Science.gov

Sample records for source pollution concept

  1. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Mccoy, Nicholas; Chao, Bing; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2015-10-01

    The article presents a comprehensive review of research advancing in 2014 on nonpoint source pollution (NPS). The topics presented relate to nonpoint source pollution (NPS) within agricultural and urban areas. NPS pollution from agricultural areas is the main focus in this review. Management of NPS in agricultural, urban and rural areas is presented. Modeling of NPS pollution in different watersheds with various modeling tools is reviewed.

  2. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article.

  3. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article. PMID:27620104

  4. Pollution from nonpoint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Humenik, F.J.; Smolen, M.D.; Dressing, S.A.

    1987-08-01

    Efforts to protect water from nonpoint source pollution are underway, but much remains to be done. Recent water quality evaluations and landmark legislation place nonpoint source (NPS) control programs at a pivotal point. The Clean Water Act (CWA) Reauthorization, passed by Congress in Feb. 1987 specifically addresses NPS pollution for the first time. It directs states to submit to EPA a list of waters not meeting CWA goals because of NPS pollution and to submit an NPS management program for those waters. States are required to identify land use sectors that cause major NPS problems. Some professionals declare nonpoint sources to be the major reason for not reaching water quality goals.

  5. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  6. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

  7. Perspectives on nonpoint source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings from the national conference. Papers were presented under the following topic headings: Perspectives on Nonpoint Source Pollution; Legal Aspects of Nonpoint Source Pollution; Institutional/Financial Aspects of Nonpoint Source Controls; Ground Water Quality; Estuarine Quality; Streams and Rivers; Livestock Waste Management; Economics of Nonpoint Source Pollution; Agricultural Issues; Urban Issues; Rural Issues; Land Use Issues; Water Quality Criteria and Standards; and Cross Boundary Nonpoint Source Pollution: The Implications.

  8. NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-point source pollution is a diffuse source that is difficult to measure and is highly variable due to different rain patterns and other climatic conditions. In many areas, however, non-point source pollution is the greatest source of water quality degradation. Presently, stat...

  9. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  10. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  11. Cropland sources of water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, H.M.

    1986-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing perception that the original objectives of the Clean Water Act would not be realized until more attention was directed toward so-called nonpoint sources of water pollution. These sources included run-off from city streets, rangelands, pastures, forests, croplands, and stream-bank erosion. Water pollution from the erosion of croplands has been a concern of the EPA and the Department of Agriculture for several years. This paper discussed the problem of cropland erosion as a source of water pollution and the potential effectiveness of legislation drafted to control this problem.

  12. Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell-Poe, Kitt

    This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants…

  13. [Review of urban nonpoint source pollution models].

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Huang, Yue-Fei; Wang, Guang-Qian

    2010-10-01

    The development history of urban nonpoint source pollution models is reviewed. Features, applicability and limitations of seven popular urban nonpoint source pollution models (SWMM, STORM, SLAMM, HSPF, DR3M-QUAL, MOUSE, and HydroWorks) are discussed. The methodology and research findings of uncertainty in urban nonpoint source pollution modeling are presented. Analytical probabilistic models for estimation of urban nonpoint sources are also presented. The research achievements of urban nonpoint source pollution models in China are summarized. The shortcomings and gaps of approaches on urban nonpoint source pollution models are pointed out. Improvements in modeling of pollutants buildup and washoff, sediments and pollutants transport, and pollutants biochemical reactions are desired for those seven popular models. Most of the models developed by researchers in China are empirical models, so that they can only applied for specific small areas and have inadequate accuracy. Future approaches include improving capability in fate and transport simulation of sediments and pollutants, exploring methodologies of modeling urban nonpoint source pollution in regions with little data or incomplete information, developing stochastic models for urban nonpoint source pollution simulation, and applying GIS to facilitate urban nonpoint source pollution simulation.

  14. [Air pollution biomonitoring with plants and fungi: concepts and uses].

    PubMed

    Cuny, D

    2012-07-01

    Air pollution remains a major environmental concern of the French. Since about 30 years, due to evolution and diversification of sources, pollution became more and more complex, constituting a true "cocktail". Today, it is very important to know environmental and health effects of this cocktail. In this context air biomonitoring using plants and fungi can bring a lot of information. Biomonitoring includes four concepts: the use of biomarkers, bioindication biointegration and bioaccumulation. These four concepts are articulated according to the levels of biological organization, what links up biosurveillance on fundamental plan with ecotoxicology. It is a complementary approach of the physicochemical techniques of air pollution measurements. The main objectives of biomonitoring studies are the monitoring of the space and temporal distribution of pollutants effect; the monitoring of local sources; participation in the health risks assessment; the information of people and the help to decision in public policies. Biomonitoring of air quality is a method, which made its proof in numerous domains of application and brings fundamental information on the impacts of the quality of air. Recent evolution of low concerning biggest industries allows us to envisage the increase of air quality biomonitoring with plants and fungi applications in the field of the valuation of environmental and health risks. The recent normalization (French and European) of different methods will also allow the development of uses.

  15. Managing residential sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.

    1994-12-31

    Sources of indoor air pollutants in residential environments can be managed to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment, and altering the amount, location, or time of use. Intelligent source management requires knowledge of the source`s emission characteristics, including chemical composition, emission rates, and decay rates. In addition, knowledge of outdoor air exchange rates, heating/air-conditioning duct flow rates, and kitchen/batch exhaust fan flow rates is needed to determine pollutant concentrations. Indoor air quality (IAQ) models use this information and occupant activity patterns to determine instantaneous and/or cumulative individual exposure. This paper describes a number of residential scenarios for various indoor air pollution VOC sources, several air flow conditions, and typical occupant activity patterns. IAQ model predictions of occupant exposures for these scenarios are given for selected source management options.

  16. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  17. Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

  18. Mining-related nonpoint-source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.; Gorman, J. )

    1991-06-01

    This article describes the effects of increased mining activity on surface and groundwater. The topics covered include pollutant sources, contaminant transport and fate, trace element toxicity, pollution control and abatement, treating acid mine drainage, modern constructed wetlands and site reclamation including site stabilization, refuse burial and sludge application.

  19. Stormwater Pollutant Control from Critical Source Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical source areas include: vehicular maintenance facilities, parking lots and bus terminals, junk and lumber yards, industrial storage facilities, loading docks and refueling areas, manufacturing sites, etc. Addressing pollutant runoff from these areas is an important compon...

  20. Risk prioritisation of stormwater pollutant sources.

    PubMed

    Lundy, L; Ellis, J B; Revitt, D M

    2012-12-15

    This paper describes the development of a pollutant risk prioritisation methodology for the comparative assessment of stormwater pollutants discharged from differing land use types and activities. Guidelines are presented which evaluate available data with respect to 'likelihood of occurrence' and 'severity of impact'. The use of the developed approach is demonstrated through its application to total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, lead and cadmium. The proposed benchmarking scheme represents a transparent and auditable mechanism to support the synthesis of data from a variety of sources and is sufficiently flexible to incorporate the use of chemical, physical and/or ecological data sets. Practitioners involved in developing and implementing pollutant mitigation programmes are assisted in two key ways. Firstly through enabling the risks to receiving waters from diffuse pollution on a source-by-source and/or pollutant-by-pollutant basis at a catchment scale to be comparatively assessed and prioritised. Secondly, the methodology informs the selection of appropriate diffuse pollution control strategies.

  1. Optimal dynamic management of groundwater pollutant sources.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, S.M.; Remson, I.

    1982-01-01

    The linear programing-superposition method is presented for managing multiple sources of groundwater pollution over time. The method uses any linear solute transport simulation model to generate a unit source-concentration response matrix that is incorporated into a management model. -from Authors

  2. Identifiability and Identification of Trace Continuous Pollutant Source

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hongquan; Liu, Shouwen; Pang, Liping; Hu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Accidental pollution events often threaten people's health and lives, and a pollutant source is very necessary so that prompt remedial actions can be taken. In this paper, a trace continuous pollutant source identification method is developed to identify a sudden continuous emission pollutant source in an enclosed space. The location probability model is set up firstly, and then the identification method is realized by searching a global optimal objective value of the location probability. In order to discuss the identifiability performance of the presented method, a conception of a synergy degree of velocity fields is presented in order to quantitatively analyze the impact of velocity field on the identification performance. Based on this conception, some simulation cases were conducted. The application conditions of this method are obtained according to the simulation studies. In order to verify the presented method, we designed an experiment and identified an unknown source appearing in the experimental space. The result showed that the method can identify a sudden trace continuous source when the studied situation satisfies the application conditions. PMID:24892041

  3. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test-house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: (1) para-dichloro-benzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and, (2) particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types, including solvent based materials and aerosol products.

  4. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

  5. [Polluting agents and sources of urban air pollution].

    PubMed

    Cocheo, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an up-to-date review of the scientific evidence on mechanisms of pollutant generation and health effects for a number of urban air pollutants. The review focuses on main sources and health effect of ozone and photochemical smog, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. These agents are "priority pollutants", generated by vehicle traffic, and their regulation is currently being examined by the European Council and the European Commission. The aim is to reach, by the year 2010, values lower than 180 micrograms/m3 for ozone as maximum hourly concentration, 2.5 micrograms/m3 for benzene as an annual average, 93 micrograms/m3 for nitrogen dioxide as 98 degrees percentile of hourly concentrations, 50 micrograms/m3 for particulate as a daily average. The goal can be achieved only by means of immediate interventions on emissions. PMID:11293295

  6. Source apportionment of indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Ken; Hayward, Steven B.

    An understanding of the relative contributions from important pollutant sources to human exposures is necessary for the design and implementation of effective control strategies. In the past, societal efforts to control air pollution have focused almost exclusively on the outdoor (ambient) environment. As a result, substantial amounts of time and money have been spent to limit airborne discharges from mobile and stationary sources. Yet it is now recognized that exposures to elevated pollutant concentrations often occur as a result of indoor, rather than outdoor, emissions. While the major indoor sources have been identified, their relative impacts on indoor air quality have not been well defined. Application of existing source apportionment models to nonindustrial indoor environments is only just beginning. It is possible that these models might be used to distinguish between indoor and outdoor emissions, as well as to distinguish among indoor sources themselves. However, before the feasibility and suitability of source-apportionment methods for indoor applications can be assessed adequately, it is necessary to take account of model assumptions and associated data requirements. This paper examines the issue of indoor source apportionment and reviews the need for emission characterization studies to support such source-apportionment efforts.

  7. EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

  8. [Spatial distribution and pollution source identification of agricultural non-point source pollution in Fujiang watershed].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Wen; Shen, Zhen-Yao

    2012-11-01

    In order to provide regulatory support for management and control of non-point source (NPS) pollution in Fujiang watershed, agricultural NPS pollution is simulated, spatial distribution characteristics of NPS pollution are analyzed, and the primary pollution sources are also identified, by export coefficient model (ECM) and geographic information system (GIS). Agricultural NPS total nitrogen (TN) loading was of research area was 9.11 x 10(4) t in 2010, and the average loading was intensity was 3.10 t x km(-2). Agricultural NPS TN loading mainly distributed over dry lands, Mianyang city and gentle slope areas; high loading intensity areas were dry lands, Deyang city and gentle slope areas. Agricultural land use, of which contribution rate was 62. 12%, was the most important pollution source; fertilizer loss in dry lands, of which contribution rate was 50.49%, was the prominent. Improving methods of agricultural cultivation, implementing "farm land returning to woodland" policy, and enhancing treatment efficiency of domestic sewage and livestock waster wate are effective measures.

  9. Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

    Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

  10. FECAL POLLUTION, PUBLIC HEALTH AND MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) seeks to provide information about sources of fecal water contamination. Without knowledge of sources, it is difficult to accurately model risk assessments, choose effective remediation strategies, or bring chronically polluted waters into complian...

  11. [Groundwater organic pollution source identification technology system research and application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wei, Jia-Hua; Cheng, Zhi-Neng; Liu, Pei-Bin; Ji, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-02-01

    Groundwater organic pollutions are found in large amount of locations, and the pollutions are widely spread once onset; which is hard to identify and control. The key process to control and govern groundwater pollution is how to control the sources of pollution and reduce the danger to groundwater. This paper introduced typical contaminated sites as an example; then carried out the source identification studies and established groundwater organic pollution source identification system, finally applied the system to the identification of typical contaminated sites. First, grasp the basis of the contaminated sites of geological and hydrogeological conditions; determine the contaminated sites characteristics of pollutants as carbon tetrachloride, from the large numbers of groundwater analysis and test data; then find the solute transport model of contaminated sites and compound-specific isotope techniques. At last, through groundwater solute transport model and compound-specific isotope technology, determine the distribution of the typical site of organic sources of pollution and pollution status; invest identified potential sources of pollution and sample the soil to analysis. It turns out that the results of two identified historical pollution sources and pollutant concentration distribution are reliable. The results provided the basis for treatment of groundwater pollution.

  12. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  13. Annotated Bibliography of Law-Related Pollution Prevention Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Holly; Murphy, Elaine

    This annotated bibliography of law-related pollution prevention sources was prepared by the National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education. Some topics of the items include waste reduction, hazardous wastes, risk reduction, environmental policy, pollution prevention, environmental protection, environmental leadership, environmental…

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  16. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  17. [Nonpoint source pollution in Northeast China: research advance].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Hong; Yan, Bai-Xing

    2010-03-01

    In order to understand the research trend on nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in Northeast China and to find its problems and shortcomings, the related research findings from 1991 to 2008 were searched, categorized, and statistically analyzed, so that the regional strategies could be employed to bring water pollution under control. Overall, the research on NPS pollution in Northeast China had an increasing trend, and the research contents included investigation and assessment, quantification of pollution load, mechanisms of pollutants translocation, modeling simulation, and prevention and control. The research interests were nitrogen, phosphorus, sediments, pesticides, and heavy metals. Empirical methods rather than mechanism models were more used to estimate the pollution load, and the researches were more on agricultural rather than urban NPS pollution. The control and management of NPS pollution was remained in soil and water conservation, and lacked of optimal collection assessment for soil and water conservation measures and of assessment for optimal management methods. At present, the research was overall at the stage of theoretical exploration, and controversy remained whether the nonpoint source was major source or not. Incoming researches should focus on the measure application, assessment, basic data collection, determination of regional NPS pollutants, quantification of pollution load, and invention of new technologies; and multi-disciplinary corporation should be strengthened to supply scientific bases for regional water environmental control and prevention.

  18. [Nonpoint source pollution in Northeast China: research advance].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Hong; Yan, Bai-Xing

    2010-03-01

    In order to understand the research trend on nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in Northeast China and to find its problems and shortcomings, the related research findings from 1991 to 2008 were searched, categorized, and statistically analyzed, so that the regional strategies could be employed to bring water pollution under control. Overall, the research on NPS pollution in Northeast China had an increasing trend, and the research contents included investigation and assessment, quantification of pollution load, mechanisms of pollutants translocation, modeling simulation, and prevention and control. The research interests were nitrogen, phosphorus, sediments, pesticides, and heavy metals. Empirical methods rather than mechanism models were more used to estimate the pollution load, and the researches were more on agricultural rather than urban NPS pollution. The control and management of NPS pollution was remained in soil and water conservation, and lacked of optimal collection assessment for soil and water conservation measures and of assessment for optimal management methods. At present, the research was overall at the stage of theoretical exploration, and controversy remained whether the nonpoint source was major source or not. Incoming researches should focus on the measure application, assessment, basic data collection, determination of regional NPS pollutants, quantification of pollution load, and invention of new technologies; and multi-disciplinary corporation should be strengthened to supply scientific bases for regional water environmental control and prevention. PMID:20560338

  19. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  20. Constructed wetlands to control nonpoint-source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Wengrzynek, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of land for agriculture, urban development, and recreational purposes results in pollution that has potential to contaminate groundwater, streams, lakes and oceans. Aquatic ecosystems can be damaged by even small amounts of pollutants in runoff during storms and by cumulative impacts of chronic, low levels of pollution. Nutrients, pesticides and sediments can have long term effects on the ecosystems. The instant invention using constructed wetlands has been particularly useful for purposes of protecting ecosystems from untoward effects of nonpoint source pollution. The construct, containing in hydraulic order a sediment basin, level-lip spreader, grassy filter, wetland, and deep pond can be used to remove pollutants from nonpoint source runoff. Wetlands are planted with vegetation that encourages growth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, which are helpful in removing and detoxifying contaminants.

  1. Nonpoint source pollution management for the multipurpose dam watersheds.

    PubMed

    Choi, J-Y

    2008-01-01

    Main pollution sources in multipurpose dam watersheds in Korea are highland fields, stream banks, livestock farms, roads, and construction sites. Specifically, highland fields are the major nonpoint pollution sources. Excessive organic chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticide can be exuded from the land, and the area is likely to be eroded by heavy rain. Fallow, conservative cultivation, and covering can be alternatives for soil protection and reinforcement. In addition to these, construction of detour waterways and improvement of irrigation method can minimize the impact of runoff. In the case of slope in 15% degree or more, prohibiting cultivation and restoring the surface is preferred to improving cultivation method in order to control nonpoint pollution sources efficiently.

  2. Experimental verification of HVDC test sources requirements for pollution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Chagas, F.A.; Kuffel, E.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents the results of tests conducted to verify the effect of the voltage source on the critical flashover voltage of dc insulators under pollution. Tests were performed under 3 pollution levels using voltage sources with different voltage drop x leakage current characteristics. A data acquisition system was used to record all current pulses above a certain pre selected current pulse duration, which made possible a complete analysis of current pulses and voltage drops characteristics. The experimental results show that the present restrictions imposed on the dc voltage sources can probably be relaxed. Also from the experimental data collected it was found that the insulator tested presents a constant impedance x current characteristic. This characteristic can be useful in checking theoretical models for polluted insulator flashover.

  3. The use of video for air pollution source monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F.; Camara, A.

    1999-07-01

    The evaluation of air pollution impacts from single industrial emission sources is a complex environmental engineering problem. Recent developments in multimedia technologies used by personal computers improved the digitizing and processing of digital video sequences. This paper proposes a methodology where statistical analysis of both meteorological and air quality data combined with digital video images are used for monitoring air pollution sources. One of the objectives of this paper is to present the use of image processing algorithms in air pollution source monitoring. CCD amateur video cameras capture images that are further processed by computer. The use of video as a remote sensing system was implemented with the goal of determining some particular parameters, either meteorological or related with air quality monitoring and modeling of point sources. These parameters include the remote calculation of wind direction, wind speed, gases stack's outlet velocity, and stack's effective emission height. The characteristics and behavior of a visible pollutant's plume is also studied. Different sequences of relatively simple image processing operations are applied to the images gathered by the different cameras to segment the plume. The algorithms are selected depending on the atmospheric and lighting conditions. The developed system was applied to a 1,000 MW fuel power plant located at Setubal, Portugal. The methodology presented shows that digital video can be an inexpensive form to get useful air pollution related data for monitoring and modeling purposes.

  4. Compositions and pollutant sources of haze in Beijing urban sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmei; Song, Yujun; Zuo, Jiangnan; Wu, Hongwen

    2016-05-01

    Haze from urban sites in Beijing was collected with a self-assembled electrostatic dust collector. The sizes and morphologies, thermal properties, and compositions of the particles in the haze were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Based on these results, the causes and pollutant sources of the chemicals in the haze were analyzed, and some countermeasures were further advanced to reduce the related pollutant sources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  5. Imploding plasma radiation sources: basic concepts. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Guillory, J.; Davis, J.

    1984-07-31

    This document is prepared as a briefing aid and technical primer for persons unfamiliar and uninitiated with the theory of imploding plasma radiation sources. It is hoped that it will prove helpful in introducing the basic physics concepts of these sources and in presenting these concepts to newcomers and potential users.

  6. Groundwater Pollution Source Identification using Linked ANN-Optimization Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, Md; Srivastava, Rajesh; Jain, Ashu

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in several parts of the world. Contamination of groundwater has become a serious health and environmental problem today. Human activities including industrial and agricultural activities are generally responsible for this contamination. Identification of groundwater pollution source is a major step in groundwater pollution remediation. Complete knowledge of pollution source in terms of its source characteristics is essential to adopt an effective remediation strategy. Groundwater pollution source is said to be identified completely when the source characteristics - location, strength and release period - are known. Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source is an ill-posed inverse problem. It becomes more difficult for real field conditions, when the lag time between the first reading at observation well and the time at which the source becomes active is not known. We developed a linked ANN-Optimization model for complete identification of an unknown groundwater pollution source. The model comprises two parts- an optimization model and an ANN model. Decision variables of linked ANN-Optimization model contain source location and release period of pollution source. An objective function is formulated using the spatial and temporal data of observed and simulated concentrations, and then minimized to identify the pollution source parameters. In the formulation of the objective function, we require the lag time which is not known. An ANN model with one hidden layer is trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to find the lag time. Different combinations of source locations and release periods are used as inputs and lag time is obtained as the output. Performance of the proposed model is evaluated for two and three dimensional case with error-free and erroneous data. Erroneous data was generated by adding uniformly distributed random error (error level 0-10%) to the analytically computed concentration

  7. Light pollution simulations for planar ground-based light sources.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2008-02-20

    The light pollution model is employed to analyze spatial behavior of luminance at the night sky under cloudless and overcast conditions. Enhanced light excess is particularly identified at cloudy skies, because the clouds efficiently contribute to the downward luminous flux. It is evident that size of ground-based light sources can play an important role in the case of overcast sky conditions. Nevertheless, the realistically sized light sources are rarely embedded into light pollution modeling, and rather they are replaced by simple point sources. We discuss the discrepancies between sky luminance distributions when at first the planar light sources are considered and at second the point-source approximation is accepted. The found differences are noticeable if the size of the light source, distance to the observer, and altitude of a cloudy layer are comparable one to the other. Compared with point-source approximation, an inclusion of the size factor into modeling the light sources leads to partial elimination of the steep changes of sky luminance (typical for point sources of light). The narrow and sharp light pillars normally presented on the sky illuminated by point light sources can disappear or fuse together when two or more nearby light sources are considered with their real sizes. Sky elements situated close to the horizon will glow efficiently if luminous flux originates from two-dimensional ground-based entities (such as cities or villages).

  8. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Peace, H; Owen, B; Raper, D W

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km(2) area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations. PMID:15504521

  9. Concepts in Practice as Sources of Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The framework for the study of concept formation embraced by the articles in this special issue makes it possible to observe and catalog the mechanisms by which conceptual structures in the wild achieve and maintain organization. I propose a provisional inventory of such mechanisms that includes the primitive mechanisms of dimensionality…

  10. Fate of hydrocarbon pollutants in source and non-source control sustainable drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Roinas, Georgios; Mant, Cath; Williams, John B

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable drainage (SuDs) is an established method for managing runoff from developments, and source control is part of accepted design philosophy. However, there are limited studies into the contribution source control makes to pollutant removal, especially for roads. This study examines organic pollutants, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in paired source and non-source control full-scale SuDs systems. Sites were selected to cover local roads, trunk roads and housing developments, with a range of SuDs, including porous asphalt, swales, detention basins and ponds. Soil and water samples were taken bi-monthly over 12 months to assess pollutant loads. Results show first flush patterns in storm events for solids, but not for TPH. The patterns of removal for specific PAHs were also different, reflecting varying physico-chemical properties. The potential of trunk roads for pollution was illustrated by peak runoff for TPH of > 17,000 μg/l. Overall there was no significant difference between pollutant loads from source and non-source control systems, but the dynamic nature of runoff means that longer-term data are required. The outcomes of this project will increase understanding of organic pollutants behaviour in SuDs. This will provide design guidance about the most appropriate systems for treating these pollutants.

  11. Fate of hydrocarbon pollutants in source and non-source control sustainable drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Roinas, Georgios; Mant, Cath; Williams, John B

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable drainage (SuDs) is an established method for managing runoff from developments, and source control is part of accepted design philosophy. However, there are limited studies into the contribution source control makes to pollutant removal, especially for roads. This study examines organic pollutants, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in paired source and non-source control full-scale SuDs systems. Sites were selected to cover local roads, trunk roads and housing developments, with a range of SuDs, including porous asphalt, swales, detention basins and ponds. Soil and water samples were taken bi-monthly over 12 months to assess pollutant loads. Results show first flush patterns in storm events for solids, but not for TPH. The patterns of removal for specific PAHs were also different, reflecting varying physico-chemical properties. The potential of trunk roads for pollution was illustrated by peak runoff for TPH of > 17,000 μg/l. Overall there was no significant difference between pollutant loads from source and non-source control systems, but the dynamic nature of runoff means that longer-term data are required. The outcomes of this project will increase understanding of organic pollutants behaviour in SuDs. This will provide design guidance about the most appropriate systems for treating these pollutants. PMID:24569267

  12. Is mercury from Hawaiian volcanoes a natural source of pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, A.; Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis shows that 98% of mercury from Hawaiian fumaroles is gaseous or solid particles less than 0.3 micron in diameter. It is suggested that both natural and industrial sources may be contributors to mercury pollution of the air in Hawaii.

  13. Near-source air pollution and mitigation strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Local-scale air pollution impact is of concern for populations located in close proximity to transit sources, including highway, port, rail, and other areas of concentrated diesel emissions. Previous near-road air monitoring research has prompted the U.S. EPA to implem...

  14. Biodetention: A best management practice for nonpoint source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Murfee, G.; Scaief, J.; Whelan, M.

    1998-07-01

    Biodetention is an innovative nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control best management practice (BMP) developed as an alternative to sedimentation/filtration ponds. Biodetention is applicable as a runoff treatment system for concentrated point discharges from stormwater collection facilities. Treatment is facilitated by vegetative filter strips and stiff grass hedges.

  15. Miniature accelerator-driven gamma source concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, R. W.; Chan, K. D.; Wangler, Thomas P.,; Wood R. L.; Carlsten, B. E.; Kirbie, H. C.

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments in W-band (-100 GHz) traveling wave tube technology at Los Alarnos may lead to a compact high-power W-band RE source. A conceptual design of a compact 8-MeV electron linac that codd be powered by this source is presented, including electromagnetic structure calculations, proposed rnicrojbbrication and manufacturing methods, supporting calculations to estimate accelerator performance, and gumma production rates based on preliminary target geometries and expected output beam current.

  16. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment

  17. A numerical experiment on light pollution from distant sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, M.

    2011-08-01

    To predict the light pollution of the night-time sky realistically over any location or measuring point on the ground presents quite a difficult calculation task. Light pollution of the local atmosphere is caused by stray light, light loss or reflection of artificially illuminated ground objects or surfaces such as streets, advertisement boards or building interiors. Thus it depends on the size, shape, spatial distribution, radiative pattern and spectral characteristics of many neighbouring light sources. The actual state of the atmospheric environment and the orography of the surrounding terrain are also relevant. All of these factors together influence the spectral sky radiance/luminance in a complex manner. Knowledge of the directional behaviour of light pollution is especially important for the correct interpretation of astronomical observations. From a mathematical point of view, the light noise or veil luminance of a specific sky element is given by a superposition of scattered light beams. Theoretical models that simulate light pollution typically take into account all ground-based light sources, thus imposing great requirements on CPU and MEM. As shown in this paper, a contribution of distant sources to the light pollution might be essential under specific conditions of low turbidity and/or Garstang-like radiative patterns. To evaluate the convergence of the theoretical model, numerical experiments are made for different light sources, spectral bands and atmospheric conditions. It is shown that in the worst case the integration limit is approximately 100 km, but it can be significantly shortened for light sources with cosine-like radiative patterns.

  18. Nonpoint source pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a methodology for source analysis.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Guido; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Shorshani, Masoud Fallah; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2014-09-01

    The characterization and control of runoff pollution from nonpoint sources in urban areas are a major issue for the protection of aquatic environments. We propose a methodology to quantify the sources of pollutants in an urban catchment and to analyze the associated uncertainties. After describing the methodology, we illustrate it through an application to the sources of Cu, Pb, Zn, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a residential catchment (228 ha) in the Paris region. In this application, we suggest several procedures that can be applied for the analysis of other pollutants in different catchments, including an estimation of the total extent of roof accessories (gutters and downspouts, watertight joints and valleys) in a catchment. These accessories result as the major source of Pb and as an important source of Zn in the example catchment, while activity-related sources (traffic, heating) are dominant for Cu (brake pad wear) and PAH (tire wear, atmospheric deposition).

  19. An integrated system for nonpoint source pollution modelling and management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Chen, J; Du, P; He, W

    2006-01-01

    Modelling the impact of nonpoint source pollution (NSP) is a complex problem that has troubled water resource managers for many years when trying to set up proper management practices in catchment areas. In this paper, an integrated decision support system, NPSDSS (nonpoint source decision support system), was introduced to resolve this problem in a relatively easy way. The system was developed in a unique platform and integrated with the IMPULSE (integrated model of nonpoint source pollution processes) model, a stand alone geographic information system (GIS) toolbox, a well-structured database, a measure screening model, and an expert system, as well. The system has been applied in the Dianchi Lake catchment area and shown to give a good perspective on providing useful recommendations for appropriate NSP management.

  20. Identifing Atmospheric Pollutant Sources Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paes, F. F.; Campos, H. F.; Luz, E. P.; Carvalho, A. R.

    2008-05-01

    The estimation of the area source pollutant strength is a relevant issue for atmospheric environment. This characterizes an inverse problem in the atmospheric pollution dispersion. In the inverse analysis, an area source domain is considered, where the strength of such area source term is assumed unknown. The inverse problem is solved by using a supervised artificial neural network: multi-layer perceptron. The conection weights of the neural network are computed from delta rule - learning process. The neural network inversion is compared with results from standard inverse analysis (regularized inverse solution). In the regularization method, the inverse problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization approach, whose the objective function is given by the square difference between the measured pollutant concentration and the mathematical models, associated with a regularization operator. In our numerical experiments, the forward problem is addressed by a source-receptor scheme, where a regressive Lagrangian model is applied to compute the transition matrix. The second order maximum entropy regularization is used, and the regularization parameter is calculated by the L-curve technique. The objective function is minimized employing a deterministic scheme (a quasi-Newton algorithm) [1] and a stochastic technique (PSO: particle swarm optimization) [2]. The inverse problem methodology is tested with synthetic observational data, from six measurement points in the physical domain. The best inverse solutions were obtained with neural networks. References: [1] D. R. Roberti, D. Anfossi, H. F. Campos Velho, G. A. Degrazia (2005): Estimating Emission Rate and Pollutant Source Location, Ciencia e Natura, p. 131-134. [2] E.F.P. da Luz, H.F. de Campos Velho, J.C. Becceneri, D.R. Roberti (2007): Estimating Atmospheric Area Source Strength Through Particle Swarm Optimization. Inverse Problems, Desing and Optimization Symposium IPDO-2007, April 16-18, Miami (FL), USA, vol 1, p

  1. Chromium plating pollution source reduction by plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.; Sridharan, K.; Dodd, R.A.; Conrad, J.R.; Qiu, X.; Hamdi, A.H.; Elmoursi, A.A.; Malaczynski, G.W.; Horne, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    There is growing concern over the environmental toxicity and workers` health issues due to the chemical baths and rinse water used in the hard chromium plating process. In this regard the significant hardening response of chromium to nitrogen ion implantation can be environmentally beneficial from the standpoint of decreasing the thickness and the frequency of application of chromium plating. In this paper the results of a study of nitrogen ion implantation of chrome plated test flats using the non-line-of-sight Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) process, are discussed. Surface characterization was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The surface properties were evaluated using a microhardness tester, a pin-on-disk wear tester, and a corrosion measurement system. Industrial field testing of nitrogen PSII treated chromium plated parts showed an improvement by a factor of two compared to the unimplanted case.

  2. Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Groffman, Peter M; Band, Lawrence E; Elliott, Emily M; Shields, Catherine A; Kendall, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor to U.S. water quality impairments. We combined watershed N mass balances and stable isotopes to investigate fate and transport of nonpoint N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized watersheds at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site. Annual N retention was 55%, 68%, and 82% for agricultural, suburban, and forest watersheds, respectively. Analysis of δ(15)N-NO(3)(-), and δ(18)O-NO(3)(-) indicated wastewater was an important nitrate source in urbanized streams during baseflow. Negative correlations between δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) and δ(18)O-NO(3)(-) in urban watersheds indicated mixing between atmospheric deposition and wastewater, and N source contributions changed with storm magnitude (atmospheric sources contributed ∼50% at peak storm N loads). Positive correlations between δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) and δ(18)O-NO(3)(-) in watersheds suggested denitrification was removing septic system and agriculturally derived N, but N from belowground leaking sewers was less susceptible to denitrification. N transformations were also observed in a storm drain (no natural drainage network) potentially due to organic carbon inputs. Overall, nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, wastewater, and fertilizer showed different susceptibility to watershed N export. There were large changes in nitrate sources as a function of runoff, and anticipating source changes in response to climate and storms will be critical for managing nonpoint N pollution.

  3. Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaushal, Sujay S.; Groffman, Peter M; Band, Lawrence; Elliott, Emily M.; Shields, Catherine A.; Kendall, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor to U.S. water quality impairments. We combined watershed N mass balances and stable isotopes to investigate fate and transport of nonpoint N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized watersheds at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site. Annual N retention was 55%, 68%, and 82% for agricultural, suburban, and forest watersheds, respectively. Analysis of δ15N-NO3–, and δ18O-NO3– indicated wastewater was an important nitrate source in urbanized streams during baseflow. Negative correlations between δ15N-NO3– and δ18O-NO3– in urban watersheds indicated mixing between atmospheric deposition and wastewater, and N source contributions changed with storm magnitude (atmospheric sources contributed ∼50% at peak storm N loads). Positive correlations between δ15N-NO3– and δ18O-NO3– in watersheds suggested denitrification was removing septic system and agriculturally derived N, but N from belowground leaking sewers was less susceptible to denitrification. N transformations were also observed in a storm drain (no natural drainage network) potentially due to organic carbon inputs. Overall, nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, wastewater, and fertilizer showed different susceptibility to watershed N export. There were large changes in nitrate sources as a function of runoff, and anticipating source changes in response to climate and storms will be critical for managing nonpoint N pollution.

  4. Tracing source pollution in soils using cadmium and lead isotopes.

    PubMed

    Cloquet, C; Carignan, J; Libourel, G; Sterckeman, T; Perdrix, E

    2006-04-15

    Tracing the source of heavy metals in the environment is of key importance for our understanding of their pollution and natural cycles in the surface Earth reservoirs. Up to now, most exclusively Pb isotopes were used to effectively trace metal pollution sources in the environment. Here we report systematic variations of Cd isotope ratios measured in polluted topsoils surrounding a Pb-Zn refinery plant in northern France. Fractionated Cd was measured in soil samples surrounding the refinery, and this fractionation can be attributed to the refining processes. Despite the Cd isotopic ratios being precisely measured, the obtained uncertainties are still large compared to the total isotopic variation. Nevertheless, for the first time, Cd isotopically fractionated by industrial processes may be traced in the environment. On the same samples, Pb isotope systematics suggested that materials actually used by the refinery were not the major source of Pb in soils, probably because refined ore origins changed over the 100 years of operation. On the other hand, Cd isotopes and concentrations measured in topsoils allowed identification of three main origins (industrial dust and slag and agriculture), assuming that all Cd ores are not fractionated, as suggested by terrestrial rocks so far analyzed, and calculation of their relative contributions for each sampling point. Understanding that this refinery context was an ideal situation for such a study, our results lead to the possibility of tracing sources of anthropogenic Cd and better constrain mixing processes, fluxes, transport, and phasing out of industrial input in nature.

  5. Linnaean sources and concepts of orchids

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Charlie; Cribb, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Background Linnaeus developed a robust system for naming plants and a useful, if mechanical, system for classifying them. His binomial nomenclature proved the catalyst for the rapid development of our knowledge of orchids, with his work on the family dating back to 1737 in the first edition of his Genera Plantarum. His first work devoted to orchids, indeed the first monograph of the family, was published in 1740 and formed the basis for his account in Species Plantarum, published in 1753, in which he gave a binomial name to each species. Given the overwhelming number of orchids, he included surprisingly few – only 62 mostly European species – in Species Plantarum, his seminal work on the plants of the world. This reflects the European origin of modern botany and the concentration of extra-European exploration on other matters, such as conquest, gold and useful plants. Nevertheless, the scope of Linnaeus' work is broad, including plants from as far afield as India, Japan, China and the Philippines to the east, and eastern Canada, the West Indies and northern South America to the west. In his later publications he described and named a further 45 orchids, mostly from Europe, South Africa and the tropical Americas. Scope The philosophical basis of Linnaeus' work on orchids is discussed and his contribution to our knowledge of the family assessed. His generic and species concepts are considered in the light of current systematic ideas, but his adoption of binomial nomenclature for all plants is his lasting legacy. PMID:19182221

  6. Synchrotron based spallation neutron source concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.

    1998-07-01

    During the past 20 years, rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) have been used very productively to generate short-pulse thermal neutron beams for neutron scattering research by materials science communities in Japan (KENS), the UK (ISIS) and the US (IPNS). The most powerful source in existence, ISIS in the UK, delivers a 160-kW proton beam to a neutron-generating target. Several recently proposed facilities require proton beams in the MW range to produce intense short-pulse neutron beams. In some proposals, a linear accelerator provides the beam power and an accumulator ring compresses the pulse length to the required {approx} 1 {micro}s. In others, RCS technology provides the bulk of the beam power and compresses the pulse length. Some synchrotron-based proposals achieve the desired beam power by combining two or more synchrotrons of the same energy, and others propose a combination of lower and higher energy synchrotrons. This paper presents the rationale for using RCS technology, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of synchrotron-based spallation sources.

  7. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China’s population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7–2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China. PMID:26291610

  8. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Robert A; Muller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China's population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7-2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China. PMID:26291610

  9. Introduction to nonpoint-source pollution and wetland mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, L.A.

    1991-09-12

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) is the major cause of impairment of U.S. surface waters. Erosion from croplands has been declining but is not yet reflected in decreased sediment yield or phosphorus concentrations in the nation's rivers. Nitrogen pollution is of particular concern in eutophication of estuaries as a contaminant of groundwater, and as an acidifying agent in atmospheric deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer and emissions of nitrous oxides are major contributors to the problem. The outlook on pesticides is mixed: bans on organochlorine pesticides in the 1970s have resulted in decreasing concentrations in fish tissue; however, herbicides are now a problem for some surface and groundwater sources of drinking water, especially in the Upper Midwest.

  10. Pollution source analyses using 1-dimensional time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, David J.; Corley, Charles; Chien, Harris

    1983-09-01

    Lake Holiday, a human-made recreational lake in northern Illinois, was threatened with closure due to high bacterial levels. A factorially designed experiment with multivatiate responses was developed to study and identify the main sources of pollution. Data on total coliform, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, dissolved oxygen, pH, ammonia-N, total phosphorus, nitrate/nitrite-N were analyzed using regression models describing dam spillway loads as a function of source loads and time. The results suggest that the relationships among source, time, and load are complex, even though only two sources account for most of the lake's loading Stevens Brook, which receives the discharge from the Somonauk Sewage Treatment Plant, and Somonauk Creek, which is the major drainage, contribute high loads of bacteria and nutrients to the lake. The influent loads contributed to the lake are discharged at the dam over about 4 weeks

  11. Modeling population exposures to outdoor sources of hazardous air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ozkaynak, Halûk; Palma, Ted; Touma, Jawad S; Thurman, James

    2008-01-01

    Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration monitoring or modeling data. In this paper, we examine the limitations of using outdoor concentration predictions instead of modeled personal exposures for over 30 gaseous and particulate hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. The analysis uses the results from an air quality dispersion model (the ASPEN or Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide model) and an inhalation exposure model (the HAPEM or Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model, Version 5), applied by the US. Environmental protection Agency during the 1999 National Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) in the US. Our results show that the total predicted chronic exposure concentrations of outdoor HAPs from all sources are lower than the modeled ambient concentrations by about 20% on average for most gaseous HAPs and by about 60% on average for most particulate HAPs (mainly, due to the exclusion of indoor sources from our modeling analysis and lower infiltration of particles indoors). On the other hand, the HAPEM/ASPEN concentration ratio averages for onroad mobile source exposures were found to be greater than 1 (around 1.20) for most mobile-source related HAPs (e.g. 1, 3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, benzene, formaldehyde) reflecting the importance of near-roadway and commuting environments on personal exposures to HAPs. The distribution of the ratios of personal to ambient concentrations was found to be skewed for a number of the VOCs and reactive HAPs associated with major source emissions, indicating the importance of personal mobility factors. We conclude that the increase in personal exposures from the corresponding predicted ambient levels tends to occur near locations where there are either major emission sources of HAPs

  12. Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Monika; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth

    2009-08-15

    Major rivers in developing and emerging countries suffer increasingly of severe degradation of water quality. The current study uses a mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) as a complementary approach to address the degradation of river water quality due to nutrient pollution in the Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand. This paper gives an overview of the origins and flow paths of the various point- and non-point pollution sources in the Thachin River Basin (in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus) and quantifies their relative importance within the system. The key parameters influencing the main nutrient flows are determined and possible mitigation measures discussed. The results show that aquaculture (as a point source) and rice farming (as a non-point source) are the key nutrient sources in the Thachin River Basin. Other point sources such as pig farms, households and industries, which were previously cited as the most relevant pollution sources in terms of organic pollution, play less significant roles in comparison. This order of importance shifts when considering the model results for the provincial level. Crosschecks with secondary data and field studies confirm the plausibility of our simulations. Specific nutrient loads for the pollution sources are derived; these can be used for a first broad quantification of nutrient pollution in comparable river basins. Based on an identification of the sensitive model parameters, possible mitigation scenarios are determined and their potential to reduce the nutrient load evaluated. A comparison of simulated nutrient loads with measured nutrient concentrations shows that nutrient retention in the river system may be significant. Sedimentation in the slow flowing surface water network as well as nitrogen emission to the air from the warm oxygen deficient waters are certainly partly responsible, but also wetlands along the river banks could play an important role as nutrient sinks. PMID:19501876

  13. [Microbial source tracking of water fecal pollution: a review].

    PubMed

    Feng, Guan-da; Deng, Ming-rong; Zhu, Hong-hui; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Chang-xiong; Liang, Hao-liang

    2010-12-01

    Livestock feces and domestic sewage are the one of the main factors inducing water pollution, while the identification of the pollution source is particularly important in pollution control and management. Because of this, microbial source tracking (MST) has recently been paid more and more attention by the related researchers around the world. In this paper, the research progress of two types of MST methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and existing problems in application were reviewed and discussed. It was considered that in the library- and culture-dependent MST methods, PCR genotyping based on repetitive sequences was most practicable, while in the library- and culture-independent MST methods, PCR-DGGE based on the gene of specificity in Escherichia coli had a very glaring sight. Future researches should be more focused on the library- and culture-independent MST, and the combination of library- and culture-dependent MST with library- and culture-independent MST could make the tracking results more credible.

  14. Consideration of emerging pollutants in groundwater-based reuse concepts.

    PubMed

    Tiehm, A; Schmidt, N; Lipp, P; Zawadsky, C; Marei, A; Seder, N; Ghanem, M; Paris, S; Zemann, M; Wolf, L

    2012-01-01

    Elimination of pathogens and emerging pollutants represents a key factor in integrated water resources management in arid regions. Within the SMART Jordan Valley project it is the objective of this study to assess the occurrence and examine the elimination of selected emerging pollutants and pathogens in waste water treatment and aquifer recharge. In batch and soil column studies non-chlorinated organophosphorous compounds (tri-n-butylphosphate, triphenylphosphate) and endocrine disruptors (e.g. 17-ß-estradiol, bisphenol A) proved to be biodegradable, while the X-ray contrast agents iomeprol and iopromide were eliminated in the soil columns only, and the chlorinated trialkylphosphates showed persistency. Treating waste water in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination with powdered activated carbon (PAC) resulted in considerable removal rates also for the more persistent compounds such as the antiepileptic carbamazepine. Viruses were shown to be present in most of the Jordan Valley surface water samples. MBR treatment resulted in a decrease of MS2 bacteriophages used as model viruses. PMID:22828305

  15. PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diagnostic ratios have recently come into common use as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources. Some diagnostic ratios are based on parent PAHs, others on the proportions of alkyl-substituted to non-substituted molecules. The ratios are applicable to PAHs determined in different environmental media: air (gas + particle phase), water, sediment, soil, as well as biomonitor organisms such as leaves or coniferous needles, and mussels. These ratios distinguish PAH pollution originating from petroleum products, petroleum combustion and biomass or coal burning. The compounds involved in each ratio have the same molar mass, so it is assumed they have similar physicochemical properties. Numerous studies show that diagnostic ratios change in value to different extents during phase transfers and environmental degradation. The paper reviews applications of diagnostic ratios, comments on their use and specifies their limitations.

  16. Air Pollution in Megacities: Sources and Regional/Global Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.

    2007-12-01

    Air Pollution in Megacities is increasing significantly in all continents. The socio-economic and health problems are escalating, especially in developing countries. In terms of sources, urban transportation is relevant in most cities, as well as industrial pollution. In Latin American Cities such as Sao Paulo, Mexico City and Santiago, serious governmental efforts are being doing to reduce emissions and effects. Latin America has about 300 cities with population above 300.000 people. In Sao Paulo, the significant increase in the use of ethanol as fuel brings important increase in aldehyde concentrations. In all 3 Megacities, high aerosol concentrations are observed, with clear effects on population health. Large studies on aerosol source apportionment were done in these 3 cities, and detailed results will be presented. Quantification of aerosol sources is a problem, especially in the organic aerosol component that is high in most of Megacities. In Asia and Africa, the problems are similar as in Latin America, and the large emissions from these urban centers are relevant and needs to be taken into account in policies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  17. Evaluation of agricultural nonpoint source pollution potential risk over China with a Transformed-Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution Potential Index method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Xu, Zhencheng; Zhu, Yunqiang; He, Chansheng; Wu, Genyi; Qiu, Jin Rong; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Qingsong

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has been the most important threat to water environment quality. Understanding the spatial distribution of NPS pollution potential risk is important for taking effective measures to control and reduce NPS pollution. A Transformed-Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution Potential Index (T-APPI) model was constructed for evaluating the national NPS pollution potential risk in this study; it was also combined with remote sensing and geographic information system techniques for evaluation on the large scale and at 1 km2 spatial resolution. This model considers many factors contributing to the NPS pollution as the original APPI model, summarized as four indicators of the runoff, sediment production, chemical use and the people and animal load. These four indicators were analysed in detail at 1 km2 spatial resolution throughout China. The T-APPI model distinguished the four indicators into pollution source factors and transport process factors; it also took their relationship into consideration. The studied results showed that T-APPI is a credible and convenient method for NPS pollution potential risk evaluation. The results also indicated that the highest NPS pollution potential risk is distributed in the middle-southern Jiangsu province. Several other regions, including the North China Plain, Chengdu Basin Plain, Jianghan Plain, cultivated lands in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, also showed serious NPS pollution potential. This study can provide a scientific reference for predicting the future NPS pollution risk throughout China and may be helpful for taking reasonable and effective measures for preventing and controlling NPS pollution.

