%. The maximum pulse energy of 2.94 mJ was achieved, with a 31 ns FWHM pulse width and a peak power of approximately 94.7 kW.

  11. BRIEF REVIEW Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2010-11-01

    Here we review the basic construction and cosmological implications of a power-counting renormalizable theory of gravitation, recently proposed by Hořava. We explain that (i) at low energy this theory does not exactly recover general relativity but instead mimics general relativity plus dark matter; (ii) higher spatial curvature terms allow bouncing and cyclic universes as regular solutions; (iii) the anisotropic scaling with the dynamical critical exponent z = 3 solves the horizon problem and leads to scale-invariant cosmological perturbations even without inflation. We also comment on issues related to an extra scalar degree of freedom called scalar graviton. In particular, for spherically-symmetric, static, vacuum configurations we prove non-perturbative continuity of the λ → 1 + 0 limit, where λ is a parameter in the kinetic action and general relativity has the value λ = 1. We also derive the condition under which linear instability of the scalar graviton does not show up.

  12. Mechanical Stress Changes the Complex Interplay Between HO-1, Inflammation and Fibrosis, During Excisional Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Niels A. J.; Suttorp, Maarten; Gerritsen, Marlous M.; Wong, Ronald J.; van Run-van Breda, Coby; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Brouwer, Katrien M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Carels, Carine E. L.; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stress following surgery or injury can promote pathological wound healing and fibrosis, and lead to functional loss and esthetic problems. Splinted excisional wounds can be used as a model for inducing mechanical stress. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is thought to orchestrate the defense against inflammatory and oxidative insults that drive fibrosis. Here, we investigated the activation of the HO-1 system in a splinted and non-splinted full-thickness excisional wound model using HO-1-luc transgenic mice. Effects of splinting on wound closure, HO-1 promoter activity, and markers of inflammation and fibrosis were assessed. After seven days, splinted wounds were more than three times larger than non-splinted wounds, demonstrating a delay in wound closure. HO-1 promoter activity rapidly decreased following removal of the (epi)dermis, but was induced in both splinted and non-splinted wounds during skin repair. Splinting induced more HO-1 gene expression in 7-day wounds; however, HO-1 protein expression remained lower in the epidermis, likely due to lower numbers of keratinocytes in the re-epithelialization tissue. Higher numbers of F4/80-positive macrophages, αSMA-positive myofibroblasts, and increased levels of the inflammatory genes IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 were present in 7-day splinted wounds. Surprisingly, mRNA expression of newly formed collagen (type III) was lower in 7-day wounds after splinting, whereas, VEGF and MMP-9 were increased. In summary, these data demonstrate that splinting delays cutaneous wound closure and HO-1 protein induction. The pro-inflammatory environment following splinting may facilitate higher myofibroblast numbers and increase the risk of fibrosis and scar formation. Therefore, inducing HO-1 activity against mechanical stress-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be an interesting strategy to prevent negative effects of surgery on growth and function in patients with orofacial clefts or in patients with

  13. Mechanical Stress Changes the Complex Interplay Between HO-1, Inflammation and Fibrosis, During Excisional Wound Repair.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Niels A J; Suttorp, Maarten; Gerritsen, Marlous M; Wong, Ronald J; van Run-van Breda, Coby; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Brouwer, Katrien M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Carels, Carine E L; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Wagener, Frank A D T G

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stress following surgery or injury can promote pathological wound healing and fibrosis, and lead to functional loss and esthetic problems. Splinted excisional wounds can be used as a model for inducing mechanical stress. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is thought to orchestrate the defense against inflammatory and oxidative insults that drive fibrosis. Here, we investigated the activation of the HO-1 system in a splinted and non-splinted full-thickness excisional wound model using HO-1-luc transgenic mice. Effects of splinting on wound closure, HO-1 promoter activity, and markers of inflammation and fibrosis were assessed. After seven days, splinted wounds were more than three times larger than non-splinted wounds, demonstrating a delay in wound closure. HO-1 promoter activity rapidly decreased following removal of the (epi)dermis, but was induced in both splinted and non-splinted wounds during skin repair. Splinting induced more HO-1 gene expression in 7-day wounds; however, HO-1 protein expression remained lower in the epidermis, likely due to lower numbers of keratinocytes in the re-epithelialization tissue. Higher numbers of F4/80-positive macrophages, αSMA-positive myofibroblasts, and increased levels of the inflammatory genes IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 were present in 7-day splinted wounds. Surprisingly, mRNA expression of newly formed collagen (type III) was lower in 7-day wounds after splinting, whereas, VEGF and MMP-9 were increased. In summary, these data demonstrate that splinting delays cutaneous wound closure and HO-1 protein induction. The pro-inflammatory environment following splinting may facilitate higher myofibroblast numbers and increase the risk of fibrosis and scar formation. Therefore, inducing HO-1 activity against mechanical stress-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be an interesting strategy to prevent negative effects of surgery on growth and function in patients with orofacial clefts or in patients with

  14. Organics Substantially Reduce HO2 Uptake onto Aerosols Containing Transition Metal ions.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Pascale S J; George, Ingrid J; Baeza-Romero, Maria T; Whalley, Lisa K; Heard, Dwayne E

    2016-03-10

    A HO2 mass accommodation coefficient of α = 0.23 ± 0.07 was measured onto submicron copper(II)-doped ammonium sulfate aerosols at a relative humidity of 60 ± 3%, at 293 ± 2 K and at an initial HO2 concentration of ∼ 1 × 10(9) molecules cm(-3) by using an aerosol flow tube coupled to a sensitive fluorescence assay by gas expansion (FAGE) HO2 detection system. The effect upon the HO2 uptake coefficient γ of adding different organic species (malonic acid, citric acid, 1,2-diaminoethane, tartronic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and oxalic acid) into the copper(II)-doped aerosols was investigated. The HO2 uptake coefficient decreased steadily from the mass accommodation value to γ = 0.008 ± 0.009 when EDTA was added in a one-to-one molar ratio with the copper(II) ions, and to γ = 0.003 ± 0.004 when oxalic acid was added into the aerosol in a ten-to-one molar ratio with the copper(II). EDTA binds strongly to copper(II) ions, potentially making them unavailable for catalytic destruction of HO2, and could also be acting as a surfactant or changing the viscosity of the aerosol. The addition of oxalic acid to the aerosol potentially forms low-volatility copper-oxalate complexes that reduce the uptake of HO2 either by changing the viscosity of the aerosol or by causing precipitation out of the aerosol forming a coating. It is likely that there is a high enough oxalate to copper(II) ion ratio in many types of atmospheric aerosols to decrease the HO2 uptake coefficient. No observable change in the HO2 uptake coefficient was measured when the other organic species (malonic acid, citric acid, 1,2-diaminoethane, and tartronic acid) were added in a ten-to-one molar ratio with the copper(II) ions.

  15. Antigenic diversity of Brazilian isolates of HoBi-like pestiviruses.

    PubMed

    Dias, R K; Cargnelutti, J F; Weber, M N; Canal, C W; Bauermann, F V; Ridpath, J F; Weiblen, R; Flores, E F

    2017-05-01

    Hobi-like viruses comprise an unclassified group of bovine pestiviruses related to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and 2 (BVDV-2). These viruses were originally identified in fetal bovine serum from Brazilian origin and, subsequently, isolated from diseased animals in several countries. Herein we performed an antigenic characterization of eight Brazilian HoBi-like viruses isolated from persistently infected (PI) animals and from gastroenteric disease (2007-2015). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 5' unstranslated region (UTR) clustered these viruses with other HoBi-like viruses from European and Asiatic origin. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) binding indicated variability in the Hobi-like virus glycoprotein E2 and significant differences from the homologous BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 glycoprotein. Analysis of antigenic relatedness based on virus-neutralizing titers using virus-specific antisera revealed that HoBi-like viruses are antigenically very different from BVDV-1 and, to a lesser extent, from BVDV-2. Cross-neutralizing assays between pairs of HoBi-like viruses and their respective antisera indicated the existence of antigenic variability among these viruses, even for viruses isolated from the same herd in different occasions. Moreover, the identification of a HoBi-like isolate with low antigenic similarity with the other isolates indicates the potential existence of antigenic subgroups among HoBi-like virus isolates. Finally, sera of lambs immunized with commercial BVDV vaccines showed low or undetectable neutralizing activity against HoBi-like isolates. These results indicate significant antigenic differences between BVDV genotypes and Brazilian HoBi-like viruses and the existence of antigenic variability within this atypical group of pestiviruses. These findings extend the knowledge about the antigenic diversity of HoBi-like viruses and reinforce the need for their inclusion in current BVDV vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Downregulation of Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1) Activity in Hematopoietic Cells Enhances Their Engraftment After Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Adamiak, Mateusz; Moore, Joseph B; Zhao, John; Abdelbaset-Ismail, Ahmed; Grubczak, Kamil; Rzeszotek, Sylwia; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an inducible stress-response enzyme that not only catalyzes the degradation of heme (e.g., released from erythrocytes) but also has an important function in various physiological and pathophysiological states associated with cellular stress, such as ischemic/reperfusion injury. HO-1 has a well-documented anti-inflammatory potential, and HO-1 has been reported to have a negative effect on adhesion and migration of neutrophils in acute inflammation in a model of peritonitis. This finding is supported by our recent observation that hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) from HO-1 KO mice are easy mobilizers, since they respond better to peripheral blood chemotactic gradients than wild-type littermates. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that transient inhibition of HO-1 by nontoxic small-molecule inhibitors would enhance migration of HSPCs in response to bone marrow chemoattractants and thereby facilitate their homing. To directly address this issue, we generated several human hematopoietic cell lines in which HO-1 was upregulated or downregulated. We also exposed murine and human BM-derived cells to small-molecule activators and inhibitors of HO-1. Our results indicate that HO-1 is an inhibitor of hematopoietic cell migration in response to crucial BM homing chemoattractants such as stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Most importantly, our in vitro and in vivo animal experiments demonstrate for the first time that transiently inhibiting HO-1 activity in HSPCs by small-molecule inhibitors improves HSPC engraftment. We propose that this simple and inexpensive strategy could be employed in the clinical setting to improve engraftment of HSPCs, particularly in those situations in which the number of HSPCs available for transplant is limited (e.g., when transplanting umbilical cord blood).

  17. New technique for prostatectomy using Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daidoh, Yuichiro; Arai, Tsunenori; Murai, Masaru; Nakajima, Akio; Tsuji, Akira; Odajima, Kunio; Nakajima, Fumio; Kikuchi, Makoto; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    1994-05-01

    To develop a new transperineal laser prostatectomy through a biopsy needle, we determined the efficiency of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation for canine prostate. The Ho:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 2.1 micrometers ) may induced stress-wave to destroy the small vessels in prostate. After the exposure of the canine prostate, it was punctured by the needle. A quartz fiber of which core-diameter was 200 or 400 micrometers was inserted into the 18 G needle. The irradiation fluence was set to 150 - 600 J/cm2 and repetition rate was kept at 2 Hz. The cross-section of the irradiated portion of the prostate extracted immediately after the irradiation showed dark-colored hemorrhage layer around the ablation tract with 1 - 2 mm thickness. Some hemorrhage was histologically seen in stoma and gland in the irradiated prostate. In the case of 150 - 175 J/cm2 in the irradiation fluence, the irradiated portion of the prostate was found in the wedge-shaped area with brown color at one week after the irradiation. The lymphocytes infiltrating into the wedge-shaped zone were found. The wedge- shaped zone spread over the prostate and the change of urethral mucosa was minimum at one month after the irradiation. In the case of 500 - 600 J/cm2 irradiation, the paraurethral cavity was made at one month after the irradiation. The histological examination showed that the hemorrhage and subsequent histological changes may be caused by the laser induced stress-wave rather than thermal effect. Our results suggest that transperineal irradiation of pulsed Ho:YAG might offer an effective treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with the minimal damage to the urethral mucosa.

  18. Migration and employment in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Truong Si Anh; Gubry, P; Vu Thi Hong; Huguet, J W

    1996-06-01

    This article presents findings from a survey of migrants conducted during September 1994 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The sample includes 19,019 households in 34 residence blocks selected from the 17 districts that comprise the most populated areas of the city. 704 migrants and 296 nonmigrant households completed the basic demographic and socioeconomic questionnaire. One migrant and one nonmigrant completed a detailed questionnaire. Migrants are identified as those who migrated to the city after April 1984. Migrants are divided into those moving during 1984-89 and during 1990-94. The average annual rate of growth in population during the census years 1979-89 was 1.87% and during 1989-94 was 3.5%. Growth during 1989-94 was 1.6% due to natural increase and 1.9% due to net migration. 43% of population growth was due to natural increase and 57% was from net migration. Migration to large cities, such as Ho Chi Minh City, was stimulated by employment opportunities in the private sector. There were more female migrants in both study periods, and the proportion of females increased in the more recent past. About 15% of female migrants aged over 13 years were students and 58% were in the labor force. Most migrants were aged 15-29 years (41% during 1984-89 and 53% during 1990-94). Only 31% of nonmigrants were aged 15-29 years. About 33% of migrants originated from the Mekong River Delta in the south; 20% originated from the Red River Delta and Hanoi region; and 20% came from the Central Coast. Over time, the proportion of migrants from the coast increased and that from the Red River Delta decreased. Migrants and nonmigrants shared similar unemployment and economic activity rates. However, twice the proportion of migrants aged over 13 years were attending school. The author presents the evidence for the influence of urban economic policies on migration, specifically female migration.

  19. Organ doses from hepatic radioembolization with 90Y, 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu: A Monte Carlo simulation study using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashikin, N. A. A.; Yeong, C. H.; Guatelli, S.; Abdullah, B. J. J.; Ng, K. H.; Malaroda, A.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Perkins, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    90Y-radioembolization is a palliative treatment for liver cancer. 90Y decays via beta emission, making imaging difficult due to absence of gamma radiation. Since post-procedure imaging is crucial, several theranostic radionuclides have been explored as alternatives. However, exposures to gamma radiation throughout the treatment caused concern for the organs near the liver. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation using MIRD Pamphlet 5 reference phantom was carried out. A spherical tumour with 4.3cm radius was modelled within the liver. 1.82GBq of 90Y sources were isotropically distributed within the tumour, with no extrahepatic shunting. The simulation was repeated with 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu. The estimated tumour doses for all radionuclides were 262.9Gy. Tumour dose equivalent to 1.82GBq 90Y can be achieved with 8.32, 5.83, and 4.44GBq for 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu, respectively. Normal liver doses by the other radionuclides were lower than 90Y, hence beneficial for normal tissue sparing. The organ doses from 153Sm and 177Lu were relatively higher due to higher gamma energy, but were still well below 1Gy. 166Ho, 177Lu and 153Sm offer useful gamma emission for post-procedure imaging. They show potential as 90Y substitutes, delivering comparable tumour doses, lower normal liver doses and other organs doses far below the tolerance limit.

  20. Ni biogeochemical cycle through geological time: insights from Ni isotope variations in modern and ancient marine metallifereous deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, B.; Rouxel, O.; Ponzevera, E.; Sorensen, J. V.; Toner, B.; Bekker, A.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of isotopic composition of transition metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo as biogeochemical tracers became popular recently. Since Ni is ubiquitous in marine metallifereous deposits and its concentration in water column is coupled to that of nutrients, it has a potential as a biogeochemical tracer. Isotopic analyses were performed on a Neptune MC-ICP-MS using a double-spike correction method for instrumental mass bias. Deep-sea ferromanganese crusts have been used to establish a record of seawater over the last 60 Myr. Our results show that Fe-Mn crusts from both Atlantic and Pacific oceans are systematically enriched in heavy isotopes relative to Bulk Silicate Earth with δ60/58Ni values ranging from 0.30 to 1.80% (2se = 0.04%). In contrast, Iron Formations (IF) with ages ranging from 3.8 to 0.7 Gyr display a wider range of values with a striking negative Ni isotope excursion down to -2.46% (2se = 0.03%) in Neoproterozoic IF. Although correlation between Ni isotope compositions, Ni concentrations and BIFs ages seems to be lacking, several Ni isotope excursions to either positive or negative Ni isotope values are notable prior to 2.4 Gyr. Methanogens were likely abundant in Precambrian water column until they retreated to pore waters and local environments once the oceans were oxygenated after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). They preferentially uptake light Ni isotopes leaving isotopically heavier Ni in oceans. Our Ni isotope record of Precambrian IF does not show a unidirectional change across the GOE implying that Ni isotope composition of the Archean oceans was not dominated by this metabolism. Preliminary Ni adsorption experiments on Fe-Mn oxy-hydroxides show a maximum fractionation factor between the mineral phase and aqueous solution of -1.00% (2se = 0.03%). Hence, isotopic variations in Fe-Mn crusts and IF cannot be simply explained by adsorption processes, but require changes in composition of either Ni sources (local or global) to seawater (e

  1. Single-frequency injection-seeded Q-switched Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Gao, Chunqing; Na, Quanxin; Zhang, Yixuan; Ye, Qing; Gao, Mingwei

    2017-04-01

    An injection-seeded Ho:YAG laser at 2090 nm with changeable pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is demonstrated. Containing a Ho:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator (NPRO) seed, a slave laser, and a single-pass amplifier, the laser delivered single-frequency pulses with energy ranging from 31.4 to 12.7 mJ. The corresponding pulse duration and PRF varied between 102-215 ns and 150-750 Hz, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest PRF ever obtained from a single-frequency Ho:YAG laser.

  2. The magnetostriction of the HoMnO3 hexagonal single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskiy, A. A.; Pavlovskiy, N. S.; Semenov, S. V.; Terent'ev, K. Yu.; Shaykhutdinov, K. A.

    2017-10-01

    The magnetostriction of HoMnO3 hexagonal single crystals was investigated for a wide range of applied magnetic fields with strengths up to H=14 T for all possible combinations of magnetic field orientation H and magnetostriction ΔL/L. The anomalies found in the magnetostriction measurements of HoMnO3 correlate well with the phase diagram of these compounds. For the first time the measurements of magnetostriction of HoMnO3 single crystal were made in all five possible configurations.

  3. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Ho doped ZnO nanostructures synthesized by sonochemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Yayapao, Oranuch; Thongtem, Titipun; Thongtem, Somchai

    2014-03-01

    The three-dimensional flowerlike undoped and Ho doped ZnO microstructure was successfully synthesized by a sonochemical method. The morphologies and structures of the phase were characterized by the analyses of XRD, SEM and TEM. The flower-like structure composed of numerous one-dimensional hexagonal nanoprisms ZnO and Ho doped ZnO were revealed as hexagonal crystal structure with exposure (0 0 1) facet. The Ho doped ZnO exhibited a relatively higher photocatalytic activity than the pure ZnO in the degradation of methylene blue under UV light.

