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Sample records for sources ii

  1. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Steve Dierker

    2016-07-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Dierker

    2008-03-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  3. Dribs II:. a Source of Radioactive Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöllős, O.; Kliman, J.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Itkis, M. G.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Mishinsky, G. V.; Zhemenik, V. I.

    2002-12-01

    The facility for neutron-rich nuclei production, as a specific part of the project DRIBS - phase II, based on the use of photofission and the characteristics of microtron MT-25 as a source of bremsstrahlung photons are described. Target selection with regard to maximum yield production of strong neutron-rich fission products and with respect to its safety and availability is discussed. Geant 4 simulation toolkit was used to obtain bremsstrahlung γ-beam characteristics and its angular spred was compared with measurements on MT-25 microtron. Next, calculation of fission-rate and fission density in 238U target at nominal values of MT-25 microtron are presented. Calculations of the yield from photofission based on the Wahl's ZP model for charge distribution of fission fragments are compared with experimental data for independent yield of xenon isotopes measured. As result the independent and cummulative yields from photofission of 238U for mictrotron MT-25, as a driver accelerator for DRIBS II, for up to 890 isotopes and their isomers were obtained. Mean characteristics of this compact facility with some others RIB projects are compared.

  4. The sources of our iron ores. II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    In this instalment** the iron ore deposits of the Lake Superior States, which normally furnish about 80 per cent, of the annual output of the United States, are described together with historical notes on discovery and transportation of ore. Deposits in the Mississippi Valley and Western States are likewise outlined and the sources of imported ore are given. Reviewing the whole field, it is indicated that the great producing deposits of the Lake Superior and southern Appalachian regions are of hematite in basin areas of sedimentary rocks, that hydrated iron oxides and iron carbonates are generally found in undisturbed comparatively recent sediments, and that magnetite occurs in metamorphic and igneous rocks; also that numerical abundance of deposits is not a criterion as to their real importance as a source of supply. Statistics of production of iron ore and estimates of reserves of present grade conclude the paper.

  5. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Hamzah, N. S. Abi, M. J. B. Rawi, M. Z. M. Rawi Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-12

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  6. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Hamzah, N. S.; J. B., Abi M.; M. Z., M. Rawi; Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-01

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  7. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. II. THE SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.

    2011-06-01

    The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) H II Region Discovery Survey has doubled the number of known H II regions in the Galactic zone 343{sup 0} {<=} l {<=} 67{sup 0} with | b | {<=} 1{sup 0}. We detected 603 discrete hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) components at 9 GHz (3 cm) from 448 targets. Our targets were selected based on spatially coincident mid-infrared and 20 cm radio continuum emission. Such sources are almost invariably H II regions; we detected hydrogen RRL emission from 95% of our target sample. The sensitivity of the GBT and the power of its spectrometer together made this survey possible. Here, we provide a catalog of the measured properties of the RRL and continuum emission from the survey nebulae. The derived survey completeness limit, 180 mJy at 9 GHz, is sufficient to detect all H II regions ionized by single O-stars to a distance of 12 kpc. These recently discovered nebulae share the same distribution on the sky as does the previously known census of Galactic H II regions. On average, however, the new nebulae have fainter continuum fluxes, smaller continuum angular sizes, fainter RRL intensities, and smaller RRL line widths. Though small in angular size, many of our new nebulae show little spatial correlation with tracers associated with extremely young H II regions, implying that our sample spans a range of evolutionary states. We discovered 34 first quadrant negative-velocity H II regions, which lie at extreme distances from the Sun and appear to be part of the Outer Arm. We found RRL emission from 208 Spitzer GLIMPSE 8.0 {mu}m 'bubble' sources, 65 of which have been cataloged previously. It thus appears that nearly all GLIMPSE bubbles are H II regions and that {approx}50% of all Galactic H II regions have a bubble morphology at 8.0 {mu}m.

  8. Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stohr, J

    2011-11-16

    The LCLS-II Project is designed to support the DOE Office of Science mission, as described in the 22 April 2010 Mission Need Statement. The scope of the Project was chosen to provide an increase in capabilities and capacity for the facility both at project completion in 2017 and in the subsequent decade. The Project is designed to address all points of the Mission Need Statement (MNS): (1) Expanded spectral reach; (2) Capability to provide x-ray beams with controllable polarization; (3) Capability to provide 'pump' pulses over a vastly extended range of photon energies to a sample, synchronized to LCLS-II x-ray probe pulses with controllable inter-pulse time delay; and (4) Increase of user access through parallel rather than serial x-ray beam use within the constraint of a $300M-$400M Total Project Cost (TPC) range. The LCLS-II Project will construct: (1) A hard x-ray undulator source (2-13 keV); (2) A soft x-ray undulator source (250-2,000 eV); (3) A dedicated, independent electron source for these new undulators, using sectors 10-20 of the SLAC linac; (4) Modifications to existing SLAC facilities for the injector and new shielded enclosures for the undulator sources, beam dumps and x-ray front ends; (5) A new experiment hall capable of accommodating four experiment stations; and (6) Relocation of the two soft x-ray instruments in the existing Near Experiment Hall (NEH) to the new experiment hall (Experiment Hall-II). A key objective of LCLS-II is to maintain near-term international leadership in the study of matter on the fundamental atomic length scale and the associated ultrafast time scales of atomic motion and electronic transformation. Clearly, such studies promise scientific breakthroughs in key areas of societal needs like energy, environment, health and technology, and they are uniquely enabled by forefront X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) facilities. While the implementation of LCLS-II extends to about 2017, it is important to realize that LCLS-II only

  9. A MODEL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE MODE COUPLING INSTABILITY AT NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE-II (NSLS-II).

    SciTech Connect

    BLEDNYKH, A.; WANG, J.M.

    2005-05-15

    The vertical impedances of the preliminary designs of National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) Mini Gap Undulators (MGU) are calculated by means of GdfidL code. The Transverse Mode Coupling Instability (TMCI) thresholds corresponding to these impedances are estimated using an analytically solvable model.

  10. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: II. Sources of Agronomic Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers that was conducted to assess how the dealers were obtaining their agronomic information, aside from formal training sessions, and determine if these sources of information were satisfactory in fulfilling the dealers' needs. (TW)

  11. RTNS-II: irradiations at the Rotating Target Neutron Source-II. 1983 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This is the second annual report summarizing irradiation experiments and operations at RTNS-II. It covers calendar year 1983 and includes reports on all irradiations, non-fusion as well as fusion, and on utilization of Monbusho's transmission electron microscope (TEM) a RTNS-II. Each summary article has been submitted by the investigator and has been altered only to meet the style and format requirements of this report.

  12. LEVIS ion source and beam characterization on PBFA-II

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Johnson, D.J.; Pointon, T.D.

    1993-12-31

    We report on the continuing development of the LEVIS (Laser Evaporation Ion Source) lithium active ion source for the 15-cm radial focussing ion diode on PBFA-11. We found previously that DC-heating of the anode surface to 150{degrees}C maximum for 5 hours resulted in a pure lithium beam. This paper discusses the characterization of LEVIS source uniformity by Faraday cup arrays and multiple lines of sight for visible light spectroscopy. These diagnostics give some evidence of nonuniformity in both A-K gap electric fields and ion current density. Despite this, however, the measured focal spot size appears smaller than with a passive LiF source operated in the same magnetic field topology. Experiments using a curved anode for vertical beam focussing show reduced ion beam turn-on delay by 5 ns by altering the magnetic field topology as well as anode curvature. Another 3--5 ns reduction was achieved by switching from a passive LiF to the active LEVIS source.

  13. Basic Psychiatric Literature: II. Articles and Article Sources*†

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Joan B.; Pieper, Sam; Frazier, Shervert H.

    1968-01-01

    Widely varying reading lists for general psychiatry residents were obtained from 140 three-year approved training programs. The material recommended for reading was listed on index cards, and the number of programs recommending each item was posted on the cards. Approximately 4,000 articles, 2,800 books, and 200 serials were recommended. A statistical evaluation of the book list appeared in a previous paper (3).* Part II is a similar evaluation of the article list and the limited editions and serials in which the articles appear. PMID:4883158

  14. Finding joy in social work. II: Intrapersonal sources.

    PubMed

    Pooler, David Kenneth; Wolfer, Terry; Freeman, Miriam

    2014-07-01

    Despite the social work profession's strengths orientation, research on its workforce tends to focus on problems (for example, depression, problem drinking, compassion fatigue, burnout). In contrast, this study explored ways in which social workers find joy in their work. The authors used an appreciative inquiry approach, semistructured interviews (N = 26), and a collaborative grounded theory method of analysis. Participants identified interpersonal (making connections and making a difference) and intrapersonal (making meaning and making a life) sources of joy and reflected significant personal initiative in the process of finding joy. The authors present findings regarding these intrapersonal sources of joy. PMID:25076645

  15. Finding joy in social work. II: Intrapersonal sources.

    PubMed

    Pooler, David Kenneth; Wolfer, Terry; Freeman, Miriam

    2014-07-01

    Despite the social work profession's strengths orientation, research on its workforce tends to focus on problems (for example, depression, problem drinking, compassion fatigue, burnout). In contrast, this study explored ways in which social workers find joy in their work. The authors used an appreciative inquiry approach, semistructured interviews (N = 26), and a collaborative grounded theory method of analysis. Participants identified interpersonal (making connections and making a difference) and intrapersonal (making meaning and making a life) sources of joy and reflected significant personal initiative in the process of finding joy. The authors present findings regarding these intrapersonal sources of joy.

  16. Bicentennial Source Book, Level II, Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Nancy; And Others

    This study activities source book is one of a series of four developed by the Carroll County Public School System, Maryland, for celebration of the Bicentennial. It is specifically designed to generate ideas integrating the Bicentennial celebration into various disciplines, classroom activities, and school-wide events at the third grade through…

  17. The Chandra Fornax Survey. II. The Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Karen; Zurek, D.; Scharf, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Fornax cluster of galaxies lies in the southern hemisphere and is second only to the richer and more well-studied Virgo cluster in its accessibility for high resolution multi-wavelength data collection. A deep \\emph{Chandra} survey of the inner one degree of this cluster was performed in 2003, with first results published in 2005 identifying 771 X-ray point sources. We present a catalog of these X-ray point sources. Possible and likely optical candidates were identified from ground-based, HST and GALEX images. This catalog will facilitate future investigations by enhancing our understanding of a cluster's fainter and smaller objects, calibrating distance rulers, and constraining cosmological models. This work was conducted by a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) position at the American Museum of Natural History and funded by the NSF.

  18. FEASIBILITY STUDY II OF A MUON BASED NEUTRINO SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    GALLARDO,J.C.; OZAKI,S.; PALMER,R.B.; ZISMAN,M.

    2001-06-30

    The concept of using a muon storage ring to provide a well characterized beam of muon and electron neutrinos (a Neutrino Factory) has been under study for a number of years now at various laboratories throughout the world. The physics program of a Neutrino Factoryis focused on the relatively unexplored neutrino sector. In conjunction with a detector located a suitable distance from the neutrino source, the facility would make valuable contributions to the study of neutrino masses and lepton mixing. A Neutrino Factory is expected to improve the measurement accuracy of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 23}) and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} and provide measurements of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13}) and the sign of {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}. It may also be able to measure CP violation in the lepton sector.

  19. Monte Carlo estimates of edge particle sources in TJ-II plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Bruna, D.; Popov, Tsv; de la Cal, E.

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional calculations of the electron source in plasmas of the TJ-II stellarator (Madrid, Spain) are performed using the Monte Carlo code EIRENE. When possible, the results are compared with diagnostic measurements in equivalent coordinates. Examples are shown for the Hα light evolution during a plasma collapse, CX fluxes, neutrals distributions along diagnostic chords and line radiation emissivities.

  20. Jet-gas interactions and hotspots in FR I/II transition sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Diana; Birkinshaw, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Sources with intermediate FR I/II morphologies, and with powers in the decade straddling the FR I/II boundary, provide an opportunity to understand triggers responsible for the different workings of the two classes. Illustrated by deep Chandra observations of several sources, this presentation will show evidence that the physics changes within the transition range, and the work done in driving shocks can exceed that in evacuating the cavities common in FR I sources. Hotspots can be absent, seen only on one side (jet-side or counter-jet-side), or both, in which case X-ray/radio correspondence can be very different on the two sides. Evidence will be shown for radio-emitting plasma running along boundaries between gas of different temperature, apparently lubricating the gas flows and inhibiting heat transfer.

  1. Wormhole solutions sourced by fluids, II: three-fluid two-charged sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Lack of a consistent metric for generating rotating wormholes motivates us to present a new one endowed with interesting physical and geometrical properties. When combined with the generalized method of superposition of fields, which consists in attaching a form of matter to each moving frame, it generates massive and charged (charge without charge) two-fluid-sourced, massive and two-charged three-fluid-sourced, rotating as well as new static wormholes which, otherwise, can hardly be derived by integration. If the lapse function of the static wormhole is bounded from above, no closed timelike curves occur in the rotating counterpart. For positive energy densities dying out faster than 1 / r, the angular velocity includes in its expansion a correction term, to the leading one that corresponds to ordinary stars, proportional to ln r/r^4. Such a term is not present in the corresponding expansion for the Kerr-Newman black hole. Based on this observation and our previous work, the dragging effects of falling neutral objects may constitute a substitute for other known techniques used for testing the nature of the rotating black hole candidates that are harbored in the center of galaxies. We discuss the possibility of generating (n+1)-fluid-sourced, n-charged, rotating as well as static wormholes.

  2. DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SOURCE PROPERTIES OF A TYPE II RADIO BURST WITH SPECTRAL BUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Song, H. Q.; Feng, X. S.; Guo, Fan

    2013-04-10

    In recent studies, we proposed that source properties of type II radio bursts can be inferred through a causal relationship between the special shape of the type II dynamic spectrum (e.g., bump or break) and simultaneous extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white light imaging observations (e.g., CME-shock crossing streamer structures). As a further extension of these studies, in this paper we examine the coronal mass ejection (CME) event on 2007 December 31 associated with a multiple type II radio burst. We identify the presence of two spectral bump features on the observed dynamic spectrum. By combining observational analyses of the radio spectral observations and the EUV-white light imaging data, we conclude that the two spectral bumps result from a CME-shock propagating across dense streamers on the southern and northern sides of the CME. It is inferred that the corresponding two type II emissions originate separately from the two CME-shock flanks where the shock geometries are likely quasi-perpendicular or oblique. Since the emission lanes are bumped as a whole within a relatively short time, it suggests that the type II radio bursts with bumps of this study are emitted from spatially confined sources (with a projected lateral dimension smaller than 0.05-0.1 R{sub Sun} at a fundamental frequency level of 20-30 MHz).

  3. Tunable supercontinuum fiber laser source for BRDF measurements in the STARR II gonioreflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Heather J.; Zarobila, Clarence J.; Germer, Thomas A.; Ying, Victor A.; Cooksey, Catherine A.; Tsai, Benjamin K.

    2012-10-01

    STARR II is a planned NIST facility for spectral measurements of specular reflectance and diffuse bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) that is the follow-on to the current NIST STARR (Spectral Tri-function Automated Reference Reflectometer) facility. STARR II will improve and expand on the measurement capabilities of STARR, increasing spectral coverage in the short-wave infrared spectral region and adding out-of-plane BRDF measurement capability. We present characteristics of a tunable light source constructed for STARR II, which is based upon a supercontinuum fiber laser and has a tuning range from 500 nm to 2450 nm, alongside those of the current lampbased system in STARR. We then discuss considerations for measuring BRDF using this source. The STARR II goniometer will employ an articulated robotic arm to center and orient the sample, and we calculate the transformations from orientation of the sample and receiver to incident and scattering angles for measurements of in-plane and out-ofplane BRDF. We also present, for the first time, an analytic expression for the correction of measured BRDF to true BRDF due to the finite illumination area and collection aperture, and to the effects of uniformity of illumination. Finally, we present exploratory BRDF measurements on a diffuse sample made using the tunable supercontinnum source.

  4. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Tracy A; Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2008-12-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies.

  5. Li+ alumino-silicate ion source development for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II)

    SciTech Connect

    LBNL; Roy, P.K.; Greenway, W.; Kwan, J.W.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.

    2011-04-20

    To heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter with intense ion beams, low mass ions, such as lithium, have an energy loss peak (dE/dx) at a suitable kinetic energy. The Heavy Ion Fusion Sciences (HIFS) program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory will carry out warm dense matter experiments using Li{sup +} ion beam with energy 1.2-4 MeV in order to achieve uniform heating up to 0.1-1 eV. The accelerator physics design of Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) has a pulse length at the ion source of about 0.5 {micro}s. Thus for producing 50 nC of beam charge, the required beam current is about 100 mA. Focusability requires a normalized (edge) emittance {approx}2 {pi}-mm-mrad. Here, lithium aluminosilicate ion sources, of {beta}-eucryptite, are being studied within the scope of NDCX-II construction. Several small (0.64 cm diameter) lithium aluminosilicate ion sources, on 70%-80% porous tungsten substrate, were operated in a pulsed mode. The distance between the source surface and the mid-plane of the extraction electrode (1 cm diameter aperture) was 1.48 cm. The source surface temperature was at 1220 C to 1300 C. A 5-6 {micro}s long beam pulsed was recorded by a Faraday cup (+300 V on the collector plate and -300 V on the suppressor ring). Figure 1 shows measured beam current density (J) vs. V{sup 3/2}. A space-charge limited beam density of {approx}1 mA/cm{sup 2} was measured at 1275 C temperature, after allowing a conditioning time of about {approx} 12 hours. Maximum emission limited beam current density of {ge} 1.8mA/cm{sup 2} was recorded at 1300 C with 10-kV extractions. Figure 2 shows the lifetime of two typical sources with space-charge limited beam current emission at a lower extraction voltage (1.75 kV) and at temperature of 1265 {+-} 7 C. These data demonstrate a constant, space-charge limited beam current for 20-50 hours. The lifetime of a source is determined by the loss of lithium from the alumino

  6. Integral field spectroscopy of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, I.; Becker, T.; Fabrika, S.; Roth, M.; Miyaji, T.; Afanasiev, V.; Sholukhova, O.; Sánchez, S. F.; Greiner, J.; Hasinger, G.; Costantini, E.; Surkov, A.; Burenkov, A.

    2005-03-01

    We present optical integral field observations of the H II region containing the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1. We confirm the existence of an X-ray ionized nebula as the counterpart of the source owing to the detection of an extended He II λ4686 region (21× 47 pc) at the Chandra ACIS-S position. An extended blue object with a size of 11× 14 pc is coincident with the X-ray/He II λ4686 region, which could indicate that it is either a young stellar complex or a cluster. We have derived an X-ray to optical luminosity ratio of L_X/LB≥170, and presumable it is L_X/LB˜300{-}400 using the recent HST ACS data. We find a complex velocity dispersion at the position of the ULX. In addition, there is a radial velocity variation in the X-ray ionized region found in the He II emission of ±50 km s-1 on spatial scales of 2 3primeprime. We believe that the putative black hole not only ionizes the surrounding HII gas, but also perturbs it dynamically (via jets or the accretion disk wind). The spatial analysis of the public Chandra ACIS-S data reveals a point-like X-ray source and gives marginal indication of an extended component (ll15% of the total flux). The XMM-Newton EPIC-PN spectrum of HoII X-1 is best fitted with an absorbed power law in addition to either a thermal thick plasma or a thermal thin plasma or a multi-colour disk black body (MCD). In all cases, the thermal component shows a relatively low temperature (kT˜0.14{-}0.22 keV). Finally we discuss the optical/X-ray properties of HoII X-1 with regards to the possible nature of the source. The existence of an X-ray ionized nebula coincident with the ULX and the soft X-ray component with a cool accretion disk favours the interpretation as an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). However, the complex velocity behaviour at the position of the ULX indicates a dynamical influence of the black hole on the local HII gas.

  7. Understanding the source: The nitrogen isotope composition of Type II mantle diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, Sami; Howell, Dan; Jones, Adrian; Milledge, Judith; Verchovsky, Sasha

    2010-05-01

    Diamonds can be broadly subdivided into 2 groups based on their nitrogen content; type I with > 10ppm nitrogen and type II with < 10ppm (1). Roughly 98 % of upper mantle diamonds are classified as type I, interestingly nearly all lower mantle diamonds are of type II (2). This study aims to identify the processes involved or source of type II diamonds from several localities by measuring their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions simultaneously for the first time. Samples have been categorised as type II using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis. The carbon and nitrogen isotopes as well as additional nitrogen content data have been acquired using a custom made a hi-sensitivity gas sourced mass spectrometer built and housed at the Open University, UK. There are two ways in which we can model the petrogenesis of type II diamonds. 1- During diamond growth nitrogen can be incorporated into diamond as a compatible element in a closed system and therefore the N/C ratio in the source can be depleted by Rayleigh fractionation as the first diamonds to crystallise will partition nitrogen atoms into their lattice as a 1:1 substitution for carbon atoms (type I diamonds). However nitrogen may behave as an incompatible element in diamond (and be a compatible element in the metasomatic fluid), this coupled with an open system would lead to the removal of nitrogen by the metasomatic fluids, thus causing the source to progressively become depleted in nitrogen. Continued diamond crystallization in either system will produce diamonds with ever decreasing nitrogen concentrations with time, possibly to the point of them being almost nitrogen free. 2- It is conceivable that type I & II diamonds found in the same deposit and sharing a common paragenesis (eclogitic or peridotitic) may have formed from different metasomatic fluids in separate diamond forming events. The latter has been proposed for samples from the Cullinan mine (South Africa) based on their carbon

  8. High average power CO II laser MOPA system for Tin target LPP EUV light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariga, Tatsuya; Hoshino, Hideo; Endo, Akira

    2007-02-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the candidate for next generation lithography to be introduced by the semiconductor industry to HVM (high volume manufacturing) in 2013. The power of the EUVL light source has to be at least 115W at a wavelength of 13.5nm. A laser produced plasma (LPP) is the main candidate for this light source but a cost effective laser driver is the key requirement for the realization of this concept. We are currently developing a high power and high repetition rate CO II laser system to achieve 50 W intermediate focus EUV power with a Tin droplet target. We have achieved CE of 2.8% with solid Tin wire target by a transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO II laser MOPA system with pulse width, pulse energy and pulse repetition rate as 10~15 ns, 30 mJ and 10 Hz, respectively. A CO II laser system with a short pulse length less than 15 ns, a nominal average power of a few kW, and a repetition rate of 100 kHz, based on RF-excited, fast axial flow CO II laser amplifiers is under development. Output power of about 3 kW has been achieved with a pulse length of 15 ns at 130 kHz repletion rate in a small signal amplification condition with P(20) single line. The phase distortion of the laser beam after amplification is negligible and the beam can be focused to about 150μm diameter in 1/e2. The CO II laser system is reported on short pulse amplification performance using RF-excited fast axial flow lasers as amplifiers. And the CO II laser average output power scaling is shown towards 5~10 kW with pulse width of 15 ns from a MOPA system.

  9. Low-Level Radio Frequency System Development for the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Ma,H.; Rose, J.

    2009-05-04

    The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) is a new ultra-bright 3GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. The position and timing specifications of the ultra-bright photon beam imposes a set of stringent requirements on the performance of radio frequency (RF) control. In addition, commissioning and staged installation of damping wigglers and insertion devices requires the flexibility of handling varying beam conditions. To meet these requirements, a digital implementation of the LLRF is chosen, and digital serial links are planned for the system integration. The first prototype of the controller front-end hardware has been built, and is currently being tested.

  10. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  11. Faraday rotation from magnesium II absorbers toward polarized background radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Farnes, J. S.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Corrigan, M. E.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2014-11-01

    Strong singly ionized magnesium (Mg II) absorption lines in quasar spectra typically serve as a proxy for intervening galaxies along the line of sight. Previous studies have found a correlation between the number of these Mg II absorbers and the Faraday rotation measure (RM) at ≈5 GHz. We cross-match a sample of 35,752 optically identified non-intrinsic Mg II absorption systems with 25,649 polarized background radio sources for which we have measurements of both the spectral index and RM at 1.4 GHz. We use the spectral index to split the resulting sample of 599 sources into flat-spectrum and steep-spectrum subsamples. We find that our flat-spectrum sample shows significant (∼3.5σ) evidence for a correlation between Mg II absorption and RM at 1.4 GHz, while our steep-spectrum sample shows no such correlation. We argue that such an effect cannot be explained by either luminosity or other observational effects, by evolution in another confounding variable, by wavelength-dependent polarization structure in an active galactic nucleus, by the Galactic foreground, by cosmological expansion, or by partial coverage models. We conclude that our data are most consistent with intervenors directly contributing to the Faraday rotation along the line of sight, and that the intervening systems must therefore have coherent magnetic fields of substantial strength ( B-bar =1.8±0.4 μG). Nevertheless, the weak nature of the correlation will require future high-resolution and broadband radio observations in order to place it on a much firmer statistical footing.

  12. XID II: STATISTICAL CROSS-ASSOCIATION OF ROSAT BRIGHT SOURCE CATALOG X-RAY SOURCES WITH 2MASS POINT SOURCE CATALOG NEAR-INFRARED SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Haakonsen, Christian Bernt; Rutledge, Robert E. E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca

    2009-09-01

    The 18,806 ROSAT All Sky Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC) X-ray sources are quantitatively cross-associated with near-infrared (NIR) sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS/PSC). An association catalog is presented, listing the most likely counterpart for each RASS/BSC source, the probability P {sub id} that the NIR source and X-ray source are uniquely associated, and the probability P {sub no-id} that none of the 2MASS/PSC sources are associated with the X-ray source. The catalog includes 3853 high quality (P {sub id}>0.98) X-ray-NIR matches, 2280 medium quality (0.98 {>=} P {sub id}>0.9) matches, and 4153 low quality (0.9 {>=} P {sub id}>0.5) matches. Of the high quality matches, 1418 are associations that are not listed in the SIMBAD database, and for which no high quality match with a USNO-A2 optical source was presented for the RASS/BSC source in previous work. The present work offers a significant number of new associations with RASS/BSC objects that will require optical/NIR spectroscopy for classification. For example, of the 6133 P {sub id}>0.9 2MASS/PSC counterparts presented in the association catalog, 2411 have no classification listed in the SIMBAD database. These 2MASS/PSC sources will likely include scientifically useful examples of known source classes of X-ray emitters (white dwarfs, coronally active stars, active galactic nuclei), but may also contain previously unknown source classes. It is determined that all coronally active stars in the RASS/BSC should have a counterpart in the 2MASS/PSC, and that the unique association of these RASS/BSC sources with their NIR counterparts thus is confusion limited.

  13. Analysis of SO II point source emissions using NASA atmospheric infrared sounder data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Sylvia S.; Miller, David P.; Lewis, Paul E.

    2007-04-01

    Determining the extent to which large power plant emission sources interacting with atmospheric constituents affect the environment could play a significant role in future U.S. energy production policy. The effects on the environment caused by the interaction between power plant emissions and atmospheric constituents has not been investigated in depth due to the lack of calibrated spectral data on a suitable temporal and spatial scale. The availability of NASA's space-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data makes it possible to explore, and begin the first steps toward establishing, a correlation between known emission sources and environmental indicators. An exploratory study was conducted in which a time series of 26 cloud-free AIRS data containing two coal-fired power plants in northern New Mexico were selected, acquired, and analyzed for SO II emissions. A generic forward modeling process was also developed to derive an estimate of the expected AIRS pixel radiance containing the SO II emissions from the two power plants based on published combustion analysis data for coal and available power plant documentation. Analysis of the AIRS NEΔR calculated in this study and subsequent comparison with the radiance values for SO II calculated from the forward model provided essential information regarding the suitability and risk in the use of a modified AIRS configuration for monitoring anthropogenic point source emissions. The results of this study along with its conclusions and recommendations in conjunction with additional research collaboration in several specific topics will provide guidance for the development of the next generation infrared spectrometer system that NASA is considering building for environmental monitoring.

  14. Radiological implications of top-off operation at national synchrotron light source-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, P. K.; Casey, W. R.

    2011-08-01

    High current and low emittance have been specified to achieve ultra high brightness in the third generation medium energy Synchrotron Radiation Sources. This leads to the electron beam lifetime limited by Touschek scattering, and after commissioning may settle in at as low as ∼3 h. It may well be less in the early days of operation. At the same time, the intensity stability specified by the user community for the synchrotron beam is 1% or better. Given the anticipated lifetime of the beam, incremental filling called top-off injection at intervals on the order of ∼1 min will be required to maintain this beam stability. It is judged to be impractical to make these incremental fills by closing the beam shutters at each injection. In addition, closing the front end beam shutters during each injection will adversely affect the stability of beamline optics due to thermal cycling. Hence the radiological consequences of injection with front end beam shutters open must be evaluated. This paper summarizes results of radiological analysis carried out for the proposed top-off injection at National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) with beam shutters open.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GLIMPSE Source Catalog (I + II + 3D) (IPAC 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer Science, Center

    2009-06-01

    The Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE), is a survey of Galactic Plane central parts made with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST). It covers approximately 220 square degrees, between galactic longitudes ±65° and ±1° in galactic latitude (up to 4.2° in the central parts). The four IRAC bands are centered at approximately 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0μm. The GLIMPSE combines the 3 surveys: * GLIMPSE-I covers the longitude ranges |l|=10--65° and the latitude range |b|<=1° (Benjamin et al. 2003PASP..115..953B) * GLIMPSE-II covers the longitude range of |l|<=10°, and a latitude range |b|<=1° from |l|=5--10, |b|<=1.5 for |l|=2--5, and |b|<=2° for |l|<=2. GLIMPSE-II coverage excludes the Galactic center region |l|<=1, |b|<=0.75 observed by the GALCEN GO program (PID=3677). * GLIMPSE-3D adds vertical extensions up to |b|=4.2° near the galactic center, and up to |b|=3° in selected other parts of the Galaxy (+/-10, 18.5, 25, 30, and -15 (345)°). GLIMPSE-II had two-epoch coverage for a total of three visits on the sky. The observations consisted of two 1.2 second integrations at each position in the first epoch of data taking (September 2005) and a single 1.2 second integration at each position six months later (April 2006). The highly reliable v2.0 GLIMPSEII Catalog (v2.0_GLMIIC) consists of point sources that are detected at least twice in one band and at least once in an adjacent band and a S/N > 5 cut for the band with the two detections. There are also faint and bright flux limits on the Catalog entries. The more complete v2.0 Archive (v2.0_GLMIIA) has less stringent criteria, namely two detections in any bands, those detections having a S/N > 5. The IRAC data were bandmerged with the 2MASS All-Sky Point Source Catalog. See the GLIMPSEII v2.0 Data Products & Data Delivery document for more details. The catalog available from CDS merges the 3 surveys GLIMPSE-I (v2.0), GLIMPSE-II (v2.0), and

  16. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  17. Source Regions of the Type II Radio Burst Observed During a CME-CME Interaction on 2013 May 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Krupar, V.

    2016-08-01

    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction-finding analysis of the Wind/WAVES and STEREO/WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter-hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME-CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME-CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  18. Source Regions of the Type II Radio Burst Observed During a CME–CME Interaction on 2013 May 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Krupar, V.

    2016-08-01

    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction-finding analysis of the Wind/WAVES and STEREO/WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter–hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME–CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME–CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  19. Excessive Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Levels in Drinkable Water Sources in Areas Along the Lake Victoria Shorelines in Siaya County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wambu, Enos W; Omwoyo, Wesley N; Akenga, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Copper(II) and zinc(II) levels in drinkable water sources in the alluvium areas of the Lake Victoria Basin in Siaya County of Kenya were evaluated to assess the risk posed to resident communities by hydrogeological accumulation of toxic residues in the sedimentary regions of the lake basin. The levels of the metals in water were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Metal concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 4.29 mg/L for Cu(II) and 0.03 to 1.62 mg/L for Zn(II), which were both higher than those normally recorded in natural waters. The Cu(II) levels also exceeded WHO guidelines for drinking water in 27% of the samples. The highest prevalence of excessive Cu(II) was found among dams and open pans (38%), piped water (33%) and spring water (25%). It was estimated that 18.2% of the resident communities in the current study area are exposed to potentially toxic levels of Cu(II) through their drinking water. PMID:26615531

  20. Excessive Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Levels in Drinkable Water Sources in Areas Along the Lake Victoria Shorelines in Siaya County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wambu, Enos W; Omwoyo, Wesley N; Akenga, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Copper(II) and zinc(II) levels in drinkable water sources in the alluvium areas of the Lake Victoria Basin in Siaya County of Kenya were evaluated to assess the risk posed to resident communities by hydrogeological accumulation of toxic residues in the sedimentary regions of the lake basin. The levels of the metals in water were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Metal concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 4.29 mg/L for Cu(II) and 0.03 to 1.62 mg/L for Zn(II), which were both higher than those normally recorded in natural waters. The Cu(II) levels also exceeded WHO guidelines for drinking water in 27% of the samples. The highest prevalence of excessive Cu(II) was found among dams and open pans (38%), piped water (33%) and spring water (25%). It was estimated that 18.2% of the resident communities in the current study area are exposed to potentially toxic levels of Cu(II) through their drinking water.

  1. Boîtes quantiques II-VI comme sources de photons uniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couteau, C.; Moehl, S.; Tinjod, F.; Suffczynski, J.; Romestain, R.; Vial, J.-C.; Gérard, J.-M.; Kheng, K.; Poizat, J.-P.

    2004-11-01

    Dans le cadre de l'information et de la communication quantique, la nécessité d'avoir des photons uniques monomodes et à la demande se révèle cruciale. De récents travaux théoriques ont montré la possibilité de réaliser des portes logiques quantiques n'utilisant que de l'optique linéaire. C'est dans ce contexte que s'insère notre travail sur l'élaboration et l'utilisation de boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices II-VI comme “pistolet” à photons. Des expériences de dégroupement et d'interférences à 2 photons sont les premiers pas nécessaires pour caractériser notre source.

  2. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Emily; Snelson, Catherine M; Chipman, Veraun D; Emer, Dudley; White, Bob; Emmit, Ryan; Wright, Al; Drellack, Sigmund; Huckins-Gang, Heather; Mercadante, Jennifer; Floyd, Michael; McGowin, Chris; Cothrun, Chris; Bonal, Nedra

    2013-12-05

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined.

  3. THE COORDINATED RADIO AND INFRARED SURVEY FOR HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION. II. SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S.; Cotton, W. D.; Chandler, C.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Gledhill, T. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Hindson, L.; Jackson, J. M.; Kurtz, S. E.; Marti, J. [Departamento de Fisica, EPSJ, Universidad de Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s and others

    2013-03-01

    The CORNISH project is the highest resolution radio continuum survey of the Galactic plane to date. It is the 5 GHz radio continuum part of a series of multi-wavelength surveys that focus on the northern GLIMPSE region (10 Degree-Sign < l < 65 Degree-Sign ), observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-infrared. Observations with the Very Large Array in B and BnA configurations have yielded a 1.''5 resolution Stokes I map with a root mean square noise level better than 0.4 mJy beam{sup -1}. Here we describe the data-processing methods and data characteristics, and present a new, uniform catalog of compact radio emission. This includes an implementation of automatic deconvolution that provides much more reliable imaging than standard CLEANing. A rigorous investigation of the noise characteristics and reliability of source detection has been carried out. We show that the survey is optimized to detect emission on size scales up to 14'' and for unresolved sources the catalog is more than 90% complete at a flux density of 3.9 mJy. We have detected 3062 sources above a 7{sigma} detection limit and present their ensemble properties. The catalog is highly reliable away from regions containing poorly sampled extended emission, which comprise less than 2% of the survey area. Imaging problems have been mitigated by down-weighting the shortest spacings and potential artifacts flagged via a rigorous manual inspection with reference to the Spitzer infrared data. We present images of the most common source types found: H II regions, planetary nebulae, and radio galaxies. The CORNISH data and catalog are available online at http://cornish.leeds.ac.uk.

  4. LCLS-II: Upgrade Plans for the Linac Coherent Light Source-Including New Scientific Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotter, William; LCLS-II Team

    2015-03-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is planning a major upgrade that will provide revolutionary new scientific capabilities for exploring materials on the atomic and nano-scale with element specificity and ultrafast temporal resolution. The LCLS is an x-ray free electron laser with six experimental instruments accessible via a peer-reviewed proposal process. The upgraded LCLS-II facility will continuously deliver ultrafast x-ray pulses at repetition rates greater than 100kHz with photon energies tunable between 250 eV and 5 keV. The upgrade will also produce pulses with photon energies as high as 25 keV at a repetition rate of 120 Hz. These capabilities will enable new scientific methods that will revolutionize the study of highly correlated electron systems, magnetization dynamics and nanoscale fluctuations in soft matter to name a few. Expected capabilities and prospective experimental examples will be presented. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. LCLS is an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science by Stanford University.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Warm IRAS sources. II. (de Grijp+, 1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijp, M. H. K.; Keel, W. C.; Miley, G. K.; Goudfrooij, P.; Lub, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present optical spectra for a sample of 563 high-latitude IRAS sources selected from the Point Source Catalog to have relatively warm 25 to 60 micron colours. We have shown this selection criterion to be an efficient indicator for finding Seyfert galaxies. Plots of the optical spectra are shown and the fluxes of the strongest emission lines in these spectra are tabulated. After excluding 128 sources which are clearly galactic foreground objects, we obtained spectroscopic information for 358 extragalactic objects. Emission-line ratios have been used to classify these objects, resulting in 80 Seyfert 1, 141 Seyfert 2 and 133 HII-type objects. In comparison with samples of active nuclei selected in other ways, about 50% of known Seyfert nuclei are included by our colour criteria. This fraction is larger for high luminosities, reaching 80% for quasar luminosities. For lower-luminosity objects, contamination by the host galaxies becomes important and the sample becomes seriously incomplete. It should be moderately complete and representative for core luminosities greater than 1023.5W/Hz at 12m. Finally, the infrared luminosity function for each type of object is derived; the shapes for Seyfert 1 and 2 nuclei are identical, with a type 2/type 1 space-density ratio of 3.0. Our census is consistent with an obscuration scheme for producing both types of object from a single parent population, though the origin of excess cool IR radiation Irom many Seyferts is still unclear. We note the appearance of an apparent type II supernova in IRAS 0225-103 observed in 1985 September. Its spectrum suggests that it was observed between 1 and 2 months after maximum, perhaps in a "plateau" phase. (2 data files).