  18. A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized while maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the management model to describe transient solute transport and is developed using the US Geological Survey solute transport simulation model. The management model was applied to a complex hypothetical groundwater system. -from Author

  19. Patterns of trace gases near sources of global pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Many trace gases are increasing in the earth's armosphere and may couase global environmental changes in the future. Consequently there has been growing interest in the cycles of the long-lived gases that are likely to contribute the most to global change. At present there are four such gases: methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}0), trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F,F-11), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2},F-12). Methane and N{sub 2}O are involved mostly in adding to the greenhouse effect with some role in the stratospheric ozone cycle, and the two main fluorocarbons (F-11 and F-12) are involved in the depletion of the ozone layer with some role in global warming. This paper is about the patterns of these trace gases near regions of global scale pollution. Our purpose is to provide a synthesis of observations from diverse environments and ecosystems of the world and to provide readers with intuitive connections between sources and concentrations. We will consider four types of regions: rice fields in CHina that are a major source of methane, urban areas of the United States and China that are sources of fluorocarbons and other gases, rivers and surrounding wetlands, specifically the Yangtze in China and the Amazon in Brazil, and finally the environment of Boola Boola National Forest in Australia populated by many speices of termites that are a source of methane to the atmosphere. Eventually these patterns can be translated into estimeates of fluxes from the various sources of global pollution.

  20. GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin.

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2011-11-01

    To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution.

  1. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  2. Nonpoint source pollution: a distributed water quality modeling approach.

    PubMed

    León, L F; Soulis, E D; Kouwen, N; Farquhar, G J

    2001-03-01

    A distributed water quality model for nonpoint source pollution modeling in agricultural watersheds is described in this paper. A water quality component was developed for WATFLOOD (a flood forecast hydrological model) to deal with sediment and nutrient transport. The model uses a distributed group response unit approach for water quantity and quality modeling. Runoff, sediment yield and soluble nutrient concentrations are calculated separately for each land cover class, weighted by area and then routed downstream. With data extracted using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology for a local watershed, the model is calibrated for the hydrologic response and validated for the water quality component. The transferability of model parameters to other watersheds, especially those in remote areas without enough data for calibration, is a major problem in diffuse modeling. With the connection to GIS and the group response unit approach used in this paper, model portability increases substantially, which will improve nonpoint source modeling at the watershed-scale level.

  3. Identifying sources of groundwater pollution using trace element signatures.

    PubMed

    Olmez, I; Hayes, M J

    1990-01-01

    A simple receptor modeling approach has been applied to groundwater pollution studies and has shown that marker trace elements can be used effectively in source identification and apportionment. Groundwater and source materials from one coal-fired and five oil-fired power plants, and one coal-tar deposit site have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for more than 20 minor and trace elements. In one of the oil-fired power plants, trace element patterns indicated a leak from the hazardous waste surface impoundments owing to the failure of a hypolon liner. Also, the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater contamination have been determined in a coal-tar deposit site.

  4. Chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis for pollutant source identification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Juan-Ping; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a similarity analysis method was proposed to evaluate the source-sink relationships among environmental media for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were taken as the representative contaminants. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis has been widely used in the fields of natural products chemistry and forensic chemistry, but its application to environmental science has been limited. We established a library of various sources of media containing contaminants (e.g., plastics), recognizing that the establishment of a more comprehensive library allows for a better understanding of the sources of contamination. We then compared an environmental complex mixture (e.g., sediment, soil) with the profiles in the library. These comparisons could be used as the first step in source tracking. The cosine similarities between plastic and soil or sediment ranged from 0.53 to 0.68, suggesting that plastic in electronic waste is an important source of PBDEs in the environment, but it is not the only source. A similarity analysis between soil and sediment indicated that they have a source-sink relationship. Generally, the similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of complex mixtures in the environment than a profile-based approach that only focuses on target pollutants. There is an inherent advantage to creating a data matrix containing all peaks and their relative levels after matching the peaks based on retention times and peak areas. This data matrix can be used for source identification via a similarity analysis without quantitative or qualitative analysis of all chemicals in a sample. PMID:26440782

  5. Chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis for pollutant source identification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Juan-Ping; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a similarity analysis method was proposed to evaluate the source-sink relationships among environmental media for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were taken as the representative contaminants. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis has been widely used in the fields of natural products chemistry and forensic chemistry, but its application to environmental science has been limited. We established a library of various sources of media containing contaminants (e.g., plastics), recognizing that the establishment of a more comprehensive library allows for a better understanding of the sources of contamination. We then compared an environmental complex mixture (e.g., sediment, soil) with the profiles in the library. These comparisons could be used as the first step in source tracking. The cosine similarities between plastic and soil or sediment ranged from 0.53 to 0.68, suggesting that plastic in electronic waste is an important source of PBDEs in the environment, but it is not the only source. A similarity analysis between soil and sediment indicated that they have a source-sink relationship. Generally, the similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of complex mixtures in the environment than a profile-based approach that only focuses on target pollutants. There is an inherent advantage to creating a data matrix containing all peaks and their relative levels after matching the peaks based on retention times and peak areas. This data matrix can be used for source identification via a similarity analysis without quantitative or qualitative analysis of all chemicals in a sample.

  6. Higher Education Costs: Concepts, Measurement Issues, Data Sources, and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layzell, Daniel T.; Caruthers, J. Kent

    2002-01-01

    Provides a basic overview of the concept of cost in higher education and related issues, discusses major consumers of higher education cost data and their perspectives, outlines the major sources of data on higher education costs, and describes some of the major (and perennial) issues related to higher education costs. (EV)

  7. Predicting precipitation on nonpoint source pollutant exports in the source area of the Liao River, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Bian, J M; Wang, S N; Nie, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The source area of the Liao River is an important grain growing area in China which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) which is impacting the regional economy and society. In order to address the water quality issues it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of NPS in the Liao River source area. This issue has been investigated by coupling a wavelet artificial neural network (WA-ANN) precipitation model with a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to assess the export of nonpoint source pollutants from the Liao River source area. The calibration and validation of these models are outlined. The WA-ANN models and the SWAT model were run to generate the spatial distribution of nonpoint source nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) exports in the source area of the Liao River. It was found that the SWAT model identified the sub-catchments which not only receive high rainfall but are also densely populated with high agricultural production from dry fields and paddy fields, which are large users of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, as the primary source areas for nutrient exports. It is also concluded that the coupled WA-ANN models and the SWAT model provide a tool which will inform the identification of NPS issues and will facilitate the identification of management practices to improve the water environments in the source area of the Liao River.

  8. Predicting precipitation on nonpoint source pollutant exports in the source area of the Liao River, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Bian, J M; Wang, S N; Nie, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The source area of the Liao River is an important grain growing area in China which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) which is impacting the regional economy and society. In order to address the water quality issues it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of NPS in the Liao River source area. This issue has been investigated by coupling a wavelet artificial neural network (WA-ANN) precipitation model with a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to assess the export of nonpoint source pollutants from the Liao River source area. The calibration and validation of these models are outlined. The WA-ANN models and the SWAT model were run to generate the spatial distribution of nonpoint source nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) exports in the source area of the Liao River. It was found that the SWAT model identified the sub-catchments which not only receive high rainfall but are also densely populated with high agricultural production from dry fields and paddy fields, which are large users of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, as the primary source areas for nutrient exports. It is also concluded that the coupled WA-ANN models and the SWAT model provide a tool which will inform the identification of NPS issues and will facilitate the identification of management practices to improve the water environments in the source area of the Liao River. PMID:27533862

  9. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

    2004-12-01

    new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff.

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of nitrogen load in a river basin with complex pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoying; Liu, Qun; Fu, Guangtao; He, Yi; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Environmental problems such as eutrophication caused by excessive nutrient discharge are global challenges. There are complex pollution sources of nitrogen (N) discharge in many river basins worldwide. Knowledge of its pollution sources and their respective load contributions is essential to developing effective N pollution control strategies. N loads from all known anthropogenic pollution sources in the Upper Huai River basin of China were simulated with the process-based SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. The performances of SWAT driven by daily and hourly rainfall inputs were assessed and it was found that the one driven by hourly rainfall outperformed the one driven by daily rainfall in simulating both total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) loads. The hourly SWAT model was hence used to examine the spatiotemporal patterns of TN and NH4-N loads and their source attributions. TN load exhibited significant seasonal variations with the largest in summer and the smallest in spring. Despite its declining proportion of contribution downstream, crop production remained the largest contributor of TN load followed by septic tanks, concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs), municipal sewage treatment plants, industries, and scattered animal feedlot operations (SAFOs). There was much less seasonal variation in NH4-N load. CAFOs remained the largest source of NH4-N load throughout the basin, while contributions from industries and municipal sewage treatment plants were more evident downstream. Our study results suggest the need to shift the focus of N load reduction from "end-of-pipe" sewage treatment to an integrated approach emphasizing stakeholder involvement and source prevention. PMID:26945962

  11. The Effects of Computer-Aided Concept Cartoons and Outdoor Science Activities on Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create an awareness of light pollution on seventh grade students via computer aided concept cartoon applications and outdoor science activities and to help them develop solutions; and to determine student opinions on the practices carried out. The study was carried out at a middle school in Mugla province of Aegean…

  12. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakanov, V. M.; Amatuni, G. A.; Amirkhanyan, Z. G.; Aslyan, L. V.; Avagyan, V. Sh.; Danielyan, V. A.; Davtyan, H. D.; Dekhtiarov, V. S.; Gevorgyan, K. L.; Ghazaryan, N. G.; Grigoryan, B. A.; Grigoryan, A. H.; Hakobyan, L. S.; Haroutiunian, S. G.; Ivanyan, M. I.; Khachatryan, V. G.; Laziev, E. M.; Manukyan, P. S.; Margaryan, I. N.; Markosyan, T. M.; Martirosyan, N. V.; Mehrabyan, Sh. A.; Mkrtchyan, T. H.; Muradyan, L. Kh.; Nikogosyan, G. H.; Petrosyan, V. H.; Sahakyan, V. V.; Sargsyan, A. A.; Simonyan, A. S.; Toneyan, H. A.; Tsakanian, A. V.; Vardanyan, T. L.; Vardanyan, A. S.; Yeremyan, A. S.; Zakaryan, S. V.; Zanyan, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  13. The transport sector as a source of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvile, R. N.; Hutchinson, E. J.; Mindell, J. S.; Warren, R. F.

    Transport first became a significant source of air pollution after the problems of sooty smog from coal combustion had largely been solved in western European and North American cities. Since then, emissions from road, air, rail and water transport have been partly responsible for acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. Most recently, road traffic exhaust emissions have been the cause of much concern about the effects of urban air quality on human health and tropospheric ozone production. This article considers the variety of transport impacts on the atmospheric environment by reviewing three examples: urban road traffic and human health, aircraft emissions and global atmospheric change, and the contribution of sulphur emissions from ships to acid deposition. Each example has associated with it a different level of uncertainty, such that a variety of policy responses to the problems are appropriate, from adaptation through precautionary emissions abatement to cost-benefit analysis and optimised abatement. There is some evidence that the current concern for road transport contribution to urban air pollution is justified, but aircraft emissions should also give cause for concern given that air traffic is projected to continue to increase. Emissions from road traffic are being reduced substantially by the introduction of technology especially three-way catalysts and also, most recently, by local traffic reduction measures especially in western European cities. In developing countries and Eastern Europe, however, there remains the possibility of great increase in car ownership and use, and it remains to be seen whether these countries will adopt measures now to prevent transport-related air pollution problems becoming severe later in the 21st Century.

  14. Snowmelt runoff: a new focus of urban nonpoint source pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-11-30

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing constitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control.

  15. Nonpoint source pollution loading from an undistributed tropic forest area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hua; Wen, Ching-Gung; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Shui-Ping; Lee, Chih-Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Water quality and unit nonpoint sources (NPS) pollution load from a forest area were studied in a mountainous watershed in Taiwan. The flow rates were measured with rectangular weirs and samples taken for water quality analysis in both non-rainy and rainy days for 2 years. The subroutine of the Hydrological Simulation Program--FORTRAN was used to simulate runoff for additional 3 years. Total annual loads of various water quality parameters were then estimated by a regression model. Most of the parameter concentrations are higher during the rainy days; their values are typically higher as compared to data from other undisturbed forest areas. Nevertheless, the concentration ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to TN or PO4(3-) -P to TP shows TN or TP no correlations with the flow rates, whereas the concentrations of SS and TP are positively correlated with the flow rate. The fluctuation of annual load from this watershed is significant. For example, six major events of the entire year, for which the total duration is merely 6.4 days, contribute 42% of the annual precipitation and at least 40% of the annual NPS loads. The management for controlling the NPS pollution from this forest watershed is discussed.

  16. Snowmelt Runoff: A New Focus of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-01-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing cosntitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control. PMID:23202881

  17. Snowmelt runoff: a new focus of urban nonpoint source pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-12-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing constitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control. PMID:23202881

  18. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration). PMID:26287831

  19. Influence of coal as an energy source on environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2007-07-01

    This article considers the influence of coal energy on environmental pollution. Coal is undoubtedly part of the greenhouse problem. The main emissions from coal combustion are sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulates, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and mercury (Hg). Since 1980, despite a 36% increase in electricity generation and more than a 50% increase in coal use, electric utility SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions have declined significantly. Globally, the largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is CO{sub 2} from the combustion of fossil fuels - around 75% of total GHG emissions covered under the Kyoto Protocol. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuels.

  20. Nonpoint source groundwater pollution and endogenous regulatory policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donna J.; Kim, C. S.

    2002-12-01

    Theory suggests that in the absence of transaction costs, pollution externalities can be mitigated efficiently by charging polluters a tax equal to the marginal social cost of pollution. All other regulatory mechanisms therefore may be no more efficient than a marginal cost pollution tax. We developed a stylized model of dynamic groundwater pollution without transaction costs to examine alternate policies. Using mitigation cost, tax burden, and excess burden we compared the relative efficiency of each tax policy under competitive market conditions. For groundwater nitrate pollution in a Midwestern farming region, results show that the least cost policy is a constant tax on the polluting input, followed by a variable tax on the polluting input and a pollution tax.

  1. [Spatial heterogeneity and classified control of agricultural non-point source pollution in Huaihe River Basin].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Xu, Jian-Gang; Sun, Dong-Qi; Ni, Tian-Hua

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is of importance in river deterioration. Thus identifying and concentrated controlling the key source-areas are the most effective approaches for non-point source pollution control. This study adopts inventory method to analysis four kinds of pollution sources and their emissions intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in 173 counties (cities, districts) in Huaihe River Basin. The four pollution sources include livestock breeding, rural life, farmland cultivation, aquacultures. The paper mainly addresses identification of non-point polluted sensitivity areas, key pollution sources and its spatial distribution characteristics through cluster, sensitivity evaluation and spatial analysis. A geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS were used to carry out this study. The results show that: the COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural non-point sources were 206.74 x 10(4) t, 66.49 x 10(4) t, 8.74 x 10(4) t separately in Huaihe River Basin in 2009; the emission intensity were 7.69, 2.47, 0.32 t.hm-2; the proportions of COD, TN, TP emissions were 73%, 24%, 3%. The paper achieves that: the major pollution source of COD, TN and TP was livestock breeding and rural life; the sensitivity areas and priority pollution control areas among the river basin of non-point source pollution are some sub-basins of the upper branches in Huaihe River, such as Shahe River, Yinghe River, Beiru River, Jialu River and Qingyi River; livestock breeding is the key pollution source in the priority pollution control areas. Finally, the paper concludes that pollution type of rural life has the highest pollution contribution rate, while comprehensive pollution is one type which is hard to control.

  2. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  3. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R.; Zhu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m−3 (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3; mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m−3 (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m−3 (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m−3), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m−3 (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m−3) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  4. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level.

  5. Water Quality Assessment of River Soan (Pakistan) and Source Apportionment of Pollution Sources Through Receptor Modeling.

    PubMed

    Nazeer, Summya; Ali, Zeshan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of River Soan using multivariate statistics. A total of 26 sites were surveyed along River Soan and its associated tributaries during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2008. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified sampling sites into three groups according to their degree of pollution, which ranged from least to high degradation of water quality. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed that alkalinity, orthophosphates, nitrates, ammonia, salinity, and Cd were variables that significantly discriminate among three groups identified by HACA. Temporal trends as identified through DFA revealed that COD, DO, pH, Cu, Cd, and Cr could be attributed for major seasonal variations in water quality. PCA/FA identified six factors as potential sources of pollution of River Soan. Absolute principal component scores using multiple regression method (APCS-MLR) further explained the percent contribution from each source. Heavy metals were largely added through industrial activities (28 %) and sewage waste (28 %), nutrients through agriculture runoff (35 %) and sewage waste (28 %), organic pollution through sewage waste (27 %) and urban runoff (17 %) and macroelements through urban runoff (39 %), and mineralization and sewage waste (30 %). The present study showed that anthropogenic activities are the major source of variations in River Soan. In order to address the water quality issues, implementation of effective waste management measures are needed. PMID:27000830

  6. Controlling sources of indoor air pollution through pollution prevention. Report for January 1994--May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Leovic, K.W.; Whitaker, D.; Brockmann, C.; Bayer, C.; Sojka, P.

    1998-12-31

    The paper is an overview of EPA research into controlling sources of indoor air pollution through pollution prevention (P2). The research focused on four approaches for P2: (1) developing methods and tools that can be used by others to evaluate emissions from equipment or products; (2) developing generic P2 solutions to IAQ problems; (3) identifying high-emitting raw materials or components of products; and (4) evaluating claimed low-emitting materials. Test method guidelines for measuring emissions from office equipment were developed and then evaluated by testing four dry-process copiers in one chamber and conducting a four-laboratory evaluation using one of the copiers. For aerosol consumer products, measurement methods and models were developed that can be used to better understand aerosol behavior so that more efficacious and less toxic products can be developed. As a generic solution for improved IAQ through P2, an innovative spray nozzle for use with precharged aerosol containers was developed and evaluated. The new design allows for the reformulation of selected aerosol consumer products using water and air in place of volatile organic compound solvents and hydrocarbon propellants, respectively.

  7. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  8. Mercury as a Global Pollutant: Sources, Pathways, and Effects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affects human and ecosystem health. We synthesize understanding of sources, atmosphere-land-ocean Hg dynamics and health effects, and consider the implications of Hg-control policies. Primary anthropogenic Hg emissions greatly exceed natural geogenic sources, resulting in increases in Hg reservoirs and subsequent secondary Hg emissions that facilitate its global distribution. The ultimate fate of emitted Hg is primarily recalcitrant soil pools and deep ocean waters and sediments. Transfers of Hg emissions to largely unavailable reservoirs occur over the time scale of centuries, and are primarily mediated through atmospheric exchanges of wet/dry deposition and evasion from vegetation, soil organic matter and ocean surfaces. A key link between inorganic Hg inputs and exposure of humans and wildlife is the net production of methylmercury, which occurs mainly in reducing zones in freshwater, terrestrial, and coastal environments, and the subsurface ocean. Elevated human exposure to methylmercury primarily results from consumption of estuarine and marine fish. Developing fetuses are most at risk from this neurotoxin but health effects of highly exposed populations and wildlife are also a concern. Integration of Hg science with national and international policy efforts is needed to target efforts and evaluate efficacy. PMID:23590191

  9. Mercury as a global pollutant: sources, pathways, and effects.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Charles T; Mason, Robert P; Chan, Hing Man; Jacob, Daniel J; Pirrone, Nicola

    2013-05-21

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affects human and ecosystem health. We synthesize understanding of sources, atmosphere-land-ocean Hg dynamics and health effects, and consider the implications of Hg-control policies. Primary anthropogenic Hg emissions greatly exceed natural geogenic sources, resulting in increases in Hg reservoirs and subsequent secondary Hg emissions that facilitate its global distribution. The ultimate fate of emitted Hg is primarily recalcitrant soil pools and deep ocean waters and sediments. Transfers of Hg emissions to largely unavailable reservoirs occur over the time scale of centuries, and are primarily mediated through atmospheric exchanges of wet/dry deposition and evasion from vegetation, soil organic matter and ocean surfaces. A key link between inorganic Hg inputs and exposure of humans and wildlife is the net production of methylmercury, which occurs mainly in reducing zones in freshwater, terrestrial, and coastal environments, and the subsurface ocean. Elevated human exposure to methylmercury primarily results from consumption of estuarine and marine fish. Developing fetuses are most at risk from this neurotoxin but health effects of highly exposed populations and wildlife are also a concern. Integration of Hg science with national and international policy efforts is needed to target efforts and evaluate efficacy.

  10. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  11. Impact of sources of environmental degradation on microbial community dynamics in non-polluted and metal-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Epelde, Lur; Martín-Sánchez, Iker; González-Oreja, José A; Anza, Mikel; Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Garbisu, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Soils are currently being degraded at an alarming rate due to increasing pressure from different sources of environmental degradation. Consequently, we carried out a 4-month microcosm experiment to measure the impact of different sources of environmental degradation (biodiversity loss, nitrogen deposition and climate change) on soil health in a non-polluted (non-degraded) and a heavily metal-polluted (degraded) soil, and to compare their responses. To this aim, we determined a variety of soil microbial properties with potential as bioindicators of soil health: basal respiration; β-glucosaminidase and protease activities; abundance (Q-PCR) of bacterial, fungal and chitinase genes; richness (PCR-DGGE) of fungal and chitinase genes. Non-polluted and metal-polluted soils showed different response microbial dynamics when subjected to sources of environmental degradation. The non-polluted soil appeared resilient to "biodiversity loss" and "climate change" treatments. The metal-polluted soil was probably already too severely affected by the presence of high levels of toxic metals to respond to other sources of stress. Our data together suggests that soil microbial activity and biomass parameters are more sensitive to the applied sources of environmental degradation, showing immediate responses of greater magnitude, while soil microbial diversity parameters do not show such variations.

  12. Sequential optimal monitoring network design and iterative spatial estimation of pollutant concentration for identification of unknown groundwater pollution source locations.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2013-07-01

    One of the difficulties in accurate characterization of unknown groundwater pollution sources is the uncertainty regarding the number and the location of such sources. Only when the number of source locations is estimated with some degree of certainty that the characterization of the sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration can be meaningful. A fairly good knowledge of source locations can substantially decrease the degree of nonuniqueness in the set of possible aquifer responses to subjected geochemical stresses. A methodology is developed to use a sequence of dedicated monitoring network design and implementation and to screen and identify the possible source locations. The proposed methodology utilizes a combination of spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and simulated annealing as optimization algorithm for optimal design of the monitoring network. These monitoring networks are to be designed and implemented sequentially. The sequential design is based on iterative pollutant concentration measurement information from the sequentially designed monitoring networks. The optimal monitoring network design utilizes concentration gradient information from the monitoring network at previous iteration to define the objective function. The capability of the feedback information based iterative methodology is shown to be effective in estimating the source locations when no such information is initially available. This unknown pollution source locations identification methodology should be very useful as a screening model for subsequent accurate estimation of the unknown pollution sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration.

  13. Lessons Learned from OMI Observations of Point Source SO2 Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, N.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite makes global daily measurements of the total column of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a short-lived trace gas produced by fossil fuel combustion, smelting, and volcanoes. Although anthropogenic SO2 signals may not be detectable in a single OMI pixel, it is possible to see the source and determine its exact location by averaging a large number of individual measurements. We describe new techniques for spatial and temporal averaging that have been applied to the OMI SO2 data to determine the spatial distributions or "fingerprints" of SO2 burdens from top 100 pollution sources in North America. The technique requires averaging of several years of OMI daily measurements to observe SO2 pollution from typical anthropogenic sources. We found that the largest point sources of SO2 in the U.S. produce elevated SO2 values over a relatively small area - within 20-30 km radius. Therefore, one needs higher than OMI spatial resolution to monitor typical SO2 sources. TROPOMI instrument on the ESA Sentinel 5 precursor mission will have improved ground resolution (approximately 7 km at nadir), but is limited to once a day measurement. A pointable geostationary UVB spectrometer with variable spatial resolution and flexible sampling frequency could potentially achieve the goal of daily monitoring of SO2 point sources and resolve downwind plumes. This concept of taking the measurements at high frequency to enhance weak signals needs to be demonstrated with a GEOCAPE precursor mission before 2020, which will help formulating GEOCAPE measurement requirements.

  14. Limitation of point source pesticide pollution: results of bioremediation system.

    PubMed

    Spanoghe, P; Maes, A; Steurbaut, W

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater and surface water is at risk of contamination from the use of some agricultural pesticides. In many circumstances pesticide contamination of water resources is more likely to result from point sources than from diffuse sources following approved application to crops in the field. Such point sources include areas on farms where pesticides are handled, filled into sprayers or where sprayers are washed down. To overcome this way of contamination different kind of bio-remediation systems are nowadays in development. In Flanders, Belgium two pilot plants of bioremediation systems for the in situ retention and/or degradation of pesticides were installed. Both systems were based on the Phytobac concept, a watertight excavation filled with straw, peat, compost and soil. The channel was made in the bottom from plastic foil. All kinds of spray rests were captured by the phytobacs. This study focuses on what level pesticides leach, bio-degrade or are retained by the filling of the phytobac. The soil-properties of the filling were investigated. Pesticide tracers were added for monitoring to both phytobacs. Soil and water samples were taken during one year. Pesticides are retained at least for one month by the filling of the phytobac. Almost no pesticide leached out. In winter hardly any pesticide degradation was observed in the filling of the phytobac. In summer no detectable pesticides were still left in the phytobacs.

  15. 76 FR 14839 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed... national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Maricopa County Air...

  16. Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

  17. Development and adoption of a simple nonpoint source pollution model for Port Phillip Bay, Australia.

    PubMed

    Argent, Robert M; Mitchell, V Grace

    2003-09-01

    New computing tools and approaches allow tailored development of software to meet the needs of environmental managers. The processes required for such tailoring fit well with adaptive management concepts where, as knowledge and system understanding develop among managers, the software can be developed or replaced to match. This paper reports on development and adoption of a simple nonpoint source pollution modeling tool, including technical aspects of data support for modeling and social aspects of software design. The software, named FILTER, used a unit load model to generate expected pollutant loads from subcatchments of Port Phillip Bay, Australia. Monitoring data were used for calibration to modify the delivery of generated pollutants to receiving waters. Spatial, tabular, and charting software components were used to provide alternative forms of output visualization. FILTER was developed using a process that resulted in manager-stakeholders taking responsibility for setting of model parameter values and operation of the user interface, thereby encouraging uptake. The inclusive development process, tailoring of the software to manager needs and styles of usage, and matching of model complexity to data and knowledge, resulted in a successful application that has become the current agreed system representation among disparate stakeholder organizations.

  18. A positive (negative) surface ionization source concept for RIB generation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    A novel, versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer ({phi}{approximately} = 5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to {phi} {approximately} = 1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of Cs to effect low work function surfaces for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB{sub 6} while enhancing the probability for negative ion formation of atomic and molecular species with low to intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for RIB applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the HRIBF The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report.

  19. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2016-05-01

    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies.

  20. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2016-05-01

    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies. PMID:26995269

  1. [Simulation of nonpoint source pollution load in Maoping River watershed].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi-Gong; Liu, Hong-Liang; Shen, Zhen-Yao; Mao, Ya-Ming

    2006-11-01

    The nitrogen and phosphorous transport in the Maoping River watershed was modelled using the SWAT model, which simulates the water cycle and the transformation of nutrients. The model was first calibrated by comparing the observed and the simulated data from May to October 2004, and then validated. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (R2), the mean square root error (RMSE) and the relative error(CV) were used to test the agreement between observed and simulated data. The validated model was then be used to simulate the nutrients load in Maoping River watershed. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of flow, nitrogen and phosphorous was 0.71, 0.51 and 0.62 with the minimum relative error 1.8%, 1.1% and 10% respectively. Despite achieving the relatively lower resemblance between observed and simulated phosphorous and nitrogen load the model showed good agreement in simulating runoff. The results showed that 102.5t nitrogen and 9.46t phosphorous entered intoYangtze River during May to October 2004. One of the important reason that caused the water quality deterioration can be attributed to the nonpoint source pollution.

  2. Investigating landfill leachate as a source of trace organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Anumol, Tarun; Barlaz, Morton; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-05-01

    Landfill leachate samples (n=11) were collected from five USA municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and analyzed for ten trace organic pollutants that are commonly detected in surface and municipal wastewater effluents (viz., carbamazepine, DEET, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, PFOA, PFOS, primidone, sucralose, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). Carbamazepine, DEET, PFOA and primidone were detected in all leachate samples analyzed and gemfibrozil was detected in samples from four of the five-landfill sites. The contaminants found in the highest concentrations were DEET (6900-143000 ng L(-1)) and sucralose (<10-621000 ng L(-1)). Several compounds were not detected (fluoxetine) or detected infrequently (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and PFOS). Using the average mass of DEET in leachate amongst the five landfills and scaling the mass release from the five test landfills to the USA population of landfills, an order of magnitude estimate is that over 10000 kg DEET yr(-1) may be released in leachate. Some pharmaceuticals have similar annual mean discharges to one another, with the estimated annual discharge of carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, primidone equating to 53, 151 and 128 kg year(-1). To the authors knowledge, this is the first time that primidone has been included in a landfill leachate study. While the estimates developed in this study are order of magnitude, the values do suggest the need for further research to better quantify the amount of chemicals sent to wastewater treatment facilities with landfill leachate, potential impacts on treatment processes and the significance of landfill leachate as a source of surface water contamination.

  3. Conceptional design of the laser ion source based hadrontherapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiu-Cui; Song, Ming-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2014-04-01

    A laser ion source (LIS), which can provide a carbon beam with highly stripped state (C6+) and high intensity (several tens mA), would significantly change the overall design of the hadrontherapy facility. The proposed LIS based hadrontherapy facility has the advantages of short linac length, simple injection scheme, and small synchrotron size. With the experience from the DPIS and HITFiL projects that have been conducted in IMP, a conceptional design of the LIS based hadrontherapy facility will be presented, with special attention given to APF type IH DTL design and simulation.

  4. Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

  5. Nutrient load estimation in nonpoint source pollution of Hong Kong region.

    PubMed

    Li, H E; Lee, J H W; Koenig, A; Jayawardena, A W

    2005-01-01

    Red tides and eutrophication have been frequently observed over the past two decades in coastal waters around Hong Kong, which are caused by many factors and one of them is the nutrient from nonpoint source pollution (NSP). This paper concentrates on the nutrients carried by river flow from watersheds. Since there are no systematical data sets of nonpoint source pollution in Hong Kong, monthly river water quality measurements, rainfall and river flow data, land uses, and other related information are used to analyze the characteristics of NSP and estimate the nutrient loads for Hong Kong region. Main achievements are as follows: firstly, besides mean concentration for single land use, the concept of integrated mean concentration for mixed land uses was proposed and applied. Secondly, mean concentrations were carried out for different land uses (agriculture, town, grassland, shrubland and woodland), each Water Control Zone, and Hong Kong region. Thirdly, the annual nutrient loads were estimated, for the first time in this paper, with various methods for the whole area of Hong Kong, and about 8000 tons of TN and 1500 tons TP are transported into coastal waters from Hong Kong's land in 1998.

  6. Management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Water quality in China shows an overall trend of deterioration in recent years. Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and rural regions is the leading source of water pollution. The agricultural nonpoint source pollutants are mainly from fertilization of cropland, excessive livestock and poultry breeding and undefined disposal of daily living wastes in rural areas. Agricultural nonpoint sources contribute the main source of pollution to most watersheds in China, but they are ignored in management strategy and policy. Due to the lack of full understanding of water pollution control and management and the lack of perfect water quality standard systems and practical legislative regulations, agricultural nonpoint source pollution will become one of the biggest challenges to the sustainable development of rural areas and to society as a whole. The system for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control in China should include an appropriate legislation and policy framework, financing mechanisms, monitoring system, and technical guidelines and standards. The management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution requires multidisciplinary approaches that will involve a range of government departments, institutions and the public.

  7. Management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Water quality in China shows an overall trend of deterioration in recent years. Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and rural regions is the leading source of water pollution. The agricultural nonpoint source pollutants are mainly from fertilization of cropland, excessive livestock and poultry breeding and undefined disposal of daily living wastes in rural areas. Agricultural nonpoint sources contribute the main source of pollution to most watersheds in China, but they are ignored in management strategy and policy. Due to the lack of full understanding of water pollution control and management and the lack of perfect water quality standard systems and practical legislative regulations, agricultural nonpoint source pollution will become one of the biggest challenges to the sustainable development of rural areas and to society as a whole. The system for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control in China should include an appropriate legislation and policy framework, financing mechanisms, monitoring system, and technical guidelines and standards. The management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution requires multidisciplinary approaches that will involve a range of government departments, institutions and the public. PMID:16594318

  8. 76 FR 57913 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating and Polishing'' which was published on June 20, 2011 (76 FR... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ74 Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the plating and polishing area source category...

  9. Concept of DT fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Anan'ev, S.; Spitsyn, A.V.; Kuteev, B.V.; Cherkez, D.I.; Shirnin, P.N.; Kazakovsky, N.T.

    2015-03-15

    A concept of DT-fusion neutron source (FNS) with the neutron yield higher than 10{sup 18} neutrons per second is under design in Russia. Such a FNS is of interest for many applications: 1) basic and applied research (neutron scattering, etc); 2) testing the structural materials for fusion reactors; 3) control of sub-critical nuclear systems and 4) nuclear waste processing (including transmutation of minor actinides). This paper describes the fuel cycle concept of a compact fusion neutron source based on a small spherical tokamak (FNS-ST) with a MW range of DT fusion power and considers the key physics issues of this device. The major and minor radii are ∼0.5 and ∼0.3 m, magnetic field ∼1.5 T, heating power less than 15 MW and plasma current 1-2 MA. The system provides the fuel mixture with equal fractions of D and T (D:T = 1:1) for all FNS technology systems. (authors)

  10. Stochastic Assessment of Regional Groundwater Nonpoint Source Pollution with Spatially Variable, Transient Forcing: Conceptual Framework and Nitrate Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; van der Schans, M. L.; Leijnse, A.

    2003-12-01

    We introduce a general stochastic concept of regional groundwater nonpoint source pollution in production wells or other groundwater discharge areas; present an efficient numerical procedure for its implementation; and validate the approach using a case study. Our principal hypothesis is that regional variability of and uncertainty about well pollution from nonpoint sources is primarily caused by the spatio-temporal variability of the nonpoint source strength (recharge rate and recharge pollutant concentration) and the variable spatial distribution of pumping wells, pumping rates, and other groundwater discharge relative to the location of the nonpoint sources. We describe a conceptual model of random space functions (RSFs) for nonpoint sources and wells. The resulting stochastic flow and transport equations are subject to random forcing in the nonpoint source and pumping boundary conditions (external variability). The stochastic forcing analysis yields a transient probability distribution function of water quality (water quality pdf) in a regional set of randomly distributed, discrete production wells and other groundwater discharge areas. We introduce a novel three-step numerical approach for the stochastic forcing analysis and apply the method to determine the 150-year (1910-2060) nitrate pdf for an irrigated, semi-arid region with a history of high groundwater nitrate. Comparison of the simulated nitrate pdfs with results from regional and domestic well water surveys in 1970, 1986 and 2001 shows that stochastic forcing indeed accounts for the observed temporal nitrate dynamics (mean concentration) and for 70% of the spatial variability observed in domestic well water nitrate in that region.

  11. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production.

  12. Amphibian commerce as a likely source of pathogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Picco, Angela M; Collins, James P

    2008-12-01

    The commercial trade of wildlife occurs on a global scale. In addition to removing animals from their native populations, this trade may lead to the release and subsequent introduction of nonindigenous species and the pathogens they carry. Emerging infectious diseases, such as chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and ranaviral disease have spread with global trade in amphibians and are linked to amphibian declines and die-offs worldwide, which suggests that the commercial trade in amphibians may be a source of pathogen pollution. We screened tiger salamanders involved in the bait trade in the western United States for both ranaviruses and Bd with polymerase chain reaction and used oral reports from bait shops and ranavirus DNA sequences from infected bait salamanders to determine how these animals and their pathogens are moved geographically by commerce. In addition, we conducted 2 surveys of anglers to determine how often tiger salamanders are used as bait and how often they are released into fishing waters by anglers, and organized bait-shop surveys to determine whether tiger salamanders are released back into the wild after being housed in bait shops. Ranaviruses were detected in the tiger salamander bait trade in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico, and Bd was detected in Arizona bait shops. Ranaviruses were spread geographically through the bait trade. All tiger salamanders in the bait trade were collected from the wild, and in general they moved east to west and north to south, bringing with them their multiple ranavirus strains. Finally, 26-73% of anglers used tiger salamanders as fishing bait, 26-67% of anglers released tiger salamanders bought as bait into fishing waters, and 4% of bait shops released tiger salamanders back into the wild after they were housed in shops with infected animals. The tiger salamander bait trade in the western United States is a useful model for understanding the consequences of the

  13. A vegetation modeling concept for Building and Environmental Aerodynamics wind tunnel tests and its application in pollutant dispersion studies.

    PubMed

    Gromke, Christof

    2011-01-01

    A new vegetation modeling concept for Building and Environmental Aerodynamics wind tunnel investigations was developed. The modeling concept is based on fluid dynamical similarity aspects and allows the small-scale modeling of various kinds of vegetation, e.g. field crops, shrubs, hedges, single trees and forest stands. The applicability of the modeling concept was validated in wind tunnel pollutant dispersion studies. Avenue trees in urban street canyons were modeled and their implications on traffic pollutant dispersion were investigated. The dispersion experiments proved the modeling concept to be practicable for wind tunnel studies and suggested to provide reliable concentration results. Unfavorable effects of trees on pollutant dispersion and natural ventilation in street canyons were revealed. Increased traffic pollutant concentrations were found in comparison to the tree-free reference case.

  14. Generic guide concepts for the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zendler, C.; Martin Rodriguez, D.; Bentley, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The construction of the European Spallation Source (ESS) faces many challenges from the neutron beam transport point of view: the spallation source is specified as being driven by a 5 MW beam of protons, each with 2 GeV energy, and yet the requirements in instrument background suppression relative to measured signal vary between 10-6 and 10-8. The energetic particles, particularly above 20 MeV, which are expected to be produced in abundance in the target, have to be filtered in order to make the beamlines safe, operational and provide good quality measurements with low background. We present generic neutron guides of short and medium length instruments which are optimised for good performance at minimal cost. Direct line of sight to the source is avoided twice, with either the first point out of line of sight or both being inside the bunker (20 m) to minimise shielding costs. These guide geometries are regarded as a baseline to define standards for instruments to be constructed at ESS. They are used to find commonalities and develop principles and solutions for common problems. Lastly, we report the impact of employing the over-illumination concept to mitigate losses from random misalignment passively, and that over-illumination should be used sparingly in key locations to be effective. For more widespread alignment issues, a more direct, active approach is likely to be needed.

  15. Concepts for the PEP-X Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hettel, Robert; Bane, Karl; Bertsche, Kirk; Cai, Yunhai; Chao, Alex; Dolgashev, Valery; Fox, John; Huang, Xiaobiao; Huang, Zhirong; Mastorides, Themistoklis; Ng, Cho; Nosochkov, Yuri; Novokhatski, Alexander; Rabedeau, Thomas; Rivetta, Claudio; Safranek, James; Seeman, John; Stohr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; Tantawi, Sami G.; Wang, Lanfa; /SLAC /Stanford U. /UCLA

    2010-08-26

    SSRL and SLAC groups are developing a long-range plan to transfer its evolving scientific programs from the SPEAR3 light source to a much higher performing photon source that would be housed in the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel. While various concepts for the PEP-X light source are under consideration, including ultimate storage ring and ERL configurations, the present baseline design is a very low-emittance storage ring. A hybrid lattice has double bend achromat (DBA) cells in two of the six arcs that provide a total 30 straight sections for insertion device (ID) beam lines extending into two new experimental halls. The remaining arcs contain TME cells. Using 90 m of damping wigglers the horizontal emittance at 4.5 GeV would be 100 pm-rad with 1.5-A stored beam. PEP-X will produce photon beams having brightnesses near 10{sup 22} (ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW) at 10 keV. Studies indicate that a 90-m undulator could have FEL gain and brightness enhancement at soft x-ray wavelengths with the stored beam. Crab cavities or other beam manipulation systems could be used to reduce bunch length or otherwise enhance photon emission properties. The present status of the design of PEP-X as a storage ring is presented.

  16. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions. (a... maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the Indian... part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established under section...

  17. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  18. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  19. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  20. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  1. MODELING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...

  2. Simulation of Non-point Source Pollution in the Songhua River Basin Using GBNP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Tang, L.; Chen, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    China is facing increasingly severe water pollution issue with rapid socio-economic development. Non-point source pollution, which is rarely monitored, has become the main forms of water pollution in China. In this study, the Geomorphology-Based Non-point source Pollution (GBNP) model was used to simulate the processes of rain-runoff, soil erosion, sediment routing and pollutant transport in the Songhua River basin from 2001 to 2010. The spatio-temporal variation of non-point source pollution and river water quality were analyzed based on the simulation outputs. In the entire basin, the annual mean loading of TN, TP and soil erosion are 270,000 ton/a, 42,200 ton/a and 55,900,000 ton/a, respectively. The point and non-point source pollution respectively account for 44.9% and 55.1% in TN loading. For TP loading, the proportions of point and non-point source pollution are 14.4% and 85.6%, respectively. It suggests that the non-point source pollution control and treatments should be paid more attention in the Songhua River basin. The inter-annual and intra-annual variations of non-point source pollution components and potential driving mechanisms are further examined. The annual loading of soil erosion, TN and TP are highly correlated with annual runoff, with the correlation coefficients of 0.75, 0.91 and 0.92, respectively, which implies that rain-runoff could be the main driving force of non-point pollution. The monthly sediment concentration in the watercourse is high in flood season and low in non-flood season, which agrees well with the seasonality of monthly runoff. By contrast, the concentrations of TN and TP in watercourse show the opposite features.

  3. A Bayesian Multivariate Receptor Model for Estimating Source Contributions to Particulate Matter Pollution using National Databases

    PubMed Central

    Hackstadt, Amber J.; Peng, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Time series studies have suggested that air pollution can negatively impact health. These studies have typically focused on the total mass of fine particulate matter air pollution or the individual chemical constituents that contribute to it, and not source-specific contributions to air pollution. Source-specific contribution estimates are useful from a regulatory standpoint by allowing regulators to focus limited resources on reducing emissions from sources that are major contributors to air pollution and are also desired when estimating source-specific health effects. However, researchers often lack direct observations of the emissions at the source level. We propose a Bayesian multivariate receptor model to infer information about source contributions from ambient air pollution measurements. The proposed model incorporates information from national databases containing data on both the composition of source emissions and the amount of emissions from known sources of air pollution. The proposed model is used to perform source apportionment analyses for two distinct locations in the United States (Boston, Massachusetts and Phoenix, Arizona). Our results mirror previous source apportionment analyses that did not utilize the information from national databases and provide additional information about uncertainty that is relevant to the estimation of health effects. PMID:25309119

  4. LINEAR MODELS FOR MANAGING SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Gustafson, Sven-Ake; ,

    1984-01-01

    Mathematical models for the problem of maintaining a specified groundwater quality while permitting solute waste disposal at various facilities distributed over space are discussed. The pollutants are assumed to be chemically inert and their concentrations in the groundwater are governed by linear equations for advection and diffusion. The aim is to determine a disposal policy which maximises the total amount of pollutants released during a fixed time T while meeting the condition that the concentration everywhere is below prescribed levels.

  5. Urban nonpoint source pollution buildup and washoff models for simulating storm runoff quality in the Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Wei, Jiahua; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian; Maqsood, Imran

    2011-07-01

    Many urban nonpoint source pollution models utilize pollutant buildup and washoff functions to simulate storm runoff quality of urban catchments. In this paper, two urban pollutant washoff load models are derived using pollutant buildup and washoff functions. The first model assumes that there is no residual pollutant after a storm event while the second one assumes that there is always residual pollutant after each storm event. The developed models are calibrated and verified with observed data from an urban catchment in the Los Angeles County. The application results show that the developed model with consideration of residual pollutant is more capable of simulating nonpoint source pollution from urban storm runoff than that without consideration of residual pollutant. For the study area, residual pollutant should be considered in pollutant buildup and washoff functions for simulating urban nonpoint source pollution when the total runoff volume is less than 30 mm.

  6. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period.

  7. Solving inverse problems of groundwater-pollution-source identification using a differential evolution algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurarslan, Gurhan; Karahan, Halil

    2015-09-01

    In this study, an accurate model was developed for solving problems of groundwater-pollution-source identification. In the developed model, the numerical simulations of flow and pollutant transport in groundwater were carried out using MODFLOW and MT3DMS software. The optimization processes were carried out using a differential evolution algorithm. The performance of the developed model was tested on two hypothetical aquifer models using real and noisy observation data. In the first model, the release histories of the pollution sources were determined assuming that the numbers, locations and active stress periods of the sources are known. In the second model, the release histories of the pollution sources were determined assuming that there is no information on the sources. The results obtained by the developed model were found to be better than those reported in literature.

  8. An almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm for groundwater pollution source identification.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Simin; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Pei; Zheng, Maohui

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal characterization of unknown sources of groundwater pollution is frequently encountered in environmental problems. This study adopts a simulation-optimization approach that combines a contaminant transport simulation model with a heuristic harmony search algorithm to identify unknown pollution sources. In the proposed methodology, an almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm is developed. The performance of this methodology is evaluated on an illustrative groundwater pollution source identification problem, and the identified results indicate that the proposed almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm-based optimization model can give satisfactory estimations, even when the irregular geometry, erroneous monitoring data, and prior information shortage of potential locations are considered.