  4. Path-integral molecular dynamics simulations for water anion clusters (HO)5- and (DO)5-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Takehiro; Motegi, Haruki; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2009-11-01

    Quantum path-integral molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for the (HO)5- and (DO)5- anion clusters on the basis of a semiempirical one-electron pseudopotential-polarization model. Due to larger zero-point vibrational amplitudes for H atoms than that of D atoms, hydrogen-bond lengths in the (HO)5- cluster are slightly larger than those in (DO)5-. The distribution of the vertical detachment energies for (HO)5- also show a broader feature than that for (DO)5-. The present PIMD simulations thus demonstrate the importance of nuclear quantum effects in water anion clusters.

  5. Structures and magnetic properties of some layered iodides R 2Co 2I (R = La, Y, Pr, Nd, Tb-Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, C.; Hoch, C.; Kremer, R. K.; Simon, A.

    2008-11-01

    The new compounds R 2Co 2I (R = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Tb-Ho) crystallize in the hexagonal Gd 2Fe 2I structure type (space group: P6 3/ mmc, No. 194). Atomic coordinates have been derived from X-ray powder diffraction and a single crystal determination for Tb 2Co 2I. The data indicate a metric control as stability criterion for the Gd 2Fe 2I vs. La 2Ni 2I structure type. From magnetization measurements, ferromagnetic behavior has been observed for all investigated compounds. A deviation from the de Gennes rule for the light rare earth metal compounds is ascribed to a polarization of the 5d electrons.

  6. Facile Routes to NiF(6)(2)(-), AgF(4)(-), AuF(6)(-), and PtF(6)(-) Salts Using O(2)(+) as a Source of O(2)F in Anhydrous HF.

    PubMed

    Lucier, G. M.; Shen, C.; Elder, S. H.; Bartlett, N.

    1998-07-27

    O(2)(+) salts dissolved in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF) at 20 degrees C or below oxidize aHF solutions of PtF(6)(2)(-) to PtF(6)(-). The parent base of O(2)(+) salts in aHF (O(2)F((solv))) generated with alkali fluoride is long-lived below -50 degrees C. An aHF solution of O(2)F((solv)) oxidizes Au(III) to Au(V) below -50 degrees C (2O(2)F((solv)) + AuF(4)(-)((solv)) --> AuF(6)(-)((solv)) +2O(2(g))). In situ generation of O(2)F((solv)) (O(2)(+)((solv)) + F(-)((solv)) --> O(2)F((solv))) with AgF(2) or NiF(2) in suspension in the aHF made basic with alkali fluoride gives AgF(4)(-) and NiF(6)(2)(-)salts. Low solubility of AAsF(6)(A = Cs, K) in aHF provides for the metathetical preparation of (O(2))(2)PdF(6) solutions in aHF. Removal of aHF, even at -60 degrees C, results in some O(2) and F(2) loss, to a composition approaching (O(2))PdF(5).

  7. Negative ion production in multicusp sources (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchenko, Y. I.; Oka, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.

    2002-02-01

    Cesium seed improves multicusp negative ion (NI) Source performance. Experiments display the surface origin of NI production in the multicusp source (MS): a strong NI yield dependence on plasma grid (PG) temperature and work function, a low NI yield sensitivity to Cs density in plasma, etc. On other hand, cesium seed changes the MS plasma potential, electron density, and temperature, decreases the coextracted electron current, and produces a NI density increase in the source volume. Cesium ions can contribute to the slow positive charge in the plasma presheath and extraction region, and improve the NI extraction. The study of NI production was done by the directed deposition of a well-defined amount of cesium, by cesium recovery in the MS. The obtained data evidences the surface origin of H- yield enhancement 3-10 mg cesium deposition was enough for producing a NI yield increase due to hydrogen conversion on the cesiated PG surface. The long-term H- yield enhancement with larger cesium deposition and no change of NI yield with the PG temperature change displays the maintenance of the thick Cs+W coverage, which governs the enhanced surface H- production in the MS. The experimental data and the MS surface-plasma mechanism features will be presented and discussed.

  8. Are models of catalytic removal of O3 by HO(x) accurate? Constraints from in situ measurements of the OH to HO2 ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Koplow, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Keim, E. R.; Gao, R.; Proffitt, M. H.

    1994-11-01

    Measurements of the ratio OH/HO2, NO, O3, ClO, and BrO were obtained at altitudes from 15-20 km and latitudes from 15-60 deg N. A method is presented for interpreting the rates of chemical transformations that (1) are responsible for over half the ozone removal rate in the lower stratosphere via reactions of HO2; and (2) control the abundance of HO2 through coupling to nitrogen and halogen radicals. The results show our understanding of the chemical reactions controlling the partitioning of OH and HO2 is complete and accurate and that the potential effects of 'missing chemistry' are strickly constrained in the region of the atmosphere encompassed by the observations. The analysis demonstrates that the sensitivity of the ratio OH/HO2 to changes in NO is described to within 12% by current models. This reduces by more than a factor of 2 the effect of uncertainty in the coupling of hydrogen and nitrogen radicals on the analysis of the potential effects of perturbations to odd notrogen in the lower statosphere.

  9. Are models of catalytic removal of O3 by HO(x) accurate? Constraints from in situ measurements of the OH to HO2 ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, R. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Koplow, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Keim, E. R.; Gao, R.; Proffitt, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the ratio OH/HO2, NO, O3, ClO, and BrO were obtained at altitudes from 15-20 km and latitudes from 15-60 deg N. A method is presented for interpreting the rates of chemical transformations that (1) are responsible for over half the ozone removal rate in the lower stratosphere via reactions of HO2; and (2) control the abundance of HO2 through coupling to nitrogen and halogen radicals. The results show our understanding of the chemical reactions controlling the partitioning of OH and HO2 is complete and accurate and that the potential effects of 'missing chemistry' are strickly constrained in the region of the atmosphere encompassed by the observations. The analysis demonstrates that the sensitivity of the ratio OH/HO2 to changes in NO is described to within 12% by current models. This reduces by more than a factor of 2 the effect of uncertainty in the coupling of hydrogen and nitrogen radicals on the analysis of the potential effects of perturbations to odd notrogen in the lower statosphere.

  10. Theoretical studies on reactions of the stabilized H2COO with HO2 and the HO2···H2O complex.

    PubMed

    Long, Bo; Tan, Xing-feng; Long, Zheng-wen; Wang, Yi-bo; Ren, Da-sen; Zhang, Wei-jun

    2011-06-23

    The reactions of H(2)COO with HO(2) and the HO(2)···H(2)O complex are studied by employing the high-level quantum chemical calculations with B3LYP and CCSD(T) theoretical methods, the conventional transition-state theory (CTST), and the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) with Eckart tunneling correction. The calculated results show that the proton transfer plus the addition reaction channel (TS1A) is preferable for the reaction of H(2)COO with HO(2) because the barriers are -10.8 and 1.6 kcal/mol relative to the free reactants and the prereactive complex, respectively, at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Furthermore, the rate constant via TS1A (2.23 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) combined with the concentrations of the species in the atmosphere demonstrates that the HO(2) radical would be the dominant sink of H(2)COO in some areas, where the concentration of water is less than 10(17) molecules cm(-3). In addition, although the single water molecule would lower the activated barrier of TS1A from 1.0 to 0.1 kcal/mol with respect to the respective complexes, the rate constant is lower than that of the reaction of HO(2) with H(2)COO.

  11. Are models of catalytic removal of O3 by HO(x) accurate? Constraints from in situ measurements of the OH to HO2 ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, R. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Koplow, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Keim, E. R.; Gao, R.; Proffitt, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the ratio OH/HO2, NO, O3, ClO, and BrO were obtained at altitudes from 15-20 km and latitudes from 15-60 deg N. A method is presented for interpreting the rates of chemical transformations that (1) are responsible for over half the ozone removal rate in the lower stratosphere via reactions of HO2; and (2) control the abundance of HO2 through coupling to nitrogen and halogen radicals. The results show our understanding of the chemical reactions controlling the partitioning of OH and HO2 is complete and accurate and that the potential effects of 'missing chemistry' are strickly constrained in the region of the atmosphere encompassed by the observations. The analysis demonstrates that the sensitivity of the ratio OH/HO2 to changes in NO is described to within 12% by current models. This reduces by more than a factor of 2 the effect of uncertainty in the coupling of hydrogen and nitrogen radicals on the analysis of the potential effects of perturbations to odd notrogen in the lower statosphere.

  12. Probing spin accumulation in Ni/Au/Ni single-electron transistors with efficient spin injection and detection electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, R S; Pettersson, H; Michalak, L; Canali, C M; Samuelson, L

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated spin accumulation in Ni/Au/Ni single-electron transistors assembled by atomic force microscopy. The fabrication technique is unique in that unconventional hybrid devices can be realized with unprecedented control, including real-time tunable tunnel resistances. A grid of Au disks, 30 nm in diameter and 30 nm thick, is prepared on a SiO2 surface by conventional e-beam writing. Subsequently, 30 nm thick ferromagnetic Ni source, drain, and side-gate electrodes are formed in similar process steps. The width and length of the source and drain electrodes were different to exhibit different coercive switching fields. Tunnel barriers of NiO are realized by sequential Ar and O2 plasma treatment. By use of an atomic force microscope with specially designed software, a single nonmagnetic Au nanodisk is positioned into the 25 nm gap between the source and drain electrodes. The resistance of the device is monitored in real time while the Au disk is manipulated step-by-step with angstrom-level precision. Transport measurements in magnetic field at 1.7 K reveal no clear spin accumulation in the device, which can be attributed to fast spin relaxation in the Au disk. From numerical simulations using the rate-equation approach of orthodox Coulomb blockade theory, we can put an upper bound of a few nanoseconds on the spin-relaxation time for electrons in the Au disk. To confirm the magnetic switching characteristics and spin injection efficiency of the Ni electrodes, we fabricated a test structure consisting of a Ni/NiO/Ni magnetic tunnel junction with asymmetric dimensions of the electrodes similar to those of the single-electron transistors. Magnetoresistance measurements on the test device exhibited clear signs of magnetic reversal and a maximum tunneling magnetoresistance of 10%, from which we deduced a spin polarization of about 22% in the Ni electrodes.

  13. Sources of hydroxyl radical in headwater streams from nitrogen-saturated forest.

    PubMed

    Chiwa, Masaaki; Higashi, Naoko; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Kodama, Hiroki; Miyajima, Tohru; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical (HO) photoformation rate (RHO) was determined in headwater stream samples from nitrogen (N)-saturated forests, (1) to quantify the sources of HO in headwater streams and (2) to evaluate the nitrate NO3(-)-induced enhancement of HO formation in stream water caused by N saturation in forested watersheds. Stream water fulvic acid extracted from the forested watersheds was used to quantify the contribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to RHO. The results showed that almost all (97%; 81-109%) RHO sources in our headwater stream samples were quantitatively elucidated; the photolysis of NO3(-) (55%; 34-75%), nitrite [N(III)] (2%; 0.5-5.2%), and DOM-derived HO formation, from which photo-Fenton reactions (18%; 12-26%) and the direct photolysis of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) (22%; 10-40%), was successfully separated. FDOM, which accounted for 53% (24-96%) of DOM in total organic carbon bases, was responsible for HO formation in our headwater streams. High NO3(-) leaching caused by N saturation in forested watersheds increased RHO in the headwaters, indicating that N-saturated forest could significantly change photoinduced and biogeochemical processes via enhanced HO formation in downstream water.

  14. Effects of Ni content on nanocrystalline Fe-Co-Ni ternary alloys synthesized by a chemical reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokprasombat, Komkrich; Pinitsoontorn, Supree; Maensiri, Santi

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni ternary alloys could be altered by changing of the particle size, elemental compositions, and crystalline structures. In this work, Fe50Co50-xNix nanoparticles (x=10, 20, 40, and 50) were prepared by the novel chemical reduction process. Hydrazine monohydrate was used as a reducing agent under the concentrated basic condition with the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone). We found that the nanoparticles were composed of Fe, Co and Ni with compositions according to the molar ratio of the metal sources. Interestingly, the particles were well-crystalline at the as-prepared state without post-annealing at high temperature. Increasing Ni content resulted in phase transformation from body centered cubic (bcc) to face centered cubic (fcc). For the fcc phase, the average particle size decreased when increased the Ni content; the Fe50Ni50 nanoparticles had the smallest average size with the narrowest size distribution. In additions, the particles exhibited ferromagnetic properties at room temperature with the coercivities higher than 300 Oe, and the saturation magnetiation decreased with increasing Ni content. These results suggest that the structural and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni alloys could be adjusted by varying the Ni content.

  15. Thermal expansion behavior of NiSi/NiSi2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. F.; Cavin, O. B.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal expansion of NiSi/NiSi2 for a range of temperatures from 293 to 1223 K was determined using high-temperature X-ray diffraction. While a linear relation with temperature was found for the lattice parameter of NiSi2, third-order relationships were found for the three lattice parameters of NiSi, with one of the parameters showing a decrease with increasing temperature. The volumetric expansion of both materials exhibited linear relationships.

  16. Wormholes and naked singularities in the complete Hořava theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellorín, Jorge; Restuccia, Alvaro; Sotomayor, Adrián

    2014-08-01

    We find the static spherically symmetric solutions (with vanishing shift function) of the complete nonprojectable Hořava theory explicitly, writing the space-time metrics as explicit tensors in local coordinate systems. This completes previous work of other authors who have studied the same configurations. The solutions depend on the coupling constant α of the (∂ilnN)2 term. The λ=1/3 case of the theory does not possess any extra mode; hence, the range of α is in principle not limited by the linear stability of any extra mode. We study the full range of α, both in the positive and negative sectors. We find the same wormhole solutions and naked singularities that were found for the Einstein-aether theory in a sector of the space of α. There also arise wormholes in other sectors of α. Our coordinate systems are valid at the throats of the wormholes. We also find the perturbative solutions for small α. We give this version of the solutions directly on the original radial coordinate r, which is particularly suitable for representing the exterior region of solutions with localized sources.

  17. Vapor complexation in the CsI-HoI 3 system up to 1300 K and the f ← f hypersensitive transition intensities of Ho(III) in different coordination geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papatheodorou, G. N.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.

    2007-04-01

    Electronic absorption spectroscopy is used in the temperature range 850-1300 K, to study the vapor species over molten HoI 3-CsI (1:1), molten CsI and solid HoI 3. Quantitative absorbance measurements are used to calculate the following enthalpies of transition: Δ Hsubl(HoI 3) = 271 ± 3 kJ mol -1, Δ Hvap. (CsHoI 4) = 155 ± 2 kJ mol -1 and Δ Hvap. (CsI) = 151 ± 2 kJ mol -1. The ligand field components of the 5G 6 ← 5I 8 hypersensitive transition of Ho(III) for the three different, all iodide, coordination geometries of HoI 3(g), CsHoI 4(g) and HoI 63- (in molten CsI) have been examined in detail. The molar absorptivities ( ɛ) and oscillator strengths ( f) increase as the coordination decreases from the "octahedral" HoI 63- ( ɛ = 65 L mol -1 cm -1; f = 99 × 10 -6) to the distorted tetrahedral HoI 4- ( ɛ = 235 L mol -1 cm -1; f = 290 × 10 -6) to the trigonal HoI 3 ( ɛ = 390 L mol -1 cm -1; f = 500 × 10 -6). The main factors affecting the hypersensitive transition intensities are the coordination number and symmetry and the ligand polarizability as well as the Boltzmann population effects on the ground state levels which are responsible for the appearance of "hot" bands in the spectra. A C2v symmetry is anticipated for the CsHoI 4(g) with the HoI 4- "tetrahedra" distorted towards a square planar symmetry leading to a structure with a pseudo-like inversion center.

  18. Magnetic properties of R2Co15Al2 compounds with R=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bao-gen; Cheng, Zhao-hua; Zhang, Shao-ying; Wang, Jing-yun; Liang, Bing; Zhang, Hong-wei; Zhan, Wen-shan

    1999-03-01

    An investigation of the structure and the magnetic anisotropy of R2Co15Al2 (R=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) compounds has been performed by means of x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. X-ray diffraction shows the prepared compounds to be single phase, having the hexagonal Th2Ni17-type structure for R=Y, Ho, Er, and Tm and the rhombohedral Th2Zn17-type structure for R=Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, and Dy. Except for the Ce compound, the unit-cell volumes of R2Co15Al2 compounds decrease in accordance with the lanthanide contraction. Substitution of Al for Co in R2Co17 leads to a decrease of the saturation magnetization at 1.5 K and Curie temperature. The exchange-coupling constants JCo-Co and JR-Co have been calculated by using the method based on magnetic ordering temperature. It is found that the JR-Co has a small dependence on the R elements and is almost not affected by the Al substitution. The Ce compound is found to exhibit an anomalous lattice parameter and magnetic characteristic, which are relative to the mixed-valence behavior of the Ce ion. X-ray diffraction measurements on magnetically aligned R2Co15Al2 powders show that the compounds with R=Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho have an easy-plane type of magnetic anisotropy, whereas the compounds with R=Y, Ce, Sm, Er, and Tm exhibit an easy-axis type of magnetic anisotropy at room temperature. The compounds R2Co15Al2 with R=Pr and Ho exhibit a spin-reorientation transition and the spin-reorientation temperature is found to be 531 and 431 K, respectively. A strong uniaxial anisotropy is observed in Sm2Co15Al2 compound with a magnetocrystalline anisotropy field of 84 kOe at room temperature.

  19. New Magnetic confirguration in paramagnetic phase of HoCo2

    SciTech Connect

    Bonilla, C.M.; Calvo, I.; Herrero-Albillos, J.; Figueroa, A.I.; Castan-Guerrero, C.; Bertolome, J.; Rodriguez-Velamazan, J.A.; Schmitz, D.; Weschke, E.; Paudyal, Durga; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Gschneidner Jr, Karl; Bartolome, F.; Garcia, D.

    2012-02-23

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements on HoCo2 reveal the inversion of Co moment at temperatures higher than the critical temperature, Tc, showing that the net magnetization under a field of the Ho and Co sublattices remain antiparallel even above Tc. The Ho moment also changes its orientation to align antiparallel to the applied field at high temperature giving rise to a new magnetic configuration in the paramagnetic regime. Transverse susceptibility (TS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements performed above Tc indicate the existence of sizable magnetic short-range correlated regions in HoCo2. First principles calculations based on spin polarized local-density approximation, LSDA+U havebeen performed to obtain insights on the origin of the short-range correlated volume.

  20. Relative rate constants for the reactions of atomic oxygen with HO2 anad OH radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    Relative rate constants for the reactions O + HO2 - OH + O2 (1) and O + OH - H + O2 (2) were obtained by using the discharge-flow resonance fluorescence technique at 2 torr total pressure and 299 K. HO2 radicals were generated by reacting atomic hydrogen with an excess of O2. Quasi-steady-state concentrations of OH and HO2 were established in the presence of excess atomic oxygen. Observed concentration ratios, namely the ratio of the OH concentration to the HO2 concentration, resulted in a value of 1.7 + or 0.2 for k1/k2. The error limits are twice the standard deviation obtained from the data analysis. Overall experimental error is estimated to be + or - 25 percent. This result confirms earlier direct measurements of k1 and k2 which required knowledge of absolute radical or atomic oxygen concentrations.