  6. The alkaline aluminium/hydrogen peroxide power source in the Hugin II unmanned underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasvold, Øistein; Johansen, Kjell Håvard; Mollestad, Ole; Forseth, Sissel; Størkersen, Nils

    In 1993, The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) demonstrated AUV-Demo, an unmanned (untethered) underwater vehicle (UUV), powered by a magnesium/dissolved oxygen seawater battery (SWB). This technology showed that an underwater range of at least 1000 nautical miles at a speed of 4 knots was possible, but also that the maximum hotel load this battery system could support was very limited. Most applications for UUV technology need more power over a shorter period of time. Seabed mapping using a multibeam echo sounder mounted on an UUV was identified as a viable application and the Hugin project was started in 1995 in cooperation with Norwegian industry. For this application, an endurance of 36 h at 4 knots was required. Development of the UUV hull and electronics system resulted in the UUV Hugin I. It carries a Ni/Cd battery of 3 kW h, allowing up to 6 h under-water endurance. In parallel, we developed a battery based on a combination of alkaline Al/air and SWB technology, using a circulating alkaline electrolyte, aluminium anodes and maintaining the oxidant concentration in the electrolyte by continuously adding hydrogen peroxide (HP) to the electrolyte. This concept resulted in a safe battery, working at ambient pressure (balanced) and with sufficient power and energy density to allow the UUV Hugin II to make a number of successive dives, each of up to 36 h duration and with only 1 h deck time between dives for HP refill and electrolyte exchange. After 100 h, an exchange of anodes takes place. The power source consists of a four-cell Al/HP battery, a DC/DC converter delivering 600 W at 30 V, circulation and dosing pumps and a battery control unit. Hugin II is now in routine use by the Norwegian Underwater Intervention AS (NUI) which operates the UUV for high-precision seabed mapping down to a water depth of 600 m.

  7. Shielding NSLS-II light source: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.; Wahl, W.

    2016-11-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produces significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than a lower energy beam injection and ramped operations. Minimizing this dose will require adequate knowledge of where the miss-steered beam can occur and sufficient EM shielding close to the loss point, in order to attenuate the energy of the particles in the EM shower below the neutron production threshold (<10 MeV), which will spread the incident energy on the bulk shield walls and thereby the dose penetrating the shield walls. Designing supplemental shielding near the loss point using the analytic shielding model is shown to be inadequate because of its lack of geometry specification for the EM shower process. To predict the dose rates outside the tunnel requires detailed description of the geometry and materials that the beam losses will encounter inside the tunnel. Modern radiation shielding Monte-Carlo codes, like FLUKA, can handle this geometric description of the radiation transport process in sufficient detail, allowing accurate predictions of the dose rates expected and the ability to show weaknesses in the design before a high radiation incident occurs. The effort required to adequately define the accelerator geometry for these codes has been greatly reduced with the implementation of the graphical interface of FLAIR to FLUKA. This made the effective shielding process for NSLS-II quite accurate and reliable. The principles used to provide supplemental

  8. Angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial Nox4 is a major endogenous source of oxidative stress in kidney tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Mi; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Tae-Won; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo; Moon, Ju-Young

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) oxidase leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an important intracellular second messenger in renal disease. Recent findings suggest that Ang II induces mitochondrial depolarization and further amplifies mitochondrial generation of ROS. We examined the hypothesis that ROS injury mediated by Ang II-induced mitochondrial Nox4 plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial dysfunction in tubular cells and is related to cell survival. In addition, we assessed whether angiotensin (1-7) peptide (Ang-(1-7)) was able to counteract Ang II-induced ROS-mediated cellular injury. Cultured NRK-52E cells were stimulated with 10(-6) M Ang II for 24 h with or without Ang-(1-7) or apocynin. Ang II simulated mitochondrial Nox4 and resulted in the abrupt production of mitochondrial superoxide (O(2) (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Ang II also induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytosolic secretion of cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Ang-(1-7) attenuated Ang II-induced mitochondrial Nox4 expression and apoptosis, and its effect was comparable to that of the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor. These findings suggest that Ang II-induced activation of mitochondrial Nox4 is an important endogenous source of ROS, and is related to cell survival. The ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis should be investigated further as a novel target of Ang II-mediated ROS injury.

  9. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were

  10. The SRP-II as a Rich Source of Data on the Psychopathic Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Whitney S.; Salekin, Randall T.; Sellbom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure, external correlates, and predictive utility of the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-II; Hare, Harpur, & Hemphill, 1989). Despite a revision of the SRP-II to address, among other criticisms, a lack of items reflecting antisocial behavior, we hypothesized that the SRP-II would have a conceptually coherent…

  11. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  12. Radiation fields of intermediate-age stellar populations with binaries as ionizing sources of H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Li, L.; Cheng, L.; Wang, L.; Kang, X.; Zhuang, Y.; Han, Z.

    2015-02-01

    Radiation fields emitted by O- and B-type stars or young stellar populations (SPs) are generally considered as significant central ionizing sources (CISs) of classic H II regions. In our previous studies, we showed that the inclusion of binary interactions in stellar population synthesis models can significantly increase the ultraviolet spectrum hardness and the number of ionizing photons of intermediate-age (IA) SPs (7 ≲ log(t/yr) ≲ 8). In this work, we present photoionization models of H II regions ionized by radiation fields emitted by IA SPs, including binary systems, and show that these fields are in theory possible candidates for significant CISs of classic H II regions. When radiation fields of IA SPs comprising binary systems are used as the CISs of classic H II regions, the theoretical strengths of a number of lines (such as [O III] λ4959', [S II] λ6716', etc.), which are weaker than observations, are increased; the border or selection-criterion lines between star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the diagnostic diagrams (for example, [N II] λ6583/Hα versus [O III] λ5007/Hβ), move into the region occupied originally by AGNs; and the He II λ1640 line, observed in Lyman break and high-redshift gravitationally lensed galaxies, also can be produced.

  13. Measurement of coherence length and incoherent source size of hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II

    SciTech Connect

    Park, So Yeong; Hong, Chung Ki; Lim, Jun

    2014-04-15

    We measured the spatial coherence length and incoherent source size of a hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II, the stored electron energy of which has been increased from 2.5 GeV to 3 GeV. The coherence length was determined by single-slit measurement of the visibility of the Fresnel diffraction pattern. The correlated incoherent source size was cross-checked for three different optics: the single slit, beryllium parabolic compound refractive lenses, and the Fresnel zone plate. We concluded that the undulator beamline has an effective incoherent source size (FWHM) of 540 μm (horizontal) × 50 μm (vertical)

  14. D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types I, II, IIS, and III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimmelmann, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Wintsch, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Immature source rock chips containing different types of kerogen (I, II, IIS, III) were artificially matured in isotopically distinct waters by hydrous pyrolysis and by pyrolysis in supercritical water. Converging isotopic trends of inorganic (water) and organic (kerogen, bitumen, oil) hydrogen with increasing time and temperature document that water-derived hydrogen is added to or exchanged with organic hydrogen, or both, during chemical reactions that take place during thermal maturation. Isotopic mass-balance calculations show that, depending on temperature (310-381??C), time (12-144 h), and source rock type, between ca. 45 and 79% of carbon-bound hydrogen in kerogen is derived from water. Estimates for bitumen and oil range slightly lower, with oil-hydrogen being least affected by water-derived hydrogen. Comparative hydrous pyrolyses of immature source rocks at 330??C for 72 h show that hydrogen in kerogen, bitumen, and expelled oil/wax ranks from most to least isotopically influenced by water-derived hydrogen in the order IIS > II ~ III > I. Pyrolysis of source rock containing type II kerogen in supercritical water at 381 ??C for 12 h yields isotopic results that are similar to those from hydrous pyrolysis at 350??C for 72 h, or 330??C for 144 h. Bulk hydrogen in kerogen contains several percent of isotopically labile hydrogen that exchanges fast and reversibly with hydrogen in water vapor at 115??C. The isotopic equilibration of labile hydrogen in kerogen with isotopic standard water vapors significantly reduces the analytical uncertainty of D/H ratios when compared with simple D/H determination of bulk hydrogen in kerogen. If extrapolation of our results from hydrous pyrolysis is permitted to natural thermal maturation at lower temperatures, we suggest that organic D/H ratios of fossil fuels in contact with formation waters are typically altered during chemical reactions, but that D/H ratios of generated hydrocarbons are subsequently little or not affected

  15. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Images of Herbig-Haro Energy Sources: [Fe II] Jets, Binarity, and Envelope Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Yu, Ka Chun; Heathcote, Steve; Bally, John; Rodríguez, Luis F.

    2000-09-01

    We have observed seven regions surrounding the driving sources of Herbig-Haro flows using the NICMOS infrared camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope. These Herbig-Haro energy sources, which power the HH 34, 47, 83, 111, 199, 300, and 454 flows, have all been previously detected in the centimeter-wavelength radio continuum. The regions were imaged in two broadband filters, F160W and F205W, which, in addition to stellar continuum, principally transmit the [Fe II] 1.644 μm and H2 2.122 μm lines, respectively, of shocks present in the images. Highly collimated infrared jets emerge from the sources of HH 34, 111, 300, and 454. In all of these cases, the [Fe II] emission transmitted in the F160W filter is much stronger than the H2 emission in the F205W band. Combined with previously published NICMOS images of the bright [Fe II] HH 1 jet, these data suggest that [Fe II] emission may be as important a tracer of shocked jets in the infrared as [S II] emission is in the optical. [Fe II] emission may be enhanced near the driving sources relative to the H2 emission by a combination of high jet density and strong far-ultraviolet (7.6-13.6 eV) radiation from the forming star. The HH 454 [Fe II] jet, which emanates from the L1551 NE source, is pointed directly at the bright shock HH 29, providing further evidence that this young star, rather than L1551 IRS 5, is the source of the brightest Herbig-Haro object in the L1551 outflow complex. In five regions, the driving sources are visible at 2 μm. Among these, the sources powering HH 47 and HH 300 are found to be binary stars. One other young stellar system, the source of the HH 111 protostellar jet, is triple. When combined with other studies, these results indicate that 36% of 14 Herbig-Haro energy sources observed with NICMOS are multiple at near-infrared wavelengths with component separations greater than 0.15"-0.20". Therefore, considering incompleteness, obscuration, and faintness of possible companions in the observed

  16. Positions of galactic X-ray sources - At longitudes /l-II/ of 55-320 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dower, R. G.; Bradt, H. V.; Doxsey, R. E.; Jernigan, J. G.; Kulik, J.; Apparao, K. M. V.

    1978-01-01

    Rotating modulation collimeter detectors on the SAS-3 X-ray observatory were used to supply precise (20-40 sec) positional data on 10 galactic X-ray sources in the l super II region between 55 and 320 deg. It is noted that the position for 2S0114+650 has led to the discovery of an optical counterpart. Attention is given to the temperature dependence of the experiments, and it is found that position measurements made at low temperatures are consistent with those obtained at normal (0 C) temperatures. Positions, error radii, and intensities (2-11 keV) are listed for each of the ten sources.

  17. MOSFIRE and LDSS3 spectroscopy for an [O II] Blob at z = 1.18: gas outflow and energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Harikane, Yuichi; Ouchi, Masami; Yuma, Suraphong; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Nakajima, Kimihiko

    2014-10-20

    We report our Keck/MOSFIRE and Magellan/Low-Dispersion Survey Spectrograph spectroscopy for an [O II] Blob, O II B 10, that is a high-z galaxy with spatially extended [O II] λλ3726, 3729 emission over 30 kpc recently identified by a Subaru large-area narrowband survey. The systemic redshift of O II B 10 is z = 1.18 securely determined with [O III] λλ4959, 5007 and Hβ emission lines. We identify Fe II λ2587 and Mg II λλ2796, 2804 absorption lines blueshifted from the systemic redshift by 80 ± 50 and 260 ± 40 km s{sup –1}, respectively, which indicates gas outflow from O II B 10 with the velocity of ∼80-260 km s{sup –1}. This outflow velocity is comparable with the escape velocity, 250 ± 140 km s{sup –1}, estimated under the assumption of a singular isothermal halo potential profile. Some fraction of the outflowing gas could escape from the halo of O II B 10, suppressing O II B 10's star-formation (SF) activity. We estimate a mass loading factor, η, that is a ratio of mass outflow rate to SF rate, and obtain η > 0.8 ± 0.1, which is relatively high compared with low-z starbursts including U/LIRGs and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The major energy source of the outflow is unclear with the available data. Although no signature of AGNs is found in the X-ray data, O II B 10 falls in the AGN/star-forming composite region in the line diagnostic diagrams. It is possible that the outflow is powered by SF and a type-2 AGN with narrow FWHM emission line widths of 70-130 km s{sup –1}. This is the first detailed spectroscopic study of oxygen-line blobs that includes analyses of the escape velocity, the mass loading factor, and the presence of an AGN, and is a significant step to understanding the nature of oxygen-line blobs and the relation between gas outflow and SF quenching at high redshift.

  18. Characterizing Materials Sources and Sinks; Current Approaches: Part II. Chemical and Physical Characterization

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses methods for characterizing chemical emissions from material sources, including laboratory, dynamic chamber, and full-scale studies. Indoor sources and their interaction with sinks play a major role in determining indoor air quality (IAQ). Techniques for evalua...

  19. THE Low-level Radio Frequency System for the superconducting cavities of National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.; Rose, J.; Holub, B.; Cupolo, J.; Oliva, J.; Sikora, R.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    A digital low-level radio frequency (LLRF) field controller has been developed for the storage ring of The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). The primary performance goal for the LLRF is to support the required RF operation of the superconducting cavities with a beam current of 500mA and a 0.14 degree or better RF phase stability. The digital field controller is FPGA-based, in a standard format 19-inch/I-U chassis. It has an option of high-level control support with MATLAB running on a local host computer through a USB2.0 port. The field controller has been field tested with the high-power superconducting RF (SRF) at Canadian light Source, and successfully stored a high beam current of 250 mA. The test results show that required specifications for the cavity RF field stability are met. This digital field controller is also currently being used as a development platform for other functional modules in the NSLS-II RF systems.

  20. Comparative Study of Vibration Stability at Operating Light Source Facilities and Lessons Learned in Achieving NSLS II Stability Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Simos,N.; Fallier, M.; Amick, H.

    2008-06-23

    In an effort to ensure that the stability goals of the NSLS II will be met once the accelerator structure is set on the selected BNL site a comprehensive evaluation of the ground vibration observed at existing light source facilities has been undertaken. The study has relied on measurement data collected and reported by the operating facilities as well as on new data collected in the course of this study. The primary goal of this comprehensive effort is to compare the green-field conditions that exist in the various sites both in terms of amplitude as well as frequency content and quantify the effect of the interaction of these accelerator facilities with the green-field vibration. The latter represents the ultimate goal of this effort where the anticipated motion of the NSLS II ring is estimated prior to its construction and compared with the required stability criteria.

  1. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. II. Evidence for High Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two papers examining Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. Here we perform detailed photoionization modeling of they infrared lines. Our analysis suggests that the luminosity and morphology of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is matter-bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the east, and probably radiation-bounded to the west. A bolometric luminosity in excess of 1040 erg per second would be needed to produce the measured [O IV] flux. We use modeling and previously published studies to conclude that shacks likely contribute very little, if at all, to the high excitation line fluxes observed in the Holmberg II ULX. Additionally, we find that the spectral type of the companion star has a surprisingly strong effect on they predicted strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] hi some starburst systems containing black hole binaries.

  2. MAGNETIC FIELDS IN LARGE-DIAMETER H II REGIONS REVEALED BY THE FARADAY ROTATION OF COMPACT EXTRAGALACTIC RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey-Smith, L.; Madsen, G. J.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2011-08-01

    We present a study of the line-of-sight magnetic fields in five large-diameter Galactic H II regions. Using the Faraday rotation of background polarized radio sources, as well as dust-corrected H{alpha} surface brightness as a probe of electron density, we estimated the strength and orientation of the magnetic field along 93 individual sight lines through the H II regions. Each of the H II regions displayed a coherent magnetic field. The magnetic field strength (line-of-sight component) in the regions ranges from 2 to 6 {mu}G, which is similar to the typical magnetic field strength in the diffuse interstellar medium. We investigated the relationship between magnetic field strength and electron density in the five H II regions. The slope of magnetic field versus density in the low-density regime (0.8 cm{sup -3} < n{sub e} <30 cm{sup -3}) is very slightly above zero. We also calculated the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure, {beta}{sub th}, for each data point, which fell in the range 1.01 < {beta}{sub th} < 25. Finally, we studied the orientation of the magnetic field in the solar neighborhood (d < 1.1 kpc) using our data from five H II regions along with existing measurements of the line-of-sight magnetic field strength from polarized pulsars whose distances have been determined from their annual parallax. We identify a net direction for the magnetic field in the solar neighborhood, but find no evidence for a preferred vertical direction of the magnetic field above or below the Galactic plane.

  3. THE CHANDRA SURVEY OF THE COSMOS FIELD. II. SOURCE DETECTION AND PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Puccetti, S.; Vignali, C.; Cappelluti, N.; Brunner, H.; Brusa, M.; Fruscione, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Elvis, M.; Civano, F.; Miyaji, T.; Damiani, F.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mainieri, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that covers the central contiguous {approx}0.92 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field. C-COSMOS is the result of a complex tiling, with every position being observed in up to six overlapping pointings (four overlapping pointings in most of the central {approx}0.45 deg{sup 2} area with the best exposure, and two overlapping pointings in most of the surrounding area, covering an additional {approx}0.47 deg{sup 2}). Therefore, the full exploitation of the C-COSMOS data requires a dedicated and accurate analysis focused on three main issues: (1) maximizing the sensitivity when the point-spread function (PSF) changes strongly among different observations of the same source (from {approx}1 arcsec up to {approx}10 arcsec half-power radius); (2) resolving close pairs; and (3) obtaining the best source localization and count rate. We present here our treatment of four key analysis items: source detection, localization, photometry, and survey sensitivity. Our final procedure consists of a two step procedure: (1) a wavelet detection algorithm to find source candidates and (2) a maximum likelihood PSF fitting algorithm to evaluate the source count rates and the probability that each source candidate is a fluctuation of the background. We discuss the main characteristics of this procedure, which was the result of detailed comparisons between different detection algorithms and photometry tools, calibrated with extensive and dedicated simulations.

  4. HerMES: point source catalogues from Herschel-SPIRE observations II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Viero, M.; Clarke, C.; Bock, J.; Buat, V.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Guo, K.; Heinis, S.; Magdis, G.; Marchetti, L.; Marsden, G.; Norberg, P.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M. J.; Roehlly, Y.; Roseboom, I. G.; Schulz, B.; Smith, A. J.; Vaccari, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) is the largest Guaranteed Time Key Programme on the Herschel Space Observatory. With a wedding cake survey strategy, it consists of nested fields with varying depth and area totalling ˜380 deg2. In this paper, we present deep point source catalogues extracted from Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) observations of all HerMES fields, except for the later addition of the 270 deg2 HerMES Large-Mode Survey (HeLMS) field. These catalogues constitute the second Data Release (DR2) made in 2013 October. A sub-set of these catalogues, which consists of bright sources extracted from Herschel-SPIRE observations completed by 2010 May 1 (covering ˜74 deg2) were released earlier in the first extensive data release in 2012 March. Two different methods are used to generate the point source catalogues, the SUSSEXTRACTOR point source extractor used in two earlier data releases (EDR and EDR2) and a new source detection and photometry method. The latter combines an iterative source detection algorithm, STARFINDER, and a De-blended SPIRE Photometry algorithm. We use end-to-end Herschel-SPIRE simulations with realistic number counts and clustering properties to characterize basic properties of the point source catalogues, such as the completeness, reliability, photometric and positional accuracy. Over 500 000 catalogue entries in HerMES fields (except HeLMS) are released to the public through the HeDAM (Herschel Database in Marseille) website (http://hedam.lam.fr/HerMES).

  5. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm-1. For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm-1. With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.

  6. Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part II. High dose rate {sup 192}Ir sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, Regina K. Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper discussed the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources. Part II will discuss those used with HDR {sup 192}Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and{sup 192}Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the {sup 192}Ir sources were completed with several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally, relative dose measurements of the surface dose distributions and characteristic depth dose curves were completed in-phantom. Results: Theoretical dose distributions and depth dose curves were generated for each applicator and agreed well with the measured values. A method of output verification was created that allows users to determine the applicator-specific dose to water at the treatment surface based on a

  7. The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources. II - Collisionless dissipation of wave packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, William

    1989-01-01

    The dispersion equation of Barnes (1966) is used to study the dissipation of asymptotic wave packets generated by localized periodic sources. The solutions of the equation are linear waves, damped by Landau and transit-time processes, in a collisionless warm plasma. For the case of an ideal MHD system, most of the waves emitted from a source are shown to cancel asympotically through destructive interference. The modes transporting significant flux to asymptotic distances are found to be Alfven waves and fast waves with theta (the angle between the magnetic field and the characteristics of the far-field waves) of about 0 and about pi/2.

  8. The diffuse neutrino flux from FR-II radio galaxies and blazars: A source property based estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Julia K.; Biermann, Peter L.; Rhode, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    Water and ice Cherenkov telescopes of the present and future aim for the detection of a neutrino signal from extraterrestrial sources at energies Eν > PeV [Woschnagg and AMANDA Collaboration, Astro-ph/0409423, talk at Neutrino 2004; Montaruli, in: Peter W. Gorham, Particle Astrophysics Instrumentation, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 4858, 2003, p. 92; IceCube Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 20 (2004) 507]. Some of the most promising extragalactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN). In this paper, the neutrino flux from two kinds of AGN sources will be estimated assuming pγ interactions in the jets of the AGN. The first analyzed sample contains FR-II radio galaxies while the second AGN type examined are blazars. The result is highly dependent on the proton's index of the energy spectrum. To normalize the spectrum, the connection between neutrino and disk luminosity will be used by applying the jet-disk symbiosis model from Falcke and Biermann [Astron. Astrophys. 293 (1995) 665]. The maximum proton energy and thus, also the maximum neutrino energy of the source is connected to its disk luminosity, which was shown by Lovelace [Nature 262 (1976) 649] and was confirmed by Falcke et al. [Astron. Astrophys. 298 (1995) 375].

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optically Bright extragalactic Radio Sources II (Petrov, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, L.

    2014-06-01

    The first VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observing campaign in 2007 resulted in the detection of 398 targets with the European VLBI Network (EVN; Bourda et al., 2010, cat. J/A+A/520/A113). During the second observing campaign, a subset of 105 sources detected in the previous campaign was observed (Bourda et al., 2011, cat. J/A+A/526/A102). Their positions were derived by Petrov (2011, cat. J/AJ/142/105) and formed the OBRS-1 (Optically Bright extragalactic Radio Sources) catalog. The remaining sources were observed in the third campaign, called OBRS-2. During the OBRS-2 campaign, there were three observing sessions with 10 VLBA (Very Long Baseline Array) stations and 5-6 EVN stations from this list: EFLSBERG, MEDICINA, ONSALA60, YEBES40M, DSS63, HARTRAO, and NOTO. Observations were made on 2010 Mar 23 (session ID gc034a), on 2011 Nov 8 (gc034bcd), and on 2011 Mar 15 (gc034ef). The OBRS-2 catalog presents precise positions of the 295 extragalactic radio sources as well as median correlated flux densities at 8.4 and 2.2GHz at baseline lengths shorter than 900km and at baseline lengths longer than 5000km. (1 data file).

  10. The Brera Multiscale Wavelet ROSAT HRI Source Catalog. II. Application to the HRI and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, Sergio; Lazzati, Davide; Panzera, Maria Rosa; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    1999-10-01

    The wavelet detection algorithm (WDA) described in the accompanying paper by Lazzati et al. is suited to a fast and efficient analysis of images taken with the High-Resolution Imager (HRI) instrument on board the ROSAT satellite. An extensive testing is carried out on the detection pipeline: HRI fields with different exposure times are simulated and analyzed in the same fashion as the real data. Positions are recovered with errors of a few arcseconds, whereas fluxes are within a factor of 2 from their input values in more than 90% of the cases in the deepest images. Unlike the ``sliding-box'' detection algorithms, the WDA also provides a reliable description of the source extension, allowing for a complete search of, e.g., supernova remnants or clusters of galaxies in the HRI fields. A completeness analysis on simulated fields shows that for the deepest exposures considered (~120 ks) a limiting flux of ~3×10-15 ergs s-1 cm-2 can be reached over the entire field of view. We test the algorithm on real HRI fields selected for their crowding and/or the presence of extended or bright sources (e.g., clusters of galaxies and stars, supernova remnants). We show that our algorithm compares favorably with other X-ray detection algorithms, such as XIMAGE and EXSAS. Analysis with the WDA of the large set of HRI data will allow us to survey ~400 deg2 down to a limiting flux of ~10-13 ergs s-1 cm-2, and ~0.3 deg2 down to ~3×10-15 ergs s-1 cm-2. A complete catalog will result from our analysis, consisting of the Brera Multiscale Wavelet Bright Source Catalog (BMW-BSC), with sources detected with a significance of >~4.5 σ, and the Faint Source Catalog (BMW-FSC), with sources at >~3.5 σ. A conservative estimate based on the extragalactic log N-log S indicates that at least 16,000 sources will be revealed in the complete analysis of the entire HRI data set.

  11. VOC source-receptor relationships in Houston during TexAQS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchner, Michael; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2010-10-01

    During the TRAMP field campaign in August-September 2006, C 2-C 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured continuously and online at the urban Moody Tower (MT) site. This dataset was compared to corresponding VOC data sets obtained at six sites located in the highly industrialized Houston Ship Channel area (HSC). Receptor modeling was performed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) at all sites. Conditional probability functions (CPF) were used to determine the origin of the polluted air masses in the Houston area. A subdivision into daytime and nighttime was carried out to discriminate photochemical influences. Eight main source categories of industrial, mobile, and biogenic emissions were identified at the urban receptor site, seven and six, respectively, at the different HSC sites. At MT natural gas/crude oil contributed most to the VOC mass (27.4%), followed by liquefied petroleum gas (16.7%), vehicular exhaust (15.3%), fuel evaporation (14.3%), and aromatics (13.4%). Also petrochemical sources from ethylene (4.7%) and propylene (3.6%) play an important role. A minor fraction of the VOC mass can be attributed to biogenic sources mainly from isoprene (4.4%). Based on PMF analyses of different wind sectors, the total VOC mass was estimated to be twofold at MT with wind directions from HSC compared to air from a typical urban sector, for petrochemical compounds more than threefold. Despite the strong impact of air masses influenced by industrial sources at HSC, still about a third of the total mass contributions at MT can be apportioned to other sources, mainly motor vehicles and aromatic solvents. The investigation of diurnal variation in combination with wind directional frequencies revealed the greatest HSC impact at the urban site during the morning, and the least during the evening.

  12. Transition probabilities of PrII-lines emitted from a ferroelectric plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goly, A.; Kusz, J.; Quang, B. Nguyen; Weniger, S.

    1991-03-01

    An argon-praseodymium plasma was generated under atmospheric pressure between a ceramic ferroelectric plate and a praseodymium plate. The system of plates was connected to an acoustic frequency supply. The plasma radiation was analyzed in the spectral range from 2000 to 7000 A by using a grating spectrograph with a linear dispersion near 1 mm/A, adopted to photoelectric measurements. The emission spectrum of praseodymium was recorded, and the intensities of a few hundred lines were measured. Transition probabilities were determined for 62 PrII-lines, using available lifetime data for excited levels and measured branching ratios of the corresponding lines. Reasonable agreement has been found between the experimental data of Lage and Whaling (1976) and some of the present results.

  13. Synthesis of Co(II)-NO(-) Complexes and Their Reactivity as a Source of Nitroxyl.

    PubMed

    Walter, Melody R; Dzul, Stephen P; Rodrigues, Andria V; Stemmler, Timothy L; Telser, Joshua; Conradie, Jeanet; Ghosh, Abhik; Harrop, Todd C

    2016-09-28

    Metal-nitroxyl (M-HNO/M-NO(-)) coordination units are found in denitrification enzymes of the global nitrogen cycle, and free HNO exhibits pharmacological properties related to cardiovascular physiology that are distinct from nitric oxide (NO). To elucidate the properties that control the binding and release of coordinated nitroxyl or its anion at these biological metal sites, we synthesized {CoNO}(8) (1, 2) and {CoNO}(9) (3, 4) complexes that contain diimine-dipyrrolide supporting ligands. Experimental (NMR, IR, MS, EPR, XAS, XRD) and computational data (DFT) support an oxidation state assignment for 3 and 4 of high spin Co(II) (SCo = 3/2) coordinated to (3)NO(-) (SNO = 1) for Stot = 1/2. As suggested by DFT, upon protonation, a spin transition occurs to generate a putative low spin Co(II)-(1)HNO (SCo = Stot = 1/2); the Co-NO bond is ∼0.2 Å longer, more labile, and facilitates the release of HNO. This property was confirmed experimentally through the detection and quantification of N2O (∼70% yield), a byproduct of the established HNO self-reaction (2HNO → N2O + H2O). Additionally, 3 and 4 function as HNO donors in aqueous media at pH 7.4 and react with known HNO targets, such as a water-soluble Mn(III)-porphyrin ([Mn(III)(TPPS)](3-); TPPS = meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinate) and ferric myoglobin (metMb) to quantitatively yield [Mn(TPPS)(NO)](4-) and MbNO, respectively. PMID:27562882

  14. Synthesis of Co(II)-NO(-) Complexes and Their Reactivity as a Source of Nitroxyl.

    PubMed

    Walter, Melody R; Dzul, Stephen P; Rodrigues, Andria V; Stemmler, Timothy L; Telser, Joshua; Conradie, Jeanet; Ghosh, Abhik; Harrop, Todd C

    2016-09-28

    Metal-nitroxyl (M-HNO/M-NO(-)) coordination units are found in denitrification enzymes of the global nitrogen cycle, and free HNO exhibits pharmacological properties related to cardiovascular physiology that are distinct from nitric oxide (NO). To elucidate the properties that control the binding and release of coordinated nitroxyl or its anion at these biological metal sites, we synthesized {CoNO}(8) (1, 2) and {CoNO}(9) (3, 4) complexes that contain diimine-dipyrrolide supporting ligands. Experimental (NMR, IR, MS, EPR, XAS, XRD) and computational data (DFT) support an oxidation state assignment for 3 and 4 of high spin Co(II) (SCo = 3/2) coordinated to (3)NO(-) (SNO = 1) for Stot = 1/2. As suggested by DFT, upon protonation, a spin transition occurs to generate a putative low spin Co(II)-(1)HNO (SCo = Stot = 1/2); the Co-NO bond is ∼0.2 Å longer, more labile, and facilitates the release of HNO. This property was confirmed experimentally through the detection and quantification of N2O (∼70% yield), a byproduct of the established HNO self-reaction (2HNO → N2O + H2O). Additionally, 3 and 4 function as HNO donors in aqueous media at pH 7.4 and react with known HNO targets, such as a water-soluble Mn(III)-porphyrin ([Mn(III)(TPPS)](3-); TPPS = meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinate) and ferric myoglobin (metMb) to quantitatively yield [Mn(TPPS)(NO)](4-) and MbNO, respectively.

  15. VLA observations of a complete sample of extragalactic X-ray sources. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schild, R.; Zamorani, G.; Gioia, I. M.; Feigelson, E. D.; Maccacaro, T.

    1983-01-01

    A complete sample of 35 X-ray selected sources found with the Einstein Observatory has been observed with the Very Large Array at 6 cm to investigate the relationship between radio and X-ray emission in extragalactic objects. Detections include three active galactic nuclei (AGNs), two clusters or groups of galaxies, two individual galaxies, and two BL Lac objects. The frequency of radio emission in X-ray selected AGNs is compared with that of optically selected quasars using the integral radio-optical luminosity function. The result suggests that the probability for X-ray selected quasars to be radio sources is higher than for those optically selected. No obvious correlation is found in the sample between the richness of X-ray luminosity of the cluster and the presence of a galaxy with radio luminosity at 5 GHz larger than 10 to the 30th ergs/s/Hz.

  16. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  17. Large-N Over the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Phase I and Phase II Test Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelson, C. M.; Carmichael, J. D.; Mellors, R. J.; Abbott, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    One of the current challenges in the field of monitoring and verification is source discrimination of low-yield nuclear explosions from background seismicity, both natural and anthropogenic. Work is underway at the Nevada National Security Site to conduct a series of chemical explosion experiments using a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary approach. The goal of this series of experiments, called the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is to refine the understanding of the effect of earth structures on source phenomenology and energy partitioning in the source region, the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field, and the development of S waves observed in the far field. To fully explore these problems, the SPE series includes tests in both hard and soft rock geologic environments. The project comprises a number of activities, which range from characterizing the shallow subsurface to acquiring new explosion data from both the near field (<100 m) and the far field (>100 m). SPE includes a series of planned explosions (with different yields and depths of burials), which are conducted in the same hole and monitored by a diverse set of sensors recording characteristics of the explosions, ground-shock, seismo-acoustic energy propagation. This presentation focuses on imaging the full 3D wavefield over hard rock and soft rock test beds using a large number of seismic sensors. This overview presents statistical analyses of optimal sensor layout required to estimate wavefield discriminants and the planned deployment for the upcoming experiments. This work was conducted under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, Derek; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jogee, Shardha; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.

    2010-11-15

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers {approx}50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii ({approx}1.75 Mpc or 1{sup 0}) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin{sup 2}. The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for {approx}73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10{sigma} point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 < M {sub F814W} < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008

  19. The Herschel-ATLAS Data Release 1 - II. Multi-wavelength counterparts to submillimetre sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, N.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S. J.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Hoyos, C.; Smith, D. J. B.; Eales, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrae, E.; Baldry, I. K.; Cluver, M. E.; Cooray, A.; Driver, S. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Grootes, M. W.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Liske, J.; Madore, B. F.; Popescu, C. C.; Robotham, A. G.; Rowlands, K.; Seibert, M.; Thompson, M. A.; Tuffs, R. J.; Viaene, S.; Wright, A. H.

    2016-10-01

    This paper is the second in a pair of papers presenting data release 1 (DR1) of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS), the largest single open-time key project carried out with the Herschel Space Observatory. The H-ATLAS is a wide-area imaging survey carried out in five photometric bands at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm covering a total area of 600 deg2. In this paper, we describe the identification of optical counterparts to submillimetre sources in DR1, comprising an area of 161 deg2 over three equatorial fields of roughly 12 × 4.5 deg centred at 9h, 12h and 14{^h.}5, respectively. Of all the H-ATLAS fields, the equatorial regions benefit from the greatest overlap with current multi-wavelength surveys spanning ultraviolet (UV) to mid-infrared regimes, as well as extensive spectroscopic coverage. We use a likelihood ratio technique to identify Sloan Digital Sky Survey counterparts at r < 22.4 for 250-μm-selected sources detected at ≥4σ (≈28 mJy). We find `reliable' counterparts (reliability R ≥ 0.8) for 44 835 sources (39 per cent), with an estimated completeness of 73.0 per cent and contamination rate of 4.7 per cent. Using redshifts and multi-wavelength photometry from GAMA and other public catalogues, we show that H-ATLAS-selected galaxies at z < 0.5 span a wide range of optical colours, total infrared (IR) luminosities and IR/UV ratios, with no strong disposition towards mid-IR-classified active galactic nuclei in comparison with optical selection. The data described herein, together with all maps and catalogues described in the companion paper, are available from the H-ATLAS website at www.h-atlas.org.

  20. Physical and chemical properties of Red MSX Sources in the southern sky: H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie; Li, Nan

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical properties of 18 southern Red Midcourse Space Experiment Sources (RMSs), using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy, the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz. Most of our sources have simple cometary/unresolved radio emissions at 4.8 and/or 8.6GHz. The large number of Lyman continuum fluxes (NL) indicates they are probably massive O- or early B-type star formation regions. Archival IRAS infrared data are used to estimate the dust temperature, which is about 30 K of our sources. Then, the H2 column densities and the volume-averaged H2 number densities are estimated using the 870 μm dust emissions. Large-scale infall and ionized accretions may be occurring in G345.4881+00.3148. We also attempt to characterize the chemical properties of these RMSs through molecular line (N2H+ (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0)) observations. Most of the detected N2H+ and HCO+ emissions match well with the dust emission, implying a close link to their chemical evolution in the RMSs. We found that the abundance of N2H+ is one order of magnitude lower than that in other surveys of infrared dark clouds, and a positive correlation between the abundances of N2H+ and HCO+. The fractional abundance of N2H+ with respect to H2 seems to decrease as a function of NL. These observed trends could be interpreted as an indication of enhanced destruction of N2H+, either by CO or through dissociative recombination with electrons produced by central UV photons.

  1. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays. II. Faint Sources Detected with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunez, N. E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I.; Mukai, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection from four symbiotic stars that were not known to be X-ray sources. These four object show a ß-type X-ray spectrum, that is, their spectra can be modeled with an absorbed optically thin thermal emission with temperatures of a few million degrees. Photometric series obtained with the Optical Monitor on board XMM-Newton from V2416 Sgr and NSV 25735 support the proposed scenario where the X-ray emission is produced in a shock-heated region inside the symbiotic nebulae.

  2. Long-term studies with the Ariel 5 ASM. II - The strong Cygnus sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The three bright 3-6 keV X-ray sources in Cygnus are examined for regular temporal variability with a 1300 day record from the Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitor. The only periods consistently observed are 5.6 days for Cyg X-1, 11.23 days for Cyg X-2, and 4.8 hours for Cyg X-3. The 78.4 day period of Kemp, Herman, and Barbour for Cyg X-1, the 9.843 day period of Cowley, Crampton, and Hutchings for Cyg X-2, and the 16.75 day period of Holt et al. for Cyg X-3 are not confirmed.