  9. Mapping Air Pollution Concentrations and Sources in China from Ground-Level Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, R. A.; Muller, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    China has recently established an extensive air quality monitoring system with over 1500 sites providing hourly data on airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 / PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Based on Kriging interpolation of these surface data, we derive a detailed map of air pollution across the eastern half of China. In northern and central China, the pollution is widespread; contrary to popular belief, pollution is not simply localized to major cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, or Chongqing, or in geologic basins. Pollution levels are lower in southern China, in part due to frequent rains. By incorporating wind measurements and estimating pollution transport, we also infer source distributions for key pollutants. Sources are widespread, but many of the largest sources are often situated in or near major population centers. A northeast corridor extending from near Shanghai to north of Beijing includes many of the most significant pollution sources in China. Roughly 5% of the study region accounts for 25% of observed particulate matter emissions. During the analysis period, roughly half of the population of China was subjected to a long-term average pollution level in the unhealthy range, according to standards used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, nearly all of China's population (>90%) was exposed to unhealthy levels of air pollution at least some of the time. Based on health impact estimates from the Huai River Study, we estimate that the observed levels of particulate matter pollution contribute to about 1.4 million deaths every year in China, about 3500 per day, in agreement with prior estimates. Identification of sources from pollution data was facilitated by the reporting of hourly measurements, and we encourage other nations around the world to follow China's example and provide such time-resolved data.

  10. Intake fraction variability between air pollution emission sources inside an urban area.

    PubMed

    Tainio, Marko; Holnicki, Piotr; Loh, Miranda M; Nahorski, Zbigniew

    2014-11-01

    The cost-effective mitigation of adverse health effects caused by air pollution requires information on the contribution of different emission sources to exposure. In urban areas the exposure potential of different sources may vary significantly depending on emission height, population density, and other factors. In this study, we quantified this intraurban variability by predicting intake fraction (iF) for 3,066 emission sources in Warsaw, Poland. iF describes the fraction of the pollutant that is inhaled by people in the study area. We considered the following seven pollutants: particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a] pyrene (BaP), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Emissions for these pollutants were grouped into four emission source categories (Mobile, Area, High Point, and Other Point sources). The dispersion of the pollutants was predicted with the CALPUFF dispersion model using the year 2005 emission rate data and meteorological records. The resulting annual average concentrations were combined with population data to predict the contribution of each individual source to population exposure. The iFs for different pollutant-source category combinations varied between 51 per million (PM from Mobile sources) and 0.013 per million (sulfate PM from High Point sources). The intraurban iF variability for Mobile sources primary PM emission was from 4 per million to 100 per million with the emission-weighted iF of 44 per million. These results propose that exposure due to intraurban air pollution emissions could be decreased more effectively by specifically targeting sources with high exposure potency rather than all sources.

  11. [Nitrogen non-point source pollution identification based on ArcSWAT in Changle River].

    PubMed

    Deng, Ou-Ping; Sun, Si-Yang; Lü, Jun

    2013-04-01

    The ArcSWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was adopted for Non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution modeling and nitrogen source apportionment for the Changle River watershed, a typical agricultural watershed in Southeast China. Water quality and hydrological parameters were monitored, and the watershed natural conditions (including soil, climate, land use, etc) and pollution sources information were also investigated and collected for SWAT database. The ArcSWAT model was established in the Changle River after the calibrating and validating procedures of the model parameters. Based on the validated SWAT model, the contributions of different nitrogen sources to river TN loading were quantified, and spatial-temporal distributions of NPS nitrogen export to rivers were addressed. The results showed that in the Changle River watershed, Nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen air deposition and nitrogen soil pool were the prominent pollution sources, which contributed 35%, 32% and 25% to the river TN loading, respectively. There were spatial-temporal variations in the critical sources for NPS TN export to the river. Natural sources, such as soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the rainy seasons. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the crop growing season. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application, soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition were the main sources for TN exported from the garden plot, forest and residential land, respectively. However, they were the main sources for TN exported both from the upland and paddy field. These results revealed that NPS pollution controlling rules should focus on the spatio-temporal distribution of NPS pollution sources. PMID:23798104

  12. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous po...

  13. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source.... SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, EPA is proposing to grant delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  14. 75 FR 8888 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source...). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 112(l) of the 1990 Clean Air Act, EPA granted delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the...

  15. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate an...

  16. URBAN STORMWATER TOXIC POLLUTANTS: ASSESSMENT, SOURCES, AND TREATABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes an investigation to characterize and treat selected storm water contaminants that are listed as toxic pollutants (termed toxicants in this paper) in the Clean Water Act, Section 307 (Arbuckle et al., 1991). The first project phase investigated typical toxica...

  17. A hybrid simulation-optimization approach for solving the areal groundwater pollution source identification problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayvaz, M. Tamer

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a new simulation-optimization approach is proposed for solving the areal groundwater pollution source identification problems which is an ill-posed inverse problem. In the simulation part of the proposed approach, groundwater flow and pollution transport processes are simulated by modeling the given aquifer system on MODFLOW and MT3DMS models. The developed simulation model is then integrated to a newly proposed hybrid optimization model where a binary genetic algorithm and a generalized reduced gradient method are mutually used. This is a novel approach and it is employed for the first time in the areal pollution source identification problems. The objective of the proposed hybrid optimization approach is to simultaneously identify the spatial distributions and input concentrations of the unknown areal groundwater pollution sources by using the limited number of pollution concentration time series at the monitoring well locations. The applicability of the proposed simulation-optimization approach is evaluated on a hypothetical aquifer model for different pollution source distributions. Furthermore, model performance is evaluated for measurement error conditions, different genetic algorithm parameter combinations, different numbers and locations of the monitoring wells, and different heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields. Identified results indicated that the proposed simulation-optimization approach may be an effective way to solve the areal groundwater pollution source identification problems.

  18. EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON AND STEEL SOURCES: CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a comprehensive set of emission factors for sources of both criteria and toxic air pollutants in integrated iron and steel plants and specialty electric arc shops (minimills). Emission factors are identified for process sources, and process and open source fug...

  19. Differential Decay of Bacterial and Viral Fecal Indicators in Common Human Pollution Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the decomposition of different human fecal pollution sources is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decay of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fe...

  20. UNCERTAINTY IN LEACHING POTENTIAL OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTANTS WITH APPLICATION TO GIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a stochastic framework for the assessment of groundwater pollution potential of nonpoint source pesticides. A conceptual relationship is presented that relates seasonally averaged groundwater recharge to soil properties and depths to the water table. The analy...

  1. UNCERTAINTY IN LEACHING POTENTIAL OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTANTS WITH APPLICATION TO A GIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a stochastic framework for the assessment of groundwater pollution potential of nonpoint source pesticides. A conceptual relationship is presented that relates seasonally averaged groundwater recharge to soil properties and depths to the water table. The analy...

  2. Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

  3. [Quantification of non-point sources phosphorus pollution in key protection area of Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyan; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhu, Jianguo

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of various kinds of non-point sources phosphorus pollution in Xueyan Town, Wujin city, Taihu area was researched through field experiments and local investigation during rice growth season. The results showed that of all kinds of phosphorus pollution, about 56.2% (1313 kg P) was from farmland, 22.2% (518 kg P) was from town residents, 18.9% (442 kg P) was from village residents, and 2.7% (62 kg P) was from livestock. Besides the strict control of the phosphorus pollution from farmland, attention should also be paid on the control of domestic water pollution from towns and villages. PMID:15139206

  4. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  5. Critical levels of atmospheric pollution: criteria and concepts for operational modelling of mercury in forest and lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Meili, Markus; Bishop, Kevin; Bringmark, Lage; Johansson, Kjell; Munthe, John; Sverdrup, Harald; de Vries, Wim

    2003-03-20

    Mercury (Hg) is regarded as a major environmental concern in many regions, traditionally because of high concentrations in freshwater fish, and now also because of potential toxic effects on soil microflora. The predominant source of Hg in most watersheds is atmospheric deposition, which has increased 2- to >20-fold over the past centuries. A promising approach for supporting current European efforts to limit transboundary air pollution is the development of emission-exposure-effect relationships, with the aim of determining the critical level of atmospheric pollution (CLAP, cf. critical load) causing harm or concern in sensitive elements of the environment. This requires a quantification of slow ecosystem dynamics from short-term collections of data. Aiming at an operational tool for assessing the past and future metal contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, we present a simple and flexible modelling concept, including ways of minimizing requirements for computation and data collection, focusing on the exposure of biota in forest soils and lakes to Hg. Issues related to the complexity of Hg biogeochemistry are addressed by (1) a model design that allows independent validation of each model unit with readily available data, (2) a process- and scale-independent model formulation based on concentration ratios and transfer factors without requiring loads and mass balance, and (3) an equilibration concept that accounts for relevant dynamics in ecosystems without long-term data collection or advanced calculations. Based on data accumulated in Sweden over the past decades, we present a model to determine the CLAP-Hg from standardized values of region- or site-specific synoptic concentrations in four key matrices of boreal watersheds: precipitation (atmospheric source), large lacustrine fish (aquatic receptor and vector), organic soil layers (terrestrial receptor proxy and temporary reservoir), as well as new and old lake sediments (archives of response

  6. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution before conception date and likelihood of giving birth to girls in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liang, Zhijiang; Liu, Tao; Di, Qian; Qian, Zhengmin; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Ma, Wenjun; Zhao, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    A few studies have linked ambient air pollution with sex ratio at birth. Most of these studies examined the long-term effects using spatial or temporal comparison approaches. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exposure to air pollution before conception date could affect the likelihood of the offspring being male or female. We used the information collected in a major maternal hospital in Guangzhou, China. The parental exposure to air pollution was assessed using the air pollution concentration before the conception date. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between air pollution exposure and birth sex with adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as maternal age, parental education levels, long-term trend, season, and weather condition (mean temperature and relative humidity). The analysis revealed that higher air pollution was associated with higher probability of female newborns, with the effective exposure around one week prior to conception date. In the one-pollutant models, PM10, SO2 and NO2 had significant effects. For example, the excess risk was 0.61% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.36%, 0.86%) for a 10 ug/m3 increase in lag 2 day's PM10, 0.42% (95% CI: 0.21%, 0.64%) for lag 3 day's SO2 and 0.97% (95% CI: 0.44%, 1.50%) for lag 3 day's NO2; and in two-pollutant models, PM10 remained statistically significant. These results suggest that parental exposure to ambient air pollution a few days prior to conception might be a contributing factor to higher probability of giving birth to female offspring in Guangzhou.

  7. Identifying pollutant source directions using multiple analysis methods at a rural location in New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Min-Suk; Schwab, James J.; Chen, Wei-Nai; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Rattigan, Oliver V.; Demerjian, Kenneth L.

    2011-05-01

    We identify the directionality of sources contributing to observed pollutant concentrations at a rural site through the use of the analysis methods of Conditional Probability Function (CPF) and the Source Direction Probability (SDP). Input data consists of hourly averaged PM 2.5 mass, Organic Mass (OM) from Organic Carbon (OC), optical Elemental Carbon (optical EC), SO 2, CO, NOy, O 3 concentrations and metrological data from Pinnacle State Park site in rural New York State for the period of Dec 2004 to Dec 2008. These measured pollutants are coupled with on-site wind data to identify the directionality of the sources; which are then compared to known stationary source locations from the EPA Air Data web site. Although the CPF plot of the O 3 showed no distinct directionality source area, the Pinnacle State Park site was frequently impacted by plumes of relatively high PM 2.5 mass, SO 2, CO, NOy, optical EC and OM concentrations. Further analysis of the enhanced pollution occurrence frequency from the eastern sector revealed two peaks in the time-of-day distribution of elevated CO, NOy, and optical EC, which provides additional information on the sources. This contrasts with the enhanced pollution occurrence frequency from the south for CO, OM, and optical EC, which shows a single morning peak in its time-of-day distribution and indicates a somewhat more distant, but common source for these carbon-containing pollutants. PM 2.5 mass corresponds to the source areas related to emission facilities listed in the EPA Emissions Inventory, which is further confirmed by correlation and analysis of aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on board Terra and Aqua satellites. We present evidence that most of the high pollution episodes likely arise from emission sources located several hundred kilometers from the site, indicating mid-long range transport of pollutants to this location.

  8. Spatial distribution and source identification of persistent pollutants in marine sediments of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Jiang, Honglei; Zhang, Yaozong

    2013-06-01

    A data matrix, obtained during a 3-year monitoring period (2007-2009) from 45 sampling sites in Hong Kong marine, was subjected to determine the spatial characterization and identify the sources of main pollutants. Indicator analyses indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nickel, manganese, and arsenic (As) were at safe levels. Five heavy metals (zinc, lead, cupper, cadmium, chromium (Cr)) were moderate to severe enrichment at some sites. Inner Deep Bay and Victoria Harbor were considered as hot spots for PAHs and the heavy metals, while Tolo Harbor was highly polluted by the heavy metals. Cluster analysis classified the 45 sampling sites into three groups, representing different pollution levels. Principal component analysis/factor analysis identified four principal components (PCs) and explained 84.9 % of the total variances, standing for persistent pollution, N factor, P and Cr factor, and As factor, respectively. Group A was highly polluted by persistent pollution, group B was the less polluted group, and subgroup B1 was less affected by PC3 and PC4 than subgroup B2. Group C, considered as the moderately polluted group, was greatly affected by N factor or persistent pollution, while subgroup C2 received more N pollution than subgroup C1. PMID:23001553

  9. APTI Course 450, Source Sampling for Particulate Pollutants. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldina, G. J.; And Others

    This manual covers a four and one half day laboratory course in source sampling for particulates. The course presents principles and techniques necessary for performing isokinetic source sampling procedures. Lectures cover formulas dealing with basic fluid mechanics appropriate to the techniques employed. Laboratory exercises are intended to…

  10. The geostationary tropospheric pollution explorer (GeoTROPE) mission: objectives, requirements and mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.; Bergametti, G.; Flaud, J. M.; Orphal, J.; Noël, S.; Monks, P. S.; Corlett, G. K.; Goede, A. P.; von Clarmann, T.; Steck, T.; Fischer, H.; Friedl-Vallon, F.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing atmospheric sciences is to assess, understand and quantify the impact of natural and anthropogenic pollution on the quality of life on Earth on a local, regional and continental scale. It has become apparent that pollution originating from local/regional events can have serious effects on the composition of the lower atmosphere on a continental scale. However, to understand the effects of regional pollution on a continental scale there is a requirement to transcend traditional atmospheric spatial and temporal scales and attempt to monitor the entire atmosphere at the same time. In the troposphere the variability of chemical processes, of source strength and the dynamics induce important short term, i.e., sub-hourly, variations and significant horizontal and vertical variability of constituents and geophysical parameters relevant to a range of contemporary issues such as air quality. To study tropospheric composition, it is therefore required to link diurnal with seasonal and annual timescales, as well as local and regional with continental spatial scales, by performing sub-hourly measurements at appropriate horizontal and vertical resolution. Tropospheric observations from low-Earth orbit (LEO) platforms have already demonstrated the potential of detecting constituents relevant for air quality but they are limited, for example by the daily revisit time and local cloud cover statistics. The net result of this is that the troposphere is currently significantly under sampled. Measurements from Geostationary Orbit (GEO) offer the only practical approach to the observation of diurnal variation from space with the pertinent horizontal resolution. The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) is an attempt to determine tropospheric constituents with high temporal and spatial resolution. The paper will summarise the needs for geostationary observations of tropospheric composition and will give the mission objectives and the

  11. Education and changes in residential nonpoint source pollution.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Michael E; Clausen, John C; Filchak, Karen K

    2004-11-01

    Urban areas contribute pollutants such as excess nitrogen and bacteria to receiving water bodies. The objective of this project was to determine if stormwater quality could be improved by educating homeowners and implementing best management practices (BMPs) in a suburban neighborhood. The paired watershed design was used, where a control and treatment watershed are monitored during a calibration and treatment period. Treatment consisted of the education of homeowners and structural changes designed to minimize nonpoint pollution. Some changes in measured behavior were reported. According to the treatment period survey, 11% of respondents in the treatment watershed began fertilizing their lawn based on the results of a soil test, whereas none had done so previously. In addition, 82% of respondents in the treatment watershed stated that they left clippings on the lawn compared to 62% from the initial survey. Twelve of 34 lots (35%) adopted some BMPs following education efforts, indicating a significant (P = 0.001) increase in BMP use overall. However, a chi2 analysis of survey data indicated no significant changes in measured behavior with regard to specific questions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) results indicated that a 75% reduction in nitrite + nitrate - N (change in intercept, P = 0.001) and a 127% reduction in fecal coliform bacteria (change in slope, P = 0.05) concentrations occurred. However, the treatment period regression was non-significant for bacteria. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and ammonia-N concentrations did not change significantly. Intensive education efforts produced BMP implementation and measurable water quality improvements.

  12. Analytical dispersion model for the chain of primary and secondary air pollutants released from point source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juodis, Laurynas; Filistovič, Vitold; Maceika, Evaldas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model for dispersion of air pollutants released from a point source forming a secondary pollutant (e.g. chemical transformation or parent-daughter radionuclide chain) is formulated considering the constant wind speed and eddy diffusivities as an explicit function of downwind distance from the source in Cauchy (reflection-deposition type) boundary conditions. The dispersion of pollutants has been investigated by using the Gaussian plume dispersion parameters σy and σz instead of the diffusivity parameters Ky and Kz. For primary pollutant it was proposed to use the derived dry deposition factor instead of the source depletion alternative. An analytical solution for steady-state two-dimensional pollutant transport in the atmosphere is presented. Derived formulas include dependency from effective release height, gravitational and dry deposition velocities of primary and secondary pollutants, advection, surface roughness length and empirical dispersion parameters σy and σz. Demonstration of analytical solution application is provided by calculation of 135Xe and 135C air activity concentrations and the applicability of the model for the solution of atmospheric pollution transport problems.

  13. Methods of targeting animal sources of fecal pollution in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, proposed chemical and biological MST indicators for the determination of animal fecal sources are discussed. The biological indicators are grouped based on the phylogenetic description of the proposed target (eukarya, bacteria, and virus). A comprehensive descrip...

  14. Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources are compared for the DuPage River basin in northern Illinois. Costs are estimated for effluent standards for municipal wastewater treatment plants and for the alternative, controlling runoff from nonpoint sources such as streets, agricultural lands, and forests. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine water quality effects of various treatment plant standards and nonpoint-source controls. Costs and water quality data are combined, and the point-source and nonpoint-source plans are compared on a cost-effectiveness basis. Nonpoint-source controls are found to be more cost-effective than stricter control of pollutants from point sources.

  15. Pollutant runoff from non-point sources and its estimation by runoff models.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, M; Hiwatashi, T; Mizuno, Y; Minematsu, M

    2002-01-01

    In order to attain a sound and sustainable water environment, it is important to carry out the environmental management of the watershed. For this purpose, knowledge on the pollutant runoff mechanism from non-point sources becomes very important especially under rainy conditions. At Isahaya, Nagasaki, Japan, a big project of construction of sea-dyke and reclamation is now going on, so reducing the pollutant runoff, especially from non-point sources, becomes more important. Some runoff models of rainwater are developed to predict the rate of pollutant loads from the non-point sources, and their results are compared with each other to investigate the accuracy of prediction. In this paper, runoff analysis of both rainwater and pollutants has been carried out using three models: the tank model, the kinematic wave (K-W) model, and a model using the digital elevation model (DEM). For precise estimation, it becomes necessary to identify the parameters included in these models. Here, total nitrogen has been considered as pollutants, and detachment rates are evaluated, correlated with a class of land use, soil type, and moisture content. Finally, it has been shown that pollutant runoff from non-point sources can be predicted fairly well, identifying the model parameter appropriately.

  16. Comprehensive sampling program for the Y-12 Plant area source pollution assessment and control plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kingrea, R.H.; Arniella, E.F.; Roesner, L.A.; Quasebarth, T.

    1987-10-15

    The Y-12 Plant has begun an aggressive program for identifying and controlling nonpoint pollution discharges to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Nonpoint source discharges, also referred to as area source discharges, result when surface water or ground water flows though contaminated surfaces resulting in the transport of pollutants to a receiving stream. This paper presents the approach undertaken by the project team to implement a comprehensive sampling program of the EFPC drainage area. The results of the comprehensive sampling program will be used to establish best management practices for the control of nonpoint sources in the EFPC drainage area. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangodoyin, A. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

  18. Detection of human and animal sources of pollution by microbial and chemical methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-indicator approach comprising Enterococcus, bacterial source tracking (BST), and sterol analysis was tested for pollution source identification. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water sites tested. Enterococcus faecium was the dominant species in aged litter samples from p...

  19. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  20. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Luther L.

    1970-01-01

    Our mechanized environment has produced a variety of man-made pollutants. Prevention of pollution and resulting health hazards is a primary challenge. The Federal Government undertakes a large responsibility in the field of environmental control. (CK)

  1. Nonpoint source pollution management models for regional groundwater quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, K.

    1988-01-01

    Several steady-state groundwater quality management models useful for investigating regional groundwater wasteload allocation from nonpoint sources are presented. These management models are constructed as linear programming optimization models. Equations from a finite difference, steady-state, two-dimensional horizontal, unconfined, advective contaminant transport model are used as part of each optimization problem constraint set. The management models were applied over the Sole Source aquifer of Barnstable County, Massachusetts. Barnstable County is incurring widespread nitrate contamination from distributed septic systems which serve 88 percent of the population. The modeling approach requires general data normally available through state geological surveys, regional planning commissions, and the census bureau. The optimal regional nonpoint source groundwater wasteload allocations are generated from this data as are resultant contaminant distributions, boundaries of critical recharge areas, and the associated water quality tradeoffs for changes in existing and proposed land use (or source) management schemes. The optimal wasteload allocations were translated into estimates of distributed source densities and land use development patterns.

  2. Evaluation of environmental impact of air pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holnicki, P.

    2004-10-15

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluation and comparison of environmental impact of emission sources in the case of a complex, multisource emission field. The analysis is based on the forecasts of a short-term, dynamic dispersion model. The aim is to get a quantitative evaluation of the contribution of the selected sources according to the predefined, environmental cost function. The approach utilizes the optimal control technique for distributed parameter systems. The adjoint equation, related to the main transport equation of the forecasting model, is applied to calculate the sensitivity of the cost function to the emission intensity of the specified sources. An example implementation of a regional-scale, multilayer dynamic model of SOx transport is discussed as the main forecasting tool. The test computations have been performed for a set of the major power plants in a selected industrial region of Poland.

  3. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution. Report for March 1988-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1990-04-01

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes, and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types.

  4. Estimating mobile source pollutant emission: Methodological comparison and planning implications.

    PubMed

    Kim, T J; Hoskote, N G

    1983-03-01

    In the United States, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 require that all non-attainment metropolitan areas evaluate the potential of transportation controls in meeting 1982 National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Many of these controls are designed to impact on mobile source emissions by altering vehicular speed.The paper discusses differences in results obtained by two alternative methods for estimating the same area's mobile source emissions. The findings suggest that alternative zonal speed aggregation procedures can lead to widely diverging emission estimates. The paper further discusses the inherent assumptions in the aggregation procedures and the potential consequences of their uses in transportation planning for air quality controls.

  5. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated

  6. Advanced information technologies for assessing nonpoint source pollution in the vadose zone: Conference overview

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, D.L.; Loague, K.; Ellsworth, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    The information age has ushered in an awareness of and concern for global environmental problems such as climatic change, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Nonpoint source pollution is the single greatest threat to surface and subsurface drinking water resources. Nonpoint source pollutants also pose a threat to sustainable agriculture, which is viewed as the most viable means of meeting the food demands of a world population that is expected to reach 9.4 billion by the middle of the next century. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales would provide a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities. Assessing NPS pollutant is a multidisciplinary problem. To address the problem, advanced information technologies and methodologies are needed that draw from all areas of science and are applied in a spatial context. It was from this setting that the 1997 Joint AGU Chapman/SSSA Outreach Conference Application of GIS, Remote Sensing, Geostatistics, and Solute Transport Modeling for Assessing Nonpoint Source Pollutants in the Vadose Zone (19--24 Oct. 1997, Riverside, CA) materialized. The objective of the conference was to examine current multidisciplinary technologies and methodologies for assessing NPS pollutants in the vadose zone, and to explore new conceptual approaches. It was the conference`s goal to provide a forum to stimulate multidisciplinary interaction to enhance the development of techniques for the real-time measurement and modeling of NPS pollution in the vadose zone and subsurface waters.

  7. Potential pollutant sources in a Choptank River subwatershed: Influence of agricultural and residential land use and aqueous and atmospheric sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture and animal feeding operations have been implicated as sources of water pollution along the Choptank River, an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. This study examined a subwatershed within the Choptank River watershed for effects of land use on water quality. Water and sediment...

  8. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction I: a geographical allocation framework.

    PubMed

    Diebel, Matthew W; Maxted, Jeffrey T; Nowak, Peter J; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution remains a persistent environmental problem, despite the large amount of money that has been spent on its abatement. At local scales, agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been shown to be effective at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to surface waters. However, these effects have rarely been found to act in concert to produce measurable, broad-scale improvements in water quality. We investigated potential causes for this failure through an effort to develop recommendations for the use of riparian buffers in addressing nonpoint source pollution in Wisconsin. We used frequency distributions of phosphorus pollution at two spatial scales (watershed and field), along with typical stream phosphorus (P) concentration variability, to simulate benefit/cost curves for four approaches to geographically allocating conservation effort. The approaches differ in two ways: (1) whether effort is aggregated within certain watersheds or distributed without regard to watershed boundaries (dispersed), and (2) whether effort is targeted toward the most highly P-polluting fields or is distributed randomly with regard to field-scale P pollution levels. In realistic implementation scenarios, the aggregated and targeted approach most efficiently improves water quality. For example, with effort on only 10% of a model landscape, 26% of the total P load is retained and 25% of watersheds significantly improve. Our results indicate that agricultural conservation can be more efficient if it accounts for the uneven spatial distribution of potential pollution sources and the cumulative aspects of environmental benefits.

  9. Activity patterns of Californians: Use of and proximity to indoor pollutant sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Peggy L.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Mulberg, Elliot J.; Hui, Steve P.

    The California Air Resources Board funded a statewide survey of activity patterns of Californians over 11 years of age in order to improve the accuracy of exposure assessments for air pollutants. Telephone interviews were conducted with 1762 respondents over the four seasons from fall 1987 through summer 1988. In addition to completing a 24-h recall diary of activities and locations, participants also responded to questions about their use of and proximity to potential pollutant sources. Results are presented regarding time spent by Californians in different activities and locations relevant to pollutant exposure, and their frequency of use of or proximity to pollutant sources including cigarettes, consumer products such as paints and deodorizers, combustion appliances and motor vehicles. The results show that Californians spend, on average, 87% of their time indoors, 7% in enclosed transit and 6% outdoors. At least 62% of the population over 11 years of age and 46% of nonsmokers are near others' tobacco smoke at some time during the day. Potential exposure to different pollutant sources appears to vary among different gender and age groups. For example, women are more likely to use or be near personal care products and household cleaning agents, while men are more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, solvents and paints. Data from this study can be used to reduce significantly the uncertainty associated with risk assessments for many pollutants.

  10. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  11. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Ballester, Ferran; Tenías, José Maria

    2009-01-01

    We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development. PMID:20168984

  12. Sources of indoor air pollution and respiratory health in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Ballester, Ferran; Tenías, José Maria

    2009-01-01

    We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development.

  13. Statistical approach towards point sources of groundwater pollution with tetrachloroethylene: a field study.

    PubMed

    Kido, K; Magara, Y; Furuichi, T; Ikeda, M

    1989-03-01

    Tetrachloroethylene contamination of well water occurred in a primarily residential area. To search for point source(s) of tetrachloroethylene contamination, 91 water samples were collected on three separate occasions from 41 shallow wells scattered in the areas. Three methods of groundwater level analysis (limited to 30 wells), cluster analysis of water quality indicators and contour drawing of tetrachloroethylene concentrations were applied. The former two analyses showed that the pollution took place in aquifers of two terraces out of the three in the polluted area. The contour mapping demonstrated the presence of three spots of suspected pollution sources as the estimated points of highest tetrachloroethylene concentrations. The available information suggested the existence of a facility with possible use of tetrachloroethylene in the past.

  14. Sources of indoor air pollution and respiratory health in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Ballester, Ferran; Tenías, José Maria

    2009-01-01

    We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development. PMID:20168984

  15. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  16. Child-Rearing Concepts, 1628-1861: Historical Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Philip J., Jr.

    This collection of readings, which focuses on children's education and family influences, is taken from authors of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Puritan-evangelical concepts comprise most of the book, exemplified by such authors as (1) John Robinson, (2) John Locke, (3) Cotton Mather, (4) Susanna Wesley, (5) John Wesley, (6) Jonathan…

  17. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  18. Methodology for the characterization and management of nonpoint source water pollution. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Praner, D.M.; Sprewell, G.M.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this research was development of a methodology for characterization and management of Nonpoint Source (NPS) water pollution. Section 319 of the 1987 Water Quality Act requires states to develop management programs for reduction of NPS pollution via Best Management Practices (BMPs). Air Force installations are expected to abide by federal, state, and local environmental regulations. Currently, the Air Force does not have a methodology to identify and quantify NPS pollution, or a succinct catalog of BMPs. Air Force installation managers need a package to assist them in meeting legislative and regulatory requirements associated with NPS pollution. Ten constituents characteristic of urban runoff were identified in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP) and selected as those constituents of concern for modeling and sampling. Two models were used and compared with the results of a sampling and analysis program. Additionally, a compendium of BMPs was developed.... Nonpoint Source Pollution (NPS), Best Management Practices (BMPs), Water pollution, Water sampling and analysis, Stormwater runoff modeling, NPDES.

  19. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang

    2012-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (∼78%) and nutrients (∼30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  20. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang

    2012-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (∼78%) and nutrients (∼30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices. PMID:22790209

  1. Applications of GIS to the modeling of nonpoint source pollutants in the vadose zone: A conference overview

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, D.L.; Wagenet, R.J.

    1996-05-01

    Because of their unbiquitous nature and potential chronic health effects, nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants have become a focal point of attention by the general public, particularly regarding pollution of surface and subsurface drinking water sources. The NPS pollutants pose a technical problem because of the areal extent of their contamination that increases the complexity and sheer volume of data far beyond that of point-source pollutants. The spatial nature of the NPS pollution problem necessitates the use of a geographic information system (GIS) to manipulate, retrieve, and display the large volumes of spatial data. This overview provides a brief introduction and review of the modeling of NPS pollutants with GIS and a brief discussion of some of the papers presented at the ASA-CSSA-SSSA 1995 Bouyoucos Conference entitled Applications of GIS to the Modeling of Nonpoint Source Pollutants in the Vadose Zone. 80 refs.

  2. Vertical variation of nonpoint source pollutants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Hong, Qian; Xie, Hui; Qiu, Jiali; Liu, Ruimin

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is considered the main reason for water deterioration, but there has been no attempt to incorporate vertical variations of NPS pollution into watershed management, especially in mountainous areas. In this study, the vertical variations of pollutant yields were explored in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) and the relationships between topographic attributes and pollutant yields were established. Based on our results, the pollutant yields decreased significantly from low altitude to median altitude and leveled off rapidly from median altitude to high altitude, indicating logarithmic relationships between pollutant yields and altitudes. The pollutant yields peaked at an altitude of 200-500 m, where agricultural land and gentle slopes (0-8°) are concentrated. Unlike the horizontal distributions, these vertical variations were not always related to precipitation patterns but did vary obviously with land uses and slopes. This paper also indicates that altitude data and proportions of land use could be a reliable estimate of NPS yields at different altitudes, with significant implications for land use planning and watershed management.

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of particulate matter sources and pollution in four communities in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Michael S; Arku, Raphael E; Dionisio, Kathie L; Paciorek, Christopher; Friedman, Ari B; Carmichael, Heather; Zhou, Zheng; Hughes, Allison F; Vallarino, Jose; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Spengler, John D; Ezzati, Majid

    2012-10-01

    Sources of air pollution in developing country cities include transportation and industrial pollution, biomass fuel use, and re-suspended dust from unpaved roads. We examined the spatial patterns of particulate matter (PM) and its sources in four neighborhoods of varying socioeconomic status (SES) in Accra. PM data were from 1 week of morning and afternoon mobile and stationary air pollution measurements in each of the study neighborhoods. PM(2.5) and PM(10) were measured continuously, with matched GPS coordinates. Data on biomass fuel use were from the Ghana 2000 population and housing census and from a census of wood and charcoal stoves along the mobile monitoring paths. We analyzed the associations of PM with sources using a mixed-effects regression model accounting for temporal and spatial autocorrelation. After adjusting for other factors, the density of wood stoves, fish smoking, and trash burning along the mobile monitoring path as well as road capacity and surface were associated with higher PM(2.5). Road capacity and road surface variables were also associated with PM(10), but the association with biomass sources was weak or absent. While wood stoves and fish smoking were significant sources of air pollution, addressing them would require financial and physical access to alternative fuels for low-income households and communities.

  4. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  5. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m3, 27.1±15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3±1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants. PMID:25883528

  6. Oxidative potential and inflammatory impacts of source apportioned ambient air pollution in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyang; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Liu, Yanju; Sun, Yongjun; Zhang, Meigen

    2014-11-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with a range of adverse health impacts. Knowledge of the chemical components and sources of air pollution most responsible for these health effects could lead to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of such effects and more targeted risk reduction strategies. We measured daily ambient fine particulate matter (<2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5) for 2 months in peri-urban and central Beijing, and assessed the contribution of its chemical components to the oxidative potential of ambient air pollution using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The composition data were applied to a multivariate source apportionment model to determine the PM contributions of six sources or factors: a zinc factor, an aluminum factor, a lead point factor, a secondary source (e.g., SO4(2-), NO3(2-)), an iron source, and a soil dust source. Finally, we assessed the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity-related PM sources and inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. In peri-urban Beijing, the soil dust source accounted for the largest fraction (47%) of measured ROS variability. In central Beijing, a secondary source explained the greatest fraction (29%) of measured ROS variability. The ROS activities of PM collected in central Beijing were exponentially associated with in vivo inflammatory responses in epithelial cells (R2=0.65-0.89). We also observed a high correlation between three ROS-related PM sources (a lead point factor, a zinc factor, and a secondary source) and expression of an inflammatory marker (r=0.45-0.80). Our results suggest large differences in the contribution of different PM sources to ROS variability at the central versus peri-urban study sites in Beijing and that secondary sources may play an important role in PM2.5-related oxidative potential and inflammatory health impacts.

  7. Effects of point-source atmospheric pollution on boreal-forest vegetation of northwestern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasova, T.M.; Kovalev, B.I.; Filipchuk, A.N.

    1992-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution from the Noril'sk Mining-Metallurgical Complex, in the form of heavy metals and sulfur components, has resulted in damage to plant communities in the area. Vegetation on over 550,000 ha has been detrimentally affected by the pollution fallout, primarily sulfur dioxide. Forests (mainly Larix sibirica) and most lichens have been killed within a 300,000-ha zone around Noril'sk and extending about 50 km to the south and southeast. Less severe damage to lichens and vascular plants extends 170 km to the south and 80 km to the east of the pollution source consistent with prevailing winds during the period of plant growth. Terricolous lichens are particularly vulnerable to the pollution products and among vascular plants Larix gmelinii, Picea obovata, Ledum palustre, Calamagrostis sp., and Salix lanata show least resistance.

  8. The economic impact of remote sensing data as the source of nonpoint pollution monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Nonpoint pollution of streams with sediment as a result of runoff from alternative uses of land has become a socially unacceptable product of economic activity. This report describes a research approach to economically achieve correction of the nonpoint pollution problem. The research approach integrates the economic model with those data which may be obtainable from remotely sensed sources. The economic problem involves measurement of the direct benefits and costs associated with the changes in land management activities necessary to reduce the level of nonpoint pollution. Remotely sensed data from ERTS-1 may provide some of the information required for the economic model which indicates efficient solutions to the nonpoint pollution problem. Three classes of data (i.e., soil categories, vegetative cover, and water turbidity) have the potential to be measured by ERTS-1 systems. There is substantial research which indicates the ability of ERTS-1 to measure these classes of data under selected conditions.

  9. Spatiotemporal nonpoint source pollution water quality management framework using bi-directional model-GIS linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Faizullabhoy, M.S.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    A framework for water quality assessment and management purposes was developed. In this framework, a bilateral linkage was implemented between the distributed model, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Model (AGNPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) to investigate a spatiotemporal nonpoint source pollution problem from a 750-acre watershed in the NSGA (Naval Security Group Activity) Northwest base at the Virginia/North Carolina border. AGNPS is an event-based, distributed parameter model that simulates runoff and the transport of sediment and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from predominantly agricultural watersheds. In this study rather than manually implementing AGNPS simulation, extracted data are integrated in an automated fashion through a direct bilateral linkage framework between the AGNPS model engine and the GIS. This bilateral linkage framework resulted in a powerful, up-to-date tool that would be capable of monitoring and instantaneously visualizing the transport of any pollutant as well as effectively identifying critical areas of the nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. The framework also allowed the various what if scenarios to support the decision-making processes. Best Management Practices (BMP) for the watershed can be generated in a close loop iterative scheme, until predefined management objectives are achieved. Simulated results showed that the optimal BMP scenario achieved an average reduction of about 41% in soluble and sediment-attached nitrogen and about 62% reduction in soluble and sediment phosphorus from current NPS pollution levels.

  10. Impact of medium-distance pollution sources in a Galician suburban site (NW Iberian peninsula).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carracedo, M P; Andrade, J M; Ballabio, D; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Consonni, V; Piñeiro-Iglesias, M; López-Mahía, P

    2015-04-15

    This work studies airborne quality in a geographical area that has not been investigated broadly: a suburban site nearby A Coruña (Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula). In contrast to major Spanish cities, the site has Atlantic characteristics: rainy, scarce calm weather and infrequent prolonged sunny periods. The relationships between several gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, CO, O3, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and their temporal trends (daily, monthly and seasonal) were evaluated. The aim was to unravel whether medium- and long-distance sources were impacting upon the site. Univariate studies focused on factorizing the pollutants according to a codifying factor (wind direction, hour of the day, season and month). Multivariate studies (Varimax-rotated factorial analysis) were done separately on both weekdays and weekends. The intensity of the daily maxima for NO, NO2, NOx and CO was lower during the weekends, with O3 behaving opposite. PM average values agreed with previous historical reports for a rural background station relatively close to the site and they decreased daily between 11:00 and 19:00 h, likely because of the marine breeze. With moderate wind speeds the pollutants were associated to medium-distance pollution sources, mainly the city of A Coruña and a combination of industrial pollution sources (a power plant, a solid waste incinerator and a regional airport).

  11. Impact of medium-distance pollution sources in a Galician suburban site (NW Iberian peninsula).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carracedo, M P; Andrade, J M; Ballabio, D; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Consonni, V; Piñeiro-Iglesias, M; López-Mahía, P

    2015-04-15

    This work studies airborne quality in a geographical area that has not been investigated broadly: a suburban site nearby A Coruña (Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula). In contrast to major Spanish cities, the site has Atlantic characteristics: rainy, scarce calm weather and infrequent prolonged sunny periods. The relationships between several gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, CO, O3, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and their temporal trends (daily, monthly and seasonal) were evaluated. The aim was to unravel whether medium- and long-distance sources were impacting upon the site. Univariate studies focused on factorizing the pollutants according to a codifying factor (wind direction, hour of the day, season and month). Multivariate studies (Varimax-rotated factorial analysis) were done separately on both weekdays and weekends. The intensity of the daily maxima for NO, NO2, NOx and CO was lower during the weekends, with O3 behaving opposite. PM average values agreed with previous historical reports for a rural background station relatively close to the site and they decreased daily between 11:00 and 19:00 h, likely because of the marine breeze. With moderate wind speeds the pollutants were associated to medium-distance pollution sources, mainly the city of A Coruña and a combination of industrial pollution sources (a power plant, a solid waste incinerator and a regional airport). PMID:25616227

  12. Sources of pharmaceutical pollution in the New York City Watershed.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Patrick M; Wilson, Lloyd R; O'Keefe, Patrick; Sheridan, Robert; King, Thomas; Chen, Chia-Yang

    2008-05-01

    An investigation was carried out in the New York City Watershed for the presence of selected pharmaceuticals. In four seasonal sampling events between August 2003 and May 2004, surface water was collected from eight reservoir keypoints and effluent was collected from four wastewater treatment plants. We evaluated the following twelve compounds: amoxicillin, atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, cephalexin, estrone, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17beta-estradiol, ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and valproic acid. In the treated effluents, carbamazepine was detected most frequently (100%; concentration range: 22-551 ng/L), followed by atenolol (94%; ND - 14,200 ng/L), trimethoprim (83%; ND - 37,000 ng/L), ibuprofen (61%; ND - 14,600 ng/L), and caffeine (49%; ND - 37,200 ng/L), while estrone was detected once (56 ng/L). In the reservoir keypoint samples, only ibuprofen (2.5%; ND - 932 ng/L) and caffeine (2.9%; ND - 177 ng/L) were detected. The other analytes were not detected in any sample. It is expected that investigation of other wastewater treatment plants in the New York City Watershed would show that their effluents are also a potential source of pharmaceuticals, but that these pharmaceuticals are unlikely to be detected in the Watershed's surface waters.

  13. Improving pollutant source characterization by better estimating wind direction with a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Christopher T.; Young, George S.; Haupt, Sue Ellen

    In homeland security applications, it is often necessary to characterize the source location and strength of a potentially harmful contaminant. Correct source characterization requires accurate meteorological data such as wind direction. Unfortunately, available meteorological data is often inaccurate or unrepresentative, having insufficient spatial and temporal resolution for precise modeling of pollutant dispersion. To address this issue, a method is presented that simultaneously determines the surface wind direction and the pollutant source characteristics. This method compares monitored receptor data to pollutant dispersion model output and uses a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the combination of source location, source strength, and surface wind direction that best matches the dispersion model output to the receptor data. A GA optimizes variables using principles from genetics and evolution. The approach is validated with an identical twin experiment using synthetic receptor data and a Gaussian plume equation as the dispersion model. Given sufficient receptor data, the GA is able to reproduce the wind direction, source location, and source strength. Additional runs incorporating white noise into the receptor data to simulate real-world variability demonstrate that the GA is still capable of computing the correct solution, as long as the magnitude of the noise does not exceed that of the receptor data.

  14. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans. PMID:23992682

  15. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans.

  16. Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

    2013-06-01

    Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China.

  17. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia: An action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Efforts to protect British Columbia water quality by regulating point discharges from municipal and industrial sources have generally been successful, and it is recognized that the major remaining cause of water pollution in the province is from non-point sources. These sources are largely unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture, and other forms of land development. The first part of this report reviews the provincial commitment to clean water, the effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, and the management of NPS in the province. Part 2 describes the main causes of NPS in British Columbia: Land development, agriculture, stormwater runoff, on-site sewage systems, forestry and range activities, atmospheric deposition, and boating/marine activities. Finally, it presents key components of the province`s NPS action plan: Education and training, prevention at site, land use planning and co-ordination, assessment and reporting, economic incentives, legislation and regulation, and implementation.

  18. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia: An action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to protect British Columbia water quality by regulating point discharges from municipal and industrial sources have generally been successful, and it is recognized that the major remaining cause of water pollution in the province is from non-point sources. These sources are largely unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture, and other forms of land development. The first part of this report reviews the provincial commitment to clean water, the effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, and the management of NPS in the province. Part 2 describes the main causes of NPS in British Columbia: Land development, agriculture, stormwater runoff, on-site sewage systems, forestry and range activities, atmospheric deposition, and boating/marine activities. Finally, it presents key components of the province's NPS action plan: Education and training, prevention at site, land use planning and co-ordination, assessment and reporting, economic incentives, legislation and regulation, and implementation.

  19. A Combined Stable Isotope And Machine Learning Approach To Quantify And Classify Of Nitrate Pollution Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckx, P. F.; Xue, D.; De Baets, B.

    2011-12-01

    Stable isotope analyses of NO3- (δ15N and δ18O) are widely used to determine the sources of nitrate pollution in water. The objective of our study was (1) to quantify NO3- sources in surface water and to classify surface waters in NO3- pollution classes via a combined stable isotope and machine learning approach; and (2) to assess a decision tree model with physicochemical data for retrieving the latter classification. A logical approach has been followed: (1) 2-year monthly sampling of 30 sampling points from different river basins in Belgium, which were classified into 5 different NO3- pollution classes using experts knowledge (Agriculture (A), Agriculture with groundwater compensation (AGC), Combination of agriculture and horticulture (AH), Greenhouses in an agricultural area (G) and Households (H)); (2) estimating proportional NO3- source contribution per NO3- pollution class by applying a Bayesian isotopic mixing model (SIAR) for measured isotopic data of NO3-; (3) re-classifying the 30 sampling points into NO3- pollution classes via a k-means clustering of the SIAR outputs; and (4) building a decision tree model using physicochemical data to retrieve expert knowledge and k-means clustering classification. SIAR successfully estimated proportional contribution ranges of five potential NO3- sources: NO3- in precipitation, NO3- in fertilizer, NH4+ in fertilizer and precipitation, manure and sewage and soil N. For classes A, AGC, AH and H in winter manure and sewage were major (40 - 60%), NO3- in precipitation minor (< 10%), and the other three sources intermediate (10 - 30%) sources. For class G in winter manure and sewage was a dominant source (50%) and the other four sources contributed in an equal range (10 - 20%). The proportional source contributions shifted in summer. Manure and sewage was the dominant source (30 - 40%) for classes A and AH. For class G the source contributions of manure and sewage and NO3- in precipitation were dominant (30% each) and

  20. LARGE-SCALE PREDICTIONS OF MOBILE SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation shows concentrations and deposition of toxic air pollutants predicted by a 3-D air quality model, the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Contributions from both on-road and non-road mobile sources are analyzed.

  1. Report to Congress: nonpoint source pollution in the U. S. Final report Sep 83-Jan 84

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The report examines the nature and magnitude of nonpoint source water quality problems in the U.S. and outlines the key components of state strategies to prevent and control such pollution. The focus of the report is the identification of high-payoff approaches that are likely to result in the greatest water quality improvements.

  2. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  3. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  4. 76 FR 74708 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63 (Sec. Sec. 63.600 to 63.1199), revised as of July 1, 2011, on page 602, Sec. 63.1196 is reinstated to read as follows: Sec. 63.1196...

  5. Detection and monitoring of pollutant sources with Lidar/Dial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Parracino, S.; Richetta, M.; De Leo, L.; Perrimezzi, C.; Bellecci, C.

    2015-11-01

    It's well known that air pollution due to anthropogenic sources can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. Therefore, in the last years, surveying large regions of the atmosphere in an automatic way has become a strategic objective of various public health organizations for early detection of pollutant sources in urban and industrial areas. The Lidar and Dial techniques have become well established laser based methods for the remote sensing of the atmosphere. They are often implemented to probe almost any level of the atmosphere and to acquire information to validate theoretical models about different topics of atmospheric physics. They can also be used for environment surveying by monitoring particles, aerosols and molecules. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the potential of these methods to detect pollutants emitted from local sources (such as particulate and/or chemical compounds) and to evaluate their concentration. This is exemplified with the help of experimental data acquired in an industrial area in the south of Italy by mean of experimental campaign by use of pollutants simulated source. For this purpose, two mobile systems Lidar and Dial have been developed by the authors. In this paper there will be presented the operating principles of the system and the results of the experimental campaign.