  1. Low energy spin dynamics in the spin ice, Ho2Sn2O7

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, Georg; Huq, Ashfia; Diallo, Souleymane Omar; Adriano, Cris; Rule, K; Cornelius, A. L.; Fouquet, Peter; Pagliuso, P G; Gardner, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Ho{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been investigated and compared to other spin ice compounds. Although the lattice has expanded by 3% relative to the better studied Ho{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} spin ice, no significant changes were observed in the high temperature properties, T {approx}> 20 K. As the temperature is lowered and correlations develop, Ho{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} enters its quantum phase at a slightly higher temperature than Ho{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and is more antiferromagnetic in character. Below 80 K a weak inelastic mode associated with the holmium nuclear spin system has been measured. The hyperfine field at the holmium nucleus was found to be {approx}700 T.

  2. In vivo analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HO nuclease recognition site by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nickoloff, J A; Singer, J D; Heffron, F

    1990-01-01

    HO nuclease introduces a specific double-strand break in the mating-type locus (MAT) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, initiating mating-type interconversion. To define the sequence recognized by HO nuclease, random mutations were produced in a 30-base-pair region homologous to either MAT alpha or MATa by a chemical synthesis procedure. The mutant sites were introduced into S. cerevisiae on a shuttle vector and tested for the ability to stimulate recombination in an assay that mimics mating-type interconversion. The results suggest that a core of 8 noncontiguous bases near the Y-Z junction of MAT is essential for HO nuclease to bind and cleave its recognition site. Other contacts must be required because substrates that contain several mutations outside an intact core reduce or eliminate cleavage in vivo. The results show that HO site recognition is a complex phenomenon, similar to promoter-polymerase interactions. Images PMID:2406563

  3. Spectral and lasing characteristics of 1% Ho:YAG ceramics under intracavity pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Bagayev, S N; Vatnik, S M; Vedin, I A; Kurbatov, P F; Osipov, V V; Shitov, V A; Maksimov, R N; Luk'yashin, K E; Pavlyuk, A A

    2015-01-31

    High-transparency 1% Ho:YAG ceramics with the transmission coefficient of 82% in the IR range at the sample thickness of 1 mm are synthesised from a mixture of the Ho:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders obtained by the laser method. Results of investigations of spectral and lasing characteristics of 1 % Ho:YAG ceramics under intracavity pumping by radiation of a 5% Tm:KLuW disk element are presented. Based on spectral intensity analysis of generation in the 1.8 – 2.1 mm range and on cavity parameters, the estimated lasing slope efficiency for 1% Ho:YAG ceramics is about 40%. (lasers)

  4. An Efficient End-Pumped Ho:Tm:YLF Disk Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Ji-Rong; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, Norman P.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient diode-pumped, room temperature Ho:Tm:YLF disk amplifier was realized by end-pump configuration. Compared to side pump configuration, about a factor three improvement in system efficiency has been demonstrated.

  5. Relative rate constants for the reactions of atomic oxygen with HO2 anad OH radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    Relative rate constants for the reactions O + HO2 - OH + O2 (1) and O + OH - H + O2 (2) were obtained by using the discharge-flow resonance fluorescence technique at 2 torr total pressure and 299 K. HO2 radicals were generated by reacting atomic hydrogen with an excess of O2. Quasi-steady-state concentrations of OH and HO2 were established in the presence of excess atomic oxygen. Observed concentration ratios, namely the ratio of the OH concentration to the HO2 concentration, resulted in a value of 1.7 + or 0.2 for k1/k2. The error limits are twice the standard deviation obtained from the data analysis. Overall experimental error is estimated to be + or - 25 percent. This result confirms earlier direct measurements of k1 and k2 which required knowledge of absolute radical or atomic oxygen concentrations.

  6. An Efficient End-Pumped Ho:Tm:YLF Disk Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Ji-Rong; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, Norman P.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient diode-pumped, room temperature Ho:Tm:YLF disk amplifier was realized by end-pump configuration. Compared to side pump configuration, about a factor three improvement in system efficiency has been demonstrated.

  7. Observation of hydroperoxy radical HO2 in the upper atmosphere by SMILES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Yasuko; Lehmann, Ralph; Kuribayashi, Kouta; Sato, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    The HO_{2} radicals have an important role to control the oxidation capacity in the Earth and planetary atmosphere. We provide a first diurnal photo-chemical behavior of HO_{2} in the wide vertical range between stratosphere and lower thermosphere of the Earth by spectroscopic observation using a instrument optimized for the detection of minor atmospheric radical species, named Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), from International Space Station (ISS). An unexpected behavior of HO_{2} was detected above mesopause (about 80 km) with a peak abundance after the sunset time, which was completely different from known diurnal behavior in the stratosphere and the mesosphere. We will report the photo-chemical behavior of HO_{2} in the upper atmosphere.

  8. Kinetics of the reactions of HBr with O3 and HO2: The yield of HBr from HO2 + BrO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Howard, Carleton J.

    1994-01-01

    An upper limit on the yield of HBr from reaction (R1) (HO2 + BrO yields products) has been determined by measuring an upper limit for the rate coefficient of the reverse reaction (R1') (HBr + O3 yields HO2 + BrO). The limits measured at 300 and 441 K were extrapolated to low temperatures to determine that the yield of HBr from reaction (R1) is negligible throughout the stratosphere (less than 0.01% of k(sub 1)). An upper limit for the rate coefficient of the reaction of HO2 with HBr was also determined to be very low less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp -17) cu cm/molecule/sec at 300 K and less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp -16) cu cm/molecule/sec at 400 K. The implications of these results to stratospheric chemistry are discussed.

  9. Potential Energy Surfaces for the Reactions of HO2 Radical with CH2O and HO2 in CO2 Environment.

    PubMed

    Masunov, Artëm E; Atlanov, Arseniy A; Vasu, Subith S

    2016-10-06

    We report on potential energies for the transition state, reactant, and product complexes along the reaction pathways for hydrogen transfer reactions to hydroperoxyl radical from formaldehyde H2CO + HO2 → HCO + H2O2 and another hydroperoxyl radical 2HO2 → H2O2 + O2 in the presence of one carbon dioxide molecule. Both covalently bonded intermediates and weak intermolecular complexes are identified and characterized. We found that reactions that involve covalent intermediates have substantially higher activation barriers and are not likely to play a role in hydrogen transfer kinetics. The van der Waals complexation with carbon dioxide does not affect hydrogen transfer from formaldehyde, but it lowers the barrier for hydroperoxyl self-reaction by nearly 3 kcal/mol. This indicates that CO2 environment is likely to have catalytic effect on HO2 self-reaction, which needs to be included in kinetic combustion mechanisms in supercritical CO2.

  10. Kinetics of the reactions of HBr with O3 and HO2: The yield of HBr from HO2 + BrO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Howard, Carleton J.

    1994-01-01

    An upper limit on the yield of HBr from reaction (R1) (HO2 + BrO yields products) has been determined by measuring an upper limit for the rate coefficient of the reverse reaction (R1') (HBr + O3 yields HO2 + BrO). The limits measured at 300 and 441 K were extrapolated to low temperatures to determine that the yield of HBr from reaction (R1) is negligible throughout the stratosphere (less than 0.01% of k(sub 1)). An upper limit for the rate coefficient of the reaction of HO2 with HBr was also determined to be very low less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp -17) cu cm/molecule/sec at 300 K and less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp -16) cu cm/molecule/sec at 400 K. The implications of these results to stratospheric chemistry are discussed.

  11. Prompt HO2 formation following the reaction of OH with aromatic compounds under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Nehr, Sascha; Bohn, Birger; Wahner, Andreas

    2012-06-21

    The secondary formation of HO(2) radicals following OH + aromatic hydrocarbon reactions in synthetic air under normal pressure and temperature was investigated in the absence of NO after pulsed production of OH radicals. OH and HO(x) (=OH + HO(2)) decay curves were recorded using laser-induced fluorescence after gas-expansion. The prompt HO(2) yields (HO(2) formed without preceding NO reactions) were determined by comparison to results obtained with CO as a reference compound. This approach was recently introduced and applied to the OH + benzene reaction and was extended here for a number of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The measured HO(2) formation yields are as follows: toluene, 0.42 ± 0.11; ethylbenzene, 0.53 ± 0.10; o-xylene, 0.41 ± 0.08; m-xylene, 0.27 ± 0.06; p-xylene, 0.40 ± 0.09; 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 0.31 ± 0.06; 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 0.37 ± 0.09; 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, 0.29 ± 0.08; hexamethylbenzene, 0.32 ± 0.08; phenol, 0.89 ± 0.29; o-cresol, 0.87 ± 0.29; 2,5-dimethylphenol, 0.72 ± 0.12; 2,4,6-trimethylphenol, 0.45 ± 0.13. For the alkylbenzenes HO(2) is the proposed coproduct of phenols, epoxides, and possibly oxepins formed in secondary reactions with O(2). In most product studies the only quantified coproducts were phenols whereas only a few studies reported yields of epoxides. Oxepins have not been observed so far. Together with the yields of phenols from other studies, the HO(2) yields determined in this work set an upper limit to the combined yields of epoxides and oxepins that was found to be significant (≤0.3) for all investigated alkylbenzenes except m-xylene. For the hydroxybenzenes the currently proposed HO(2) coproducts are dihydroxybenzenes. For phenol and o-cresol the determined HO(2) yields are matching the previously reported dihydroxybenzene yields, indicating that these are the only HO(2) forming reaction channels. For 2,5-dimethylphenol and 2,4,6-trimethylphenol no complementary product studies are available.

  12. Aluminizing a Ni sheet through severe plastic deformation induced by ball collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romankov, S.; Shchetinin, I. V.; Park, Y. C.

    2015-07-01

    Aluminizing a Ni sheet was performed through severe plastic deformation induced by ball collisions. The Ni sheet was fixed in the center of a mechanically vibrated vial between two connected parts. The balls were loaded into the vial on both sides of the Ni disk. Al disks, which were fixed on the top and the bottom of the vial, served as the sources of Al contamination. During processing, the Ni sheet was subject to intense ball collisions. The Al fragments were transferred and alloyed to the surface of the Ni sheet by these collisions. The combined effects of deformation-induced plastic flow, mechanical intermixing, and grain refinement resulted in the formation of a dense, continuous nanostructured Al layer on the Ni surface on both sides of the sheet. The Al layer consisted of Al grains with an average size of about 40 nm. The Al layer was reinforced with nano-sized Ni flakes that were introduced from the Ni surface during processing. The local amorphization at the Ni/Al interface revealed that the bonding between Ni and Al was formed by mechanical intermixing of atomic layers at the interface. The hardness of the fabricated Al layer was 10 times that of the initial Al plate. The ball collisions destroyed the initial rolling texture of the Ni sheet and induced the formation of the mixed [1 0 0] + [1 1 1] fiber texture. The laminar rolling structure of the Ni was transformed into an ultrafine grain structure.

  13. Ablation of porcine ligamentum flavum with Ho:YAG, q-switched Ho:YAG, and quadrupled Nd:YAG lasers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matt R; Codd, Patrick J; Hill, Westin M; Boettcher, Tara

    2015-12-01

    Ligamentum flavum (LF) is a tough, rubbery connective tissue providing a portion of the ligamentous stability to the spinal column, and in its hypertrophied state forms a significant compressive pathology in degenerative spinal stenosis. The interaction of lasers and this biological tissue have not been thoroughly studied. Technological advances improving endoscopic surgical access to the spinal canal makes selective removal of LF using small, flexible tools such as laser-coupled fiber optics increasingly attractive for treatment of debilitating spinal stenosis. Testing was performed to assess the effect of Ho:YAG, Q-switched Ho:YAG, and frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG lasers on samples of porcine LF. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of these lasers for surgical removal of LF. LF was resected from porcine spine within 2 hours of sacrifice and stored in saline until immediately prior to laser irradiation, which occurred within an additional 2 hours. The optical absorbance of a sample was measured over the spectral band from 190 to 2,360 nm both before and after dehydration. For the experiments using the Ho:YAG (λ = 2,080 nm, tp  = 140 µs, FWHM) and Q-Switched Ho:YAG (λ = 2,080 nm, tp  = 260 ns, FWHM) lasers, energy was delivered to the LF through a laser-fiber optic with 600 µm core and NA = 0.39. For the experiment using the frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (λ = 266 nm, tp  = 5 ns FWHM), rather than applying the laser energy through a laser-fiber, the energy was focused through an aperture and lens directly onto the LF. Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of the given lasers on LF. First, using the Ho:YAG laser, the single-pulse laser-hole depth versus laser fluence was measured with the laser-fiber in direct contact with the LF (1 g force) and with a standoff distance of 1 mm between the laser-fiber face and the LF. Second, with the LF remaining in situ and the spine bisected

  14. The growth of Ho:YAG single crystals by Czochralski method and investigating the formed cores

    SciTech Connect

    Hasani Barbaran, J. Ghani Aragi, M. R.; Javaheri, I.; Baharvand, B.; Tabasi, M.; Layegh Ahan, R.; Jangjo, E.

    2015-12-15

    Ho:YAG single crystals were grown by Czochralski technique, and investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical methods. The crystals were cut and polished in order to observe and analyze their cores. It was found that the deviation of the cores formed in the Czochralski grown Ho:YAG single crystals are resulted from non-symmetrical status of thermal insulation around the Iridium crucible.

  15. Magnetic Properties of RB66 (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, and Lu)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Budko, Serguei; ATanatar, Makariy; Avdashchenko, D.V.; Matovnikov, A.V.; Mitroshenkov, N.V.; Novikov, V.V.; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2012-05-17

    We report magnetic susceptibility measurements of RB66 (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, and Lu) boron-rich rare earth containing borides down to 50 mK. The data suggest a spin glass low temperature state for RB66 (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er) with the freezing temperatures below 1 K. The magnetic properties appear to be influenced by the anisotropy of the magnetic moments, probably via the crystalline electric field effects.

  16. Measurement of HOx• production rate due to radon decay in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huiling

    1993-08-01

    Radon in indoor air may cause the exposure of the public to excessive radioactivity. Radiolysis of water vapor in indoor air due to radon decay could produce (•OH and HO2 •) that may convert atmospheric constituents to compounds of lower vapor pressure. These lower vapor pressure compounds might then nucleate to form new particles in the indoor atmosphere. Chemical amplification was used to determine HOx• production rate in indoor air caused by radon decay. Average HOx• production rate was found to be (4.31±0.07) x 105 HOx• per Rn decay per second (Bq) 3.4 to 55.0% at 22C. This work provided G(HOx•)-value, 7.86±0.13 No./100 eV in air by directly measuring [HOx•] formed from the radiolysis procedure. This G value implies that HOx• produced by radon decay in air might be formed by multiple processes and may be result of positive ion-molecule reactions, primary radiolysis, and radical reactions. There is no obvious relation between HOx• production rate and relative humidity. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been used for •OH production rate measurement; it consists of an excimer laser, a dye laser, a frequency doubler, a gaseous fluorescence chamber, and other optical and electronic parts. This system needs to be improved to eliminate the interferences of light scattering and artificial •OH produced from the photolysis of O3/H2O.

  17. Raman and infrared study of 4f electron-phonon coupling in HoVO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, B.; Balli, M.; Jandl, S.; Fournier, P.; Palstra, T. T. M.; Nugroho, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    First-order Raman scattering and multiphonons are studied in RVO3 (R  =  Ho and Y) as a function of temperature in the orthorhombic and monoclinic phases. Raman spectra of HoVO3 and YVO3 unveil similar features since both compounds have nearly identical R-radii. However, the most important difference lies in the transition temperature involving the V3+ orbitals, the V3+ magnetic moments as well as the crystallographic structure. Particularly, the magnetic and orbital reorientations occur at T N2  =  40 K for HoVO3 instead T N2  =77 K in the case of YVO3. For both systems, anomalous phonon shifts which are related to spin-phonon coupling are observed below the V3+ magnetic ordering temperature (T N1  ≈  110 K) while additional phonon anomalies are exclusively observed in HoVO3 around T *  ≈  15 K. On the other hand, infrared (IR) transmittance measurements as a function of temperature reveal Ho3+5I8  →  5I7 excitations and additional excitations assigned as vibronics. These latter combined with drastic changes in Ho3+5I8  →  5I7 excitations at T N2, are indicative of a strong coupling between the Ho3+ ions and the ligand field. This could explain the large magnetocaloric capacity shown by HoVO3.

  18. Isolation of 163Ho from dysprosium target material by HPLC for neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Veronika; Taylor, Wayne  A.; Nortier, Francois M.; Engle, Jonathan  W.; Barnhart, Todd  E.; Nickles, Robert  J.; Pollington, Anthony  D.; Kunde, Gerd  J.; Rabin, Michael  W.; Birnbaum, Eva  R.

    2015-04-29

    The rare earth isotope 163Ho is of interest for neutrino mass measurements. This report describes the isolation of 163Ho from a proton-irradiated dysprosium target and its purification. A Dy metal target was irradiated with 16 MeV protons for 10 h. After target dissolution, 163Ho was separated from the bulk Dy via cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography using 70 mmol dm–3 α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as the mobile phase. Subsequent purification of the collected Ho fraction was performed to remove the α-hydroxyisobutyrate chelating agent and to concentrate the Ho in a low ionic strength aqueous matrix. The final solution was characterized by MC-ICP-MS to determine the 163Ho/165Ho ratio, 163Ho and the residual Dy content. The HPLC purification process resulted in a decontamination factor 1.4E5 for Dy. As a result, the isolated Ho fraction contained 24.8 ±1.3 ng of 163Ho corresponding to holmium recovery of 72 ± 3%.

  19. Distinct photoproducts of hydroxylated polybromodiphenyl ethers from different photodegradation pathways: a case study of 2'-HO-BDE-68.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Chen, Jingwen; Zhao, Hongxia; Wang, Xingbao; Xie, Hong-Bin

    2015-02-01

    Hydroxylated polyhalodiphenyl ethers (HO-PXDEs) are emerging aquatic pollutants. Previous studies have shown that HO-PXDEs can photogenerate dioxins and phenolic compounds. However, it is unclear which photochemical pathways are responsible for the various photoproducts. This study investigates the direct photolysis and photooxidation initiated by (1)O2 and ˙OH that can be formed by photosensitization, taking 2'-HO-2,3',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2'-HO-BDE-68) as a case study. The results show that 1,3,8-tribromodibenzo-p-dioxin can only be produced during direct photolysis. By mass spectrum analysis, four dihydroxylated polybromodiphenyl ethers, generated from both direct and indirect photodegradation were confirmed. Among them, di-HO-tribromodiphenyl ether (di-HO-TBDE) was the main product generated from direct photohydrolysis. Most probably, the di-HO-TBDE is 2',5'-HO-2,3',4-tribromodiphenyl ether, as was suggested by density functional theory calculations. Ether bond cleavage is a dominant pathway for the direct photolysis and photooxidation reactions leading to 2,4-dibromophenol as the dominant product. The yields of the products, which are irrespective of reaction time and can be employed to compare the ability of different HO-PXDEs to photogenerate a given product, were reported. This study indicates that for accurate ecological risk assessment of HO-PXDEs, their different photodegradation pathways that may lead to different photoproducts should be considered.