  3. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  4. A DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE GIANT H II REGION N11. I. X-RAY SOURCES IN THE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Nazé, Yaël; Wang, Q. Daniel; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert; Oskinova, Lida

    2014-08-01

    A very sensitive X-ray investigation of the giant H II region N11 in the Large Megallanic Cloud was performed using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The 300 ks observation reveals X-ray sources with luminosities down to 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1}, increasing the number of known point sources in the field by more than a factor of five. Among these detections are 13 massive stars (3 compact groups of massive stars, 9 O stars, and one early B star) with log (L {sub X}/L {sub BOL}) ∼–6.5 to –7, which may suggest that they are highly magnetic or colliding-wind systems. On the other hand, the stacked signal for regions corresponding to undetected O stars yields log (L {sub X}/L {sub BOL}) ∼–7.3, i.e., an emission level comparable to similar Galactic stars despite the lower metallicity. Other point sources coincide with 11 foreground stars, 6 late-B/A stars in N11, and many background objects. This observation also uncovers the extent and detailed spatial properties of the soft, diffuse emission regions, but the presence of some hotter plasma in their spectra suggests contamination by the unresolved stellar population.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CORNISH project. II. Source catalog (Purcell+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Cotton, W. D.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S.; Chandler, C.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T.; Gledhill, T. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Hindson, L.; Jackson, J. M.; Kurtz, S. E.; Marti, J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Mundy, L. G.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Pandian, J. D.; Paredes, J. M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Smethurst, S.; Spencer, R. E.; Thompson, M. A.; Umana, G.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    CORNISH covers the 110deg2 of the northern GLIMPSE (10° 2006 Sep 16 VLA antennas only, storms II 2007 Sep 28 -> 2007 Oct 6 VLA + EVLA antennas, low Decl. IIIa 2007 Oct 27 -> 2008 Feb 4 Dec. Range: -14.9° -10.5° Range: 16.1° -> 21.1° IIIb 2007 Oct 27 -> 2008 Feb 4 Dec. Range: +14.2° +29.1° Range: 48.9° -> 65.5° --------------------------------------------------------------------- (1 data file).

  6. General relativistic radiation hydrodynamics of accretion flows - II. Treating stiff source terms and exploring physical limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roedig, C.; Zanotti, O.; Alic, D.

    2012-10-01

    We present the implementation of an implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta numerical scheme for general relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics coupled to an optically thick radiation field in two existing GR-(magneto)hydrodynamics codes. We argue that the necessity of such an improvement arises naturally in most astrophysically relevant regimes where the optical thickness is high as the equations become stiff. By performing several simple 1D tests, we verify the codes' new ability to deal with this stiffness and show consistency. Then, still in one spatial dimension, we compute a luminosity versus accretion rate diagram for the set-up of spherical accretion on to a Schwarzschild black hole and find good agreement with previous work which included more radiation processes than we currently have available. Lastly, we revisit the supersonic Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) accretion in two dimensions where we can now present simulations of realistic temperatures, down to T ˜ 106 K or less. Here we find that radiation pressure plays an important role, but also that these highly dynamical set-ups push our approximate treatment towards the limit of physical applicability. The main features of radiation hydrodynamics BHL flows manifest as (i) an effective adiabatic index approaching γeff ˜ 4/3; (ii) accretion rates two orders of magnitude lower than without radiation pressure, but still super-Eddington; (iii) luminosity estimates around the Eddington limit, hence with an overall radiative efficiency as small as ηBHL˜10-2; (iv) strong departures from thermal equilibrium in shocked regions; (v) no appearance of the flip-flop instability. We conclude that the current optically thick approximation to the radiation transfer does give physically substantial improvements over the pure hydro also in set-ups departing from equilibrium, and, once accompanied by an optically thin treatment, is likely to provide a fundamental tool for investigating accretion flows in a large variety of

  7. THE NATURE OF THE UV/OPTICAL EMISSION OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE IN HOLMBERG II

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Lian; Feng Hua; Kaaret, Philip; Grise, Fabien

    2012-05-10

    We report on UV and X-ray spectroscopy and broadband optical observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source in Holmberg II. Fitting various stellar spectral models to the combined, non-simultaneous data set, we find that normal metallicity stellar spectra are ruled out by the data, while low-metallicity, Z = 0.1 Z{sub Sun }, late O-star spectra provide marginally acceptable fits, if we allow for the fact that X-ray ionization from the compact object may reduce or eliminate UV absorption/emission lines from the stellar wind. By contrast, an irradiated disk model fits both UV and optical data with {chi}{sup 2}/dof = 175.9/178, and matches the nebular extinction with a reddening of E(B - V) = 0.05{sup +0.05}{sub -0.04}. These results suggest that the UV/optical flux of Holmberg II X-1 may be dominated by X-ray irradiated disk emission.

  8. Ternary PVA nanocomposites containing cellulose nanocrystals from different sources and silver particles: part II.

    PubMed

    Fortunati, E; Luzi, F; Puglia, D; Terenzi, A; Vercellino, M; Visai, L; Santulli, C; Torre, L; Kenny, J M

    2013-09-12

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted from three different sources, namely flax, phormium, and commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) have been used in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to produce anti-bacterial films using two different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.1 wt% and 0.5 wt%). In general, CNC confer an effect of reinforcement to PVA film, the best values of stiffness being offered by composites produced using phormium fibres, whilst for strength those produced using flax are slightly superior. This was obtained without inducing any particular modification in transition temperatures and in the thermal degradation patterns. As regards antibacterial properties, systems with CNC from flax proved slightly better than those with CNC from phormium and substantially better than those including commercial MCC. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) has only been performed on the ternary composite containing 0.1 wt% Ag, which yielded higher values of Young's modulus, and as a whole confirmed the above results.

  9. 0.6 GHz mapping of extended radio galaxies. II - Edge-darkened double sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaegers, W. J.

    1987-10-01

    Radio observations made with the Westerbork telescope at 0.6 GHz are presented for 8 edge-darkened double sources: NGC 315, NGC 326, 3C 31, 3C 130, B 0915+320, HB 13, NGC 6251 and 3C 449. Previously observed Westerbork data at 1.4 GHz are convolved for comparison with the 0.6 GHz observational data. Besides maps of the total intensity and linear polarization structure, the distributions of the spectral index, the depolarization and the rotation of the polarization position angle between 0.6 GHz and 1.4 GHz have been derived. Integrated values for the total intensity and the polarization are also given.

  10. Ternary PVA nanocomposites containing cellulose nanocrystals from different sources and silver particles: part II.

    PubMed

    Fortunati, E; Luzi, F; Puglia, D; Terenzi, A; Vercellino, M; Visai, L; Santulli, C; Torre, L; Kenny, J M

    2013-09-12

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted from three different sources, namely flax, phormium, and commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) have been used in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to produce anti-bacterial films using two different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.1 wt% and 0.5 wt%). In general, CNC confer an effect of reinforcement to PVA film, the best values of stiffness being offered by composites produced using phormium fibres, whilst for strength those produced using flax are slightly superior. This was obtained without inducing any particular modification in transition temperatures and in the thermal degradation patterns. As regards antibacterial properties, systems with CNC from flax proved slightly better than those with CNC from phormium and substantially better than those including commercial MCC. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) has only been performed on the ternary composite containing 0.1 wt% Ag, which yielded higher values of Young's modulus, and as a whole confirmed the above results. PMID:23911522

  11. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA- booster subcritical assembly Part II : pulsed neutron source.

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Rabiti, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-22

    One of the most reliable experimental methods for measuring the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly is the Sjoestrand method applied to the reaction rate generated from a pulsed neutron source. This study developed a new analytical methodology for characterizing the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly using the Sjoestrand method, which allows comparing the analytical and experimental time dependent reaction rates and the reactivity measurements. In this methodology, the reaction rate, detector response, is calculated due to a single neutron pulse using MCNP/MCNPX computer code or any other neutron transport code that explicitly simulates the fission delayed neutrons. The calculation simulates a single neutron pulse over a long time period until the delayed neutron contribution to the reaction is vanished. The obtained reaction rate is superimposed to itself, with respect to the time, to simulate the repeated pulse operation until the asymptotic level of the reaction rate, set by the delayed neutrons, is achieved. The superimposition of the pulse to itself was calculated by a simple C computer program. A parallel version of the C program is used due to the large amount of data being processed, e.g. by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The new calculation methodology has shown an excellent agreement with the experimental results available from the YALINA-Booster facility of Belarus. The facility has been driven by a Deuterium-Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium pulsed neutron source and the (n,p) reaction rate has been experimentally measured by a {sup 3}He detector. The MCNP calculation has utilized the weight window and delayed neutron biasing variance reduction techniques since the detector volume is small compared to the assembly volume. Finally, this methodology was used to calculate the IAEA benchmark of the YALINA-Booster experiment.

  12. Phosphatidylcholine is a major source of phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol in angiotensin II-stimulated vascular smooth-muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lassègue, B; Alexander, R W; Clark, M; Akers, M; Griendling, K K

    1993-06-01

    In cultured vascular smooth-muscle cells, angiotensin II produces a sustained formation of diacylglycerol (DG) and phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). Since the fatty acid composition of these molecules is likely to determine their efficacy as second messengers, it is important to ascertain the phospholipid precursors and the biochemical pathways from which they are produced. Our experiments suggest that phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) hydrolysis is the major source of both DG and PtdOH during the late signalling phase. First, in cells labelled with [3H]myristate, which preferentially labels PtdCho, formation of [3H]PtdOH precedes formation of [3H]DG. Second, in contrast with phospholipase C (PLC) activation, DG mass accumulation is dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Similarly, DG mass accumulation is not attenuated by protein kinase C activation, which we have previously shown to inhibit the phosphoinositide-specific PLC. Third, the fatty acid composition of late-phase DG and PtdOH more closely resembles that of PtdCho than that of phosphatidylinositol. Finally, in cells labelled for a short time with [3H]glycerol, the radioactivity incorporated into [3H]DG and PtdOH was greater than that incorporated into PtdIns, but not into PtdCho. We found no evidence that synthesis de novo or phosphatidylethanolamine breakdown contributes to sustained DG and PtdOH formation. Thus, in angiotensin II-stimulated cultured vascular smooth-muscle cells, PLD-mediated PtdCho hydrolysis is the major source of sustained DG and PtdOH, whereas phosphoinositide breakdown is a minor contributor. Furthermore, PtdOH phosphohydrolase, which determines the relative levels of DG and PtdOH, appears to be regulated by protein kinase C. These results have important implications for the role of these second messengers in growth and contraction.

  13. AWIPS II+: An Open-Source SOA Solution Enabling Environmental Remote Sensing Integration, Analysis, and Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardanuy, P. E.; Hood, C. A.; Moran, S. G.; Ritchie, A. A.; Tarro, A. M.; Nappi, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Our shared future demands a renewed focus on sound environment stewardship-on the GEOSS socioeconomic imperatives, as well as the interdisciplinary relationships interconnecting our environment, climate, ecosystems, energy, carbon, water-and national security. Data volumes are now measured in the many petabytes. An increasingly urgent and accelerated tempo of changing requirements and responsive solutions demands data exploitation, and transparent, seamless, effortless, bidirectional, and interdisciplinary interoperability across models and observations. There is today a robust working paradigm established with the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)-NOAA/NWS's information integration and fusion capability. This process model extends vertically, and seamlessly, from environmental sensing through the direct delivery of societal benefit. NWS, via AWIPS, is the primary source of weather forecast and warning information in the nation. AWIPS is the tested and proven "the nerve center of operations" at all 122 NWS Weather Forecast Offices and 13 River Forecast Centers. Raytheon, in partnership with NOAA, has now evolved AWIPS into an open-source 2nd generation capability to satisfy climate, ecosystems, weather, and water mission goals. Just as AWIPS II supports NOAA decision- making, it is at the same time a platform funded by Raytheon IRAD and Government investment that can be cost-effectively leveraged across all of the GEOSS and IEOS societal benefit areas. The core principles in the AWIPS II evolution to a service-oriented architecture (SOA) were to minimize coupling, increase cohesion, minimize size of code base, maximize simplicity, and incorporate a pull-style data flow. We focused on "ilities" to drive the new AWIPS architecture-our shared architecture framework vision included six elements: - Create a new, low-cost framework for hosting a full range of environmental services, including thick-client visualization via virtual Earth's and GIS

  14. Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part II Validation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Garg, Rahul; Galvin, Janine; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2012-01-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  15. Open-Source MFIX-DEM Software for Gas-Solids Flows: Part II - Validation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen

    2012-04-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas–solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE MORPHOLOGIES OF z {approx} 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES. II. BUMP SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Bussmann, R. S.; Dey, Arjun; Lotz, J.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Armus, L.; Desai, V.; Soifer, B. T.; Brown, M. J. I.; Eisenhardt, P.; Higdon, J.; Higdon, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Melbourne, J.; Weedman, D.

    2011-05-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 22 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z {approx} 2 with extremely red R - [24] colors (called dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) which have a local maximum in their spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest-frame 1.6 {mu}m associated with stellar emission. These sources, which we call 'bump DOGs', have star formation rates (SFRs) of 400-4000 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and have redshifts derived from mid-IR spectra which show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission-a sign of vigorous ongoing star formation. Using a uniform morphological analysis, we look for quantifiable differences between bump DOGs, power-law DOGs (Spitzer-selected ULIRGs with mid-IR SEDs dominated by a power law and spectral features that are more typical of obscured active galactic nuclei than starbursts), submillimeter-selected galaxies, and other less-reddened ULIRGs from the Spitzer Extragalactic First Look Survey. Bump DOGs are larger than power-law DOGs (median Petrosian radius of 8.4 {+-} 2.7 kpc versus 5.5 {+-} 2.3 kpc) and exhibit more diffuse and irregular morphologies (median M{sub 20} of -1.08 {+-} 0.05 versus -1.48 {+-} 0.05). These trends are qualitatively consistent with expectations from simulations of major mergers in which merging systems during the peak SFR period evolve from M{sub 20} = -1.0 to M{sub 20} = -1.7. Less-obscured ULIRGs (i.e., non-DOGs) tend to have more regular, centrally peaked, single-object morphologies rather than diffuse and irregular morphologies. This distinction in morphologies may imply that less-obscured ULIRGs sample the merger near the end of the peak SFR period. Alternatively, it may indicate that the intense star formation in these less-obscured ULIRGs is not the result of a recent major merger.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Morphologies of z ~ 2 Dust-obscured Galaxies. II. Bump Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Dey, Arjun; Lotz, J.; Armus, L.; Brown, M. J. I.; Desai, V.; Eisenhardt, P.; Higdon, J.; Higdon, S.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Le Floc'h, E.; Melbourne, J.; Soifer, B. T.; Weedman, D.

    2011-05-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 22 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z ≈ 2 with extremely red R - [24] colors (called dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) which have a local maximum in their spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest-frame 1.6 μm associated with stellar emission. These sources, which we call "bump DOGs," have star formation rates (SFRs) of 400-4000 M sun yr-1 and have redshifts derived from mid-IR spectra which show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission—a sign of vigorous ongoing star formation. Using a uniform morphological analysis, we look for quantifiable differences between bump DOGs, power-law DOGs (Spitzer-selected ULIRGs with mid-IR SEDs dominated by a power law and spectral features that are more typical of obscured active galactic nuclei than starbursts), submillimeter-selected galaxies, and other less-reddened ULIRGs from the Spitzer Extragalactic First Look Survey. Bump DOGs are larger than power-law DOGs (median Petrosian radius of 8.4 ± 2.7 kpc versus 5.5 ± 2.3 kpc) and exhibit more diffuse and irregular morphologies (median M 20 of -1.08 ± 0.05 versus -1.48 ± 0.05). These trends are qualitatively consistent with expectations from simulations of major mergers in which merging systems during the peak SFR period evolve from M 20 = -1.0 to M 20 = -1.7. Less-obscured ULIRGs (i.e., non-DOGs) tend to have more regular, centrally peaked, single-object morphologies rather than diffuse and irregular morphologies. This distinction in morphologies may imply that less-obscured ULIRGs sample the merger near the end of the peak SFR period. Alternatively, it may indicate that the intense star formation in these less-obscured ULIRGs is not the result of a recent major merger.

  18. Investigations in Time and of Space Using the FIRST Survey: Radio Source Variability and the Evolution of FR II Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan

    than with Friedmann models. These earlier results can be attributed to a combination of selection effects, sample definition problems, and inconsistencies in analysis. However, some recent and more successful analyses have still failed to distinguish among different Friedmann models. A catalog of ∼ 680 FR II quasars was constructed from the FIRST sources with redshifts taken from the SDSS spectroscopic QSO catalog and a similar sized sample from the SDSS photometric QSO catalog which are the largest quasar compilations to date. Using statistical analyses, no evidence for intrinsic evolution of sizes with redshift is found. A static Euclidean model for the universe is clearly ruled out. However, new degeneracies between parameters in the multi-dimensional χ2-surface are found which can only be resolved with additional, independent information. Notable differences are found between the spectroscopic and photometric samples raising questions about the nature and origin of these populations.

  19. [Effect of Zn(II) on microbial activity in anaerobic acid mine drainage treatment system with biomass as carbon source].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Jie; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhou, Yue-Fei; Yue, Zheng-Bo; Jin, Jiez; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, with rape straw as carbon source, anaerobic batch experiments were executed to investigate the effect of Zn (II) on the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the microbial treatment of simulative acid mine drainage (AMD). The results showed that during the 60 experimental days, when initial Zn2+ concentrations were in the range of 73.7 to 196.8 mg x L(-1), SRB had high culturalbility. At the end of these experiments, pH values rose from initial 5.0 to neutral, about 96% of sulphate was reduced and the concentrations of Zn2+ reduced to 0.05 mg x L(-1). The results of Tessier sequential extraction, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) showed that Zn was found to be fixed through forming organic and sulphide (mainly sphalerite) compounds. For the experiment with high Zn2+ concentration (262.97 mg x L(-1)), at the end of experiments, pH values dropped from initial 5.0 to 4.0, only 27% of sulphate was only reduced and the concentrations of Zn2+ kept in high range (25 mg x L(-1)), the activity of SRB significantly inhibited. This study indicated that: (1) Rape straw can be used as slow-release carbon source for long-term anaerobic AMD treatment; (2) Rape straw can decrease the toxicity of Zn2+ to SRB through adsorption; (3) In anaerobic AMD treatment system, Zn can be fixed by sulphide minerals with mediation of SRB.

  20. [Effect of Zn(II) on microbial activity in anaerobic acid mine drainage treatment system with biomass as carbon source].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Jie; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhou, Yue-Fei; Yue, Zheng-Bo; Jin, Jiez; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, with rape straw as carbon source, anaerobic batch experiments were executed to investigate the effect of Zn (II) on the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the microbial treatment of simulative acid mine drainage (AMD). The results showed that during the 60 experimental days, when initial Zn2+ concentrations were in the range of 73.7 to 196.8 mg x L(-1), SRB had high culturalbility. At the end of these experiments, pH values rose from initial 5.0 to neutral, about 96% of sulphate was reduced and the concentrations of Zn2+ reduced to 0.05 mg x L(-1). The results of Tessier sequential extraction, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) showed that Zn was found to be fixed through forming organic and sulphide (mainly sphalerite) compounds. For the experiment with high Zn2+ concentration (262.97 mg x L(-1)), at the end of experiments, pH values dropped from initial 5.0 to 4.0, only 27% of sulphate was only reduced and the concentrations of Zn2+ kept in high range (25 mg x L(-1)), the activity of SRB significantly inhibited. This study indicated that: (1) Rape straw can be used as slow-release carbon source for long-term anaerobic AMD treatment; (2) Rape straw can decrease the toxicity of Zn2+ to SRB through adsorption; (3) In anaerobic AMD treatment system, Zn can be fixed by sulphide minerals with mediation of SRB. PMID:22452225

  1. Mitochondrial complex II is a source of the reserve respiratory capacity that is regulated by metabolic sensors and promotes cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Pfleger, J; He, M; Abdellatif, M

    2015-01-01

    The survival of a cell depends on its ability to meet its energy requirements. We hypothesized that the mitochondrial reserve respiratory capacity (RRC) of a cell is a critical component of its bioenergetics that can be utilized during an increase in energy demand, thereby, enhancing viability. Our goal was to identify the elements that regulate and contribute to the development of RRC and its involvement in cell survival. The results show that activation of metabolic sensors, including pyruvate dehydrogenase and AMP-dependent kinase, increases cardiac myocyte RRC via a Sirt3-dependent mechanism. Notably, we identified mitochondrial complex II (cII) as a target of these metabolic sensors and the main source of RRC. Moreover, we show that RRC, via cII, correlates with enhanced cell survival after hypoxia. Thus, for the first time, we show that metabolic sensors via Sirt3 maximize the cellular RRC through activating cII, which enhances cell survival after hypoxia. PMID:26225774

  2. N2O production in the Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO reduction process: the effects of carbon source and pH.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Ji; Chen, Jianmeng

    2015-07-01

    Chemical absorption-biological reduction (BioDeNOx), which uses Fe(II)(EDTA) as a complexing agent for promoting the mass transfer efficiency of NO from gas to water, is a promising technology for removing nitric oxide (NO) from flue gases. The carbon source and pH are important parameters for Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO (the production of absorption) reduction and N2O emissions from BioDeNOx systems. Batch tests were performed to evaluate the effects of four different carbon sources (i.e., methanol, ethanol, sodium acetate, and glucose) on Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO reduction and N2O emissions at an initial pH of 7.2 ± 0.2. The removal efficiency of Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO was 93.9%, with a theoretical rate of 0.77 mmol L(-1) h(-1) after 24 h of operation. The highest N2O production was 0.025 mmol L(-1) after 3 h when glucose was used as the carbon source. The capacities of the carbon sources to enhance the activity of the Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO reductase enzyme decreased in the following order based on the C/N ratio: glucose > ethanol > sodium acetate > methanol. Over the investigated pH range of 5.5-8.5, the Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO removal efficiency was highest at a pH of 7.5, with a theoretical rate of 0.88 mmol L(-1) h(-1). However, the N2O production was lowest at a pH of 8.5. The primary effect of pH on denitrification resulted from the inhibition of nosZ in acidic conditions.

  3. FLICKERING OF 1.3 cm SOURCES IN SGR B2: TOWARD A SOLUTION TO THE ULTRACOMPACT H II REGION LIFETIME PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    De Pree, C. G.; Monsrud, A.; Peters, T.; Mac Low, M.-M.; Wilner, D. J.; Keto, E. R.; Goss, W. M.; Galván-Madrid, R.; Klessen, R. S.

    2014-02-01

    Accretion flows onto massive stars must transfer mass so quickly that they are themselves gravitationally unstable, forming dense clumps and filaments. These density perturbations interact with young massive stars, emitting ionizing radiation, alternately exposing and confining their H II regions. As a result, the H II regions are predicted to flicker in flux density over periods of decades to centuries rather than increase monotonically in size as predicted by simple Spitzer solutions. We have recently observed the Sgr B2 region at 1.3 cm with the Very Large Array in its three hybrid configurations (DnC, CnB, and BnA) at a resolution of ∼0.''25. These observations were made to compare in detail with matched continuum observations from 1989. At 0.''25 resolution, Sgr B2 contains 41 ultracompact (UC) H II regions, 6 of which are hypercompact. The new observations of Sgr B2 allow comparison of relative peak flux densities for the H II regions in Sgr B2 over a 23 year time baseline (1989-2012) in one of the most source-rich massive star forming regions in the Milky Way. The new 1.3 cm continuum images indicate that four of the 41 UC H II regions exhibit significant changes in their peak flux density, with one source (K3) dropping in peak flux density, and the other three sources (F10.303, F1, and F3) increasing in peak flux density. The results are consistent with statistical predictions from simulations of high mass star formation, suggesting that they offer a solution to the lifetime problem for UC H II regions.

  4. Listen and Learn: Varying Sound Sources' Effect on Ear-Training CAI, Using the Apple II Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killam, Rosemary N.; Scott, Daniel W.

    In 1981, North Texas State University (NTSU) conducted an experiment in sound sources which was made possible by a grant from the Apple Education Foundation. The culminating research of the grant was the testing of the AFL sound source and Micromusic sound sources, as well as the NTSU sound source, AMUS. Students participated in the experiment to…

  5. Binding of mercury(II) to aquatic humic substances: Influence of pH and source of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haitzer, M.; Aiken, G.R.; Ryan, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    Conditional distribution coefficients (KDOM???) for Hg(II) binding to seven dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolates were measured at environmentally relevant ratios of Hg(II) to DOM. The results show that KDOM??? values for different types of samples (humic acids, fulvic acids, hydrophobic acids) isolated from diverse aquatic environments were all within 1 order of magnitude (1022.5??1.0-1023.5??1.0 L kg-1), suggesting similar Hg(II) binding environments, presumably involving thiol groups, for the different isolates. KDOM??? values decreased at low pHs (4) compared to values at pH 7, indicating proton competition for the strong Hg(II) binding sites. Chemical modeling of Hg(II)-DOM binding at different pH values was consistent with bidentate binding of Hg(II) by one thiol group (pKa = 10.3) and one other group (pKa = 6.3) in the DOM, which is in agreement with recent results on the structure of Hg(II)-DOM bonds obtained by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS).

  6. TESTING GRAVITATIONAL LENSING AS THE SOURCE OF ENHANCED STRONG Mg II ABSORPTION TOWARD GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, Sharon; Onken, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Tucker, Brad E.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Levan, Andrew J.

    2012-08-01

    Sixty percent of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) reveal strong Mg II absorbing systems, which is a factor of {approx}2 times the rate seen along lines of sight to quasars. Previous studies argue that the discrepancy in the strong Mg II covering factor is most likely to be the result of either quasars being obscured due to dust or the consequence of many GRBs being strongly gravitationally lensed. We analyze observations of quasars that show strong foreground Mg II absorption. We find that GRB lines of sight pass closer to bright galaxies than would be expected for random lines of sight within the impact parameter expected for strong Mg II absorption. While this cannot be explained by obscuration in the GRB sample, it is a natural consequence of gravitational lensing. Upon examining the particular configurations of galaxies near a sample of GRBs with strong Mg II absorption, we find several intriguing lensing candidates. Our results suggest that lensing provides a viable contribution to the observed enhancement of strong Mg II absorption along lines of sight to GRBs, and we outline the future observations required to test this hypothesis conclusively.

  7. Thin films of tin(II) sulphide (SnS) by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) using tin(II) dithiocarbamates as single-source precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevin, Punarja; Lewis, David J.; Raftery, James; Azad Malik, M.; O'Brien, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of the asymmetric dithiocarbamates of tin(II) with the formula [Sn(S2CNRR')2] (where R=Et, R'=n-Bu (1); R=Me, R'=n-Bu (2); R=R'=Et (3)) and their use for the deposition of SnS thin films by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) is described. The effects of temperature and the concentration of the precursors on deposition were investigated. The stoichiometry of SnS was best at higher concentrations of precursors (250 mM) and at 450 °C. The direct electronic band gap of the SnS produced by this method was estimated from optical absorbance measurements as 1.2 eV. The composition of films was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) spectroscopy.

  8. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Gotthelf, Eric; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman; Bauer, Franz; Perez, Kerstin; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; Stern, Daniel; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Alexander, David M.; Aramaki, Tsuguo; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barret, Didier; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Canipe, Alicia M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Desai, Meera A.; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Dooran; Hornstrup, Allan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E.; Madsen, Kristen K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Westergaard, Niels J.; Zhang, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    We present the first survey results of hard X-ray point sources in the Galactic Center (GC) region by NuSTAR. We have discovered 70 hard (3–79 keV) X-ray point sources in a 0.6 deg{}2 region around Sgr A* with a total exposure of 1.7 Ms, and 7 sources in the Sgr B2 field with 300 ks. We identify clear Chandra counterparts for 58 NuSTAR sources and assign candidate counterparts for the remaining 19. The NuSTAR survey reaches X-ray luminosities of ˜4× and ˜8 × 10{}32 erg s{}-1 at the GC (8 kpc) in the 3–10 and 10–40 keV bands, respectively. The source list includes three persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra indicates that all the NuSTAR sources are in the central bulge or are of extragalactic origin. Spectral analysis of relatively bright NuSTAR sources suggests that magnetic cataclysmic variables constitute a large fraction (>40%–60%). Both spectral analysis and logN–logS distributions of the NuSTAR sources indicate that the X-ray spectra of the NuSTAR sources should have kT > 20 keV on average for a single temperature thermal plasma model or an average photon index of Γ = 1.5–2 for a power-law model. These findings suggest that the GC X-ray source population may contain a larger fraction of XBs with high plasma temperatures than the field population.

  9. Elevated Fe(II) and dissolved Fe in hypoxic shelf waters off Oregon and Washington: an enhanced source of iron to coastal upwelling regimes.

    PubMed

    Lohan, Maeve C; Bruland, Kenneth W

    2008-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in the cause and impact of hypoxic regions known as "dead zones" that have increasingly appeared along the west coast of the United States and have caused widespread destruction to the crab and fishing industry in this upwelling region. Here, we present results that demonstrate that the hypoxic conditions in the water column over the continental shelf result in a marked increase in iron(II) concentrations, which contribute to elevated dissolved and labile particulate iron concentrations. These elevated dissolved iron(II) concentrations result from two factors: (1) the hypoxic water column allows extremely elevated iron(II) concentrations in reducing porewaters to exist close to the sediment water interface, leading to an increased flux of iron(II) from the sediments; (2) the low oxygen, low pH, and low temperatures within the bottom boundary layer act in concert to markedly slow down the oxidation rate of Fe(ll). During upwelling conditions, this process can result in a greatly enhanced source of Fe available to upwell to surface waters, potentially increasing phytoplankton productivity, which can, in turn, lead to enhanced export flux, driving the system further into hypoxic or suboxic conditions. PMID:18800515

  10. RADIO SIGNATURES OF CORONAL-MASS-EJECTION-STREAMER INTERACTION AND SOURCE DIAGNOSTICS OF TYPE II RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Song, H. Q.; Feng, X. S.; Liu Ying

    2012-07-01

    It has been suggested that type II radio bursts are due to energetic electrons accelerated at coronal shocks. Radio observations, however, have poor or no spatial resolutions to pinpoint the exact acceleration locations of these electrons. In this paper, we discuss a promising approach to infer the electron acceleration location by combining radio and white light observations. The key assumption is to relate specific morphological features (e.g., spectral bumps) of the dynamic spectra of type II radio bursts to imaging features (e.g., coronal mass ejection (CME) going into a streamer) along the CME (and its driven shock) propagation. In this study, we examine the CME-streamer interaction for the solar eruption dated on 2003 November 1. The presence of spectral bump in the relevant type II radio burst is identified, which is interpreted as a natural result of the shock-radio-emitting region entering the dense streamer structure. The study is useful for further determinations of the location of type II radio burst and the associated electron acceleration by CME-driven shock.

  11. A search for precursors of ultracompact H II regions in a sample of luminous IRAS sources. III. Circumstellar dust properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molinari, S.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Palla, F.

    2000-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope has been used to obtain submillimeter and millimeter continuum photometry of a sample of 30 IRAS sources previously studied in molecular lines and centimeter radio continuum. All the sources have IRAS colours typical of very young stellar objects (YSOs) and are associated with dense gas.

  12. From chemolithoautotrophs to electrolithoautotrophs: CO2 fixation by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria coupled with direct uptake of electrons from solid electron sources

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Takumi; Kawaichi, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2015-01-01

    At deep-sea vent systems, hydrothermal emissions rich in reductive chemicals replace solar energy as fuels to support microbial carbon assimilation. Until recently, all the microbial components at vent systems have been assumed to be fostered by the primary production of chemolithoautotrophs; however, both the laboratory and on-site studies demonstrated electrical current generation at vent systems and have suggested that a portion of microbial carbon assimilation is stimulated by the direct uptake of electrons from electrically conductive minerals. Here we show that chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, switches the electron source for carbon assimilation from diffusible Fe2+ ions to an electrode under the condition that electrical current is the only source of energy and electrons. Site-specific marking of a cytochrome aa3 complex (aa3 complex) and a cytochrome bc1 complex (bc1 complex) in viable cells demonstrated that the electrons taken directly from an electrode are used for O2 reduction via a down-hill pathway, which generates proton motive force that is used for pushing the electrons to NAD+ through a bc1 complex. Activation of carbon dioxide fixation by a direct electron uptake was also confirmed by the clear potential dependency of cell growth. These results reveal a previously unknown bioenergetic versatility of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria to use solid electron sources and will help with understanding carbon assimilation of microbial components living in electronically conductive chimney habitats. PMID:26500609

  13. From chemolithoautotrophs to electrolithoautotrophs: CO2 fixation by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria coupled with direct uptake of electrons from solid electron sources.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takumi; Kawaichi, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2015-01-01

    At deep-sea vent systems, hydrothermal emissions rich in reductive chemicals replace solar energy as fuels to support microbial carbon assimilation. Until recently, all the microbial components at vent systems have been assumed to be fostered by the primary production of chemolithoautotrophs; however, both the laboratory and on-site studies demonstrated electrical current generation at vent systems and have suggested that a portion of microbial carbon assimilation is stimulated by the direct uptake of electrons from electrically conductive minerals. Here we show that chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, switches the electron source for carbon assimilation from diffusible Fe(2+) ions to an electrode under the condition that electrical current is the only source of energy and electrons. Site-specific marking of a cytochrome aa3 complex (aa3 complex) and a cytochrome bc1 complex (bc1 complex) in viable cells demonstrated that the electrons taken directly from an electrode are used for O2 reduction via a down-hill pathway, which generates proton motive force that is used for pushing the electrons to NAD(+) through a bc1 complex. Activation of carbon dioxide fixation by a direct electron uptake was also confirmed by the clear potential dependency of cell growth. These results reveal a previously unknown bioenergetic versatility of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria to use solid electron sources and will help with understanding carbon assimilation of microbial components living in electronically conductive chimney habitats. PMID:26500609

  14. From chemolithoautotrophs to electrolithoautotrophs: CO2 fixation by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria coupled with direct uptake of electrons from solid electron sources.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takumi; Kawaichi, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2015-01-01

    At deep-sea vent systems, hydrothermal emissions rich in reductive chemicals replace solar energy as fuels to support microbial carbon assimilation. Until recently, all the microbial components at vent systems have been assumed to be fostered by the primary production of chemolithoautotrophs; however, both the laboratory and on-site studies demonstrated electrical current generation at vent systems and have suggested that a portion of microbial carbon assimilation is stimulated by the direct uptake of electrons from electrically conductive minerals. Here we show that chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, switches the electron source for carbon assimilation from diffusible Fe(2+) ions to an electrode under the condition that electrical current is the only source of energy and electrons. Site-specific marking of a cytochrome aa3 complex (aa3 complex) and a cytochrome bc1 complex (bc1 complex) in viable cells demonstrated that the electrons taken directly from an electrode are used for O2 reduction via a down-hill pathway, which generates proton motive force that is used for pushing the electrons to NAD(+) through a bc1 complex. Activation of carbon dioxide fixation by a direct electron uptake was also confirmed by the clear potential dependency of cell growth. These results reveal a previously unknown bioenergetic versatility of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria to use solid electron sources and will help with understanding carbon assimilation of microbial components living in electronically conductive chimney habitats.

  15. Chandra ACIS Survey of X-Ray Point Sources in Nearby Galaxies. II. X-Ray Luminosity Functions and Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Song; Qiu, Yanli; Liu, Jifeng; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the recently completed Chandra/ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library of 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular (α ˜ 1.50 ± 0.07) to elliptical (˜1.21 ± 0.02), to spirals (˜0.80 ± 0.02), to peculiars (˜0.55 ± 0.30), and to irregulars (˜0.26 ± 0.10). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosities for different types of galaxies. A radial dependency is found for ellipticals, with a flatter XLF slope for sources located between D 25 and 2D 25, suggesting the XLF slopes in the outer region of early-type galaxies are dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters. This study shows that the ULX rate in early-type galaxies is 0.24 ± 0.05 ULXs per surveyed galaxy, on a 5σ confidence level. The XLF for ULXs in late-type galaxies extends smoothly until it drops abruptly around 4 × 1040 erg s-1, and this break may suggest a mild boundary between the stellar black hole population possibly including 30 M ⊙ black holes with super-Eddington radiation and intermediate mass black holes.

  16. Positions of galactic X-ray sources with l/II/ between -20 deg and +6 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernigan, J. G.; Bradt, H. V.; Doxsey, R. E.; Dower, R. G.; Mcclintock, J. E.; Apparao, K. M. V.

    1978-01-01

    The precise positions of nine X-ray sources in the vicinity of the galactic center are reported. The data were obtained as part of the comprehensive survey of the galactic plane performed with the rotating modulation collimator detectors on the SAS-3 X-ray observatory. The sources include the binary X-ray source 4U 1700-37 which has a well established optical counterpart that lies 7 sec from the reported position. The other sources GX 349+2, 4U 1702-42, 4U 1705-44, MX 1716-31, A 1742-294, 4U 1755-33, GX 5-1, and 2S 1803-245 lack established counterparts in other wavelengths. The obtained position for GX 5-1 adds confidence to the radio counterpart proposed by Braes et al. (1972). The reported position for 4U 1755-33 excludes the optical counterpart proposed by Jones et al. (1974).

  17. Searching for heavily obscured post-AGB stars and planetary nebulae. II. Near-IR observations of IRAS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Suárez, O.; Miranda, L. F.; Gómez, J. F.

    2012-09-01

    The most massive AGB stars are expected to result in heavily obscured post-AGB stars, proto-PNe and PNe with highly axisymmetric morphologies. To investigate this evolutionary connection, we have selected a sample of 165 presumably obscured IRAS post-AGB star and PN candidates and obtained near-IR JHK images for 164 of them. These images, in conjunction with DSS, 2MASS, Spitzer GLIMPSE, MSX, AKARI, and IRAS archival data, have allowed us to identify the near-IR counterparts of 154 of these sources, providing reliable finding charts and coordinates. Near-IR narrow-band Brγ, H2, and K continuum images were acquired for 6 of these sources that were found to be resolved in near-IR JHK images. Among the extended post-AGB source and PN candidates, three are round and seven have bipolar morphologies. Five of the extended sources are ionized and may have thus entered the PN stage. We note that all extended sources with water maser emission have bipolar morphology. We have investigated the Galactic distribution of sources with the largest flux drop from the 9 μm AKARI band to the near-IR J band and found that the width of the distribution in Galactic latitude is consistent with those of bipolar PNe and DUPLEX (DUst-Prominent Longitudinally EXtended) sources. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (081.D-0812), observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and on observations with AKARI, a JAXA project with the participation of ESA.

  18. The biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB₃O₆ as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion.

    PubMed

    Halevy, A; Megidish, E; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S; Becker, P; Bohatý, L

    2011-10-10

    We describe the full characterization of the biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB₃O₆ (BiBO) as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion. We consider the relevant parameters for crystal design, such as cutting angles, polarization of the photons, effective nonlinearity, spatial and temporal walk-offs, crystal thickness and the effect of the pump laser bandwidth. Experimental results showing entanglement generation with high rates and a comparison to the well investigated β-BaB₂O₄ (BBO) crystal are presented as well. Changing the down-conversion crystal of a polarization entangled photon source from BBO to BiBO enhances the generation rate as if the pump power was increased by 2.5 times. Such an improvement is currently required for the generation of multiphoton entangled states.