  6. Proposal on a sustainable strategy to avoid point source pollution of water with plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Mestdagh, Inge; Bonicelli, Bernard; Laplana, Ramon; Roettele, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results and lessons learned from the TOPPS project (Training the Operators to prevent Pollution from Point Sources), a proposal on a sustainable strategy to avoid point source pollution from Plant Protection Products (PPPs) was made. Within this TOPPS project (2005-2008), stakeholders were interviewed and research and analysis were done in 6 pilot catchment areas (BE, FR, DE, DK, IT, PL). Next, there was a repeated survey on operators' perception and opinion to measure changes resulting from TOPPS activities and good and bad practices were defined based on the Best Management Practices (risk analysis). Aim of the proposal is to suggest a strategy considering the differences between countries which can be implemented on Member State level in order to avoid PPP pollution of water through point sources. The methodology used for the up-scaLing proposal consists of the analysis of the current situation, a gap analysis, a consistency analysis and organisational structures for implementation. The up-scaling proposal focuses on the behaviour of the operators, on the equipment and infrastructure available with the operators. The proposal defines implementation structures to support correct behaviour through the development and updating of Best Management Practices (BMPs) and through the transfer and the implementation of these BMPs. Next, the proposal also defines requirements for the improvement of equipment and infrastructure based on the defined key factors related to point source pollution. It also contains cost estimates for technical and infrastructure upgrades to comply with BMPs.

  7. BOOK REVIEW OF "ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS: A PRACTICAL APPROACH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book is geared to environmental specialists and planners, heavy on the technical side. It goes beyond tranditional nonpoint source (NPS) approaches which typically only look at stormwater as athe sole NPS pollution driver. There is some overreaching material beyond the conte...

  8. Nonpoint-Source Pollution Issues. January 1990-November 1994. QB 95-01. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makuch, Joe

    Citations in this bibliography are intended to be a substantial resource for recent investigations (January 1990-November 1994) on nonpoint source pollution and were obtained from a search of the National Agriculture Library's AGRICOLA database. The 196 citations are indexed by author and subject. A representation of the search strategy is…

  9. Performance evaluation of a full-scale natural treatment system for nonpoint source and point source pollution removal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Feng; Lin, Jen-Yang; Huang, Chih-Hong; Chen, Way-Ling; Chueh, Nai-Ling

    2009-10-01

    This study presents a full-scale performance of a natural treatment system (NTS) facility in Taiwan with nearly 2 years of observations. The study site, composed of several treatment ponds in series, was designed primarily to reduce polluted stormwater runoff from tea gardens and partially to untreated domestic wastewater from nearby villages. Thus, both nonpoint source and point source pollution are treated in this system. From 28 field samplings in 2006-2007, the NTS site shows satisfactory treatment performance and the effluent water quality is significantly improved. Seven of the 28 sampling events are storm events (nonpoint source pollution) and the remainder are from regular monitoring (point source pollution). The average volume of influent and effluent is 533 CMD and 196 CMD, respectively. In order to determine the removal efficiency, several assessment measures are employed in an attempt to obtain unbiased conclusions. They are removal rate (RR), efficiency rate (ER), summation of loads (SOL), flux rate (FR), and effluent probability method (EPM). The average percent removal efficiency of NH(3)-N is 53.5-75.2% and of TP is 59.0-84.7%, in which the highest result is calculated by SOL method and the lowest rate is obtained from RR. In FR evaluation, larger treatment capacity for NH(3)-N than for TP is provided in the site and the average FR is respectively 0.230 g/m(2) day and 0.017 g/m(2) day. Of the methods examined, EPM is the only method capable of illustrating data distribution. Finally, recommendations on the usefulness of these measures are summarized to facilitate the understandings of NTS performance evaluations.

  10. Sources of persistent organic pollutants emission on the territory of Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakareka, Sergey V.

    The paper considers selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) atmospheric emission evaluation on the territory of Belarus for main source categories. The procedure applied was based on the UNECE EMEP methodology. Data of industrial statistics, production processes analysis and relevant emission factors were used. For a number of sources, only quality and semi-quality emission evaluation was conducted, due to the lack of information for the selection of emission factors or statistical data relevant. In the paper, emissions of the following groups of pollutants are discussed: dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as requested for EMEP database (Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants to the convention of 1979 on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe and Annexes I, II, or III to the Protocol, 1998). PAH emission and selected chlorinated pesticides input also requested by EMEP will be described in other issues. Estimations have showed that Belarus as a whole is not a large emission source of such POPs as dioxins. Its share in European emissions is significantly below 1%. This can be explained by the fact that in Belarus there are no such large dioxin emission sources like sintering, waste incineration, non-ferrous industry. But some important sources of dioxins/furans for instance, open burning are not included in quantitative estimation now. The main contribution to dioxin emissions is by firewood and peat combustion. Only electric steel smelting plant can be considered as a large emission point source. Leakage from transformers and damaged capacitors was estimated as the main source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) discharged into the environment: dielectric fluids with PCB are still in use in electrical equipment.

  11. The precipitation driven correlation based mapping method (PCM) for identifying the critical source areas of non-point source pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinhui Jeanne; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Hao

    2015-05-01

    Critical source areas (CSAs) are the areas that are relatively more erosion-prone and contribute significantly more pollutants per unit area. They have been widely recognized as optimal locations for the control of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Modeling approach has been frequently used to identify the CSAs of NPS pollution on a basin scale. In previous studies, CSAs were identified based on the simulated average annual nutrient yields for the simulation period at the levels of sub-basin or hydrologic response unit (HRU). However, this method did not consider the impact of uneven spatial distribution of precipitation, which is considered to be the driven force of NPS pollution. In many cases, due to limited length of qualified monitoring data collected, the simulation period may not cover a full spectrum of the precipitation characteristics so that some potential CSAs may be missed. In the present study, the precipitation driven correlation based mapping method (PCM) was proposed, which can reduce the impact of uncertain spatial-temporal distribution of precipitation and identify the CSAs of NPS pollution with a better coverage. This method was applied to the Zhang River Basin, a watershed in North China that occupies an area of 18,072 km2. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used for simulation purposes. By using PCM, the maps of CSAs for controlling total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were produced. This study has found that the monthly precipitation is highly correlated with the TN and TP yields. It was observed that TN yields have slightly higher correlation value with the precipitation than TP yields. Hence, the precipitation has more impacts on TN yields than TP yields. The impact is more substantial in urban areas than other areas.

  12. Almanac of enforceable state laws to control nonpoint source water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This new report provides a comprehensive review of existing state laws that can be applied to control polluted runoff from farms, forests, land development, and other activities not regulated under the Clean Water Act`s permit program. The study contains 52 summary reports for the states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, identifying laws where compliance can be enforced. The Almanac is a valuable tool for attorneys, corporations, citizen groups, state and federal legislators, and policymakers seeking ways to address nonpoint source pollution.

  13. Probing the severe haze pollution in three typical regions of China: Characteristics, sources and regional impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiongzhen; Zhuang, Guoshun; Huang, Kan; Liu, Tingna; Deng, Congrui; Xu, Jian; Lin, Yanfen; Guo, Zhigang; Chen, Ying; Fu, Qingyan; Fu, Joshua S.; Chen, Jiakuan

    2015-11-01

    PM2.5 with its major chemical components were measured and analyzed during a concurrent haze in Jan. 1-19, 2013 at three sites (Shanghai, Beijing, and Huaniao, a remote isle over the East China Sea) to probe the sources and formation process of such a severe haze over three typical regions in China. The mean PM2.5 concentrations during the severely polluted days reached 180.8 μg m-3, 299.2 μg m-3, and 131.1 μg m-3 in Shanghai, Beijing, and the Huaniao Isle, respectively. The mass ratio of the sum of SO42- , NO3-, and NH4+ to PM2.5 were over 1/3 during the polluted days at all the three sites. Promoted gas-to-particle transformations from acidic SO2 and NOx to SO42- and NO3- under high relative humidity conditions played a major role in the formation of this severe haze. Significant contribution of traffic emissions to the haze formation over China was suggested to be one of the major sources in triggering the heavy haze over China. Specifically, there was a more contribution from traffic in Shanghai than in Beijing as indicated by the higher NO3-/SO42- ratio in Shanghai. In Beijing, the enhanced coal combustion for winter heating along with the traffic emission was suggested to be the major two sources of this haze episode. Typical pollution elements such as As, Cd, and Pb as well as Cl- and K+ were substantially enhanced in the severely polluted days. Although the Huaniao Isle is located in the remote oceanic area as a background site, pollution elements, secondary ions, and K+ all increased substantially during the polluted days. As visualized by the backward air mass trajectories associated with the potential source region identification technique, air masses that passed over Northern China and Yangtze River Delta evidently invaded the offshore areas of Eastern China. The ratios of As, Cd, Cu, Zn, and K+ to Al at the Huaniao Isle were closer to those of Beijing rather than Shanghai, indicating that the marine aerosol over the East China Sea had been

  14. Spatial variations, temporal trends, and emission sources of air pollutants in seven cities of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, WEI; TAO, SHU; WANG, CHEN

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the derivatives of PAHs (nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs) were measured each month between April, 2010 and March, 2011 in seven large cities (18 sites) in the ambient air of northern China. Similarities in the concentrations of PM, PAHs and oxy-PAHs between rural village and urban area are found, indicating the severe air pollution in the rural villages and strong contribution of solid fuels combustion. Higher nitro-PAHs concentrations in the cities than those in the rural area suggests the influence of motor vehicles, both on primary emission and secondary formation. Without local emission sources, pollutants levels in the rural field area are the lowest. Air pollution in the less developed west China is as severe as that in the east with more population and urbanization, both heavier than that in the coastal area. Such spatial patterns are caused by differences in the sources of contaminants and the removal process. A strong seasonality of all pollutants with higher concentrations in winter and lower in summer is observed due to large heating demand for solid fuel combustion in winter and rich precipitation in summer. Natural sources such as sandstorms also take effects on the spatial distribution and temporal trend of PM.

  15. Chemical composition and sources of particle pollution in affluent and poor neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng; Dionisio, Kathie L.; Verissimo, Thiago G.; Kerr, Americo S.; Coull, Brent; Arku, Raphael E.; Koutrakis, Petros; Spengler, John D.; Hughes, Allison F.; Vallarino, Jose; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-12-01

    The highest levels of air pollution in the world now occur in developing country cities, where air pollution sources differ from high-income countries. We analyzed particulate matter (PM) chemical composition and estimated the contributions of various sources to particle pollution in poor and affluent neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana. Elements from earth’s crust were most abundant during the seasonal Harmattan period between late December and late January when Saharan dust is carried to coastal West Africa. During Harmattan, crustal particles accounted for 55 μg m-3 (37%) of fine particle (PM2.5) mass and 128 μg m-3 (42%) of PM10 mass. Outside Harmattan, biomass combustion, which was associated with higher black carbon, potassium, and sulfur, accounted for between 10.6 and 21.3 μg m-3 of fine particle mass in different neighborhoods, with its contribution largest in the poorest neighborhood. Other sources were sea salt, vehicle emissions, tire and brake wear, road dust, and solid waste burning. Reducing air pollution in African cities requires policies related to energy, transportation and urban planning, and forestry and agriculture, with explicit attention to impacts of each strategy in poor communities. Such cross-sectoral integration requires emphasis on urban environment and urban poverty in the post-2015 Development Agenda.

  16. Population similarity analysis of indicator bacteria for source prediction of faecal pollution in a coastal lake.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Hargreaves, M; Goonetilleke, A; Katouli, M

    2008-08-01

    Biochemical fingerprinting (BF) databases of 524 enterococci and 571 Escherichia coli isolates and an antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) database comprising of 380 E. coli isolates from four suspected sources (i.e. dogs, chickens, waterfowls, and human sewage) were developed to predict the sources of faecal pollution in a recreational coastal lake. Twenty water samples representing four sampling episodes were collected from five sites and the enterococci and E. coli population from each site were compared with those of the databases. The degree of similarity between bacterial populations was measured as population similarity (Sp) coefficient. Using the BF-database, bacterial populations of waterfowls showed the highest similarity with the water samples followed by a sewage treatment plant (STP). Higher population similarities were found between samples from STP and water samples especially at two sites (T2 and T3) which were located near the sewerage pipes collecting wastewater from the study area. When using the ARA-database, the highest similarity was found between E. coli populations from STP and water samples at sites T2 and T4. Both faecal indicators and as well as methods predicted human faecal pollution, possibly through leakage from submerged sewerage pipes. The results indicated that the Sp-analysis of faecal indicator bacterial populations from suspected sources and water samples can be used as a simple tool to predict the source(s) of faecal pollution in surface waters.

  17. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  18. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  19. GAS-PHASE MASS TRANSFER MODEL FOR PREDICTING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) EMISSION RATES FROM INDOOR POLLUTANT SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of the impact of sources on indoor pollutant concentrations and occupant exposure to indoor pollutants requires knowledge of the emission rates from the sources. Emission rates are often determined by chamber testing and the data from the chamber test are fitted to an em...

  20. SIMULATION COASTAL PLAIN STREAM FISH COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION USING LINKED HYDROLOGIC-ECOLOGICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonpoint source pollution is the primary stress in many streams. Characteristic declines in stream fish communities are recognized in streams influenced by nonpoint source pollution, but the processes by which these declines occur are not well understood. Here, predicted time s...

  1. Integrated watershed economic model for non-point source pollution management in Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed, OH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, non-point source pollution (NPS) is one of the major sources of water quality impairments globally (UNEP, 2007). In the US, nutrient pollution is the leading cause of water quality issues in lakes and estuaries (USEPA, 2002). The maximum concentration of nutrients in streams is found to be in...

  2. Managing nonpoint source pollution. Final report to congress on section 319 of the Clean Water Act (1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The report focuses on the state of the national effort to control nonpoint source pollution as of October 1, 1989. Included are the findings of the state nonpoint source assessments; state programs for addressing problems identified in the assessments; related activities of EPA, other federal agencies, and others; and achievements to date on controlling nonpoint source pollution. The report does not discuss implementation activities funded with Fiscal Year 1990 grants and thus may understate the current level of state nonpoint source control activities.

  3. Point source pollution and variability of nitrate concentrations in water from shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Jazbec, Anamarija

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the several major sources of nitrate pollution, and therefore the EU Nitrate Directive, designed to decrease pollution, has been implemented. Point sources like septic systems and broken sewage systems also contribute to water pollution. Pollution of groundwater by nitrate from 19 shallow wells was studied in a typical agricultural region, middle Podravina, in northwest Croatia. The concentration of nitrate ranged from <0.1 to 367 mg/l in water from wells, and 29.8 % of 253 total samples were above maximum acceptable value of 50 mg/l (MAV). Among regions R1-R6, there was no statistically significant difference in nitrate concentrations (F = 1.98; p = 0.15) during the years 2002-2007. Average concentrations of nitrate in all 19 wells for all the analyzed years were between recommended limit value of 25 mg/l (RLV) and MAV except in 2002 (concentration was under RLV). The results of the repeated measures ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between the wells at the point source distance (proximity) of <10 m, compared to the wells at the point source distance of >20 m (F = 10.6; p < 0.001). Average annual concentrations of nitrate during the years studied are not statistically different, but interaction between proximity and years is statistically significant (F = 2.07; p = 0.04). Results of k-means clustering confirmed division into four clusters according to the pollution. Principal component analysis showed that there is only one significant factor, proximity, which explains 91.6 % of the total variability of nitrate. Differences in water quality were found as a result of different environmental factors. These results will contribute to the implementation of the Nitrate Directive in Croatia and the EU.

  4. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition—specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by ‘good spirit beings’), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn’s ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge. PMID:25852602

  5. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition-specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by 'good spirit beings'), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn's ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge. PMID:25852602

  6. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition-specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by 'good spirit beings'), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn's ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge.

  7. Minority Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching Science: Sources of Science Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores five minority preservice teachers' conceptions of teaching science and identifies the sources of their strategies for helping students learn science. Perspectives from the literature on conceptions of teaching science and on the role constructs used to describe and distinguish minority preservice teachers from their mainstream…

  8. Investigation of spatial distributions and sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a heavily polluted industrial region using tree components.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Ozgunerge Falay, Ezgi; Tuna, Gizem; Altiok, Hasan; Kara, Melik; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Elbir, Tolga

    2016-10-01

    Spatial distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Iskenderun industrial region in Turkey. POP concentrations were measured in different tree components (i.e., pine needle, branch, bark, and stem) collected at several industrial and background sites (n = 27). Also, air, litter, and soil samples were analyzed to determine the relationship of atmospheric pollutants with tree components, litter, and soil. Spatial variation of measured concentrations and factor analysis showed that the iron-steel plants are the most important POP sources in Iskenderun area. Correlations of ambient air levels to those measured in soil, litter, and tree components were significant showing that POPs are exchanged between atmosphere and these compartments. Results have suggested that tree components, litter and soil could be used to determine the spatial distributions and sources of atmospheric POPs in a region. POP quantities (mg/ha) accumulated in different tree components, litter, and soil were also predicted. Generally, the highest quantities were accumulated by stem and needles. In terms of overall inventory, including trees, litter and soil, the highest accumulated quantities were found in soil followed by trees and litter, indicating that in addition to soil, vegetation is a notable reservoir accumulating POPs. Ambient air POP concentrations were also estimated using a bark/air partitioning model. The estimated/measured ratios were close to 1.0 for several compounds and the results showed that the atmospheric POP concentrations could be estimated from the bark measurements within factors of 0.23-3.07, 1.02-6.67, 0.63-7.44, 1.07-3.37 for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, respectively. PMID:27367178

  9. Optimization strategy integrity for watershed agricultural non-point source pollution control based on Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study has established a set of methodological systems by simulating loads and analyzing optimization strategy integrity for the optimization of watershed non-point source pollution control. First, the source of watershed agricultural non-point source pollution is divided into four aspects, including agricultural land, natural land, livestock breeding, and rural residential land. Secondly, different pollution control measures at the source, midway and ending stages are chosen. Thirdly, the optimization effect of pollution load control in three stages are simulated, based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The method described above is applied to the Ashi River watershed in Heilongjiang Province of China. Case study results indicate that the combined three types of control measures can be implemented only if the government promotes the optimized plan and gradually improves implementation efficiency. This method for the optimization strategy integrity for watershed non-point source pollution control has significant reference value.

  10. Two-stroke scooters are a dominant source of air pollution in many cities.

    PubMed

    Platt, S M; Haddad, I El; Pieber, S M; Huang, R-J; Zardini, A A; Clairotte, M; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Barmet, P; Pfaffenberger, L; Wolf, R; Slowik, J G; Fuller, S J; Kalberer, M; Chirico, R; Dommen, J; Astorga, C; Zimmermann, R; Marchand, N; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Baltensperger, U; Prévôt, A S H

    2014-05-13

    Fossil fuel-powered vehicles emit significant particulate matter, for example, black carbon and primary organic aerosol, and produce secondary organic aerosol. Here we quantify secondary organic aerosol production from two-stroke scooters. Cars and trucks, particularly diesel vehicles, are thought to be the main vehicular pollution sources. This needs re-thinking, as we show that elevated particulate matter levels can be a consequence of 'asymmetric pollution' from two-stroke scooters, vehicles that constitute a small fraction of the fleet, but can dominate urban vehicular pollution through organic aerosol and aromatic emission factors up to thousands of times higher than from other vehicle classes. Further, we demonstrate that oxidation processes producing secondary organic aerosol from vehicle exhaust also form potentially toxic 'reactive oxygen species'.

  11. [Fluoride accumulation and distribution in mulberry insects near fluoride pollution sources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuyin; Lu, Shenggao

    2002-01-01

    Fluoride accumulation and the relative fluoride loading of different body parts in wild mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mandarina M.), mulberry geometrid (Pathonandria atrineata B.), and mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) near fluoride pollution sources were studied. Comparison of the fluoride content of insect bodies and mulberry leaves showed that insects collected from polluted sites had increased fluoride accumulation. The digestive tract of the insect had much higher fluoride content than the other parts of the body and was considered to be the important organ of fluoride accumulation. There were also wide differences in fluoride accumulation between different insect species within the same polluted site. The highly significantly correlation between fluoride contents of wild mulberry silkworm, mulberry geometrid, and mulberry silkworm with that of the mulberry leaves on which they were collected was found.

  12. Mixing of a point-source indoor pollutant: Numerical predictions and comparison with experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lobscheid, C.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In most practical estimates of indoor pollutant exposures, it is common to assume that the pollutant is uniformly and instantaneously mixed in the indoor space. It is also commonly known that this assumption is simplistic, particularly for point sources, and for short-term or localized indoor exposures. We report computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of mixing time of a point-pulse release of a pollutant in an unventilated mechanically mixed isothermal room. We aimed to determine the adequacy of the standard RANS two-equation ({kappa}-{var_epsilon}) turbulence model to predict the mixing times under these conditions. The predictions were made for the twelve mixing time experiments performed by Drescher et al. (1995). We paid attention to adequate grid resolution, suppression of numerical diffusion, and careful simulation of the mechanical blowers used in the experiments. We found that the predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  13. Surface water sewer misconnections in England and Wales: Pollution sources and impacts.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J B; Butler, D

    2015-09-01

    In urban areas served by separate sewerage consisting of separate pipe systems it is not uncommon for misconnections to be made either accidentally or deliberately, whereby the wrong effluent is connected to the wrong sewer. The main focus of this problem has been on in-household appliances that are wrongly connected to separate surface water sewers, potentially leading to pollution of receiving waters and non-compliance with statutory water quality standards. This paper examines the available evidence to evaluate the potential scale, severity and cost of the problem in England and Wales in comparison to that reported from investigations in the United States. The particular difficulties associated with distinguishing specific sewage sources in the wastewater "cocktail" discharged at polluted surface water outfalls are reviewed. The deficiencies of existing legislation and enforcing compliance with respect to misconnections are also discussed and the pollution potential resulting from domestic misconnections is explored based on sampled data. PMID:25918897

  14. Two-stroke scooters are a dominant source of air pollution in many cities.

    PubMed

    Platt, S M; Haddad, I El; Pieber, S M; Huang, R-J; Zardini, A A; Clairotte, M; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Barmet, P; Pfaffenberger, L; Wolf, R; Slowik, J G; Fuller, S J; Kalberer, M; Chirico, R; Dommen, J; Astorga, C; Zimmermann, R; Marchand, N; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Baltensperger, U; Prévôt, A S H

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuel-powered vehicles emit significant particulate matter, for example, black carbon and primary organic aerosol, and produce secondary organic aerosol. Here we quantify secondary organic aerosol production from two-stroke scooters. Cars and trucks, particularly diesel vehicles, are thought to be the main vehicular pollution sources. This needs re-thinking, as we show that elevated particulate matter levels can be a consequence of 'asymmetric pollution' from two-stroke scooters, vehicles that constitute a small fraction of the fleet, but can dominate urban vehicular pollution through organic aerosol and aromatic emission factors up to thousands of times higher than from other vehicle classes. Further, we demonstrate that oxidation processes producing secondary organic aerosol from vehicle exhaust also form potentially toxic 'reactive oxygen species'. PMID:24825457

  15. Implementing Single Source: The STARBRITE Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Kush, Rebecca; Alschuler, Liora; Ruggeri, Roberto; Cassells, Sally; Gupta, Nitin; Bain, Landen; Claise, Karen; Shah, Monica; Nahm, Meredith

    2007-01-01

    Objective Inefficiencies in clinical trial data collection cause delays, increase costs, and may reduce clinician participation in medical research. In this proof-of-concept study, we examine the feasibility of using point-of-care data capture for both the medical record and clinical research in the setting of a working clinical trial. We hypothesized that by doing so, we could increase reuse of patient data, eliminate redundant data entry, and minimize disruption to clinic workflow. Design We developed and used a point-of-care electronic data capture system to record data during patient visits. The standards-based system was used for clinical research and to generate the clinic note for the medical record. The system worked in parallel with data collection procedures already in place for an ongoing multicenter clinical trial. Our system was iteratively designed after analyzing case report forms and clinic notes, and observing clinic workflow patterns and business procedures. Existing data standards from CDISC and HL7 were used for database insertion and clinical document exchange. Results Our system was successfully integrated into the clinic environment and used in two live test cases without disrupting existing workflow. Analyses performed during system design yielded detailed information on practical issues affecting implementation of systems that automatically extract, store, and reuse healthcare data. Conclusion Although subject to the limitations of a small feasibility study, our study demonstrates that electronic patient data can be reused for prospective multicenter clinical research and patient care, and demonstrates a need for further development of therapeutic area standards that can facilitate researcher use of healthcare data. PMID:17600107

  16. Contributions of artificial lighting sources on light pollution in Hong Kong measured through a night sky brightness monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason; So, Chu Wing; Leung, Wai Yan; Wong, Chung Fai

    2014-05-01

    Light pollution is a form of environmental degradation in which excessive artificial outdoor lighting, such as street lamps, neon signs, and illuminated signboards, affects the natural environment and the ecosystem. Poorly designed outdoor lighting not only wastes energy, money, and valuable Earth resources, but also robs us of our beautiful night sky. Effects of light pollution on the night sky can be evaluated by the skyglow caused by these artificial lighting sources, through measurements of the night sky brightness (NSB). The Hong Kong Night Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (NSN) was established to monitor in detail the conditions of light pollution in Hong Kong. Monitoring stations were set up throughout the city covering a wide range of urban and rural settings to continuously measure the variations of the NSB. Over 4.6 million night sky measurements were collected from 18 distinct locations between May 2010 and March 2013. This huge dataset, over two thousand times larger than our previous survey [1], forms the backbone for studies of the temporal and geographical variations of this environmental parameter and its correlation with various natural and artificial factors. The concepts and methodology of the NSN were presented here, together with an analysis of the overall night sky conditions in Hong Kong. The average NSB in Hong Kong, excluding data affected by the Moon, was 16.8 mag arcsec-2, or 82 times brighter than the dark site standard established by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) [2]. The urban night sky was on average 15 times brighter than that in a rural location, firmly establishing the effects of artificial lighting sources on the night sky.

  17. [Establishment of Method for Health Risk Assessment of Pollutants from Fixed Sources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Wu, Huan-bo

    2016-05-15

    A health risk assessment method of pollutants from fixed sources was developed by applying AERMOD model in the health risk assessment. The method could directly forecast the health risks of toxic pollutants from source by some exposure pathway. Using the established method, in combination with the data of sources and traditional health risk assessment method as well as the measured data of PAHs in inhalation particle matter (PM₁₀) in Lanzhou, the health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) in PM₁₀ from the three fire power plants and the health risk of PAHs and BaP in PM₁₀ at the receptor point by inhalation exposure in heating and non-heating seasons was calculated, respectively. Then the contribution rates of the health risk caused by the three fire power plants to the health risk at the receptor point were calculated. The results showed that the contribution rates were not associated with sex and age, but were associated with time period and risk types. The contribution rates in the non-heating seasons were greater than those in heating seasons, and the contribution rates of the carcinogenic risk index were greater than those of the cancer risk value. The reliability of the established method was validated by comparing with the traditional method. This method was applicable to health risk assessment of toxic pollutants from all fixed sources and environmental risk assessment of environmental impact assessment. PMID:27506015

  18. Reducing nonpoint source pollution through collaboration: policies and programs across the U.S. States.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Scott D; Koontz, Tomas M

    2008-03-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has emerged as the largest threat to water quality in the United States, influencing policy makers and resource managers to direct more attention toward NPS prevention and remediation. In response, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) spent more than $204 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 on the Clean Water Act's Section 319 program to combat NPS pollution, much of it on the development and implementation of watershed-based plans. State governments have also increasingly allocated financial and technical resources to collaborative watershed efforts within their own borders to fight NPS pollution. With increased collaboration among the federal government, states, and citizens to combat NPS pollution, more information is needed to understand how public resources are being used, by whom, and for what, and what policy changes might improve effectiveness. Analysis from a 50-state study suggests that, in addition to the average 35% of all Section 319 funds per state that are passed on to collaborative watershed groups, 35 states have provided financial assistance beyond Section 319 funding to support collaborative watershed initiatives. State programs frequently provide technical assistance and training, in addition to financial resources, to encourage collaborative partnerships. Such assistance is typically granted in exchange for requirements to generate a watershed action plan and/or follow a mutually agreed upon work plan to address NPS pollution. Program managers indicated a need for greater fiscal resources and flexibility to achieve water quality goals.

  19. Agricultural non-point source pollution in China: causes and mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Linxiu; Yang, Linzhang; Zhang, Fusuo; Norse, David; Zhu, Zhaoliang

    2012-06-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The increases of agricultural NPS pollution in China is evaluated for the period 2000-2008 by surveying the literature on water and soil pollution from fertilizers and pesticides, and assessing the surplus nitrogen balance within provinces. The main causes for NPS pollution were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides, which were partly the result of the inadequate agricultural extension services and the rapid expansion of intensive livestock production with little of waste management. The annual application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in China increased by 50.7 and 119.7%, respectively, during 1991-2008. The mitigation measures to reduce NPS pollution include: correct distortion in fertilizer prices; improve incentives for the recycling of organic manure; provide farmers with better information on the sound use of agro-chemicals; and tighten the regulations and national standards on organic waste disposal and pesticides use.

  20. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries.

  1. Reducing Nonpoint Source Pollution Through Collaboration: Policies and Programs Across the U.S. States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Scott D.; Koontz, Tomas M.

    2008-03-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has emerged as the largest threat to water quality in the United States, influencing policy makers and resource managers to direct more attention toward NPS prevention and remediation. In response, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) spent more than 204 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 on the Clean Water Act’s Section 319 program to combat NPS pollution, much of it on the development and implementation of watershed-based plans. State governments have also increasingly allocated financial and technical resources to collaborative watershed efforts within their own borders to fight NPS pollution. With increased collaboration among the federal government, states, and citizens to combat NPS pollution, more information is needed to understand how public resources are being used, by whom, and for what, and what policy changes might improve effectiveness. Analysis from a 50-state study suggests that, in addition to the average 35% of all Section 319 funds per state that are passed on to collaborative watershed groups, 35 states have provided financial assistance beyond Section 319 funding to support collaborative watershed initiatives. State programs frequently provide technical assistance and training, in addition to financial resources, to encourage collaborative partnerships. Such assistance is typically granted in exchange for requirements to generate a watershed action plan and/or follow a mutually agreed upon work plan to address NPS pollution. Program managers indicated a need for greater fiscal resources and flexibility to achieve water quality goals.

  2. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries. PMID:12173425

  3. Pollutant sources investigation and remedial strategies development for the Kaoping River Basin, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kao, C M; Wu, F C; Chen, K F; Lin, T F; Yen, Y E; Chiang, P C

    2003-01-01

    The Kaoping River Basin, located in southern Taiwan, flows through approximately 171 km and drains towards the South Taiwan Strait. It is the largest and the most intensively used river basin in Taiwan. Based on the results from the pollutant sources investigation and water quality analysis, the main water pollution sources of the Kaoping River were livestock wastewater from hog farms, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, leachate from riverbank landfills, and non-point source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in the upper catchment. Concern about the deteriorating condition of the river led the Government of Taiwan to amend the relevant legislation and strengthen the enforcement of the discharge regulations to effectively manage the river and control the pollution. The following remedial strategies have been taken to improve the river water quality since 2001: (1) hog ban in the upper catchment of the Kaoping River Basin, thus, 510 thousand hogs have been removed/relocated; (2) removal of riverbank landfills; (3) enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards; (4) sewer system construction in five cities along the river corridor; (5) application of best management practices for NPS pollutant control; (6) application of natural wastewater treatment systems (e.g. land treatment, constructed wetland, overland flow, riverbank sedimentation/aeration pond) for domestic wastewater treatment in rural areas; and (7) construction of the watershed geographical information system (GIS) and real time water quality monitoring system to effectively monitor and manage the watershed. Recent water quality investigation results indicate that the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient loadings to the Kaoping River have been significantly reduced and the water quality has been improved after the implementation of the remedial strategies described above. Results and experience obtained from this study will be helpful in designing the watershed

  4. Alternative methods of reducing air pollution from low-emissions sources in Krakow

    SciTech Connect

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Nedoma, J.; Pierce, B.

    1994-10-01

    A study on air quality monitoring carried out in the 1980s indicated that around 40% of the high concentrations of air pollutants adversely affecting residents and the natural environment were contributed by coal-fired home stoves and boiler houses using solid fuels. These heat sources discharging particulate matters at low heights, basically lacking any pollution control devices, are called the ``low emission sources.`` The American-Polish Program on Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency in Krakow, which began in 1992, was preceded by a detailed inventory of low emissions sources completed in 1991. In the American-Polish program it has been accepted that all possible technical means would be used to reduce pollution, mainly those which enable utilization of reserves present in the existing networks of: district heating; gas distribution; and power distribution. The analysis indicated that the following activities can bring about realistic progress in reducing air pollution: elimination of the existing solid fuel boiler houses by connecting the buildings they serve to the municipal district heating network; elimination of solid fuel boiler houses by converting them to natural gas; elimination of solid fuel-fired home stoves by replacing them with electric heating; modernization of those solid fuel boiler houses which cannot by eliminated because of their function; and reducing the adverse environmental effects of home stove use throughout the city by changes in the combustion process, eliminating coal and replacing it with natural gas or electricity, and/or looking for combustion devices that can burn coal without producing air pollutants.

  5. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, D.M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential.

    PubMed

    Diebel, Matthew W; Maxted, Jeffrey T; Robertson, Dale M; Han, Seungbong; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km(2)) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale.

  7. Nonpoint source pollution, environmental quality, and ecosystem health in China: introduction to the special section.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    The rapid economic and industrial growth of China, exemplified by a 10-fold increase in its gross domestic product in the past 15 years, has lifted millions of its citizens out of poverty but has simultaneously led to severe environmental problems. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 2.4 million deaths in China per year could be attributed to degraded environmental quality. Much of China's soil, air, and water are polluted by xenobiotic contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic compounds. In addition, soil quality is degraded by erosion, desertification, and nutrient runoff. Air quality is further compromised by particulates, especially in heavily populated areas. Research shows that 80% of urban rivers in China are significantly polluted, and poor water quality is a key contributor to poverty in rural China. Economic and industrial growth has also greatly expanded the demand for water sources of appropriate quality; however, pollution has markedly diminished usable water resource quantity. Desertification and diminishing water resources threaten future food security. In recent years, China's government has increased efforts to reverse these trends and to improve ecosystem health. The Web of Science database showed that the percentage of articles on China devoting to environmental sciences increased dramatically in recent years. In addition, the top 25 institutes publishing the papers in environmental sciences were all in China. This special issue includes seven articles focusing on nonpoint source pollution, environmental quality, and ecosystem health in China. The major issues, and results of these studies, are discussed in this introduction.

  8. Nature of air pollution, emission sources, and management in the Indian cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Goel, Rahul; Pant, Pallavi

    2014-10-01

    The global burden of disease study estimated 695,000 premature deaths in 2010 due to continued exposure to outdoor particulate matter and ozone pollution for India. By 2030, the expected growth in many of the sectors (industries, residential, transportation, power generation, and construction) will result in an increase in pollution related health impacts for most cities. The available information on urban air pollution, their sources, and the potential of various interventions to control pollution, should help us propose a cleaner path to 2030. In this paper, we present an overview of the emission sources and control options for better air quality in Indian cities, with a particular focus on interventions like urban public transportation facilities; travel demand management; emission regulations for power plants; clean technology for brick kilns; management of road dust; and waste management to control open waste burning. Also included is a broader discussion on key institutional measures, like public awareness and scientific studies, necessary for building an effective air quality management plan in Indian cities.

  9. Light-pollution model for cloudy and cloudless night skies with ground-based light sources.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2007-05-20

    The scalable theoretical model of light pollution for ground sources is presented. The model is successfully employed for simulation of angular behavior of the spectral and integral sky radiance and/or luminance during nighttime. There is no restriction on the number of ground-based light sources or on the spatial distribution of these sources in the vicinity of the measuring point (i.e., both distances and azimuth angles of the light sources are configurable). The model is applicable for real finite-dimensional surface sources with defined spectral and angular radiating properties contrary to frequently used point-source approximations. The influence of the atmosphere on the transmitted radiation is formulated in terms of aerosol and molecular optical properties. Altitude and spectral reflectance of a cloud layer are the main factors introduced for simulation of cloudy and/or overcast conditions. The derived equations are translated into numerically fast code, and it is possible to repeat the entire set of calculations in real time. The parametric character of the model enables its efficient usage by illuminating engineers and/or astronomers in the study of various light-pollution situations. Some examples of numerical runs in the form of graphical results are presented. PMID:17514252

  10. Upper Little Tennessee River aerial inventory of land uses and nonpoint pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerman, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    Local residents have expressed concern about water quality in the Little Tennessee River, and the possibility of nonpoint source pollution was identified. In response, TVA conducted an analysis of land uses and nonpoint pollution sources in the upper Little Tennessee River watershed. Aerial photography, taken in March 1988 and March 1989, was analyzed for the 197,000 acre watershed upstream of Porters Bend Dam (Lake Emory). In the analysis, the land surface was divided into four urban land use classes, nine agricultural land use classes, four forest land use classes, and a class for disturbed areas; livestock operations and critical sites, such as eroding roads and stream banks were located. Soil erosion rate estimates were calculated for all land uses except closed-canopy forest.

  11. [Three patterns of interaction between soil and non-point source P-pollutants in agricultural watershed].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia-hui; Yin, Cheng-qing; Yan, Xiao; Shan, Bao-qing; Wang, Wei-dong

    2004-07-01

    Typical agricultural watershed was selected to study the interactions between soil matrix and non-point source P-pollutants in surface runoff under simulative conditions. The soil samples were taken in different spatial locations in this watershed and were under different degree of human disturbance. The results showed that the interactions between different soil matrix and phosphorus could be divided into three patterns:retention, release and combination of retention and release. Soil of retention pattern has strong adsorption capacity of phosphate and will retain phosphorus from polluted runoff. Soil of release pattern has significant desorption capacity of phosphate and will release phosphorus to the runoff. Soil of retention and release combination pattern will retain or release phosphorus according to the phosphate concentration in the polluted runoff. These results showed that soil matrix in different spatial locations in the agricultural watershed have different ecological functions and environmental values under the processing of natural conditions and human disturbance. From the view of occurrence of non-point source pollution, these soils could become the sink of pollutants as well as the source of pollutants. Under some conditions, there has a conversion between sink and source of them. These results are valuable for control of non-point source pollution on watershed level, identification of key source area of pollutants and improvement of efficiency of control measures.

  12. [Stony coral recruitment in coral reefs at different distances from pollution sources in Habana, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Alcolado-Prieto, Pedro; Caballero Aragón, Hansel; Alcolado, Pedro M; Lopeztegui Castillo, Alexander

    2012-09-01

    The effect of pollution on coral recruitment has been insufficiently studied. This research deals with coral recruitment in coastal areas and aimed to determine the variations of density and dominant species of corals recruits in sites at different distances from pollution sources. The composition and structure of stony coral (scleractinian and milleporids) recruit associations were characterized in the fringing reef of Western Havana, Cuba. This reef is influenced by urban pollution from the Almendares River and a sewage outlet located at its mouth. Four sites were sampled on the upper fore reef escarpment at 10m deep every three months between July 2007 and May 2008. A 25cm side quadrat was used to determine the density and taxonomic composition of recruits smaller than 3cm in diameter. Sampling units were placed following a random-systematic pattern. The mean density of recruits was determined both at assemble and species level. Bifactoral ANOVA tests were applied to compare mean densities at both sampling sites and dates. Student-Newman-Keuls test was applied to compare pairs of means. Cluster and nMDS analyses were applied to evaluate between site similarities. The predominant species was Siderastrea siderea followed by S. radians and Porites astreoides. Recruit densities were similar among La Puntilla, Calle 16 and Acuario sites. Lower densities were always found in Malec6n. Significant differences in mean stony recruit densities were found both between sites and sampling dates. The statistic analysis did not show significant spatial-temporal interactions. Malec6n, the most polluted site, showed the lowest recruit density and the greater presence of species considered as indicators of organic pollution, sedimentation and abrasion. The density of recruit species was higher in October 2007 and lower in May 2008, and it was apparently influenced by reproduction and cold front seasons, respectively. The higher dominance and abundance of S. siderea, S. radians and

  13. Anthropogenic Air Pollution Observed Near Dust Source Regions in Northwestern China During Springtime 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE, 1460 m a.s. 1.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO:265 ppb; SO2:3.4 ppb; NO(*y): 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 micro-g/cu m) and light scattering (159/Mm at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3/Mm at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 mn) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to Pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NO(y), NO(y)/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 x 10(exp -3), respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 x 10(exp -3) for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  14. Anthropogenic air pollution observed near dust source regions in northwestern China during springtime 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-04-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082°N, 100.276°E, 1460 m a.s.l.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO: 265 ppb; SO2: 3.4 ppb; NOy*: 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 μg/m3) and light scattering (159 Mm-1 at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3 Mm-1 at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 nm) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NOy, NOy/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 × 10-3, respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 × 10-3 for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  16. [Uncertainty analysis of water environmental capacity in the nonpoint source polluted river].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Jin, Pei-jian; Shen, Ye-na; Shi, Yi-ming; Gong, Dong-qin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for river water environmental capacity (WEC) and the statistical analysis of the measured hydrological and water quality variables, a uncertainty analysis method for the WEC in nonpoint source polluted river was developed, which included the sensitivity analysis for input parameters of the model and the probability distributions analysis for the WEC using Monte Carlo simulation approach. The method, which described the uncertainty derived from the adopted information of the river system and the randomicity from the occurrence of nonpoint source pollution, could provide different WEC combined with reliabilities for different hydrological seasons. As a case study, the total nitrogen (TN) WEC in the Changle River located in southeast China was calculated using the method. Results indicated that the TN WEC with 90% of reliability were 487.9, 949.8 and 1392.8 kg x d(-1) in dry season, average season and flood season, respectively, and the dilution effect of river water flow accounted for the main content of WEC. In order to satisfy water quality target of the river, about 1258.3-3591.2 kg x d(-1) of current TN quantity that entered into the river should be reduced in watershed, and the largest reducing quantity of TN was occurred during flood season. The uncertainty method, which reflected hydrology and water quality variations in the nonpoint source polluted river, provided a more reliable and efficient method for the WEC calculation.

  17. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS){reg_sign}: Source-term release formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Streile, G.P.; Shields, K.D.; Stroh, J.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.; Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that document the mathematical models in the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is an integrated impact assessment software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models in air, soil, and water media. Outputs are estimates of exposures and health risk assessments for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. Each of the MEPAS formulation documents covers a major MEPAS component such as source-term, atmospheric, vadose zone/groundwater, surface water, and health exposure/health impact assessment. Other MEPAS documentation reports cover the sensitivity/uncertainty formulations and the database parameter constituent property estimation methods. The pollutant source-term release component is documented in this report. MEPAS simulates the release of contaminants from a source, transport through the air, groundwater, surface water, or overland pathways, and transfer through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. For human health impacts, risks are computed for carcinogens and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. MEPAS is implemented on a desktop computer with a user-friendly interface that allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses.

  18. Sources identification of antibiotic pollution combining land use information and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Yongshan; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    To quantify the extent of antibiotic contamination and to identity the dominant pollutant sources in the Tiaoxi River Watershed, surface water samples were collected at eight locations and analyzed for four tetracyclines and three sulfonamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The observed maximum concentrations of tetracycline (623 ng L(-1)), oxytetracycline (19,810 ng L(-1)), and sulfamethoxazole (112 ng L(-1)) exceeded their corresponding Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. In particular, high concentrations of antibiotics were observed in wet summer with heavy rainfall. The maximum concentrations of antibiotics appeared in the vicinity of intensive aquaculture areas. High-resolution land use data were used for identifying diffuse source of antibiotic pollution in the watershed. Significant correlations between tetracycline and developed (r = 0.93), tetracycline and barren (r = 0.87), oxytetracycline and barren (r = 0.82), and sulfadiazine and agricultural facilities (r = 0.71) were observed. In addition, the density of aquaculture significantly correlated with doxycycline (r = 0.74) and oxytetracycline (r = 0.76), while the density of livestock significantly correlated with sulfadiazine (r = 0.71). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were from aquaculture and domestic sources, whereas sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine were from livestock wastewater. Flood or drainage from aquaculture ponds was identified as a major source of antibiotics in the Tiaoxi watershed. A hot-spot map was created based on results of land use analysis and multi-variable statistics, which provided an effective management tool of sources identification in watersheds with multiple diffuse sources of antibiotic pollution. PMID:27338264

  19. Sources identification of antibiotic pollution combining land use information and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Yongshan; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    To quantify the extent of antibiotic contamination and to identity the dominant pollutant sources in the Tiaoxi River Watershed, surface water samples were collected at eight locations and analyzed for four tetracyclines and three sulfonamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The observed maximum concentrations of tetracycline (623 ng L(-1)), oxytetracycline (19,810 ng L(-1)), and sulfamethoxazole (112 ng L(-1)) exceeded their corresponding Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. In particular, high concentrations of antibiotics were observed in wet summer with heavy rainfall. The maximum concentrations of antibiotics appeared in the vicinity of intensive aquaculture areas. High-resolution land use data were used for identifying diffuse source of antibiotic pollution in the watershed. Significant correlations between tetracycline and developed (r = 0.93), tetracycline and barren (r = 0.87), oxytetracycline and barren (r = 0.82), and sulfadiazine and agricultural facilities (r = 0.71) were observed. In addition, the density of aquaculture significantly correlated with doxycycline (r = 0.74) and oxytetracycline (r = 0.76), while the density of livestock significantly correlated with sulfadiazine (r = 0.71). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were from aquaculture and domestic sources, whereas sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine were from livestock wastewater. Flood or drainage from aquaculture ponds was identified as a major source of antibiotics in the Tiaoxi watershed. A hot-spot map was created based on results of land use analysis and multi-variable statistics, which provided an effective management tool of sources identification in watersheds with multiple diffuse sources of antibiotic pollution.

  20. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Deaf Smith County repository site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Deaf Smith County, Texas environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to this report and include summary equipment lists for the repository and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft. Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollution emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 18 refs., 15 tabs.