  20. Modulation of HO-1 by Ferulic Acid Attenuates Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Seo, Young-Jin; Choi, Jia; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-05-05

    Ferulic acid (FA) is phenolic compound found in fruits. Many studies have reported that FA has diverse therapeutic effects against metabolic diseases. However, the mechanism by which FA modulates adipogenesis via the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) implicated in suppression of adipocyte differentiation is not fully understood. We investigated whether HO-1 can be activated by FA and suppress adipogenic factors in 3T3-L1. Our results showed that FA suppresses triglyceride-synthesizing enzymes, fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). We observed that the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were suppressed by FA. In addition, HO-1 inhibitor stimulated lipid accumulation, while FA attenuated lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 treated with HO-1 inhibitor. We also observed that the expression of HO-1 had the same tendency as C/EBP homologous protein 10 (CHOP10) during the mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) of adipogenesis. We next employed siRNA against HO-1 to clarify whether HO-1 regulates CHOP10. The results indicated that CHOP10 is downstream of HO-1. Furthermore, FA-mediated HO-1/CHOP10 axis activation prevented the initiation of MCE. Therefore, we demonstrated that FA is a positive regulator of HO-1 in 3T3-L1, and may be an effective bioactive compound to reduce adipocyte tissue mass.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of polymeric azido Zn(II) and Ni(II) complexes based on 3-hydroxypyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Franz A.; Berger, Christian; Domian, Elisabeth; Fischer, Roland C.; Massoud, Salah S.

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis and structural characterization of two new complexes catena-[Ni(3-O-py)(3-HO-py)2(μ1,3-N3)(H2O)] (1) and catena-[Zn(μ-3-O-py)(μ1,1-N3)] (2), where 3-HO-py = 3-hydroxypyridine, are reported. The complexes were characterized by the elemental microanalyses, IR, and X-ray crystallography and by UV-Vis spectroscopy for complex 1. Single crystal X-ray crystallography revealed the polymeric nature of the complexes: 1 as 1D with a single EE azide bridging, and 2 as 2D with μ(O,O‧,N) bridging of the deprotonated 3-O-py anions and di-EO azide groups, respectively. In 1 the neutral and deprotonated 3-hydroxypyridine molecules act only as N-terminal ligands. The emission spectral properties of the Zn(II) complex were investigated.

  2. 36 W Q-switched Ho:YAG laser at 2097 nm pumped by a Tm fiber laser: evaluation of different Ho3+ doping concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, O. L.; Eranov, I. D.; Kositsyn, R. I.

    2017-01-01

    A laser oscillator based on Ho:YAG crystal pumped by a Tm fiber laser with an acousto-optical Q-switch was optimized for maximum output power and pulse-to-pulse stability. Stable operation at 2097 nm in Q-switched mode is demonstrated, with pulse repetition rates from 10 to 30 kHz, and output power of 36 W (at 55 W of pump power at 1908 nm) in the good quality beam. The influence of Ho ion up-conversion and thermal lensing on the oscillation efficiency is discussed.

  3. Reflected shock tube studies of high-temperature rate constants for OH + NO2 --> HO2 + NO and OH + HO2 --> H2O + O2.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Nanda K; Su, Meng-Chih; Sutherland, James W; Michael, Joe V; Ruscic, Branko

    2006-06-01

    The motivation for the present study comes from the preceding paper where it is suggested that accepted rate constants for OH + NO2 --> NO + HO2 are high by approximately 2. This conclusion was based on a reevaluation of heats of formation for HO2, OH, NO, and NO2 using the Active Thermochemical Table (ATcT) approach. The present experiments were performed in C2H5I/NO2 mixtures, using the reflected shock tube technique and OH-radical electronic absorption detection (at 308 nm) and using a multipass optical system. Time-dependent profile decays were fitted with a 23-step mechanism, but only OH + NO2, OH + HO2, both HO2 and NO2 dissociations, and the atom molecule reactions, O + NO2 and O + C2H4, contributed to the decay profile. Since all of the reactions except the first two are known with good accuracy, the profiles were fitted by varying only OH + NO2 and OH + HO2. The new ATcT approach was used to evaluate equilibrium constants so that back reactions were accurately taken into account. The combined rate constant from the present work and earlier work by Glaenzer and Troe (GT) is k(OH+NO2) = 2.25 x 10(-11) exp(-3831 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), which is a factor of 2 lower than the extrapolated direct value from Howard but agrees well with NO + HO2 --> OH + NO2 transformed with the updated equilibrium constants. Also, the rate constant for OH + HO2 suitable for combustion modeling applications over the T range (1200-1700 K) is (5 +/- 3) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). Finally, simulating previous experimental results of GT using our updated mechanism, we suggest a constant rate for k(HO2+NO2) = (2.2 +/- 0.7) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) over the T range 1350-1760 K.

  4. Cell cycle-regulated histone acetylation required for expression of the yeast HO gene

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Jocelyn E.; Kuo, Min-Hao; Allis, C. David; Peterson, Craig L.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of the yeast HO gene in late G1 of the cell cycle requires the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, the Gcn5p histone acetyltransferase, and two different sequence-specific transcriptional activators, Swi5p and Swi4p/Swi6p. We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to investigate the role of each of these trans-acting factors in establishing a cell cycle-regulated domain of histone acetylation surrounding the HO upstream regulatory region. We detect a ∼1-kb domain of H3 and H4 acetylation that is established in mid-G1, prior to and independent of HO transcription, which then declines with kinetics similar to inactivation of HO. This cell cycle burst of histone acetylation requires Gcn5p, SWI/SNF, and the Swi5p activator, but occurs in the absence of the Swi4p activator. We also find that inactivation of the Sin3p/Rpd3p deacetylase complex leads to a high level of acetylation at the HO locus throughout the cell cycle. We propose a sequential model for activation of HO in which the Swi5p-dependent recruitment of the Gcn5p acetyltransferase requires chromatin remodeling events by the SWI/SNF complex. PMID:10364158

  5. FAGE measurements of tropospheric HO with measurements and model of interferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hard, T. M.; Mehrabzadeh, A. A.; Chan, C. Y.; O'Brien, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Ambient HO measurements by low-pressure laser-excited fluorescence with chemical modulation, and supporting ozone and water-vapor data, are presented for periods in May and August 1987. The observed peak daytime ambient HO concentrations are in the range (2.5 to 8) x 10 exp 6 molecules/cu cm and show small negative offsets due to photochemical interference. Direct measurements of the interference at fixed (O3) give the dependence on ambient (H2O) and on the modulating reagent (isobutane). At ambient (O3) = 30 ppb and 10 torr H2O, with excitation and detection at a total pressure of 4 torr, the net interference is equal to (HO) = -1.3 x 10 exp 6 molecules/cu cm. Production of HO by the reaction of isobutane with O(1D) accounts for the negative interference. Quenching of HO fluorescence by the modulating reagent contributes a smaller positive term to the interference; kinetic measurements of the quenching rate coefficient are reported. The experimental interference results are compared with a detailed kinetic model of HO production, excitation, relaxation, and detection; reasonable agreement is found.

  6. HoLaMa: A Klenow sub-fragment lacking the 3'-5' exonuclease domain.

    PubMed

    Martina, Cristina Elisa; Lapenta, Fabio; Montón Silva, Alejandro; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    The design, construction, overexpression, and purification of a Klenow sub-fragment lacking the 3'-5' exonuclease domain is presented here. In particular, a synthetic gene coding for the residues 515-928 of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I was constructed. To improve the solubility and stability of the corresponding protein, the synthetic gene was designed to contain 11 site-specific substitutions. The gene was inserted into the pBADHis expression vector, generating 2 identical Klenow sub-fragments, bearing or not a hexahistidine tag. Both these Klenow sub-fragments, denominated HoLaMa and HoLaMaHis, were purified, and their catalytic properties were compared to those of Klenow enzyme. When DNA polymerase activity was assayed under processive conditions, the Klenow enzyme performed much better than HoLaMa and HoLaMaHis. However, when DNA polymerase activity was assayed under distributive conditions, the initial velocity of the reaction catalyzed by HoLaMa was comparable to that observed in the presence of Klenow enzyme. In particular, under distributive conditions HoLaMa was found to strongly prefer dsDNAs bearing a short template overhang, to the length of which the Klenow enzyme was relatively insensitive. Overall, our observations indicate that the exonuclease domain of the Klenow enzyme, besides its proofreading activity, does significantly contribute to the catalytic efficiency of DNA elongation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. H2S confers colonoprotection against TNBS-induced colitis by HO-1 upregulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kupai, Krisztina; Almási, Nikoletta; Kósa, Magdolna; Nemcsók, János; Murlasits, Zsolt; Török, Szilvia; Al-Awar, Amin; Baráth, Zoltán; Pósa, Anikó; Varga, Csaba

    2017-08-02

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous mediator that contributes to many important physiological processes including vasodilation and vascular smooth muscle relaxation; in turn, preventing tissue damage and reducing inflammation. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes, of which HO-1 is inducible by harmful stimuli, were found to regulate intestinal inflammation in experimental animal models of colitis. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of H2S against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats, and whether HO enzyme system is involved in the H2S-induced colonic cytoprotection. Male Wistar rats were treated with TNBS to induce colitis, and H2S donor (Lawesson's reagent) was prepared two times/day at different concentrations, and delivered per os (from day 1 to day 3). Our results suggest that daily treatment (2 times/day) with H2S donor, could significantly decrease the extent of colonic inflammation compared to vehicle treatment, and the most effective daily dose of H2S donor against inflammation was 18.75 µM/kg/day. Per os administration of H2S donor increased the colonic HO enzyme activity; on the contrary, the protective effect of H2S was abolished by the co-treatment with HO inhibitor. Our findings suggest that H2S confers colonoprotection, probably by modulation of anti-inflammatory parameters and HO enzyme activity.

  8. Targeting a truncated Ho-endonuclease of yeast to novel DNA sites with foreign zinc fingers.

    PubMed Central

    Nahon, E; Raveh, D

    1998-01-01

    Ho-endonuclease of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, initiates a mating type switch by making a site-specific double strand break in the mating type gene, MAT. Ho is a dodecamer endonuclease and shares six of the seven intein motifs with PI- Sce I endonuclease, an intein encoded by the VMAI gene. We show that a 113 residue truncated Ho-endonuclease starting at intein motif C initiates a mating type switch in yeast. Ho is the only dodecamer endonuclease with zinc fingers. To see whether they have a role in determining site specificity we exchanged them for zinc fingers of the yeast transcription factor, Swi5. A chimeric endonuclease comprising the dodecamer motifs of Ho (C-E) and the zinc finger domain of Swi5 cleaves a Swi5 substrate plasmid in vivo. A similar chimera with the zinc fingers of SpI cleaves a GC box rich substrate plasmid. These experiments delineate a catalytic fragment of Ho-endonuclease that can be fused to various DNA binding moieties in the design of chimeric endonucleases with new site specificities. PMID:9469831

  9. Ginsenoside Rd mitigates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaofeng; Li, Juan; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rd (GsRd) reportedly protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Nrf2/HO-1 signaling plays a key role in attenuating oxidative stress. However, it remains unclear whether GsRd protects against myocardial I/R injury via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. This study aimed to investigate the role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in the cardioprotective effect of GsRd. Rats received 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h reperfusion. Cardiac function, infarct size and serum CK, LDH, cTnI levels were detected. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was detected by western blot. The results suggested that GsRd attenuated myocardial I/R injury as evidenced by improved cardiac function, decreased infarct size and decreased levels of serum CK, LDH and cTnI. In addition, GsRd administration enhanced the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. In conclusion, the present study shows that GsRd protects against myocardial I/R injury via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. PMID:26550440

  10. Correlation between magnon and magnetic symmetries of hexagonal RMnO3 (R = Er, Ho, Lu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Minh Hien; Nguyen, Thi Huyen; Chen, Xiang-Bai; Park, Yeonju; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, D.; Noh, T. W.; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Yang, In-Sang

    2016-11-01

    The correlation between the magnon scattering and the magnetic symmetries of hexagonal RMnO3 (R = Er, Ho) thin films and LuMnO3 single crystal was studied through the 2D Correlation Spectroscopy (2D COS) and Perturbation-Correlation Moving Window 2D (PCMW2D) Correlation Spectroscopy which were performed on the temperature-dependent Raman spectra of RMnO3 (R = Er, Ho, Lu). From the Raman spectra, we observed much stronger intensity and more asymmetrical magnon peak in LuMnO3 single crystal than in ErMnO3 and HoMnO3 thin films. While the ratio between magnon and phonon's linewidth of LuMnO3 and HoMnO3 display an anomalous behavior, that ratio of ErMnO3 is almost stable. The result from PCMW2D also supports these results. In addition, our 2D COS analysis showed that there are more overlap peaks in broad four-spin flipping magnon peak in LuMnO3 than that in ErMnO3 and HoMnO3. The differences of hexagonal RMnO3 (R = Er, Ho, Lu) in magnon scattering are very similar to the actual differences of the magnetic symmetries of these compounds. Therefore, we suggest that the magnon scattering of hexagonal RMnO3 is strongly correlated with the magnetic symmetries of these materials.

  11. Measurements of OH and HO2 Radicals and OH Reactivity at Tropical Locations Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furneaux, K. L.; Whalley, L. K.; Edwards, P.; Goddard, A.; Ingham, T.; Evans, M. J.; Heard, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    included, indicating a missing HOx source. Both OH and HO2 were observed at night. Measurements of HOx at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (16.9N, 24.9W) were made from May - June 2007 as part of the RHaMBLe (Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer) programme. The site is located adjacent to the ocean with an absence of macro algae, providing conditions analogous to open ocean, clean marine air. However, background tropical conditions were not dictated by simple chemistry. Peak OH and HO2 concentrations were 9 × 106 molecule cm-3 and 6 ×108 molecule cm-3, respectively. HO2 was observed at night between 5 - 20 × 106 molecule cm-3. Modelling studies determined oxygenated-VOCs and halogen chemistry to play an important role in HOx chemistry. A comparison of HOx measurements at tropical open ocean and tropical rainforest locations shows that HOx chemistry varies greatly throughout the tropics. Higher HOx sinks in tropical rainforest environments result in a decrease of HOx compared to the tropical open ocean. 1. Lelieveld, J., T. M. Butler, et al. (2008). Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustained by a tropical forest, Nature, 452(7188): 737-740. 2. Martinez, M., Harder, H., et al. (2008). Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: airborne measurements, ACPD, 8, 15491-15536.

  12. Ho-doped Soft Glass Optical Fibers for Coherent Wavelength Sources Above 2 Micron

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Politecnico di Torino – Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 – 10129 Torino Italia tel: +39...Abruzzi, 24 – 10129 Torino Italia tel: +39 011 564 4707 fax: +39 011 564 4699 e-mail: daniel.milanese@polito.it url: www.composites.polito.it...Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 – 10129 Torino Italia tel: +39 011 564 4707 fax: +39 011 564 4699 e-mail

  13. The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-Al intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph; Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy Al content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-Al2O3 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-NiAl alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-NiAl phase field.

  14. Groundwater screening for 940 organic micro-pollutants in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh; Kong, Lingxiao

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for more than half of the residents of Hanoi (HN). It also provides about one third of the total water demand for residents of Ho Chi Minh City (HCM). However, due to rapid urbanization and frequent discharges of untreated urban wastewater to surface water, freshwater is widely contaminated by man-made chemicals, which may result in groundwater pollution. As part of an ongoing campaign to collect baseline information on the occurrence of organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) in the aquatic environment in Vietnam, 43 water samples were collected from 26 groundwater wells in HN (22) and HCM (4) in September 2013 and August 2014. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the resulting chromatograms were screened for 940 OMPs by an automated identification and quantification system (AIQS) within a GC-MS database. A total of 74 compounds were detected, with between 4 and 43 (median 18) compounds found at each site. Overall, contamination levels were low, with over 89 % of the detected concentrations that were less than 0.5 μg L(-1). Results suggest that most of the sampled aquifers have been impacted by non-point source pollution. Most of the contaminants detected are either currently not regulated in drinking water or are present at low levels. A health risk assessment for detected contaminants implied that there were no risks to humans. Since this study was based on a limited number of samples, especially in HCM, further, more detailed studies on the occurrence of OMPs in groundwater in HCM and a full risk assessment of detected contaminants should be prioritized.

  15. Ni, Co, and Mo-metal-catalyzed alkynes hydrostannations using Bu(3)SnCl/PMHS/KF/18-crown-6 as an in situ Bu(3)SnH source.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Banibrata; Maleczka, Robert E

    2011-10-12

    A number of terminal alkynes were subjected to nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum catalyzed hydrostannations in presence of tributyltin chloride, polymethylhydrosiloxane, potassium fluoride and 18-crown-6 as an situ organotin hydride source to produce vinylstannanes.

  16. Bulk Migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ during Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Baer, Donald R.; Lea, Alan S.; Zhu, Zihua; Strohm, James J.; Sitzman, S. D.; King, David L.

    2010-02-09

    Understanding the migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ can potentially help to design a better solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode. We have observed that extensive hydrogen reduction and methane steam reforming of Ni-YSZ caused bulk migration of Ni/NiO to at least ~ 5 µm deeper from the Ni-YSZ surface. No significant bulk migration effects were detected after simple thermal treatments in non-reducing/non-reforming environment. Surface analysis of a single zirconia grain in the first 10-20 nm region from annealed, hydrogen reduced and methane steam reformed Ni-YSZ shows Ni-enriched surface supporting earlier claims of Ni exsolution. 3D-EBSD analysis of thermally treated sample before exposing it to reducing and reforming environment indicated mixed NiO/YSZ phase with some porosity and random grain orientation. The surface analysis and mapping were carried out using ToF-SIMS and AES whereas EDS maps on FIB sliced areas on Ni-YSZ were utilized for the bulk analysis. The results provide additional information related to complex reactions occurring in SOFC during internal reforming conditions.

  17. The cosmological constant and Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appignani, Corrado; Casadio, Roberto; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2010-04-01

    Hořava-Lifshitz theory of gravity with detailed balance is plagued by the presence of a negative bare (or geometrical) cosmological constant which makes its cosmology clash with observations. We argue that adding the effects of the large vacuum energy of quantum matter fields, this bare cosmological constant can be approximately compensated to account for the small observed (total) cosmological constant ΛOBS, thus resulting in a self-contained model of gravity and particle physics. Even though we cannot address the fine-tuning problem in this way, we are able to establish a relation between the smallness of ΛOBS and the scale ellUV at which dimension 4 corrections to the Einstein gravity become significant for cosmology. This scale turns out to be ellUV simeq 5 ellP for ΛOBS simeq 0 and we therefore argue that the smallness of ΛOBS guarantees that Lorentz invariance is broken only at very small scales. We are also able to provide a first rough estimation for the values of the parameters of the theory μ and ΛW.