  19. Arginases I and II in lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized mice exposed to ovalbumin: Sources and consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Last, Jerold A.

    2008-08-01

    Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated

  20. Optical properties and band bending of InGaAs/GaAsBi/InGaAs type-II quantum well grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wenwu; Zhang, Liyao; Zhu, Liang; Li, Yaoyao; Chen, Xiren; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fan; Shao, Jun; Wang, Shumin

    2016-09-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs0.96Bi0.04/In0.2Ga0.8As quantum well (QW) grown on GaAs substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy were studied by varying excitation power and temperature, respectively. The type-II transition energy shifts from 1.149 eV to 1.192 eV when increasing the excitation power from 10 mW to 150 mW at 4.5 K, which was ascribed to the band-bending effect. On the other hand, the type-II PL quenches quickly along with fast redshift with the increasing temperature due to the relaxation of the band bending caused by the thermal excitation process. An 8 band k.p model was used to analyze the electronic properties and the band-bending effect in the type-II QW. The calculated subband levels and transition energy fit well with the experiment results, and two thermal activation energies of 8.7 meV and 50 meV, respectively, are deduced.

  1. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer: Evidence of High Unbeamed Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line detected from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. This line is a well established signature of high excitation, usually associated with AGN. Its detection suggests that the ULX has a strong impact on the surrounding gas. A Spitzer high resolution spectral map shows that the [O IV] is coincident with the X-ray position of the Holmberg II ULX. We find that the luminosity and the morphology of the line emission is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is radiation bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the west, and probably matter bounded to the east. Evidence for a massive black hole (BH) in this ULX is mounting. Detailed photoionization models favor an intermediate mass black hole of at least 85 Solar Mass as the ionization source for the [OIV] emission. We find that the spectral type of the companion star strongly affects the expected strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] in some starburst galaxies containing black hole binaries.

  2. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Taylor, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park receives inflows from several geothermal areas, and consequently the concentrations of many trace elements are elevated compared to rivers in non-geothermal watersheds. Water samples and discharge measurements were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006 allowing for the identification of solute sources and their downstream fate. Norris Geyser Basin, and in particular Tantalus Creek, is the largest source of many trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cs, Hg, Li, Sb, Tl, W, and REEs) to the Gibbon River. The Chocolate Pots area is a major source of Fe and Mn, and the lower Gibbon River near Terrace Spring is the major source of Be and Mo. Some of the elevated trace elements are aquatic health concerns (As, Sb, and Hg) and knowing their fate is important. Most solutes in the Gibbon River, including As and Sb, behave conservatively or are minimally attenuated over 29 km of fluvial transport. Some small attenuation of Al, Fe, Hg, and REEs occurs but primarily there is a transformation from the dissolved state to suspended particles, with most of these elements still being transported to the Madison River. Dissolved Hg and REEs loads decrease where the particulate Fe increases, suggesting sorption onto suspended particulate material. Attenuation from the water column is substantial for Mn, with little formation of Mn as suspended particulates.

  3. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  4. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Taylor, Howard E.

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park receives inflows from several geothermal areas, and consequently the concentrations of many trace elements are elevated compared to rivers in non-geothermal watersheds. Water samples and discharge measurements were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006 allowing for the identification of solute sources and their downstream fate. Norris Geyser Basin, and in particular Tantalus Creek, is the largest source of many trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cs, Hg, Li, Sb, Tl, W, and REEs) to the Gibbon River. The Chocolate Pots area is a major source of Fe and Mn, and the lower Gibbon River near Terrace Spring is the major source of Be and Mo. Some of the elevated trace elements are aquatic health concerns (As, Sb, and Hg) and knowing their fate is important. Most solutes in the Gibbon River, including As and Sb, behave conservatively or are minimally attenuated over 29 km of fluvial transport. Some small attenuation of Al, Fe, Hg, and REEs occurs but primarily there is a transformation from the dissolved state to suspended particles, with most of these elements still being transported to the Madison River. Dissolved Hg and REEs loads decrease where the particulate Fe increases, suggesting sorption onto suspended particulate material. Attenuation from the water column is substantial for Mn, with little formation of Mn as suspended particulates.

  5. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ChemInformatics Libraries (FutureToxII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from ove...

  6. Studies and optimization of Pohang Light Source-II superconducting radio frequency system at stable top-up operation with beam current of 400 mA

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Youngdo Yu, Inha; Park, Insoo; Chun, Myunghwan; Lee, Byung-Joon; Hwang, Ilmoon; Ha, Taekyun; Shin, Seunghwan; Sohn, Younguk

    2014-12-21

    After three years of upgrading work, the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) is now successfully operating. The final quantitative goal of PLS-II is a top-up user-service operation with beam current of 400 mA to be completed by the end of 2014. During the beam store test up to 400 mA in the storage ring (SR), it was observed that the vacuum pressure around the radio frequency (RF) window of the superconducting cavity rapidly increases over the interlock level limiting the availability of the maximum beam current storing. Although available beam current is enhanced by setting a higher RF accelerating voltage, it is better to keep the RF accelerating voltage as low as possible in the long time top-up operation. We investigated the cause of the window vacuum pressure increment by studying the changes in the electric field distribution at the superconducting cavity and waveguide according to the beam current. In our simulation, an equivalent physical modeling was developed using a finite-difference time-domain code. The simulation revealed that the electric field amplitude at the RF window is exponentially increased as the beam current increases, thus this high electric field amplitude causes a RF breakdown at the RF window, which comes with the rapid increase of window vacuum pressure. The RF accelerating voltage of PLS-II RF system was set to 4.95 MV, which was estimated using the maximum available beam current that works as a function of RF voltage, and the top-up operation test with the beam current of 400 mA was successfully carried out.

  7. The Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation of NGC 3115. II. Properties of Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Jennings, Zachary G.; Homan, Jeroen; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Brodie, Jean P.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-07-01

    We carried out an in-depth study of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115 using the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project observation (total exposure time 1.1 Ms). In total we found 136 candidate LMXBs in the field and 49 in globular clusters (GCs) above 2σ detection, with 0.3-8 keV luminosity LX ˜ 1036-1039 erg s-1. Other than 13 transient candidates, the sources overall have less long-term variability at higher luminosity, at least at {L}{{X}}≳ 2× {10}37 erg s-1. In order to identify the nature and spectral state of our sources, we compared their collective spectral properties based on single-component models (a simple power law or a multicolor disk) with the spectral evolution seen in representative Galactic LMXBs. We found that in the LX versus photon index {{{Γ }}}{PL} and LX versus disk temperature kTMCD plots, most of our sources fall on a narrow track in which the spectral shape hardens with increasing luminosity below {L}{{X}}˜ 7× {10}37 erg s-1, but is relatively constant ({{{Γ }}}{PL}˜ 1.5 or {{kT}}{MCD}˜ 1.5 keV) above this luminosity, which is similar to the spectral evolution of Galactic neutron star (NS) LMXBs in the soft state in the Chandra bandpass. Therefore, we identified the track as the NS LMXB soft-state track and suggested sources with {L}{{X}}≲ 7× {10}37 erg s-1 as atolls in the soft state and those with {L}{{X}}≳ 7× {10}37 erg s-1 as Z sources. Ten other sources (five are transients) displayed significantly softer spectra and are probably black hole X-ray binaries in the thermal state. One of them (persistent) is in a metal-poor GC.

  8. The Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation of NGC 3115. II. Properties of Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Jennings, Zachary G.; Homan, Jeroen; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Brodie, Jean P.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-07-01

    We carried out an in-depth study of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115 using the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project observation (total exposure time 1.1 Ms). In total we found 136 candidate LMXBs in the field and 49 in globular clusters (GCs) above 2σ detection, with 0.3–8 keV luminosity LX ∼ 1036–1039 erg s‑1. Other than 13 transient candidates, the sources overall have less long-term variability at higher luminosity, at least at {L}{{X}}≳ 2× {10}37 erg s‑1. In order to identify the nature and spectral state of our sources, we compared their collective spectral properties based on single-component models (a simple power law or a multicolor disk) with the spectral evolution seen in representative Galactic LMXBs. We found that in the LX versus photon index {{{Γ }}}{PL} and LX versus disk temperature kTMCD plots, most of our sources fall on a narrow track in which the spectral shape hardens with increasing luminosity below {L}{{X}}∼ 7× {10}37 erg s‑1, but is relatively constant ({{{Γ }}}{PL}∼ 1.5 or {{kT}}{MCD}∼ 1.5 keV) above this luminosity, which is similar to the spectral evolution of Galactic neutron star (NS) LMXBs in the soft state in the Chandra bandpass. Therefore, we identified the track as the NS LMXB soft-state track and suggested sources with {L}{{X}}≲ 7× {10}37 erg s‑1 as atolls in the soft state and those with {L}{{X}}≳ 7× {10}37 erg s‑1 as Z sources. Ten other sources (five are transients) displayed significantly softer spectra and are probably black hole X-ray binaries in the thermal state. One of them (persistent) is in a metal-poor GC.

  9. Late Quaternary loess in northeastern Colorado: Part II - Pb isotopic evidence for the variability of loess sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Muhs, D.R.; Sauer, R.R.; Fanning, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    A new application of the Pb isotopic tracer technique has been used to determine the relative importance of different silt sources for late Wisconsin loess in the central Great Plains of eastern Colorado. Samples of the Peoria Loess collected throughout the study area contain K-feldspar derived from two isotopically and genetically distinct sources: (1) glaciogenic material from Early and Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks of the Colorado province, and (2) volcaniclastic material from the Tertiary White River Group exposed on the northern Great Plains. Pb isotopic compositions of K-feldspar in loess from two dated vertical sections (at Beecher Island and Last Chance, Colorado) vary systematically, implying climatic control of source availability. We propose a model whereby relatively cold conditions promoted the advance of Front Range valley glaciers discharging relatively little glaciogenic silt, but strong winds caused eolian erosion of White River Group silt due to a decrease in vegetation cover. During warmer periods, valley glaciers receded and discharged abundant glaciogenic silt, while surfaces underlain by the White River Group were stabilized by vegetation. Isotopic data from eastern Colorado loess sections record two warm-cold-warm cycles during late Wisconsin time between about 21 000 and 11 000 radiocarbon yr B.P., similar to results from other studies in the United States and Greenland.

  10. Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: II. Growth and estimated metabolizable amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Jones, J M; Cecava, M J; Hendrix, K S

    1995-05-01

    Seventy Simmental-cross steers (average initial weight 301 +/- 24 kg) were individually fed in a 175-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effects of source and level of protein in the diet on gain and feed efficiency. Steers were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments (seven steers per treatment) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a urea-supplemented control diet. Main factors were source of supplemental protein (soybean meal [SBM], a high ruminal escape soybean meal [SP; SoyPLUS], or a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal [CB; 50:50 on a nitrogen basis]) and level of each protein source (20, 30, or 40% of total dietary CP). Based on 18-h in situ ruminal incubation, escape N content of the protein sources was 66.0, 82.5, and 90.8% of total N and metabolizable amino acid (MAA) content was 29.1, 33.4, and 67.8 g/100 g of DM for SBM, SP, and CB respectively. The steers were fed 12.5% CP diets based on cracked corn (70%) on d 0 through 70 and were switched to a common 11.5% CP urea-supplemented cracked corn diet (80%) on d 71. The steers were housed in individual confinement stalls and had ad libitum access to feed. Replacing urea with SBM or SP increased (P < .05) 28- and 70-d ADG and DMI and increased (P < .05) 28-d efficiency (kg of gain/100 kg of feed). Replacing urea with CB did not improve (P > .05) 28- or 70-d ADG or DMI but did increase (P < .05) 28-d efficiency. The growth rate of steers at 28 and 70 d was correlated to a greater degree with ME intake (r2 = .83 and .85, respectively) rather than MAA supply, suggesting that the MAA supply was not first-limiting for growth. The source of supplemental protein fed during d 0 through 70 had no effect (P > .05) on 175-d DMI or efficiency; however, feeding SBM increased (P < .05) 175-d ADG compared with feeding urea, SP, or CB. Increasing supplemental true protein tended to linearly increase ADG and DMI at 28 and 70 d, but overall, ADG, DMI, and efficiency were not affected (P

  11. Absorption Line Survey of H3+ toward the Galactic Center Sources. II. Eight Infrared Sources within 30 pc of the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Miwa; Usuda, Tomonori; Nagata, Tetsuya; Geballe, T. R.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Indriolo, Nick; Suto, Hiroshi; Henning, Thomas; Morong, Christopher P.; Oka, Takeshi

    2008-11-01

    Infrared absorption lines of H+3, including the metastable R(3,3)l line, have been observed toward eight bright infrared sources associated with hot and massive stars located in and between the Galactic center cluster and the Quintuplet cluster 30 pc to the east. The absorption lines with high-velocity dispersion arise in the Galaxy's central molecular zone (CMZ) as well as in foreground spiral arms. The temperature and density of the gas in the CMZ, as determined from the relative strengths of the H3+ lines, are T = 200-300 K and n <= 50-200 cm-3. The detection of high column densities of H3+ toward all eight stars implies that this warm and diffuse gaseous environment is widespread in the CMZ. The products of the ionization rate and path length for these sight lines are 1000 and 10 times higher than in dense and diffuse clouds in the Galactic disk, respectively, indicating that the ionization rate, ζ, is not less than 10-15 s-1 and that L is at least on the order of 50 pc. The warm and diffuse gas is an important component of the CMZ, in addition to the three previously known gaseous environments: (1) cold molecular clouds observed by radio emission of CO and other molecules; (2) hot (T = 104-106 K) and highly ionized diffuse gas (ne = 10-100 cm-3) seen in radio recombination lines, far infrared atomic lines, and radio-wave scattering; and (3) ultrahot (T = 107-108 K) X-ray emitting plasma. Its prevalence significantly changes the understanding of the environment of the CMZ. The sight line toward GC IRS 3 is unique in showing an additional H3+ absorption component, which is interpreted as being due to either a cloud associated with circumnuclear disk or the "50 km s-1 cloud" known from radio observations. An infrared pumping scheme is examined as a mechanism to populate the (3,3) metastable level in this cloud. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Near-infrared Snapshot Survey of 3CR Radio Source Counterparts. II. An Atlas and Inventory of the Host Galaxies, Mergers, and Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, David J. E.; Axon, David; Baum, Stefi; Capetti, Alessandro; Chiaberge, Marco; Macchetto, Duccio; Madrid, Juan; Miley, George; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Perlman, Eric; Quillen, Alice; Sparks, William; Tremblay, Grant

    2008-07-01

    We present the second part of an H-band (1.6 μm) "atlas" of z < 0.3 3CR radio galaxies, using the Hubble Space Telescope Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (HST NICMOS2). We present new imaging for 21 recently acquired sources and host galaxy modeling for the full sample of 101 (including 11 archival)—an 87% completion rate. Two different modeling techniques are applied, following those adopted by the galaxy morphology and the quasar host galaxy communities. Results are compared and found to be in excellent agreement, although the former breaks down in the case of sources with strong active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Companion sources are tabulated, and the presence of mergers, tidal features, dust disks, and jets are cataloged. The tables form a catalog for those interested in the structural and morphological dust-free host galaxy properties of the 3CR sample, and for comparison with morphological studies of quiescent galaxies and quasar host galaxies. Host galaxy masses are estimated and found to typically lie at around 2 × 1011 M⊙. In general, the population is found to be consistent with the local population of quiescent elliptical galaxies, but with a longer tail to low Sérsic index, mainly consisting of low-redshift (z < 0.1) and low-radio-power (FR I) sources. A few unusually disky FR II host galaxies are picked out for further discussion. Nearby external sources are identified in the majority of our images, many of which we argue are likely to be companion galaxies or merger remnants. The reduced NICMOS data are now publicly available from our Web site. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  13. Modifications to the NASA SP-8072 Distributed Source Method II for Ares I Lift-off Environment Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Jared; Kenny, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Lift-off acoustic environments for NASA's Ares I - Crew Launch Vehicle are predicted using the second source distribution methodology described in the NASA SP-8072. Three modifications made to the model include a shorter core length approximation, a core termination procedure upon plume deflection, and a new set of directivity indices measured from static test firings of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The modified sound pressure level predictions increased more than 5 dB overall, and the peak levels shifted two third-octave bands higher in frequency.

  14. Union of Compact Accelerator-Driven Neutron Sources (UCANS) I & II Neutron applications laboratory for ESS-Bilbao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrón, S.; Magán, M.; Sordo, F.; Ghiglino, A.; Mart«ınez, F.; Bermejo, F. J.; Perlado, J. M.

    The ESS-Bilbao Accelerator Center site at Lejoa UPV/EHU campus will be provided with a proton accelerator up to 300-400 MeV. In the first construction phase, a beam extraction will be set at the end of the DTL, which will produce a 50 MeV proton beam with an average current of 2.25 mA and 1.5 ms pulses at a frequency of 20 Hz. These beam characteristics allow to configure a low intensity neutron source based on Be (p, n) reactions, which enables experimentation with cold neutrons similar to that of LENS. The total beam power will be 112 kW, so the configuration of the neutron production target will be based on a rotating disk of beryllium slabs facing the beam on one side and a cryogenic methane moderator on the other, with the target-moderator system surrounded by a beryllium reflector. In this paper, first estimates will be presented for thermomechanical conditions of the target cooling scheme, neutron source intensities, and cold neutron pulses.

  15. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II - The IRAS faint source survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.; Conrow, T. P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling.

  16. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M. Queen Mary College, London )

    1990-07-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs.

  17. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume II, appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This document contains 2 appendices. The first documents the methodologies used to calculate production, unit energy consumption, fuel type and emission estimates for 16 industries and 35 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired industrial combustion processes, located in 26 states (and the District of Columbia) east of the Mississippi River. As discussed in the text of this report, a U.S. total of 16 industries and 45 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired combustion processes were identified by an elimination type method that was developed based on evaluation of fuel use in industrial SIC codes 20-39 to identify pollutant sources contributing to acid rain. The final population included only plants that have direct-fired fuel consumption greater than or equal to 100 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/yr of equivalent energy consumption. The goal for this analysis was to provide at least a 1980 base year for the data. This was achieved for all of the industries and in fact, 1981 data were used for a number of the industries evaluated. The second contains an analysis of all consumption of major fossil fuels to: (1) identify all fuel usage categories, and (2) identify the kinds of combustion equipment used within each category. This analysis provides a frame of reference for the balance of the study and permits using an energy accounting methodology to quantify the degree to which the inventoried sources in individual consuming sectors are complete and representative of the total population for the sector.

  18. Effects of Macroscopic Pattern Density and O2 Addition on Chamber Stability during Silicon Nitride Layer Etching in UNITY II-IEM Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Woon Suck; Kim, Kil Ho; Kim, Jong Il; Lee, Joon Hyun; Won, Yong Sik; Choi, Seon Ho; Hwang, Chung Ho; Lee, Dai Hoon

    2002-04-01

    Effects of the wafer level pattern density on chamber particle generation during silicon nitride (Si3N4) layer etching have been studied in the medium density plasma source, UNITY II-IEM. It was found that the macroscopic pattern density of the etched layer strongly affects the etching environment and subsequently affects the chamber stability. The abrupt change in the macroscopic pattern density of the etched layer, especially when the pattern density is lowered, can sometimes results in the hazardous chamber particle generation. Experiments were performed in order to cope with the chamber particle generation induced by the macroscopic pattern density variation. Controlling the F/C ratio within the plasma by varying the amount of feeding O2 gas was proven to be an efficient way to prevent the occurrence of the chamber particles. Based on our experimental results, the mechanism for the chamber particle generation and that for the reduction will be discussed.

  19. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. 2; Evidence for High Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two papers examining Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. Here we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines. Our analysis suggests that the luminosity and morphology of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is matter-bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the east, and probably radiation-bounded to the west. A bolometric luminosity in excess of 10(exp 40) erg/s would be needed to produce the measured [O IV] flux. We use modeling and previously published studies to conclude that shocks likely contribute very little, if at all, to the high-excitation line fluxes observed in the Holmberg II ULX. Additionally, we find that the spectral type of the companion star has a surprisingly strong effect on the predicted strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] in some starburst systems containing black hole binaries.

  20. Year 6 Post-Remediation Biomonitoring and Phase II Source Investigation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Evans, Nathan R.

    2004-04-02

    The Heckathorn Superfund Site in Richmond, California, encompasses the property of the former United Heckathorn pesticide packaging plant and the adjacent waterway, Lauritzen Channel. The site was used from 1945 to 1966 by several operators to produce various agricultural chemicals. The site was placed on the National Priorities List of Superfund sites in 1990, which resulted in the removal of pesticide-contaminated soil from the upland portion of the site and dredging the marine portion of the site. Post-remediation marine monitoring and associated studies conducted through 2002 indicate that the contamination in the channel continues to pose a significant risk to biota and human health. This report documents continued marine monitoring and source investigation studies conducted in 2003.

  1. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. II - The pre-main-sequence G star HDE 283572

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, F. M.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J. L.; Rydgren, A. E.; Vrba, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the detection of HDE 283572, a ninth-magnitude G star 8 arcmin south of RY Tau, as a bright X-ray source. The observations reveal this object to be a fairly massive (about 2 solar masses) pre-main-sequence star associated with the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex. It exhibits few of the characteristics of the classical T Tauri stars and is a good example of a 'naked' T Tauri star. The star is a mid-G subgiant, of about three solar radii and rotates with a period of 1.5 d. The coronal and chromospheric surface fluxes are similar to those of the most active late type stars (excluding T Tauri stars). The X-ray and UV lines most likely arise in different atmospheric structures. Radiative losses are some 1000 times the quiet solar value and compare favorably with those of T Tauri stars.

  2. Automated and visual measurements of estrous behavior and their sources of variation in Holstein heifers. II: Standing and lying patterns.

    PubMed

    Silper, Bruna F; Polsky, Liam; Luu, John; Burnett, Tracy A; Rushen, Jeffrey; de Passillé, Anne Marie; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2015-08-01

    Lying (LY) and standing (ST) behavior of Holstein heifers (n = 57) was studied from Day -7 to Day +2 relative to estrus (Day 0) using leg-mounted accelerometers. A total of 269 estrus episodes were studied. The objectives were to quantify the effects of estrus on ST and LY patterns, identify sources of variation, and provide insight into new approaches for the use of sensors in estrus detection. The sensors were used to obtain ST bout frequency (bouts per day), total daily ST time, and mean bout duration and duration of the longest bout for ST and LY on a daily basis. Estrus episodes were identified using walking activity peaks and validated by ovarian ultrasonography. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of estrus order (pubertal vs. second and greater), season, time of estrus onset, category of baseline walking activity, and number of heifers simultaneously in estrus on ST and LY variables. Overall, ST bout frequency was lower, whereas mean ST bout duration, duration of the longest ST bout, and total daily ST time were longer on Day 0 (P < 0.05). The longest ST bout increased from 232 ± 5 minutes on Day -7 to 488 ± 16 minutes on Day 0 (P < 0.05), and on Day 0, it started within -2 to 4 hours of time of estrus onset. Measurements of ST bouts varied the most on Day 0 (coefficient of variation = 21.5%-52.8%). The pubertal estrus was characterized by smaller increase in mean ST bout duration, longest ST bout duration, and total daily ST time (P < 0.05) compared to the second and greater episodes. Second and greater episodes had greater longest LY bout on Day +1, but on Day 0 it was not different from other nonestrus days (P < 0.01). The longest ST bout on Day 0 was longer for heifers with high baseline walking activity and for episodes occurring during the cold season (P < 0.05). The effect of estrus on ST variables for morning-onset episodes was observed only on Day 0. Episodes with afternoon and night onset showed the effect of estrus spread

  3. Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes II: simulation for Spallation Neutron Sources and planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; Baik, Kyungmin; Leighton, Timothy G

    2011-08-01

    This paper uses a finite element method (FEM) to compare predictions of the attenuation and sound speeds of acoustic modes in a fluid-filled pipe with those of the analytical model presented in the first paper in this series. It explains why, when the predictions of the earlier paper were compared with experimental data from a water-filled PMMA pipe, the uncertainties and agreement for attenuation data were worse than those for sound speed data. Having validated the FEM approach in this way, the versatility of FEM is thereafter demonstrated by modeling two practical applications which are beyond the analysis of the earlier paper. These applications model propagation in the mercury-filled steel pipework of the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Tennessee), and in a long-standing design for acoustic sensors for use on planetary probes. The results show that strong coupling between the fluid and the solid walls means that erroneous interpretations are made of the data if they assume that the sound speed and attenuation in the fluid in the pipe are the same as those that would be measured in an infinite volume of identical fluid, assumptions which are common when such data have previously been interpreted. PMID:21877784

  4. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - II) Untreated drinking water sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, M.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Barnes, K.K.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Barber, L.B.; Thurman, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-three of the 100 targeted chemicals were detected in at least one water sample. Interestingly, in spite of the low detection levels 60% of the 36 pharmaceuticals (including prescription drugs and antibiotics) analyzed were not detected in any water sample. The five most frequently detected chemicals targeted in surface water were: cholesterol (59%, natural sterol), metolachlor (53%, herbicide), cotinine (51%, nicotine metabolite), β-sitosterol (37%, natural plant sterol), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (27%, caffeine metabolite); and in ground water: tetrachloroethylene (24%, solvent), carbamazepine (20%, pharmaceutical), bisphenol-A (20%, plasticizer), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (16%, caffeine metabolite), and tri (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (12%, fire retardant). A median of 4 compounds were detected per site indicating that the targeted chemicals generally occur in mixtures (commonly near detection levels) in the environment and likely originate from a variety of animal and human uses and waste sources. These data will help prioritize and determine the need, if any, for future occurrence, fate and transport, and health-effects research for subsets of these chemicals and their degradates most likely to be found in water resources used for drinking water in the United States.

  5. Formation, reactivity, and aging of ferric oxide particles formed from Fe(II) and Fe(III) sources: Implications for iron bioavailability in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bligh, Mark W.; Waite, T. David

    2011-12-01

    Freshly formed amorphous ferric oxides (AFO) in the water column are potentially highly reactive, but with reactivity declining rapidly with age, and have the capacity to partake in reactions with dissolved species and to be a significant source of bioavailable iron. However, the controls on reactivity in aggregated oxides are not well understood. Additionally, the mechanism by which early rapid aging occurs is not clear. Aging is typically considered in terms of changes in crystallinity as the structure of an iron oxide becomes more stable and ordered with time thus leading to declining reactivity. However, there has been recognition of the role that aggregation can play in determining reactivity, although it has received limited attention. Here, we have formed AFO in seawater in the laboratory from either an Fe(II) or Fe(III) source to produce either AFO(II) or AFO(III). The changes in reactivity of these two oxides following formation was measured using both ligand-promoted dissolution (LPD) and reductive dissolution (RD). The structure of the two oxides was examined using light scattering and X-ray adsorption techniques. The dissolution rate of AFO(III) was greater than that of AFO(II), as measured by both dissolution techniques, and could be attributed to both the less ordered molecular structure and smaller primary particle size of AFO(III). From EXAFS analysis shortly (90 min) following formation, AFO(II) and AFO(III) were shown to have the same structure as aged lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite respectively. Both oxides displayed a rapid decrease in dissolution rate over the first hours following formation in a pattern that was very similar when normalised. The early establishment and little subsequent change of crystal structure for both oxides undermined the hypothesis that increasing crystallinity was responsible for early rapid aging. Also, an aging model describing this proposed process could only be fitted to the data with kinetic parameters that were

  6. A multi-epoch VLBI survey of the kinematics of CFJ sources. II. Analysis of the kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britzen, S.; Vermeulen, R. C.; Campbell, R. M.; Taylor, G. B.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Xu, W.; Browne, I. W.; Henstock, D. R.; Wilkinson, P.

    2008-06-01

    Context: This is the second in a series of papers presenting VLBI observations of the 293 Caltech-Jodrell Bank Flat-spectrum (hereafter CJF) sources and their analysis. Aims: We obtain a consistent motion dataset large enough to allow the systematic properties of the population to be studied. Methods: We present detailed kinematic analysis of the complete flux-density limited CJF survey. We computed 2D kinematic models based on the optimal model-fitting parameters of multi-epoch VLBA observations. This allows us to calculate not only radial, but also orthogonal motions, and thus to study curvature and acceleration. Statistical tests of the motions measured and their reliability were performed. A correlation analysis between the derived apparent motions, luminosities, spectral indices, and core dominance and the resulting consequences is described. Results: With at least one velocity in each of the 237 sources, this sample is much larger than any available before, so it allows a meaningful statistical investigation of apparent motions and any possible correlations with other parameters in AGN jets. The main results to emerge are as follows: - In general motions are not consistent with a single uniform velocity applicable to all components along a jet. - We find a slight trend towards a positive outward acceleration and also adduce some evidence for greater acceleration in the innermost regions. - We find a lack of fast components at physical distances less than a few pc from the reference feature. - Only ~4% of the components from galaxies and <2% of those from quasars undergo large bends i.e. within 15° of ±90°. - The distribution of radial velocities shows a broad distribution of velocities (apparent velocities up to 30 c). Fifteen percent of the best-sampled jet components exhibit low velocities that may need to be explained in a different manner to the fast motions. - Some negative superluminal motions are seen, and in 15 cases (6%) these are definitely

  7. Sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pump use: what effect do they have on breastfeeding duration? An analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy G; Johnson, Lara W; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

    2012-10-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding duration and sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pumps. We analyzed data from the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II (n = 2,586), a national longitudinal consumer-based study. We used χ(2) and ANOVA to contrast categorical and continuous variables, respectively, and logistic regression to model the association between breastfeeding duration and sources of education about breastfeeding and breast pump use. In unadjusted results, multiple sources of breastfeeding and breast pump education were significantly associated with breastfeeding duration. However, in multivariable logistic regression models, there was a negative association between longer breastfeeding duration and receiving breast pump education from a physician/physician assistant (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.93); and a positive association between longer breastfeeding duration and receiving breastfeeding education from classes/support group (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.24-2.76) and receiving breast pump education from friends/relatives (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.13-2.55). Although healthcare providers such as physicians and nurses have regular contact with women, the only statistically significant association between breastfeeding and breast pump education from healthcare providers and longer breastfeeding duration was a negative one. This likely reflects time and resource limitations of clinical practice, but may also indicate a need for more consistent training for healthcare providers who provide breastfeeding and breast pump education. Social supports, such as education from classes/support groups and friends/relatives demonstrated positive associations with longer breastfeeding duration. This emphasizes the importance of fostering a positive sphere of influence around breastfeeding women. Future work should also investigate alternative levers of action, such as policies affecting insurance coverage of breast pumps.

  8. NEAR-INFRARED COUNTERPARTS TO CHANDRA X-RAY SOURCES TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER. II. DISCOVERY OF WOLF-RAYET STARS AND O SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mauerhan, J. C.; Stolovy, S. R.; Muno, M. P.; Morris, M. R.; Cotera, A.

    2010-02-10

    We present new identifications of infrared counterparts to the population of hard X-ray sources near the Galactic center detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We have spectroscopically confirmed 16 new massive stellar counterparts to the X-ray population, including nitrogen-type (WN) and carbon-type (WC) Wolf-Rayet stars, and O supergiants. These discoveries increase the total sample of massive stellar X-ray sources in the Galactic center region to 30 (possibly 31). For the majority of these sources, the X-ray photometry is consistent with thermal emission from plasma having temperatures in the range of kT = 1-8 keV or non-thermal emission having power-law indices in the range of -1 {approx}< GAMMA {approx}< 3, and X-ray luminosities in the range of L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 32}-10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} (0.5-8.0 keV). Several sources have exhibited X-ray variability of several factors between observations. These X-ray properties are not a ubiquitous feature of single massive stars but are typical of massive binaries, in which the high-energy emission is generated by the collision of supersonic winds, or by accretion onto a compact companion. However, without direct evidence for companions, the possibility of intrinsic hard X-ray generation from single stars cannot be completely ruled out. The spectral energy distributions of these sources exhibit significant infrared excess, attributable to free-free emission from ionized stellar winds, supplemented by hot dust emission in the case of the WC stars. With the exception of one object located near the outer regions of the Quintuplet cluster, most of the new stars appear isolated or in loose associations. Seven hydrogen-rich WN and O stars are concentrated near the Sagittarius B H II region, while other similar stars and more highly evolved hydrogen-poor WN and WC stars lie scattered within {approx}50 pc, in projection, of Sagitarrius A West. We discuss various mechanisms capable of generating the observed X

  9. Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination and water-quality characteristics of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri; phase II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Jerri V.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    August 6 to12, 2000. A 24-hour sample collection effort was conducted the weekend of July 15 and 16, 2000, to investigate the effect that large numbers of swimmers, canoeists, and tubers had on fecal coliform densities in the Jacks Fork. Five or six samples were collected at six sites between Saturday morning and the following Sunday afternoon. No fecal coliform density at any of the sites sampled exceeded the whole-body-contact recreation standard. Because bacteria survive longer in stream-bed sediments than in water, a source of bacteria in the water column could be from resuspension of accumulated bacteria from streambed sediments. Water and streambed-sediment samples were collected at three sites on August 3, 2000, 1 week before a trail ride and again at three sites on 2 Assessment of Possible Sources of Microbiological Contamination of the Jacks Fork, Missouri?Phase II August 8, 2000, during a trail ride. Results indicate that fecal coliform bacteria densities increased substantially in the streambed sediment and the water column during the trail ride.Sixty-five Escherichia coli isolates obtained from water samples collected at 9 sites and 23 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from stream-bed-sediment samples collected at 5 sites were submitted for ribotyping analysis. Samples were collected in 2000 during a variety of nonrecreational and recreational season river uses, including trail rides, canoeing, tubing, and swimming. Of the 65 isolates from water samples, 40 percent were identified as originating from sewage, 29 percent from horse, 11 percent from cow, and 20 percent from an unknown source. Of the 23 isolates from streambed-sediment samples, 39 percent were identified as originating from sewage, 35 percent from horse, 13 percent from cow, and 13 percent from unknown sources.Analysis of physical property (dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature) and nutrient (dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorus) data

  10. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. I. Observational Results for Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    We presen the first Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the [O IV] 25.89 um emission line detected from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. This line is a well established signature of high excitation usually associated with AGN. Its detection suggests that the ULX has a strong impact on the surrounding gas. A Spitzer high resolution spectral map shows that the [O IV] is coincident with the X-ray position of the ULX. The ratios of the [O IV] to lower ionization lines are similar to those observed in AGN, suggesting that a strong UV and X-ray source is responsible for the, photoionization. The best XMM-Newton data is used to model the X-ray band which is then extrapolated into the UV. We perform infrared and ultraviolet photometry, and use its previously published optical and radio data to construct the full SED for the ULX and its companion. The preferred model to describe the SED includes an accretion disk which dominates the soft X-rays but contributes little at UV and optical wavelengths. The optical counterpart is consistent with a B supergiant as previously suggested in other studies. The bolometric luminosity of the ULX suggests the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >85 M for sub-Eddington accretion or, alternatively, a stellar-mass black hole that is accreting at super-Eddington rates. In a follow-up second paper we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines in order to constrain the bolometric luminosity of the ULX.

  11. Synthesis and surface chemistry of high quality wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals using tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as a new tin source.

    PubMed

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Gryszel, Maciej; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Malinowska, Karolina; Zukowska, Grazyna Z; Agnese, Fabio; Pron, Adam; Reiss, Peter

    2015-08-21

    A novel synthesis method for the preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals is presented using a liquid precursor of tin, namely tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, which yields small and nearly monodisperse NCs either in the kesterite or in the wurtzite phase depending on the sulfur source (elemental sulfur in oleylamine vs. dodecanethiol). PMID:26176023

  12. Synthesis and surface chemistry of high quality wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals using tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as a new tin source.

    PubMed

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Gryszel, Maciej; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Malinowska, Karolina; Zukowska, Grazyna Z; Agnese, Fabio; Pron, Adam; Reiss, Peter

    2015-08-21

    A novel synthesis method for the preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals is presented using a liquid precursor of tin, namely tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, which yields small and nearly monodisperse NCs either in the kesterite or in the wurtzite phase depending on the sulfur source (elemental sulfur in oleylamine vs. dodecanethiol).

  13. A Spitzer Space Telescope Far-infrared Spectral Atlas of Compact Sources in the Magellanic Clouds. II. The Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Gordon, Karl D.; Sloan, G. C.; Engelbracht, C. W.