  1. Uncertainty Analysis of non-point source pollution control facilities design techniques in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Okjeong, L.; Gyeong, C. B.; Park, M. W.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The design of non-point sources control facilities in Korea is divided largely by the stormwater capture ratio, the stormwater load capture ratio, and the pollutant reduction efficiency of the facility. The stormwater capture ratio is given by a design formula as a function of the water quality treatment capacity, the greater the capacity, the more the amount of stormwater intercepted by the facility. The stormwater load capture ratio is defined as the ratio of the load entering the facility of the total pollutant load generated in the target catchment, and is given as a design formula represented by a function of the stormwater capture ratio. In order to estimate the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio, a lot of quantitative analysis of hydrologic processes acted in pollutant emission is required, but these formulas have been applied without any verification. Since systematic monitoring programs were insufficient, verification of these formulas was fundamentally impossible. However, recently the Korean ministry of Environment has conducted an long-term systematic monitoring project, and thus the verification of the formulas became possible. In this presentation, the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio are re-estimated using actual TP data obtained from long-term monitoring program at Noksan industrial complex located in Busan, Korea. Through the re-estimated process, the uncertainty included in the design process that has been applied until now will be shown in a quantitative extent. In addition, each uncertainty included in the stormwater capture ratio estimation and in the stormwater load capture ratio estimation will be expressed to quantify the relative impact on the overall non-point pollutant control facilities design process. Finally, the SWMM-Matlab interlocking module for model parameters estimation will be introduced. Acknowledgement This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non

  2. Sensitivity analysis of the relationship between disease occurrence and distance from a putative source of pollution.

    PubMed

    Dreassi, Emanuela; Lagazio, Corrado; Maule, Milena M; Magnani, Corrado; Biggeri, Annibale

    2008-05-01

    The relation between disease risk and a point source of pollution is usually investigated using distance from the source as a proxy of exposure. The analysis may be based on case-control data or on aggregated data. The definition of the function relating risk of disease and distance is critical, both in a classical and in a Bayesian framework, because the likelihood is usually very flat, even with large amounts of data. In this paper we investigate how the specification of the function relating risk of disease with distance from the source and of the prior distributions on the parameters of the function affects the results when case-control data and Bayesian methods are used. We consider different popular parametric models for the risk distance function in a Bayesian approach, comparing estimates with those derived by maximum likelihood. As an example we have analyzed the relationship between a putative source of environmental pollution (an asbestos cement plant) and the occurrence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in the area of Casale Monferrato (Italy) in 1987-1993. Risk of pleural malignant mesothelioma turns out to be strongly related to distance from the asbestos cement plant. However, as the models appeared to be sensitive to modeling choices, we suggest that any analysis of disease risk around a putative source should be integrated with a careful sensitivity analysis and possibly with prior knowledge. The choice of prior distribution is extremely important and should be based on epidemiological considerations.

  3. Source-specific fine particulate air pollution and systemic inflammation in ischaemic heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Siponen, Taina; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Aurela, Minna; Dufva, Hilkka; Hillamo, Risto; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Huttunen, Kati; Pekkanen, Juha; Pennanen, Arto; Salonen, Iiris; Tiittanen, Pekka; Salonen, Raimo O; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare short-term effects of fine particles (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) from different sources on the blood levels of markers of systemic inflammation. Methods We followed a panel of 52 ischaemic heart disease patients from 15 November 2005 to 21 April 2006 with clinic visits in every second week in the city of Kotka, Finland, and determined nine inflammatory markers from blood samples. In addition, we monitored outdoor air pollution at a fixed site during the study period and conducted a source apportionment of PM2.5 using the Environmental Protection Agency's model EPA PMF 3.0. We then analysed associations between levels of source-specific PM2.5 and markers of systemic inflammation using linear mixed models. Results We identified five source categories: regional and long-range transport (LRT), traffic, biomass combustion, sea salt, and pulp industry. We found most evidence for the relation of air pollution and inflammation in LRT, traffic and biomass combustion; the most relevant inflammation markers were C-reactive protein, interleukin-12 and myeloperoxidase. Sea salt was not positively associated with any of the inflammatory markers. Conclusions Results suggest that PM2.5 from several sources, such as biomass combustion and traffic, are promoters of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25479755

  4. Sensitivity analysis of the relationship between disease occurrence and distance from a putative source of pollution.

    PubMed

    Dreassi, Emanuela; Lagazio, Corrado; Maule, Milena M; Magnani, Corrado; Biggeri, Annibale

    2008-05-01

    The relation between disease risk and a point source of pollution is usually investigated using distance from the source as a proxy of exposure. The analysis may be based on case-control data or on aggregated data. The definition of the function relating risk of disease and distance is critical, both in a classical and in a Bayesian framework, because the likelihood is usually very flat, even with large amounts of data. In this paper we investigate how the specification of the function relating risk of disease with distance from the source and of the prior distributions on the parameters of the function affects the results when case-control data and Bayesian methods are used. We consider different popular parametric models for the risk distance function in a Bayesian approach, comparing estimates with those derived by maximum likelihood. As an example we have analyzed the relationship between a putative source of environmental pollution (an asbestos cement plant) and the occurrence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in the area of Casale Monferrato (Italy) in 1987-1993. Risk of pleural malignant mesothelioma turns out to be strongly related to distance from the asbestos cement plant. However, as the models appeared to be sensitive to modeling choices, we suggest that any analysis of disease risk around a putative source should be integrated with a careful sensitivity analysis and possibly with prior knowledge. The choice of prior distribution is extremely important and should be based on epidemiological considerations. PMID:18686274

  5. Estimation of river pollution source using the space-time radial basis collocation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zi; Mao, Xian-Zhong; Li, Tak Sing; Zhang, Shiyan

    2016-02-01

    River contaminant source identification problems can be formulated as an inverse model to estimate the missing source release history from the observed contaminant plume. In this study, the identification of pollution sources in rivers, where strong advection is dominant, is solved by the global space-time radial basis collocation method (RBCM). To search for the optimal shape parameter and scaling factor which strongly determine the accuracy of the RBCM method, a new cost function based on the residual errors of not only the observed data but also the specified governing equation, the initial and boundary conditions, was constructed for the k-fold cross-validation technique. The performance of three global radial basis functions, Hardy's multiquadric, inverse multiquadric and Gaussian, were also compared in the test cases. The numerical results illustrate that the new cost function is a good indicator to search for near-optimal solutions. Application to a real polluted river shows that the source release history is reasonably recovered, demonstrating that the RBCM with the k-fold cross-validation is a powerful tool for source identification problems in advection-dominated rivers.

  6. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment: Source code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1991-01-01

    Research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center is presented. A computer code for source codes is presented. The file contains the routines which allow source code files to be created and compiled. The build process assumes that all elements and the COMP exist in the current directory. The build process places as much code generation as possible on the preprocessor as possible. A summary is given of the source files as used and/or manipulated by the build routine.

  7. Modeling non-point source pollutants in the vadose zone: Back to the basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Letey, John, Jr.; Carrillo, Marcia L. K.

    More than ever before in the history of scientific investigation, modeling is viewed as a fundamental component of the scientific method because of the relatively recent development of the computer. No longer must the scientific investigator be confined to artificially isolated studies of individual processes that can lead to oversimplified and sometimes erroneous conceptions of larger phenomena. Computer models now enable scientists to attack problems related to open systems such as climatic change, and the assessment of environmental impacts, where the whole of the interactive processes are greater than the sum of their isolated components. Environmental assessment involves the determination of change of some constituent over time. This change can be measured in real time or predicted with a model. The advantage of prediction, like preventative medicine, is that it can be used to alter the occurrence of potentially detrimental conditions before they are manifest. The much greater efficiency of preventative, rather than remedial, efforts strongly justifies the need for an ability to accurately model environmental contaminants such as non-point source (NPS) pollutants. However, the environmental modeling advances that have accompanied computer technological development are a mixed blessing. Where once we had a plethora of discordant data without a holistic theory, now the pendulum has swung so that we suffer from a growing stockpile of models of which a significant number have never been confirmed or even attempts made to confirm them. Modeling has become an end in itself rather than a means because of limited research funding, the high cost of field studies, limitations in time and patience, difficulty in cooperative research and pressure to publish papers as quickly as possible. Modeling and experimentation should be ongoing processes that reciprocally enhance one another with sound, comprehensive experiments serving as the building blocks of models and models

  8. Nonpoint source pollution responses simulation for conversion cropland to forest in mountains by SWAT in China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fang-Hua; Wang, Xue-Lei; Cheng, Hong-Guang

    2008-01-01

    Several environmental protection policies have been implemented to prevent soil erosion and nonpoint source (NPS) pollutions in China. After severe Yangtze River floods, the "conversion cropland to forest policy" (CCFP) was carried out throughout China, especially in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River. The research area of the current study is located in Bazhong City, Sichuan Province in Yangtze River watershed, where soil erosion and NPS pollution are serious concerns. Major NPS pollutants include nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term impact of implementation of the CCFP on stream flow, sediment yields, and the main NPS pollutant loading at watershed level. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a watershed environmental model and is applied here to simulate and quantify the impacts. Four scenarios are constructed representing different patterns of conversion from cropland to forest under various conditions set by the CCFP. Scenario A represented the baseline, i.e., the cropland and forest area conditions before the implementation of CCFP. Scenario B represents the condition under which all hillside cropland with slope larger than 25 degrees was converted into forest. In scenario C and D, hillside cropland with slope larger than 15 degrees and 7.5 degrees was substituted by forest, respectively. Under the various scenarios, the NPS pollution reduction due to CCFP implementation from 1996-2005 is estimated by SWAT. The results are presented as percentage change of water flow, sediment, organic N, and organic P at watershed level. Furthermore, a regression analysis is conducted between forest area ratio and ten years' average NPS load estimations, which confirmed the benefits of implementing CCFP in reducing nonpoint source pollution by increasing forest area in mountainous areas. The reduction of organic N and organic P is significant (decrease 42.1% and 62.7%, respectively) at watershed level. In

  9. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl(-) concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM(ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl(-) concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl(-) concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM(ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015-2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl(-) concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175mg/l and 200mg/l.

  10. A Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Non-Point Groundwater Pollution Sources, Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuler, C. K.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Dulaiova, H.; Glenn, C. R.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of municipal groundwater supplies on Tutuila, the main island in American Samoa, is currently in question. A high vulnerability for contamination from surface activities has been recognized, and there exists a strong need to clearly identify anthropogenic sources of pollution and quantify their influence on the aquifer. This study examines spatial relationships and time series measurements of nutrients and other tracers to identify predominant pollution sources and determine the water quality impacts of the island's diverse land uses. Elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations are correlated with areas of human development, however, the mixture of residential and agricultural land use in this unique village based agrarian setting makes specific source identification difficult using traditional geospatial analysis. Spatial variation in anthropogenic impact was assessed by linking NO3- concentrations and δ15N(NO3) from an extensive groundwater survey to land-use types within well capture zones and groundwater flow-paths developed with MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater model. Land use types were obtained from high-resolution GIS data and compared to water quality results with multiple-regression analysis to quantify the impact that different land uses have on water quality. In addition, historical water quality data and new analyses of δD and δ18O in precipitation, groundwater, and mountain-front recharge waters were used to constrain the sources and mechanisms of contamination. Our analyses indicate that groundwater nutrient levels on Tutuila are controlled primarily by residential, not agricultural activity. Also a lack of temporal variation suggests that episodic pollution events are limited to individual water sources as opposed to the entire aquifer. These results are not only valuable for water quality management on Tutuila, but also provide insight into the sustainability of groundwater supplies on other islands with similar hydrogeology and land

  11. Stream nitrogen sources apportionment and pollution control scheme development in an agricultural watershed in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dingjiang; Lu, Jun; Huang, Hong; Liu, Mei; Gong, Dongqin; Chen, Jiabo

    2013-08-01

    A modeling system that couples a land-usebased export coefficient model, a stream nutrient transport equation, and Bayesian statistics was developed for stream nitrogen source apportionment. It divides a watershed into several sub-catchments, and then considers the major landuse categories as stream nitrogen sources in each subcatchment. The runoff depth and stream water depth are considered as the major factors influencing delivery of nitrogen from land to downstream stream node within each sub-catchment. The nitrogen sources and delivery processes are lumped into several constant parameters that were calibrated using Bayesian statistics from commonly available stream monitoring and land-use datasets. This modeling system was successfully applied to total nitrogen (TN) pollution control scheme development for the ChangLe River watershed containing six sub-catchments and four land-use categories. The temporal (across months and years) and spatial (across sub-catchments and land-use categories) variability of nonpoint source (NPS) TN export to stream channels and delivery to the watershed outlet were assessed. After adjustment for in-stream TNretention, the time periods and watershed areas with disproportionately high-TN contributions to the stream were identified. Aimed at a target stream TN level of 2 mg L-1, a quantitative TN pollution control scheme was further developed to determine which sub-catchments, which land-use categories in a sub-catchment, which time periods, and how large of NPS TN export reduction were required. This modeling system provides a powerful tool for stream nitrogen source apportionment and pollution control scheme development at the watershed scale and has only limited data requirements.

  12. Introduction: Assessing non-point source pollution in the vadose zone with advanced information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, Timothy R.

    The information age has ushered in a global awareness of complex environmental problems that do not respect political or physical boundaries: climatic change, ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, and non-point source (NPS) pollution. Among these global environmental problems, NPS pollutants represent a perfect example of a complex multidisciplinary problem that exists over multiple scales with tremendous spatial and temporal complexity. To address the NPS problem, specific to the vadose zone, advanced information technologies must be applied in a spatial context. An integrated system of advanced information technologies (i.e., global positioning, geographic information system, geostatistics, remote sensing, solute transport modeling, neural networks, transfer functions, fuzzy logic, hierarchical theory, and uncertainty analysis) provides a framework from which real-time and/or simulated assessments of NPS pollution can be made. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS-pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales provides a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities.

  13. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution and economic incentive policies. Issues in the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. Staff report

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, A.S.; Larson, B.A.; Ribaudo, M.

    1992-11-01

    The limited success of command-and-control policies for reducing nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution mandated under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) has prompted increased interest in economic incentive policies as an alternative control mechanism. No single policy, however, is likely to be effective in reducing all NPS pollution. Economic incentives may be effective in some cases, command-and-control practices in others.

  14. Soils as sinks or sources for diffuse pollution of the water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Numerous chemical compounds have been released into the environment by human activities and can nowadays be found everywhere, i.e. in the compartments water, soil, and air, at the poles and in high mountains. Examples for a global distribution of toxic compounds are the persistent organic pollutants (PCB, dioxins, PAH, fluorinated surfactants and flame retardants, etc.: "the Stockholm dirty dozen") but also mercury and other metals. Many of these compounds reached a global distribution via the atmo¬sphere; others have been and are still directly applied to top soils at the large scale by agriculture or are released into groundwater at landfill sites or by discharge of treated or untreated waste waters. Sooner or later such compounds end up in the water cycle - often via an intermediate storage in soils. Pollutants in soils are leached by seepage waters, transferred to ground¬water, and transported to rivers via groundwater flow. Adsorbed compounds may be transported from soils into surface waters by erosion processes and will end up in the sediments. Diffuse pollution of the subsurface environment not only reflects the history of the economic development of the modern society but it is still ongoing - e.g. the number of organic pollutants released into the environment is increasing even though the con¬centrations may decrease compared to the past. Evidence shows that many compounds are persistent in the subsurface environment at large time scales (up to centuries). Thus polluted soils already are or may become a future source for pollution of adjacent compartments such as the atmosphere and groundwater. A profound understanding on how diffuse pollutants are stored and processed in the subsurface environment is crucial to assess their long term fate and transport at large scales. Thus integrated studies e.g. at the catchment scale and models are needed which couple not only the relevant compartments (soil - atmosphere - groundwater/surface waters) but also flow

  15. Sources of indoor air pollution in New York City residences of asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Habre, Rima; Coull, Brent; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Grunin, Avi; Nath, Amit; Castro, William; Schachter, Neil; Rohr, Annette; Kattan, Meyer; Spengler, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend ∼90% of their time indoors in proximity to sources of particulate and gaseous air pollutants. The sulfur tracer method was used to separate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM2.5 mass, elements and thermally resolved carbon fractions by origin in New York City residences of asthmatic children. Enrichment factors relative to sulfur concentrations were used to rank species according to the importance of their indoor sources. Mixed effects models were used to identify building characteristics and resident activities that contributed to observed concentrations. Significant indoor sources were detected for OC1, Cl, K and most remaining OC fractions. We attributed 46% of indoor PM2.5 mass to indoor sources related to OC generation indoors. These sources include cooking (NO2, Si, Cl, K, OC4 and OP), cleaning (most OC fractions), candle/incense burning (black carbon, BC) and smoking (K, OC1, OC3 and EC1). Outdoor sources accounted for 28% of indoor PM2.5 mass, mainly photochemical reaction products, metals and combustion products (EC, EC2, Br, Mn, Pb, Ni, Ti, V and S). Other indoor sources accounted for 26% and included re-suspension of crustal elements (Al, Zn, Fe, Si and Ca). Indoor sources accounted for ∼72% of PM2.5 mass and likely contributed to differences in the composition of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 exposures. PMID:24169876

  16. Sources of indoor air pollution in New York City residences of asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Habre, Rima; Coull, Brent; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Grunin, Avi; Nath, Amit; Castro, William; Schachter, Neil; Rohr, Annette; Kattan, Meyer; Spengler, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend ∼90% of their time indoors in proximity to sources of particulate and gaseous air pollutants. The sulfur tracer method was used to separate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM2.5 mass, elements and thermally resolved carbon fractions by origin in New York City residences of asthmatic children. Enrichment factors relative to sulfur concentrations were used to rank species according to the importance of their indoor sources. Mixed effects models were used to identify building characteristics and resident activities that contributed to observed concentrations. Significant indoor sources were detected for OC1, Cl, K and most remaining OC fractions. We attributed 46% of indoor PM2.5 mass to indoor sources related to OC generation indoors. These sources include cooking (NO2, Si, Cl, K, OC4 and OP), cleaning (most OC fractions), candle/incense burning (black carbon, BC) and smoking (K, OC1, OC3 and EC1). Outdoor sources accounted for 28% of indoor PM2.5 mass, mainly photochemical reaction products, metals and combustion products (EC, EC2, Br, Mn, Pb, Ni, Ti, V and S). Other indoor sources accounted for 26% and included re-suspension of crustal elements (Al, Zn, Fe, Si and Ca). Indoor sources accounted for ∼72% of PM2.5 mass and likely contributed to differences in the composition of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 exposures.

  17. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. PMID:27294785

  18. Evaluating agricultural nonpoint-source pollution programs in two Lake Erie tributaries.

    PubMed

    Forster, D Lynn; Rausch, Jonathan N

    2002-01-01

    During the past three decades, numerous government programs have encouraged Lake Erie basin farmers to adopt practices that reduce water pollution. The first section of this paper summarizes these state and federal government agricultural pollution abatement programs in watersheds of two prominent Lake Erie tributaries, the Maumee River and Sandusky River. Expenditures are summarized for each program, total expenditures in each county are estimated, and cost effectiveness of program expenditures (i.e., cost per metric ton of soil saved) are analyzed. Farmers received nearly $143 million as incentive payments to implement agricultural nonpoint source pollution abatement programs in the Maumee and Sandusky River watersheds from 1987 to 1997. About 95% of these funds was from federal sources. On average, these payments totaled about $7000 per farm or about $30 per farm acre (annualized equivalent of $2 per acre) within the watersheds. Our analysis raises questions about how efficiently these incentive payments were allocated. The majority of Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) funds appear to have been spent on less cost-effective practices. Also, geographic areas with relatively low (high) soil erosion rates received relatively large (small) funding.

  19. Searching ingredients polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in feeds due to atmospheric or pyrolytic sources.

    PubMed

    Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Fernández-González, Ricardo; Martínez Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2012-12-01

    The primary aim of the proposed work is to propose the potential sources of pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in feeds and ingredients. To reach this propose the development of a simple, fast, quantitative and economic method for determining PAHs using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), clean-up and detection by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD) in polluting feeds and ingredients was developed. The overall method quantification limits range from 0.020 to 4.0μg/kg and analyte recoveries are between 70% and 105% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 20%. Molecular patterns of PAHs were used to study their distribution in the selected samples by cluster analysis, separating them in two groups: contaminated by atmospheric or pyrolytic sources. In order to find a relationship between the nutritional composition (protein, fibre, ash and fat content), and the hypothetical toxicity of selected feeds, a partial least squared (PLS) analysis was used, showing that fibre was a major contributor. Moreover, the complete data set of 27 feed samples and 25 feed ingredients x 13 PAH concentrations were analysed by PCA to find out what ingredients were controlling PAH pollution.

  20. Air Pollution in São Paulo and Santiago de Chile: Sources and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Castanho, A.; Oyolla, P.; Gramsch, E.; Martinez, R.

    2007-05-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious issue for millions in Latin America. São Paulo, Santiago de Chile, México City and many other large urban conglomerates. Fast industrialization, large population growth, emissions from the transportation sectors and many other issues are the cause for the air pollution in these mega cities. São Paulo, with 17 million people, 5.5 million vehicles and strong industry suffers from severe particulate matter and ozone exposure. Santiago de Chile with very unfavorable dispersion characteristics also has problems with PM10 and ozone. Health effects in these areas are a public health concern. In Sao Paulo alone, about 30,000 excess deaths are attributable to air pollution issues. There are also critical institutional issues in the São Paulo metropolitan area, which has 39 municipalities, as well as three other metropolitan areas within a 100-km radius. In Santiago de Chile, a dry climate makes ressuspended soil dust an important PM10 component, and vehicle emissions produces high concentration of secondary organic aerosols. Old diesel buses make black carbon concentrations very high in Santiago. We carried out extensive aerosol source apportionment studies for several years, using PIXE as trace element analysis technique and multivariate statistical analysis to separate and quantify aerosol sources in Santiago and Sao Paulo. We will present results from 5 years studies in both Santiago and Sao Paulo. Vehicles and soil dust dominates the picture, with a strong sulfate component in Santiago de Chile.

  1. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities.

  2. A new concept Tandem thermal dissociator/electron impact ion source for RIB generation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Williams, C.

    1995-12-31

    An innovative thermal dissociation/electron impact ionization positive ion source is presently under design at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for potential use for generating RIBs at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). Because of the low probability of simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources, the ion beams extracted from these sources often appear as a mixture of several molecular sideband beams. In this way, the intensity of the species of interest is diluted. We have conceived an Ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source. If the concept proves to be a viable option, the source will be used as a complement to the electron beam plasma ion sources already in use at the HRIBF. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article.

  3. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    PubMed

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  4. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    PubMed

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  5. Simultaneous estimation of model parameters and diffuse pollution sources for river water quality modeling.

    PubMed

    Jun, K S; Kang, J W; Lee, K S

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse pollution sources along a stream reach are very difficult to both monitor and estimate. In this paper, a systematic method using an optimal estimation algorithm is presented for simultaneous estimation of diffuse pollution and model parameters in a stream water quality model. It was applied with the QUAL2E model to the South Han River in South Korea for optimal estimation of kinetic constants and diffuse loads along the river. Initial calibration results for kinetic constants selected from a sensitivity analysis reveal that diffuse source inputs for nitrogen and phosphorus are essential to satisfy the system mass balance. Diffuse loads for total nitrogen and total phosphorus were estimated by solving the expanded inverse problem. Comparison of kinetic constants estimated simultaneously with diffuse sources to those estimated without diffuse loads, suggests that diffuse sources must be included in the optimization not only for its own estimation but also for adequate estimation of the model parameters. Application of the optimization method to river water quality modeling is discussed in terms of the sensitivity coefficient matrix structure.

  6. Rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments: an important source of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Frey, S K; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Grégoire, D S; Topp, E; Pintar, K D M; Sunohara, M; Marti, R; Lapen, D R

    2015-01-01

    When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. spp. and spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution.

  7. IN VIVO EVIDENCE OF FREE RADICAL FORMATION IN THE RAT LUNG AFTER EXPOSURE TO AN EMISSION SOURCE AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution particles can be associated with increased human morbidity and mortality. The mechanism(s) of lung injury remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that lung exposure to oil fly ash (an emission source air pollution particle) causes in vivo free radical ...

  8. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing a Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous po...

  9. Assessment of near-source air pollution at a fine spatial scale utilizing a mobile measurement platform approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle, an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous poll...

  10. ASSESSMENT OF FECAL POLLUTION SOURCES IN PLUM CREEK WATERSHED USING PCR AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF BACTEROIDETES 16S RDNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional methods for assessing fecal pollution in environmental systems, such as monitoring for fecal coliforms are not capable of discriminating between different sources fecal pollution. Recently, 16S rDNA Bacteroidetes-targeted PCR assays were developed to discriminate betw...

  11. Assessment of near-source air pollution at a fine spatial scale using a mobile monitoring method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle, an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseou...

  12. Modeling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Using a Geographic Information System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Greene, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients, is the leading source of water-quality impacts to surface waters in North America. The overall goal of this study was to develop geographic information system (GIS) protocols to facilitate the spatial and temporal modeling of changes in soils, hydrology, and land-cover change at the watershed scale. In the first part of this article, we describe the use of GIS to spatially integrate watershed scale data on soil erodibility, land use, and runoff for the assessment of potential source areas within an intensively agricultural watershed. The agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) model was used in the Muddy Creek, Ontario, watershed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in decreasing sediment and nutrient [phosphorus (P)] pollution. This analysis was accompanied by the measurement of water-quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, hardness, alkalinity, and turbidity) as well as sediment and P loadings to the creek. Practices aimed at increasing year-round soil cover would be most effective in decreasing sediment and P losses in this watershed. In the second part of this article, we describe a method for characterizing land-cover change in a dynamic urban fringe watershed. The GIS method we developed for the Blackberry Creek, Illinois, watershed will allow us to better account for temporal changes in land use, specifically corn and soybean cover, on an annual basis and to improve on the modeling of watershed processes shown for the Muddy Creek watershed. Our model can be used at different levels of planning with minimal data preprocessing, easily accessible data, and adjustable output scales.

  13. Modeling agricultural nonpoint source pollution using a geographic information system approach.

    PubMed

    Emili, Lisa A; Greene, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients, is the leading source of water-quality impacts to surface waters in North America. The overall goal of this study was to develop geographic information system (GIS) protocols to facilitate the spatial and temporal modeling of changes in soils, hydrology, and land-cover change at the watershed scale. In the first part of this article, we describe the use of GIS to spatially integrate watershed scale data on soil erodibility, land use, and runoff for the assessment of potential source areas within an intensively agricultural watershed. The agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) model was used in the Muddy Creek, Ontario, watershed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in decreasing sediment and nutrient [phosphorus (P)] pollution. This analysis was accompanied by the measurement of water-quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, hardness, alkalinity, and turbidity) as well as sediment and P loadings to the creek. Practices aimed at increasing year-round soil cover would be most effective in decreasing sediment and P losses in this watershed. In the second part of this article, we describe a method for characterizing land-cover change in a dynamic urban fringe watershed. The GIS method we developed for the Blackberry Creek, Illinois, watershed will allow us to better account for temporal changes in land use, specifically corn and soybean cover, on an annual basis and to improve on the modeling of watershed processes shown for the Muddy Creek watershed. Our model can be used at different levels of planning with minimal data preprocessing, easily accessible data, and adjustable output scales.

  14. Identification of pollutant sources in a rapidly developing urban river catchment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingshui; Yin, Hailong; Jomma, Seifeddine; Rode, Michael; Zhou, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Rapid economic development and urbanization worldwide cause serious ecological and environmental problems. A typical region that is in transition and requires systemic research for effective intervention is the rapidly developing city of Hefei in central P. R. China. In order to investigate the sources of pollutants over a one-year period in Nanfei River catchment that drains the city of Hefei, discharges were measured and water samples were taken and measured along the 14km river section at 10 sites for 4 times from 2013 to 2014. Overflow concentrations of combined sewer and separate storm drains were also measured by selecting 15 rain events in 4 typical drainage systems. Loads and budgets of water and different pollutant sources i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, urban drainage overflow, unknown wastewater were calculated. The water balance demonstrated that >70% of the discharge originated from WWTP effluent. Lack of clean upstream inflow thereby is threatening ecological safety and water quality. Furthermore, mass fluxes calculations revealed that >40% of the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) loads were from urban drainage overflow because of a large amount of discharge of untreated wastewater in pumping stations during rain events. WWTP effluent was the predominant source of the total nitrogen loads (>60%) and ammonia loads (>45%). However, the total phosphorous loads from three different sources are similar (˜1/3). Thus, our research provided a basis for appropriate and prior mitigation strategies (state-of-art of WWTP upgrade, sewer systems modification, storm water regulation and storage capacity improvement, etc.) for different precedence-controlled pollutants with the limited infrastructure investments in these rapidly developing urban regions.

  15. The voluntary-threat approach to control nonpoint source pollution under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Li, Youping

    2013-11-15

    This paper extends the voluntary-threat approach of Segerson and Wu (2006) to the case that the ambient level of nonpoint source pollution is stochastic. It is shown that when the random component is bounded from the above, fine-tuning the cutoff value of the tax payments avoids the actual imposition of the tax while the threat of such payments retains necessary incentive for the polluters to engage in abatements at the optimal level. If the random component is not bounded, the imposition of the tax cannot be completely avoided but the probability can be reduced by setting a higher cutoff value. It is also noted that the regulator has additional flexibility in randomizing the tax imposition but the randomization process has to be credible.

  16. An auto-adaptive optimization approach for targeting nonpoint source pollution control practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Wei, Guoyuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2015-10-01

    To solve computationally intensive and technically complex control of nonpoint source pollution, the traditional genetic algorithm was modified into an auto-adaptive pattern, and a new framework was proposed by integrating this new algorithm with a watershed model and an economic module. Although conceptually simple and comprehensive, the proposed algorithm would search automatically for those Pareto-optimality solutions without a complex calibration of optimization parameters. The model was applied in a case study in a typical watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. The results indicated that the evolutionary process of optimization was improved due to the incorporation of auto-adaptive parameters. In addition, the proposed algorithm outperformed the state-of-the-art existing algorithms in terms of convergence ability and computational efficiency. At the same cost level, solutions with greater pollutant reductions could be identified. From a scientific viewpoint, the proposed algorithm could be extended to other watersheds to provide cost-effective configurations of BMPs.

  17. An auto-adaptive optimization approach for targeting nonpoint source pollution control practices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Wei, Guoyuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2015-10-21

    To solve computationally intensive and technically complex control of nonpoint source pollution, the traditional genetic algorithm was modified into an auto-adaptive pattern, and a new framework was proposed by integrating this new algorithm with a watershed model and an economic module. Although conceptually simple and comprehensive, the proposed algorithm would search automatically for those Pareto-optimality solutions without a complex calibration of optimization parameters. The model was applied in a case study in a typical watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. The results indicated that the evolutionary process of optimization was improved due to the incorporation of auto-adaptive parameters. In addition, the proposed algorithm outperformed the state-of-the-art existing algorithms in terms of convergence ability and computational efficiency. At the same cost level, solutions with greater pollutant reductions could be identified. From a scientific viewpoint, the proposed algorithm could be extended to other watersheds to provide cost-effective configurations of BMPs.

  18. Application of expert-systems approaches for the management of nonpoint source pollution in Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Kyoungdoo.

    1989-01-01

    The management of sources of nonpoint water pollution is a challenging task for watershed managers. This study evaluates the application of expert systems approaches to this task. Knowledge acquisition was the bottleneck in the development of an expert system. The guidelines derived from the literature review for knowledge acquisition were evaluated. The guidelines were proven to be useful for acquiring knowledge from both experts and potential users. The user information was used in two ways; it provided the direction of subsequent knowledge acquisition, as well as generated the user requirements for user interface design. The expert system was tested with experts and novice users and proven to be a useful tool for nonpoint pollution management.

  19. Supplement B to compilation of air pollutant emission factors, volume 1. Stationary point and area sources

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document contains emission factors and process information for more than 200 air pollution source categories. This Supplement to AP-42 addresses pollutant-generating activity from Bituminous And Subbituminous Coal Combustion, Anthracite Coal Combustion, Fuel Oil Combustion, Natural Gas Combustion, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Combustion, Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers, Lignite Combustion, Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills, Residential Fireplaces, Residential Wood Stoves, Waste Oil Combustion, Stationary Gas Turbines For Electricity Generation, Heavy-duty Natural Gas-fired Pipeline Compressor Engines And Turbines, Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines, Large Stationary Diesel And All Stationary Dual-fuel Engines, Adipic Acid, Cotton Ginning, Alfafalfa Dehydrating, Malt Beverages, Ceramic Products Manufacturing, Electroplating, Wildfires And Prescribed Burning, Emissions From Soils-Greenhouse Gases, Termites-Greenhouse Gases, and Lightning Emissions-Greenhouse Gases.

  20. Human teratogenic and mutagenic markers in monitoring about point sources of pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, E.B.

    1981-06-01

    For most pollutants a full range of short-term adverse reproductive outcomes should be considered as possible markers in monitoring populations. These include sex ratio, birthweight, intrauterine growth retardations, neonatal motality, birth defects manifest at birth or very shortly thereafter, embryonic and fetal deaths (EFD), germinal chromosome abnormalities in EFD and in livebirths, specific locus mutations detectable at birth, and indicators of somatic mutation including chromosome breakage and sister chromatid exchange. It is suggested (in the absence of a defined expected effect) that the highest priority be given to study of rates of EFD and of somatic chromosome rearrangement. Where possible, data on reproductive and mutagenic outcomes in the potential target population should be sought systematically before a putative pollution source comes into operation. Reference data on human mutagenic and teratogenic outcomes are presented.

  1. Two-stroke scooters are a dominant source of air pollution in many cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, S. M.; Haddad, I. El.; Pieber, S. M.; Huang, R.-J.; Zardini, A. A.; Clairotte, M.; Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Barmet, P.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Wolf, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Fuller, S. J.; Kalberer, M.; Chirico, R.; Dommen, J.; Astorga, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Marchand, N.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2014-05-01

    Fossil fuel-powered vehicles emit significant particulate matter, for example, black carbon and primary organic aerosol, and produce secondary organic aerosol. Here we quantify secondary organic aerosol production from two-stroke scooters. Cars and trucks, particularly diesel vehicles, are thought to be the main vehicular pollution sources. This needs re-thinking, as we show that elevated particulate matter levels can be a consequence of ‘asymmetric pollution’ from two-stroke scooters, vehicles that constitute a small fraction of the fleet, but can dominate urban vehicular pollution through organic aerosol and aromatic emission factors up to thousands of times higher than from other vehicle classes. Further, we demonstrate that oxidation processes producing secondary organic aerosol from vehicle exhaust also form potentially toxic ‘reactive oxygen species’.

  2. Polybromobenzene pollutants in the atmosphere of North China: levels, distribution, and sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhu, Tong

    2013-11-19

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are important persistent organic pollutants. Analysis of BFRs in atmospheric samples in a previous study led us to suspect the presence of unidentified organic bromides, other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the atmosphere. In this study, we identified and quantified polybromobenzenes, a group of organic bromides, in air samples collected through passive sampling in gridded observations in North China. We investigated their concentrations and spatial distribution, and estimated the proportion due to different sources. We detected seven species of polybromobenzenes, including hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), pentabromobenzene (PeBB), tetrabromobenzenes (TeBBs), and tribromotoluene (TrBT), in all or most of the field samples, indicating widespread occurrence of this class of pollutants. The median concentrations of each pollutant ranged from 20.0 to 144 pg/sample (or from 0.07 to 1.16 pg/m(3)), with relatively high concentrations found near e-waste recycling sites, BFR manufacturing sites, and areas of high population density. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis revealed that ∼70% of HBB, PBT, PBEB, and PeBB was from commercial products, while ∼80% of 1,2,3,5-TeBB, 1,2,4,5-TeBB, and 2,4,5-TrBT was linked with BFR manufacturing. This study provides essential information on widespread polybromobenzene pollutants in the atmosphere, particularly TeBBs and TrBT, for which this is the first report of their presence as atmospheric pollutants.

  3. [Estimation of nonpoint source pollutant loads and optimization of the best management practices (BMPs) in the Zhangweinan River basin].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Xu, Zong-Xue; Liu, Pin

    2013-03-01

    One of the key techniques in establishing and implementing TMDL (total maximum daily load) is to utilize hydrological model to quantify non-point source pollutant loads, establish BMPs scenarios, reduce non-point source pollutant loads. Non-point source pollutant loads under different years (wet, normal and dry year) were estimated by using SWAT model in the Zhangweinan River basin, spatial distribution characteristics of non-point source pollutant loads were analyzed on the basis of the simulation result. During wet years, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) accounted for 0.07% and 27.24% of the total non-point source pollutant loads, respectively. Spatially, agricultural and residential land with steep slope are the regions that contribute more non-point source pollutant loads in the basin. Compared to non-point source pollutant loads with those during the baseline period, 47 BMPs scenarios were set to simulate the reduction efficiency of different BMPs scenarios for 5 kinds of pollutants (organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus and mineral phosphorus) in 8 prior controlled subbasins. Constructing vegetation type ditch was optimized as the best measure to reduce TN and TP by comparing cost-effective relationship among different BMPs scenarios, and the costs of unit pollutant reduction are 16.11-151.28 yuan x kg(-1) for TN, and 100-862.77 yuan x kg(-1) for TP, which is the most cost-effective measure among the 47 BMPs scenarios. The results could provide a scientific basis and technical support for environmental protection and sustainable utilization of water resources in the Zhangweinan River basin.

  4. [Estimation and allocation of water environmental capacity in nonpoint source polluted river].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Jin, Shu-quan; Shen, Ye-na

    2007-07-01

    Based on the investigation of the application and emission quantities (QAE) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for nonpoint sources in river catchment' s area, included fertilizer applications, livestock and living pollutants emissions, the quantities of TN and TP entered the river were computed by means of export coefficient model in Changle River, southeast China. Self-purification capacities of TN and TP in the reach were also estimated in terms of input-output balance analysis method. According to the provisions of water function planning in the river, the water environment residual capacity (WERC) or the demand for reducing the application and emission (DRAE) of nitrogen and phosphorus in the corresponding catchment were monthly estimated, and WERC and DRAE were respectively allocated among the pollution sources. Results indicated that about 28.8% of TN loads and 51.2% of TP loads could be self-purified respectively in the reach, i. e., purification of 775.9 t a(-1) for TN and 30.9 t a(-1) for TP. Seasonal variations of the self-purification for the pollutants not only resulted from riverine hydrological and ecological conditions, but also affected by the pollution loading. According to the demand of the water quality protection in the reach, about 1581.0 t a(-1) QAE of TN had to reduce in Changle catchment. The maximum demand for the reducing QAE of TN was the fertilizer application (1047.4 t a(-1)), and the highest ratio for the reducing QAE of TN was livestock-poultry breeding (32.4%). There was about 2335.7 t a(-1) WERC for TP in the reach. The largest DRAE of nitrogen was during mid-water season and the least WERC of TP was during higher-water season.

  5. Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) for the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. Concept Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janz, Scott; Smith, James C.; Mannino, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of the Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) which will be used on the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. The primary science requirements require scans of the U.S. Coastal waters 3 times per day during the daylight hours. Included in the overview are presentations about the systems, the optics, the detectors, the mechanical systems, the electromechanical systems, the electrical design, the flight software, the thermal systems, and the contamination prevention requirements.

  6. Analysis of non-point and point source pollution in China: case study in Shima Watershed in Guangdong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Huaiyang; Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    China economy has been rapidly increased since 1978. Rapid economic growth led to fast growth of fertilizer and pesticide consumption. A significant portion of fertilizers and pesticides entered the water and caused water quality degradation. At the same time, rapid economic growth also caused more and more point source pollution discharge into the water. Eutrophication has become a major threat to the water bodies. Worsening environment problems forced governments to take measures to control water pollution. We extracted land cover from Landsat TM images; calculated point source pollution with export coefficient method; then SWAT model was run to simulate non-point source pollution. We found that the annual TP loads from industry pollution into rivers are 115.0 t in the entire watershed. Average annual TP loads from each sub-basin ranged from 0 to 189.4 ton. Higher TP loads of each basin from livestock and human living mainly occurs in the areas where they are far from large towns or cities and the TP loads from industry are relatively low. Mean annual TP loads that delivered to the streams was 246.4 tons and the highest TP loads occurred in north part of this area, and the lowest TP loads is mainly distributed in middle part. Therefore, point source pollution has much high proportion in this area and governments should take measures to control point source pollution.

  7. EXPOSURE VERSION 2 - A COMPUTER MODEL FOR ANALYZING THE EFFECTS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANT SOURCES ON INDIVIDUAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a model for calculating individual exposure to indoor pollutants from sources. The model calculates exposure due to individual, as opposed to population, activity patterns and source use. The model uses data on source emissions, room- to- room air flows, air e...

  8. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  9. PAH air pollution at a Portuguese urban area: carcinogenic risks and sources identification.

    PubMed

    Slezakova, K; Pires, J C M; Castro, D; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Delerue-Matos, C; Morais, S; Pereira, M C

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize air pollution and the associated carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) at an urban site, to identify possible emission sources of PAHs using several statistical methodologies, and to analyze the influence of other air pollutants and meteorological variables on PAH concentrations.The air quality and meteorological data were collected in Oporto, the second largest city of Portugal. Eighteen PAHs (the 16 PAHs considered by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) as priority pollutants, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, and benzo[j]fluoranthene) were collected daily for 24 h in air (gas phase and in particles) during 40 consecutive days in November and December 2008 by constant low-flow samplers and using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane filters for particulate (PM10 and PM2.5 bound) PAHs and pre-cleaned polyurethane foam plugs for gaseous compounds. The other monitored air pollutants were SO2, PM10, NO2, CO, and O3; the meteorological variables were temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, total precipitation, and solar radiation. Benzo[a]pyrene reached a mean concentration of 2.02 ng m(-3), surpassing the EU annual limit value. The target carcinogenic risks were equal than the health-based guideline level set by USEPA (10(-6)) at the studied site, with the cancer risks of eight PAHs reaching senior levels of 9.98 × 10(-7) in PM10 and 1.06 × 10(-6) in air. The applied statistical methods, correlation matrix, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, were in agreement in the grouping of the PAHs. The groups were formed according to their chemical structure (number of rings), phase distribution, and emission sources. PAH diagnostic ratios were also calculated to evaluate the main emission sources. Diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied site. Besides that source, emissions from residential heating and oil refinery were identified to contribute to PAH levels at

  10. [Spatial discharge characteristics and total load control of non-point source pollutants based on the catchment scale].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia-Hui; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Bo; Yao, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Hui-Yuan; Huang, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. Based on the analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics and intensity of major pollutants from the agricultural pollution source, the establishment of spatial management subzones for controlling agricultural non-point pollution and a design of a plan for total load control of pollutants from each subzone is an important way to improve the efficiency of control measures. In this paper the Four Lake basin in Hubei Province is adopted as the research case region and a systematic research of the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point pollution based on the catchment scale is carried out. The results shows that in the Four Lake basin, the COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen load of the water environment are mainly caused by agricultural non-point pollution. These four kinds of non-point source pollutants respectively account for 67.6%, 82.2%, 84.7% and 50.9% of the total pollutant discharge amount in the basin. The analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics of non-point source pollutants in the Four Lake basin shows that the major contributor source regions of non-point source pollutant in the basin are the four counties, including Honghu, Jianli, Qianjiang and Shayang where the aquatic and livestock production are relatively developed. According to the spatial discharge characteristics of the pollutants and the evaluation of the discharge intensity of pollutants, the Four Lake basin is divided into three agricultural non-point pollution management subzones, which including Changhu upstream aquatic and livestock production pollution control subzone, Four-lake trunk canal rural non-point source pollution control subzone and Honghu aquatic production pollution control subzone. Specific pollution control measures are put forward for each subzone. With a comprehensive consideration of the water quality amelioration and the

  11. [Spatial discharge characteristics and total load control of non-point source pollutants based on the catchment scale].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia-Hui; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Bo; Yao, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Hui-Yuan; Huang, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. Based on the analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics and intensity of major pollutants from the agricultural pollution source, the establishment of spatial management subzones for controlling agricultural non-point pollution and a design of a plan for total load control of pollutants from each subzone is an important way to improve the efficiency of control measures. In this paper the Four Lake basin in Hubei Province is adopted as the research case region and a systematic research of the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point pollution based on the catchment scale is carried out. The results shows that in the Four Lake basin, the COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen load of the water environment are mainly caused by agricultural non-point pollution. These four kinds of non-point source pollutants respectively account for 67.6%, 82.2%, 84.7% and 50.9% of the total pollutant discharge amount in the basin. The analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics of non-point source pollutants in the Four Lake basin shows that the major contributor source regions of non-point source pollutant in the basin are the four counties, including Honghu, Jianli, Qianjiang and Shayang where the aquatic and livestock production are relatively developed. According to the spatial discharge characteristics of the pollutants and the evaluation of the discharge intensity of pollutants, the Four Lake basin is divided into three agricultural non-point pollution management subzones, which including Changhu upstream aquatic and livestock production pollution control subzone, Four-lake trunk canal rural non-point source pollution control subzone and Honghu aquatic production pollution control subzone. Specific pollution control measures are put forward for each subzone. With a comprehensive consideration of the water quality amelioration and the

  12. Managing nonpoint source pollution in western Washington: landowner learning methods and motivations.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Clare M

    2009-06-01

    States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation's existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

  13. [Characteristics of non-point source pollution in Tiaoxi watershed and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing-liang; Wang, Fei-er; Dai, Lu-ying; Tian, Ping; Zhang, Zhi-jian

    2011-08-01

    By using soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model, this paper simulated the surface runoff intensity and the export loadings of sediment particulates and nutrients via non-point source hydrological pathway in Tiaoxi watershed, and integrated with the simulation results, analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of non-point source pollution in the watershed in 2008. In the study area, the per unit area non-point source pollution was stronger in northern region than in southern region and in eastern region than in western region, and the weakest in central region. Among the land utilization types, farmland had the biggest contribution to the sediment loading. There were significantly positive correlations between the loadings of surface runoff and associated sediment particulates and the rainfall intensity. The export loadings of nutrients through surface runoff were higher in rainy season (from June to September) than in dry season (from December to next March), and there existed significant correlations between the surface runoff loadings of sediment particulates, organic nitrogen, and nitrate and the average gradient of lands.

  14. Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Western Washington: Landowner Learning Methods and Motivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Clare M.

    2009-06-01

    States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

  15. Natural Wetlands Mediate Non-point Source Water Pollution From Irrigated Pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, K.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Tate, K. W.