  18. Hořava-Lifshitz gravity: Detailed balance revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernieri, Daniele; Sotiriou, Thomas P.

    2012-03-01

    We attempt a critical reconsideration of “detailed balance” as a principle that can be used to restrict the proliferation of couplings in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. We reexamine the shortcomings that have been usually associated with it in the literature and we argue that easy remedies can be found for all of them within the framework of detailed balance, and that the most persistent of them are actually related to projectability. We show that, once projectability is abandoned, detailed balance reduces the number of independent couplings by roughly an order of magnitude and imposes only one restriction that constitutes a phenomenological concern: the size of the (bare) cosmological constant is unacceptably large. Remarkably, this restriction (which is present in the projectable version as well) has been so far underappreciated in the literature. Optimists might prefer to interpret it as a potential blessing in disguise, as it allows one to entertain the idea of a miraculous cancellation between the bare cosmological constant and the (still poorly understood) vacuum energy contribution.

  19. The challenges of water governance in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; Dan, Nguyen P; Dieperink, Carel

    2016-04-01

    Population growth, urbanization, pollution, and climate change pose urgent water challenges in cities. In this study, the sustainability of integrated water resources management in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) was evaluated using the City Blueprint approach. The City Blueprint is a set of 24 dedicated indicators divided over 8 categories (i.e., water security, water quality, drinking water, sanitation, infrastructure, climate robustness, biodiversity and attractiveness, and governance including public participation). The analysis showed that the rapid increase of water use for urban, industrial, and agricultural activities in HCMC has resulted in depletion of groundwater and severe pollution of both groundwater and surface water. Surface water quality, groundwater quality, biodiversity, and the sanitation of domestic and industrial wastewater are matters that need serious improvement. Current and future water supply in HCMC is at risk. HCMC can cope with it, but the 7 governance gaps as described by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are major obstacles for HCMC. Rainwater harvesting, pollution reduction, as well as wastewater reuse are among the practical options. Wastewater reuse could lower the water stress index to 10%. The window to do this is narrow and rapidly closing as a result of the unprecedented urbanization and economic growth of this region. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. TRACE-P OH and HO2 Measurements with the Airborne Tropospheric Hydrogen Oxides Sensor (ATHOS) on the DC-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, William H.; Martinez-Harder, Monica; Harder, Hartwig

    2004-01-01

    The Airborne Tropospheric Hydrogen Oxides Sensor (ATHOS) measures OH and HO2 from the NASA DC-8. This instrument detects OH by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in detection chambers at low pressure and detects HO2 by chemical conversion with NO followed by LIF detection. The demonstrated detection limit (S/N=2, 5 min.) for OH is about 0.005 pptv (1x10(exp 6)/cu cm at 2 km altitude) and for HO2 is 0.05 pptv (1x10(exp 6)/cu cm at 2 km altitude). We will use ATHOS to measure OH, HO2, and HO2/OH during TRACE- P, analyze these results by comparing them against fundamental relationships and computer models, and publish the analyses. TRACE-P HO(x), measurements will help develop a clearer picture of the atmospheric oxidation and 0 3 production that occur as Asian pollution spreads across the Pacific Ocean.

  1. Dual protective role of HO-1 in transplanted liver grafts: A review of experimental and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Li, Ji-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Liver transplantation is considered as the most effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. However, serious complications still exist, particularly in two aspects: ischemia and subsequent reperfusion of the liver, causing postoperative hepatic dysfunction and even failure; and acute and chronic graft rejections, affecting the allograft survival. Heme oxygenase (HO), a stress-response protein, is believed to exert a protective function on both the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft rejection. In this review of current researches on allograft protection, we focused on the HO-1. We conjecture that HO-1 may link these two main factors affecting the prognosis of liver transplantations. In this review, the following aspects were emphasized: the basic biological functions of HO-1, its roles in IRI and allograft rejection, as well as methods to induce HO-1 and the prospects of a therapeutic application of HO-1 in liver transplantation. PMID:21912452

  2. Ho:YAG laser irradiation in blood vessel as a vasodilator: ex vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, E.; Iwasaki, T.; Kaneko, K.; Shimazaki, N.; Arai, T.

    2007-02-01

    We studied Ho:YAG laser irradiation in blood vessel as a vasodilator ex vivo. We thought that the Ho:YAG laser-induced bubble expansion might be able to dilate the vessel because we found the vessel wall expansion after the Ho:YAG laser irradiation, that is steady deformation, in the vessel ex vivo. There have been many reports regarding to the Ho:YAG laser irradiation in the vessel. Most of studies concentrated on the interaction between Ho:YAG laser irradiation and vessel wall to investigate side effect on Ho:YAG laser angioplasty. We proposed to use the Ho:YAG laser-induced bubble expansion as a vasodilator. We studied vasodilation effect of the Ho:YAG laser-induced bubble ex vivo. The flash lamp excited Ho:YAG laser surgical unit (IH102, NIIC, Japan) (λ=2.1μm) was used. The laser energy was delivered by a silica glass fiber (outer diameter: 1000μm, core diameter: 600μm). The laser-induced bubble was generated in the extracted fresh porcine carotid artery with the warmed saline perfusion. The laser energy at the fiber tip was ranging from 170-1300mJ per pulse. Number of the laser irradiation was ranged from 20pulses to 100pulses. The outer diameter of the vessel was observed. To examine the change in mechanical properties of the vessel wall, the stress-strain curve of the laser-irradiated vessel was measured. Birefringence observation and microscopic observation of staining specimen were performed. When the laser energy was set to 1300mJ per pulse, the outer diameter of the vessel after the laser irradiation was expanded by 1.4 times comparing with that of before the laser irradiation and the dilatation effect was kept even at 10minutes after the irradiation. The elasticity modulus of the artery by collagen was changed by the laser irradiation. In the polarized microscopic observation, the brightness of the intimal side of the vessel is increased comparing with that of the normal. We think this brightness increasing may be attributed to birefringence change

  3. Radical chemistry at a rural site (Wangdu) in the North China Plain: observation and model calculations of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhaofeng; Fuchs, Hendrik; Lu, Keding; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Bohn, Birger; Broch, Sebastian; Dong, Huabin; Gomm, Sebastian; Häseler, Rolf; He, Lingyan; Holland, Frank; Li, Xin; Liu, Ying; Lu, Sihua; Rohrer, Franz; Shao, Min; Wang, Baolin; Wang, Ming; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Yinsong; Wahner, Andreas; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive field campaign was carried out in summer 2014 in Wangdu, located in the North China Plain. A month of continuous OH, HO2 and RO2 measurements was achieved. Observations of radicals by the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique revealed daily maximum concentrations between (5-15) × 106 cm-3, (3-14) × 108 cm-3 and (3-15) × 108 cm-3 for OH, HO2 and RO2, respectively. Measured OH reactivities (inverse OH lifetime) were 10 to 20 s-1 during daytime. The chemical box model RACM 2, including the Leuven isoprene mechanism (LIM), was used to interpret the observed radical concentrations. As in previous field campaigns in China, modeled and measured OH concentrations agree for NO mixing ratios higher than 1 ppbv, but systematic discrepancies are observed in the afternoon for NO mixing ratios of less than 300 pptv (the model-measurement ratio is between 1.4 and 2 in this case). If additional OH recycling equivalent to 100 pptv NO is assumed, the model is capable of reproducing the observed OH, HO2 and RO2 concentrations for conditions of high volatile organic compound (VOC) and low NOx concentrations. For HO2, good agreement is found between modeled and observed concentrations during day and night. In the case of RO2, the agreement between model calculations and measurements is good in the late afternoon when NO concentrations are below 0.3 ppbv. A significant model underprediction of RO2 by a factor of 3 to 5 is found in the morning at NO concentrations higher than 1 ppbv, which can be explained by a missing RO2 source of 2 ppbv h-1. As a consequence, the model underpredicts the photochemical net ozone production by 20 ppbv per day, which is a significant portion of the daily integrated ozone production (110 ppbv) derived from the measured HO2 and RO2. The additional RO2 production from the photolysis of ClNO2 and missing reactivity can explain about 10 % and 20 % of the discrepancy, respectively. The underprediction of the photochemical ozone

  4. Upconversion luminescence of Ca1-x Ho x F2+x and Sr0.98-x Er0.02Ho x F2.02+x powders upon excitation by an infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapin, A. A.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Ryabochkina, P. A.; Merculov, A. P.; Chernov, M. V.; Ermakova, Yu A.; Luginina, A. A.; Fedorov, P. P.

    2017-07-01

    Fluorite-type Ca1-x Ho x F2+x and Sr0.98-x Er0.02Ho x F2.02+x powders were synthesized using the co-precipitation from water solution technique. The upconversion luminescence of Ca1-x Ho x F2+x and Sr0.98-x Er0.02Ho x F2.02+x powders in the visible spectral region upon excitation of 5I7 level Ho3+ ions and 4I13/2 level Er3+ ions were studied for the first time. The possibility of visualizing near IR laser radiation using Ca1-x Ho x F2+x and Sr0.98-x Er0.02Ho x F2.02+x powders is proposed. Optimal compositions of Ca1-x Ho x F2+x and Sr0.98-x Er0.02Ho x F2.02+x powders for application as visualizers are discussed.

  5. Preparation of electrodeposited Zn-Ni-B alloy coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Taro; Kamimoto, Yuki; Ichino, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    We prepared Zn-Ni-B alloys with high Zn content and high corrosion resistance. The composition of the alloys was controlled by potentiostatic electrolysis. In the electroplating bath, dimethylamineborane was used as the B source. The characterization of the alloys and corrosion resistance evaluation were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), Tafel plots, and cyclic corrosion tests. All films were categorized into three groups on the basis of the results of XRD analysis, and it was found by TEM analysis that the Ni-B-type showed an amorphous structure. The Ni-B-type could contain up to 50.6 mol % Zn and showed similar or better anticorrosion properties than the amorphous Ni-B films. In the Ni-B-type, the higher the Zn content, the higher the corrosion resistance. The Zn-Ni-B alloys had almost the same electrochemical corrosion resistance and Zn content as the Zn-Ni-P alloys.

  6. Association of HO-1 and BRCA1 Is Critical for the Maintenance of Cellular Homeostasis in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Labanca, Estefanía; De Luca, Paola; Gueron, Geraldine; Paez, Alejandra; Moiola, Cristian P; Massillo, Cintia; Porretti, Juliana; Giudice, Jimena; Zalazar, Florencia; Navone, Nora; Vazquez, Elba; De Siervi, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Many factors that participate in the development of prostate cancer promote imbalance in the redox state of the cell. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species causes injury to cell structures, ultimately leading to cancer development. The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1/HO-1) is responsible for the maintenance of the cellular homeostasis, playing a critical role in the oxidative stress and the regulation of prostate cancer development and progression. In the present study, the transcriptional regulation of HO-1 was investigated in prostate cancer. Interestingly, the tumor suppressor BRCA1 binds to the HO-1 promoter and modulates HO-1, inducing its protein levels through both the increment of its promoter activity and the induction of its transcriptional activation. In addition, in vitro and in vivo analyses show that BRCA1 also controls HO-1-negative targets: MMP9, uPA, and Cyclin D1. HO-1 transcriptional regulation is also modulated by oxidative and genotoxic agents. Induction of DNA damage by mitoxantrone and etoposide repressed HO-1 transcription, whereas hydrogen peroxide and doxorubicin induced its expression. Xenograft studies showed that HO-1 regulation by doxorubicin also occurs in vivo. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that BRCA1 overexpression and/or doxorubicin exposure induced the cytoplasmic retention of HO-1. Finally, the transcription factor NRF2 cooperates with BRCA1 protein to activate HO-1 promoter activity. In summary, these results show that the activation of BRCA1-NRF2/HO-1 axis defines a new mechanism for the maintenance of the cellular homeostasis in prostate cancer. Oxidative and genotoxic stress converge on HO-1 transcriptional activity through the combined actions of BRCA1 and NRF2. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Revelation of non-statistical behavior in HO2 vibration by a new ab initio potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shi Ying; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua

    2006-09-07

    The hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) has long been considered as a prototype for statistical vibrational dynamics. In this work, however, it is shown that the bound state energy levels (up to the dissociation threshold) and low-lying resonances of the HO2 system (J=0) obtained on a new ab initio potential energy surface exhibit surprisingly large regularity. The implications of the non-statistical behavior of the HO2 system in unimolecular and bimolecular reactions are discussed.

  8. Modeling and predicting pKa values of mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-PBDEs) by local molecular descriptors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiying; Wondrousch, Dominik; Yuan, Quan; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong; Hong, Huachang; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-PBDEs) are attracting considerable concerns because of their multiple endocrine-disrupting effects and wide existence in environment and organisms. The hydroxyl groups enable these chemicals to be ionizable, and dissociation constant, pKa, becomes an important parameter for investigating their environmental behavior and biological activities. In this study, a new pKa prediction model was developed using local molecular descriptors. The dataset contains 21 experimental pKa values of HO-PCBs and HO-PBDEs. The optimized geometries by ab initio HF/6-31G(∗∗) algorithm were used to calculate the site-specific molecular readiness to accept or donate electron charges. The developed model obtained good statistical performance, which significantly outperformed commercial software ACD and SPARC. Mechanism analysis indicates that pKa values increase with the charge-limited donor energy EQocc on hydroxyl oxygen atom and decrease with the energy-limited acceptor charge QEvac on hydroxyl hydrogen atom. The regression model was also applied to calculate pKa values for all 837 mono-hydroxylated PCBs and PBDEs in each class, aiming to provide basic data for the ecological risk assessment of these chemicals.

  9. Linking Preconditioning to Extreme El Niño and ENSO Predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, S. M.; Kirtman, B. P.

    2016-12-01

    The contribution of the subsurface precursor, defined as the buildup of heat content in equatorial subsurface prior to El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO), to ENSO amplitude and predictability has been unclear for some time. To address the issue, this study implements a careful experimental design to construct three March-initialized precursor ensembles using CCSM4, one ensemble with ENSO-neutral initial conditions, one with a warm precursor in the subsurface, and one with a cold precursor. The initialized warm, cold, or neutral precursors of each respective ensemble, although identically wind-forced, differ slightly due to intrinsic sources of "noise" in the ocean and atmosphere. The ensembles are then integrated fully-coupled to produce a distribution of outcomes per each type of initial condition. Results show that a precursor is not essential to produce moderate El Niño and the full range of La Niña events, whereas a warm precursor is mechanistically vital to generate extreme El Niño. The findings imply that extreme El Niño and the coldest La Niña events are fundamentally different. The full distribution of CCSM4 ENSO variability, extreme El Niño to the coldest La Niña, can be reproduced via two processes, the warm precursor and the coupled instability mechanism. Presence of a warm (cold) precursor in the initial condition results in a warm (cold) shift and narrowing of the distribution of outcomes, thus increasing the predictability of El Niño (La Niña). Although the cold precursor is not necessary to produce La Niña, its presence in the initial condition increases La Niña predictability more than the warm precursor increases El Niño predictability. In other words, La Niña may be more predictable than El Niño.

  10. Ni Isotope Signatures in Banded Iron Formations Before, During, and After the Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasylenki, L.; Wang, S.

    2016-12-01

    We have measured the Ni isotope compositions of banded iron formations (BIF) in an effort to test the hypothesis of Konhauser et al. that a decrease in supply of Ni to the Late Archean oceans may have triggered a decline in methanogen productivity [1,2]. These microorganisms are critically dependent on Ni, and their decline may have triggered a drop in atmospheric CH4 that allowed the first sustained rise of free O2 in the atmosphere at 2.4 Ga. While simultaneously considering other processes that may have controlled the Ni isotope composition of Precambrian seawater, and in turn the BIF, we are looking for a shift in δ60/58Ni over time that correlates with the decrease in BIF Ni/Fe ratios documented previously [1,2] and that possibly reflects a dramatic change in methanogen Ni status over that same time interval (2.7-2.4 Ga). Our preliminary results indicate that the ocean's Ni isotope composition has varied considerably over geologic time. Using results from an accompanying experimental study of Ni fractionation during incorporation into ferric oxyhydroxides/oxides, we can reconstruct the Ni isotope compositions of seawater from which BIF precipitated. We observe that Precambrian seawater was generally considerably enriched in light isotopes of Ni relative to modern seawater. So far we observe the widest range of δ60/58Ni values in those BIF samples aged 2.7-2.4 Ga, implying significant changes in the controls on δ60/58Ni in the Late Archean Eon and possibly much greater sensitivity of the biogeochemical cycle of Ni to perturbations in Ni sources, such as oxidative weathering of sulfides, input/output fluxes, or biological uptake. [1] Konhauser et al. (2009) Nature 458,750; [2] Konhauser et al. (2015) Astrobiology 15,804.

  11. Rainfall and Wind Patterns Along the Equator During El Niño and La Niña Events in 2000-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, David

    2015-04-01

    Four El Niño events and six La Niña events occurred from March 2000 - February 2014 in the Oceanic Niño Index for the Niño 3.4 region. In the west Pacific from 150°E-150°W the surface westward wind speed in El Niño was considerably smaller than in La Niña. At the upper troposphere (13-15 km), the eastward wind speed was larger in El Niño than in La Niña. Both wind patterns were consistent with conventional wisdom of an eastward or westward longitudinal shift of the surface zonal winds of the Walker Circulation during El Niño or La Niña. However, in the east Pacific from 150°W-90°W the surface westward wind speed in El Niño was larger than in La Niña, which was not consistent with a local wind-generated thermocline depth deeper in El Niño than in La Niña. The influence of central Pacific El Niños in 2000-2014, when the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) was strongest in the central Pacific, compared to 1980-1999, when the El Niño SSTA was largest in the eastern Pacific, will be discussed. This paper will review the zonal wind observations, including those at 10-m and 14-km heights in the Atlantic Ocean, where increased vertical shear during El Niño would suppress the formation of hurricanes. This paper will also examine the movements of the longitudinal position in El Niño and La Niña of the sharp zonal gradient of rainfall, which normally occurs near 170°W. In March 2000 - February 2014 the average annual amounts of rainfall in the west and east Pacific were 1.7 and 0.4 mm/hr, respectively; each value was fairly uniform over a large longitudinal region. Data sources were 10-m height wind vectors recorded by ASCAT-on-MetOp-A and SeaWinds-on-QuikSCAT, wind vectors at many troposphere heights by MISR-on-Terra, and rainfall by TMI-on-TRMM.

  12. FABRICATION OF NEUTRON SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.

    1959-01-20

    A method is presented for preparing a more efficient neutron source comprising inserting in a container a quantity of Po-210, inserting B powder coated with either Ag, Pt, or Ni. The container is sealed and then slowly heated to about 450 C to volatilize the Po and effect combination of the coated powder with the Po. The neutron flux emitted by the unit is moritored and the heating step is terminated when the flux reaches a maximum or selected level.