    2010-04-01

    We present far-infrared spectra, λ = 52-93 μm, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the spectral energy distribution mode of its Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer instrument, of a selection of luminous compact far-infrared sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). These comprise nine young stellar objects (YSOs), the compact H II region N 81 and a similar object within N 84, and two red supergiants (RSGs). We use the spectra to constrain the presence and temperature of cool dust and the excitation conditions within the neutral and ionized gas, in the circumstellar environments and interfaces with the surrounding interstellar medium. We compare these results with those obtained in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The spectra of the sources in N 81 (of which we also show the Infrared Space Observatory-Long-wavelength Spectrograph spectrum between 50 and 170 μm) and N 84 both display strong [O I] λ63 μm and [O III] λ88 μm fine-structure line emission. We attribute these lines to strong shocks and photo-ionized gas, respectively, in a "champagne flow" scenario. The nitrogen content of these two H II regions is very low, definitely N(N)/N(O) < 0.04 but possibly as low as N(N)/N(O) < 0.01. Overall, the oxygen lines and dust continuum are weaker in star-forming objects in the SMC than in the LMC. We attribute this to the lower metallicity of the SMC compared to that of the LMC. While the dust mass differs in proportion to metallicity, the oxygen mass differs less; both observations can be reconciled with higher densities inside star-forming cloud cores in the SMC than in the LMC. The dust in the YSOs in the SMC is warmer (37-51 K) than in comparable objects in the LMC (32-44 K). We attribute this to the reduced shielding and reduced cooling at the low metallicity of the SMC. On the other hand, the efficiency of the photo-electric effect to heat the gas is found to be indistinguishable to that measured in the same manner in the LMC, ≈0

  14. Structural Iron (II) of Basaltic Glass as an Energy Source for Zetaproteobacteria in an Abyssal Plain Environment, Off the Mid Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Henri, Pauline A; Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Lesongeur, Françoise; Mumford, Adam; Emerson, David; Godfroy, Anne; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    To explore the capability of basaltic glass to support the growth of chemosynthetic microorganisms, complementary in situ and in vitro colonization experiments were performed. Microbial colonizers containing synthetic tholeitic basaltic glasses, either enriched in reduced or oxidized iron, were deployed off-axis from the Mid Atlantic Ridge on surface sediments of the abyssal plain (35°N; 29°W). In situ microbial colonization was assessed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and basaltic glass alteration was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure at the Fe-K-edge and Raman microspectroscopy. The colonized surface of the reduced basaltic glass was covered by a rind of alteration made of iron-oxides trapped in a palagonite-like structure with thicknesses up to 150 μm. The relative abundance of the associated microbial community was dominated (39% of all reads) by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) that shared 92% identity with the iron-oxidizer Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. Conversely, the oxidized basaltic glass showed the absence of iron-oxides enriched surface deposits and correspondingly there was a lack of known iron-oxidizing bacteria in the inventoried diversity. In vitro, a similar reduced basaltic glass was incubated in artificial seawater with a pure culture of the iron-oxidizing M. ferrooxydans DIS-1 for 2 weeks, without any additional nutrients or minerals. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy revealed that the glass surface was covered by twisted stalks characteristic of this iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria. This result supported findings of the in situ experiments indicating that the Fe(II) present in the basalt was the energy source for the growth of representatives of Zetaproteobacteria in both the abyssal plain and the in vitro experiment. In accordance, the surface alteration rind observed on the reduced basaltic glass incubated in situ could at least partly result from their activity

  15. Structural Iron (II) of Basaltic Glass as an Energy Source for Zetaproteobacteria in an Abyssal Plain Environment, Off the Mid Atlantic Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Henri, Pauline A.; Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Lesongeur, Françoise; Mumford, Adam; Emerson, David; Godfroy, Anne; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    To explore the capability of basaltic glass to support the growth of chemosynthetic microorganisms, complementary in situ and in vitro colonization experiments were performed. Microbial colonizers containing synthetic tholeitic basaltic glasses, either enriched in reduced or oxidized iron, were deployed off-axis from the Mid Atlantic Ridge on surface sediments of the abyssal plain (35°N; 29°W). In situ microbial colonization was assessed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and basaltic glass alteration was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure at the Fe-K-edge and Raman microspectroscopy. The colonized surface of the reduced basaltic glass was covered by a rind of alteration made of iron-oxides trapped in a palagonite-like structure with thicknesses up to 150 μm. The relative abundance of the associated microbial community was dominated (39% of all reads) by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) that shared 92% identity with the iron-oxidizer Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. Conversely, the oxidized basaltic glass showed the absence of iron-oxides enriched surface deposits and correspondingly there was a lack of known iron-oxidizing bacteria in the inventoried diversity. In vitro, a similar reduced basaltic glass was incubated in artificial seawater with a pure culture of the iron-oxidizing M. ferrooxydans DIS-1 for 2 weeks, without any additional nutrients or minerals. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy revealed that the glass surface was covered by twisted stalks characteristic of this iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria. This result supported findings of the in situ experiments indicating that the Fe(II) present in the basalt was the energy source for the growth of representatives of Zetaproteobacteria in both the abyssal plain and the in vitro experiment. In accordance, the surface alteration rind observed on the reduced basaltic glass incubated in situ could at least partly result from their activity

  16. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  17. Sources for Women's History in the Microtext Department of the Sterling C. Evans Library at Texas A&M University. Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Yvonne D., Comp.; And Others

    This two-volume annotated bibliography is designed to provide access to materials in the microtext collection of Texas A&M University's Sterling C. Evans Library that relate to women's history. Volume I presents 96 citations to microform editions of works published by, for, and about women before 1900, and Volume II includes 444 citations to…

  18. Reconciliation and interpretation of the Big Bend National Park light extinction source apportionment: results from the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study--part II.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Marc L; Schichtel, Bret A; Gebhart, Kristi A; Barna, Michael G; Malm, William C; Tombach, Ivar H; Knipping, Eladio M

    2005-11-01

    The recently completed Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study focused on particulate sulfate source attribution for a 4-month period from July through October 1999. A companion paper in this issue by Schichtel et al. describes the methods evaluation and results reconciliation of the BRAVO Study sulfate attribution approaches. This paper summarizes the BRAVO Study extinction budget assessment and interprets the attribution results in the context of annual and multiyear causes of haze by drawing on long-term aerosol monitoring data and regional transport climatology, as well as results from other investigations. Particulate sulfates, organic carbon, and coarse mass are responsible for most of the haze at Big Bend National Park, whereas fine particles composed of light-absorbing carbon, fine soils, and nitrates are relatively minor contributors. Spring and late summer through fall are the two periods of high-haze levels at Big Bend. Particulate sulfate and carbonaceous compounds contribute in a similar magnitude to the spring haze period, whereas sulfates are the primary cause of haze during the late summer and fall period. Atmospheric transport patterns to Big Bend vary throughout the year, resulting in a seasonal cycle of different upwind source regions contributing to its haze levels. Important sources and source regions for haze at Big Bend include biomass smoke from Mexico and Central America in the spring and African dust during the summer. Sources of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in Mexico, Texas, and in the Eastern United States all contribute to Big Bend haze in varying amounts over different times of the year, with a higher contribution from Mexican sources in the spring and early summer, and a higher contribution from U.S. sources during late summer and fall. Some multiple-day haze episodes result from the influence of several source regions, whereas others are primarily because of emissions from a single source region.

  19. A complete sample of intermediate-strength radio sources selected from the GB/GB2 1400-MHz surveys. II - High-resolution maps and optical identifications of sources with very steep spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalski, J.; Maslowski, J.; Condon, J. J.; Condon, M. A.

    1982-08-01

    A complete sample of GB/GB2 sources with α (l400,5000) ≥ +0.95 and stronger than 550 mJy at 1400 MHz, were observed at about 3-arcsec resolution with the VLA. Optical identifications were made using the PSS prints; seven are new. A large fraction of the program sources have a classical double structure. Maps made at 1465 MHz show that the identification rate increases sharply from 25% for narrow doubles to 90% for triple and complex structures. Extended sources are mostly identified with distant galaxies, compact (< 1 arcsec) sources with stellar objects. No difference was found between the double morphologies of empty field (EF) sources and galaxies. About 20% of the EF's in the sample have compact, unresolved structures, and rather flat, self-absorbed low-frequency spectra, and could be luminous extended cores of distant objects. This fraction is significantly lower than the fraction of compact EF sources with S1400 ≥ 2 Jy, and suggests that the intermediate-strength (GB/GB2) sample contains a larger fraction of strongly evolved objects than do strong-source samples. Differing spatial distributions of these objects may account for the above results.

  20. Synthesis, spectral and thermal studies of pyridyl adducts of Zn(II) and Cd(II) dithiocarbamates, and their use as single source precursors for ZnS and CdS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Onwudiwe, Damian C; Strydom, Christien A; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S; Hosten, Eric; Jordaan, Anine

    2014-06-21

    The synthesis, spectroscopic characterisation, and thermal studies of pyridyl adducts of Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of N-ethyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate, represented as [ZnL2py] and [CdL2py2], are reported. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of the Zn compound showed that it is five-coordinate with four sulphurs from dithiocarbamate and one nitrogen from pyridine in a distorted square pyramidal geometry. The thermogravimetric studies indicate that the zinc and cadmium compounds undergo fast weight loss, and the temperature at maximum rate of decomposition is at 277 °C and 265 °C respectively, to give the metal (Zn or Cd) sulphide residues. These compounds were used as single molecule precursors to produce nanocrystalline MS (M = Zn, Cd) after thermolysis in hexadecylamine. The morphological and optical properties of the resulting MS nanocrystallites were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). By varying the growth time, the temporal evolution of the optical properties and morphology of the nanocrystals were investigated. PMID:24769861

  1. Man portable power needs of the 21st century. I. Applications for the dismounted soldier. II. Enhanced capabilities through the use of hybrid power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Terrill B.; Cygan, Peter J.; Leung, Fee Chan

    The Army is facing a number of challenges now and in the future. One of the major challenges is in the power sources arena. As the Army continues to move toward digitizing the battlefield, the need for portable power is increasingly becoming a technological hurdle that must be overcome in order for a soldier to exercise his electronics capabilities without being overburdened by the power sources size, weight and operating/logistical costs. Advanced electronic devices are becoming a critical piece of the soldier's personal battlefield equipment. A soldier with the latest version of the Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) is one of the most dangerous weapon systems on the modern battlefield. The ability to accurately navigate and communicate multiplies the soldier's advantage over a less electronic capable enemy. Keeping his personal electronics operational is crucial to giving the soldier the capability to complete his mission successfully. Inherent in keeping the electronic equipment operating is keeping it supplied with batteries. Due to the increased emphasis placed on the modern soldiers electronic equipment, the importance of the portage of the power sources needed to keep this equipment operational has also increased. Recent efforts have focused on hybrid power sources that may enhance discussed capabilities by taking advantage of both high energy sources and high power systems for intermittent power application. This development could lead to a power source with enough energy to meet the Army's preference for a 72-h mission life before the need for resupply.

  2. Source-receptor study of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter in the Kanawha Valley, WV—II. Analysis of factors contributing to VOC and particle exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Martin A.; Ryan, P. Barry; Spengler, John D.; Özkaynak, Halûk; Hayes, Carl

    The Kanawha Valley region of West Virginia includes a deep river valley with a large population living in close proximity to many potential sources of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The valley runs approximately 100 km from Alloy to Nitro and is between 100 and 200 m deep. Nearly 250,000 people live in this section of the valley, which includes the state capital of Charleston. Many large chemical manufacturing, transportation, and storage facilities are also located within the valley's walls. The topography, population density, and locations of sources dictate the possibility of high population exposures. To investigate exposures to VOCs emitted by the local industry, simultaneous measurements of 19 VOCs, particle pH, particle elemental composition, inorganic gases, and meteorological parameters were collected over an entire year. With the use of a mobile van, sampling was performed in the valley at three sites. Samples were collected for 15 days per month for 4 months at each site. Both unvariate and multivariate analyses were performed in an effort to resolve source contributions. Results of factor analyses suggest auto-related, transported aerosol, chlorinated organic sources as well as site-specific sources and a single incident source—a forest fire. The techniques employed suggest that inclusion of VOC measurements increase the ability of such studies to identify pollutant sources.

  3. IIS – Integrated Interactome System: A Web-Based Platform for the Annotation, Analysis and Visualization of Protein-Metabolite-Gene-Drug Interactions by Integrating a Variety of Data Sources and Tools

    PubMed Central

    Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; de Carvalho, Lucas Miguel; Slepicka, Hugo Henrique; Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Kobarg, Jörg; Vaz Meirelles, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Background High-throughput screening of physical, genetic and chemical-genetic interactions brings important perspectives in the Systems Biology field, as the analysis of these interactions provides new insights into protein/gene function, cellular metabolic variations and the validation of therapeutic targets and drug design. However, such analysis depends on a pipeline connecting different tools that can automatically integrate data from diverse sources and result in a more comprehensive dataset that can be properly interpreted. Results We describe here the Integrated Interactome System (IIS), an integrative platform with a web-based interface for the annotation, analysis and visualization of the interaction profiles of proteins/genes, metabolites and drugs of interest. IIS works in four connected modules: (i) Submission module, which receives raw data derived from Sanger sequencing (e.g. two-hybrid system); (ii) Search module, which enables the user to search for the processed reads to be assembled into contigs/singlets, or for lists of proteins/genes, metabolites and drugs of interest, and add them to the project; (iii) Annotation module, which assigns annotations from several databases for the contigs/singlets or lists of proteins/genes, generating tables with automatic annotation that can be manually curated; and (iv) Interactome module, which maps the contigs/singlets or the uploaded lists to entries in our integrated database, building networks that gather novel identified interactions, protein and metabolite expression/concentration levels, subcellular localization and computed topological metrics, GO biological processes and KEGG pathways enrichment. This module generates a XGMML file that can be imported into Cytoscape or be visualized directly on the web. Conclusions We have developed IIS by the integration of diverse databases following the need of appropriate tools for a systematic analysis of physical, genetic and chemical-genetic interactions. IIS

  4. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. PMID:26050092

  5. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed.

  6. Deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North with the Very Large Array - II. Catalogue and μJy source properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernstrom, T.; Scott, Douglas; Wall, J. V.; Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Kellermann, K. I.; Perley, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    This is the second of two papers describing the observations and source catalogues derived from sensitive 3-GHz images of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We describe the reduction and cataloguing process, which yielded an image with 8 arcsec resolution and instrumental noise of σn = 1.01 μJy beam-1 rms (before primary-beam corrections) and a catalogue of 558 sources detected above 5σn. We include details of how we estimate source spectral indices across the 2-GHz VLA bandwidth, finding a median index of -0.76 ± 0.04. Stacking of source spectra reveals a flattening of spectral index with decreasing flux density. We present a source count derived from the catalogue. We show a traditional count estimate compared with a completely independent estimate made via a P(D) confusion analysis, and find very good agreement. Cross-matches of the catalogue with X-ray, optical, infrared, radio, and redshift catalogues are also presented. The X-ray, optical and infrared data, as well as active galactic nuclei (AGN) selection criteria allow us to classify 10 per cent as radio-loud AGN, 28 per cent as radio-quiet AGN, and 58 per cent as star-forming galaxies, with only 4 per cent unclassified.

  7. A new methodology to assess the performance and uncertainty of source apportionment models II: The results of two European intercomparison exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belis, C. A.; Karagulian, F.; Amato, F.; Almeida, M.; Artaxo, P.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Bernardoni, V.; Bove, M. C.; Carbone, S.; Cesari, D.; Contini, D.; Cuccia, E.; Diapouli, E.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Favez, O.; El Haddad, I.; Harrison, R. M.; Hellebust, S.; Hovorka, J.; Jang, E.; Jorquera, H.; Kammermeier, T.; Karl, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Mooibroek, D.; Nava, S.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Paatero, P.; Pandolfi, M.; Perrone, M. G.; Petit, J. E.; Pietrodangelo, A.; Pokorná, P.; Prati, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Quass, U.; Querol, X.; Saraga, D.; Sciare, J.; Sfetsos, A.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Vestenius, M.; Yubero, E.; Hopke, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    The performance and the uncertainty of receptor models (RMs) were assessed in intercomparison exercises employing real-world and synthetic input datasets. To that end, the results obtained by different practitioners using ten different RMs were compared with a reference. In order to explain the differences in the performances and uncertainties of the different approaches, the apportioned mass, the number of sources, the chemical profiles, the contribution-to-species and the time trends of the sources were all evaluated using the methodology described in Belis et al. (2015). In this study, 87% of the 344 source contribution estimates (SCEs) reported by participants in 47 different source apportionment model results met the 50% standard uncertainty quality objective established for the performance test. In addition, 68% of the SCE uncertainties reported in the results were coherent with the analytical uncertainties in the input data. The most used models, EPA-PMF v.3, PMF2 and EPA-CMB 8.2, presented quite satisfactory performances in the estimation of SCEs while unconstrained models, that do not account for the uncertainty in the input data (e.g. APCS and FA-MLRA), showed below average performance. Sources with well-defined chemical profiles and seasonal time trends, that make appreciable contributions (>10%), were those better quantified by the models while those with contributions to the PM mass close to 1% represented a challenge. The results of the assessment indicate that RMs are capable of estimating the contribution of the major pollution source categories over a given time window with a level of accuracy that is in line with the needs of air quality management.

  8. The Galactic plane at faint X-ray fluxes - II. Stacked X-ray spectra of a sample of serendipitous XMM-Newton sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, R. S.; Byckling, K.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.

    2014-03-01

    We have investigated the X-ray spectral properties of a sample of 138 X-ray sources detected serendipitously in XMM-Newton observations of the Galactic plane, at an intermediate to faint flux level. We divide our sample into five subgroups according to the spectral hardness of the sources, and stack (i.e. co-add) the individual source spectra within each subgroup. As expected these stacked spectra show a softening trend from the hardest to the softest subgroups, which is reflected in the inferred line-of-sight column density. The spectra of the three hardest subgroups are characterized by a hard continuum plus superimposed Fe-line emission in the 6-7 keV bandpass. The average equivalent width (EW) of the 6.7-keV He-like Fe Kα line is 170^{+35}_{-32} eV, whereas the 6.4-keV Fe K fluorescence line from neutral iron and the 6.9-keV H-like Fe Lyα line have EWs of 89^{+26}_{-25} and 81^{+30}_{-29} eV, respectively, i.e. roughly half that of the 6.7-keV line. The remaining subgroups exhibit soft thermal spectra. Virtually all of the spectrally soft X-ray sources can be associated with relatively nearby coronally active late-type stars, which are evident as bright near-infrared (NIR) objects within the X-ray error circles. On a similar basis only a minority of the spectrally hard X-ray sources have likely NIR identifications. The average continuum and Fe-line properties of the spectrally hard sources are consistent with those of magnetic cataclysmic variables but the direct identification of large numbers of such systems in Galactic X-ray surveys, probing intermediate to faint flux levels, remains challenging.

  9. Assistive Technology: A Funding Workbook. Part I, A Road Map to Funding Sources. Part II, An Outline of Federal Laws and Rules. 1991 Edition. RESNA Technical Assistance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael W.; Golinker, Lewis A.

    This compilation on assistive technology devices and services aims to improve understanding of funding streams and creative ways to eliminate funding barriers in Medicaid, special education, and vocational rehabilitation. The first part comprises a workbook titled "A Road Map to Funding Sources." It assists in creating a systematic approach to…

  10. A US Perspective on Selected Biotechnological Advancements in Fish Health Part II: Genetic stock improvement, biosecurity tools and alternative protein sources in fish diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkable biotechnological advancements have been made in the aquaculture industry in the past five years. Advancements, in areas such as fish vaccines, improved genetic stock, biosecurity tools and alternative protein sources in fish diets, are necessary to meet the rapid growth of the aquacultur...

  11. ISOCAM observations in the Lockman Hole . II. The 14.3 μm deep survey: Data reduction, catalogue and source counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodighiero, G.; Lari, C.; Fadda, D.; Franceschini, A.; Elbaz, D.; Cesarsky, C.

    2004-12-01

    We present a new analysis of the ISOCAM 14.3 μm deep survey in a 20 × 20 square arcmins area in the Lockman Hole. This survey is intermediate between the ultra-deep surveys and the shallow surveys in the ELAIS fields. The data have been analyzed with the method presented by Lari et al. (\\cite{Lar01}). We have produced a catalogue of 283 sources detected above the 5-σ threshold, with fluxes in the interval 0.1-8 mJy. The catalogue is 90% complete at 1 mJy. The positional accuracy, estimated from the cross-correlation of infrared and optical sources, is around 1.5 arcsec. The search for the optical counterparts of the sources in the survey is performed on a medium-deep r' band optical image (5σ depth of r'=25), making use of the radio detections when available. The photometry has been checked through simulations and by comparing the data with those presented in a shallower and more extended ISOCAM survey in the Lockman Hole, that we have presented in a companion paper. Only 15% of the 14.3 μm sources do not have an optical counterpart down to r'=25 mag. We use the 6.7/14.3 μm colour as a star/galaxy separator, together with a visual inspection of the optical image and an analysis of the observed Spectral Energy Distribution of the ISOCAM sources. The stars in the sample turn out to be only 6% of the sample. We discuss the 14.3 μm counts of extragalactic sources, combining our catalogue with that obtained from the shallower ISOCAM survey. The data in the two surveys are consistent, and our results fully support the claims in previous works for the existence of an evolving population of infrared galaxies, confirming the evident departure from non-evolutionary model predictions. Based on observations obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA). Tables 2 and 3 are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130

  12. Separation of combustion noise and piston-slap in diesel engine—Part II: Separation of combustion noise and piston-slap using blind source separation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servière, C.; Lacoume, J.-L.; El Badaoui, M.

    2005-11-01

    This paper is devoted to blind separation of combustion noise and piston-slap in diesel engines. The two phenomena are recovered only from signals issued from accelerometers placed on one of the cylinders. A blind source separation (BSS) method is developed, based on a convolutive model of non-stationary mixtures. We introduce a new method based on the joint diagonalisation of the time varying spectral matrices of the observation records and a new technique to handle the problem of permutation ambiguity in the frequency domain. This method is then applied to real data and the estimated sources are validated by several physical arguments. So, the contribution of the piston-slap and the combustion noise can be recovered for all the sensors. The energy of the two phenomena can then be given with regards to the position of the accelerometers.

  13. Optical remote sensing to quantify fugitive particulate mass emissions from stationary short-term and mobile continuous sources: part II. Field applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Ke; Yuen, Wangki; Wang, Wei; Rood, Mark J; Varma, Ravi M; Hashmonay, Ram A; Kim, Byung J; Kemme, Michael R

    2011-01-15

    Quantification of emissions of fugitive particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere from military training operations is of interest by the United States Department of Defense. A new range-resolved optical remote sensing (ORS) method was developed to quantify fugitive PM emissions from puff sources (i.e., artillery back blasts), ground-level mobile sources (i.e., movement of tracked vehicles), and elevated mobile sources (i.e., airborne helicopters) in desert areas that are prone to generating fugitive dust plumes. Real-time, in situ mass concentration profiles for PM mass with particle diameters <10 μm (PM(10)) and <2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) were obtained across the dust plumes that were generated by these activities with this new method. Back blasts caused during artillery firing were characterized as a stationary short-term puff source whose plumes typically dispersed to <10 m above the ground with durations of 10-30 s. Fugitive PM emissions caused by artillery back blasts were related to the zone charge and ranged from 51 to 463 g PM/firing for PM(10) and 9 to 176 g PM/firing for PM(2.5). Movement of tracked vehicles and flying helicopters was characterized as mobile continuous sources whose plumes typically dispersed 30-50 m above the ground with durations of 100-200 s. Fugitive PM emissions caused by moving tracked vehicles ranged from 8.3 to 72.5 kg PM/km for PM(10) and 1.1 to 17.2 kg PM/km for PM(2.5), and there was no obvious correlation between PM emission and vehicle speed. The emission factor for the helicopter flying at 3 m above the ground ranged from 14.5 to 114.1 kg PM/km for PM(10) and 5.0 to 39.5 kg PM/km for PM(2.5), depending on the velocity of the helicopter and type of soil it flies over. Fugitive PM emissions by an airborne helicopter were correlated with helicopter speed for a particular soil type. The results from this range-resolved ORS method were also compared with the data obtained with another path-integrated ORS method and a Flux Tower

  14. Optical remote sensing to quantify fugitive particulate mass emissions from stationary short-term and mobile continuous sources: part II. Field applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Ke; Yuen, Wangki; Wang, Wei; Rood, Mark J; Varma, Ravi M; Hashmonay, Ram A; Kim, Byung J; Kemme, Michael R

    2011-01-15

    Quantification of emissions of fugitive particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere from military training operations is of interest by the United States Department of Defense. A new range-resolved optical remote sensing (ORS) method was developed to quantify fugitive PM emissions from puff sources (i.e., artillery back blasts), ground-level mobile sources (i.e., movement of tracked vehicles), and elevated mobile sources (i.e., airborne helicopters) in desert areas that are prone to generating fugitive dust plumes. Real-time, in situ mass concentration profiles for PM mass with particle diameters <10 μm (PM(10)) and <2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) were obtained across the dust plumes that were generated by these activities with this new method. Back blasts caused during artillery firing were characterized as a stationary short-term puff source whose plumes typically dispersed to <10 m above the ground with durations of 10-30 s. Fugitive PM emissions caused by artillery back blasts were related to the zone charge and ranged from 51 to 463 g PM/firing for PM(10) and 9 to 176 g PM/firing for PM(2.5). Movement of tracked vehicles and flying helicopters was characterized as mobile continuous sources whose plumes typically dispersed 30-50 m above the ground with durations of 100-200 s. Fugitive PM emissions caused by moving tracked vehicles ranged from 8.3 to 72.5 kg PM/km for PM(10) and 1.1 to 17.2 kg PM/km for PM(2.5), and there was no obvious correlation between PM emission and vehicle speed. The emission factor for the helicopter flying at 3 m above the ground ranged from 14.5 to 114.1 kg PM/km for PM(10) and 5.0 to 39.5 kg PM/km for PM(2.5), depending on the velocity of the helicopter and type of soil it flies over. Fugitive PM emissions by an airborne helicopter were correlated with helicopter speed for a particular soil type. The results from this range-resolved ORS method were also compared with the data obtained with another path-integrated ORS method and a Flux Tower

  15. A new laser vibrometry-based 2D selective intensity method for source identification in reverberant fields: part II. Application to an aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, G. M.; Martarelli, M.; Chiariotti, P.

    2010-07-01

    The selective intensity technique is a powerful tool for the localization of acoustic sources and for the identification of the structural contribution to the acoustic emission. In practice, the selective intensity method is based on simultaneous measurements of acoustic intensity, by means of a couple of matched microphones, and structural vibration of the emitting object. In this paper high spatial density multi-point vibration data, acquired by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, have been used for the first time. Therefore, by applying the selective intensity algorithm, the contribution of a large number of structural sources to the acoustic field radiated by the vibrating object can be estimated. The selective intensity represents the distribution of the acoustic monopole sources on the emitting surface, as if each monopole acted separately from the others. This innovative selective intensity approach can be very helpful when the measurement is performed on large panels in highly reverberating environments, such as aircraft cabins. In this case the separation of the direct acoustic field (radiated by the vibrating panels of the fuselage) and the reverberant one is difficult by traditional techniques. The work shown in this paper is the application of part of the results of the European project CREDO (Cabin Noise Reduction by Experimental and Numerical Design Optimization) carried out within the framework of the EU. Therefore the aim of this paper is to illustrate a real application of the method to the interior acoustic characterization of an Alenia Aeronautica ATR42 ground test facility, Alenia Aeronautica being a partner of the CREDO project.

  16. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, N. G.; Simeoni, G. G.; Lefmann, K.

    2016-04-01

    A dedicated beam-focusing device has been designed for the direct geometry thermal-cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the neutron facility FRM II (Garching, Germany). The prototype, based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept, benefits from the adaptive-optics technology (adjustable supermirror curvature) and the compact size (only 0.5 m long). We have simulated the neutron transport across the entire guide system. We present a detailed computer characterization of the existing device, along with the study of the factors mostly influencing the future improvement. We have optimized the simulated prototype as a function of the neutron wavelength, accounting also for all relevant features of a real instrument like the non-reflecting side edges. The results confirm the "chromatic" displacement of the focal point (flux density maximum) at fixed supermirror curvature, and the ability of a variable curvature to keep the focal point at the sample position. Our simulations are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and the experimentally measured beam profile. With respect to the possibility of a further upgrade, we find that supermirror coatings with m-values higher than 3.5 would have only marginal influence on the optimal behaviour, whereas comparable spectrometers could take advantage of longer focusing segments, with particular impact for the thermal region of the neutron spectrum.

  17. Physics of a magnetic filter for negative ion sources. II. E Multiplication-Sign B drift through the filter in a real geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Boeuf, J. P.; Claustre, J.; Chaudhury, B.; Fubiani, G.

    2012-11-15

    The physics of a magnetic filter under conditions similar to those of the negative ion source for the ITER neutral beam injector is analyzed with the help of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo Collisions model. A detailed analysis of the different terms of the electron momentum equations shows how diamagnetic and drift currents can be dominant in different regions of the filter. Electron transport through the filter is due to an E Multiplication-Sign B drift current on one side of the chamber induced by the presence of the chamber walls perpendicular to the electron diamagnetic current. The filter design of the ITER negative ion source, which does not allow a closed electron diamagnetic current, induces an asymmetry of the plasma that is analyzed with the particle model. It is shown that electron transport through the filter in this geometry is very different from the transport in an ideal, one-dimensional magnetic filter often considered in the literature and described in detail in the companion paper [Boeuf et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 113509 (2012)].

  18. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. II. MONITORING OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE REFERENCE SOURCES 3C 454.3, B2250+194, AND B2252+172

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, R. R.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Luca, P.; Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Lederman, J. I.

    2012-07-01

    We used 8.4 GHz very long baseline interferometry images obtained at up to 35 epochs between 1997 and 2005 to examine the radio structures of the main reference source, 3C 454.3, and two secondary reference sources, B2250+194 and B2252+172, for the guide star for the NASA/Stanford relativity mission Gravity Probe B (GP-B). For one epoch in 2004 May, we also obtained images at 5.0 and 15.4 GHz. The 35 8.4 GHz images for quasar 3C 454.3 confirm a complex, evolving, core-jet structure. We identified at each epoch a component, C1, near the easternmost edge of the core region. Simulations of the core region showed that C1 is located, on average, 0.18 {+-} 0.06 mas west of the unresolved 'core' identified in 43 GHz images. We also identified in 3C 454.3 at 8.4 GHz several additional components that moved away from C1 with proper motions ranging in magnitude between 0.9 c and 5 c. The detailed motions of the components exhibit two distinct bends in the jet axis located {approx}3 and {approx}5.5 mas west of C1. The spectra between 5.0 and 15.4 GHz for the 'moving' components are steeper than those for C1. The 8.4 GHz images of B2250+194 and B2252+172, in contrast to those of 3C 454.3, reveal compact structures. The spectrum between 5.0 and 15.4 GHz for B2250+194 is inverted while that for B2252+172 is flat. Based on its position near the easternmost edge of the 8.4 GHz radio structure, close spatial association with the 43 GHz core, and relatively flat spectrum, we believe 3C 454.3 component C1 to be the best choice for the ultimate reference point for the GP-B guide star. The compact structures and inverted-to-flat spectra of B2250+194 and B2252+172 make these objects valuable secondary reference sources.

  19. A physically-derived nonquasi-static model of ferroelectric amplifiers for computer-aided device simulation - Part II: The ferroelectric common-source and common-gate amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, Rana; Hunt, Mitchell; Ho, Fat D.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, Part II of the authors' paper [1], the physically-derived nonquasi-static model presented in [1] is applied to the ferroelectric common-source and common-gate amplifiers. The model is based on the method of partitioned channel and ferroelectric layers and is valid in accumulation, depletion, and all three cases of inversion: weak, moderate, and strong. The equations of this model are based on the standard MOSFET equations that have been adapted to include the ferroelectric properties. The model code is written in MATLAB and outputs voltage plots with respect to time. The accuracy and effectiveness of the model are verified by two test cases, where the modeled results are compared to empirically-derived oscilloscope plots.

  20. Optical spectroscopy of IRAS sources with infrared emission bands. II. IRAS 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Jones, B.F.; Walker, H.J.; Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA )

    1989-06-01

    The paper presents long-slit optical spectra and microwave CO spectra of four nebulous counterparts to IRAS sources showing PAH emission features: 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758. IRAS 22539+5758 is associated with a bipolar nebula. All are allied with B-type stars that suffer appreciable circumstellar extinction, and whose environs show atomic emission lines; three represent mixed reflection/emission nebulosities. Three show spectroscopic evidence for outflows at about 100 km/s. One, 06114+1745, exhibits indications of enhanced diffuse interstellar bands. It is concluded that extinction alone is insufficient to yield enhanced DIBs and that peculiar circumstellar abundances and/or physical conditions must play a role. 20 refs.

  1. Effect of various sources of organic carbon and high nitrite and nitrate concentrations on the selection of denitrifying bacteria. II. Continuous cultures in packed bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, M

    1983-01-01

    The effect of different organic compounds, nitrites and nitrates at the concentration of 1,000 mg N/l on the quantitative and strain-specific selection of denitrifying bacteria was determined in anaerobic packed bed reactors. Both the source of carbon and nitrogen form influenced strain specificity and the frequency of occurrence of denitrifying bacteria. The frequency of denitrifying bacteria within packed bed reactor ranged in different media from 11% (glucose and nitrates) to 100% (methanol and ethanol with nitrates). A single species selection was observed in the presence of nitrites within packed bed reactor: Pseudomonas aeruginosa in medium with acetate. Pseudomonas stutzeri in medium with ethanol, Pseudomonas mendocina in medium with methanol and Pseudomonas fluorescens in medium with glucose. When nitrates were present in packed bed reactor, the dominating bacteria were: P. stutzeri in medium with acetate, P. fluorescens in medium with ethanol, Paracoccus denitrificans in medium with methanol and Alcaligenes faecalis in medium with glucose. PMID:6194668

  2. Pyromat II micropyrolysis of source rocks and oil shales: Effects of native content and sample size on T sub max values and kinetic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.; Murray, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Pyromat 2 micropyrolyzer can routinely measure kinetics on standard shales and source rocks. However, when examining samples which have high native bitumen contents, samples with high TOC and native bitumen contents, asphaltenes, tar sands, and other non-kerogen type materials, the pyrolysis profiles sometimes deviate from normal expected behavior. Some of the deviant features are: (1) evolution before the maximum assigned to kerogen breakdown, (2) broadening of the maximum assigned to kerogen breakdown and shifting in T{sub max} with increasing sample size, and (3) artifacts in activation energy distributions derived in kinetic analyses. This report examines these features in more detail and offers potential experimental solutions to circumvent problems created by these features. 9 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Lead (II) detection and contamination routes in environmental sources, cookware and home-prepared foods from Zimatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, M; Merino-Sánchez, C; Hall, C; Grieshop, J; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M E; Handley, M A

    2009-04-01

    An interdisciplinary investigation, involving environmental geochemists, epidemiologists, nurses, and anthropologists, was undertaken to determine the contamination source and pathway of an on-going outbreak of lead poisoning among migrants originating from Zimatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico and living in Seaside, California, and among their US-born children. An initial investigation in Seaside identified grasshopper foodstuff ("chapulines") imported from Mexico and consumed as snacks, as containing alarmingly high lead concentrations (up to 2300 mg/kg). The focus in the present work concentrates on the Oaxacan area of origin of the problem in Mexico, and two potential sources of contamination were investigated: wind-borne dusts from existing mine residues as potential contaminants of soil, plant, and fauna; and food preparation practices using lead-glazed ceramic cookware. Over a three year period, sampling was conducted in Oaxaca using community-level sampling and also targeted sampling with families of cases with lead poisoning in California. In addition to fresh field chapulines, we analyzed for total lead: soil, water, mine residues, and plant materials, both from areas adjacent to or at an abandoned waste site containing mine tailings, and from fields where chapulines are collected; foodstuffs gathered in community markets or in a food transport business; and foodstuffs and cookware gathered from relatives of case families in California. Also, selected new and used lead-glazed clay cookware was extracted for lead, using 0.02 M citric acid and with 4% acetic acid. The results indicated significant presence of lead in mine wastes, in specific foodstuffs, and in glazed cookware, but no extensive soil contamination was identified. In-situ experiments demonstrated that lead incorporation in food is made very efficient through grinding of spices in glazed cookware, with the combination of a harsh mechanical action and the frequent presence of acidic lime juice, but without

  4. THE OPTICAL SPECTRA OF SPITZER 24 mum GALAXIES IN THE COSMIC EVOLUTION SURVEY FIELD. II. FAINT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE zCOSMOS-BRIGHT 10k CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Caputi, K. I.; Lilly, S. J.; Maier, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Aussel, H.; Floc'h, E. Le; Frayer, D.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Coppa, G.; Bongiorno, A.

    2009-12-20

    We have used the zCOSMOS-bright 10k sample to identify 3244 Spitzer/MIPS 24 mum-selected galaxies with 0.06 mJy < S{sub 24{sub m}}u{sub m} approx< 0.50 mJy and I{sub AB} < 22.5, over 1.5 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, and studied different spectral properties, depending on redshift. At 0.2 < z < 0.3, we found that different reddening laws of common use in the literature explain the dust extinction properties of approx80% of our infrared (IR) sources, within the error bars. For up to 16% of objects, instead, the Halpha lambda6563/Hbeta lambda4861 ratios are too high for their IR/UV attenuations, which is probably a consequence of inhomogeneous dust distributions. In only a few of our galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.3, the IR emission could be mainly produced by dust heated by old rather than young stars. Besides, the line ratios of approx22% of our galaxies suggest that they might be star-formation/nuclear-activity composite systems. At 0.5 < z < 0.7, we estimated galaxy metallicities for 301 galaxies: at least 12% of them are securely below the upper-branch mass-metallicity trend, which is consistent with the local relation. Finally, we performed a combined analysis of the H{sub d}elta equivalent width versus D{sub n} (4000) diagram for 1722 faint and bright 24 mum galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.0, spanning two decades in mid-IR luminosity. We found that, while secondary bursts of star formation are necessary to explain the position of the most luminous IR galaxies in that diagram, quiescent, exponentially declining star formation histories can well reproduce the spectral properties of approx40% of the less luminous sources. Our results suggest a transition in the possible modes of star formation at total IR luminosities L{sub TIR} approx (3 +- 2) x 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}.

  5. The Hiroshima thermal-neutron discrepancy for (36)Cl at large distances. Part II: Natural in situ production as a source.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Eckehart; Huber, Thomas; Rühm, Werner; Kato, Kazuo; Lazarev, Vitali; Schultz, Ludolf

    2005-10-01

    For Hiroshima, a large discrepancy between calculated and measured thermal-neutron fluences had been reported in the past, for distances to the epicenter larger than about 1,000 m. To be more specific, measured (36)Cl concentrations in environmental samples from Hiroshima were too large at these distances, and the ratio of measured to calculated values reached about 70, at a distance of 1,800 m. In an attempt to identify other sources that might also produce (36)Cl in Hiroshima samples, the role of cosmic rays and of neutrons from natural terrestrial sources was investigated. Four reaction mechanisms were taken into account: spallation reactions of the nucleonic (hadronic) component of the cosmic rays on potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) in the sample material, particle emission after nuclear capture of negative muons by K and Ca, reactions of fast-muon induced electromagnetic, and hadronic showers with K and Ca, and neutron capture reactions with (35)Cl in the sample where the neutrons originate from the above three reaction mechanisms and from uranium and thorium decay. These mechanisms are physically described and mathematically quantified. It is shown that among those parameters important for the production of (36)Cl in granite, the chemical composition of the sample, the depth in the quarry where the sample had initially been taken, and the erosion rate at the site of the quarry are most important. Based on these physical, chemical, and geological parameters, (36)Cl concentrations were calculated for different types of granite that are typical for the Hiroshima area. In samples that were of these granite types and that had not been exposed to atomic bomb(A-bomb) neutrons, the (36)Cl concentration was also determined experimentally by means of accelerator mass spectrometry, and good agreement was found with the calculated values. The (36)Cl signal due to natural in situ production was also calculated in granite samples that had been exposed to A-bomb neutrons at

  6. The Hiroshima thermal-neutron discrepancy for (36)Cl at large distances. Part II: Natural in situ production as a source.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Eckehart; Huber, Thomas; Rühm, Werner; Kato, Kazuo; Lazarev, Vitali; Schultz, Ludolf

    2005-10-01

    For Hiroshima, a large discrepancy between calculated and measured thermal-neutron fluences had been reported in the past, for distances to the epicenter larger than about 1,000 m. To be more specific, measured (36)Cl concentrations in environmental samples from Hiroshima were too large at these distances, and the ratio of measured to calculated values reached about 70, at a distance of 1,800 m. In an attempt to identify other sources that might also produce (36)Cl in Hiroshima samples, the role of cosmic rays and of neutrons from natural terrestrial sources was investigated. Four reaction mechanisms were taken into account: spallation reactions of the nucleonic (hadronic) component of the cosmic rays on potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) in the sample material, particle emission after nuclear capture of negative muons by K and Ca, reactions of fast-muon induced electromagnetic, and hadronic showers with K and Ca, and neutron capture reactions with (35)Cl in the sample where the neutrons originate from the above three reaction mechanisms and from uranium and thorium decay. These mechanisms are physically described and mathematically quantified. It is shown that among those parameters important for the production of (36)Cl in granite, the chemical composition of the sample, the depth in the quarry where the sample had initially been taken, and the erosion rate at the site of the quarry are most important. Based on these physical, chemical, and geological parameters, (36)Cl concentrations were calculated for different types of granite that are typical for the Hiroshima area. In samples that were of these granite types and that had not been exposed to atomic bomb(A-bomb) neutrons, the (36)Cl concentration was also determined experimentally by means of accelerator mass spectrometry, and good agreement was found with the calculated values. The (36)Cl signal due to natural in situ production was also calculated in granite samples that had been exposed to A-bomb neutrons at

  7. Coronal hole boundaries evolution at small scales. II. XRT view. Can small-scale outflows at CHBs be a source of the slow solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, S.; Madjarska, M. S.; Doyle, J. G.