    2005-12-01

    Non-point source discharge from grazed pastures may be high in nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, three major contributors to water quality impairment in California. Intercepting pollution at its source and managing water quality within the landscape are essential to maintaining healthy downstream waters. We investigated the efficacy of flow-through wetlands interspersed throughout the agricultural landscape to reduce non-point source pollution of tailwater from cattle-grazed, irrigated pastures in the Sierra Nevada Foothills of California. Wetlands are known to positively impact water quality through ecological processes such as filtration, sedimentation, microbial transformations and plant uptake of nutrients. Influent and effluent water of small (0.25 ha), natural wetlands located downstream from flood irrigated pastures was analyzed for Escherichia coli, NO3-N, total N, total suspended solids (TSS), total P, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) throughout two summer irrigation seasons (June to October). We compared reductions of sediment, nutrients and E. coli provided by a healthy, non-degraded wetland with reductions from flow through a channelized, degraded wetland. Large reductions in E. coli (>75%) and TSS (>50%) were observed in water exiting the healthy wetland while nutrient and DOC (~ 20%) concentrations were less affected by flow through the wetland. The channelized wetland provided smaller reductions in all constituents than did the non-degraded wetland. Results from this study demonstrate that small flow-through wetlands can improve water quality through the attenuation of E. coli and suspended sediments, and to a lesser degree DOC and nutrients.

  16. Characterization and control of organic compounds emitted from air pollution sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, J.J.; Kleeman, M.J.; Cass, G.R.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1998-04-01

    A dilution source sampling system is used to quantify the air pollutant emissions from major urban air pollution sources. The emissions from catalyst-equipped gasoline powered-motor vehicles, noncatalyst gasoline-powered motor vehicls, diesel trucks, meat charbroiling, the cooking of vegetables with seed oils, fireplace combustion of softwood and hardwood, cigarette combustion, and paint spray coating operations are characterized. Semi-volatile and particle-phase organic compounds in the diluted source emissions are collected simultaneously by both a traditional filter/PUF (polyurethane foam) sampling train and by an advanced organic compound-based denuder/filter/PUF sampling train to provide information on the gas/particle phase distribution of the semi-volatile organic compounds. Emission rates of hundreds of organic compounds, spanning carbon number from C1 to C29 are determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Fine partile mass emission rates and fine particle elemental chemical composition are measured as well.

  17. Sulfur pollution suppression of the wetland methane source in the 20th and 21st centuries.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Vincent; Matthews, Elaine; Dise, Nancy; Walter, Bernadette; Koch, Dorothy; Granberg, Gunnar; Vile, Melanie

    2004-08-24

    Natural wetlands form the largest source of methane (CH(4)) to the atmosphere. Emission of this powerful greenhouse gas from wetlands is known to depend on climate, with increasing temperature and rainfall both expected to increase methane emissions. This study, combining our field and controlled environment manipulation studies in Europe and North America, reveals an additional control: an emergent pattern of increasing suppression of methane (CH(4)) emission from peatlands with increasing sulfate (SO(4)(2-)-S) deposition, within the range of global acid deposition. We apply a model of this relationship to demonstrate the potential effect of changes in global sulfate deposition from 1960 to 2080 on both northern peatland and global wetland CH(4) emissions. We estimate that sulfur pollution may currently counteract climate-induced growth in the wetland source, reducing CH(4) emissions by approximately 15 Tg or 8% smaller than it would be in the absence of global acid deposition. Our findings suggest that by 2030 sulfur pollution may be sufficient to reduce CH(4) emissions by 26 Tg or 15% of the total wetland source, a proportion as large as other components of the CH(4) budget that have until now received far greater attention. We conclude that documented increases in atmospheric CH(4) concentration since the late 19th century are likely due to factors other than the global warming of wetlands.

  18. Cd isotopes as a potential source tracer of metal pollution in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Haidong; Liang, Xirong; Tu, Xianglin

    2013-10-01

    Tracing the sources of heavy metals in water environment is key important for our understanding of their pollution behavior. In this present study, Cd concentrations and Cd isotopic compositions in sediments were determined to effectively identify possible Cd sources. Results showed that elevated concentrations and high enrichment factor for Cd were found in all sediments, suggesting anthropogenic Cd origin. Cd isotopic compositions in sediments yielded relative variations ranged from -0.35‰ to 0.07‰ in term of δ(114/110)Cd (the mean: -0.08‰). Large fractionated Cd was found in sediments collected from a smelter and an E-waste town. Cd isotopic compositions and Cd concentrations measured in sediments allowed the identification of three main origins (dust from metal refining (δ(114/110)Cd < 0), slag of metal refining (δ(114/110)Cd > 0), and those δ(114/110)Cd = 0, such as background and mining activity). According to the actual precision obtained, Cd isotopes could be a potential tool for tracing metal pollution sources in water environment.

  19. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area. PMID:23369182

  20. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  1. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area. PMID:23369182

  2. Quantification and index of non-point source pollution in Taihu Lake region with GIS.

    PubMed

    Guo, H Y; Wang, X R; Zhu, J G

    2004-01-01

    The contribution of phosphorus and nitrogen from non-point source pollution (NPS) in the Taihu Lake region was investigated through case study and surveying in the town of Xueyan, From experimental results coupled with survey and statistics in the studied area, the distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus input to the water body is achieved from four main sources: agricultural land, village, the town center and the poultry factory. The results showed that about 38% of total phosphorus (TP) and 48% of total nitrogen (TN) discharged is from agricultural land, 33% of TP and 40% TN from village residents, 25% of TP and 10% of TN from the town center and 4% of TP and 2% of TN from the poultry factory. The Agricultural Non-point Pollution Potential Index (APPI) system for identifying and ranking critical areas of NPS was established with a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based technology. Quantification of the key factors in non-point sources pollution was carried out utilizing the following: Sediment Production Index (SPI), Runoff Index (RI), People and Animal Loading Index (PALI) and Chemical Use Index (CUI). These are the core parts of the model, and the weighting factor of each index was evaluated according the results of quantification. The model was successfully applied for evaluating APPI in Xueyan. Results from the model showed that the critical area identified for NPS control in Xueyan. The model has several advantages including: requiring fewer parameters, easy acquirement of these parameters, friendly interface, and convenience of operation. In addition it is especially useful for identifying critical areas of NPS when the basic data are not fully accessible, which is the present situation in China. PMID:15499770

  3. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. PMID:26298247

  4. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater.

  5. Integrating water quality modeling with ecological risk assessment for nonpoint source pollution control: A conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.D.; McCutcheon, S.C.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Nutter, W.L.; Carsel, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The historical development of water quality protection goals and strategies in the United States is reviewed. The review leads to the identification and discussion of three components (i.e., management mechanism, environmental investigation approaches, and environmental assessment and criteria) for establishing a management framework for nonpoint source pollution control. Water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment are the two most important and promising approaches to the operation of the proposed management framework. A conceptual framework that shows the general integrative relationships between water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment is presented. (Copyright (c) 1993 IAWQ.)

  6. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil.

  7. A model for dispersion from area sources in convective turbulence. [for air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, G.; Panofsky, H. A.; Zeman, O.

    1977-01-01

    Four independent estimates of the vertical distribution of the eddy coefficient for dispersion of a passive contaminant from an extensive area source in a convective layer have been presented. The estimates were based on the following methods: (1) a second-order closure prediction, (2) field data of pollutant concentrations over Los Angeles, (3) lab measurements of particle dispersion, and (4) assumption of equality between momentum and mass transfer coefficients in the free convective limit. It is suggested that K-values estimated both from second-order closure theory and from Los Angeles measurements are systematically underestimated.

  8. Source apportionment of size resolved particulate matter at a European air pollution hot spot.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, P; Hovorka, J; Klán, M; Hopke, P K

    2015-01-01

    Positive Matrix Factorization-PMF was applied to hourly resolved elemental composition of fine (PM0.15-1.15) and coarse (PM1.15-10) aerosol particles to apportion their sources in the airshed of residential district, Ostrava-Radvanice and Bartovice in winter 2012. Multiple-site measurement by PM2.5 monitors complements the source apportionment. As there were no statistical significant differences amongst the monitors, the source apportionment derived for the central site data is expected to apply to whole residential district. The apportioned sources of the fine aerosol particles were coal combustion (58.6%), sinter production-hot phase (22.9%), traffic (15%), raw iron production (3.5%), and desulfurization slag processing (<0.5%) whilst road dust (47.3%), sinter production-cold phase (27.7%), coal combustion (16.8%), and raw iron production (8.2%) were resolved being sources of the coarse aerosol particles. The shape and elemental composition of size-segregated aerosol airborne-sampled by an airship aloft presumed air pollution sources helped to interpret the PMF solution. PMID:25260163

  9. Simulation of spatial and temporal distributions of non-point source pollution load in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenyao; Qiu, Jiali; Hong, Qian; Chen, Lei

    2014-09-15

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution has become the largest threat to water quality in recent years. Major pollutants, particularly from agricultural activities, which include nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment that have been released into aquatic environments, have caused a range of problems in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), China. It is necessary to identify the spatial and temporal distributions of NPS pollutants and the highly polluted areas for the purpose of watershed management. In this study, the NPS pollutant load was simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the small-scale watershed extended method (SWEM). The simulation results for four typical small catchments were extended to the entire watershed leading to estimates of the NPS load from 2001 to 2009. The results demonstrated that the NPS pollution load in the western area was the highest and that agricultural land was the primary pollutant source. The similar annual variation trends of runoff and sediment loads demonstrated that the sediment load was closely related to runoff. The loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were relatively stable from 2001 to 2007, except for high loads in 2006. The increase in pollution source strength was an important reason for the significant upward trend of TN and TP loads from 2008 to 2009. The rainfall from April to October contributed to the largest amount of runoff, sediment and nutrient loads for the year. The NPS load intensities in each sub-basin reveal large variations in the spatial distribution of different pollutants. It was shown that the temporal and spatial distributions of pollutant loads were positively correlated with the annual rainfall amounts and with human activities. Furthermore, this finding illustrates that conservation practices and nutrient management should be implemented in specific sites during special periods for the purpose of NPS pollution control in the TGRR.

  10. Traffic source emission and street level air pollution in urban areas of Guangzhou, South China (P.R.C.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Chan, L. Y.

    Street level air pollution due to traffic emission is a cause of concern in Guangzhou City. During the winter and summer of 1988, the traffic-related air pollutant concentrations, wind field, traffic volume and vehicle speed were measured extensively in three types of street canyons in Guangzhou City. Various types of motor vehicle emission in idle condition were measured and the composite emission factors of vehicles were derived. The variation of traffic volume and vehicle speed in 223 mainstreets were also investigated. The annual air pollutant concentration levels of traffic source emission were calculated. Using CO as a traffic emission tracer for air pollution on the street, the contributions of traffic emission to street level air pollution were determined by the receptor method. Ground level air pollution in Guangzhou has changed from coal combustion emission type into traffic source emission type. The average contributions of traffic source emission to the concentration of CO and NO x on the street in 1988 are about 87% and 67%. The most significant pollutant of ambient air quality that traffic source emission influences in NO x.

  11. Sources and characteristics of lead pollution in the urban environment of Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S

    2007-10-15

    Guangzhou, the capital of the southeastern province of Guangdong, is one of the largest and most rapidly developing industrial cities in China. In recent years its rapid economic development has brought great prosperity to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, but has also given rise to a wide variety of environmental problems. The current level of lead (Pb) contamination (75-926 mg/kg) in the surface environment of Guangzhou remains a major concern, even though the use of leaded petrol in the city was banned in 1997. The Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/207Pb(min-max) : 1.1612-1.1961 and 208Pb/207Pb(min-max) : 2.4495-2.4838) of the urban dusts from unconfined (road dusts and gully sediments) and relatively confined (vehicular tunnel) settings in Guangzhou remains in a relatively narrow range, comparable with those of the regional natural and anthropogenic sources. This study highlights the inherent shortcomings of the Pb isotope fingerprinting technique for provenancing Pb sources, as both the target media (urban dusts) and potential sources have similar and highly radiogenic Pb isotope values. This could not only lead to an overestimation of the effectiveness of phasing-out of leaded petrol, but also an underestimation of the ever-increasing relative contributions from other potential sources of pollution, including coal combustion, industrial emissions of local Pb-ores and non-additive Pb contents of crude oils. Re-suspended Pb-bearing particulates deposited from early vehicular exhaust emission of leaded petrol with distinctly low Pb isotope compositions are still an important source of Pb pollution in the region.

  12. On the Ratio of Sulfur Dioxide to Nitrogen Oxides as an Indicator of Air Pollution Sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirel, Ronit; Dayan, Uri

    2001-07-01

    The ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen oxides (RSN = SO2/NOx) is one indicator of air pollution sources. The role of this ratio in source attribution is illustrated here for the Ashdod area, located in the southern coastal plain of Israel. The main sources of pollution in the area are the tall stacks of the Eshkol power plant, the stacks of oil refineries, and areal sources (stationary and mobile). The factors that affect RSN are studied using four regression models: a binary regression tree in original scale, a tree in logarithmic scale, a data partition produced by a combination of the two trees, and a linear regression model. All models have similar relative prediction error, with the combined partition best highlighting the sources of variability in RSN: (a) very low values (interquartile range of [0.12, 0.48]) are associated with traffic, (b) low values ([0.43, 1.00]) are attributed to the power plant and to daytime emissions of local industry, (c) medium values ([0.74, 1.90]) are associated with local industry emissions during cooler hours of the day and refinery emissions mainly on slow wind episodes, and (d) high values ([1.07, 4.30]) are attributed to refinery emissions during moderate to fast wind episodes. Analysis of the number of episodes of increased concentrations indicates that, during 1996 and 1997, about 42% of SO2 episodes are attributable to the power plant and 33% to the refineries. Increased-NOx episodes are mainly contributed by traffic (91%) and power plant (4.5%) emissions.

  13. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    PubMed

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  14. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    PubMed

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  15. Optimal nonpoint source pollution control strategies for a reservoir watershed in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Daw; Yang, Wan-Fa

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a model for optimal nonpoint source pollution control for the Fei-Tsui Reservoir watershed in Northern Taiwan. Several structural best management practices (BMPs) are selected to treat stormwater runoff. The complete model consists of two interacting components: an optimization model based on discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) and a zero-dimensional reservoir water quality model. A predefined procedure is used to locate suitable sites for construction of various selected BMPs in the watershed. In the optimization model, the objective function is to find the best combination of BMP type and placement, which minimizes the total construction and operation, maintenance, and repair (OMR) costs of the BMPs. The constraints are the water quality standards for total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in the reservoir. A zero-dimensional reservoir water quality model of the Vollenweider type is embedded in the optimization framework to simulate pollutant concentrations in Fei-Tsui Reservoir. The resulting optimal cost and benefit of water quality improvement are depicted by the model-derived trade-off curves. The modeling framework developed in the present study could be used as an efficient tool for planning a watershed-wide implementation of BMPs for mitigating stormwater pollution impact on the receiving water bodies.

  16. The impact of an air quality advisory program on voluntary mobile source air pollution reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanken, Peter D.; Dillon, Jennifer; Wismann, Genevieve

    Air pollution from mobile source emissions is a major cause of air quality degradation in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The projected increase in both population and vehicle miles driven, coupled with the high altitude, predominantly clear skies, and prevalent wintertime temperature inversions aid in the formation and retention of pollutants. The Colorado Department of Public Health issues an air quality advisory daily during the high pollution season (November 1-March 31) with the objective of improving air quality through voluntary driving restrictions and a mandatory wood burning ban. We hypothesized that the advisory had no effect on commuter behavior due to lack of awareness and understanding, lack of alternative means of travel, or lack of concern. We mailed an anonymous, self-administered survey to 1000 commuters living in the cities of Boulder and Westminster, Colorado. Despite the fact that the vast majority of the respondents were aware of the daily advisory (94%), understood what it meant (93%), and heard the posting at least once a day (71%) in time to choose alternative forms of transportation, the advisory did not alter commuter travel. Commuters traveled mainly as the sole occupant of a car and most (76%) never changed the way they commuted based on the daily advisory. Many claimed schedules or work locations did not allow them to use alternative transportation methods. We suggested a practical way to improve the advisory would be to reduce or eliminate public transit fares on poor air quality days.

  17. Analysis and pollution sources speculations of toxic gases in a secondary fiber paper mill.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Liu, Zhang; Chen, Xiao Q; Shen, Wen H

    2016-11-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates the compositions of the gaseous pollutants in the ambient air of a secondary fiber paper mill. Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), formaldehyde (HCHO), sulfur compounds (H2S), and hydrocarbon compounds (CxHy) were analyzed on six sampling sites with photo-ionisation detector, acetylacetone spectrophotometric method, and gas detector. The results revealed that, the high levels of TVOC and CxHy were detected at the wet end of paper machine and the office area, respectively; all the H2S contents on the six sites exceeded the limit (0.06 mg m(-3)) seriously; the HCHO concentrations at other five sites were out of the limit (0.10 mg m(-3)) except for the wastewater treatment plant. Furthermore, the necessary discussions about the possible pollution sources were considered on the process flow, the chemical agents used, and the ambient conditions in the paper mill. For the sake of air pollution control in paper mills, these remarkable results and analysis lay some technical basis in the following researches that should attract more attentions.

  18. Exposure measurement error in time-series studies of air pollution: concepts and consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Zeger, S L; Thomas, D; Dominici, F; Samet, J M; Schwartz, J; Dockery, D; Cohen, A

    2000-01-01

    Misclassification of exposure is a well-recognized inherent limitation of epidemiologic studies of disease and the environment. For many agents of interest, exposures take place over time and in multiple locations; accurately estimating the relevant exposures for an individual participant in epidemiologic studies is often daunting, particularly within the limits set by feasibility, participant burden, and cost. Researchers have taken steps to deal with the consequences of measurement error by limiting the degree of error through a study's design, estimating the degree of error using a nested validation study, and by adjusting for measurement error in statistical analyses. In this paper, we address measurement error in observational studies of air pollution and health. Because measurement error may have substantial implications for interpreting epidemiologic studies on air pollution, particularly the time-series analyses, we developed a systematic conceptual formulation of the problem of measurement error in epidemiologic studies of air pollution and then considered the consequences within this formulation. When possible, we used available relevant data to make simple estimates of measurement error effects. This paper provides an overview of measurement errors in linear regression, distinguishing two extremes of a continuum-Berkson from classical type errors, and the univariate from the multivariate predictor case. We then propose one conceptual framework for the evaluation of measurement errors in the log-linear regression used for time-series studies of particulate air pollution and mortality and identify three main components of error. We present new simple analyses of data on exposures of particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter from the Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Study. Finally, we summarize open questions regarding measurement error and suggest the kind of additional data necessary to address them. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

  19. Source identification of PM10 pollution in subway passenger cabins using positive matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Duckshin; Oh, Miseok; Yoon, Younghun; Park, Eunyoung; Lee, Kiyoung

    2012-03-01

    Monitoring the air quality in subway passenger cabins is important because of the large number of passengers and potentially high levels of air pollution. This report characterized PM10 levels in subway cabins in Seoul, Korea, and identified PM10 sources using elemental analysis and receptor modeling. PM10 levels in subway cabins were continuously measured using a light scattering monitor during rush and non-rush hours. A total of 41 measurements were taken during rush and non-rush hours, and the measurements were repeated in all four seasons. Filter samples were also collected for elemental composition analysis. Major PM10 sources were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The in-cabin PM10 concentrations were the highest in the winter at 152.8 μg m-3 during rush hours and 90.2 μg m-3 during non-rush hours. While PM10 levels were higher during rush hours than during non-rush hours in three seasons (excluding summer), these levels were not associated with number of passenger. Elemental analysis showed that the PM10 was composed of 52.5% inorganic elements, 10.2% anions, and 37.3% other. Fe was the most abundant element and significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with Mn (r = 0.97), Ti (r = 0.91), Cr (r = 0.88), Ni (r = 0.89), and Cu (r = 0.88). Fe, Mn, Cr, and Cu are indicators of railroad-related PM10 sources. The PM10 sources characterized by PMF were soil and road dust sources (27.2%), railroad-related sources (47.6%), secondary nitrate sources (16.2%), and a chlorine factor mixed with a secondary sulfate source (9.1%). Overall, railroad-related sources contributed the most PM10 to subway cabin air.

  20. Assessment of source-specific health effects associated with an unknown number of major sources of multiple air pollutants: a unified Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sug; Hopke, Philip K; Oh, Man-Suk; Symanski, Elaine; Han, Daikwon; Spiegelman, Clifford H

    2014-07-01

    There has been increasing interest in assessing health effects associated with multiple air pollutants emitted by specific sources. A major difficulty with achieving this goal is that the pollution source profiles are unknown and source-specific exposures cannot be measured directly; rather, they need to be estimated by decomposing ambient measurements of multiple air pollutants. This estimation process, called multivariate receptor modeling, is challenging because of the unknown number of sources and unknown identifiability conditions (model uncertainty). The uncertainty in source-specific exposures (source contributions) as well as uncertainty in the number of major pollution sources and identifiability conditions have been largely ignored in previous studies. A multipollutant approach that can deal with model uncertainty in multivariate receptor models while simultaneously accounting for parameter uncertainty in estimated source-specific exposures in assessment of source-specific health effects is presented in this paper. The methods are applied to daily ambient air measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter ([Formula: see text]), weather data, and counts of cardiovascular deaths from 1995 to 1997 for Phoenix, AZ, USA. Our approach for evaluating source-specific health effects yields not only estimates of source contributions along with their uncertainties and associated health effects estimates but also estimates of model uncertainty (posterior model probabilities) that have been ignored in previous studies. The results from our methods agreed in general with those from the previously conducted workshop/studies on the source apportionment of PM health effects in terms of number of major contributing sources, estimated source profiles, and contributions. However, some of the adverse source-specific health effects identified in the previous studies were not statistically significant in our analysis, which probably resulted because we

  1. PAHs pollution from traffic sources in air of Hangzhou, China: trend and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Zhong; Wang, Jing

    2005-01-01

    PAHs pollution in air of arterial roads was investigated from October 1998 to October 2001 in Hangzhou, China. The results showed that sigma10 PAHs was 13-36 microg/m3, among which, BaP, a strong carcinogenic kind ranged from 0.034 microg/m3 to 0.12 microg/m3. PAHs pollutions in four seasons were winter > autumn > spring-summer. The annual averages of sigmaPAHs concentration were 25 microg/m3 for 1999, 28 microg/m3 for 2000, and 29 microg/m3 for 2001, respectively. Leaded gasoline was banned in December 1998 in Hangzhou, thus comparative measurements with PAHs in leaded and lead-free gasoline powered motor exhausts made it certain that the use of lead-free gasoline leaded to a heavier PAHs pollution in roadside air from December, 1998, in China, and sigmaPAHs in air samples after the lead-banning were more than twice of that in samples before the action. For the large contribution of vehicle discharge to air pollution in roadside, further research was performed to suggest the factors influencing PAHs distribution in vehicle exhaust in order to control air pollution effectively. Compared to gasoline engines, emissions from diesel engines were less toxic, although they might produce more PAHs. Of the same vehicular and oil type, automobiles of longer mileages produced more toxic PAHs. PAHs distributions in the vehicular exhausts were related to the oil type. Large difference was found in the abundance of 3-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs between exhausts from gasoline and diesel oil engines. Diesel oil engines produced relative lighter PAHs such as NAPH, ACEN, FLUOR, while gasoline engines emitted heavier kinds such as BkF, IN and BP. The automobile produced more PAHs with the increase of mileage especially FLUR, PY, BaP, BP. Some significant ratios for traffic source in Hangzhou such as PHEN/AN, FLUR/PY, IN/BP were 0.50-4.3, 0.58-7.4, 0.51-1.5, respectively. A source fingerprint for vehicle exhausts of a mixture of vehicle and oil types in the city district for light

  2. An Introduction to GIS: Concepts, Tools, Data Sources, and Types of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardine, Daniel D.; Teodorescu, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The use of geographic information systems (GIS) has seen a steady increase since the first PC-based GIS software was developed in the latter half of the 1980s. Prior to that, GIS was run on mainframe computers and was a relatively crude and arcane technology by today's standards. This chapter introduces key concepts, tools, data sources, and types…

  3. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  4. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  5. A Proposal for Source Tracking of Fecal Pollution in Recreational Waters by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Takashi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify specific river sources of fecal contamination by applying pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to environmental water samples from a recreational beach in Japan. The genotypes of all Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains used as indicators of fecal pollution on the recreational beach and rivers were analyzed by PFGE, and the PFGE profiles of the strains were classified at a 0.9 similarity level using dendrogram analysis. PFGE types of E. faecium isolated from Sakai River or urban drainage were classified in the same cluster. Therefore, the probable sources of fecal pollution on the recreational beach were Sakai River and urban drainage. The approaches for microbial source tracking employed in this study used PFGE with Enterococcus species as an indicator can be a potential tool to specify the source(s) of fecal pollution and contribute to improved public health in coastal environments. PMID:24256972

  6. Microtargeting the Acquisition of Cropping Rights to Reduce Nonpoint Source Water Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozloff, Keith; Taff, Steven J.; Wang, Yingmin

    1992-03-01

    Targeting cropland retirement programs to reduce agricultural nonpoint source pollution is accomplished by employing disaggregated information about physical and economic factors that influence the benefits and costs of adopting specific erosion control practices on specific land parcels. The agricultural nonpoint source (AGNPS) model is used in a Minnesota watershed to simulate the relative effectiveness of alternative targeting schemes with respect to budget outlays for annual payments to landowners, reduction in downstream sediment yield and nutrient loss, and reduction in on-site erosion. Cost-effectiveness increased with information on economic factors (the opportunity cost of retiring a parcel of land) as well as on physical factors (contribution of a parcel to downstream sediment yield). The marginal cost-effectiveness of all schemes decreased as the enrolled proportion of watershed land increased.

  7. Multivariate statistical assessment of the pollution sources along the stream of Kamchia River, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Mihailov, G; Simeonov, V; Nikolov, N; Mirinchev, G

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen sampling sites along the stream of Kamchia River were considered as environmental objects in the multivariate statistical study aimed to identify and apportion patterns of sampling sites, latent factors responsible for the data structure and their relation to the emitter industrial and anthropogenic sources in the vicinity of the sampling sites. As variables 11 surface water parameters monitored for a long time period (up to 11 years) were used. Four main site patterns were revealed by cluster analysis (urban, rural, near-to dam and estuary) and for each site latent factors were identified and apportioned (among them "metallurgical", "food production", "winery", domestic wastes", "natural"). The relative contribution of each identified pollution source to the formation of the total concentration of each chemical species or physicochemical parameter was determined and compared to the real emitters in the region of interest.

  8. Space-based detection of missing sulfur dioxide sources of global air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world--over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf--and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr-1, or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  9. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  10. Point and non-point microbial source pollution: A case study of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamwal, Priyanka; Mittal, Atul K.; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    The present study identifies major point and non-point sources of microbial pollution during dry and wet weather in Delhi watershed which is the first prerequisite for planning and management of water quality of the river Yamuna. Fecal coliforms (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) levels were determined from two types of sources - point source (effluent from sewage treatment plants) and non-point source (stormwater runoff during dry and wet weather). FC and FS levels in the river Yamuna were also monitored, which is an ultimate sink for all microbial loads in Delhi watershed. Effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) employing different treatment technologies were evaluated. FC and FS levels greater than the effluent discharge standard (1000 MPN/100 ml) were observed in the effluents from all STPs except “oxidation pond Timarpur”. This study also involved field program for characterization of urban runoff from different land-uses. Results indicated that the microbial quality of urban runoff produced during wet weather from different land-uses was similar to that of raw sewage. Sewage overflows along with human and animal sources were responsible for high FC and FS levels in the runoff samples. Wet weather FC and FS levels in river Yamuna were higher as compared to the dry weather levels suggesting that dilution of the river water during wet weather does not affect its microbiological quality. Thus on the basis of this study it was found that urban runoff also contributes to the microbial quality of the river Yamuna.

  11. 77 FR 75739 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Control Technology HAP Hazardous Air Pollutants HON National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry ICR Information Collection Request lb... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic Chemical Manufacturing MSDS Material Safety Data...

  12. The contributions of high- and low altitude emission sources to the near ground concentrations of air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Đorđević, Dragana S.; Šolević, Tatjana M.

    2008-02-01

    The scale of transport through the atmosphere depends on the effective height of an emission source, the meteorological conditions and the physico-chemical characteristics of the pollutants. Atmospheric surface temperature inversions play a significant role in the problem of air pollution since their upper edge acts as a natural barrier to the vertical dispersion of pollutants. When the altitude of an emission source is lower than the edge of the boundary layer, the pollution remains below the upper edge and spreads by advection inside the lower layer towards the ground. However, if the altitude of the emission source is higher than the edge of the boundary layer, then the pollution spreads above the barrier. An analysis of a pollution episode during one month (August 2004) in an urban atmosphere of industrial city, using results of continuous monitoring of minute-by-minute fluctuations of the pollutants' concentrations, is presented. Region of a developed industrial town as a model was investigated. The investigated region is characterized by maximum number of surface temperature inversions during the nights in August and their furlough during the day time. With a combination of local meteorological information, that is the number of surface temperature inversions of the atmosphere, the results showed that the concentrations of pollutants originating from low altitude emission sources, e.g. organic pollutants, were higher at night. The near ground concentrations of SO 2, originating from high-(industrial stacks) and low altitude (traffic) sources, and the PM 10 originating from various sources i.e. from complex mechanisms of formation e.g. traffic emissions, SOA mechanisms and re-suspensions, were the same during the night and during the day. However, concentrations of NH 3 from high altitude sources (fertilizer plant) were higher during the day. Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed associations of highest correlation between pollutants, which

  13. The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Evans, J. S.; Fnais, M.; Giannadaki, D.; Pozzer, A.

    2015-09-01

    Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.

  14. The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Evans, J S; Fnais, M; Giannadaki, D; Pozzer, A

    2015-09-17

    Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.

  15. Spreadsheet WATERSHED modeling for nonpoint-source pollution management in a Wisconsin basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, J.F.; Pickard, S.A.; Sonzogni, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Although several sophisticated nonpoint pollution models exist, few are available that are easy to use, cover a variety of conditions, and integrate a wide range of information to allow managers and planners to assess different control strategies. Here, a straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.A straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.

  16. The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Evans, J S; Fnais, M; Giannadaki, D; Pozzer, A

    2015-09-17

    Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050. PMID:26381985

  17. User's Guide for the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) Pollution Model Data Generator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Scheidt, Douglas J.; Jaromack, Gregory M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Throughout this user guide, we refer to datasets that we used in conjunction with developing of this software for supporting cartographic research and producing the datasets to conduct research. However, this software can be used with these datasets or with more 'generic' versions of data of the appropriate type. For example, throughout the guide, we refer to national land cover data (NLCD) and digital elevation model (DEM) data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a 30-m resolution, but any digital terrain model or land cover data at any appropriate resolution will produce results. Another key point to keep in mind is to use a consistent data resolution for all the datasets per model run. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed the Agricultural Nonpoint Source (AGNPS) pollution model of watershed hydrology in response to the complex problem of managing nonpoint sources of pollution. AGNPS simulates the behavior of runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport from watersheds that have agriculture as their prime use. The model operates on a cell basis and is a distributed parameter, event-based model. The model requires 22 input parameters. Output parameters are grouped primarily by hydrology, sediment, and chemical output (Young and others, 1995.) Elevation, land cover, and soil are the base data from which to extract the 22 input parameters required by the AGNPS. For automatic parameter extraction, follow the general process described in this guide of extraction from the geospatial data through the AGNPS Data Generator to generate input parameters required by the pollution model (Finn and others, 2002.)

  18. Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County southeast China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jian; Qiu, Haiyuan; Lin, Huangbin; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Zhi; Zhao, Rurong

    2016-09-01

    Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in the regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County, southeast China, has been analyzed by means of monitoring F(-) ion change characteristics in this area. Meanwhile, pollution sources and influencing factors of the shallow groundwater have been uncovered by studying the correlation between F(-) and other related ions such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), as well as (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) ratio (R) and pH effect. The results show that F(-) ions in shallow groundwater at the study area come mainly from the dissolution of fluorinated minerals in a form of fluorite (CaF2), the so-called water-rock interaction, and there is a higher possibility for the occurrence of fluorine water where the ratio of (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) exceeds a value of 2.1. Moreover, the release and migration of F(-) ions have been favored by the alkaline environment in this study area.

  19. Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County southeast China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jian; Qiu, Haiyuan; Lin, Huangbin; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Zhi; Zhao, Rurong

    2016-09-01

    Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in the regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County, southeast China, has been analyzed by means of monitoring F(-) ion change characteristics in this area. Meanwhile, pollution sources and influencing factors of the shallow groundwater have been uncovered by studying the correlation between F(-) and other related ions such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), as well as (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) ratio (R) and pH effect. The results show that F(-) ions in shallow groundwater at the study area come mainly from the dissolution of fluorinated minerals in a form of fluorite (CaF2), the so-called water-rock interaction, and there is a higher possibility for the occurrence of fluorine water where the ratio of (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) exceeds a value of 2.1. Moreover, the release and migration of F(-) ions have been favored by the alkaline environment in this study area. PMID:27239970

  20. Development of a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai using pollution source census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianzhe; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weichun

    2016-03-01

    This study utilizes 521,631 activity data points from the 2007 Shanghai Pollution Source Census to compile a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai. The inventory generated from our dataset shows that a large portion of Shanghai's total energy use consists of coal-oriented energy consumption. The electricity and heat production industries, iron and steel mills, and the petroleum refining industry are the main carbon emitters. In addition, most of these industries are located in Baoshan District, which is Shanghai's largest contributor of carbon emissions. Policy makers can use the enterpriselevel carbon emission inventory and the method designed in this study to construct sound carbon emission reduction policies. The carbon trading scheme to be established in Shanghai based on the developed carbon inventory is also introduced in this paper with the aim of promoting the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon trading. Moreover, we believe that it might be useful to consider the participation of industries, such as those for food processing, beverage, and tobacco, in Shanghai's carbon trading scheme. Based on the results contained herein, we recommend establishing a comprehensive carbon emission inventory by inputting data from the pollution source census used in this study.

  1. Report on land-based sources of marine pollution in the Caribbean. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The report is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The document presents information gathered during a series of interviews with professionals from governmental agencies in each of the Caribbean nations, with the exception of the U.S. possessions. The report provides, on a nation-by-nation basis, background information regarding the sources of pollution and the agencies within each nation which retain some authority to remedy or otherwise manage these problems. Names of contact persons within these agencies, their phone numbers and addresses are also provided. The audience for the report is persons within organizations in the Caribbean Basin nations working to coordinate activities aimed at identifying and reducing land based sources of marine pollution. The report is a resource for achieving unified environmental efforts in the region. The final section briefly notes factors which may work in favor of regional solutions and those that may not.

  2. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity. PMID:27779222

  3. Air pollution source/receptor relationships in South Coast Air Basin, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, N.

    1993-12-31

    This research project includes the application of some existing receptor models to study the air pollution source/receptor relationships in the South Coast Air Basin of southern California, the development of a new receptor model and the testing and the modifications of some existing models. These existing receptor models used include principal component factor analysis, potential source contribution function analysis, Kohonen`s neural network combined with Prim`s minimal spanning tree, and direct trilinear decomposition followed by a matrix reconstruction. The ambient concentration measurements used in this study are a subset of the data collected during the 1987 field exercise of Southern California Air Quality Study. It consists of a number of gaseous and particulate pollutants analyzed from samples collected by SCAQS samplers at eight sampling sites. Based on the information of emission inventories, meterology and ambient concentrations this receptor modeling study has revealed mechanisms that influence the air quality in SoCAB. Some of the mechanisms affecting the air quality in SoCAB that were revealed during this study include the following aspects. The SO{sub 2} collected at sampling sites is mainly contributed by refineries in the coastal area and the ships equipped with oil-fired boilers off shore. Combustion of fossil fuel by automobiles dominates the emission of NO{sub x} that is subsequently transformed and collected at sampling sites. Electric power plants also contribute HNO{sub 3} to the sampling sites. A large feedlot in the eastern region of SoCAB has been identified as the major source of NH{sub 3}. Possible contributions from other industrial sources such as smelters and incenerators were also revealed. The results of this study also suggest the possibility of DMS (dimethylsuflide) and NH{sub 3} emissions from off-shore sediments that have been contaminated by waste sludge disposal.

  4. Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  5. Multi-Scale Monitoring and Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M. C.; Meyer, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  6. A novel modelling framework to prioritize estimation of non-point source pollution parameters for quantifying pollutant origin and discharge in urban catchments.

    PubMed

    Fraga, I; Charters, F J; O'Sullivan, A D; Cochrane, T A

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater runoff in urban catchments contains heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead) and suspended solids (TSS) which can substantially degrade urban waterways. To identify these pollutant sources and quantify their loads the MEDUSA (Modelled Estimates of Discharges for Urban Stormwater Assessments) modelling framework was developed. The model quantifies pollutant build-up and wash-off from individual impervious roof, road and car park surfaces for individual rain events, incorporating differences in pollutant dynamics between surface types and rainfall characteristics. This requires delineating all impervious surfaces and their material types, the drainage network, rainfall characteristics and coefficients for the pollutant dynamics equations. An example application of the model to a small urban catchment demonstrates how the model can be used to identify the magnitude of pollutant loads, their spatial origin and the response of the catchment to changes in specific rainfall characteristics. A sensitivity analysis then identifies the key parameters influencing each pollutant load within the stormwater given the catchment characteristics, which allows development of a targeted calibration process that will enhance the certainty of the model outputs, while minimizing the data collection required for effective calibration. A detailed explanation of the modelling framework and pre-calibration sensitivity analysis is presented. PMID:26613353

  7. Characterization and source identification of pollutants in runoff from a mixed land use watershed using ordination analyses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hwi; Mendoza, Joseph A; Lee, Chang Hee; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2016-05-01

    While identification of critical pollutant sources is the key initial step for cost-effective runoff management, it is challenging due to the highly uncertain nature of runoff pollution, especially during a storm event. To identify critical sources and their quantitative contributions to runoff pollution (especially focusing on phosphorous), two ordination methods were used in this study: principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). For the ordination analyses, we used runoff quality data for 14 storm events, including data for phosphorus, 11 heavy metal species, and eight ionic species measured at the outlets of subcatchments with different land use compositions in a mixed land use watershed. Five factors as sources of runoff pollutants were identified by PCA: agrochemicals, groundwater, native soils, domestic sewage, and urban sources (building materials and automotive activities). PMF identified similar factors to those identified by PCA, with more detailed source mechanisms for groundwater (i.e., nitrate leaching and cation exchange) and urban sources (vehicle components/motor oils/building materials and vehicle exhausts), confirming the sources identified by PCA. PMF was further used to quantify contributions of the identified sources to the water quality. Based on the results, agrochemicals and automotive activities were the two dominant and ubiquitous phosphorus sources (39-61 and 16-47 %, respectively) in the study area, regardless of land use types.

  8. Characteristic variation and original analysis of emergent water source pollution accidents in China between 1985 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Ye, Xiuqing; You, Hong

    2016-10-01

    China has suffered various water source pollution incidents in the past decades, which have resulted in severe threats to the safety of the water supply for millions of residents. From the aspects of quantity fluctuation, temporal volatility, regional inequality, pollutant category variation, and accident type differences, this study first characterizes the current status of water source contaminations in China by analyzing 340 pollution events for the period spanning from 1985 to 2013. The results show a general increase in the number of accidents during the period 1985-2006 and then a rapid decline starting in 2007. Spring and summer are high-incidence seasons for pollution, and the accident rate in developed southeastern coastal areas is far higher than that in the northwestern regions. Hazardous chemicals and petroleum are the most frequently occurring pollutants, whereas heavy metals and tailings are becoming emerging contaminants during occasional pollutions. Most of the accidents that occurred before 2005 were blamed on illegal emissions or traffic accidents; however, leakage in production has gradually become a major accident type in the past decade. Then, in combination with government actions and policy constraints, this paper explores the deep inducements and offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to ensure future prevention and mitigation of emergent source water pollution.

  9. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides.

  10. Deriving consumer-facing disease concepts for family health histories using multi-source sampling.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Haug, Peter J; Williams, Marc S

    2010-10-01

    The family health history has long been recognized as an effective way of understanding individuals' susceptibility to familial disease; yet electronic tools to support the capture and use of these data have been characterized as inadequate. As part of an ongoing effort to build patient-facing tools for entering detailed family health histories, we have compiled a set of concepts specific to familial disease using multi-source sampling. These concepts were abstracted by analyzing family health history data patterns in our enterprise data warehouse, collection patterns of consumer personal health records, analyses from the local state health department, a healthcare data dictionary, and concepts derived from genetic-oriented consumer education materials. Collectively, these sources yielded a set of more than 500 unique disease concepts, represented by more than 2500 synonyms for supporting patients in entering coded family health histories. We expect that these concepts will be useful in providing meaningful data and education resources for patients and providers alike. PMID:20382264

  11. Risk-based prioritization methodology for the classification of groundwater pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Pizzol, Lisa; Zabeo, Alex; Critto, Andrea; Giubilato, Elisa; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-02-15

    Water management is one of the EU environmental priorities and it is one of the most serious challenges that today's major cities are facing. The main European regulation for the protection of water resources is represented by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC) which require the identification, risk-based ranking and management of sources of pollution and the identification of those contamination sources that threaten the achievement of groundwater's good quality status. The aim of this paper is to present a new risk-based prioritization methodology to support the determination of a management strategy for the achievement of the good quality status of groundwater. The proposed methodology encompasses the following steps: 1) hazard analysis, 2) pathway analysis, 3) receptor vulnerability analysis and 4) relative risk estimation. Moreover, by integrating GIS functionalities and Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques, it allows to: i) deal with several sources and multiple impacted receptors within the area of concern; ii) identify different receptors' vulnerability levels according to specific groundwater uses; iii) assess the risks posed by all contamination sources in the area; and iv) provide a risk-based ranking of the contamination sources that can threaten the achievement of the groundwater good quality status. The application of the proposed framework to a well-known industrialized area located in the surroundings of Milan (Italy) is illustrated in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework in supporting the identification of intervention priorities. Among the 32 sources analyzed in the case study, three sources received the highest relevance score, due to the medium-high relative risks estimated for Chromium (VI) and Perchloroethylene. The case study application showed that the developed methodology is flexible and easy to adapt to different contexts, thanks to the possibility to

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  13. Location and release time identification of pollution point source in river networks based on the Backward Probability Method.

    PubMed

    Ghane, Alireza; Mazaheri, Mehdi; Mohammad Vali Samani, Jamal

    2016-09-15

    The pollution of rivers due to accidental spills is a major threat to environment and human health. To protect river systems from accidental spills, it is essential to introduce a reliable tool for identification process. Backward Probability Method (BPM) is one of the most recommended tools that is able to introduce information related to the prior location and the release time of the pollution. This method was originally developed and employed in groundwater pollution source identification problems. One of the objectives of this study is to apply this method in identifying the pollution source location and release time in surface waters, mainly in rivers. To accomplish this task, a numerical model is developed based on the adjoint analysis. Then the developed model is verified using analytical solution and some real data. The second objective of this study is to extend the method to pollution source identification in river networks. In this regard, a hypothetical test case is considered. In the later simulations, all of the suspected points are identified, using only one backward simulation. The results demonstrated that all suspected points, determined by the BPM could be a possible pollution source. The proposed approach is accurate and computationally efficient and does not need any simplification in river geometry and flow. Due to this simplicity, it is highly recommended for practical purposes.

  14. Location and release time identification of pollution point source in river networks based on the Backward Probability Method.

    PubMed

    Ghane, Alireza; Mazaheri, Mehdi; Mohammad Vali Samani, Jamal

    2016-09-15

    The pollution of rivers due to accidental spills is a major threat to environment and human health. To protect river systems from accidental spills, it is essential to introduce a reliable tool for identification process. Backward Probability Method (BPM) is one of the most recommended tools that is able to introduce information related to the prior location and the release time of the pollution. This method was originally developed and employed in groundwater pollution source identification problems. One of the objectives of this study is to apply this method in identifying the pollution source location and release time in surface waters, mainly in rivers. To accomplish this task, a numerical model is developed based on the adjoint analysis. Then the developed model is verified using analytical solution and some real data. The second objective of this study is to extend the method to pollution source identification in river networks. In this regard, a hypothetical test case is considered. In the later simulations, all of the suspected points are identified, using only one backward simulation. The results demonstrated that all suspected points, determined by the BPM could be a possible pollution source. The proposed approach is accurate and computationally efficient and does not need any simplification in river geometry and flow. Due to this simplicity, it is highly recommended for practical purposes. PMID:27219462

  15. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  16. Relationships Between Landscape Characteristics and Nonpoint Source Pollution Inputs to Coastal Estuaries.

    PubMed

    BASNYAT; TEETER; FLYNN; LOCKABY

    1999-05-01

    / Land-use activities affect water quality by altering sediment, chemical loads, and watershed hydrology. Some land uses may contribute to the maintenance of water quality due to a biogeochemical transformation process. These land-use/land-cover types can serve as nutrient detention zones or as nutrient transformation zones as dissolved or suspended nutrients or sediments move downstream. Despite research on the effects of individual land-use/land-cover types, very little has been done to analyze the joint contributions of multiple land-use activities. This paper examines a methodology to assess the relationships between land-use complex and nitrate and sediment concentrations [nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants] in streams. In this process, selected basins of the Fish River, Alabama, USA, were delineated, land-use/land-cover types were classified, and contributing zones were identified using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) analysis tools. Water samples collected from these basins were analyzed for selected chemical and physical properties. Based on the contributions of the NPS pollutants, a linkage model was developed. This linkage model relates land use/land cover with the pollution levels in the stream. Linkage models were constructed and evaluated at three different scales: (1) the basin scale; (2) the contributing-zone scale; and (3) the stream-buffer/riparian-zone scale. The contributing-zones linkage model suggests that forests act as a transformation zone, and as the proportion of forest inside a contributing zone increases (or agricultural land decreases), nitrate levels downstream will decrease. Residential/urban/built-up areas were identified as the strongest contributors of nitrate in the contributing-zones model and active agriculture was identified as the second largest contributor. The regression results for the streambank land-use/land-cover model (stream-buffer/riparian-zone scale) suggest that water quality is highest

  17. Contribution of base flow to nonpoint source pollution loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source pollution from base flow ground water was estimated in the Walnut Creek watershed by measuring chemical loads of atrazine, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate at 18 tributary creeks and 19 tiles. Loads were measured during a stable base flow period at creeks and files that discharged into Walnut Creek between two stream gauges. Chemical concentrations of atrazine (< 0.1-12 ??g/L), nitrate (0.1 to 15 mg/L, and chloride (1.5 to 26 mg/L) in water were similar for creek and tile samples. Water draining predominantly agricultural row crop areas had much higher concentrations than water draining restored prairie areas. Three methods were used to estimate base flow discharge in the watershed: (1) Darcy flux; (2) watershed discharge budget; and (3) discharge-drainage area; each yielded similar results (31.2 L/s to 62.3 L/s). Base flow loads to the main channel were estimated by subtracting the loads from the upstream gauge; creeks and tiles, from the total load measured at the downstream gauge station. Base flow concentration for atrazine ranged from 0.15 to 0.29 ??g/L and sulfate concentration ranged from 32 to 64 mg/L, whereas concentrations for nitrate and chloride were negative (-1 to -4 mg/L). Calculated base flow concentrations of atrazine and sulfate appeared to be reasonable estimates, but negative concentrations of nitrate and chloride imply either loss of chemical mass in the stream from upstream to downstream sampling points or measurement error. Load data suggest little contribution from base flow pollutants to Walnut Creek water quality, with most of the pollutant load derived from major tributary creeks. Results from this study have implications for determining total maximum daily loads in agricultural watersheds where contributions from point sources (creeks and tiles) can he used to

  18. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric contribution to nonpoint-source-runoff pollution of nitrogen, in the form of nitrite-plus-nitrate, and lead was extremely high contributing as much as 84 percent of the runoff load. In contrast, phosphorus and chloride inputs were low averaging of 6 percent of the total runoff load. Future investigations of nonpoint-source pollution in runoff might include collection of data on atmospheric deposition of nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen and lead because of the importance of that source of these constituents in runoff.