  13. Natural nanomorphous Ni/NiO magnetic multilayers: structure and magnetism of the high-Ar pressure series.

    PubMed

    Pappas, S D; Delimitis, A; Kapaklis, V; Papaioannou, E Th; Poulopoulos, P; Trachylis, D; Velgakis, M J; Politis, C

    2014-08-01

    Natural nanomorphous Ni/NiO multilayers have exhibited interesting magnetic properties, such as an unusual positive surface anisotropy and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Most attention has been paid to multilayers prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering under relatively low (3 x 10(-3) mbar) Ar pressure. Here we report on the correlation between structural and magnetic properties for a new series of multilayers, prepared under relatively high (3 x 10(-2) mbar) Ar pressure. The crystalline Ni individual layer thickness ranges between 5-8 nm. The amorphous NiO layer thickness is constant, about 1.1 nm thick. X-ray reflectivity showed that in some of the multilayers the high-order Bragg peaks become broader and diminish quickly. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy reveals that this occurs because the first bilayers are formed in accordance to the growth conditions, while the ones near the top are vanished. Despite the deterioration of the interface quality, all samples show tendency for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy even for large bilayer thickness of about 9 nm. Similar tendency is observed even by a 330 nm thick non-multilayered Ni film grown under the same conditions. This observation reveals the important role of strain and magnetoelastic anisotropy as a source of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the Ni/NiO multilayers.

  14. El Niño's impact on California precipitation: seasonality, regionality, and El Niño intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, Bor-Ting; Ting, Mingfang; Seager, Richard

    2016-05-01

    California has experienced severe drought in recent years posing great challenges to agricultural production, water resources, and land management. El Niño, as the prime source of seasonal to interannual climate predictability, offers the potential of amelioration of drought in California. Here El Niño’s impacts on California winter precipitation are examined, focusing on variations by season, region, and the strength of El Niño using observational data for the period 1901-2010. The El Niño influence on California precipitation strengthens from early to late winter and is stronger in the south than the north. Eight of ten moderate-to-strong El Niños in the late winter put southern California in the wettest tercile and none of these ten events put northern California in the driest tercile. The early to late winter strengthening of the El Niño impact on precipitation occurs even as El Niño weakens and is associated with a strengthening and eastward extending tropical deep convection anomaly allowed by the late winter warming of the climatological mean sea surface temperature over the tropical eastern Pacific.

  15. Single Longitudinal Mode, High Repetition Rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF Laser for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petzar, Paul; Petros, M.; Chen, Songsheng; Trieu, Bo; Lee, Nyung; Singh, U.

    2009-01-01

    Ho:YLF/LuLiF lasers have specific applications for remote sensing such as wind-speed measurement and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement in the atmosphere because the operating wavelength (around 2 m) is located in the eye-safe range and can be tuned to the characteristic lines of CO2 absorption and there is strong backward scattering signal from aerosol (Mie scattering). Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ [1]. For highly precise CO2 measurements with coherent detection technique, a laser with high repetition rate is required to averaging out the speckle effect [2]. In addition, laser efficiency is critically important for the air/space borne lidar applications, because of the limited power supply. A diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser is difficult to efficiently operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. However, a Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can be operated at high repetition rates efficiently [3]. No matter whether wind-speed or carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement is the goal, a Ho:YLF/LuLiF laser as the transmitter should operate in a single longitudinal mode. Injection seeding is a valid technique for a Q-switched laser to obtain single longitudinal mode operation. In this paper, we will report the new results for a single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. In order to avoid spectral hole burning and make injection seeding easier, a four mirror ring cavity is designed for single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. The ramp-fire technique is chosen for injection seeding.

  16. Single Longitudinal Mode, High Repetition Rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF Laser for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petzar, Paul; Petros, M.; Chen, Songsheng; Trieu, Bo; Lee, Nyung; Singh, U.

    2009-01-01

    Ho:YLF/LuLiF lasers have specific applications for remote sensing such as wind-speed measurement and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement in the atmosphere because the operating wavelength (around 2 m) is located in the eye-safe range and can be tuned to the characteristic lines of CO2 absorption and there is strong backward scattering signal from aerosol (Mie scattering). Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ [1]. For highly precise CO2 measurements with coherent detection technique, a laser with high repetition rate is required to averaging out the speckle effect [2]. In addition, laser efficiency is critically important for the air/space borne lidar applications, because of the limited power supply. A diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser is difficult to efficiently operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. However, a Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can be operated at high repetition rates efficiently [3]. No matter whether wind-speed or carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement is the goal, a Ho:YLF/LuLiF laser as the transmitter should operate in a single longitudinal mode. Injection seeding is a valid technique for a Q-switched laser to obtain single longitudinal mode operation. In this paper, we will report the new results for a single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. In order to avoid spectral hole burning and make injection seeding easier, a four mirror ring cavity is designed for single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. The ramp-fire technique is chosen for injection seeding.

  17. The role of HO-1 in protection against lead-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyi; Ye, Fang; Li, Lili; Chang, Wei; Wu, Xiongwen; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a pervasive and persistent environmental pollutant that exerts deleterious effects on all living organisms and continues to threaten public health on a global scale. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-inducible enzyme that mediates antioxidative and cytoprotective effects to maintain cellular redox homeostasis and protect cells from oxidative stress. This study was designed to explore the role of HO-1 in protection against lead neurotoxicity and the signaling pathways involved. Lead acetate (PbAc) exposure resulted in increased HO-1 expression in primary rat hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. PbAc-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) also increased, and cell viability decreased in SH-SY5Y cells. We further demonstrated that HO-1 could be induced by PbAc through the P38, ERK1/2, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in a ROS-dependent manner and through the JNK pathway in a ROS-independent manner. Further investigation revealed that HO-1 overexpression significantly restrained cell apoptosis and ROS production induced by PbAc in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, HO-1 knockdown aggravated PbAc-induced cell apoptosis and ROS production. Our results indicated that HO-1 was a novel protective factor that could efficiently inhibit PbAc-induced oxidative stress and cell death in the nervous system, thereby providing the potential therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of lead-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ZnNi data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    carried out HE testing and passed, so that issue is resolved Concern over dezincification Keith Legg 847-680-9420 klegg@rowantechnology.com http...of the Zn-Ni plating 417 SCMS /GUEA, BR&T and ES3 are currently reviewing past industry de-zincification studies  Initial findings show that the...corrosion electro- potential is consistent throughout the corrosion process 417 SCMS /GUEA, BR&T and ES3 will identify any addition testing that

  19. Theoretical study of electron-phonon interaction in [beta]-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Guang-Lin.

    1992-09-17

    The electronic band structure of [beta]-phase NiTi and NiAl was calculated using a first-principles LCAO method, and then fitted by the nonorthogonal empirical tight binding method for the evaluation of electron-phonon (e-ph) matrix elements. Contribution of the e-ph interaction to phonon dynamical matrix was calculated by the method of Varma and Weber. It is found that an accurate calculation of e-ph interaction can explain the behavior of phonon anomalies in [beta]-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys. Fermi surface nesting and the symmetric properties of the e-ph interaction matrix elements are attributed as the source of the phonon anomalies and/or the soft phonon in these alloys. The temperature dependence of the phonon anomalies can be explained as a smearing effect of the Fermi surface.

  20. Theoretical study of electron-phonon interaction in {beta}-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Guang-Lin

    1992-09-17

    The electronic band structure of {beta}-phase NiTi and NiAl was calculated using a first-principles LCAO method, and then fitted by the nonorthogonal empirical tight binding method for the evaluation of electron-phonon (e-ph) matrix elements. Contribution of the e-ph interaction to phonon dynamical matrix was calculated by the method of Varma and Weber. It is found that an accurate calculation of e-ph interaction can explain the behavior of phonon anomalies in {beta}-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys. Fermi surface nesting and the symmetric properties of the e-ph interaction matrix elements are attributed as the source of the phonon anomalies and/or the soft phonon in these alloys. The temperature dependence of the phonon anomalies can be explained as a smearing effect of the Fermi surface.

  1. Materials Data on Ho2Ni(B2O5)2 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Urological applications of Ho/Nd:Yag laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoni, Riccardo; Pierangeli, Tiziana; Gioacchini, Andrea; Muraro, Giovanni B.

    2001-10-01

    The introduction of Ho:Yag laser has brought many advantages in urology. By this work we want show you our experience with this technology. Between April 1998 and May 2000 we treated 137 patients. Of these 28 had urinary lithiasis (18 bladder and 10 ureteral stones 3 in the upper, 2 in the middle and 5 in the distal tract), 40 were affected by enlargement of prostatic gland: 32 had B.P.H., 8 P.C.; 36 had T.C.C. and 33 strictures of urethra (27) or bladder neck (6). For ureteral lithiasis we used 200 micrometer fiber, energy of 0.5 - 1.4 J with 10 Hz of frequency. In case of bladder stones a 550 or 1000 micrometer using a power of 80 W. The prostatic gland were resected by a 550 micrometer fiber, 2.2 - 2.8 J, 25 - 30 Hz and 70 -80 W. The superficial bladder tumors were removed by 1.4 J with 10 - 15 Hz and 10 - 14 W. In the large tumors we completed the procedure by Nd:YAG at the base of the tumor. Urethra and bladder neck strictures were treated by 1.2 - 1.8 J and 10 - 30 Hz. We successful treated 26 patients with urinary lithiasis obtained the complete vaporization of the stones, 2 had endoscopic ancillary procedures. Out of 32 patients with B.P.H. 41% had the complete resection of the gland the others the resection of the 3d lobe. We removed 114 superficial bladder tumors and only 4 patients had a local recurrence. Of the patients with the strictures 4 had more than one treatment and about 87% had good result. From our experience the use of Holmium:Yag laser has been very efficacy to treat different urological diseases, also in patients with important comorbid disorders and its use reduce the stay in hospital and so the costs.

  3. Determination of equilibrium constants for the reaction between acetone and HO2 using infrared kinetic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grieman, Fred J; Noell, Aaron C; Davis-Van Atta, Casey; Okumura, Mitchio; Sander, Stanley P

    2011-09-29

    The reaction between the hydroperoxy radical, HO(2), and acetone may play an important role in acetone removal and the budget of HO(x) radicals in the upper troposphere. We measured the equilibrium constants of this reaction over the temperature range of 215-272 K at an overall pressure of 100 Torr using a flow tube apparatus and laser flash photolysis to produce HO(2). The HO(2) concentration was monitored as a function of time by near-IR diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The resulting [HO(2)] decay curves in the presence of acetone are characterized by an immediate decrease in initial [HO(2)] followed by subsequent decay. These curves are interpreted as a rapid (<100 μs) equilibrium reaction between acetone and the HO(2) radical that occurs on time scales faster than the time resolution of the apparatus, followed by subsequent reactions. This separation of time scales between the initial equilibrium and ensuing reactions enabled the determination of the equilibrium constant with values ranging from 4.0 × 10(-16) to 7.7 × 10(-18) cm(3) molecule(-1) for T = 215-272 K. Thermodynamic parameters for the reaction determined from a second-law fit of our van't Hoff plot were Δ(r)H°(245) = -35.4 ± 2.0 kJ mol(-1) and Δ(r)S°(245) = -88.2 ± 8.5 J mol(-1) K(-1). Recent ab initio calculations predict that the reaction proceeds through a prereactive hydrogen-bonded molecular complex (HO(2)-acetone) with subsequent isomerization to a hydroxy-peroxy radical, 2-hydroxyisopropylperoxy (2-HIPP). The calculations differ greatly in the energetics of the complex and the peroxy radical, as well as the transition state for isomerization, leading to significant differences in their predictions of the extent of this reaction at tropospheric temperatures. The current results are consistent with equilibrium formation of the hydrogen-bonded molecular complex on a short time scale (100 μs). Formation of the hydrogen-bonded complex will have a negligible impact on the

  4. The Pacific Northwest Hydrological Observatory (PNW HO): Hypothesis and model testing power through diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, J. J.; Grant, G.; Hulse, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Hydrological Observatory (PNW HO) is a proposed national facility for the examination of the linkages between hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources in the face of increasing human demands and climate change, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, and hydrologic extremes. The PNW HO infrastructure will support research that examines forcings, feedbacks and couplings across hydro-eco-climatic interfaces, process scaling, and development of new predictive schemes and methods to reduce predictive uncertainty. Much of the data collection infrastructure is already in place, in the form of USGS gauging, local and State data recording. The PNW HO includes a novel experimental design that twins two neighboring watersheds-the humid Willamette and arid Deschutes River Basins-that represent a full range of landscape gradients and societal problems relating to water quantity and quality. Workers at the PNW HO will be able to build upon existing synthesis documents in the form of the Willamette River Basin Planning Atlas and recent AGU Monograph on the Deschutes River Basin. The PNW HO design builds upon the HJ Andrews LTER site in the headwaters and recent listing of the Willamette River Basin as a UNESCO HELP international observatory. The PNW HO has access to one of the richest SNOTEL datasets in North America along the divide between the Willamette and Deschutes Basins. The Willamette is a USGS NAWQA basin and the Deschutes has been the focus of a major USGS groundwater investigation, and is one of five sites nationally in the Fire Learning Network. Finally, and perhaps most importantly for technology transfer of HO science to policy and practice, the PNW HO enjoys a rather unique combination of Oregon's state-based land use planning and doctrine of prior appropriations water law (land use planning and water rights). While there are certainly areas in the West where human populations are growing as fast or faster, none

  5. Development of a group contribution method to predict aqueous phase hydroxyl radical (HO*) reaction rate constants.

    PubMed

    Minakata, Daisuke; Li, Ke; Westerhoff, Paul; Crittenden, John

    2009-08-15

    The hydroxyl radical (HO*) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites of organic compounds and initiates complex chain mechanisms. In order to help understand the reaction mechanisms, a rule-based model was previously developed to predict the reaction pathways. For a kinetic model, there is a need to develop a rate constant estimator that predicts the rate constants for a variety of organic compounds. In this study, a group contribution method (GCM) is developed to predict the aqueous phase HO* rate constants for the following reaction mechanisms: (1) H-atom abstraction, (2) HO* addition to alkenes, (3) HO* addition to aromatic compounds, and (4) HO* interaction with sulfur (S)-, nitrogen (N)-, or phosphorus (P)-atom-containing compounds. The GCM hypothesizes that an observed experimental rate constant for a given organic compound is the combined rate of all elementary reactions involving HO*, which can be estimated using the Arrhenius activation energy, E(a), and temperature. Each E(a) for those elementary reactions can be comprised of two parts: (1) a base part that includes a reactive bond in each reaction mechanism and (2) contributions from its neighboring functional groups. The GCM includes 66 group rate constants and 80 group contribution factors, which characterize each HO* reaction mechanism with steric effects of the chemical structure groups and impacts of the neighboring functional groups, respectively. Literature-reported experimental HO* rate constants for 310 and 124 compounds were used for calibration and prediction, respectively. The genetic algorithms were used to determine the group rate constants and group contribution factors. The group contribution factors for H-atom abstraction and HO* addition to the aromatic compounds were found to linearly correlate with the Taft constants, sigma*, and electrophilic substituent parameters, sigma+, respectively. The best calibrations for 83% (257 rate constants) and predictions for 62% (77

  6. Effect of poverty on the relationship between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air pollutants in Ho Chi Minh City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sumi; Sbihi, Hind; Dinh, Tuan Nguyen; Xuan, Dan Vu; Le Thi Thanh, Loan; Thanh, Canh Truong; Le Truong, Giang; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Socioeconomic factors often affect the distribution of exposure to air pollution. The relationships between health, air pollution, and poverty potentially have important public health and policy implications, especially in areas of Asia where air pollution levels are high and income disparity is large. The objective of the study was to characterize the levels, determinants of exposure, and relationships between children personal exposures and ambient concentrations of multiple air pollutants amongst different socioeconomic segments of the population of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Using repeated (N = 9) measures personal exposure monitoring and determinants of exposure modeling, we compared daily average PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and NO2 concentrations measured at ambient monitoring sites to measures of personal exposures for (N = 64) caregivers of young children from high and low socioeconomic groups in two districts (urban and peri-urban), across two seasons. Personal exposures for both PM sizes were significantly higher among the poor compared to non-poor participants in each district. Absolute levels of personal exposures were under-represented by ambient monitors with median individual longitudinal correlations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of 0.4 for NO2, 0.6 for PM2.5 and PM10 and 0.7 for absorbance. Exposures of the non-poor were more highly correlated with ambient concentrations for both PM size fractions and absorbance while those for NO2 were not significantly affected by socioeconomic position. Determinants of exposure modeling indicated the importance of ventilation quality, time spent in the kitchen, air conditioner use and season as important determinant of exposure that are not fully captured by the differences in socioeconomic position. Our results underscore the need to evaluate how socioeconomic position affects exposure to air pollution. Here, differential exposure to major sources of pollution, further influenced by

  7. Novel tracer method to measure isotopic labeled gas-phase nitrous acid (HO15NO) in biogeochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dianming; Kampf, Christopher J; Pöschl, Ulrich; Oswald, Robert; Cui, Junfang; Ermel, Michael; Hu, Chunsheng; Trebs, Ivonne; Sörgel, Matthias

    2014-07-15

    Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO), the protonated form of nitrite, contributes up to ∼60% to the primary formation of hydroxyl radical (OH), which is a key oxidant in the degradation of most air pollutants. Field measurements and modeling studies indicate a large unknown source of HONO during daytime. Here, we developed a new tracer method based on gas-phase stripping-derivatization coupled to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to measure the 15N relative exceedance, ψ(15N), of HONO in the gas-phase. Gaseous HONO is quantitatively collected and transferred to an azo dye, purified by solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). In the optimal working range of ψ(15N)=0.2-0.5, the relative standard deviation of ψ(15N) is <4%. The optimum pH and solvents for extraction by SPE and potential interferences are discussed. The method was applied to measure HO15NO emissions from soil in a dynamic chamber with and without spiking 15) labeled urea. The identification of HO15NO from soil with 15N urea addition confirmed biogenic emissions of HONO from soil. The method enables a new approach of studying the formation pathways of HONO and its role for atmospheric chemistry (e.g., ozone formation) and environmental tracer studies on the formation and conversion of gaseous HONO or aqueous NO2- as part of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, e.g., in the investigation of fertilization effects on soil HONO emissions and microbiological conversion of NO2- in the hydrosphere.