    2010-06-01

    Aims: We aim to further explore the small-scale evolution of coronal hole boundaries using X-ray high-resolution and high-cadence images. We intend to determine the fine structure and dynamics of the events causing changes of coronal hole boundaries and to explore the possibility that these events are the source of the slow solar wind. Methods: We developed an automated procedure for the identification of transient brightenings in images from the X-ray telescope on-board Hinode taken with an Al Poly filter in the equatorial coronal holes, polar coronal holes, and the quiet Sun with and without transient coronal holes. Results: We found that in comparison to the quiet Sun, the boundaries of coronal holes are abundant with brightening events including areas inside the coronal holes where closed magnetic field structures are present. The visual analysis of these brightenings revealed that around 70% of them in equatorial, polar and transient coronal holes and their boundaries show expanding loop structures and/or collimated outflows. In the quiet Sun only 30% of the brightenings show flows with most of them appearing to be contained in the solar corona by closed magnetic field lines. This strongly suggests that magnetic reconnection of co-spatial open and closed magnetic field lines creates the necessary conditions for plasma outflows to large distances. The ejected plasma always originates from pre-existing or newly emerging (at X-ray temperatures) bright points. Conclusions: The present study confirms our findings that the evolution of loop structures known as coronal bright points is associated with the small-scale changes of coronal hole boundaries. The loop structures show an expansion and eruption with the trapped plasma consequently escaping along the “quasi” open magnetic field lines. These ejections appear to be triggered by magnetic reconnection, e.g. the so-called interchange reconnection between the closed magnetic field lines (BPs) and the open

  8. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    PubMed

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404.

  9. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    PubMed

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404. PMID:27435616

  10. Cadmium (II) pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex as single source precursor for the preparation of CdS nanocrystals by microwave irradiation and conventional heating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx Nirmal, R.; Pandian, K.; Sivakumar, K.

    2011-01-01

    The complex of cadmium with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate Cd(pdtc)2 has been used as single source precursor for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. The formation of CdS nanostructures was achieved by thermal decomposition of the complex under microwave irradiation and conventional heating in presence of hexadecylamine. The CdS nanoparticles with disordered close-packed structure were obtained under microwave irradiation, whereas wurtzite hexagonal phase CdS nanorods were obtained by conventional heating method (up to 150 °C). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies also were carried out to study the structure and morphology of nanoparticles. The optical property of the CdS nanoparticles was studied by UV-visible and fluorescence emission spectral studies. Fluorescence measurements on the CdS nanoparticles show a strong emission spectrum with two sub bands that are attributed to band-edge and surface-defect emissions. The reduction of a suitable cadmium metal complex is considered to be one of the single pot methods to generate CdS semiconductor nanoparticles with different shapes and high yield.

  11. Zircon age range and sources of alkaline rocks from the Kurgusul intrusion, Kuznetsk Alatau: The first U-Pb (SHRIMP II) and Sm-Nd isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Gertner, I. F.; Tishin, P. A.; Bayanova, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    U-Pb isotope analysis of basic feldspathoid rocks (juvites) of the Kurgusul intrusion, NE Kuznetsk Alatau, revealed three generations of zircons of various ages (˜1.3-1.5 Ga; 484.3 ± 5.5 and 393.6 ± 9.2Ma). This suggests several stages of regional alkaline basic magmatism in the Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician and Early-Middle Devonian and melting of the Mesoproterozoic continental crust, which form part of the basement of the Kuznetsk Alatau terrane. The trace element geochemical data indicate a continental margin setting characterized by the complex interaction of a plume-related, supra-subduction zone and crustal materials. A possible model of the magmatic evolution assumes that the ascent of a plume at the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary induced generation of the initial alkaline basaltic magmas and metasomatism and erosion of the lower lithosphere. Repeated partial melting of the lower crust after a 100 Myr period produced new magma batches of alkaline composition, which inherited zircons from the preceding episode of magma generation. The inherited juvenile magmatic source (PREMA + E-type MORB + EM) is confirmed by similarities in the Sm-Nd isotopic signatures (ɛNd( T) ≈ +4.5 to +5.7, T(Nd)DM ≈ 0.8-0.9 Ga) of derivatives of regional alkaline basic complexes of different ages.

  12. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground water used as a source of public supply in southern Missouri : Phase II, April-July, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of public health through quality public ground-water systems is the responsibility of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Missouri, through the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Public Drinking Water Program. Approximately 95 percent of the public-water supplies in Missouri use ground water as their source of drinking water through more than 3,700 public wells. Karst terrain, intensive agricultural operations, extensive numbers of on-site sewage systems, and poor well construction can lead to chemical and microbiological contamination of the contributing aquifers. Sitespecific studies and routine regulatory monitoring have produced information on the overall quality and potability of the State's public-drinking-water supplies, but little is known about the presence of viruses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, sampled 109 public-water supplies to characterize the physical, chemical, bacterial, and viral conditions in southern Missouri. During April to July 1998, these wells were sampled for nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, indicator bacteria, enteric viruses, and ribonucleic acid and somatic coli phages. These constituents indicate possible surface contamination of the sampled aquifer. Selection of the wells to be sampled depended on the age of the well (pre-1970), land use, geohydrology, and well construction. None of the physical or chemical constituents measured or analyzed exceeded Missouri's Drinking Water Standards set by the Public Drinking Water Program of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The majority of ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite, and phosphorus concentrations were below the laboratory's minimum reporting levels. There were a greater number of detects above the minimum reporting level with respect to the nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and total organic carbon concentrations. Analyses

  13. UV-TO-FIR ANALYSIS OF SPITZER/IRAC SOURCES IN THE EXTENDED GROTH STRIP. II. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, STELLAR MASSES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barro, G.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Kajisawa, M.; Yamada, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    2011-04-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 {mu}m selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] {<=} 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg{sup 2}. The typical photometric redshift accuracy is {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 {mu}m data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z {approx}> 1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 {mu}m data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.

  14. An Extensive Census of Hubble Space Telescope Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae. II. Time Series and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Peter D.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Heinke, Craig O.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    2003-10-01

    We report time series and variability information for the optical identifications of X-ray sources in 47 Tucanae reported in Paper I (at least 22 cataclysmic variables [CVs] and 29 active binaries). The radial distribution of the CVs is indistinguishable from that of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) detected by Freire et al. A study of the eight CVs with secure orbital periods (two obtained from the Chandra study of Grindlay et al.) shows that the 47 Tuc CVs have fainter accretion disks, in the V band, than field CVs with similar periods. These faint disks and the faint absolute magnitudes (MV) of the 47 Tuc CVs suggests they have low accretion rates. One possible explanation is that the 47 Tuc objects may be a more representative sample of CVs, down to our detection threshold, than the CVs found in the field (where many low accretion rate systems are believed to be undiscovered), showing the advantages of deep globular cluster observations. The median FX/Fopt value for the 47 Tuc CVs is higher than that of all known classes of field CV, partly because of the faint MV values and partly because of the relatively high X-ray luminosities (LX). The latter are only seen in DQ Her systems in the field, but the 47 Tuc CVs are much fainter optically than most field DQ Her's. Previous work by Edmonds et al. has shown that the four brightest CVs in NGC 6397 have optical spectra and broadband colors that are consistent with DQ Her's having lower than average accretion rates. Some combination of magnetic behavior and low accretion rates may be able to explain our observations, but the results at present are ambiguous, since no class of field CV has distributions of both LX and MV that are consistent with those of the 47 Tuc CVs. The radial distribution of the X-ray detected active binaries is indistinguishable from that of the much larger sample of optical variables (eclipsing and contact binaries and BY Dra variables) detected in previous Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2

  15. Tyrosinaemia II.

    PubMed

    Colditz, P B; Yu, J S; Billson, F A; Rogers, M; Molloy, H F; O'Halloran, M; Wilcken, B

    1984-08-18

    Four cases of tyrosinaemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome) are reported. This syndrome consists of corneal erosions, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, and sometimes mental retardation. Presentation with photophobia and dendritic corneal ulceration or circumscribed palmoplantar keratoderma should alert the physician to the possible diagnosis of tyrosinaemia II. Early diagnosis is important, as the clinical picture can be modified by dietary restriction.

  16. An Observational and modeling strategy to investigate the impact of remote sources on local air quality: A Houston, Texas case study from the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS II)

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, W. W.; Pierce, R.; Sparling, L. C.; Osterman, G.; McCann, K.; Fischer, M. L.; Rappengluck, B.; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Kittaka, C.; Evans, K.; Biraud, S.; Lefer, Barry; Andrews, A.; Oltmans, S.

    2010-01-05

    Quantifying the impacts of remote sources on individual air quality exceedances remains a significant challenge for air quality forecasting. One goal of the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS II) was to assess the impact of distant sources on air quality in east Texas. From 23-30 August 2006, retrievals of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from NASA’s Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) reveal the transport of CO from fires in the United States Pacific Northwest to Houston, Texas. This transport occurred behind a cold front and contributed to the worst ozone exceedance period of the summer in the Houston area. We present supporting satellite observations from the NASA A-Train constellation of the vertical distribution of smoke aerosols and CO. Ground-based in situ CO measurements in Oklahoma and Texas track the CO plume as it moves south and indicate mixing of the aloft plume to the surface by turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer and convection during the day. Ground-based aerosol speciation and lidar observations do not find appreciable smoke aerosol transport for this case. However, MODIS aerosol optical depths and model simulations indicate some smoke aerosols were transported from the Pacific Northwest through Texas to the Gulf of Mexico. Chemical transport and forward trajectory models confirm the three major observations: (1) the AIRS envisioned CO transport, (2) the satellite determined smoke plume height, and (3) the timing of the observed surface CO increases. Further, the forward trajectory simulations find two of the largest Pacific Northwest fires likely had the most significant impact.

  17. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  18. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  19. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  20. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  1. BORE II

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migratemore » upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.« less

  2. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  3. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

  4. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  5. NSLS-II RF SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Holub, B.; Kawashima, Y.; Ma, H.; Towne, N.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II is a new third generation light source being constructed at Brookhaven Lab. The storage ring is optimized for low emittance by use of damping wigglers to reduce the emittance to below 1 nm-rad. The RF systems are designed to provide stable beam through tight RF phase and amplitude stability requirements.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Danish leafy crops. Part I: PAH in kale and beets relate to point sources of PAH. Part II: a survey of PAH in commercial grown fresh and deep-frozen kale

    SciTech Connect

    Vahl, M.; Beck, J.; Stoebet, M.

    1982-01-01

    Part I discusses the investigation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) has been to demonstrate the possible pollution of leafy vegetables from expected PAH-emmissions, and to compare with similar investigations in Scandinavia. Part II is a survey has been to establish levels of PAH to which consumers are normally exposed from intake of fruits and above ground parts of vegetables.

  7. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. Area source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon mon...

  8. The VVDS-VLA deep field. II. Optical and near infrared identifications of VLA S1.4 GHz > 80 μ Jy sources in the VIMOS VLT deep survey VVDS-02h field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciliegi, P.; Zamorani, G.; Bondi, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Gregorini, L.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Radovich, M.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Parma, P.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mathez, G.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Merluzzi, P.; Paltani, S.; Pollo, A.; Zucca, E.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Gavignaud, I.; Pellò, R.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper we present the optical and near-infrared identifications of the 1054 radio sources detected in the 20 cm deep radio survey down to a 5σ flux limit of ~80 μJy obtained with the VLA in the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey VVDS-02h deep field. Using U,B,V,R,I and K data, with limiting magnitudes of UAB˜25.4, BAB˜26.5, VAB˜26.2, RAB˜25.9 IAB˜25.0, JAB˜24.2, KAB˜23.9 (50% completeness) we identified 718 radio sources (~74% of the whole sample). The photometric redshift analysis shows that, in each magnitude bin, the radio sample has a higher median photometric redshift than the whole optical sample, while the median (V-I)AB color of the radio sources is redder than the median color of the whole optical sample. These results suggest that radio detection is preferentially selecting galaxies with higher intrinsic optical luminosity. From the analysis of the optical properties of the radio sources as function of the radio flux, we found that while about 35% of the radio sources are optically unidentified in the higher radio flux bin (S> 1.0 mJy), the percentage of unidentified sources decreases to about 25% in the faintest bins (S< 0.5 mJy). The median IAB magnitude for the total sample of radio sources, i.e. including also the unidentified ones, is brighter in the faintest radio bins than in the bin with higher radio flux. This suggests that most of the faintest radio sources are likely to be associated to relatively lower radio luminosity objects at relatively modest redshift, rather than radio-powerful, AGN type objects at high redshift. Using a classification in early-type and late-type galaxies based on the (B-I)AB color and the photometric redshift, we found that the majority of the radio sources below ~0.15 mJy are indeed late-type star forming galaxies. Finally, the radio sources without optical counterpart in our deep imaging have a median radio flux of 0.15 mJy, equal to that of identified sources. Given the very faint optical limits, these

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart II of... - General Provisions of Applicability to Subpart II

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Reference Applies to subpart II Comment 63.1(a)(1)-(3) Yes. 63.1(a)(4) Yes Subpart II clarifies the applicability of each paragraph in subpart A to sources subject to subpart II. 63.1(a)(5)-(7) Yes 63.1(a)(8) No Discusses State programs. 63.1(a)(9)-(14) Yes 63.1(b)(1) Yes § 63.781 specifies applicability in more...

  10. The Amityville Experience During World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Historical Inquiry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    An historical journal compiled by advanced placement American history high school students contains 10 articles about the experiences of residents of Amityville, New York, during World War II. Students used secondary sources, first-hand newspaper accounts, oral interviews, and primary source documents to recreate Amityville as it was during those…

  11. RTNS-II: present status

    SciTech Connect

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1980-10-01

    The present status of the RTNS-II facility is described and typical operating parameters are given. A brief discussion is given of the methods used in production of the TiT/sub 2/ targets as well as their performance and tritium handling at RTNS-II. The various types of non-interactive beam diagnostics presently in use at the neutron sources are outlined. The on-line computer system which provides a time history of an irradiation and records target performance is described. Examples are listed of several representative experimental programs which have been carried out thus far at RTNS-II. These include both active and passive experiments. Finally, several of the major improvements to the facility made since the beginning of the experimental program are given.

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart II of... - General Provisions of Applicability to Subpart II

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General Provisions of Applicability to Subpart II 1 Table 1 to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...

  13. [C II] and [N II] from dense ionized regions in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The interstellar medium (ISM) consists of highly ionized and neutral atomic, as well as molecular, components. Knowledge of their distribution is important for tracing the structure and lifecycle of the ISM. Aims: To determine the properties of the highly ionized gas and neutral weakly ionized gas in the Galaxy traced by the fine-structure lines of ionized nitrogen, [N ii], and ionized carbon, [C ii]. Methods: We utilize observations of the [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm fine-structure lines taken with the high spectral resolution Heterodyne Instrument in the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory along ten lines of sight towards the inner Galaxy to analyze the ionized ISM. The [N ii] emission can be used to estimate the contribution of the highly ionized gas to the [C ii] emission and separate the contributions from highly ionized and weakly ionized neutral gas. Results: We find that [N ii] has strong emission in distinct spectral features along all lines of sight associated with strong [C ii] emission. The [N ii] arises from moderate density extended H ii regions or ionized boundary layers of clouds. Comparison of the [N ii] and [C ii] spectra in 31 separate kinematic features shows that many of the [C ii] spectra are affected by absorption from low excitation gas associated with molecular clouds, sometimes strongly so. The apparent fraction of the [C ii] associated with the [N ii] gas is unrealistically large in many cases, most likely due to the reduction of [C ii] by absorption. In a few cases the foreground absorption can be modeled to determine the true source intensity. In these sources we find that the foreground absorbing gas layer has C+ column densities of order 1018 cm-2. Conclusions: [C ii] emission arising from strong sources of [N ii] emission is frequently absorbed by low excitation foreground gas complicating the interpretation of the properties of the ionized and neutral gas components that give rise to [C ii] emission.

  14. Semipermeable membrane devices link site-specific contaminants to effects: PART II - A comparison of lingering Exxon Valdez oil with other potential sources of CYP1A inducers in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Short, Jeffrey W; Springman, Kathrine R; Lindeberg, Mandy R; Holland, Larry G; Larsen, Marie L; Sloan, Catherine A; Khan, Colin; Hodson, Peter V; Rice, Stanley D

    2008-12-01

    We deployed semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) on beaches for 28 days at 53 sites in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, to evaluate the induction potential from suspected sources of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A)-inducing contaminants. Sites were selected to assess known point sources, or were chosen randomly to evaluate the region-wide sources. After deployment, SPMD extracts were analyzed chemically for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These results were compared with hepatic CYP1A enzyme activity of juvenile rainbow trout injected with the same extracts prior to clean-up for the chemical analyses. Increased CYP1A activity was strongly associated with PAH concentrations in extracts, especially chrysene homologues but was not associated with POPs. The only apparent sources of chrysene homologues were lingering oil from Exxon Valdez, asphalt and bunker fuels released from storage tanks during the 1964 Alaska earthquake, creosote leaching from numerous pilings at one site, and PAH-contaminated sediments at Cordova Harbor. Our results indicate that PWS is remarkably free of pollution from PAH when nearby sources are absent as well as from pesticides and PCBs generally. PMID:18845332

  15. Nonpoint Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, F. X.

    1978-01-01

    Presented a literature review of nonpoint source effects on water quality and pollution covering: (1) water quality effects; (2) watershed studies; (3) nonpoint source models; and nonpoint source controls. A list of 122 references published in 1976 and 1977 is also presented. (HM)

  16. Dietary fiber for dogs: II. Iso-total dietary fiber (TDF) additions of divergent fiber sources to dog diets and their effects on nutrient intake, digestibility, metabolizable energy and digesta mean retention time.

    PubMed

    Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Corbin, J E; Hamilton, A K; Serbe, K A; Hirakawa, D A

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine widely divergent fiber sources for their efficacy as ingredients in a meat-based dog diet and to determine the effects of these fibers on fecal excretion responses and mean retention time of marked fiber in the gastrointestinal tract of the dog. Fiber sources tested included beet pulp (BP), tomato pomace (TP), peanut hulls (PH), wheat bran (WB) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide-treated wheat straw (AHPWS). Diets were isonitrogenous (5.3% N) and iso-total dietary fiber (TDF; 12.5%). Thirty female English Pointers (five/treatment) were used in the experiment. Intakes of DM and OM were similar among treatments. The highest intakes of ether extract (EE) occurred on the TP, PH and WB treatments. Dogs fed PH ingested the most crude fiber (23.6 g/d), NDF (53.5 g/d), ADF (34.3 g/d) and TDF (59.7 g/d). Digestibilities of DM and OM for all fiber treatments were lower than the control (87.6 vs 81.8% for DM; 90.2 vs 85.4% for OM), but values were similar among fiber sources. The highest EE and N digestibilities occurred on the control and AHPWS treatments. No differences were noted among exogenous fiber-containing treatments in fiber component digestibility. Digestible energy and ME values generally were similar among treatments. Among fiber sources, BP resulted in the greatest amount of wet feces excreted (270 g/d) and the lowest fecal DM (30.3%). No differences among fiber sources were noted in frequency of defecation or mean retention time. Iso-TDF diets (containing, on average, 12.5% TDF) appear to be utilized similarly, regardless of the diversity in sources of fiber tested.

  17. Nonpoint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Selzer, L.

    1994-12-31

    Nonpoint source pollution remains the most pervasive water quality issue faced today. Unlike pollution from point sources, nonpoint source pollution is diffuse both in terms of its origin and the manner in which it enters ground and surface waters. It results from a great variety of human activities that take place over a wide geographic area perhaps many hundreds or even thousands of acres. And unlike pollutants from point sources--which enter the environment at well-defined locations and in relatively even, continuous discharges--pollutants from nonpoint sources usually find their way into surface and ground waters in sudden surges associated with rainfall, thunderstorms, or snowmelt. The author discusses some of the most significant sources of nonpoint source pollution.

  18. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  19. NSLS-II Radio Frequency Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rose J.; Gao F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; Marques, C.; Yeddulla, M.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a 3 GeV X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The NSLS-II RF system consists of the master oscillator, digital low level RF controllers, linac, booster and storage ring RF sub-systems, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system.

  20. NSLS-II Beam Diagnostics Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,O.; Alforque, R.; Bacha, B.; Blednykh, A.; Cameron, P.; Cheng, W.; Dalesio, L. B.; Della Penna, A. J.; doom, L.; Fliller, R. P.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H-C.; Johnson, E. D.; Kosciuk, b. N.; Kramer, S. L.; Krinsky, S.; Mead, J.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, R. V.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.; Skaritka, J.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, Y.; Willeke, F. J.; Yu, L-H.

    2009-05-04

    A new 3rd generation light source (NSLS-II) is in the early stages of construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. It presents several challenges for diagnostics and instrumentation, related to the extremely small emittance. In this paper, we present an overview of all planned instrumentation systems, results from research and development activities; and then focus on other challenging aspects.

  1. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  2. A study of high-temperature heat pipes with multiple heat sources and sinks. I - Experimental methodology and frozen startup profiles. II - Analysis of continuum transient and steady-state experimental data with numerical predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faghri, A.; Cao, Y.; Buchko, M.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental profiles for heat pipe startup from the frozen state were obtained, using a high-temperature sodium/stainless steel pipe with multiple heat sources and sinks to investigate the startup behavior of the heat pipe for various heat loads and input locations, with both low and high heat rejection rates at the condensor. The experimental results of the performance characteristics for the continuum transient and steady-state operation of the heat pipe were analyzed, and the performance limits for operation with varying heat fluxes and location are determined.

  3. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Martina, E.F.

    1958-04-22

    An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,

  4. Thermographic inspection of wind turbine rotor blade segment utilizing natural conditions as excitation source, Part II: The effect of climatic conditions on thermographic inspections - A long term outdoor experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worzewski, Tamara; Krankenhagen, Rainer; Doroshtnasir, Manoucher

    2016-05-01

    The present study continues the work described in part I of this paper in evaluating a long-term-experiment, where a rotor blade segment of a wind turbine is exposed to the elements and thereby monitored with passive thermography. First, it is investigated whether subsurface features in rotor blades - mainly made of GFRP - can generally be detected with thermography from greater distances under favorable conditions. The suitability of the sun for acting as a heat source in applying active thermography has been tested in the previous study. In this study, the climatic influence on thermographic measurement is evaluated. It is demonstrated that there are favorable and unfavorable circumstances for imaging thermal contrasts which reflect inner structures and other subsurface features like potential defects. It turns out that solar radiation serves as a very effective heat source, but not at all times of day. Other environmental influences such as diurnal temperature variations also create temperature contrasts that permit conclusions on subsurface features. Particular scenarios are reconstructed with FEM-simulations in order to gain deeper insight into the driving mechanisms that produce the observed thermal contrasts. These investigations may help planning useful outdoor operations for inspecting rotor blades with thermography.

  5. 10 CFR 39.77 - Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment... incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources. (a) The licensee shall... abandonment procedures; or (ii) That the licensee implemented abandonment before receiving NRC...

  6. 10 CFR 39.77 - Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment... incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources. (a) The licensee shall... abandonment procedures; or (ii) That the licensee implemented abandonment before receiving NRC...

  7. 10 CFR 39.77 - Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment... incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources. (a) The licensee shall... abandonment procedures; or (ii) That the licensee implemented abandonment before receiving NRC...

  8. 10 CFR 39.77 - Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment... incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources. (a) The licensee shall... abandonment procedures; or (ii) That the licensee implemented abandonment before receiving NRC...

  9. 10 CFR 39.77 - Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment... incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources. (a) The licensee shall... abandonment procedures; or (ii) That the licensee implemented abandonment before receiving NRC...

  10. Far Outer Galaxy H II Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, A. L.; deGues, E. J.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have made a multifrequency (6, 3.6, and 2 cm), high-resolution (3"-6"), radio continuum survey of IRAS selected sources from the catalogue of Wouterloot & Brand (1989) to search for and study H II regions in the far outer Galaxy. We identified 31 sources in this catalog with well determined galactocentric distances, and with R approx.. greater than 15 kpc and L(sub FIR) approx.greater than 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, indicating the presence of high-mass star-formation. We have observed 11 of these sources with the Very Large Array (VLA). We observed the sources at 6 and 2 cm using "scaled arrays", making possible a direct and reliable comparison of the data at these two wavelengths for the determination of spectral indices. We detected a total of 12 radio sources, of which 10 have spectral indices consistent with optically-thin free-free emission from H II regions. Combined with previous VLA observations by other investigators, we have data on a total of 15 H II regions at galactocentric distances of 15 to 18.2kpc, among the most remote H II regions found in our Galaxy. The sizes of the H II regions range from approx. less than 0.10 to 2.3 pc. Using the measured fluxes and sizes, we determine the electron densities, emission measures, and excitation parameters of the H II regions, as well as the fluxes of Lyman continuum photons needed to keep the nebulae ionized. The sizes and electron densities are consistent with most of the sources detected in this survey being compact or ultracompact H II regions. Seven of the fifteen H II regions have sizes approx. less than 0.20 pc. Assuming simple pressure-driven expansion of the H II regions, these sizes indicate ages approx. less than 5 x 10(exp 4) yr, or only 1% of the lifetime of an O star, which implies an unlikely overabundance of O stars in the outer Galaxy. Thus, the large number of compact H II regions suggests that the time these regions spend in a compact phase must be much longer than their dynamical

  11. Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  12. Convergent Evolution of Fern-Specific Mitochondrial Group II Intron atp1i361g2 and Its Ancient Source Paralogue rps3i249g2 and Independent Losses of Intron and RNA Editing among Pteridaceae.

    PubMed

    Zumkeller, Simon Maria; Knoop, Volker; Knie, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial intron patterns are highly divergent between the major land plant clades. An intron in the atp1 gene, atp1i361g2, is an example for a group II intron specific to monilophytes (ferns). Here, we report that atp1i361g2 is lost independently at least 4 times in the fern family Pteridaceae. Such plant organelle intron losses have previously been found to be accompanied by loss of RNA editing sites in the flanking exon regions as a consequence of genomic recombination of mature cDNA. Instead, we now observe that RNA editing events in both directions of pyrimidine exchange (C-to-U and U-to-C) are retained in atp1 exons after loss of the intron in Pteris argyraea/biaurita and in Actiniopteris and Onychium We find that atp1i361g2 has significant similarity with intron rps3i249g2 present in lycophytes and gymnosperms, which we now also find highly conserved in ferns. We conclude that atp1i361g2 may have originated from the more ancestral rps3i249g2 paralogue by a reverse splicing copy event early in the evolution of monilophytes. Secondary structure elements of the two introns, most characteristically their domains III, show strikingly convergent evolution in the monilophytes. Moreover, the intron paralogue rps3i249g2 reveals relaxed evolution in taxa where the atp1i361g2 paralogue is lost. Our findings may reflect convergent evolution of the two related mitochondrial introns exerted by co-evolution with an intron-binding protein simultaneously acting on the two paralogues. PMID:27492234

  13. Long-Term Results of an RTOG Phase II Trial (00-19) of External-Beam Radiation Therapy Combined With Permanent Source Brachytherapy for Intermediate-Risk Clinically Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Colleen A.; Yan, Yan; Lee, W. Robert; Gillin, Michael; Firat, Selim; Baikadi, Madhava; Crook, Juanita; Kuettel, Michael; Morton, Gerald; Sandler, Howard

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy combined with low-doserate permanent brachytherapy are commonly used to treat men with localized prostate cancer. This Phase II trial was performed to document late gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity as well as biochemical control for this treatment in a multi-institutional cooperative group setting. This report defines the long-term results of this trial. Methods and Materials: All eligible patients received external-beam radiation (45 Gy in 25 fractions) followed 2-6 weeks later by a permanent iodine 125 implant of 108 Gy. Late toxicity was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. Biochemical control was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus definition and the ASTRO Phoenix definition. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients were enrolled from 20 institutions, and 131 were eligible. Median follow-up (living patients) was 8.2 years (range, 2.7-9.3 years). The 8-year estimate of late grade >3 genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity was 15%. The most common grade >3 toxicities were urinary frequency, dysuria, and proctitis. There were two grade 4 toxicities, both bladder necrosis, and no grade 5 toxicities. In addition, 42% of patients complained of grade 3 impotence (no erections) at 8 years. The 8-year estimate of biochemical failure was 18% and 21% by the Phoenix and ASTRO consensus definitions, respectively. Conclusion: Biochemical control for this treatment seems durable with 8 years of follow-up and is similar to high-dose external beam radiation alone or brachytherapy alone. Late toxicity in this multi-institutional trial is higher than reports from similar cohorts of patients treated with high-dose external-beam radiation alone or permanent low-doserate brachytherapy alone, perhaps suggesting further attention to strategies that limit doses to

  14. Convergent Evolution of Fern-Specific Mitochondrial Group II Intron atp1i361g2 and Its Ancient Source Paralogue rps3i249g2 and Independent Losses of Intron and RNA Editing among Pteridaceae

    PubMed Central

    Zumkeller, Simon Maria; Knoop, Volker; Knie, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial intron patterns are highly divergent between the major land plant clades. An intron in the atp1 gene, atp1i361g2, is an example for a group II intron specific to monilophytes (ferns). Here, we report that atp1i361g2 is lost independently at least 4 times in the fern family Pteridaceae. Such plant organelle intron losses have previously been found to be accompanied by loss of RNA editing sites in the flanking exon regions as a consequence of genomic recombination of mature cDNA. Instead, we now observe that RNA editing events in both directions of pyrimidine exchange (C-to-U and U-to-C) are retained in atp1 exons after loss of the intron in Pteris argyraea/biaurita and in Actiniopteris and Onychium. We find that atp1i361g2 has significant similarity with intron rps3i249g2 present in lycophytes and gymnosperms, which we now also find highly conserved in ferns. We conclude that atp1i361g2 may have originated from the more ancestral rps3i249g2 paralogue by a reverse splicing copy event early in the evolution of monilophytes. Secondary structure elements of the two introns, most characteristically their domains III, show strikingly convergent evolution in the monilophytes. Moreover, the intron paralogue rps3i249g2 reveals relaxed evolution in taxa where the atp1i361g2 paralogue is lost. Our findings may reflect convergent evolution of the two related mitochondrial introns exerted by co-evolution with an intron-binding protein simultaneously acting on the two paralogues. PMID:27492234

  15. Foundations for statistical-physical precipitation retrieval from passive microwave satellite measurements. II - Emission-source and generalized weighting-function properties of a time-dependent cloud-radiation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugnai, Alberto; Smith, Eric A.; Tripoli, Gregory J.

    1993-01-01

    The foremost physical aspects of microphysical-radiative interactions that control the formation and modulation of frequency-dependent passive microwave TB over a continental cold-rain precipitation system are explained within the framework of the essential ingredients of a physically based precipitation-retrieval algorithm. The analysis is based on a modeling study in which a 3D cloud model has provided the objective basis for generating an extensive set of microphysical profiles that describe numerous precipitation features in the course of the evolution of a continental hail storm. A summary of the various components of the algorithm, as well as the surface rain rates, is given. The algorithm employs the cloud model to provide a consistent and objectively generated source of detailed microphysical information as the underpinnings to an inversion-based perturbative retrieval scheme.

  16. 78 FR 32385 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Constellation NewEnergy, Inc.; Constellation Power Source Generation, Inc.; Criterion Power..., CER Generation II, LLC, Constellation Mystic Power, LLC, Constellation NewEnergy, Inc.,...

  17. NEUTRON SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Richmond, J.L.; Wells, C.E.

    1963-01-15

    A neutron source is obtained without employing any separate beryllia receptacle, as was formerly required. The new method is safer and faster, and affords a source with both improved yield and symmetry of neutron emission. A Be container is used to hold and react with Pu. This container has a thin isolating layer that does not obstruct the desired Pu--Be reaction and obviates procedures previously employed to disassemble and remove a beryllia receptacle. (AEC)

  18. 3D models of slow motions in the Earth's crust and upper mantle in the source zones of seismically active regions and their comparison with highly accurate observational data: II. Results of numerical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodenskii, S. M.; Molodenskii, M. S.; Begitova, T. A.

    2016-09-01

    In the first part of the paper, a new method was developed for solving the inverse problem of coseismic and postseismic deformations in the real (imperfectly elastic, radially and horizontally heterogeneous, self-gravitating) Earth with hydrostatic initial stresses from highly accurate modern satellite data. The method is based on the decomposition of the sought parameters in the orthogonalized basis. The method was suggested for estimating the ambiguity of the solution of the inverse problem for coseismic and postseismic deformations. For obtaining this estimate, the orthogonal complement is constructed to the n-dimensional space spanned by the system of functional derivatives of the residuals in the system of n observed and model data on the coseismic and postseismic displacements at a variety of sites on the ground surface with small variations in the models. Below, we present the results of the numerical modeling of the elastic displacements of the ground surface, which were based on calculating Green's functions of the real Earth for the plane dislocation surface and different orientations of the displacement vector as described in part I of the paper. The calculations were conducted for the model of a horizontally homogeneous but radially heterogeneous selfgravitating Earth with hydrostatic initial stresses and the mantle rheology described by the Lomnitz logarithmic creep function according to (M. Molodenskii, 2014). We compare our results with the previous numerical calculations (Okado, 1985; 1992) for the simplest model of a perfectly elastic nongravitating homogeneous Earth. It is shown that with the source depths starting from the first hundreds of kilometers and with magnitudes of about 8.0 and higher, the discrepancies significantly exceed the errors of the observations and should therefore be taken into account. We present the examples of the numerical calculations of the creep function of the crust and upper mantle for the coseismic deformations. We

  19. Photosystem II efficiency of the palisade and spongy mesophyll in Quercus coccifera using adaxial/abaxial illumination and excitation light sources with wavelengths varying in penetration into the leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Morales, Fermín

    2009-01-01

    The existence of major vertical gradients within the leaf is often overlooked in studies of photosynthesis. These gradients, which involve light heterogeneity, cell composition, and CO(2) concentration across the mesophyll, can generate differences in the maximum potential PSII efficiency (F (V)/F (M) or F (V)/F (P)) of the different cell layers. Evidence is presented for a step gradient of F (V)/F (P) ratios across the mesophyll, from the adaxial (palisade parenchyma, optimal efficiencies) to the abaxial (spongy parenchyma, sub-optimal efficiencies) side of Quercus coccifera leaves. For this purpose, light sources with different wavelengths that penetrate more or less deep within the leaf were employed, and measurements from the adaxial and abaxial sides were performed. To our knowledge, this is the first report where a low photosynthetic performance in the abaxial side of leaves is accompanied by impaired F (V)/F (P) ratios. This low photosynthetic efficiency of the abaxial side could be related to the occurrence of bundle sheath extensions, which facilitates the penetration of high light intensities deep within the mesophyll. Also, leaf morphology (twisted in shape) and orientation (with a marked angle from the horizontal plane) imply direct sunlight illumination of the abaxial side. The existence of cell layers within leaves with different photosynthetic efficiencies makes appropriate the evaluation of how light penetrates within the mesophyll when using Chl fluorescence or gas exchange techniques that use different wavelengths for excitation and/or for driving photosynthesis.

  20. Commissioning of NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, F.

    2015-05-03

    NSLS-II, the new 3rd generation light source at BNL was designed for a brightness of 1022 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 (0.1%BW)-1. It was constructed between 2009 and 2014. The storage ring was commissioned in April 2014 which was followed by insertion device and beamline commissioning in the fall of 2014. All ambitious design parameters of the facility have already been achieved except for commissioning the full beam intensity of 500mA which requires more RF installation. This paper reports on the results of commissioning.

  1. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE II - Cirrus Home Page FIRE II - Cirrus Mission Summaries ...

  2. Importance of including small body spin effects in the modelling of intermediate mass-ratio inspirals. II. Accurate parameter extraction of strong sources using higher-order spin effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, E. A.; Gair, Jonathan R.; Brown, Duncan A.

    2012-03-01

    We improve the numerical kludge waveform model introduced in Huerta and Gair (2011) [E. A. Huerta and J. R. Gair, Phys. Rev. D 84, 064023 (2011).PRVDAQ1550-799810.1103/PhysRevD.84.064023] in two ways. We extend the equations of motion for spinning black hole binaries derived by Saijo et al. [M. Saijo, K. Maeda, M. Shibata, and Y. Mino, Phys. Rev. D 58, 064005 (1998).PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.58.064005] using spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings taken from perturbative and post-Newtonian (PN) calculations at the highest order available. We also include first-order conservative self-force corrections for spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings, which are derived by comparison to PN results. We generate the inspiral evolution using fluxes that include the most recent calculations of small body spin corrections, spin-spin, and spin-orbit couplings and higher-order fits to solutions of the Teukolsky equation. Using a simplified version of this model in [E. A. Huerta and J. R. Gair, Phys. Rev. D 84, 064023 (2011).PRVDAQ1550-799810.1103/PhysRevD.84.064023], we found that small body spin effects could be measured through gravitational-wave observations from intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs) with mass ratio η≳10-3, when both binary components are rapidly rotating. In this paper, we present results of Monte Carlo simulations of parameter-estimation errors to study in detail how the spin of the small/big body affects parameter measurement using a variety of mass and spin combinations for typical IMRI sources. We have found that for IMRI events involving a moderately rotating intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass 104M⊙ and a rapidly rotating central supermassive black hole (SMBH) of mass 106M⊙, gravitational wave observations made with LISA at a signal-to-noise ratio of 1000 should be able to determine the inspiralling IMBH mass, the central SMBH mass, the SMBH spin magnitude, and the IMBH spin magnitude to within fractional errors of ˜10-3, 10-3, 10

  3. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Leland, W.T.