  19. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  20. Atmospheric mercury pollution at an urban site in central Taiwan: mercury emission sources at ground level.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Liu, Chia-Kuan; Huang, Ci-Song; Fang, Guor-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Total gaseous mercury (Hg) (TGM), gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM), and particulate-bound Hg (PBM) concentrations and dry depositions were measured at an urban site in central Taiwan. The concentrations were 6.14±3.91 ng m(-3), 332±153, and 71.1±46.1 pg m(-3), respectively. These results demonstrate high Hg pollution at the ground level in Taiwan. A back trajectory plot shows the sources of the high TGM concentration were in the low atmosphere (<500 m) and approximately 50% of the air masses coming from upper troposphere (>500 m) were associated with low TGM concentrations. This finding implies that Hg is trapped in the low atmosphere and comes from local Hg emission sources. The conditional probability function (CPF) reveals that the plumes of high TGM concentrations come from the south and northwest of the site. The plume from the south comes from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However, no significant Hg point source is located to the northwest of the site; therefore, the plumes from the northwest are hypothesized to be related to the combustion of agricultural waste. Dry deposition fluxes of Hg measured at this site considerably exceeded those measured in North America. Overall, this area is regarded as a highly Hg contaminated area because of local Hg emission sources.

  1. Quo vadis source tracking? Towards a strategic framework for environmental monitoring of fecal pollution.

    PubMed

    Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Bambic, Dustin G; Edge, Thomas A; Wuertz, Stefan

    2007-08-01

    Advances in microbial source tracking (MST) have largely been driven by the need to comply with water quality standards based on traditional indicator bacteria. Recently, a number of culture-independent, and library-independent methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been gaining popularity among source trackers. However, only a limited number of these methods have been successfully used in field applications, primarily due to the fact that many of them are still being developed. In this critical outlook, we examine different viewpoints associated with the practical use of MST to identify critical research gaps, propose a priority-based timeline to address them, and outline emerging technologies that will likely impact the future of source tracking. We propose that it is necessary to consider each of these aspects in order to advance towards a unifying framework in source identification, so that fecal pollution monitoring can be reliably used for comprehensive environmental microbial monitoring, to develop risk assessment models, and to implement and validate adequate management practices.

  2. Minority Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching Science: Sources of Science Teaching Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2013-04-01

    This study explores five minority preservice teachers' conceptions of teaching science and identifies the sources of their strategies for helping students learn science. Perspectives from the literature on conceptions of teaching science and on the role constructs used to describe and distinguish minority preservice teachers from their mainstream White peers served as the framework to identify minority preservice teachers' instructional ideas, meanings, and actions for teaching science. Data included drawings, narratives, observations and self-review reports of microteaching, and interviews. A thematic analysis of data revealed that the minority preservice teachers' conceptions of teaching science were a specific set of beliefs-driven instructional ideas about how science content is linked to home experiences, students' ideas, hands-on activities, about how science teaching must include group work and not be based solely on textbooks, and about how learning science involves the concept of all students can learn science, and acknowledging and respecting students' ideas about science. Implications for teacher educators include the need to establish supportive environments within methods courses for minority preservice teachers to express their K-12 experiences and acknowledge and examine how these experiences shape their conceptions of teaching science, and to recognize that minority preservice teachers' conceptions of teaching science reveal the multiple ways through which they see and envision science instruction.

  3. [Pollution Characteristics and Source Apportionment of PM₂.₅, in Lanzhou City].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Nie, Yan; Chen, Hong; Wang, Bo; Huang, Tao; Xia, Dun-sheng

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the characteristics and sources of PM₂.₅ pollutant in Lanzhou City, two PM₂.₅ sampling sites were set up in Chengguan district and Xigu district, respectively. Samples were sampled during October (non-heating period) and December (heating period) 2013, and mass concentrations of PM₂.₅ and its 16 kinds of chemical components were analyzed. The results showed that the average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ during the sampling period was 129 µg · m⁻³. The sequence of mass concentrations of inorganic elements was: S > Ca > Fe > Al > Mg > Pb > Zn > Mn > Ti > Cu, while the mass concentrations of S, Ca, Fe, and Al, which were the major element compositions, exceeded 1 µg · m⁻³. The mass concentration of inorganic elements during heating period was higher than that during non-heating period, meanwhile, the mass concentration in Chengguan district was higher than that in Xigu district. The sequence of mass concentrations of water-soluble ions was: SO₄²⁻ > NO₃⁻ > NH₄⁺ > Cl⁻ > K⁺ > Na⁺, while the mass concentrations of SO₄²⁻, NO₃⁻, NH₄⁺, which were the main ion components, exceeded 10 µg · m⁻³. The mass concentration of water- soluble ions during heating period was higher than that during non-heating period, meanwhile, the mass concentration in Xigu district was higher than that in Chengguan district. The result of enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed that the EF values of Al, Ca, Mg and Ti were lower than 1, indicating the contribution of natural source, while the EF values of Cu, Pb, S and Zn were higher than 10, indicating the contribution of anthropogenic pollution. The result of principal component analysis showed that the sources of PM₂.₅ were mainly derived from traffic emission, biomass burning, soil and secondary particles.

  4. Mercury isotope signatures in contaminated sediments as a tracer for local industrial pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Drott, Andreas; Jiskra, Martin; Jonsson, Sofi; Björn, Erik; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) may cause characteristic isotope signatures of different mercury (Hg) sources and help understand transformation processes at contaminated sites. Here, we present Hg isotope data of sediments collected near industrial pollution sources in Sweden contaminated with elemental liquid Hg (mainly chlor-alkali industry) or phenyl-Hg (paper industry). The sediments exhibited a wide range of total Hg concentrations from 0.86 to 99 μg g(-1), consisting dominantly of organically-bound Hg and smaller amounts of sulfide-bound Hg. The three phenyl-Hg sites showed very similar Hg isotope signatures (MDF δ(202)Hg: -0.2‰ to -0.5‰; MIF Δ(199)Hg: -0.05‰ to -0.10‰). In contrast, the four sites contaminated with elemental Hg displayed much greater variations (δ(202)Hg: -2.1‰ to 0.6‰; Δ(199)Hg: -0.19‰ to 0.03‰) but with distinct ranges for the different sites. Sequential extractions revealed that sulfide-bound Hg was in some samples up to 1‰ heavier in δ(202)Hg than organically-bound Hg. The selectivity of the sequential extraction was tested on standard materials prepared with enriched Hg isotopes, which also allowed assessing isotope exchange between different Hg pools. Our results demonstrate that different industrial pollution sources can be distinguished on the basis of Hg isotope signatures, which may additionally record fractionation processes between different Hg pools in the sediments.

  5. Small area study of mortality among people living near multiple sources of air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Michelozzi, P.; Fusco, D.; Forastiere, F.; Ancona, C.; Dell'Orco, V.; Perucci, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the area of Malagrotta, a suburb of Rome (Italy), a large waste disposal site, a waste incinerator plant, and an oil refinery plant became operational in the early 1960s and have represented three major sources of air pollution. To evaluate the potential health risk due to airborne contamination around these point sources, a small area analysis of mortality was conducted. Cancer of the liver, larynx, lung, kidney, lymphatic, and haematopoietic systems were evaluated. METHODS: Sex and age specific mortality (1987-93) and population denominators (1991) were available for the census tracts of the metropolitan area of Rome. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed separately for males and females in bands of increasing distance from the plants, up to a radius of 10 km. Stone's test for the decline in risk with distance was performed with increments in radius of 1 km; SMRs were also computed after adjusting for a four level index of socioeconomic status. RESULTS: No overall excess or decline in risk with distance was found for liver, lung, and lymphohaematopoietic cancers in either sex. For laryngeal cancer, an increased but not significant risk was found at 0-3 km and at 3-8 km. A significant decline with distance in mortality from laryngeal cancer was found among men (p = 0.03); the trend remained after adjusting for the socioeconomic index (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed no association between proximity to the industrial sites and mortality for most of the several conditions considered. However, mortality from laryngeal cancer declined with distance from the sources of pollution. This result is interesting, as previous findings of an increased risk of laryngeal cancer near incinerators have been controversial.   PMID:9861183

  6. [Pollution Characteristics and Source Apportionment of PM₂.₅, in Lanzhou City].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Nie, Yan; Chen, Hong; Wang, Bo; Huang, Tao; Xia, Dun-sheng

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the characteristics and sources of PM₂.₅ pollutant in Lanzhou City, two PM₂.₅ sampling sites were set up in Chengguan district and Xigu district, respectively. Samples were sampled during October (non-heating period) and December (heating period) 2013, and mass concentrations of PM₂.₅ and its 16 kinds of chemical components were analyzed. The results showed that the average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ during the sampling period was 129 µg · m⁻³. The sequence of mass concentrations of inorganic elements was: S > Ca > Fe > Al > Mg > Pb > Zn > Mn > Ti > Cu, while the mass concentrations of S, Ca, Fe, and Al, which were the major element compositions, exceeded 1 µg · m⁻³. The mass concentration of inorganic elements during heating period was higher than that during non-heating period, meanwhile, the mass concentration in Chengguan district was higher than that in Xigu district. The sequence of mass concentrations of water-soluble ions was: SO₄²⁻ > NO₃⁻ > NH₄⁺ > Cl⁻ > K⁺ > Na⁺, while the mass concentrations of SO₄²⁻, NO₃⁻, NH₄⁺, which were the main ion components, exceeded 10 µg · m⁻³. The mass concentration of water- soluble ions during heating period was higher than that during non-heating period, meanwhile, the mass concentration in Xigu district was higher than that in Chengguan district. The result of enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed that the EF values of Al, Ca, Mg and Ti were lower than 1, indicating the contribution of natural source, while the EF values of Cu, Pb, S and Zn were higher than 10, indicating the contribution of anthropogenic pollution. The result of principal component analysis showed that the sources of PM₂.₅ were mainly derived from traffic emission, biomass burning, soil and secondary particles. PMID:27506012

  7. Optimum Installation of Sorptive Building Materials Using Contribution Ratio of Pollution Source for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonghyun; Seo, Janghoo

    2016-04-01

    Reinforcing the insulation and airtightness of buildings and the use of building materials containing new chemical substances have caused indoor air quality problems. Use of sorptive building materials along with removal of pollutants, constant ventilation, bake-out, etc. are gaining attention in Korea and Japan as methods for improving such indoor air quality problems. On the other hand, sorptive building materials are considered a passive method of reducing the concentration of pollutants, and their application should be reviewed in the early stages. Thus, in this research, activated carbon was prepared as a sorptive building material. Then, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted, and a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials was derived according to the indoor environment using the contribution ratio of pollution source (CRP) index. The results show that a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials can be derived by predicting the contribution ratio of pollutant sources according to the CRP index. PMID:27043605

  8. Optimum Installation of Sorptive Building Materials Using Contribution Ratio of Pollution Source for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seonghyun; Seo, Janghoo

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcing the insulation and airtightness of buildings and the use of building materials containing new chemical substances have caused indoor air quality problems. Use of sorptive building materials along with removal of pollutants, constant ventilation, bake-out, etc. are gaining attention in Korea and Japan as methods for improving such indoor air quality problems. On the other hand, sorptive building materials are considered a passive method of reducing the concentration of pollutants, and their application should be reviewed in the early stages. Thus, in this research, activated carbon was prepared as a sorptive building material. Then, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted, and a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials was derived according to the indoor environment using the contribution ratio of pollution source (CRP) index. The results show that a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials can be derived by predicting the contribution ratio of pollutant sources according to the CRP index. PMID:27043605

  9. Source apportionment of PM(2.5) and selected hazardous air pollutants in Seattle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-fu; Larson, Timothy V; Wu, Szu-Ying; Williamson, John; Westberg, Hal H; Liu, L-J Sally

    2007-11-01

    The potential benefits of combining the speciated PM(2.5) and VOCs data in source apportionment analysis for identification of additional sources remain unclear. We analyzed the speciated PM(2.5) and VOCs data collected at the Beacon Hill in Seattle, WA between 2000 and 2004 with the Multilinear Engine (ME-2) to quantify source contributions to the mixture of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). We used the 'missing mass', defined as the concentration of the measured total particle mass minus the sum of all analyzed species, as an additional variable and implemented an auxiliary equation to constrain the sum of all species mass fractions to be 100%. Regardless of whether the above constraint was implemented and/or the additional VOCs data were included with the PM(2.5) data, the models identified that wood burning (24%-31%), secondary sulfate (20%-24%) and secondary nitrate (15%-20%) were the main contributors to PM(2.5). Using only PM(2.5) data, the model distinguished two diesel features with the 100% constraint, but identified only one diesel feature without the constraint. When both PM(2.5) and VOCs data were used, one additional feature was identified as the major contributor (26%) to total VOC mass. Adding VOCs data to the speciated PM(2.5) data in source apportionment modeling resulted in more accurate source contribution estimates for combustion related sources as evidenced by the less 'missing mass' percentage in PM(2.5). Using the source contribution estimates, we evaluated the validity of using black carbon (BC) as a surrogate for diesel exhaust. We found that BC measured with an aethalometer at 370 nm and 880 nm had reasonable correlations with the estimated concentrations of diesel particulate matters (r>0.7), as well as with the estimated concentrations of wood burning particles during the heating seasons (r=0.56-0.66). This indicates that the BC is not a unique tracer for either source. The difference in BC between 370 and 880 nm, however, correlated

  10. The main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumantakis, J.; Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Markantonis, K.; Grigorakou, E.; Vassiliou, E.

    2003-04-01

    The research team of the laboratory of Engineering Geology &Hydrogeology of NTUA and P.P.C. have carried out several research projects since 1990. The conclusions of these projects for the main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas are the following: Human activities : a) Urban and industrial wastes (solid and liquids) are disposed or discharged to the surface or groundwater bodies causing degradation of their quality (case studies of Athens Basin, Lavrio region, Atalanti plain), b) intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers for agriculture, through the process of percolation or leaching causes the deterioration of aquifers and surface water (case studies of Plolemais Basin, Korinth region, Elassona Basin, Atalanti plain, Thrapsana Basin Iraklio), c) current exploitations and old or abandoned mining sites, disturb the aquatic environment and create new hydraulic connections between clean and polluted aquifers or the sea (case studies of Lavrio region, Ptolemais Basin, Megalopoli Basin), d) over-pumping of aquifers mainly for irrigation but also in some cases for dewatering of mines, results in continues drawdown of the groundwater level and intrusion of sea (case studies of Korinth region, Athens basin, Naxos island, Nea Peramos Kavala, Marathon, Argolida Field, Atalanti plain, Achaia region, Stratoni area Chalkidiki, Gouves Iraklio). Geological Environment: a) extensive karstification of limestones that spread up all over the Greek region (33%) causes the intrusion of the sea far into the land (case studies of Lavrio region, Kefalonia island, Hymettus mountain), b) the chemical composition of the geological formations through the process of ion exchange and solubility pollute the groundwater resources (case studies of Vegoritis Basin, Katsika Chalkidiki, Florina region). The proposed measures to face these problems are : - the orthological management of the water resources - the artificial recharge of the aquifers, - proper waste management

  11. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Proof of concept for integrating oxy-fuel combustion and the removal of all pollutants from a coal fired flame

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Alex; Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William; Schoenfield, Mark; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    The USDOE/Albany Research Center and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, working together under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, have demonstrated proof-of-concept for the integration of Jupiter’s oxy-fuel combustion and an integrated system for the removal of all stack pollutants, including CO2, from a coal-fired flame. The components were developed using existing process technology with the addition of a new oxy-coal combustion nozzle. The results of the test showed that the system can capture SOx, NOx, particulates, and even mercury as a part of the process of producing liquefied CO2 for sequestration. This is part of an ongoing research project to explore alternative methods for CO2 capture that will be applicable to both retrofit and new plant construction.

  13. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Benes, V; Pĕkný, V; Skorepa, J; Vrba, J

    1989-01-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Research based on nitrogen and organic carbon balance has shown that the restoration of a soil-groundwater system is a complicated process that usually requires changes in the extent and intensity of agricultural activities and consistent attention to the effects produced by natural conditions. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making. PMID:2559844

  14. Modeling the effects of constructed wetland on nonpoint source pollution control and reservoir water quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jonghwa; Yoon, Chun G; Kim, Hyung-Joong; Kim, Hyung-Chul

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the integrated modeling approach for planning the size and the operation of constructed wetlands for maximizing retention of nonpoint source pollutant loads and reservoir water-quality improvement at a catchment scale. The experimental field-scale wetland systems (four sets, 0.88 ha each) have been in operation since 2002, where water depth was maintained at 30-50 cm and hydraulic loading rate was at 6.3-18.8 cm/day. The wetland system was found to be adequate for treating polluted stream water with stable removal efficiency even during the winter. The integrated modeling system (modified-BASINS) was applied to the Seokmoon estuarine reservoir watershed and calibrated with monitoring data from constructed wetland, stream, and reservoir. The calibrated integrated modeling system estimated that constructing wetlands on 0.5% (about 114 ha) of the watershed area at the mouth of reservoir could reduce 11.61% and 13.49% of total external nitrogen and phosphorus loads, respectively. It also might improve the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of the reservoir by 9.69% and 16.48%, respectively. The study suggested that about 0.1%-1.0% of the watershed area should be allocated for constructed wetland to meet specified water-quality standards for the estuarine reservoir at the polder area where land use planning is relatively less complicated.

  15. An auto-adaptive optimization approach for targeting nonpoint source pollution control practices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Wei, Guoyuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2015-01-01

    To solve computationally intensive and technically complex control of nonpoint source pollution, the traditional genetic algorithm was modified into an auto-adaptive pattern, and a new framework was proposed by integrating this new algorithm with a watershed model and an economic module. Although conceptually simple and comprehensive, the proposed algorithm would search automatically for those Pareto-optimality solutions without a complex calibration of optimization parameters. The model was applied in a case study in a typical watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. The results indicated that the evolutionary process of optimization was improved due to the incorporation of auto-adaptive parameters. In addition, the proposed algorithm outperformed the state-of-the-art existing algorithms in terms of convergence ability and computational efficiency. At the same cost level, solutions with greater pollutant reductions could be identified. From a scientific viewpoint, the proposed algorithm could be extended to other watersheds to provide cost-effective configurations of BMPs. PMID:26487474

  16. Relationships between landscape characteristics and nonpoint source pollution inputs to coastal estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Basnyat, P.; Teeter, L.D.; Flynn, K.M.; Lockaby, B.G.

    1999-05-01

    Land-use activities affect water quality by altering sediment, chemical loads, and watershed hydrology. Some land uses may contribute to the maintenance of water quality due to a biogeochemical transformation process. These land-use/land-cover types can serve as nutrient detention zones or as nutrient transformation zones as dissolved or suspended nutrients or sediments move down-stream. Despite research on the effects of individual land-use/land-cover types, very little has been done to analyze the joint contributions of multiple land-use activities. This paper examines a methodology to assess the relationships between land-use complex and nitrate and sediment concentrations [nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants] in streams. In this process, selected basins of the Fish River, Alabama, USA, were delineated, land-use/land-cover types were classified, and contributing zones were identified using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) analysis tools. Water samples collected from these basins were analyzed for selected chemical and physical properties. Based on the contributions of the NPS pollutants, a linkage model was developed.

  17. Urban contamination sources reflected in inorganic pollution in urban lake deposits, Bergen, Norway.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Malin; Eggen, Ola Anfin

    2015-04-01

    The 7000 years transition from a pristine environment towards a modern city has brought a number of chemical changes and effects to urban lake sediments in Bergen. Metals, such as Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu and Fe, display a large anthropogenic influence and reflect historical point sources that existed within the drainage area from approximately AD 1790 until today. The concentration peaks alternate with intervals of lower concentration due to phases of coarser grained sediment input but also periods of potentially reduced metal influx. All discussed elements, except Cd, increase in concentration with decreasing grain size and also correlate with the amount of clay fraction particles. The results emphasize the importance of considering grain size when interpreting sediment chemistry. Correlation with TOC is not apparent in the same extent. The transition from natural to anthropogenically influenced sediments, which is characterised by a sudden increase of several elements, is accompanied by a reduction in Cd, As and Ni concentration. This is interpreted to be the result of hypoxia, changes in pH and reduced erosional input. Factor analysis and the comparison with reference sediments indicate that the elements Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu most clearly demonstrate man-made pollution. Analyses of stormwater culvert sediments suggest that urban runoff contributes to the pollution load today, with standing building mass and traffic contributing to the load.

  18. Blast from the past: melting glaciers as a relevant source for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bogdal, Christian; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that melting Alpine glaciers may represent a secondary source of persistent organic chemicals is investigated. To this end, a dated sediment core from a glacier-fed lake (Lake Oberaar, Switzerland) was analyzed for a wide range of persistent organic pollutants, organochlorine pesticides, and synthetic musk fragrances. Input fluxes of all organochlorines increased in the 1950s, peaked in the 1960s-1970s, and decreased again to low levels in the 1980s-1990s. This observation reflects the emission history of these compounds and technical improvements and regulations leading to reduced emissions some decades ago. The input of synthetic musks remained at a high level in the 1950s-1990s, which is consistent with their relatively constant production throughout the second half of the 20th century. Since the late 1990s, input of all compound classes into the high-Alpine Lake Oberaar has increased sharply. Currently, input fluxes of organochlorines are similar to or even higher than in the 1960s-1970s. This second peak supports the hypothesis that there is a relevant release of persistent organic chemicals from melting Alpine glaciers. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive glacier melting predicted for the future, our study indicates the potential for dire environmental impacts due to pollutants delivered into pristine mountainous areas.

  19. Point source influence on observed extreme pollution levels in a monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensor, Katherine B.; Ray, Bonnie K.; Charlton, Sarah J.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a strategy to quantify the influence major point sources in a region have on extreme pollution values observed at each of the monitors in the network. We focus on the number of hours in a day the levels at a monitor exceed a specified health threshold. The number of daily exceedances are modeled using observation-driven negative binomial time series regression models, allowing for a zero-inflation component to characterize the probability of no exceedances in a particular day. The spatial nature of the problem is addressed through the use of a Gaussian plume model for atmospheric dispersion computed at locations of known emissions, creating covariates that impact exceedances. In order to isolate the influence of emitters at individual monitors, we fit separate regression models to the series of counts from each monitor. We apply a final model clustering step to group monitor series that exhibit similar behavior with respect to mean, variability, and common contributors to support policy decision making. The methodology is applied to eight benzene pollution series measured at air quality monitors around the Houston ship channel, a major industrial port.

  20. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Benes, V; Pĕkný, V; Skorepa, J; Vrba, J

    1989-11-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Research based on nitrogen and organic carbon balance has shown that the restoration of a soil-groundwater system is a complicated process that usually requires changes in the extent and intensity of agricultural activities and consistent attention to the effects produced by natural conditions. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making.

  1. Estimation of contribution ratios of pollutant sources to a specific section based on an enhanced water quality model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bibo; Li, Chuan; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Yue; Sha, Jian; Wang, Yuqiu

    2015-05-01

    Because water quality monitoring sections or sites could reflect the water quality status of rivers, surface water quality management based on water quality monitoring sections or sites would be effective. For the purpose of improving water quality of rivers, quantifying the contribution ratios of pollutant resources to a specific section is necessary. Because physical and chemical processes of nutrient pollutants are complex in water bodies, it is difficult to quantitatively compute the contribution ratios. However, water quality models have proved to be effective tools to estimate surface water quality. In this project, an enhanced QUAL2Kw model with an added module was applied to the Xin'anjiang Watershed, to obtain water quality information along the river and to assess the contribution ratios of each pollutant source to a certain section (the Jiekou state-controlled section). Model validation indicated that the results were reliable. Then, contribution ratios were analyzed through the added module. Results show that among the pollutant sources, the Lianjiang tributary contributes the largest part of total nitrogen (50.43%), total phosphorus (45.60%), ammonia nitrogen (32.90%), nitrate (nitrite + nitrate) nitrogen (47.73%), and organic nitrogen (37.87%). Furthermore, contribution ratios in different reaches varied along the river. Compared with pollutant loads ratios of different sources in the watershed, an analysis of contribution ratios of pollutant sources for each specific section, which takes the localized chemical and physical processes into consideration, was more suitable for local-regional water quality management. In summary, this method of analyzing the contribution ratios of pollutant sources to a specific section based on the QUAL2Kw model was found to support the improvement of the local environment. PMID:25779107

  2. Indoor air quality in Portuguese schools: levels and sources of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Madureira, J; Paciência, I; Pereira, C; Teixeira, J P; Fernandes, E de O

    2016-08-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters in 73 primary classrooms in Porto were examined for the purpose of assessing levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, particulate matter, ventilation rates and bioaerosols within and between schools, and potential sources. Levels of VOCs, aldehydes, PM2.5 , PM10 , bacteria and fungi, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), carbon monoxide, temperature and relative humidity were measured indoors and outdoors and a walkthrough survey was performed concurrently. Ventilation rates were derived from CO2 and occupancy data. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm were often encountered, indicating poor ventilation. Most VOCs had low concentrations (median of individual species <5 μg/m(3) ) and were below the respective WHO guidelines. Concentrations of particulate matter and culturable bacteria were frequently higher than guidelines/reference values. The variability of VOCs, aldehydes, bioaerosol concentrations, and CO2 levels between schools exceeded the variability within schools. These findings indicate that IAQ problems may persist in classrooms where pollutant sources exist and classrooms are poorly ventilated; source control strategies (related to building location, occupant behavior, maintenance/cleaning activities) are deemed to be the most reliable for the prevention of adverse health consequences in children in schools.

  3. Financing alternatives for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braden, J.B.; Farnsworth, R.L.; Seitz, W.D.; Uchtmann, D.L.

    1988-10-01

    The study examines mechanisms for increasing state and local spending for abatement of nonpoint source pollution from agriculture. Emphasis is on the legal feasibility and economic consequences of various funding options. The state and local funding mechanisms considered include income or sales taxes, an income tax checkoff, property taxes, special property assessments, water taxes, recreation license fees or surcharges, recreational equipment and fuel excise taxes, recreational access fees, erosion taxes, and farm chemicals taxes. Rated most highly are: property taxes or special assessments and water taxes at the local level; and water taxes and increased recreation fees at the state level. These mechanisms have a clear connection to the objective of improved water quality, would yield substantial revenues, and would be easy to administer. The remaining funding mechanisms would be too difficult to administer or have limited revenue potential.

  4. Effects of open water on the performance of a constructed wetland for nonpoint source pollution control.

    PubMed

    Kim, H C; Yoon, C G; Son, Y K; Rhee, H P; Lee, S B

    2010-01-01

    The seasonal performance of four differently configured constructed wetland systems was compared for the treatment efficiency of nonpoint source pollution. Dead plants in the constructed wetlands increased the nitrogen removal rate during winter by providing organic carbon, which is essential for the denitrification process. However, when the wetlands released phosphorus from the dead plants, the removal rate of phosphorus decreased. After seven growing seasons, plant coverage was nearly 100%, and the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was lowered to 1.3-5.4 mg/L. Open-water sections were then constructed inside the wetlands, which resulted in enhanced DO concentrations as well as improved treatment efficiency of nutrients and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Overall, performance of the constructed wetland was improved BOD, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus with the establishment of open water sections in the constructed wetland system.

  5. Applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of natural and pollutant hydrocarbons in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, J.K.; Revill, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past few years, many thousands of compounds have identified in crude oils using techniques such as capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some of these have quite distinctive chemical structures which are closely related to the organic compounds produced by plants, bacteria and algae. These {open_quote}biomarkers{close_quote} have proven to be very useful in petroleum exploration for identifying the likely source rocks from which the oils were derived. They are also very useful in studies of modern day pollution of the marine environment for identifying contamination by crude oil and petroleum-derived products. Although a wide range of hydrocarbons are available for oil spill fingerprinting, most attention has been given to some of the better-studied biomarkers which are readily analyzed using selected ion monitoring GC-MS techniques.

  6. Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water.

  7. Isotopic Tracers for Delineating Non-Point Source Pollutants in Surface Water

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L

    2001-03-01

    This study tested whether isotope measurements of surface water and dissolved constituents in surface water could be used as tracers of non-point source pollution. Oxygen-18 was used as a water tracer, while carbon-14, carbon-13, and deuterium were tested as tracers of DOC. Carbon-14 and carbon-13 were also used as tracers of dissolved inorganic carbon, and chlorine-36 and uranium isotopes were tested as tracers of other dissolved salts. In addition, large databases of water quality measurements were assembled for the Missouri River at St. Louis and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California to enhance interpretive results of the isotope measurements. Much of the water quality data has been under-interpreted and provides a valuable resource to investigative research, for which this report exploits and integrates with the isotope measurements.

  8. Atmospheric dispersion modeling with AERMOD for comparative impact assessment of different pollutant emission sources in an Alpine context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Gianluca; Giovannini, Lorenzo; Tomasi, Elena; Zardi, Dino

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution simulations are performed with the AERMOD model to analyze the impact on air quality of different pollutant emission sources in the area surrounding the town of Vipiteno in the northeastern Italian Alps. In this area the environmental burden of pollutant emissions is particularly high because of both its complex terrain and the presence of specific pollutant sources. In this study the effects of the main sources are analyzed and compared: the A22 motorway, which leads to the Brenner pass, the town of Vipiteno, mainly characterized by intensive use of biomass for house heating, three major plants with high emission rates, and a parking lot located near the motorway, offering park spaces for up to 260 trucks and 50 cars. To assess the impact of these pollution sources the AERMOD model is run with a spatial resolution of 25 m and with meteorological input data obtained from different datasets, such as annual series of standard meteorological variables taken from local weather stations and a set of vertical soundings. During the simulations the sources are modeled in different ways depending on the type of the emissions: the motorway is modeled as a linear source, the village as a diffuse source, the local companies as point sources and the parking lot is modeled as a composition of a diffuse source, representing the idling vehicles inside the park, and of a linear source, representing the access routes to the parking. For each type of source, specific emission factors are chosen, and hourly and seasonal emission patterns are set with particular attention to the analysis of idling vehicle emission factors. The results of the simulations are analyzed in terms of NO2 and PM10 and the impact of each source is discussed.

  9. PROFILE: Comparative Analysis of New Zealand and US Approaches for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Management.

    PubMed

    Caruso

    2000-01-01

    / Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution from widespread agricultural/pastoral land use in New Zealand can result in receiving water quality problems, but the Resource Management Act of 1991 requires the sustainable management of land and water resources. Many similar types of problems occur in the United States, where the Clean Water Act is the primary legislation addressing NPS pollution and progress has been made on the development and use of a variety of management approaches. However, little evaluation and comparison of approaches or cooperation between the two countries has occurred in the past. This type of analysis could provide information that is useful for more effective management of the problem. The goal of this study is to evaluate and compare approaches used in New Zealand and the United States for management of agricultural NPS pollution.The role of the central government in New Zealand is generally limited to research and policy development, and regional councils are responsible for most monitoring and management of the problem. The role of the federal government in the United States includes research and monitoring, policy development, and regulation. States also have a significant management role. Both countries rely on voluntary approaches for NPS pollution management. Very few national water quality standards exist in New Zealand, whereas standards are widely used in the United States. Loading estimates and modeling are often used in the United States, but not in New Zealand. A wide range of best management practices (BMPs) are used in the United States, including buffer strips and constructed/engineered wetlands. Buffer strips and riparian management have been emphasized and used widely in New Zealand.Many approaches are common to both countries, but management of the problem has only been partly successful. The primary barriers are the inadequacy of the voluntary approach and the lack of scientific tools that are useful to decision-makers. More work

  10. A reactive transport model for mercury fate in soil--application to different anthropogenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Leterme, Bertrand; Blanc, Philippe; Jacques, Diederik

    2014-11-01

    Soil systems are a common receptor of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) contamination. Soils play an important role in the containment or dispersion of pollution to surface water, groundwater or the atmosphere. A one-dimensional model for simulating Hg fate and transport for variably saturated and transient flow conditions is presented. The model is developed using the HP1 code, which couples HYDRUS-1D for the water flow and solute transport to PHREEQC for geochemical reactions. The main processes included are Hg aqueous speciation and complexation, sorption to soil organic matter, dissolution of cinnabar and liquid Hg, and Hg reduction and volatilization. Processes such as atmospheric wet and dry deposition, vegetation litter fall and uptake are neglected because they are less relevant in the case of high Hg concentrations resulting from anthropogenic activities. A test case is presented, assuming a hypothetical sandy soil profile and a simulation time frame of 50 years of daily atmospheric inputs. Mercury fate and transport are simulated for three different sources of Hg (cinnabar, residual liquid mercury or aqueous mercuric chloride), as well as for combinations of these sources. Results are presented and discussed with focus on Hg volatilization to the atmosphere, Hg leaching at the bottom of the soil profile and the remaining Hg in or below the initially contaminated soil layer. In the test case, Hg volatilization was negligible because the reduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) was inhibited by the low concentration of dissolved Hg. Hg leaching was mainly caused by complexation of Hg(2+) with thiol groups of dissolved organic matter, because in the geochemical model used, this reaction only had a higher equilibrium constant than the sorption reactions. Immobilization of Hg in the initially polluted horizon was enhanced by Hg(2+) sorption onto humic and fulvic acids (which are more abundant than thiols). Potential benefits of the model for risk management and remediation of

  11. Assessment of PM10 pollution level and required source emission reduction in Belgrade area.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Marija N; Perišić, Mirjana D; Kuzmanoski, Maja M; Stojić, Andreja M; Sostarić, Andrej I; Mijić, Zoran R; Rajšić, Slavica F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess PM10 pollution level and estimate required source emission reduction in Belgrade area, the second largest urban center in the Balkans. Daily mass concentrations and trace metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) of PM10 were evaluated for three air quality monitoring sites of different types: urban-traffic (Slavija), suburban (Lazarevac) and rural (Grabovac) under the industrial influence, during the period of 2012-13. Noncompliance with current Air Quality Standards (AQS) was noticeable: annual means were higher than AQS at Slavija and Lazarevac, and daily frequency threshold was exceeded at all three locations. Annual means of As at Lazarevac were about four times higher than the target concentration, which could be attributed to the proximity of coal-fired power plants, and dust resuspension from coal basin and nearby ash landfills. Additionally, levels of Ni and Cr were significantly higher than in other European cities. Carcinogenic health risk of inhabitants' exposure to trace metals was assessed as well. Cumulative cancer risk exceeded the upper limit of acceptable US EPA range at two sites, with Cr and As as the major contributors. To estimate source emission reduction, required to meet AQS, lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 probability distribution, functions (PDF) were used to fit daily PM10 concentrations. Based on the rollback equation and best fitting PDF, estimated reduction was within the range of 28-98%. Finally, the required reduction obtained using two-parameter exponential distribution suggested that risks associated to accidental releases of pollutants should be of greater concern.

  12. Impacts of input parameter spatial aggregation on an agricultural nonpoint source pollution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzHugh, T. W.; Mackay, D. S.

    2000-09-01

    The accuracy of agricultural nonpoint source pollution models depends in part on how well model input parameters describe the relevant characteristics of the watershed. The spatial extent of input parameter aggregation has previously been shown to have a substantial impact on model output. This study investigates this problem using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a distributed-parameter agricultural nonpoint source pollution model. The primary question addressed here is: how does the size or number of subwatersheds used to partition the watershed affect model output, and what are the processes responsible for model behavior? SWAT was run on the Pheasant Branch watershed in Dane County, WI, using eight watershed delineations, each with a different number of subwatersheds. Model runs were conducted for the period 1990-1996. Streamflow and outlet sediment predictions were not seriously affected by changes in subwatershed size. The lack of change in outlet sediment is due to the transport-limited nature of the Pheasant Branch watershed and the stable transport capacity of the lower part of the channel network. This research identifies the importance of channel parameters in determining the behavior of SWAT's outlet sediment predictions. Sediment generation estimates do change substantially, dropping by 44% between the coarsest and the finest watershed delineations. This change is primarily due to the sensitivity of the runoff term in the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation to the area of hydrologic response units (HRUs). This sensitivity likely occurs because SWAT was implemented in this study with a very detailed set of HRUs. In order to provide some insight on the scaling behavior of the model two indexes were derived using the mathematics of the model. The indexes predicted SWAT scaling behavior from the data inputs without a need for running the model. Such indexes could be useful for model users by providing a direct way to evaluate alternative models

  13. Assessment of PM10 pollution level and required source emission reduction in Belgrade area.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Marija N; Perišić, Mirjana D; Kuzmanoski, Maja M; Stojić, Andreja M; Sostarić, Andrej I; Mijić, Zoran R; Rajšić, Slavica F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess PM10 pollution level and estimate required source emission reduction in Belgrade area, the second largest urban center in the Balkans. Daily mass concentrations and trace metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) of PM10 were evaluated for three air quality monitoring sites of different types: urban-traffic (Slavija), suburban (Lazarevac) and rural (Grabovac) under the industrial influence, during the period of 2012-13. Noncompliance with current Air Quality Standards (AQS) was noticeable: annual means were higher than AQS at Slavija and Lazarevac, and daily frequency threshold was exceeded at all three locations. Annual means of As at Lazarevac were about four times higher than the target concentration, which could be attributed to the proximity of coal-fired power plants, and dust resuspension from coal basin and nearby ash landfills. Additionally, levels of Ni and Cr were significantly higher than in other European cities. Carcinogenic health risk of inhabitants' exposure to trace metals was assessed as well. Cumulative cancer risk exceeded the upper limit of acceptable US EPA range at two sites, with Cr and As as the major contributors. To estimate source emission reduction, required to meet AQS, lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 probability distribution, functions (PDF) were used to fit daily PM10 concentrations. Based on the rollback equation and best fitting PDF, estimated reduction was within the range of 28-98%. Finally, the required reduction obtained using two-parameter exponential distribution suggested that risks associated to accidental releases of pollutants should be of greater concern. PMID:26252876

  14. Regional risk assessment for point source pollution based on a water quality model of the Taipu River, China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qian, Xin; Yin, Hong; Gao, Hailong; Wang, Yulei

    2015-02-01

    Point source pollution is one of the main threats to regional environmental health. Based on a water quality model, a methodology to assess the regional risk of point source pollution is proposed. The assessment procedure includes five parts: (1) identifying risk source units and estimating source emissions using Monte Carlo algorithms; (2) observing hydrological and water quality data of the assessed area, and evaluating the selected water quality model; (3) screening out the assessment endpoints and analyzing receptor vulnerability with the Choquet fuzzy integral algorithm; (4) using the water quality model introduced in the second step to predict pollutant concentrations for various source emission scenarios and analyzing hazards of risk sources; and finally, (5) using the source hazard values and receptor vulnerability scores to estimate overall regional risk. The proposed method, based on the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP), was applied in the region of the Taipu River, which is in the Taihu Basin, China. Results of source hazard and receptor vulnerability analysis allowed us to describe aquatic ecological, human health, and socioeconomic risks individually, and also integrated risks in the Taipu region, from a series of risk curves. Risk contributions of sources to receptors were ranked, and the spatial distribution of risk levels was presented. By changing the input conditions, we were able to estimate risks for a range of scenarios. Thus, the proposed procedure may also be used by decisionmakers for long-term dynamic risk prediction.

  15. Analysis of mosses and topsoils for detecting sources of heavy metal pollution: multivariate and enrichment factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Dragović, S; Mihailović, N

    2009-10-01

    In order to assess the contribution of emission sources to the pollution of areas remote from industrial facilities, a combined approach of enrichment factor analysis and multivariate statistics was used for detecting the origin of heavy metal pollution in the Zlatibor ecosystem, in Serbia. Samples of moss (Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Scleropodium purum, Hypnum cupressiforme and Thuidum delicatulum) and of topsoil (0-5 cm) were collected in 2005. The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in moss and soil samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained by enrichment factor analysis and two multivariate statistical methods, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, enabled discrimination of the lithologic and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals in the mosses. Enrichment factors, calculated to evaluate the contribution to the metal content in moss from anthropogenic sources, revealed pollution of the investigated area by Cd and Pb, originating from long-range transport and fossil fuel burning.

  16. Outdoor air pollution in close proximity to a continuous point source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Gabel, Etienne B.; Ott, Wayne R.; Switzer, Paul

    Data are lacking on human exposure to air pollutants occurring in ground-level outdoor environments within a few meters of point sources. To better understand outdoor exposure to tobacco smoke from cigarettes or cigars, and exposure to other types of outdoor point sources, we performed more than 100 controlled outdoor monitoring experiments on a backyard residential patio in which we released pure carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer gas for continuous time periods lasting 0.5-2 h. The CO was emitted from a single outlet at a fixed per-experiment rate of 120-400 cc min -1 (˜140-450 mg min -1). We measured CO concentrations every 15 s at up to 36 points around the source along orthogonal axes. The CO sensors were positioned at standing or sitting breathing heights of 2-5 ft (up to 1.5 ft above and below the source) and at horizontal distances of 0.25-2 m. We simultaneously measured real-time air speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature at single points on the patio. The ground-level air speeds on the patio were similar to those we measured during a survey of 26 outdoor patio locations in 5 nearby towns. The CO data exhibited a well-defined proximity effect similar to the indoor proximity effect reported in the literature. Average concentrations were approximately inversely proportional to distance. Average CO levels were approximately proportional to source strength, supporting generalization of our results to different source strengths. For example, we predict a cigarette smoker would cause average fine particle levels of approximately 70-110 μg m -3 at horizontal distances of 0.25-0.5 m. We also found that average CO concentrations rose significantly as average air speed decreased. We fit a multiplicative regression model to the empirical data that predicts outdoor concentrations as a function of source emission rate, source-receptor distance, air speed and wind direction. The model described the data reasonably well, accounting for ˜50% of the log

  17. Groundwater pollution and remediation options for multi-source contaminated aquifers (Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany).

    PubMed

    Wycisk, P; Weiss, H; Kaschl, A; Heidrich, S; Sommerwerk, K

    2003-04-11

    Large-scale contaminated megasites like Bitterfeld/Wolfen in the eastern part of Germany are characterized by a regional pollution of soil, surface water and groundwater due to the long and varied history of the chemical industry on location. The pollutants in groundwater may spread to uncontaminated areas and endanger receptors like surface water and drinking water wells according to the site-specific hydrologic regime. In addition, the sheer extension of the contamination at megasites as well as the existence of large densely populated areas and land of high-reuse value prevent a simple risk management strategy of use restriction for the whole area. Since a complete clean-up of the groundwater on a megasite is neither economically feasible nor technically possible within a reasonable time-frame, a multi-approach remediation strategy is needed, taking into account the immediate risks for human health, ecosystem and so-called "protectable goods". Moreover, the contaminants at megasites typically represent a dangerous cocktail of multiple harmful substances stemming from a variety of sources, which may interact with each other and complicate the search for an appropriate remediation strategy. At the SAFIRA-project site in Bitterfeld approaches for in situ remediation of multiple contaminants in groundwater are being tested. Alternatives in local implementation strategies as well as consequences of long-term restrictions for megasites like Bitterfeld need an independent evaluation of the situation using a risk-based approach. For this reason, a GIS-based 3D model of the area including geology, contaminants, hydrogeology, land-use and protected areas has been built. The regional groundwater pollution is characterized by contamination profiles of all monitored substances. In the area of investigation, e.g. threefold and fourfold threshold levels of chlorinated methane, ethane and ethene as well as HCH-isomers, mono-, di- and tetrachlorobenzene, DDT-isomers and benzene

  18. Evaluating agricultural nonpoint-source pollution using integrated geographic information systems and hydrologic/water quality model

    SciTech Connect

    Tim, U.S.; Jolly, R.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in developing physically based, distributed parameter, hydrologic/water quality (HIWQ) models for planning and control of nonpoint-source pollution. The widespread use of these models is often constrained by the excessive and time-consuming input data demands and the lack of computing efficiencies necessary for iterative simulation of alternative management strategies. Recent developments in geographic information systems (GIS) provide techniques for handling large amounts of spatial data for modeling nonpoint-source pollution problems. Because a GIS can be used to combine information from several sources to form an array of model input data and to examine any combinations of spatial input/output data, it represents a highly effective tool for HiWQ modeling. This paper describes the integration of a distributed-parameter model (AGNPS) with a GIS (ARC/INFO) to examine nonpoint sources of pollution in an agricultural watershed. The ARC/INFO GIS provided the tools to generate and spatially organize the disparate data to support modeling, while the AGNPS model was used to predict several water quality variables including soil erosion and sedimentation within a watershed. The integrated system was used to evaluate the effectiveness of several alternative management strategies in reducing sediment pollution in a 417-ha watershed located in southern Iowa. The implementation of vegetative filter strips and contour buffer (grass) strips resulted in a 41 and 47% reduction in sediment yield at the watershed outlet, respectively. In addition, when the integrated system was used, the combination of the above management strategies resulted in a 71% reduction in sediment yield. In general, the study demonstrated the utility of integrating a simulation model with GIS for nonpoini-source pollution control and planning. Such techniques can help characterize the diffuse sources of pollution at the landscape level. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Determining the source of nitrate pollution in the Niger discontinuous aquifers using the natural {15N }/{14N } ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Pierre; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    1997-12-01

    In the semi-arid Niamey area (Niger), more than 10% of the deep wells exploiting the fracture network of the Precambrian aquifer are contaminated by nitrates, with concentrations as high as 10 meq l -1. In order to identify the source(s) of this pollution, nitrate and 15N contents in the polluted wells were monitored over a 20-month period. Potential sources of nitrate contamination were also analyzed for their 15N content. The isotopic compositions of nitrate in polluted waters were > + 12‰ and in rare cases exceeded +17‰. Latrines (˜ + 15‰) may be the major nitrate source for wells showing δ15N values above +15‰. Below this value, waters may be polluted by a combination of nitrates from both latrine and soil sources (˜ + 10‰). In some cases, the soil may account for up to 85% of the groundwater nitrate load. This mode of groundwater pollution is thought to be a consequence of deforestation. Despite their reputation as polluting agents, fertilizers ( +0.5 < δ 15N < + 3.6‰ ) which are used in rice paddies close to the contaminated areas, do not appear to be a significant source of nitrate contamination. Denitrification is probably not a significant process in the study area. Results suggest that nitrate contamination of the aquifer is a consequence of unregulated urbanization (home-made latrines) and deforestation. While latrines are limited to the urban zones, intensive cutting of the forest to meet the city dwellers' wood demand occurs in an ever increasing area around the capital, threatening the local water supply.