  8. Simultaneous, in situ measurements of OH and HO sub 2 in the stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Stimpfle, R.M.; Wennberg, P.O.; Lapson, L.B.; Anderson, J.G. )

    1990-10-01

    Stratospheric OH and HO{sub 2} radical densities have been measured between 36 and 23 using a balloon-born, in situ instrument launched from Palestine, TX on August 25, 1989. OH is detected using the laser-induced fluorescence technique (LIF) employing a Cu-vapor-laser pumped dye laser coupled with an enclosed-flow detection chamber. HO{sub 2} is detected nearly simultaneously by adding NO to the sample flow to convert ambient HO{sub 2} to OH. Observed OH and HO{sub 2} densities ranged from 8.0 {plus minus} 2.8 {times} 10{sup 6} and 1.4 {plus minus} 0.5 {times} 10{sup 7} molec cm{sup {minus}3}, respectively, at 36 km, to 1.4 {plus minus} 0.5 {times} 10{sup 6} and 3.0 {plus minus} 1.0 {times} 10{sup 6} at 23 km, where the uncertainty is {plus minus} 1{sigma}. The HO{sub 2} density exhibits a maximum in the 34-30 km region of 1.7 {plus minus} 0.6 {times} 10{sup 7}. The data were obtained over a solar zenith angle variation of 51{degree} at 36 km to 61{degree} at 23 km. O{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O densities also were measured simultaneously with separate instruments.

  9. Simultaneous, in situ measurements of OH and HO2 in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpfle, R. M.; Wennberg, P. O.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Stratospheric OH and HO2 radical densities have been measured between 36 and 23 km using a balloon-borne, in situ instrument launched from Palestine, Texas on August 25, 1989. OH is detected using the laser-induced fluorescence technique (LIF) employing a Cu-vapor-laser pumped dye laser coupled with an enclosed-flow detection chamber. HO2 is detected nearly simultaneously by adding NO to the sample flow to convert ambient HO2 to OH. Observed OH and HO2 densities ranged from 8.0 + or - 2.8 x 10 to the 6th and 1.4 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the 7th molec/cu cm, respectively, at 36 km, to 1.4 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the 6th and 3.0 + or - 1.0 x 10 to the 6th at 23 km, where the uncertainty is + or - sigma. The HO2 density exhibits a maximum in the 34-30 km region of 1.7 + or - 0.6 x 10 to the 7th. The data were obtained over a solar zenith angle variation of 51 deg at 36 km to 61 deg at 23 km. O3 and H2O densitites also were measured simultaneously with separate instruments.

  10. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Near-IR diode laser absorption for measurement of tropospheric HO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of using tunable lead salt diode lasers in the infrared for measurement of tropospheric HO2 has been frequently considered. Although the sensitivity of diode laser absorption has been improved through the use of high frequency detection techniques, nature has been unkind in that the HO2 absorption cross sections are weak. Even using the most optimistic assumptions about attainable path length and detectable absorbance, measurement of tropospheric HO2 by diode laser absorption in the mid-IR appears marginal. A possible alternative method for measuring HO2 is by absorption at near-infrared wavelengths. Several absorption bands of HO2 occur in the wavelength region between 1.2 and 1.6 micron due to electronic transitions and overtones of the fundamental vibrational modes. InGaAsP diode lasers operate in this wavelength region and can be used for high resolution spectroscopy in a manner analogous to the lead salt lasers. A diode laser system in the near-IR offers some advantages.

  12. Clinical Presentation Resembling Mucosal Disease Associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a Field Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Weber, M N; Mósena, A C S; Simões, S V D; Almeida, L L; Pessoa, C R M; Budaszewski, R F; Silva, T R; Ridpath, J F; Riet-Correa, F; Driemeier, D; Canal, C W

    2016-02-01

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle.

  13. Growth and magneto-optical characteristic of Ho2Ti2O7 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Junbiao; Xu, Wenming; Zhang, Wenhui; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Guo, Feiyun; Wu, Shuting; Chen, Jianzhong

    2014-06-01

    A pyrochlore crystal with magneto-optical effect-Ho2Ti2O7 crystal has been grown by Czochralski method. X-ray powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, transmission spectrum and Faraday rotation of single crystal Ho2Ti2O7 were measured. The results of Rietveld refinement revealed that the crystal belongs to cubic system and the lattice parameters calculated by Jade 7.0 (Materials Data, Inc.) were a=1.00915(7) nm and V=1.0277 nm3. The effective magnetic moment and Curie-Weiss temperature of Ho2Ti2O7 crystal are 10.4 μB and 1.86 K, respectively. The transmittance of Ho2Ti2O7 crystals grown in Ar can be more than 72% in 700-1080 nm and 1260-1500 nm. The Verdet constant of Ho2Ti2O7 crystal at 1064 nm comes up to -54.1 rad/(mT), which is 1.35 times as large as that of Tb3Ga5O12 reported.

  14. Characterization of the 163Ho Electron Capture Spectrum: A Step Towards the Electron Neutrino Mass Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Hassel, C.; Wegner, M.; Hengstler, D.; Kempf, S.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Gastaldo, L.; Herlert, A.; Johnston, K.

    2017-09-01

    The isotope 163Ho is in many ways the best candidate to perform experiments to investigate the value of the electron neutrino mass. It undergoes an electron capture process to 163Dy with an energy available to the decay, QEC, of about 2.8 keV. According to the present knowledge, this is the lowest QEC value for such transitions. Here we discuss a newly obtained spectrum of 163Ho, taken by cryogenic metallic magnetic calorimeters with 163Ho implanted in the absorbers and operated in anticoincident mode for background reduction. For the first time, the atomic deexcitation of the 163Dy daughter atom following the capture of electrons from the 5 s shell in 163Ho, the OI line, was observed with a calorimetric measurement. The peak energy is determined to be 48 eV. In addition, a precise determination of the energy available for the decay QEC=(2.858 ±0.01 0stat±0.0 5syst) keV was obtained by analyzing the intensities of the lines in the spectrum. This value is in good agreement with the measurement of the mass difference between 163Ho and 163Dy obtained by Penning-trap mass spectrometry, demonstrating the reliability of the calorimetric technique.

  15. Ghrelin attenuates the growth of HO-8910 ovarian cancer cells through the ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bai, R.X.; Wang, W.P.; Zhao, P.W.; Li, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of death from gynecologic tumors and is an important public health issue. Ghrelin is a recently discovered bioactive peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Several studies have identified the protective effects of ghrelin on the mammalian reproductive system. However, little research has been done on the effects of ghrelin on ovarian cancer cells, and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. We sought to understand the potential involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in ghrelin-mediated inhibition of growth of the ovarian line HO-8910. We applied different concentrations of ghrelin and an inhibitor of the ghrelin receptor (D-Lys3-GHRP-6) to HO-8910 cells and observed the growth rate of cells and changes in phosphorylation of the MAPKs ERK1/2, JNK and p38. We discovered that ghrelin-induced apoptosis of HO-8910 cells was though phosphorylated ERK1/2, and that this phosphorylation (as well as p90rsk phosphorylation) was mediated by the GHSR. The ERK1/2 pathway is known to play an essential part in the ghrelin-mediated apoptosis of HO-8910 cells. Hence, our study suggests that ghrelin inhibits the growth of HO-8910 cells primarily through the GHSR/ERK pathway. PMID:26840702

  16. Hepatitis B Stigma and Knowledge among Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Dam, Lan; Cheng, Anita; Tran, Phuong; Wong, Shirley S.; Hershow, Ronald; Cotler, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    Stigma regarding viral hepatitis and liver disease has psychological and social consequences including causing negative self-image, disrupting relationships, and providing a barrier to prevention, testing, and treatment. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare HBV knowledge and stigma in Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago and to begin to evaluate the cultural context of HBV stigma. Methods. A written survey including knowledge questions and a validated HBV stigma questionnaire was distributed to Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago. 842 surveys from Ho Chi Minh City and 170 from Chicago were analyzed. Results. Vietnamese living in Chicago had better understanding of HBV transmission and that HBV can cause chronic infection and liver cancer. Vietnamese in Chicago had higher stigma scores on a broad range of items including guilt and shame about HBV and were more likely to feel that persons with HBV can bring harm to others and should be isolated. Conclusions. Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago have knowledge deficits about HBV, particularly regarding modes of transmission. Persons in Ho Chi Minh City expressed lower levels of HBV stigma than Vietnamese living in Chicago, likely reflecting changing cultural attitudes in Vietnam. Culturally appropriate educational initiatives are needed to address the problem of HBV stigma. PMID:28101498

  17. Hepatitis B Stigma and Knowledge among Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago.

    PubMed

    Dam, Lan; Cheng, Anita; Tran, Phuong; Wong, Shirley S; Hershow, Ronald; Cotler, Sheldon; Cotler, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    Stigma regarding viral hepatitis and liver disease has psychological and social consequences including causing negative self-image, disrupting relationships, and providing a barrier to prevention, testing, and treatment. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare HBV knowledge and stigma in Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago and to begin to evaluate the cultural context of HBV stigma. Methods. A written survey including knowledge questions and a validated HBV stigma questionnaire was distributed to Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago. 842 surveys from Ho Chi Minh City and 170 from Chicago were analyzed. Results. Vietnamese living in Chicago had better understanding of HBV transmission and that HBV can cause chronic infection and liver cancer. Vietnamese in Chicago had higher stigma scores on a broad range of items including guilt and shame about HBV and were more likely to feel that persons with HBV can bring harm to others and should be isolated. Conclusions. Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago have knowledge deficits about HBV, particularly regarding modes of transmission. Persons in Ho Chi Minh City expressed lower levels of HBV stigma than Vietnamese living in Chicago, likely reflecting changing cultural attitudes in Vietnam. Culturally appropriate educational initiatives are needed to address the problem of HBV stigma.

  18. Comparison of spectroscopic properties of Tm and Ho in YAG and YLF crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Inge, A. T.; Di Bartolo, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper compares the cross-relaxation, energy transfer and loss processes in Tm- and Ho-doped YAG and YLF as a function of temperature, Tm concentration, and excitation power. Significant differences in the behavior of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG and YLF crystals were found. The cross-relaxation rates of Tm(6 pct) are faster in YLF (about 5 microsec) than YAG (about 10 microsec). The energy transfer rates between Tm and Ho are faster in YLF than YAG. The time it takes for the maximum intensity of 1.7-micron emission to drop 10 percent is 25 microsec for YLF:Tm(6 pct),Ho(0.6 pct) and 65 microsec YAG:Tm(6 pct),Ho(0.5 pct). The losses occurring with increasing pump power for 2.1-micron emission of the above samples are 30 percent less in YLF than YAG. These qualitative differences point to YLF as a valuable 2-micron laser host material.

  19. Spectroscopic measurement of HO2, H2O2, and OH in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.; Carli, B.

    1991-01-01

    Stratospheric concentrations of HO2, H2O2, and OH have been retrieved simultaneously from the far-infrared emission spectra obtained with a balloon-borne Fourier transform spectrometer in June 1983 at 32 deg N latitude. Retrieved concentrations of HO2 and H2O2 are reported, along with vertical distributions of OH which were reported in an earlier paper for the afternoon, sunset, and nighttime periods for altitudes from 26 to 38 km. HO2 distributions are obtained with uncertainties that are about the same as OH for the same vertical range and for the afternoon and sunset periods. H2O2 concentration is obtained at an altitude of 30 km for the period that covers afternoon and sunset hours. The retrieved concentrations of these HO(x) species agree well with other individually measured results and the steady state photochemical predictions. The ratio HO2/OH at around 32 km seems to increase from the afternoon period to the sunset period.

  20. Near-IR diode laser absorption for measurement of tropospheric HO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of using tunable lead salt diode lasers in the infrared for measurement of tropospheric HO2 has been frequently considered. Although the sensitivity of diode laser absorption has been improved through the use of high frequency detection techniques, nature has been unkind in that the HO2 absorption cross sections are weak. Even using the most optimistic assumptions about attainable path length and detectable absorbance, measurement of tropospheric HO2 by diode laser absorption in the mid-IR appears marginal. A possible alternative method for measuring HO2 is by absorption at near-infrared wavelengths. Several absorption bands of HO2 occur in the wavelength region between 1.2 and 1.6 micron due to electronic transitions and overtones of the fundamental vibrational modes. InGaAsP diode lasers operate in this wavelength region and can be used for high resolution spectroscopy in a manner analogous to the lead salt lasers. A diode laser system in the near-IR offers some advantages.

  1. Comparison of spectroscopic properties of Tm and Ho in YAG and YLF crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Inge, A. T.; Di Bartolo, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper compares the cross-relaxation, energy transfer and loss processes in Tm- and Ho-doped YAG and YLF as a function of temperature, Tm concentration, and excitation power. Significant differences in the behavior of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG and YLF crystals were found. The cross-relaxation rates of Tm(6 pct) are faster in YLF (about 5 microsec) than YAG (about 10 microsec). The energy transfer rates between Tm and Ho are faster in YLF than YAG. The time it takes for the maximum intensity of 1.7-micron emission to drop 10 percent is 25 microsec for YLF:Tm(6 pct),Ho(0.6 pct) and 65 microsec YAG:Tm(6 pct),Ho(0.5 pct). The losses occurring with increasing pump power for 2.1-micron emission of the above samples are 30 percent less in YLF than YAG. These qualitative differences point to YLF as a valuable 2-micron laser host material.

  2. Luminescent properties of Tm3+/ Ho3+ co-doped LiYF4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shan-shan; Xia, Hai-ping; Dong, Yan-ming; Fu, Li; Gu, Xue-mei; Zhang, Jian-li; Wang, Dong-jie; Jiang, Hao-chuan; Chen, Bao-jiu

    2014-11-01

    Ho3+ with various concentrations and Tm3+ with molar concentration of 1.28% are co-doped in LiYF4 (YLF) single crystals. The luminescent properties of the crystals are investigated through emission spectra, emission cross section and decay curves under the excitation of 808 nm. The energy transfer from Tm3+ to Ho3+ and the optimum fluorescence emission of Ho3+ around 2.05 μm are investigated. The emission intensity at 2.05 μm keeps increasing with the molar concentration of Ho3+ improved from 0.50% to 1.51% when the molar concentration of Tm3+ is kept at 1.28%. Moreover, for the co-doped crystals in which the molar concentrations of Tm3+ and Ho3+ are 1.28% and 1.51%, respectively, the maximum emission cross section reaches 0.760×10-20 cm2 and the maximum fluorescence lifetime is 21.98 ms. All the parameters suggest that these materials have more advantages in the future 2.0 μm laser applications.

  3. HIF-regulated HO-1 gene transfer improves the post-ischemic limb recovery and diminishes TLR-triggered immune responses - Effects modified by concomitant VEGF overexpression.

    PubMed

    Jazwa, Agnieszka; Stoszko, Mateusz; Tomczyk, Mateusz; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Pichon, Chantal; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2015-08-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mitigates cellular injury by antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical regulator of blood vessel growth. Their coordinated action was analyzed in a model of femoral artery ligation (FAL) in mice lacking HO-1 gene (HO-1 KO). Gastrocnemius skeletal muscles of HO-1 KO mice were preemptively injected with plasmids containing hypoxia-response element (HRE) driving the expression of only HO-1 (pHRE-HO1) or both HO-1 and VEGF (pHRE-HO1-VEGF). At day 14th the pHRE-HO1 vector increased an impaired post-ischemic blood flow recovery in HO-1 KO mice to the level observed in wild-type (WT) mice subjected to FAL and pHRE-HO1-VEGF restored it already at day 7. The pHRE-HO1 gene therapy diminished, when compared to control pHRE-empty-treated HO-1 KO mice, the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR4 and TLR9) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα) at day 3, whereas opposite effects were observed following concomitant HO-1 and VEGF gene transfer. Moreover, HO-1 diminished ischemia-induced expression of MyoD involved in satellite cell differentiation in HO-1 KO mice. Our results confirm the therapeutic potential of HO-1 and VEGF against critical limb ischemia although, their concomitant delivery may have contradictory actions on the resolution of inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Density-functional study of the structures and properties of holmium-doped silicon clusters HoSi n (n = 3-9) and their anions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Liyuan; Yang, Jucai; Liu, Yuming

    2017-04-01

    The structures and properties of Ho-doped Si clusters, including their adiabatic electron affinities (AEAs), simulated photoelectron spectra (PESs), stabilities, magnetic moments, and charge-transfer characteristics, were systematically investigated using four density-functional methods. The results show that the double-hybrid functional (which includes an MP2 correlation component) can accurately predict the ground-state structure and properties of Ho-doped Si clusters. The ground-state structures of HoSi n (n = 3-9) are sextuplet electronic states. The structures of these Ho-doped Si clusters (aside from HoSi7) are substitutional. The ground-state structures of HoSi n(-) are quintuplet electronic states. Their predicted AEAs are in excellent agreement with the experimental ones. The mean absolute error in the theoretical AEAs of HoSi n (n = 4-9) is only 0.04 eV. The simulated PESs for HoSi n(-) (n = 5-9) are in good agreement with the experimental PESs. Based on its simulated PES and theoretical AEA, we reassigned the experimental PES of HoSi4(-) and obtained an experimental AEA of 2.2 ± 0.1 eV. The dissociation energies of Ho from HoSi n and HoSi n(-) (n = 3-9) were evaluated to test the relative stabilities of the clusters. HOMO-LUMO gap analysis indicated that doping the Si clusters with the rare-earth metal atom significantly increases their photochemical reactivity. Natural population analysis showed that the magnetic moments of HoSi n (n = 3-9) and their anions derive mainly from the Ho atom. It was also found that the magnetic moments of Ho in the HoSi n clusters are larger than the magnetic moment of an isolated Ho atom.

  5. Modulating the reactivity of Ni-containing Pt(111)-skin catalysts by density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Su, Hai-Yan; Bao, Xin-He; Li, Wei-Xue

    2008-05-21

    We present here a first principles density functional theory investigation of the reactivity of Pt(111)-skin catalysts, which are varied from surface alloys with Ni to bulk PtxNi 1-x (x=0.25,0.50,0.75) alloys. Molecule (CO, O, and H) adsorption and oxidation of CO+O and H+O reactions were studied and analyzed in detail. Independent of the adsorbates, the interaction between adsorbates and substrates becomes weakened with increase in Ni, due to the downshift of d-band center of surface Pt atoms. Moreover, activation barriers of CO and H oxidation toward atomic oxygen gradually decrease. In term of CO preferential oxidation (PROX) in excess of hydrogen, it turns out that the overall reactivity and selectivity rely on the optimum of various elementary steps involved such as competitive molecular (dissociative) adsorption and oxidation reaction. The present calculations show that Pt3Ni(111) with Pt overlayer is an optimum catalyst for CO PROX in excess of hydrogen.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) heme oxygenase-1 gene, CsHO1, which is involved in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Yue; Cao, Ze-Yu; Shen, Wen-Biao; Cui, Jin

    2011-10-15

    Our previous work showed that in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), auxin rapidly induces heme oxygenase (HO) activity and the product of HO action, carbon monoxide (CO), then triggers the signal transduction events leading to adventitious root formation. In this study, the cucumber HO-1 gene (named as CsHO1) was isolated and sequenced. It contains four exons and three introns and encodes a polypeptide of 291 amino acids. Further results show that CsHO1 shares a high homology with plant HO-1 proteins and codes a 33.3 kDa protein with a 65-amino transit peptide, predicting a mature protein of 26.1 kDa. The mature CsHO1 was expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a fusion protein, which exhibits HO activity. The CsHO1:GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast. Related biochemical analyses of mature CsHO1, including Vmax, Km, Topt and pHopt, were also investigated. CsHO1 mRNA was found in germinating seeds, roots, stem, and especially in leaf tissues. Several well-known adventitious root inducers, including auxin, ABA, hemin, nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), CaCl(2), and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), differentially up-regulate CsHO1 transcripts and corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that CsHO1 may be involved in cucumber adventitious rooting.