    1960-01-01

    The ion source described essentially eliminater the problem of deposits of nonconducting materials forming on parts of the ion source by certain corrosive gases. This problem is met by removing both filament and trap from the ion chamber, spacing them apart and outside the chamber end walls, placing a focusing cylinder about the filament tip to form a thin collimated electron stream, aligning the cylinder, slits in the walls, and trap so that the electron stream does not bombard any part in the source, and heating the trap, which is bombarded by electrons, to a temperature hotter than that in the ion chamber, so that the tendency to build up a deposit caused by electron bombardment is offset by the extra heating supplied only to the trap.

  4. Crowd Sourcing.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish.

  5. Crowd Sourcing.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish. PMID:27039640

  6. Neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-10-21

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap.

  7. Day Camp Manual: Staff. Book II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, William

    Book II of a 5-book day camp manual focuses on staff selection and training. Following the philosophy that developing an effective staff is the responsibility of the camp director, the book contains major sections on staff recruitment (sources of staff, problems, selection procedures, job descriptions, personnel practices); guidelines for job…

  8. RADIATION SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Brucer, M.H.

    1958-04-15

    A novel long-lived source of gamma radiation especially suitable for calibration purposes is described. The source of gamma radiation is denoted mock iodine131, which comprises a naixture of barium-133 and cesium-137. The barium and cesium are present in a barium-cesium ratio of approximately 5.7/1 to 14/1, uniformly dispersed in an ion exchange resin and a filter surrounding the resin comprised of a material of atomic number below approximately 51, and substantially 0.7 to 0.9 millimeter thick.

  9. NEUTRON SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Reardon, W.A.; Lennox, D.H.; Nobles, R.G.

    1959-01-13

    A neutron source of the antimony--beryllium type is presented. The source is comprised of a solid mass of beryllium having a cylindrical recess extending therein and a cylinder containing antimony-124 slidably disposed within the cylindrical recess. The antimony cylinder is encased in aluminum. A berylliunn plug is removably inserted in the open end of the cylindrical recess to completely enclose the antimony cylinder in bsryllium. The plug and antimony cylinder are each provided with a stud on their upper ends to facilitate handling remotely.

  10. SEARCHING FOR NEW HYPERCOMPACT H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Pandian, Jagadheep D.; Kurtz, Stan

    2011-09-20

    Hypercompact (HC) H II regions are, by nature, very young H II regions, associated with the earliest stages of massive star formation. They may represent the transition phase as an early B-type star grows into an O-type star. Unfortunately, so few HC H II regions are presently known that their general attributes and defining characteristics are based on small number statistics. A larger sample is needed for detailed studies and good statistics. Class II methanol masers are one of the best indicators of the early stages of massive star formation. Using the Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey-the most sensitive blind survey for 6.7 GHz methanol masers to date-we selected 24 HC H II region candidates. We made Expanded Very Large Array continuum observations at 3.6 and 1.3 cm to search for HC H II regions associated with these masers. We identified six potential HC H II regions in our sample based on the presence of optically thick free-free emission. Overall, we find that 30% of the methanol masers have an associated centimeter radio continuum source (separation less than 0.1 pc), which is in general agreement with previous studies.

  11. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-14

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  12. An Inside Look: NSLS-II Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, Gregory

    2013-10-21

    Look inside the storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source II, under construction at Brookhaven Lab. Exactly 843 magnets now encircle the ring. Their job will be to steer, stabilize, and store electrons racing around at near light speed.

  13. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  14. Superluminal sources.

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, R C

    1995-01-01

    Predictions for the apparent velocity statistics under simple beaming models are presented and compared to the observations. The potential applications for tests of unification models and for cosmology (source counts, measurements of the Hubble constant H0 and the deceleration parameter q0) are discussed. First results from a large homogeneous survey are presented. The data do not show compelling evidence for the existence of intrinsically different populations of galaxies, BL Lacertae objects, or quasars. Apparent velocities betaapp in the range 1-5 h-1, where h = H0/100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 megaparsec (Mpc) = 3.09 x 10(22) m], occur with roughly equal frequency; higher values, up to betaapp = 10 h-1, are rather more scarce than appeared to be the case from earlier work, which evidently concentrated on sources that are not representative of the general population. The betaapp distribution suggests that there might be a skewed distribution of Lorentz factors over the sample, with a peak at gammab approximately 2 h-1 and a tail up to at least gammab approximately 10 h-1. There appears to be a clearly rising upper envelope to the betaapp distribution when plotted as a function of observed 5-GHz luminosity; a combination of source counts and the apparent velocity statistics in a larger sample could provide much insight into the properties of radio jet sources. PMID:11607604

  15. First Concrete Poured for NSLS-II Ring Building

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-07-20

    The first bits of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) ring building are now taking shape after the concrete-pouring process for the new, world-class facility began on Monday, July 20. Once complete, the 400,000 square-foot building will hou

  16. The Water Maser in II Zw 96: Scientific Justification

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, Brandon Kerry

    2015-08-06

    We propose a VLBI search to image and locate the water emission in II Zw 96. We propose 3 sites within II Zw 96 for VLBI followup (see the proposed target listing below). We request 2.5 hours of on-source integration time with the VLBA per source. The array will achieve ~ 65µJy sensitivity in K band in this time which will be sufficient to detect luminous water maser features.

  17. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  18. Angiotensin II receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek; Yee, Daniel K; Fluharty, Steven J

    2007-05-01

    Angiotensin II plays a key role in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis. To correct body fluid deficits that occur during hypovolaemia, an animal needs to ingest both water and electrolytes. Thus, it is not surprising that angiotensin II, which is synthesized in response to hypovolaemia, acts centrally to increase both water and NaCl intake. Here, we review findings relating to the properties of angiotensin II receptors that give rise to changes in behaviour. Data are described to suggest that divergent signal transduction pathways are responsible for separable behavioural responses to angiotensin II, and a hypothesis is proposed to explain how this divergence may map onto neural circuits in the brain.

  19. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Blue, C.W.; Luce, J.S.

    1960-07-19

    An ion source is described and comprises an arc discharge parallel to the direction of and inside of a magnetic field. an accelerating electrode surrounding substantially all of the discharge except for ion exit apertures, and means for establishing an electric field between that electrode and the arc discharge. the electric field being oriented at an acute angle to the magnetic field. Ions are drawn through the exit apertures in the accelrating electrcde in a direction substantially divergent to the direction of the magnetic field and so will travel in a spiral orbit along the magnetic field such that the ions will not strike the source at any point in their orbit within the magnetic field.

  20. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from thc source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a varuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  1. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

    1958-01-28

    An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

  2. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W. M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from the source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a vacuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  3. Indium-111-Photofrin-II scintillation scan

    SciTech Connect

    Origitano, T.C.; Karesh, S.M.; Reichman, O.H.; Henkin, R.E.; Caron, M.J.

    1989-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy is under intense investigation as an adjuvant treatment for malignant glial tumors of the central nervous system. Photofrin-II (HpD-II) is currently the most actively investigated photosensitizing agent. A crucial issue regarding the safe and efficacious usage of HpD-II-based photodynamic therapy is the individual in vivo kinetics of tumor uptake and retention, compared with normal brain clearance. The optimal time for photoactivation of sensitized tumor must be known to ensure a high target-to-nontarget ratio, resulting in the maximal tumor destruction while preserving normal brain. Our laboratory developed a radionuclide scan based on 111indium (111In)-labeled HpD-II to evaluate HpD-II localization and clearance noninvasively within a canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma. Synthesis of the 111In-HpD-II complex in greater than 90% yield is achieved by a simple, rapid labeling method. Radiochemical purity and stability were verified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Using the canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma, we followed the uptake of 111In-HpD-II in tumors with serial scintillation scanning. Localization of the tumor by 111In-HpD-II has been verified by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan followed by gross and histological examination of the enhancing brain region. Total body biodistribution of 111In-HpD-II at various times after injection has been evaluated. The ratio of uptake in tumor compared with surrounding brain peaked at 72 hours after injection. The knowledge of regional distribution and concentration of a photosensitizing agent within a tumor mass and surrounding brain allows for the most efficacious timing and localization of a photoactivating source.

  4. THE ARECIBO H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bania, T. M.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.

    2012-11-10

    We report the detection of radio recombination line (RRL) emission using the Arecibo Observatory at X band (9 GHz, 3 cm) from 37 previously unknown H II regions in the Galactic zone 66 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 31 Degree-Sign and | b | {<=} 1 Degree-Sign . This Arecibo H II Region Discovery Survey (Arecibo HRDS) is a continuation of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) HRDS. The targets for the Arecibo HRDS have spatially coincident 24 {mu}m and 20 cm emission of a similar angular morphology and extent. To take advantage of Arecibo's sensitivity and small beam size, sources in this sample are fainter, smaller in angle, or in more crowded fields compared to those of the GBT HRDS. These Arecibo nebulae are some of the faintest H II regions ever detected in RRL emission. Our detection rate is 58%, which is low compared to the 95% detection rate for GBT HRDS targets. We derive kinematic distances to 23 of the Arecibo HRDS detections. Four nebulae have negative local standard of rest velocities and are thus unambiguously in the outer Galaxy. The remaining sources are at the tangent-point distance or farther. We identify a large, diffuse H II region complex that has an associated H I and {sup 13}CO shell. The {approx}90 pc diameter of the G52L nebula in this complex may be the largest Galactic H II region known, and yet it has escaped previous detection.

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  6. In situ evaporation of lithium for LEVIS ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, B.; Lopez, M.; Lamppa, K.; Stearns, W.; Bieg, K.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the In Situ evaporation of pure lithium on the anode of PBFA II which then can be evaporated and ionized by Laser Evaporation and Ionization Source (LEVIS). Included in this report are the necessary calculations, light laboratory experiments and details of the hardware for PBFA II. This report gives all the details of In Situ evaporation for PBFA II so when a decision is made to provide an active lithium source for PBFA II, it can be fielded in a minimum of time.

  7. Protoplanetary Disk Structures in Ophiuchus. II. Extension to Fainter Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, D. J.; Hughes, A. M.; Qi, Chunhua; Dullemond, C. P.

    2010-11-01

    We present new results from a significant extension of our previous high angular resolution (0farcs3 ≈ 40 AU) submillimeter array survey of the 340 GHz (880 μm) thermal continuum emission from dusty circumstellar disks in the ~1 Myr old Ophiuchus star-forming region. An expanded sample is constructed to probe disk structures that emit significantly lower millimeter luminosities (hence dust masses), down to the median value for T Tauri stars. Using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, the millimeter visibilities and broadband spectral energy distribution for each disk are simultaneously reproduced with a two-dimensional parametric model for a viscous accretion disk that has a surface density profile Σ vprop (R/Rc )-γexp [ - (R/Rc )2-γ]. We find wide ranges of characteristic radii (Rc = 14-198 AU) and disk masses (Md = 0.004-0.143 M sun), but a narrow distribution of surface density gradients (γ = 0.4-1.1) that is consistent with a uniform value langγrang = 0.9 ± 0.2 and independent of mass (or millimeter luminosity). In this sample, we find a correlation between the disk luminosity/mass and characteristic radius, such that fainter disks are both smaller and less massive. We suggest that this relationship is an imprint of the initial conditions inherited by the disks at their formation epoch, compare their angular momenta with those of molecular cloud cores, and speculate on how future observations can help constrain the distribution of viscous evolution timescales. No other correlations between disk and star properties are found. The inferred disk structures are briefly compared with theoretical models for giant planet formation, although resolution limitations do not permit us to directly comment on material inside R ≈ 20 AU. However, there is some compelling evidence for the evolution of dust in the planet formation region: 4/17 disks in the sample show resolved regions of significantly reduced millimeter optical depths within ~20-40 AU of their central stars.

  8. Sources for Comparative Studies of Placentation. II. Genomic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Derek E.

    2008-01-01

    The genomes of dozens of placental mammal species are now publicly available. These genome sequences have the potential to provide insight into the development and evolution of the placenta. In particular, the variable anatomy of the placenta has likely been affected by natural selection on the genomes of living and extinct mammals. In this note the current availability of mammal genome sequences is reviewed, and strengths and limitations of these data are discussed. Additionally, museums, zoos, and commercial entities are available to provide genomic resources to the placental research community. Recommendations for tissue storage conditions of placentas in genomic research are given. PMID:18155141

  9. Summary II - Fusion Ion sources, Beam Formation, Acceleration and Neutralisation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T. T. C.

    2007-08-10

    The 11th International Symposium on the Production and Neutralization of Negative Ions and Beams was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on 13th - 15th September 2006 and was hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This summary covers the sessions of the Symposium devoted to the topics listed in the title.

  10. Statistics of equivalent width data and new oscillator strengths for Si II, Fe II, and Mn II. [in interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Dave

    1986-01-01

    Equivalent width data from Copernicus and IUE appear to have an exponential, rather than a Gaussian distribution of errors. This is probably because there is one dominant source of error: the assignment of the background continuum shape. The maximum likelihood method of parameter estimation is presented for the case of exponential statistics, in enough generality for application to many problems. The method is applied to global fitting of Si II, Fe II, and Mn II oscillator strengths and interstellar gas parameters along many lines of sight. The new values agree in general with previous determinations but are usually much more tightly constrained. Finally, it is shown that care must be taken in deriving acceptable regions of parameter space because the probability contours are not generally ellipses whose axes are parallel to the coordinate axes.

  11. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same ...

  12. Network II Database

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  13. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). Factor II is also known as prothrombin. ... blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or ...

  14. Radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Thode, Lester E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

  15. INITIAL COMMISSIONING OF NDCX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Lidia, S.; Arbelaez, D.; Greenway, W.; Jung, J. -Y.; Kwan, J.; Lipton, T.; Pekedis, A.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.; Takakuwa, J.; Waldron, W.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Sharp, W.; Gilson, E.

    2012-05-15

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) will generate ion beam pulses for studies of Warm Dense Matter and heavy-ion-driven Inertial Fusion Energy. The machine will accelerate 20-50 nC of Li+ to 1.2-3 MeV energy, starting from a 10.9-cm alumino-silicate ion source. At the end of the accelerator the ions are focused to a sub-mm spot size onto a thin foil (planar) target. The pulse duration is compressed from ~;;500 ns at the source to sub-ns at the target following beam transport in a neutralizing plasma. We first describe the injector, accelerator, transport, final focus and diagnostic facilities. We then report on the results of early commissioning studies that characterize beam quality and beam transport, acceleration waveform shaping and beam current evolution. We present simulation results to benchmark against the experimental measurements.

  16. INSERTION DEVICE ACTIVITIES FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; HULBERT, S.; RAKOWSKI, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2007-06-25

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) will be a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also used as broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based elliptically polarized undulators (EPUs) for variable polarization devices for soft X-ray. 6T superconducting wiggler with minimal fan angle will be installed in the second phase as well as quasi-periodic EPU for VUV and possibly high-temperature superconducting undulator. R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the baseline devices and to design new types of insertion devices. A new insertion device development laboratory will also be established.

  17. RTNS-II 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    RTNS-II was built to provide a deuterium-tritium neutron source for the study of fusion neutron effects. In the quest to apply fusion to commercial power production, the specific mission of RTNS-II is threefold: to acquire direct engineering data for near-term confinement experiments and for materials that will see moderate neutron dose in future reactor systems; to measure production rates of transmutants and to develop appropriate radiation-resistant instrumentation for fusion systems; and to study the radiation-induced property changes caused by fusion neutrons. RTNS-II comprises two independent sources of 14-MeV neutrons. This is the third annual report summarizing irradiation experiments at RTNS-II. It covers calendar year 1983, and includes reports of all irradiation results, both fusion and non-fusion related. These comprise both secondary (or ''add-on'') and primary irradiations. Each summary article has been submitted by the investigator and has been altered only to meet the style and format requirements of this report.

  18. FR II radio galaxies at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    Due to their steep spectra, low-frequency observations of FR II radio galaxies potentially provide key insights in to the morphology, energetics and underlying physics of these powerful radio sources. However, limitations imposed by the previous generation of radio interferometers at metre wavelengths have meant that this region of parameter space remains largely unexplored.In this talk, we present our latest results using LOFAR and the JVLA at frequencies between 50 and 460 MHz which, along with complementary archival radio and X-ray data, now allows us to undertake well resolved, detailed studies of nearby FR II radio galaxies at low frequencies. We discuss how our improved knowledge of the low-energy electron distribution, magnetic field strength and total energy content of the lobes impacts upon our understanding of the dynamics and energetics of nearby FR II radio galaxies and, for the first time, present the spectral structure of these sources on small spatial scales at low frequencies. We conclude by discussing how these findings change our current understanding of the underlying physics of FR II radio galaxies and, ultimately, their impact on the environment and galaxy evolution as a whole.

  19. Commissioning and Early Operation for the NSLS-II Booster RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, C.; Cupolo, J.; Davila, P.; Gao, F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; McDonald, K.; Oliva, J.; Papu, J.; Ramirez, G.; Rose, J.; Sikora, R.; Sorrentino, C.; Towne, N.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a third generation 3GeV, 500mA synchrotron light source. We discuss the booster synchrotron RF system responsible for providing power to accelerate an electron beam from 200MeV to 3GeV. The RF system design and construction are complete and is currently in the operational phase of the NSLS-II project. Preliminary operational data is also discussed.

  20. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. II. MOLECULAR CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xi; Gan Conggui; Shen Zhiqiang; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita; He Jinhua

    2013-06-01

    We have undertaken a survey of molecular lines in the 3 mm band toward 57 young stellar objects using the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m radio telescope. The target sources were young stellar objects with active outflows (extended green objects (EGOs)) newly identified from the GLIMPSE II survey. We observe a high detection rate (50%) of broad line wing emission in the HNC and CS thermal lines, which combined with the high detection rate of class I methanol masers toward these sources (reported in Paper I) further demonstrates that the GLIMPSE II EGOs are associated with outflows. The physical and kinematic characteristics derived from the 3 mm molecular lines for these newly identified EGOs are consistent with these sources being massive young stellar objects with ongoing outflow activity and rapid accretion. These findings support our previous investigations of the mid-infrared properties of these sources and their association with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, methanol masers and millimeter dust sources) presented in Paper I. The high detection rate (64%) of the hot core tracer CH{sub 3}CN reveals that the majority of these new EGOs have evolved to the hot molecular core stage. Comparison of the observed molecular column densities with predictions from hot core chemistry models reveals that the newly identified EGOs from the GLIMPSE II survey are members of the youngest hot core population, with an evolutionary time scale of the order of 10{sup 3} yr.

  1. NSLS-II RF Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Dilgen, T.; Gash, B.; Gosman, J.; Mortazavi, P.; Papu, J.; Ravindranath, V.; Sikora, R.; Sitnikov, A.; Wilhelm, H.; Jia, Y.; Monroe, C.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a 3 GeV X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. A new helium refrigerator system has been installed and commissioned to support the superconducting RF cavities in the storage ring. Special care was taken to provide very stable helium and LN2 pressures and flow rates to minimize microphonics and thermal effects at the cavities. Details of the system design along with commissioning and early operations data will be presented.

  2. Ultraviolet Emission Lines of Si ii in Quasars: Investigating the "Si ii Disaster"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Sibasish; Keenan, Francis P.; Ferland, Gary J.; Ramsbottom, Catherine A.; Aggarwal, Kanti M.

    2016-07-01

    The observed line intensity ratios of the Si ii λ1263 and λ1307 multiplets to that of Si ii λ1814 in the broad-line region (BLR) of quasars are both an order of magnitude larger than the theoretical values. This was first pointed out by Baldwin et al., who termed it the “Si ii disaster,” and it has remained unresolved. We investigate the problem in the light of newly published atomic data for Si ii. Specifically, we perform BLR calculations using several different atomic data sets within the CLOUDY modeling code under optically thick quasar cloud conditions. In addition, we test for selective pumping by the source photons or intrinsic galactic reddening as possible causes for the discrepancy, and we also consider blending with other species. However, we find that none of the options investigated resolve the Si ii disaster, with the potential exception of microturbulent velocity broadening and line blending. We find that a larger microturbulent velocity (˜ 500 {km} {{{s}}}-1) may solve the Si ii disaster through continuum pumping and other effects. The CLOUDY models indicate strong blending of the Si ii λ1307 multiplet with emission lines of O i, although the predicted degree of blending is incompatible with the observed λ1263/λ1307 intensity ratios. Clearly, more work is required on the quasar modeling of not just the Si ii lines but also nearby transitions (in particular those of O i) to fully investigate whether blending may be responsible for the Si ii disaster.

  3. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  4. Reddening and extinction towards H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplan, James; Deharveng, Lise

    1989-01-01

    The light emitted by the gas in H II regions is attenuated by dust. This extinction can be measured by comparing H alpha, H beta, and radio continuum fluxes, since the intrinsic ratios of the Balmer line and thermal radio continuum emissivities are nearly constant for reasonable conditions in H II regions. In the case of giant extragalactic H II regions, the extinction was found to be considerably greater than expected. The dust between the Earth and the emitting gas may have an optical thickness which varies. The dust may be close enough to the source that scattered light contributes to the flux, or the dust may be actually mixed with the emitting gas. It is difficult to decide which configuration is correct. A rediscussion of this question in light of recent observations, with the Fabry-Perot spectrophotometers, of the large Galactic H II region is presented. The color excesses are compared for stars embedded in these H II regions with those derived (assuming the standard law) from the nebular extinction and reddening.

  5. Neutral beam source commercialization study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.J.

    1980-06-01

    The basic tasks of this Phase II project were to: generate a set of design drawings suitable for quantity production of sources of this design; fabricate a functional neutral beam source incorporating as many of the proposed design changes as proved feasible; and document the procedures and findings developed during the contract. These tasks have been accomplished and represent a demonstrated milestone in the industrialization of this complete device.

  6. PEP-II Status

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; Bertsche, K.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Cheng, W.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.S.; Fox, J.; Heifets, S.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Kulikov, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Pacak, V.; Pivi, M.; Rivetta, C.; Ross, M.; /SLAC /Saclay /Frascati

    2008-07-25

    PEP-II and BaBar have just finished run 7, the last run of the SLAC B-factory. PEP-II was one of the few high-current e+e- colliding accelerators and holds the present world record for stored electrons and stored positrons. It has stored 2.07 A of electrons, nearly 3 times the design current of 0.75 A and it has stored 3.21 A of positrons, 1.5 times more than the design current of 2.14 A. High-current beams require careful design of several systems. The feedback systems that control instabilities, the RF system stability loops, and especially the vacuum systems have to handle the higher power demands. We present here some of the accomplishments of the PEP-II accelerator and some of the problems we encountered while running high-current beams.

  7. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  8. About APPLE II Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  9. Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, D.

    2003-03-01

    The Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS) is a state of the art variable energy positron beam under construction at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL). Projected intensities on the order of the order of 10^7 e+/second using ^64Cu as the positron source are expected. Owing to is short half-life (t1/2 12.8 hrs), plans are to produce the ^64Cu isotope on-site using beam port 1 of NETL TRIGA Mark II reactor. Following tungsten moderation, the positrons will be electrostatically focused and accelerated from few 10's of eV up to 30 keV. This intensity and energy range should allow routine performance of several analytical techniques of interest to surface scientists (PALS, PADB and perhaps PAES and LEPD.) The TIPS project is being developed in parallel phases. Phase I of the project entails construction of the vacuum system, source chamber, main beam line, electrostatic/magnetic focusing and transport system as well as moderator design. Initial construction, testing and characterization of moderator and beam transport elements are underway and will use a commercially available 10 mCi ^22Na radioisotope as a source of positrons. Phase II of the project is concerned primarily with the Cu source geometry and thermal properties as well as production and physical handling of the radioisotope. Additional instrument optimizing based upon experience gained during Phase I will be incorporated in the final design. Current progress of both phases will be presented along with motivations and future directions.

  10. The Eutelsat II programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgio, Claude; Dumesnil, Jean-Jacques

    Eutelsat II is designed to provide Europe with Ku-band communication and TV services with 16 active channels of 50 W power output. In-orbit reconfigurable antenna feed networks permit customized transmission offering either medium-gain over the whole of Europe or high-gain over tailored geographic areas, allowing TV reception on dishes as small as 60 cm. The payload design makes use of only two antennas, each comprising a dual dish reflector and two reconfigurable primary feed arrays. This paper gives an overview of the Eutelsat II mission, and presents a technical description of the satellite, the program schedule, and future prospects.

  11. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  12. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61...

  13. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61...

  14. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61...

  15. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61...

  16. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61...

  17. BIKMAS-II: A Knowledge Management System for Biomedical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    López-Alonso, V.; Moreno, L.; Lopez-Campos, G.; Maojo, V.; Martín-Sanchez, F.

    2002-01-01

    We present here BIKMAS II - Biomedical Informatics Knowledge Management System- a system that allows to efficiently process and filter scientific information. The system aids and assists in some common tasks carried out in a Biomedical research unit. We have designed BIKMAS-II as a modular system that can be easily adapted to the different information sources and biomedical domains and that has been implemented with an algorithm to discard, to store and to select what to do with the information.

  18. Peculiar galaxies and radio sources.

    PubMed

    Arp, H

    1966-03-11

    Pairs of radio sources which are separated by from 2 degrees to 6 degrees on the sky have been investigated. In a number of cases peculiar galaxies have been found approximately midway along a line joining the two radio sources. The central peculiar galaxies belong mainly to a certain class in the recently compiled Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. Among the radio sources so far associated with the peculiar galaxies are at least five known quasars. These quasars are indicated to be not at cosmological distances (that is, red shifts not caused by expansion of the universe) because the central peculiar galaxies are only at distances of 10 to 100 megaparsecs. The absolute magnitudes of these quasars are indicated to be in the range of brightness of normal galaxies and downward. Some of the radio sources which have been found to be associated with peculiar galaxies are galaxies themselves. It is therefore implied that ejection of material took place within or near the parent peculiar galaxies with speeds between 10(2) and 10(4) kilometers per second. After traveling for times of the order of 10(7) to 10(9) years, the luminous matter (galaxies) and radio sources (plasma) have reached their observed separations from the central peculiar galaxy. The large red shifts measured for the quasars would seem to be either (i) gravitational, (ii) collapse velocities of clouds of material falling toward the center of these compact galaxies, or (iii) some as yet unknown cause.

  19. College Algebra II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Carl; And Others

    Presented are student performance objectives, a student progress chart, and assignment sheets with objective and diagnostic measures for the stated performance objectives in College Algebra II. Topics covered include: differencing and complements; real numbers; factoring; fractions; linear equations; exponents and radicals; complex numbers,…

  20. Listen & Learn II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…

  1. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  2. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the American…

  3. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  4. NSLS-II Digital RF Controller Logic and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Holub, B.; Gao, F.; Kulpin, J.; Marques, C.; Oliva, J.; Rose, J.; Towne, N.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) accelerator consists of the Storage Ring, the Booster Ring and Linac along with their associated cavities. Given the number, types and variety of functions of these cavities, we sought to limit the logic development effort by reuse of parameterized code on one hardware platform. Currently there are six controllers installed in the NSLS-II system. There are two in the Storage ring, two in the Booster ring, one in the Linac and one in the Master Oscillator Distribution system.

  5. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  6. NSLS-II RF BEAM POSITION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, K.; Della Penna, A. J.; DeLong, J.; Kosciuk, B.; Mead, J.; Pinayev, I.; Singh, O.; Tian, Y.; Ha, K.; Portmann, G.; Sebek J.

    2011-03-28

    An internal R&D program has been undertaken at BNL to develop a sub-micron RF Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the NSLS-II 3rd generation light source that is currently under construction. The BPM R&D program started in August 2009. Successful beam tests were conducted 15 months from the start of the program. The NSLS-II RF BPM has been designed to meet all requirements for the NSLS-II Injection system and Storage Ring. Housing of the RF BPM's in +-0.1 C thermally controlled racks provide sub-micron stabilization without active correction. An active pilot-tone has been incorporated to aid long-term (8hr min) stabilization to 200nm RMS. The development of a sub-micron BPM for the NSLS-II has successfully demonstrated performance and stability. Pilot Tone calibration combiner and RF synthesizer has been implemented and algorithm development is underway. The program is currently on schedule to start production development of 60 Injection BPM's starting in the Fall of 2011. The production of {approx}250 Storage Ring BPM's will overlap the Injection schedule.

  7. Introducing CAML II

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom; Boyes, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Channel Access Markup Language (CAML) is a XML based markup language and implementation for displaying EPICS channel access controls within a web browser. The CAML II project expanded upon the work of CAML I adding more features and greater integration with other web technologies. The most dramatic new feature introduced in CAML II is the introduction of a namespace so CAML controls can be embedded within XHTML documents. A repetition template with macro substitution allows for rapid coding of arbitrary XHTML repetitions. Enhancements have been made to several controls including more powerful plotting options. Advanced formatting options were introduced for text controls. Virtual process variables allow for custom calculations. An EDL to CAML translator eases the transition from EDM screens to CAML pages.

  8. RADTRAN II user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M M; Wilmot, E L; Taylor, J M

    1983-02-01

    RADTRAN II is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN II can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  9. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  10. TARN II project

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, T.

    1985-04-01

    On the basis of the achievement of the accelerator studies at present TARN, it is decided to construct the new ring TARN II which will be operated as an accumulator, accelerator, cooler and stretcher. It has the maximum magnetic rigidity of 7 Txm corresponding to the proton energy 1.3 GeV and the ring diameter is around 23 m. Light and heavy ions from the SF cyclotron will be injected and accelerated to the working energy where the ring will be operated as a desired mode, for example a cooler ring mode. At the cooler ring operation, the strong cooling devices such as stochastic and electron beam coolings will work together with the internal gas jet target for the precise nuclear experiments. TARN II is currently under the contruction with the schedule of completion in 1986. In this paper general features of the project are presented.

  11. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  12. LCLS-II high power RF system overview and progress

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremian, Anahid Dian

    2015-10-07

    A second X-ray free electron laser facility, LCLS-II, will be constructed at SLAC. LCLS-II is based on a 1.3 GHz, 4 GeV, continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator, to be installed in the first kilometer of the SLAC tunnel. Multiple types of high power RF (HPRF) sources will be used to power different systems on LCLS-II. The main 1.3 GHz linac will be powered by 280 1.3 GHz, 3.8 kW solid state amplifier (SSA) sources. The normal conducting buncher in the injector will use four more SSAs identical to the linac SSAs but run at 2 kW. Two 185.7 MHz, 60 kW sources will power the photocathode dual-feed RF gun. A third harmonic linac section, included for linearizing the bunch energy spread before the first bunch compressor, will require sixteen 3.9 GHz sources at about 1 kW CW. A description and an update on all the HPRF sources of LCLS-II and their implementation is the subject of this paper.

  13. Phytochemicals as Anticancer and Chemopreventive Topoisomerase II Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Ketron, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals are a rich source of anticancer drugs and chemopreventive agents. Several of these chemicals appear to exert at least some of their effects through interactions with topoisomerase II, an essential enzyme that regulates DNA supercoiling and removes knots and tangles from the genome. Topoisomerase II-active phytochemicals function by stabilizing covalent protein-cleaved DNA complexes that are intermediates in the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. As a result, these compounds convert topoisomerase II to a cellular toxin that fragments the genome. Because of their mode of action, they are referred to as topoisomerase II poisons as opposed to catalytic inhibitors. The first sections of this article discuss DNA topology, the catalytic cycle of topoisomerase II, and the two mechanisms (interfacial vs. covalent) by which different classes of topoisomerase II poisons alter enzyme activity. Subsequent sections discuss the effects of several phytochemicals on the type II enzyme, including demethyl-epipodophyllotoxins (semisynthetic anticancer drugs) as well as flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, catechins, isothiocyanates, and curcumin (dietary chemopreventive agents). Finally, the leukemogenic potential of topoisomerase II-targeted phytochemicals is described. PMID:24678287

  14. RISTA II trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John R.

    1998-11-01

    Northrop Grumman Corporation has developed an advanced 2nd generation IR sensor system under the guidance of the US Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) as part of an Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) called Counter Mobile Rocket Launcher (CMRL). Designed to support rapid counter fire against mobile targets from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the sensor system, called reconnaissance IR surveillance target acquisition (RISTA II), consists of a 2nd generation FLIR/line scanner, a digital data link, a ground processing facility, and an aided target recognizer (AiTF). The concept of operation together with component details was reported at the passive sensors IRIS in March, 1996. The performance testing of the RISTA II System was reported at the National IRIS in November, 1997. The RISTA II sensor has subsequently undergone performance testing on a Royal Netherlands Air Force F-16 for a manned reconnaissance application in August and October, 1997, at Volkel Airbase, Netherlands. That testing showed performance compatible with the medium altitude IR sensor performance. The results of that testing, together with flight test imagery, will be presented.

  15. PHILOSOPHY FOR NSLS-II DESIGN WITH SUB-NANOMETER HORIZONTAL EMITTANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    OZAKI,S.; BENGTSSON, J.; KRAMER, S.L.; KRINSKY, S.; LITVINENKO, V.N.

    2007-06-25

    NSLS-II at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a new third-generation storage ring light source, whose construction is on the verge of being approved by DOE. When completed, NSLS-II with its ability to provide users with a wide range of spectrum, ranging from IR to ultra-high brightness hard x-ray beams will replace the existing two (20+ years old) NSLS light sources. While presenting an overview of the NSLS-II accelerator system, this paper focuses on the strategy and development of a novel <1 nm emittance light source.

  16. Using the Internet To Create Primary Source Teaching Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanFossen, Phillip J.; Shiveley, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes strategies and guidelines for creating age- and content-appropriate primary source documents using the Internet. Discusses the value of using topic-specific primary source teaching packets, or jackdaws. Provides three Internet generated jackdaws: New Deal/FDR, Home Front during World War II, and the Gilded Age. Addresses fair use issues.…

  17. 10 CFR 40.13 - Unimportant quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., solution, or alloy in which the source material is by weight less than one-twentieth of 1 percent (0.05...) rare earth metals and compounds, mixtures, and products containing not more than 0.25 percent by weight... glaze contains not more than 20 percent by weight source material; (ii) Piezoelectric ceramic...

  18. 10 CFR 40.13 - Unimportant quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., solution, or alloy in which the source material is by weight less than one-twentieth of 1 percent (0.05... containing not more than 0.25 percent by weight thorium, uranium, or any combination of these, or (vii... that the glaze contains not more than 20 percent by weight source material; (ii) Piezoelectric...

  19. 10 CFR 40.13 - Unimportant quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., solution, or alloy in which the source material is by weight less than one-twentieth of 1 percent (0.05... containing not more than 0.25 percent by weight thorium, uranium, or any combination of these, or (vii... that the glaze contains not more than 20 percent by weight source material; (ii) Piezoelectric...

  20. 40 CFR 63.190 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... start-up of the new or reconstructed source or by April 22, 1994, whichever is later; and (ii) The owner...., different companies, affiliates, departments, divisions, etc.) those items of equipment may be aggregated... this rule no later than 18 months after April 22, 1994. (1) New sources that commence construction...

  1. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a source of nuclear radiation for therapy. (b) Classification. Class II....

  2. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a source of nuclear radiation for therapy. (b) Classification. Class II....

  3. Upgrade of the area II spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Bolduc, C.

    1995-08-01

    Because of the low beam energies required for experiments of astrophysical interest, the first test experiments with radioactive {sup 18}F beams can be performed in Area II. Because of the shorter distances between ion source and detector this also results in higher transmission efficiencies. The Enge split-pole spectrograph, which was not used during the last 8 years, was equipped with a new cryopump system, upgrades to the magnet power supply and the NMR system were performed. A rotating target system was built which should alleviate target deterioration effects that were observed in first test experiments.

  4. LCLS-II Undulator Tolerance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhn, H.-D.; Marks, S.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is building a new FEL user facility, LCLS-II, as a major upgrade to the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The upgrade will include two new Free Electron Lasers (FELs), to generate soft (SXR) and hard x-ray (HXR) SASE FEL radiation, based on planar, variable gap hybrid undulators with two different undulator periods (SXU: 55 mm, HXU: 32 mm). An algebraic FEL tolerance analysis for the undulator lines, including tuning, alignment, and phase correction tolerances has been performed. The methods and results are presented in this paper.

  5. Structure of Photosystems I and II.

    PubMed

    Fromme, Petra; Grotjohann, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the major process that converts solar energy into chemical energy on Earth. Two and a half billion years ago, the ancestors of cyanobacteria were able to use water as electron source for the photosynthetic process, thereby evolving oxygen and changing the atmosphere of our planet Earth. Two large membrane protein complexes, Photosystems I and II, catalyze the primary step in this energy conversion, the light-induced charge separation across the photosynthetic membrane. This chapter describes and compares the structure of two Photosystems and discusses their function in respect to the mechanism of light harvesting, electron transfer and water splitting.

  6. Delta II Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Final preparations for lift off of the DELTA II Mars Pathfinder Rocket are shown. Activities include loading the liquid oxygen, completing the construction of the Rover, and placing the Rover into the Lander. After the countdown, important visual events include the launch of the Delta Rocket, burnout and separation of the three Solid Rocket Boosters, and the main engine cutoff. The cutoff of the main engine marks the beginning of the second stage engine. After the completion of the second stage, the third stage engine ignites and then cuts off. Once the third stage engine cuts off spacecraft separation occurs.