  20. Advanced concept proof-of-principle demonstration: Switchable radioactive neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.A.; Bowers, D.L.; Boyar, R.E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1995-10-01

    An advanced concept proof-of-principle demonstration was successfully performed to show the feasibility of a practical switchable radioactive neutron source (SRNS) that can be switched on and off like an accelerator, but without requiring accelerator equipment such as high voltage supply, control unit, etc. This source concept would provide a highly portable neutron source for field radiation measurement applications. Such a source would require minimal, if any, shielding when not in use. The SRNS, previously patented by Argonne staff, provides a means of constructing the alpha-emitting and light-element components of a radioactive neutron source, in such a fashion that these two components can brought together to turn the source ``on`` and then be separated to turn the source ``off``. An SRNS could be used for such field applications as active neutron interrogation of objects to detect fissile materials or to measure their concentration; and to excite gamma-ray emission for detection of specific elements that indicate toxic chemicals, drugs, explosives, etc. The demonstration was performed using Pu-238 as the alpha emitter and Be as the light element, in an air-atmosphere glovebox having no atmosphere purification capability. A stable, thin film of Pu-238 oxide was deposited on a stainless steel planchet. The ``on`` output of the demonstration Pu-238 film was measured to be 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} neutrons/sec-gram of Pu-238. The measured ``off`` neutron rate was satisfactory, only about 5% of the ``on`` output, after two weeks of exposure to the glovebox atmosphere. After several weeks additional exposure, the ``off`` rate had increased to about 15%. This work demonstrates the feasibility of constructing practical, highly portable SRNS units with very low gamma-ray dose in the ``off`` position.

  1. Optimal characterization of pollutant sources in contaminated aquifers by integrating sequential-monitoring-network design and source identification: methodology and an application in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2015-09-01

    Often, when pollution is first detected in groundwater, very few spatiotemporal pollutant concentration measurements are available. The contaminant concentration measurement data initially available are generally sparse and insufficient for accurate source characterization. This requires development of a contaminant monitoring plan and its field implementation to collect more data. The location of scientifically chosen monitoring points and the number of measurements are important considerations in improving the source-characterization process, especially in a complex contamination scenario. In order to improve the efficiency of source characterization, a feedback-based methodology is implemented, integrating sequential-monitoring-network design and a source identification method. The simulated annealing (SA) optimization algorithm is used to solve the models for optimal source identification and the monitoring-network-design optimization. This sequence is repeated a few times to improve the accuracy of source characterization. The methodology is based on the premise that concentration measurements from a sequence of implemented monitoring networks provide feedback information on the actual concentration in the site. This additional information, obtained as feedback from monitoring networks designed and implemented based on intermediate source characterization, can result in sequential improvement in the resulting source characterization. The performance of this methodology is evaluated by application to a contaminated aquifer site in New South Wales, Australia, where source location, source-activity initiation time and source-flux (mass per unit time) release history are considered as unknown variables. The performance evaluation results demonstrate potential applicability of the proposed sequential methodology.

  2. Comparing Multipollutant Emissions-Based Mobile Source Indicators to Other Single Pollutant and Multipollutant Indicators in Different Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Michelle M.; Baxter, Lisa K.; Duvall, Rachelle M.; Madden, Meagan; Xie, Mingjie; Hannigan, Michael P.; Peel, Jennifer L.; Pachon, Jorge E.; Balachandran, Siv; Russell, Armistead; Long, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of single pollutant and multipollutant metrics can be used to represent exposure to traffic pollutant mixtures and evaluate their health effects. Integrated mobile source indicators (IMSIs) that combine air quality concentration and emissions data have recently been developed and evaluated using data from Atlanta, Georgia. IMSIs were found to track trends in traffic-related pollutants and have similar or stronger associations with health outcomes. In the current work, we apply IMSIs for gasoline, diesel and total (gasoline + diesel) vehicles to two other cities (Denver, Colorado and Houston, Texas) with different emissions profiles as well as to a different dataset from Atlanta. We compare spatial and temporal variability of IMSIs to single-pollutant indicators (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC)) and multipollutant source apportionment factors produced by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Across cities, PMF-derived and IMSI gasoline metrics were most strongly correlated with CO (r = 0.31–0.98), while multipollutant diesel metrics were most strongly correlated with EC (r = 0.80–0.98). NOx correlations with PMF factors varied across cities (r = 0.29–0.67), while correlations with IMSIs were relatively consistent (r = 0.61–0.94). In general, single-pollutant metrics were more correlated with IMSIs (r = 0.58–0.98) than with PMF-derived factors (r = 0.07–0.99). A spatial analysis indicated that IMSIs were more strongly correlated (r > 0.7) between two sites in each city than single pollutant and PMF factors. These findings provide confidence that IMSIs provide a transferable, simple approach to estimate mobile source air pollution in cities with differing topography and source profiles using readily available data. PMID:25405595

  3. Comparing multipollutant emissions-based mobile source indicators to other single pollutant and multipollutant indicators in different urban areas.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Michelle M; Baxter, Lisa K; Duvall, Rachelle M; Madden, Meagan; Xie, Mingjie; Hannigan, Michael P; Peel, Jennifer L; Pachon, Jorge E; Balachandran, Siv; Russell, Armistead; Long, Thomas C

    2014-11-14

    A variety of single pollutant and multipollutant metrics can be used to represent exposure to traffic pollutant mixtures and evaluate their health effects. Integrated mobile source indicators (IMSIs) that combine air quality concentration and emissions data have recently been developed and evaluated using data from Atlanta, Georgia. IMSIs were found to track trends in traffic-related pollutants and have similar or stronger associations with health outcomes. In the current work, we apply IMSIs for gasoline, diesel and total (gasoline + diesel) vehicles to two other cities (Denver, Colorado and Houston, Texas) with different emissions profiles as well as to a different dataset from Atlanta. We compare spatial and temporal variability of IMSIs to single-pollutant indicators (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC)) and multipollutant source apportionment factors produced by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Across cities, PMF-derived and IMSI gasoline metrics were most strongly correlated with CO (r = 0.31-0.98), while multipollutant diesel metrics were most strongly correlated with EC (r = 0.80-0.98). NOx correlations with PMF factors varied across cities (r = 0.29-0.67), while correlations with IMSIs were relatively consistent (r = 0.61-0.94). In general, single-pollutant metrics were more correlated with IMSIs (r = 0.58-0.98) than with PMF-derived factors (r = 0.07-0.99). A spatial analysis indicated that IMSIs were more strongly correlated (r > 0.7) between two sites in each city than single pollutant and PMF factors. These findings provide confidence that IMSIs provide a transferable, simple approach to estimate mobile source air pollution in cities with differing topography and source profiles using readily available data.

  4. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake. PMID:26545892

  5. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake.

  6. A hybrid ion-source concept for a proton driver front-end

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.; Luft, P.; Regis, M.; Wallig, J.; Monroy, M.; Ratti,A.; Syversrud, D.; Welton, R.; Anderson, D.

    2004-10-18

    A novel concept for creating intense beams of negative hydrogen ion beams has been devised, and first steps towards its realization have been taken. In this approach, an ECR plasma generator operating at 2.45 GHz frequency is utilized as a plasma cathode, and electrons are extracted instead of ions and injected at moderate energy into an SNS type multi-cusp H{sup -} ion source. This secondary source is then driven by chopped d. c. power, rather than rf power, but does not need filaments which are the cause for the rather short lifetime of conventional H{sup -} sources. The development of this ion source is primarily aimed at the future beam-power goal of 3 MW for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [1] that will be pursued after the start of SNS operations. The first two phases of this development effort have been successfully passed: assembly of a test stand and verification of the performance of an rf-driven SNS ion-source prototype and extraction of electrons with more than 200 mA current from a 2.45-GHz ECR ion source obtained on loan from Argonne National Laboratory. An electron-extraction chamber that joins these ECR and H{sup -} sources has been fabricated, and the next goal is the demonstration of actual H{sup -} ion production by this novel, hybrid ion source. This paper describes the source principle and design in detail, reports on the current status of the development work, and gives an outlook on future lines of development.

  7. Modelling fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the Meuse catchment to assess the contribution of different pollution sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet

    2013-04-01

    Large river basins have multiple sources of pesticides and usually the pollution sources are spread over the entire catchment. The cumulative effect of pesticides entering the river system in upstream areas and the formation of persistent degradation products can compromise downstream water use e.g. raw water quality for drinking water abstractions. For assessments at catchment scale pesticide fluxes coming from different sources and sub basins need to be taken into account. To improve management strategies, a sound understanding of the sources, emission routes, transport, environmental fate and conversion of pesticides is needed. In the Netherlands, the Meuse river basin is an important source for drinking water production. The river suffers from elevated concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). For AMPA it is rather unclear to what extent the pollution is related to glyphosate degradation and what is the contribution of other sources, especial phosphonates in domestic and industrial waste water. Based on the available monitoring data only it is difficult to distinguish between AMPA sources in such a large river basin. This hampers interpretation and decision making for water quality management in the Meuse catchment. Here, application of water quality models is very useful to obtain complementary information and insights. Modelling allows accounting for temporal and spatial variability in discharge and concentrations as well as distinguishing the contribution from conversion processes. In this study, a model for the river Meuse was developed and applied to assess the contribution of tributary and transnational influxes, glyphosate degradation and other sources to the AMPA pollution.

  8. PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY TO NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a probabilistic framework for the assessment of groundwater pollution potential by pesticides in two adjacent agricultural watersheds in the Mid-Altantic Coastal Plain. Indices for estimating streams vulnerability to pollutants' load from the surficial aquifer...

  9. Determining sources of fecal pollution in a rural Virginia watershed with antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal streptococci.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, C; Robinson, S L; Filtz, J R; Grubbs, S M; Angier, T A; Reneau, R B

    1999-12-01

    Nonpoint sources of pollution that contribute fecal bacteria to surface waters have proven difficult to identify. Knowledge of pollution sources could aid in restoration of the water quality, reduce the amounts of nutrients leaving watersheds, and reduce the danger of infectious disease resulting from exposure to contaminated waters. Patterns of antibiotic resistance in fecal streptococci were analyzed by discriminant and cluster analysis and used to identify sources of fecal pollution in a rural Virginia watershed. A database consisting of patterns from 7,058 fecal streptococcus isolates was first established from known human, livestock, and wildlife sources in Montgomery County, Va. Correct fecal streptococcus source identification averaged 87% for the entire database and ranged from 84% for deer isolates to 93% for human isolates. To field test the method and the database, a watershed improvement project (Page Brook) in Clarke County, Va., was initiated in 1996. Comparison of 892 known-source isolates from that watershed against the database resulted in an average correct classification rate of 88%. Combining all animal isolates increased correct classification rates to > or = 95% for separations between animal and human sources. Stream samples from three collection sites were highly contaminated, and fecal streptococci from these sites were classified as being predominantly from cattle (>78% of isolates), with small proportions from waterfowl, deer, and unidentified sources ( approximately 7% each). Based on these results, cattle access to the stream was restricted by installation of fencing and in-pasture watering stations. Fecal coliforms were reduced at the three sites by an average of 94%, from prefencing average populations of 15,900 per 100 ml to postfencing average populations of 960 per 100 ml. After fencing, <45% of fecal streptococcus isolates were classified as being from cattle. These results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance profiles in fecal

  10. Research and information needs related to nonpoint source pollution and wetlands in the watershed: An EPA perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Ethridge, B.J.; Olson, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Two related Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts, wetlands protection and nonpoint source pollution control, fail to fully consider landscape factors when making site-specific decisions. The paper discusses the relationship of the two programs and the use of created and natural wetlands to treat nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Recommendations to improve the programs include increased technical transfer of existing information, and more research on construction methods and siting of created wetlands to effectively manage NPS pollution. Additional research is also needed to determine (1) the maximum pollutant loading rates to assure the biological integrity of wetlands, (2) the effectiveness of current land-use practices in protecting habitat and water quality functions, (3) wetland functions as pollutant sinks, (4) NPS pollution threats to wildlife, (5) practical watershed models, and (6) indicators and reference sites for monitoring wetland condition. Model watershed demonstrations, jointly implemented by the research and conservation communities, are recommended as a means of integrating research results. (Copyright (c) 1992 - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)

  11. Clays and clay minerals in Bikaner: Sources, environment pollution and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayatri, Sharma; Anu, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Environmental pollution can also be caused by minerals which include natural as well as human activities. Rapid urbanization, consumerist life style, anthropogenic deeds are increasing environmental pollution day by day. Fluctuation in our ecosystem or polluted environment leads to many diseases and shows adverse effects on living organisms. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the environmental pollution from clays and clay minerals and their mitigation..

  12. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-05-01

    The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported (via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)) to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers.

  13. Distribution of pollutant concentrations downwind of a point source in the near wake of a building

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the primary spatial and temporal scales of pollutant diffusion and transport in the wake of a building. A series of wind-tunnel experiments was conducted to study the influence of the highly turbulent air flow adjacent to a model building upon point-source emissions through smoke flow visualization and inert tracer gas concentration mapping. The experiments were designed to evaluate the influences of source height, building width, building orientation into the wind, and overall building scale. Dispersion data correspond to time-averaged concentrations for periods of constant wind direction. The digitization of video recorded images of smoke provided a practical method for estimating the primary spatial and temporal scales of dispersion in the wake of a building. A method was developed for estimating enhanced dispersion parameters resulting from the overall effect of the building. A Gaussian plume equation, modified to incorporate the building-wake-enhanced dispersion parameters beyond the wake cavity region, provided estimates of concentrations at ground level. The model was evaluated against field measurements from previous studies.

  14. Determination of water sources contamination to diazinon and malathion and spatial pollution patterns in Qazvin, Iran.

    PubMed

    Karyab, Hamid; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Bahojb, Akram

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study and field visit showed that diazinon and malathion were the most commonly used pesticides in Qazvin province, Iran. Concentrations of these pesticides were determined in water sources; include springs, wells and Shahrood River. Springs water samples had the best water quality; but deep wells were the most polluted water samples. Diazinon was detected in 46.6 % of the samples, while malathion occurrences frequency was in 13.3 % of the samples. Diazinon and malathion were detected in maximum concentration of 19.44 and 18.12 μg L(-1), respectively. The obtained results showed that diazinon was detected in higher than life-time health advisories in wells and in Shahrood River samples; so, it can bring up threats to human health. Interpolation of diazinon and malathion in water sources showed that diazinon had the most widely scattering condition in deep wells. Also, cross validation with the root mean square error (RMSE) indicated that the natural neighbor interpolation of malathion has the minimum RMSE.

  15. Animals living in polluted environments are potential source of antimicrobials against infectious agents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Simon; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobials crisis is a ticking time bomb which could lead to millions of people dying from untreatable infections. With the worsening trends of antimicrobial resistance, we are heading towards a pre-antibiotic era. Thus, there is a need for newer and more powerful antibiotic agents. The search for new antibiotic compounds originating from natural resources is a promising research area. Animals living in germ-infested environments are a potent source of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of bacteria, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances which show potent activity in the nervous system. We hope that the discovery of antimicrobial activity in the cockroach brain will stimulate research in finding antimicrobials from unusual sources, and has potential for the development of novel antibiotics. Nevertheless, intensive research in the next few years will be required to approach or realize these expectations. PMID:23265422

  16. Trace organic pollutants in sediments from Huaihe River, China: Evaluation of sources and ecological risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-Zhong; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhu, Cheng-Zhu; Peng, Shu-Chuan

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, a combination of multiple molecular markers was used to improve the identification of pollution sources in sediment samples collected from Huaihe River, China. No significant spatial variation of aliphatic hydrocarbons (normal alkanes, n-alkanes) was observed, whereas, relatively high concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Σ28PAH) and 20 linear alkylbenzenes (Σ20LAB) in urban sediments and low concentrations of Σ28PAH and Σ20LAB in farm areas were determined. Overall, sediment samples collected from urban areas contained high concentration of Σ20LAB with low concentration of Σ28PAH which mostly originated from pyrolysis, while rural sediments had opposite trends, reflecting the significant input of domestic sewage in urban areas. Residual n-alkanes were mostly from natural sources with relatively low proportion of petrogenic input. For PAHs, the concentrations of diagentic perylene and pyrolytic PAHs from farm areas to urban areas tend to decrease and increase, respectively. Likely origins of pyrolytic PAHs were considered combustion of coal and petroleum related. In the village areas, pyrolytic PAHs were mostly contributed from coal and diesel combustion. Poor domestic wastewater treatment in rural areas caused low ratio of I/E. On the other hand, the results of total toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent reveal the ecological risk by PAHs was negligible in Huaihe River.

  17. Hydrocarbon status of soils under atmospheric pollution from a local industrial source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Zhidkin, A. P.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Contents and compositions of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and free and retained hydrocarbon gases in soils along a transect at different distances from the local industrial source of atmospheric pollution with soot emissions have been studied. The reserves of PAHs progressively decrease when the distance from the source increases. Among the individual PAHs, the most significant decrease is observed for benzo[ a]pyrene, tetraphene, pyrene, chrysene, and anthracene. On plowlands, the share of heavy PAHs—benzo[ ghi]perylene, benzo[ a]pyrene, perylene, etc.—is lower than in the forest soils. In automorphic soils of the park zone adjacent to the industrial zone, the penetration depth of four-, five-, and sixring PAHs from the atmosphere is no more than 25 cm. In soils under natural forest vegetation, heavy PAHs do not penetrate deeper than 5 cm; in tilled soils, their penetration depth coincides with the lower boundary of plow horizons. Analysis of free gases in the soil air revealed hydrocarbons only under forest. From the quantitative and qualitative parameters of the content, reserves, and compositions of different hydrocarbons, the following modification types of hydrocarbon status in the studied soils were revealed: injection, atmosedimentation-injection, atmosedimentation-impact, atmosedimentation-distant, and biogeochemical types.

  18. Elemental analysis of aerosols in Tehran's atmosphere using PIXE and identification of pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, N; Khashman, S; Lamehi-Rachti, M; Agha Aligol, D; Shokouhi, F; Oliaiy, P; Farmahini Farahani, M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been applied to measure the elemental composition and concentrations of particulate matter of 220 samples of aerosols in Tehran's atmosphere within a 450-day time interval starting from March 2009 and ending in June 2010, covering all four seasons. PIXE analysis shows the samples are comprised of various elements including Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. Also, to obtain more information about the sources of pollution and to identify the major sources of urban particulate matter, principal component analysis (PCA) was used. Furthermore, micro-PIXE was performed to study individual aerosols in some samples. Results revealed that the concentration of elements originating from vehicle emissions increases three times in winter; whereas the concentration of elements with soil origin remains constant. Based on wind rose maps, it is inferred that the high concentrations of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe are associated with natural dust brought by winds into Tehran from the west.

  19. Increase in metabolic syndrome-related hospitalizations in relation to environmental sources of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, Alexander V; Carpenter, David O

    2011-03-01

    Evidence from cell studies indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POP) can induce insulin resistance, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We hypothesized that residential proximity to environmental sources of POP would be associated with the MetS in the population. The present study examined the association between residency in a zip code containing or abutting environmental sources of POP and MetS-related hospitalization rates. Hospitalization data were obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Relative risks (RR) were calculated as hospitalization rate ratios. Adjusted RR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. A higher proportion of African Americans resided in POP zip codes compared to Caucasians (25.9% and 24.3%, respectively, p < 0.01). Residence in POP zip codes was associated with a statistically significant 39.2% increase in MetS-related hospitalization rates, adjusted for race, gender, and age (adjusted RR = 1.392, 95% CI: 1.032-1.879, p = 0.030). Increase in age was independently associated with higher MetS-related hospitalization rates (p for trend < 0.001). Our findings contribute to the body of evidence supporting the hypothesis of POP constituting an environmental risk factor for the MetS. Further studies investigating exposure to POP and insulin resistance are warranted.

  20. Analysis of the United States Air Force nonpoint-source water-pollution-abatement program. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, T.G.

    1990-09-01

    This theses examined the Air Force nonpoint source pollution abatement program by evaluating Major Command, Air Force Regional Civil Engineer and installations compliance to the official Air Force policy. Seventy-two installations in 37 states and ten Major Commands were represented in the data. The evaluation classified nonpoint source pollutants into five categories: urban, agricultural, construction, silvacultural and other. The research showed that most of the Major Command abatement programs were adequately meeting the needs of the Air Force. Two Air Force Regional Civil Engineers were evaluated. It was determined that one of these organizations had taken the necessary steps to implement nonpoint source abatement at the installations within their jurisdiction. The other organization was found to have a lack of current state regulatory information. Installation compliance was inconclusive due to the ambiguous, unstructured nature of the data. The major conclusion of this study was the need for the Air Force installations to implement more comprehensive nonpoint source pollution abatement programs. Elements of these programs range from educating the installations' populaces to implementing nonstructural best management practices such as including nonpoint source pollution abatement in Natural Resources Plans.

  1. [Research advances in identifying nitrate pollution sources of water environment by using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes].

    PubMed

    Mao, Wei; Liang, Zhi-wei; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yao; Yanng, Mu-yi; Jia, Chao-jie

    2013-04-01

    Water body' s nitrate pollution has become a common and severe environmental problem. In order to ensure human health and water environment benign evolution, it is of great importance to effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources of water body. Because of the discrepant composition of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in different sources of nitrate in water body, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes can be used to identify the nitrate pollution sources of water environment. This paper introduced the fractionation factors of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the main processes of nitrogen cycling and the composition of these stable isotopes in main nitrate sources, compared the advantages and disadvantages of five pre-treatment methods for analyzing the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate, and summarized the research advances in this aspect into three stages, i. e. , using nitrogen stable isotope alone, using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes simultaneously, and combining with mathematical models. The future research directions regarding the nitrate pollution sources identification of water environment were also discussed.

  2. The impact of information on behavior under an ambient-based policy for regulating nonpoint source pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Haoran; Fooks, Jacob R.; Guilfoos, Todd; Messer, Kent D.; Pradhanang, Soni M.; Suter, Jordan F.; Trandafir, Simona; Uchida, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Stemming from Segerson [1988], literature on nonpoint source pollution shows that ambient-based regulatory policies can induce polluters in a common watershed to comply with an exogenously determined pollution standard. This study uses laboratory economic experiments in a spatially heterogeneous setting to test the effectiveness of an ambient tax/subsidy policy in a setting with realistic in-stream nutrient transport dynamics when varying levels of sensor information on ambient pollution are available to the agents and the regulator. We find that increasing the frequency of ambient monitoring improves the spatial allocation of emissions reductions. In particular, with more frequent monitoring, the ambient-based policy induces firms further from the monitoring point to reduce emissions significantly more than downstream firms. Overall, the results suggest that enhanced temporal resolution of monitoring leads to efficiency gains.

  3. Locating sources of hazardous gas emissions using dual pollution rose plots and open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Lung-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hou; Lu, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-30

    A new approach employing two pollution rose plots to locate the sources of multiple hazardous gas emissions was proposed and tested in an industrial area. The data used for constructing the pollution rose plots were obtained from two side-by-side measurements of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers during one week of continuous analysis on the rooftop of a semiconductor plant. Hazardous gases such as CF4, C2F6, CH3OH, NH3, NO2, and SF6 were found and quantified at the ppb level by both OP-FTIR measurement sites. The data of the top 20% highest concentrations and associated wind directions were used to construct the pollution rose plots. Pollution source probability contours for each compound were constructed using the probability-product of directional probability from two pollution rose plots. Hot spots for SF6, CF4, NO2, and C2F6 pointed to the stack area of the plant, but the sources of CH3OH and NH3 were found outside of this plant. The influences of parameters for this approach such as the variation in wind direction, lower limit concentration threshold and the nearby buildings were discussed.

  4. [Pollution history and sources of organotin compounds in aquaculture water of Tong'an Bay, Xiamen].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hong; Wu, Yu-Ling; Cai, Ya-Rong; Xie, Wei; Xu, Jiang

    2011-07-01

    Six organotin compounds (OTs) in core sediment collected from aquaculture water of Tong'an Bay, Xiamen were detected by GC-FPD. Based on 210Pb-dating data, the pollution history (from 1931 to 2007) of OTs in this area was reconstructed and their possible sources were also discussed. The results showed that the inputs of organotin compounds in this sea area began from 1950's (0-80 cm). The vertical concentrations of OTs ranged from 3.43-69.6 ng x g(-1) (dry weight), the mean value was 15.0 ng x g(-1). Butyltins concentrations ranged from 2.51-68. 8 ng x g(-1) and the average concentration was 14.6 ng x g(-1) which accounted for 97.4% of total OTs, while phenyltins just accounted for 2.58%. It is indicated that the aquaculture waters of Tong'an Bay were mainly contaminated by butyltin compounds, inferring that they may come from the early antifouling paint of ships. The distributions of OTs concentrations and compositions may be related to the complex influence of the hydrodynamic conditions, antifouling paint leakages from ships and marine structures, and aquaculture. Compared to the other harbors and bays, the magnitude of OTs pollution in the sediment from Tong'an Bay was at the low midpoint on a global scale. Moreover, the sedimentary history showed that, vertical OTs distributions were in good agreement with the usage history of organotin compounds as antifouling paints and the changes of the major function regionalization in the surrounding area.

  5. A methodology to determine pesticides pollution sources in water catchments: study case (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Limbourg, Q; Noel, S; Huyghebaert, B; Capette, L; Hallet, V

    2009-01-01

    In the Walloon Region (Belgium), a Committee of Investigation was created in 2007 to investigate and determine the potential pesticides pollution sources in drinkable water catchments. This Committee, constituted by a multidisciplinary team of experts i.e agronomists, soil scientists, phyto-chemists, hydrogeologists, is coordinated by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W) and funded by the Société Publique de Gestion des Eaux (SPGE). The diagnosis method is inspired of the AQUAPLAINE method (Arvalis, France), and is composed of four steps: 1/preparing the diagnosis using existing data, 2/diagnosis using data bank completed by field observations, 3/meeting and discussion with the pesticide users, 4/final diagnosis and remediation proposal. In a rural district of Walloon Region, a water producer who possesses two catchments ("Les marroniers" (P1) and "Puits N2" (P2)) has problems with pesticides. The pollution started in 1998 with atrazine and bromacile detected in the two catchments. In 2004, 2,6-dichlorobenzamide, metabolite of dichlobenil, was also detected in the catchments. At present, all these pesticides are still found in the catchment P1 and only the 2,6 dichlorobenzamide is found in the other catchment. These active ingredients are not used in agriculture expect atrazine. Indeed, the main user of these products is the public sector. An investigation was realised to locate the main sites which are treated with these pesticides in this commune. The conclusion of this study is that the local authority used dichlobenil, bromacile and atrazine to weed the public areas. In more, the filling and the cleaning areas of sprayer, used for the treatment, are located near the catchments.

  6. [Records and sources of mercury pollution over the past 200 years in Ny-Alesund, Arctic].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Nan; Sun, Li-Guang

    2010-09-01

    Hg pollution has become a global problem since the industrial revolution. In this study,we collected a pond sediment core rich in moss residues from the Ny-Alesund of Svalbard, and determined the content and flux of Hg in the sediments. Combined with 210Pb and 137Cs dating,we reconstructed the changes of Hg concentration and depositional flux in the recent 200 years,and focused on the main controlling factors on the elevated inputs of Hg since the 1850s. The results show that the Hg contents increase significantly since the World Industrial Revolution. The highest value of Hg is up to 180 ng x g(-1) in the surface sediments, and the ratios of anthropogenic Hg increase from 30% to 90%, thus the input of anthropogenic Hg has become a main source of total mercury in the study area. The range of Hg deposition flux is between 8-20 microg x (m(2) x a)(-1) in past 200 years, and show three distinct peaks,corresponding to 1800 s, 1880 s and 1970 s. Compared the historical Hg deposition flux with the records of local coal combustion and globe Hg production, we suggest that the anthropogenic Hg is mainly derived from the long-range atmosphere Hg transport, whereas the influence of local coal mining is likely minor. The Ny-Alesund has similar Hg pollution degree with Sweden, Canada and other circum-arctic areas, but obviously higher than Greenland and significantly lower than America and Russia,as well as other industrialized countries.

  7. Assessing the effects of non-point source pollution on American Samoa's coral reef communities.

    PubMed

    Houk, Peter; Didonato, Guy; Iguel, John; Van Woesik, Robert

    2005-08-01

    Surveys were completed on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, to characterize reef development and assess the impacts of non-point source pollution on adjacent coral reefs at six sites. Multivariate analyses of benthic and coral community data found similar modern reef development at three locations; Aoa, Alofau, and Leone. These sites are situated in isolated bays with gentle sloping foundations. Aoa reefs had the highest estimates of crustose coralline algae cover and coral species richness, while Leone and Alofau showed high abundances of macroalgae and Porites corals. Aoa has the largest reef flat between watershed discharge and the reef slope, and the lowest human population density. Masefau and Fagaalu have a different geomorphology consisting of cemented staghorn coral fragments and steep slopes, however, benthic and coral communities were not similar. Benthic data suggest Fagaalu is heavily impacted compared with all other sites. Reef communities were assessed as bio-criteria indicators for waterbody health, using the EPA aquatic life use support designations of (1) fully supportive, (2) partially supportive, and (3) non-supportive for aquatic life. All sites resulted in a partially supportive ranking except Fagaalu, which was non-supportive. The results of this rapid assessment based upon relative benthic community measures are less desirable than long-term dataset analyses from monitoring programs, however it fills an important role for regulatory agencies required to report annual waterbody assessments. Future monitoring sites should be established to increase the number of replicates within each geological and physical setting to allow for meaningful comparisons along a gradient of hypothesized pollution levels.

  8. Analysis of the association between air pollution and allergic diseases exposure from nearby sources of ambient air pollution within elementary school zones in four Korean cities.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-H; Lee, C-S; Jeon, J-M; Yu, S-D; Lee, C-W; Park, J-H; Shin, D-C; Lim, Y-W

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to survey elementary school students regarding the environmental conditions of their elementary schools and to assess the relationship between air pollution and allergic disease using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Therefore, this study was designed as a cross-sectional study. In this study, seven elementary schools were selected and they were classified into three categories. The selection included one school with no traffic-related or other pollutants, three with traffic-related pollutants, and three with traffic-related and other pollutants from industrial and filling station sources. The ISAAC questionnaire survey was given to all of the students except to those in the 1st grade who were presumed to be less likely to be exposed to the school environment than the remainder of the students attending those seven schools. The assessment of allergic disease was conducted on a total of 4,545 students. Three school zones with critical exposure were selected within each school and they were evaluated based on the levels of black carbon (BC), PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3. There was a significant increase in the risks based on the odds ratios of treatment experiences (within 1 year) for allergy-related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (a) in the school group with traffic-related pollutants and the school group with complex pollutants were 2.12 (1.41-3.19) and 1.59 (1.06-2.37), respectively, in comparison to the school groups with no exposure to pollutants. This was determined based on the odds ratio of symptoms and treatment experiences for allergy-related diseases by group based on the home town zone as a reference. Also, in the case of atopic dermatitis, the odds ratio of treatment experiences (within 1 year) was 1.42 (1.02-1.97), which indicated elevated risks compared to the students in the S1 school. A regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the

  9. Mutagenicity and Pollutant Emission Factors of Solid-Fuel Cookstoves: Comparison with Other Combustion Sources

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Esra; Warren, Sarah H.; Ebersviller, Seth M.; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Schmid, Judith E.; Dye, Janice A.; Linak, William P.; Gilmour, M. Ian; Jetter, James J.; Higuchi, Mark; DeMarini, David M.

    2016-01-01

    JJ, Higuchi M, DeMarini DM. 2016. Mutagenicity and pollutant emission factors of solid-fuel cookstoves: comparison with other combustion sources. Environ Health Perspect 124:974–982; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509852 PMID:26895221

  10. Identifying sources of ozone to three rural locations in Nevada, USA, using ancillary gas pollutants, aerosol chemistry, and mercury.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Fine, Rebekka; Pierce, Ashley M; Gustin, Mae S

    2015-10-15

    Ozone (O3) is a secondary air pollutant of long standing and increasing concern for environmental and human health, and as such, the US Environmental Protection Agency will revise the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppbv to ≤ 70 ppbv. Long term measurements at the Great Basin National Park (GBNP) indicate that O3 in remote areas of Nevada will exceed a revised standard. As part of the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative, measurements of O3 and other air pollutants were made at 3 remote sites between February 2012 and March 2014, GBNP, Paradise Valley (PAVA), and Echo Peak (ECHO). Exceptionally high concentrations of each air pollutant were defined relative to each site as mixing ratios that exceeded the 90th percentile of all hourly data. Case studies were analyzed for all periods during which mean daily O3 exceeded the 90th percentile concurrently with a maximum 8-h average (MDA8) O3 that was "exceptionally high" for the site (65 ppbv at PAVA, 70 ppbv at ECHO and GBNP), and of potential regulatory significance. An MDA8 ≥ 65 ppbv occurred only five times at PAVA, whereas this occurred on 49 and 65 days at GBNP and ECHO, respectively. The overall correlation between O3 and other pollutants was poor, consistent with the large distance from significant primary emission sources. Mean CO at these locations exceeded concentrations reported for background sites in 2000. Trajectory residence time calculations and air pollutant concentrations indicate that exceedances at GBNP and ECHO were promoted by air masses originating from multiple sources, including wildfires, transport of pollution from southern California and the marine boundary layer, and transport of Asian pollution plumes. Results indicate that the State of Nevada will exceed a revised O3 standard due to sources that are beyond their control. PMID:25957787

  11. Identifying sources of ozone to three rural locations in Nevada, USA, using ancillary gas pollutants, aerosol chemistry, and mercury.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Fine, Rebekka; Pierce, Ashley M; Gustin, Mae S

    2015-10-15

    Ozone (O3) is a secondary air pollutant of long standing and increasing concern for environmental and human health, and as such, the US Environmental Protection Agency will revise the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppbv to ≤ 70 ppbv. Long term measurements at the Great Basin National Park (GBNP) indicate that O3 in remote areas of Nevada will exceed a revised standard. As part of the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative, measurements of O3 and other air pollutants were made at 3 remote sites between February 2012 and March 2014, GBNP, Paradise Valley (PAVA), and Echo Peak (ECHO). Exceptionally high concentrations of each air pollutant were defined relative to each site as mixing ratios that exceeded the 90th percentile of all hourly data. Case studies were analyzed for all periods during which mean daily O3 exceeded the 90th percentile concurrently with a maximum 8-h average (MDA8) O3 that was "exceptionally high" for the site (65 ppbv at PAVA, 70 ppbv at ECHO and GBNP), and of potential regulatory significance. An MDA8 ≥ 65 ppbv occurred only five times at PAVA, whereas this occurred on 49 and 65 days at GBNP and ECHO, respectively. The overall correlation between O3 and other pollutants was poor, consistent with the large distance from significant primary emission sources. Mean CO at these locations exceeded concentrations reported for background sites in 2000. Trajectory residence time calculations and air pollutant concentrations indicate that exceedances at GBNP and ECHO were promoted by air masses originating from multiple sources, including wildfires, transport of pollution from southern California and the marine boundary layer, and transport of Asian pollution plumes. Results indicate that the State of Nevada will exceed a revised O3 standard due to sources that are beyond their control.

  12. [Contamination characteristics and pollutant sources analysis on PAHs in shallow groundwater in suburb of Taihu plain].

    PubMed

    Cui, Xue-Hui; Li, Bing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Han

    2008-07-01

    To investigate shallow groundwater quality in Taihu plain, south of Jiangsu province, 56 samples were collected in north area (C area), north east area (W area) and east area (S area). The concentrations of priority 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed by HP 6890-GC. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Molecular ratios were used to characterize their possible pollution sources. Concentrations of total priority 16 PAHs in shallow groundwater samples ranged from below method detection limits (< MDLs) to 32.45 microg/L with the average value of 4.42 microg/L, which were predominated by three and four-ring PAHs. High contents of PAHs were found in the vicinity of industrial areas. Ratios of specific PAH compounds including phenanthrene/anthracene (Phe/Ant), fluoranthene/pyrene (FL/Pyr), chrysene/ benzo(a)/anthracene (Chr/BaA), low-molecular-weight PAH/high-molecular-weight PAH (LPAH/HPAH) were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of PAH contamination. These ratios reflected a mixed pattern of pyrolytic and petrogenic inputs of PAHs with different proportion in shallow groundwater. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) results showed that the abnormal benzo (k) fluoranthene concentration dominated the HCA results in C area, the abnormal benzo(a)anthracene concentration dominated the HCA results in W area, and the abnormal benzo (b) fluoranthene concertration dominated the HCA results in S area. At level 0.05, FL, AcPy, Acp, Phe and Bap in C area had Pearson correlation between 0.680 and 0.712. BP, BaA and Bap in W area had Pearson correlation between 0.724 and 0.773. AcPy and Flu in S area had Pearson correlation 0.659, which meant that these PAHs listed in each areas might came from the same kind of sources.

  13. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Qiuying; Li, Jing; Liu, Qiang

    2014-08-15

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO3(-)-N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO3(-)-N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO3(-)-N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions.

  14. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2.

  15. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. PMID:27058127

  16. Peak tailoring concept in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile organic pollutants in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chieh-Heng; Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2005-09-16

    An automated gas chromatographic system aiming at performing unattended analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was developed in laboratory. To encompass VOCs of a wide range of volatility, two different designs of enrichment and separation methods were adopted and compared with performance in analyzing ozone precursors of C3-C12. In the dual-trap dual-column design, lower boiling species (C3-C6) are enriched and separated by one set of trap and column (porous layer open tubular (PLOT)), whereas the enrichment and separation for the higher boiling species (C6-C12) are performed by the other set (wall-coated open tubular (WCOT)). Undesired peaks also inevitably appear on both chromatograms often causing annoyances. To reduce complexity of both the apparatus and the resulting chromatograms, the heart-cut technique was adopted as a base for developing a system, which only uses one trap and one flame ionization detector for constructing two-dimensional GC with PLOT and DB-1. Methods were developed to allow the auxiliary flow pressure in the heart-cut device to be programmed to create dual effects, which not only can perform regular heart-cut actions but can also temporally hold up species in the precolumn for prescribed time intervals. Because it is characteristic for PLOT chromatograms to have reproducible blank retention time windows, segments of a DB-1 trace are produced by the auxiliary flow program aligning perfectly in time with the gaps of the PLOT trace. Subsequently, the two column flows are merged and channeled into single flame ionization detector to produce a very condensed "tailored" chromatogram which is equivalent to overlaying a PLOT and a DB-1 chromatogram on top of each other, except that no peaks are overlapped. This innovative "peak tailoring" concept based on the heart-cut technique is simple in design, easy to build, and extremely rugged for long-term continuous operation as fewer moving parts are involved, which is beneficial for deploying

  17. Application of soil magnetometry on urban and industrial areas affected by different sources of pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, T.; Szuszkiewicz, M.; Rachwał, M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil magnetometry as a proxy screening method has proven to be a suitable method for outlining soil pollution, connected with industrial and urban dust deposition as well as qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluation of potentially contaminated areas with considerably high concentration of technogenic iron particles and related heavy metals. In combination with geochemical method it could be also used for better targeting the geochemical sampling and reducing the number of chemical analysis. During this study the method was applied on areas dominated by 3 different sources of pollution: urban (mostly related to coal combustion), metallurgical and coke production. The three analyzed forest complexes were artificially planted and grow on anthroposols with different stage of transformation. During the study analysis of vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility (κ) in 40 topsoil profiles taken in 3 above mentioned forest areas were performed. Additionally, soil samples taken from horizons with increased magnetic susceptibility (mostly organic horizon) and from mineral horizons (considered as a background) were selected to chemical analysis of 9 heavy metal content (Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). X-ray fluorescence method was applied for geochemical study. The highest κ values up to 1200 × 10-5 SI units were measured in the vicinity of metallurgical plant but the correlation between κ values and heavy metal content was there very low and statistically not significant. The considerably high correlation between magnetic susceptibility and some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, As) were observed on 2 other areas of study. On the base of these study in combination with former mineralogical study of industrial dusts and topsoils, the following conclusions have been drown: Steelworks - emit strongly magnetic technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) including metallic iron (α-Fe) that is strong ferromagnetic (giving high κ values) but do not contain heavy

  18. Urban increments of gaseous and aerosol pollutants and their sources using mobile aerosol mass spectrometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Miriam; Bozzetti, Carlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Teinemaa, Erik; Richter, Rene; Wolf, Robert; Slowik, Jay G.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is one of the main environmental concerns in urban areas, where anthropogenic emissions strongly affect air quality. This work presents the first spatially resolved detailed characterization of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic equivalent diameter daero ≤ 2.5 µm) in two major Estonian cities, Tallinn and Tartu. The measurements were performed in March 2014 using a mobile platform. In both cities, the non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 was characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) using a recently developed lens which increases the transmission of super-micron particles. Equivalent black carbon (eBC) and several trace gases including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were also measured. The chemical composition of PM2.5 was found to be very similar in the two cities. Organic aerosol (OA) constituted the largest fraction, explaining on average about 52 to 60 % of the PM2.5 mass. Four sources of OA were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF): hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, from traffic emissions), biomass burning OA (BBOA, from biomass combustion), residential influenced OA (RIOA, probably mostly from cooking processes with possible contributions from waste and coal burning), and oxygenated OA (OOA, related to secondary aerosol formation). OOA was the major OA source during nighttime, explaining on average half of the OA mass, while during daytime mobile measurements the OA was affected by point sources and dominated by the primary fraction. A strong increase in the secondary organic and inorganic components was observed during periods with transport of air masses from northern Germany, while the primary local emissions accumulated during periods with temperature inversions. Mobile measurements offered the identification of different source regions within the urban areas and the assessment of the extent to which pollutants concentrations exceeded regional background

  19. Tracking the Primary Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Tropical Watershed in a One-Year Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine the primary sources of fecal pollution in a subtropical watershed using host-specific assays developed in temperate regions. Water samples (n=534) from 10 different sites along the Rio Grande de Arecibo watershed were collected every two-three w...

  20. Steady-state solution of the semi-empirical diffusion equation for area sources. [air pollution studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebedeff, S. A.; Hameed, S.

    1975-01-01

    The problem investigated can be solved exactly in a simple manner if the equations are written in terms of a similarity variable. The exact solution is used to explore two questions of interest in the modelling of urban air pollution, taking into account the distribution of surface concentration downwind of an area source and the distribution of concentration with height.

  1. Special Issue of Inhalation Toxicology for Air Pollution and Health: Bridging the Gap from Sources-to-Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution and Health: Bridging the Gap from Sources to Health Outcomes”, an international specialty conference by the American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) (http://aaar.2010specialty.org/), provided one such opportunity for these interactions. The Conference was organi...

  2. Trace elements and metal pollution in aerosols at an alpine site, New Zealand: Sources, concentrations and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Samuel K.; Lavin, Karen S.; Hageman, Kimberly J.; Kamber, Balz S.; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; McTainsh, Grant H.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at a remote site in New Zealand's Southern Alps. Collected samples were found to be a mixture of New Zealand and Australian sourced sediment, using their trace element signatures. Aerosol concentrations and the relative contribution of different sources was found to be a function of specific air-mass trajectories influencing the study site, dust entrainment rates in source areas and rainfall. Results show that Australian dust is a major source of particulate matter in New Zealand, particularly in remote alpine locations; however, locally derived dust is also important. Metal pollutants, including Pb, Cu and Sn, were enriched in the samples by approximately 15 times and up to >100 times expected natural concentrations, confirming that metal pollution is a ubiquitous component of the atmosphere, even in relatively remote locations. Moreover, pollutants were highly enriched in otherwise clean air, i.e. during and following rainfall. Additionally, high concentrations of elements naturally enriched in sea water, e.g. Sr, Ba and Rb, were deposited alongside mineral dust, reflecting the oceanic origin of air influencing the site and the role of sea spray in contributing aerosol to the atmosphere. These elements experienced the greatest enrichment during rainfall, implying sea spray and pollution become relatively important during otherwise clean air conditions.

  3. PM2.5 pollution in a megacity of southwest China: source apportionment and implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, J.; Gao, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Che, H.; Zhang, Z.; Lin, Z.; Jing, J.; Cao, J.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2014-08-01

    -Fe), defined as the excessive portion in measured Fe that cannot be sustained by mineral dust, is corroborated to be a straightforward useful tracer of iron and steel manufacturing pollution. In Chengdu, Mo / Ni mass ratios were persistently higher than unity, and considerably distinct from those usually observed in ambient airs. V / Ni ratios averaged only 0.7. Results revealed that heavy oil fuel combustion should not be a vital anthropogenic source, and additional anthropogenic sources for Mo are yet to be identified. Overall, the emission sources identified in Chengdu could be dominated by local sources located in the vicinity of Sichuan, a result different from those found in Beijing and Shanghai, wherein cross-boundary transport is significant in contributing pronounced PM2.5. These results provided implications for PM2.5 control strategies.

  4. PM2.5 pollution in a megacity of southwest China: source apportionment and implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, J.; Gao, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Che, H.; Zhang, Z.; Lin, Z.; Jing, J.; Cao, J.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2014-02-01

    -Fe), defined as excessive portion in measured Fe that cannot be sustained by mineral dust, is corroborated to be a straightforward useful tracer of iron and steel manufacturing pollution. In Chengdu, Mo/Ni mass ratios were persistently higher than unity, and considerably distinct from those usually observed in ambient airs. V/Ni ratios averaged at only 0.7. Results revealed that heavy oil fuel combustion should not be a vital anthropogenic source, and additional anthropogenic sources for Mo are yet to be identified. Overall, the emission sources identified in Chengdu could be dominated by local sources located in the vicinity of Sichuan, a result differ