  7. Measurement of pernitric acid (HO2NO2) using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) with I-·H2O as the reagent ions: instrumentation and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D.; Ng, N. L.; Li, J.; Dibb, J. E.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2) is formed by the association reaction of HO2 and NO2, which couples both the HOx (HO2+OH) and NOx (=NO2+NO) families. The thermal decomposition at higher temperatures is sufficiently fast that HO2NO2 is in steady state with HO2 and NO2. This allows HO2 levels to be inferred from HO2NO2 observations. In Polar Regions and higher altitudes, significant levels of HO2NO2 can build up and influences local HOx and NOx photochemistry. Here, we present an in situ measurement technique of HO2NO2 based on chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) using the reagent ion I- and its hydrated form I-·H2O, together with our calibration technique for HO2NO2 measurements. We will also present observations of HO2NO2: (1) in a polar boundary layer on top of the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer 2011, and (2) in an urban boundary layer in metropolitan Atlanta during winter 2014. The local chemistry of HO2NO2 at Summit will be evaluated. The local HO2 in Atlanta will be inferred and assessed with models.

  8. [NiIII(OMe)]-mediated reductive activation of CO2 affording a Ni(κ1-OCO) complex

    DOE PAGES

    Chiou, Tzung -Wen; Tseng, Yen -Ming; Lu, Tsai -Te; ...

    2016-02-24

    Here, carbon dioxide is expected to be employed as an inexpensive and potential feedstock of C1 sources for the mass production of valuable chemicals and fuel. Versatile chemical transformations of CO2, i.e. insertion of CO2 producing bicarbonate/acetate/formate, cleavage of CO2 yielding μ-CO/μ-oxo transition-metal complexes, and electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 affording CO/HCOOH/CH3OH/CH4/C2H4/oxalate were well documented. Herein, we report a novel pathway for the reductive activation of CO2 by the [NiIII(OMe)(P(C6H3-3-SiMe3-2-S)3)]– complex, yielding the [NiIII(κ1-OCO˙–)(P(C6H3-3-SiMe3-2-S)3)]– complex. The formation of this unusual NiIII(κ1-OCO˙–) complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, EPR, IR, SQUID, Ni/S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Ni valence-to-core X-ray emissionmore » spectroscopy. The inertness of the analogous complexes [NiIII(SPh)], [NiII(CO)], and [NiII(N2H4)] toward CO2, in contrast, demonstrates that the ionic [NiIII(OMe)] core attracts the binding of weak σ-donor CO2 and triggers the subsequent reduction of CO2 by the nucleophilic [OMe]– in the immediate vicinity. This metal–ligand cooperative activation of CO2 may open a novel pathway promoting the subsequent incorporation of CO2 in the buildup of functionalized products.« less

  9. Exogenous induction of HO-1 alleviates vincristine-induced neuropathic pain by reducing spinal glial activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Zhu, Ming-Di; Jiang, Bao-Chun; Yang, Tian; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2015-07-01

    Chemotherapy drugs such as vincristine can produce painful peripheral neuropathy for which is still lack of effective treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) was shown to mediate the resolution of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the contribution of HO-1 in the modulation of vincristine-induced pain and the mechanisms implicated. Injection of vincristine induced persistent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. The expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein was increased in 2 weeks in the spinal cord. Immunostaining showed that HO-1 was mainly expressed in neurons of spinal cord dorsal horn in naïve animals, but induced in astrocytes and microglia after vincristine injection. Intraperitoneal injection of HO-1 inducer increased HO-1 expression in the spinal cord and attenuated vincristine-induced pain. Persistent induction of HO-1 by intraspinal injection of HO-1-expressing lentivirus alleviated vincristine-induced pain for more than 2 weeks. Furthermore, vincristine induced activation of glial cells (astrocytes and microglia), phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38), and production of TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the spinal cord, which were all reduced by intrathecal injection of HO-1 inducer. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that induction of HO-1 attenuates vincristine-induced neuropathic pain via inhibition of glia-mediated neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. This suggests that exogenously induced HO-1 may have potential as therapy in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

  10. Consistency of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) at inpatient-to-community transition

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Richard; Phung, Dinh; Venkatesh, Svetha; Connor, Jason P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) are mandated outcome-measures in many mental-health jurisdictions. When HoNOS are used in different care settings, it is important to assess if setting specific bias exists. This article examines the consistency of HoNOS in a sample of psychiatric patients transitioned from acute inpatient care and community centres. Setting A regional mental health service with both acute and community facilities. Participants 111 psychiatric patients were transferred from inpatient care to community care from 2012 to 2014. Their HoNOS scores were extracted from a clinical database; Each inpatient-discharge assessment was followed by a community-intake assessment, with the median period between assessments being 4 days (range 0–14). Assessor experience and professional background were recorded. Primary and secondary outcome measures The difference of HoNOS at inpatient-discharge and community-intake were assessed with Pearson correlation, Cohen's κ and effect size. Results Inpatient-discharge HoNOS was on average lower than community-intake HoNOS. The average HoNOS was 8.05 at discharge (median 7, range 1–22), and 12.16 at intake (median 12, range 1–25), an average increase of 4.11 (SD 6.97). Pearson correlation between two total scores was 0.073 (95% CI −0.095 to 0.238) and Cohen's κ was 0.02 (95% CI −0.02 to 0.06). Differences did not appear to depend on assessor experience or professional background. Conclusions Systematic change in the HoNOS occurs at inpatient-to-community transition. Some caution should be exercised in making direct comparisons between inpatient HoNOS and community HoNOS scores. PMID:27121703

  11. Amelioration of radiation-induced skin injury by adenovirus-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective Radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern for radiation therapy. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, has been reported to have potential antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. However, the role of HO-1 in radiation-induced skin damage remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the effects of HO-1 on radiation-induced skin injury in rats. Methods A control adenovirus (Ad-EGFP) and a recombinant adenovirus (Ad-HO1-EGFP) were constructed. Rats were irradiated to the buttock skin with a single dose of 45 Gy followed by a subcutaneous injection of PBS, 5 × 109 genomic copies of Ad-EGFP or Ad-HO1-EGFP (n = 8). After treatment, the skin MDA concentration, SOD activity and apoptosis were measured. The expression of antioxidant and pro-apoptotic genes was determined by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Skin reactions were measured at regular intervals using the semi-quantitative skin injury score. Results Subcutaneous injection of Ad-HO1-EGFP infected both epidermal and dermal cells and could spread to the surrounding regions. Radiation exposure upregulated the transcription of the antioxidant enzyme genes, including SOD-1, GPx2 and endogenous HO-1. HO-1 overexpression decreased lipid peroxidation and inhibited the induction of ROS scavenging proteins. Moreover, HO-1 exerted an anti-apoptotic effect by suppressing FAS and FASL expression. Subcutaneous injection of Ad-HO1-EGFP demonstrated significant improvement in radiation-induced skin injury. Conclusions The present study provides evidences for the protective role of HO-1 in alleviating radiation-induced skin damage in rats, which is helpful for the development of therapy for radiation-induced skin injury. PMID:22247972

  12. HO1 and Wnt expression is independently regulated in female mice brains following permanent ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tulsulkar, Jatin; Ward, Alicia; Shah, Zahoor A

    2017-05-01

    A gender difference in stroke is observed throughout epidemiologic studies, pathophysiology, treatment and outcomes. We investigated the neuroprotective role of hemeoxygenase (HO) enzyme, which catabolizes free heme to bilirubin, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the female brain after permanent ischemia. We have previously reported in male mice that genetic deletion of HO1 exacerbates the brain damage after permanent ischemia, and the mechanism of neuroprotection is dependent on the HO1/Wnt pathway; however, the role of HO1/Wnt mediated neuroprotection in the female brain is yet to be investigated. We subjected ovary intact female mice, HO1(-/-) intact, HO1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) treated intact and/or ovariectomized female mice to permanent ischemia (pMCAO), and the animals were sacrificed after 7days. The SnMP treatment for 7days significantly reduced the HO1 enzyme activity as compared to that of vehicle treated group. Infarct volume analysis showed significantly lower infarct in intact, HO1(-/-) intact, and SnMP treated group as compared to the OVX group, suggesting the role of estrogen in neuroprotection. However, there were no differences in infarct volume observed between the intact, HO1(-/-) and SnMP treated group, suggesting a sexually dimorphic role of HO1 neuroprotection. Western blot analysis on intact and SnMP-treated groups subjected to pMCAO suggested no significant differences in Wnt expression. Together, these results suggest that HO1 neuroprotection is sexually dimorphic and Wnt expression is independently regulated in the female brain following permanent ischemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of antibiotics in health care wastewater in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thi-Dieu-Hien; Bui, Xuan-Thanh; Cao, Ngoc-Dan-Thanh; Luu, Vinh-Phuc; Nguyen, Thanh-Tin; Dang, Bao-Trong; Thai, Minh-Quan; Nguyen, Dinh-Duc; Nguyen, Thanh-Son; Dinh, Quoc-Tuc; Dao, Thanh-Son

    2016-12-01

    Hospital wastewater contains huge amounts of hazardous pollutants which are being discharged daily to environment with or without treatment. Antibiotics were among the important group of pharmaceuticals considered as a potential source of health risk for human and other living creatures. Although the investigations about the existence of antibiotics in hospital wastewater have gained concern for researchers in many countries, there is only one research conducted in Hanoi-Vietnam. Hence, in this study, investigations have been done to fulfill the requirement of real situation in Vietnam by accomplishing survey for 39 health care facilities in Ho Chi Minh City. As results, seven popular antibiotics were detected to exist in all samples such as sulfamethoxazole (2.5 ± 1.9 μg/L), norfloxacin (9.6 ± 9.8 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (5.3 ± 4.8 μg/L), ofloxacin (10.9 ± 8.1 μg/L), erythromycin (1.2 ± 1.2 μg/L), tetracycline (0.1 ± 0.0 μg/L), and trimethoprim (1.0 ± 0.9 μg/L). On the other hand, survey also showed that only 64% of health care facilities using conventional activate sludge (AS) processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). As a consequence, basic environmental factors (BOD5, COD, TSS, NH4(+)-N, or total coliforms) were not effectively removed from the hospital wastewater due to problems relating to initial design or operational conditions. Therefore, 18% effluent samples of the surveyed WWTPs have exceeded the national standard limits (QCVN 28:2010, level B).

  14. The study of laser pulse width on efficiency of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Rutherford, Jonathan; Solomon, Metasebya; Cheng, Brian; Xuan, Jason R.; Gong, Jason; Yu, Honggang; Xia, Michael; Yang, Xirong; Hasenberg, Thomas; Curran, Sean

    2017-02-01

    When treating ureteral calculi, retropulsion can be reduced by using a longer pulse width without compromising fragmentation efficiency (from the studies by David S. Finley et al. and Hyun Wook Kang et al.). In this study, a lab build Ho:YAG laser was used as the laser pulse source, with pulse energy from 0.2J up to 3.0 J, and electrical pump pulse width from 150 us up to 1000 us. The fiber used in the investigation is a 365 μm core diameter fiber, SureFlexTM, Model S-LLF365. Plaster of Paris calculus phantoms were ablated at different energy levels (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 3J) and with different number of pulses (1, 3, 10) using different electrical pump pulse width (333, 667, 1000 μs). The dynamics of the recoil action of a calculus phantom was monitored using a high-speed camera with frame rate up to 1 million frame per second (Photron Fastcam SA5); and the laser-induced craters were evaluated with a 3-D digital microscope (Keyence VHX-900F). A design of experiment software (DesignExpert-10, Minneapolis, MN, USA) is used in this study for the best fit of surface response on volume of dusting and retropulsion amplitude. The numerical formulas for the response surfaces of dusting speed and retropulsion amplitude are generated. More detailed investigation on the optimal conditions for dusting of other kinds of stone samples and the fiber size effect will be conducted as a future study.

  15. Study of cavitation bubble dynamics during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy by high-speed camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yu, Honggang; Devincentis, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis, the mechanism of laser pulse induced calculus damage is still not fully understood. This is because the process of laser pulse induced calculus damage involves quite a few physical and chemical processes and their time-scales are very short (down to sub micro second level). For laser lithotripsy, the laser pulse induced impact by energy flow can be summarized as: Photon energy in the laser pulse --> photon absorption generated heat in the water liquid and vapor (super heat water or plasma effect) --> shock wave (Bow shock, acoustic wave) --> cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation, and center of bubble movement , super heat water at collapse, sonoluminscence) --> calculus damage and motion (calculus heat up, spallation/melt of stone, breaking of mechanical/chemical bond, debris ejection, and retropulsion of remaining calculus body). Cavitation bubble dynamics is the center piece of the physical processes that links the whole energy flow chain from laser pulse to calculus damage. In this study, cavitation bubble dynamics was investigated by a high-speed camera and a needle hydrophone. A commercialized, pulsed Ho:YAG laser at 2.1 mu;m, StoneLightTM 30, with pulse energy from 0.5J up to 3.0 J, and pulse width from 150 mu;s up to 800 μs, was used as laser pulse source. The fiber used in the investigation is SureFlexTM fiber, Model S-LLF365, a 365 um core diameter fiber. A high-speed camera with frame rate up to 1 million fps was used in this study. The results revealed the cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation and center of bubble movement) by laser pulse at different energy level and pulse width. More detailed investigation on bubble dynamics by different type of laser, the relationship between cavitation bubble dynamics and calculus damage (fragmentation/dusting) will be conducted as a future study.

  16. Effect of ZnX (X=F2 and Cl2) as modifier on luminescence properties of Ho3+/Yb3+ doped tellurite glasses.

    PubMed

    Joshi, C; Kumar, K; Rai, S B

    2011-06-01

    Optical absorption and photoluminescent properties of Ho(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped tellurite and zinc halide tellurite glasses are investigated. The effect of zinc halides as modifier on the luminescence properties of above mentioned samples has been explored. Two intense upconversion emission bands centered at 546 ((5)F(4), (5)S(2)→(5)I(8)) and 660 ((5)F(5)→(5)I(8)) nm are observed when samples are excited by 976 nm radiation. Zinc halides act as quencher when 976 nm excitation source is used. The up and downconversion emission spectra are recorded with 532 nm excitation source also. In this case also, zinc halides do not show any improvement. The dependence of upconversion intensities on excitation power and temperature is discussed. The power dependence study shows a quadratic dependence of fluorescence intensity on the excitation power while decrement in emission intensity of different transitions at different rates is observed in temperature dependence study. The possible upconversion mechanisms are also discussed in order to understand the energy transfer between Yb(3+) and Ho(3+) ions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Observation and modelling of the OH, HO_{2} and RO_{2} radicals at a suburban site of Beijing (Huairou) in winter 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhaofeng; Lu, Keding; Ma, Xuefei; Birger, Bohn; Broch, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Li, Xin; Liu, Yuhan; Novelli, Anna; Rohrer, Franz; Shao, Min; Wang, Haichao; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive field campaign was carried out in winter 2016 in Huairou, a small town located 60 km northeast of Beijing downtown. Concentrations of OH, HO2and RO2 radicals were measured by a laser induced fluorescence instrument. Radical concentrations were smaller than during summer because of reduced solar radiation. Maximum hourly averaged OH, HO2 and RO2 radical concentrations were (3±2)×106cm-3, (8±6)×107 cm-3 and (7±5)×107 cm-3, respectively. Chemical modulation measurements were applied on a few days showing no significant OH interference for different chemical conditions. HONO and HCHO photolysis were found to be the most important primary source of ROx radicals. OH reactivity, the inverse of the OH radical lifetime, was also measured by a laser-photolysis and laser induced fluorescence instrument. In general, CO and NOx were the dominated OH reactants which contributed more than half of the total OH reactivity. The relative high OH concentrations in polluted episode enabled a fast oxidation of fresh emitted pollutants and the formation of secondary products. The observed radical concentrations were compared with the results from a chemical box model. The model is capable of reproducing radical concentrations in the moderate NOx conditions but has difficulty in both the low and high NOx regimes. The underestimation of RO2 radical concentrations in the high NOx conditions indicate a missing RO2 source.

  18. Reliability and Validity of the HoNOS-LD and HoNOS in a Sample of Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Severe Emotional and Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneij, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Veltkamp, Eline; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of the Health of the Nation Outcome scales (HoNOS) and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for People with Learning Disabilities (HoNOS-LD) were investigated in a sample (n = 79) of (young) adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) and severe behavior and mental health problems who were…

  19. The effect of moderate-intensity exercise on the expression of HO-1 mRNA and activity of HO in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Cailing; Qi, Jie; Li, Wanwei; Zhang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the effects of moderate-intensity training on the activity of heme oxygenase (HO) and expression of HO-1 mRNA in the aorta and the cardiac muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). After 9 weeks of swimming exercise, the activity of HO and expression of HO-1 mRNA in the SHRs were measured. The resting blood pressure in the exercise group was increased by 1.7% (P > 0.05), whereas it was significantly elevated by 10.3% (P < 0.01) in the SHR rats. Compared with animals in the control and sedentary groups, the expression level of HO-1 mRNA of aorta and cardiac muscle in the exercise group was significantly enhanced (P < 0.01). The HO activity and the content of plasma carbon monoxide (CO) in the sedentary group were dramatically decreased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) compared with the control group. HO activity and content of plasma CO in the exercise group were significantly higher compared with those in the sedentary group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The HO/CO metabolic pathway might be involved in the regulation of blood pressure of the SHR models.

  20. ADP-2Ho as a Phasing Tool for Nucleotide-Containing Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Smith, G.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    Trivalent holmium ions were shown to isomorphously replace magnesium ions to form an ADP-2Ho complex in the nucleotide-binding domain of Bacillus subtilis 5-methylthioribose (MTR) kinase. This nucleotide-holmium complex provided sufficient phasing power to allow SAD and SIRAS phasing of this previously unknown structure using the L{sub III} absorption edge of holmium. The structure of ADP-2Ho reveals that the two Ho ions are approximately 4 {angstrom} apart and are likely to share their ligands: the phosphoryl O atoms of ADP and a water molecule. The structure determination of MTR kinase using data collected using Cu K X-radiation was also attempted. Although the heavy-atom substructure determination was successful, interpretation of the map was more challenging. The isomorphous substitution of holmium for magnesium in the MTR kinase-nucleotide complex suggests that this could be a useful phasing tool for other metal-dependent nucleotide-containing proteins.