  7. ATLBS EXTENDED SOURCE SAMPLE: THE EVOLUTION IN RADIO SOURCE MORPHOLOGY WITH FLUX DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Thorat, K.; Ekers, R. D.; Hunstead, R. W.; Johnston, H. M.; Sadler, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Based on the Australia Telescope Low Brightness Survey (ATLBS) we present a sample of extended radio sources and derive morphological properties of faint radio sources. One hundred nineteen radio galaxies form the ATLBS Extended Source Sample (ATLBS-ESS) consisting of all sources exceeding 30'' in extent and integrated flux densities exceeding 1 mJy. We give structural details along with information on galaxy identifications and source classifications. The ATLBS-ESS, unlike samples with higher flux-density limits, has almost equal fractions of FR-I and FR-II radio galaxies, with a large fraction of the FR-I population exhibiting 3C31-type structures. Significant asymmetry in lobe extents appears to be a common occurrence in the ATLBS-ESS FR-I sources compared with FR-II sources. We present a sample of 22 FR-Is at z > 0.5 with good structural information. The detection of several giant radio sources, with size exceeding 0.7 Mpc, at z > 1 suggests that giant radio sources are not less common at high redshifts. The ESS also includes a sample of 28 restarted radio galaxies. The relative abundance of dying and restarting sources is indicative of a model where radio sources undergo episodic activity in which an active phase is followed by a brief dying phase that terminates with restarting of the central activity; in any massive elliptical a few such activity cycles wherein adjacent events blend may constitute the lifetime of a radio source and such bursts of blended activity cycles may be repeated over the age of the host. The ATLBS-ESS includes a 2 Mpc giant radio galaxy with the lowest surface brightness lobes known to date.

  8. Monitoring the source monitoring.

    PubMed

    Luna, Karlos; Martín-Luengo, Beatriz

    2013-11-01

    The hypothesis that the retrieval of correct source memory cues, those leading to a correct source attribution, increases confidence, whereas the retrieval of incorrect source memory cues, those leading to a source misattribution, decreases confidence was tested. Four predictions were derived from this hypothesis: (1) confidence should be higher for correct than incorrect source attribution except; (2) when no source cues are retrieved; (3) only the source misattributions inferred from the retrieval of incorrect source cues will be rated with low confidence; and (4) the number of source cues retrieved, either correct or incorrect, will affect the confidence in the source attributions. To test these predictions, participants read two narratives from two witnesses to a bank robbery, a customer and a teller. Then, participants completed a source monitoring test with four alternatives, customer, teller, both, or neither, and rated their confidence in their source attribution. Results supported the first three predictions, but they also suggested that the number of correct source monitoring cues retrieved did not play a role in the monitoring of the accuracy of the source attributions. Attributions made from the recovery of incorrect source cues could be tagged as dubious or uncertain, thus leading to lowered confidence irrespective of the number of incorrect source cues or whether another correct source cue was also recovered. This research has potential applications for eyewitness memory because it shows that confidence can be an indicator of the accuracy of a source attribution. PMID:23553316

  9. SEISRISK II; a computer program for seismic hazard estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, Bernice; Perkins, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The computer program SEISRISK II calculates probabilistic ground motion values for use in seismic hazard mapping. SEISRISK II employs a model that allows earthquakes to occur as points within source zones and as finite-length ruptures along faults. It assumes that earthquake occurrences have a Poisson distribution, that occurrence rates remain constant during the time period considered, that ground motion resulting from an earthquake is a known function of magnitude and distance, that seismically homogeneous source zones are defined, that fault locations are known, that fault rupture lengths depend on magnitude, and that earthquake rates as a function of magnitude are specified for each source. SEISRISK II calculates for each site on a grid of sites the level of ground motion that has a specified probability of being exceeded during a given time period. The program was designed to process a large (essentially unlimited) number of sites and sources efficiently and has been used to produce regional and national maps of seismic hazard.}t is a substantial revision of an earlier program SEISRISK I, which has never been documented. SEISRISK II runs considerably [aster and gives more accurate results than the earlier program and in addition includes rupture length and acceleration variability which were not contained in the original version. We describe the model and how it is implemented in the computer program and provide a flowchart and listing of the code.

  10. Biogenic Magnetite Formation through Anaerobic Biooxidation of Fe(II)

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Swades K.; Lack, Joseph G.; Coates, John D.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of isotopically light carbonates in association with fine-grained magnetite is considered to be primarily due to the reduction of Fe(III) by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in the environment. Here, we report on magnetite formation by biooxidation of Fe(II) coupled to denitrification. This metabolism offers an alternative environmental source of biogenic magnetite. PMID:11375205

  11. World War II Spy Kit: "The Great Nazi Intelligence Coup."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, David

    This instructional packet is designed to introduce students to primary source material by having them participate in an historical "what might have been." Students engage in critical thinking and document analysis, and through the process learn about Operation OVERLORD and World War II in general. This spy kit centers on Operation OVERLORD (the…

  12. China's Propaganda in the United States during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Kuo-jen

    Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…

  13. Illumination system having a plurality of movable sources

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Kubiak, Glenn D.

    2002-01-01

    An illumination system includes several discharge sources that are multiplexed together to reduce the amount of debris generated. The system includes: (a) a first electromagnetic radiation source array that includes a plurality of first activatable radiation source elements that are positioned on a first movable carriage; (b) a second electromagnetic radiation source array that includes a plurality of second activatable radiation source elements that are positioned on a second movable carriage; (c) means for directing electromagnetic radiation from the first electromagnetic radiation source array and electromagnetic radiation from the second electromagnetic radiation source array toward a common optical path; (d) means for synchronizing (i) the movements of the first movable carriage and of the second movable carriage and (ii) the activation of the first electromagnetic radiation source array and of the second electromagnetic radiation source array to provide an essentially continuous illumination of electromagnetic radiation along the common optical path.

  14. Evaluation of the computerized procedures Manual II (COPMA II)

    SciTech Connect

    Converse, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computerized procedure system, the Computerized Procedure Manual II (COPMA-II), on the performance and mental workload of licensed reactor operators. To evaluate COPMA-II, eight teams of two operators were trained to operate a scaled pressurized water reactor facility (SPWRF) with traditional paper procedures and with COPMA-II. Following training, each team operated the SPWRF under normal operating conditions with both paper procedures and COPMA-II. The teams then performed one of two accident scenarios with paper procedures, but performed the remaining accident scenario with COPMA-II. Performance measures and subjective estimates of mental workload were recorded for each performance trial. The most important finding of the study was that the operators committed only half as many errors during the accident scenarios with COPMA-II as they committed with paper procedures. However, time to initiate a procedure was fastest for paper procedures for accident scenario trials. For performance under normal operating conditions, there was no difference in time to initiate or to complete a procedure, or in the number of errors committed with paper procedures and with COPMA-II. There were no consistent differences in the mental workload ratings operators recorded for trials with paper procedures and COPMA-II.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Bi-metallic and Tri-metallic Metal Organic Frameworks Based on Trimesic Acid and Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Demirci, Sahin; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    Trimesic acid-M1(II):M2(II) (M1,2(II)=M(II)=Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)) bi-metallic or tri-metallic organic frameworks (MOFs) were synthesized by the reaction of trimesic acid (H3BTC) ligand with the corresponding MCl2nH2O aqueous solutions. Here, bi- and tri-metallic MOF preparations were demonstrated by using H3BTC as an organic linker, with dual metal ion mixtures at different mole ratios such as Co(II):Ni(II), Ni(II):Cu(II), and Cu(II):Co(II) as metal ion sources in the synthesis of bi-metallic MOFs, and the triple metal ion mixture of Co(II):Ni(II):Cu(II) as the metal ion source in the synthesis of tri-metallic MOFs. The bi- or tri-metallic MOFs were characterized via the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and magnetic susceptibility measurements with the Gouy method, FT-IR spectroscopy, and electronic spectral studies. The results revealed that the H3BTC MOFs have octahedral and distorted octahedral arrangement around the metal ions, and the d-d transition was not observed in the complex. It was further found that all the prepared MOFs contain water molecules confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and TGA analyses. The FT-IR spectra of the MOF complexes were characterized by the appearance of a broad band in the region of 3454-3300 cm-1 due to the ν(-OH) of the coordinated water; therefore, the location of the two water molecules was assumed to be inside the complex structure. Remarkably, the synthesized bi-metallic MOFs had unique and distinct colors depending on the amounts of metal ions used in the feed, implying that these bi-metallic MOFs with tunable M1(II) and M2(II) ratios offer great potential in the design of color-coded materials for use as sensors.

  16. Reading and Writing II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for the second part of a course on reading and writing effectively. Introductory materials include objectives, a topical outline, sources, and information on time for the course and continuing education credits. The 16 sessions of the course cover the following topics:…

  17. Volatile organic compound sources for Southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Kajos, Maija K.; Taipale, Risto; Rantala, Pekka; Aalto, Juho; Ryyppö, Timo; Hakola, Hannele; Rinne, Janne

    2014-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have several sources, both biogenic and anthropogenic. Emissions of biogenic VOCs in a global scale are estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic ones. However, in densely populated areas and during winter time the anthropogenic VOC emissions dominate over the biogenic ones. The aim of this study was to clarify potential local sources and source areas of VOCs in different seasons. Diurnal behaviour in winter and spring were also compared at two different sites in Finland: SMEAR II and III (Station for Measuring Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations). SMEAR II is a rural site located in Hyytiälä in Southern Finland 220 km North-West from Helsinki whereas SMEAR III is background urban site located 5 km from the downtown of Helsinki. The volume mixing ratios of VOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Austria) during years 2006-2011. Other trace gases such as CO, NOXand SO2 were also measured in both sites and used for source analysis. Source areas for long term VOC measurements were investigated with trajectory analysis and sources for local and regional concentrations were determined by Unmix multivariate receptor model. Forest fires affect air quality and the biggest smoke plumes can be seen in satellite images and even hinder visibility in the plume areas. They provide temporally and spatially well-defined sources that can be used to verify source area estimates. During the measurement periods two different forest fire episodes with several hotspots, happened in Russia. Forest fires which showed up in these measurements were in 2006 near the border of Finland in Vyborg area and 2010 in Moscow area. Forest fire episodes were clearly observed in trajectory analysis for benzene, toluene and methanol and also CO and NOX. In addition to event sources continuous source areas were determined. Anthropogenic local sources seemed to be dominant during winter in

  18. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent...

  19. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent...

  20. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent...

  1. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent...

  2. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent...

  3. Positive deconvolution for superimposed extended source and point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannelli, J.-F.; Coulais, A.

    2005-08-01

    The paper deals with the construction of images from visibilities acquired using aperture synthesis instruments: Fourier synthesis, deconvolution, and spectral interpolation/extrapolation. Its intended application is to specific situations in which the imaged object possesses two superimposed components: (i) an extended component together with (ii) a set of point sources. It is also specifically designed to the case of positive maps, and accounts for a known support. Its originality lies within joint estimation of the two components, coherently with data, properties of each component, positivity and possible support. We approach the subject as an inverse problem within a regularization framework: a regularized least-squares criterion is specifically proposed and the estimated maps are defined as its minimizer. We have investigated several options for the numerical minimization and we propose a new efficient algorithm based on augmented Lagrangian. Evaluation is carried out using simulated and real data (from radio interferometry) demonstrating the capability to accurately separate the two components.

  4. Methods for preparation of cyclopentadienyliron (II) arenes

    DOEpatents

    Keipert, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    Two improved methods for preparation of compounds with the structure shown in equation X [(Cp)--Fe--(Ar)].sup.+.sub.b X.sup.b- (X) where Cp is an eta.sup.5 complexed, substituted or unsubstituted, cyclopentadienyl or indenyl anion, Ar is an eta.sup.6 complexed substituted or unsubstituted, pi-arene ligand anad X is a b-valent anion where b is an integer between 1 and 3. The two methods, which differ in the source of the cyclopentadienyl anion - Lewis acid complex, utilize a Lewis acid assisted ligand transfer reaction. The cyclopentadienyl anion ligand, assisted by a Lewis acid is transferred to ferrous ion in the presence of an arene. In the first method, the cyclopentadienyl anion is derived from ferrocene and ferrous chloride. In this reaction, the cyclopentadienyliron (II) arene product is derived partially from ferrocene and partially from the ferrous salt. In the second method, the cyclopentadienyl anion - Lewis acid complex is formed by direct reaction of the Lewis acid with an inorganic cyclopentadienide salt. The cyclopentadienyliron (II) arene product of this reaction is derived entirely from the ferrous salt. Cyclopentadienyliron (II) arene cations are of great interest due to their utility as photoactivatable catalysts for a variety of polymerization reactions.

  5. Mod II Stirling engine overviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    The Mod II engine is a second-generation automotive Stirling engine (ASE) optimized for part-power operation. It has been designed specifically to meet the fuel economy and exhaust emissions objectives of the ASE development program. The design, test experience, performance, and comparison of data to analytical performance estimates of the Mod II engine to date are reviewed. Estimates of Mod II performance in its final configuration are also given.

  6. Source apportionment with site specific source profiles.

    PubMed

    Glover, D M; Hopke, P K; Vermette, S J; Landsberger, S; D'Auben, D R

    1991-03-01

    A receptor modeling study was performed to identify and apportion the sources of PM10 mass in Granite City, Illinois, an area of historic TSP nonattainment. Samples of the ambient aerosol were collected using a dichotomous sampler. Each sample was analyzed by x-ray fluorescence and instrumental neutron activation analysis. To begin the study, a factor analysis was performed. Two different chemical mass balance (CMB) analyses were then made. The first CMB analysis used only source profiles available from the literature while the second included twelve source profiles developed from dust samples collected in Granite City. Both CMB analyses used 20 of the 33 analyzed elements since many of the source profiles in the literature did not include the other thirteen elements. The results from both sets of CMB analyses were grouped by the predominate wind direction at the site during the time each sample was taken to identify the direction of each source relative to the sampler. It was found that regional sources were the primary contributors to the fine fraction while the coarse fraction was composed of material from local industries. These sources were generally the ones identified during the Regional Air Pollution Study previously conducted in the area. However, the emission profiles from these sources were observed to have changed between the studies. It was also found that the use of the locally generated profiles greatly improved the results of the CMB analysis.

  7. LISA source confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, Jeff; Cornish, Neil J.

    2004-10-15

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna will detect thousands of gravitational wave sources. Many of these sources will be overlapping in the sense that their signals will have a nonzero cross correlation. Such overlaps lead to source confusion, which adversely affects how well we can extract information about the individual sources. Here we study how source confusion impacts parameter estimation for galactic compact binaries, with emphasis on the effects of the number of overlaping sources, the time of observation, the gravitational wave frequencies of the sources, and the degree of the signal correlations. Our main findings are that the parameter resolution decays exponentially with the number of overlapping sources and superexponentially with the degree of cross correlation. We also find that an extended mission lifetime is key to disentangling the source confusion as the parameter resolution for overlapping sources improves much faster than the usual square root of the observation time.

  8. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed

    2010-08-10

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  9. PEP-II Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Gaydosh, Michael

    2003-05-14

    The PEP-II Asymmetric B-factory consists of two independent storage rings, one located atop the other in the 2200m-circumference PEP tunnel. The high-energy ring, which stores a 9-GeV electron beam, is an upgrade of the existing PEP collider. It re-utilizes all of the PEP magnets and incorporates a state-of-the-art copper vacuum chamber and a new RF system capable of supporting a one-amp stored beam. The low-energy ring, which stores 3.1-GeV positrons, is new construction. Injection is achieved by extracting electrons and positrons at collision energies from the SLC and transporting them each in a dedicated bypass line. The low-emittance SLC beams will be used for the injection process.

  10. Geochemistry of the alginite and amorphous organic matter from type II-S kerogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stankiewicz, B.A.; Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Salmon, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Maceral fractions of the Type II-S kerogens from the Monterey Formation (Miocene. California. U.S.A.) and Duwi Formation (Campanian/Maastrichtian, Egypt) were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The Monterey Fm. kerogen sample was comprised chiefly of light red-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM), the flash pyrolyzate of which was characterized by a predominance of alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes and alkylpyrroles. In contrast, the pyrolyzates of its alginite concentrate showed a highly aliphatic character, typical of this maceral, with the series of n-alkenes and n-alkanes (C6- C26) predominating. The pyrolyzate of the dominant light brown-fluorescing AOM of the Duwi Fm. kerogen had a relatively high concentration of alkylbenzenes and alkylthiophenes, while its elginite concentrate showed a more aliphatic character upon pyrolysis. There was a marked enrichment of thiophenic sulfur in the light-colored AOM of both samples (and also pyrrolic nitrogen in the case of the Monterey) relative to the alginite. The results support a bacterially-mediated, degradative origin for Type II-S amorphous organic matter, with algal remains as the primary source of the kerogen.

  11. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  12. Modeling Frequency Comb Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Li, Qian; Wai, P. K. A.

    2016-06-01

    Frequency comb sources have revolutionized metrology and spectroscopy and found applications in many fields. Stable, low-cost, high-quality frequency comb sources are important to these applications. Modeling of the frequency comb sources will help the understanding of the operation mechanism and optimization of the design of such sources. In this paper,we review the theoretical models used and recent progress of the modeling of frequency comb sources.

  13. The LCLS-II Project at SLAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David

    2015-04-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source-II (LCLS-II) Project will add capability and capacity to the LCLS facility. The design of the Project presents interesting challenges. The Project will construct a 4 GeV CW superconducting (SC) linac in the first kilometer of the existing SLAC linac tunnel and a substantial cryogenics plant to supply it. Two new variable gap undulators will be placed in the existing LCLS undulator hall, one optimized as a soft x-ray (200-1,300 eV) source will receive electrons from the new SC linac, the other replacing the existing LCLS undulator will receive electrons either simultaneously from the new SC linac (providing 1-5 keV photons) or the 120 Hz copper linac presently used by LCLS (providing 1-25 keV x-rays). The bright x-ray beams are conditioned before they are delivered to experimental stations. First light from the new facility is expected late in 2019. Work supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-766SF00515.

  14. Shielding Calculations for NSLS-II Beamlines.

    SciTech Connect

    Job,P.K.; Casey, W.R.

    2008-04-13

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is in the process of designing a new Electron Synchrotron for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. This facility, called the 'National Synchrotron Light Source II' (NSLS-II), will provide x-ray radiation of ultra-high brightness and exceptional spatial and energy resolution. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility. The project scope includes the design, construction, installation, and commissioning of the following accelerators: a 200 MeV linac, a booster accelerator operating from 200 MeV to 3.0 GeV, the storage ring which stores 500 mA current of electrons at an energy of 3.0 GeV and 56 beamlines for experiments. It is planned to operate the facility primarily in a top-off mode, thereby maintaining the maximum variation in stored beam current to < 1%. Because of the very demanding requirements for beam emittance and synchrotron radiation brilliance, the beam life-time is expected to be quite low, on the order of 2 hours. Each of the 56 beamlines will be unique in terms of the source properties and configuration. The shielding designs for five representative beamlines are discussed in this paper.

  15. Development of a transport system for the copper source of the Texas Intense Positron Source facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doron, O.; Biegalski, S. R.; O'Kelly, S.; Hurst, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    The transport system design and construction for The Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS) facility has been completed. This facility is located on beam port 1 of The University of Texas at Austin TRIGA Mark II 1.1 MW research reactor. The TIPS will provide a high intensity, variable energy positron beam for use in material studies. The natural copper source is transported into beam port 1 of the reactor where it is irradiated at close proximity to the reactor core. The transport system is an L-shaped aluminum channel that utilizes pulleys to drive a source cart. The copper source is transported on the cart into and out of the beam port for irradiation. After removal from the beam port, the activated copper positron source will be placed into a vacuum chamber where the positrons are moderated with annealed tungsten foil and electrostatically extracted.

  16. Rocky Mountain National Park reduced nitrogen source apportionment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Tammy M.; Rodriguez, Marco A.; Barna, Michael G.; Gebhart, Kristi A.; Hand, Jennifer L.; Day, Derek E.; Malm, William C.; Benedict, Katherine B.; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.; Schichtel, Bret A.

    2015-05-01

    Excess wet and dry deposition of nitrogen-containing compounds are a concern at a number of national parks. The Rocky Mountain Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Study Part II (RoMANS II) campaign was conducted from November 2008 to November 2009 to characterize the composition of reactive nitrogen and sulfur deposited in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). RoMANS II identified reduced nitrogen as the major contributor to reactive nitrogen deposition in RMNP, making up over 50% of the total. Motivated by this finding, the particulate source apportionment technology within the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions was used here to estimate source apportionment of reduced nitrogen concentrations at RMNP. Source apportionment results suggest that approximately 40% of reduced nitrogen deposition to RMNP comes from ammonia sources within Colorado. However, the model evaluation also suggests that this number could be underrepresenting ammonia sources in eastern Colorado due to the difficulty of capturing upslope airflow on the eastern side of the Continental Divide with meteorological models. Emissions from California, the western model boundary, and the Snake River Valley in Idaho, the next three most influential sources, contribute approximately 15%, 8%, and 7%, respectively, to total reduced nitrogen measured in RMNP. Within Colorado, about 61%, 26%, and 13% of the total Colorado contribution comes from sources to the east of the Continental Divide, sources to the west of the Continental Divide, and from the park itself.

  17. THE CHANDRA SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He Xiangqun; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Davis, John E.; Houck, John C.; Hall, Diane M.

    2010-07-15

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents {approx}<30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1{sigma} uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of {approx}<1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation

  18. Varying [C II]/[N II] Line Ratios in the Interacting System BR1202-0725 at z = 4.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Carilli, C.; Bertoldi, F.; Cox, P.; Ferkinhoff, C.; Groves, B.; Maiolino, R.; Neri, R.; Riechers, D.; Weiss, A.

    2014-02-01

    We study the properties of the interstellar medium in the interacting system BR1202-0725 at z = 4.7 via its [N II] and [C II] fine-structure line emission. This system consists of a QSO, a sub-mm galaxy (SMG), and two Lyα emitters (LAEs). Such a diversity in galaxy properties makes BR1202-0725 a unique laboratory of star formation and galaxy evolution at high redshift. We present ionized nitrogen ([N II] 205 μm) observations of this system, obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We find no [N II] emission at the quasar location, but tentative [N II] line detections associated with the SMG and one of the LAEs. Together with available ionized carbon ([C II] 158 μm) Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of this system, we find the following: the [C II]/[N II] luminosity ratio is >5.5 for the QSO and the SMG, but it is as low as ~2 in the LAE, suggesting that, in this source, most of the [C II] emission is associated with the ionized medium (H II regions) rather than the neutral one (photon-dominated regions). This study demonstrates the importance of combined studies of multiple fine-structure lines in order to pin down the physical properties of the interstellar medium in distant galaxies.

  19. Utilizing clouds for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the use of cloud computing resources for the Belle II experiment. A number of different methods are used to exploit the private and opportunistic clouds. Clouds are making significant contributions to the generation of Belle II MC data samples and it is expected that their impact will continue to grow over the coming years.

  20. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  1. [Modified Class II tunnel preparation].

    PubMed

    Rimondini, L; Baroni, C

    1991-05-15

    Tunnel preparations for restoration of Class II carious lesions in primary molars preserve the marginal ridge and minimize sacrifice of healthy tooth substructure. Materials with improved bonding to tooth structure and increase potential for fluoride release allow Class II restorations without "extension for prevention". PMID:1864420

  2. Technology II: Implementation Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) are facing a number of challenges, including the explosive use of the Internet, the digital divide, the need for integrating technology into teaching and learning, the impact of Tidal Wave II, and the need to ensure that technology is accessible to persons with disabilities. The CCCs' Technology II Strategic…

  3. ACRIM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-12-30

    ACRIM II Data and Information Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance ... and Order:   ASDC Order Tool FTP Web Access:  Data Pool Parameters:  Total Solar Irradiance ... ACRIM II Instrument Page ACRIM III Data Sets Readme Files:  Readme File Image ...

  4. Software Development at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, Thomas; Hauth, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Belle II is a next generation B-factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor Belle. This requires not only a major upgrade of the detector hardware, but also of the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software. The challenges of the software development at Belle II and the tools and procedures to address them are reviewed in this article.

  5. [Fe II] jets from intermediate-mass protostars in Carina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan; Bally, John

    2016-09-01

    We present new HST/WFC3-IR narrowband [Fe II] images of protostellar jets in the Carina Nebula. Combined with 5 previously published sources, we have a sample of 18 jets and 2 HH objects. All of the jets we targeted with WFC3 show bright infrared [Fe II] emission, and a few Hα candidate jets are confirmed as collimated outflows based on the morphology of their [Fe II] emission. Continuum-subtracted images clearly separate jet emission from the adjacent ionization front, providing a better tracer of the collimated jet than Hα and allowing us to connect these jets with their embedded driving sources. The [Fe II] 1.64 μm/Hα flux ratio measured in the jets is ≳ 5 times larger than in the adjacent ionization fronts. The low-ionization jet core requires high densities to shield Fe+ against further ionization by the FUV radiation from O-type stars in the H II region. High jet densities imply high mass-loss rates, consistent with the intermediate-mass driving sources we identify for 13 jets. The remaining jets emerge from opaque globules that obscure emission from the protostar. In many respects, the HH jets in Carina look like a scaled-up version of the jets driven by low-mass protostars. Altogether, these observations suggest that [Fe II] emission is a reliable tracer of dense, irradiated jets driven by intermediate-mass protostars. We argue that highly collimated outflows are common to more massive protostars, and that they suggest the outflow physics inferred for low-mass stars formation scales up to at least ˜8 M⊙.

  6. Achieving Vibration Stability of the NSLS-II Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Chu, Y. S.; Broadbent, A.; Nazaretski, E.; Margulies, L.; Dyling, O.; Shen, Q.; Fallier, M.

    2011-09-09

    The hard x-ray nanoprobe (HXN) beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) requires high levels of stability in order to achieve the desired instrument resolution. To ensure that the design of the endstation helps meet the stringent criteria and that natural and cultural vibration is mitigated both passively and actively, a comprehensive study complimentary to the design process has been undertaken. Vibration sources that have the potential to disrupt sensitive experiments such as wind, traffic, and NSLS II operating systems have been studied using state-of-the-art simulations and an array of field data. Further, final stage vibration isolation principles have been explored.

  7. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  8. Status of NSLS-II Storage Ring Vacuum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doom,L.; Hseuh,H.; Ferreira, M.; Longo, C.; Ravindranath, V.; Settepani, P.; Sharma, S.; Wilson, K.

    2009-05-04

    National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), being constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, is a 3-GeV, high-flux and high- brightness synchrotron radiation facility with a nominal current of 500 mA. The storage ring vacuum system will have extruded aluminium chambers with ante-chamber for photon fans and distributed NEG strip pumping. Discrete photon absorbers will be used to intercept the un-used bending magnet radiation. In-situ bakeout will be implemented to achieve fast conditioning during initial commissioning and after interventions.

  9. Preliminary Design of Pinhole camera for NSLS-II Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Pinayev,I.; Kosciuk, B.; Singh, O.

    2009-05-04

    The NSLS-II Light Source being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory is expected to provide very small emittances and electron beam sizes. High resolution imaging systems are required in order to provide robust measurements. The pinhole camera will utilize 6-fold magnification with a pinhole placed inside a crotch absorber. The pinhole is protected from high power synchrotron radiation with a filter made of refractory metal. In this paper we provide resolution analyses, heat load calculations, and optimization details for the NSLS-II pinhole camera, including beamline design.

  10. The Stark II reality.

    PubMed

    Memel, Sherwin L; Grosvenor, John C

    2003-02-01

    The long awaited final regulations in Phase I of a two-phase rulemaking process under the Stark II law were published on January 4, 2001. The Phase I final rules govern interpretation of the Stark law as it is applied to referrals by a physician for designated categories of health services to entities in which the referring physician has a financial interest. These new regulations are of particular concern to specialists, such as orthopaedic surgeons, whose practices are oriented to ancillary services that are considered designated health services, such as radiology, physical therapy and durable medical equipment, and where the availability of clear guidance is essential to ensure that medically necessary care is provided in a manner that complies with law. However, rather than the "brightline" guidance that the healthcare community sought, the new regulations create uncertainty in areas that had not existed before. The new regulations require physicians to evaluate the full range of their business and professional relationships to avoid the risk of nonpayment of claims, civil money penalties, or program exclusion after the effective date of the new regulations. PMID:12567126

  11. Angiotensin II receptor heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Herblin, W.F.; Chiu, A.T.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L. )

    1991-04-01

    The possibility of receptor heterogeneity in the angiotensin II (AII) system has been suggested previously, based on differences in Kd values or sensitivity to thiol reagents. One of the authors earliest indications was the frequent observation of incomplete inhibition of the binding of AII to adrenal cortical membranes. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that all of the labeling of the rat adrenal was blocked by unlabeled AII or saralasin, but not by DuP 753. The predominant receptor in the rat adrenal cortex (80%) is sensitive to dithiothreitol (DTT) and DuP 753, and is designated AII-1. The residual sites in the adrenal cortex and almost all of the sites in the rat adrenal medulla are insensitive to both DTT and DuP 753, but were blocked by EXP655. These sites have been confirmed by ligand binding studies and are designated AII-2. The rabbit adrenal cortex is unique in yielding a nonuniform distribution of AII-2 sites around the outer layer of glomerulosa cells. In the rabbit kidney, the sites on the glomeruli are AII-1, but the sites on the kidney capsule are AII-2. Angiotensin III appears to have a higher affinity for AII-2 sites since it inhibits the binding to the rabbit kidney capsule but not the glomeruli. Elucidation of the distribution and function of these diverse sites should permit the development of more selective and specific therapeutic strategies.

  12. [Oculocutaneous type II tyrosinosis].

    PubMed

    Podglajen-Wecxsteen, O; Delaporte, E; Piette, F; le Flohic, X; Bergoend, H

    1993-01-01

    Richner-Hanhart syndrome, also called oculo-cutaneous tyrosinosis type II, is a recessive autosomal genodermatosis consecutive to a disorder of tyrosine metabolism. It presents as a varying association of palmo-plantar keratosis, bilateral keratitis and mental retardation. The authors report a new case which is atypical in that palmoplantar keratosis made a late appearance. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of hypertyrosinaemia, hypertyrosinuria and urinary excretion of phenolic acids, and the absence of hepato-renal lesion. Needle biopsy of the liver, which demonstrates the deficiency of soluble cytosolic tyrosine aminotransferase, is not indispensable to the diagnosis and was not performed in our patient. Treatment consisted of a dietary measure: a controlled phenylalanine and tyrosine intake to obtain a tyrosinaemia below 10 mg/100 ml. This resulted in a favourable and durable course of the oculo-cutaneous lesions. In case of isolated skin lesion, retinoids can be prescribed either alone of combined with a diet, making it less strict.

  13. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  14. 40 CFR 49.160 - Registration program for minor sources in Indian country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.” (ii) Your source has a... or operate an existing true minor source (as defined in 40 CFR 49.152(d)), you must register your... name and address (and plant name and address if different) and the name and telephone number of...

  15. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant. (ii) Surface water... last day of that period. (c) Monitoring frequency after installation of source water treatment. Any system which installs source water treatment pursuant to § 141.83(a)(3) shall collect an...

  16. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant. (ii) Surface water... last day of that period. (c) Monitoring frequency after installation of source water treatment. Any system which installs source water treatment pursuant to § 141.83(a)(3) shall collect an...

  17. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant. (ii) Surface water... last day of that period. (c) Monitoring frequency after installation of source water treatment. Any system which installs source water treatment pursuant to § 141.83(a)(3) shall collect an...

  18. Luminosity and density evolution of extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Evgeniya

    2011-07-01

    The counting of radio sources is a strong tool for the investigation of evolution of extragalactic sources. Additional information can also be obtained from the "power-linear size" diagram (P-D), which is analogues to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. On it there is clear evidence for the existence of a "main sequence" and the "sequence of giants". The "main sequence" consists mostly of the FR I sources. The "sequence of giants" consists of radio loud compact sources and quasars, and FR II sources, which grow in giant radio galaxies. Such evolution can be described with a theory based on the idea of fast adiabatic expansion of the source's extended parts (cocoons) and the synchrotron radiation of particles in these structures. Fixing the bulk kinetic power delivered to the cocoons by the jets, it is possible to obtain P-D tracks for FR II sources. In my work I have taken a sample of radio sources, constructed the P-D tracks, and divided all sources into two types: ones which belong to the "main consequence", and others to the "sequence of giants". As for the last sequence, it can be considered as an independent evolutionary track of some radio source classes. These defined samples I have used for the estimation of their independent and joint radio luminosity and density evolution, through which it is possible to obtain fruitful results.

  19. Familiarity in Source Memory

    PubMed Central

    Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered. PMID:22789677

  20. THE EXTENDED He IIλ4686-EMITTING REGION IN IZw 18 UNVEILED: CLUES FOR PECULIAR IONIZING SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Bayo, F. M.; Kunth, D.; Durret, F.

    2015-03-10

    New integral field spectroscopy has been obtained for IZw 18, the nearby lowest-metallicity galaxy considered to be our best local analog of systems forming at high redshift (z). Here we report the spatially resolved spectral map of the nebular He ii λ4686 emission in IZw 18, from which we derived for the first time its total He ii-ionizing flux. Nebular He ii emission implies the existence of a hard radiation field. He ii-emitters are observed to be more frequent among high-z galaxies than for local objects. Therefore, investigating the He ii-ionizing source(s) in IZw 18 may reveal the ionization processes at high z. He ii emission in star-forming galaxies has been suggested to be mainly associated with Wolf–Rayet stars (WRs), but WRs cannot satisfactorily explain the He ii-ionization at all times, particularly at the lowest metallicities. Shocks from supernova remnants, or X-ray binaries, have been proposed as additional potential sources of He ii-ionizing photons. Our data indicate that conventional He ii-ionizing sources (WRs, shocks, X-ray binaries) are not sufficient to explain the observed nebular He iiλ4686 emission in IZw 18. We find that the He ii-ionizing radiation expected from models for either low-metallicity super-massive O stars or rotating metal-free stars could account for the He ii-ionization budget measured, while only the latter models could explain the highest values of He iiλ4686/Hβ observed. The presence of such peculiar stars in IZw 18 is suggestive and further investigation in this regard is needed. This letter highlights that some of the clues of the early universe can be found here in our cosmic backyard.

  1. SALT long-slit spectroscopy of LBQS 2113-4538: variability of the Mg II and Fe II component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryniewicz, K.; Czerny, B.; Pych, W.; Udalski, A.; Krupa, M.; Świȩtoń, A.; Kaluzny, J.

    2014-02-01

    Context. The Mg II line is of extreme importance in intermediate redshift quasars since it allows us to measure the black hole mass in these sources and to use these sources as probes of the distribution of dark energy in the Universe, as a complementary tool to SN Ia. Aims: Reliable use of Mg II requires a good understanding of all the systematic effects involved in the measurement of the line properties, including the contamination by Fe II UV emission. Methods: We performed three spectroscopic observations of a quasar LBQS 2113-4538 (z = 0.956) with the SALT telescope, separated in time by several months and we analyze in detail the mean spectrum and the variability in the spectral shape. Results: We show that even in our good-quality spectra the Mg II doublet is well fit by a single Lorentzian shape. We tested several models of the Fe II pseudo-continuum and showed that one of them well represents all the data. The amplitudes of both components vary in time, but the shapes do not change significantly. The measured line width of LBQS 2113-4538 identifies this object as a class A quasar. The upper limit of 3% for the contribution of the narrow line region (NLR) to Mg II may suggest that the separation of the broad line region and NLR disappears in this class of objects. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) under program 2012-1-POL-008 (PI: Czerny).Fe II template shown in Fig. 8 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/562/A34

  2. Systematic experimental study of the Stark broadening of C II, C III, N II, N III, O II and O III spectral lines

    SciTech Connect

    Blagojevic, B.; Popovic, M. V.; Konjevic, N.

    1999-04-01

    We report the experimental Stark widths of plasma broadened lines belonging to 3s-3p and 3p-3d transitions of singly and doubly ionized C, N and O emitters. The light source was a low pressure pulsed arc. The plasma electron densities were determined from the width of the Hell P{sub {alpha}} line while the electron temperatures were measured from the relative line intensities of five N II spectral lines.

  3. Extragalactic Radio Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, Kenneth I.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses new problems arising from the growing observational data through radio telescope arrays, involving the origin of radio sources, apparent superluminal velocities, conversion of radio sources to relativistic particles, and the nature of compact opaque and extended transparent sources. New physics may be needed to answer these cosmological…

  4. Sources of pulsed radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of various sources of pulsed radiation are examined from the viewpoint of their importance to the radiation chemist, and some examples of uses of such sources are mentioned. A summary is given of the application of methods of physical dosimetry to pulsed sources, and the calibration of convenient chemical dosimeters by physical dosimetry is outlined. 7 figures, 1 table.

  5. Investigating Primary Source Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Joanne; Hanlon, Ann M.; Levine, Jennie A.

    2009-01-01

    Primary source research requires students to acquire specialized research skills. This paper presents results from a user study testing the effectiveness of a Web guide designed to convey the concepts behind "primary source literacy". The study also evaluated students' strengths and weaknesses when conducting primary source research. (Contains 3…

  6. Designing a Cu(II)-ArCu(II)-ArCu(III)-Cu(I) catalytic cycle: Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidative arene C-H bond azidation with air as an oxidant under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Liang; Wang, De-Xian; Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2014-11-21

    On the basis of our recent discovery of high valent organocopper compounds, we have designed and achieved efficient copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative arene C-H bond azidation under very mild aerobic conditions by using NaN3 as an azide source. In the presence of a Cu(II) catalyst, a number of azacalix[1]arene[3]pyridines underwent direct arene C-H bond cupration through an electrophilic aromatic metalation pathway to form an arylcopper(II) intermediate. Oxidized by a free copper(II) ion, the arylcopper(II) intermediate was transformed into an arylcopper(III) species that subsequently cross-coupled with azide to furnish the formation of aryl azide products with the release of a copper(I) ion. Under ambient catalytic reaction conditions, the copper(I) species generated was oxidized by air into copper(II), which entered into the next catalytic cycle. Application of the method was demonstrated by the synthesis of functional azacalix[1]arene[3]pyridines by means of simple and practical functional group transformations of azide. The showcase of the Cu(II)-ArCu(II)-ArCu(III)-Cu(I) catalytic cycle would provide a new strategy for the design of copper(II)-catalyzed aerobic oxidative arene C-H bond activation and transformations.

  7. Designing a Cu(II)-ArCu(II)-ArCu(III)-Cu(I) catalytic cycle: Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidative arene C-H bond azidation with air as an oxidant under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Liang; Wang, De-Xian; Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2014-11-21

    On the basis of our recent discovery of high valent organocopper compounds, we have designed and achieved efficient copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative arene C-H bond azidation under very mild aerobic conditions by using NaN3 as an azide source. In the presence of a Cu(II) catalyst, a number of azacalix[1]arene[3]pyridines underwent direct arene C-H bond cupration through an electrophilic aromatic metalation pathway to form an arylcopper(II) intermediate. Oxidized by a free copper(II) ion, the arylcopper(II) intermediate was transformed into an arylcopper(III) species that subsequently cross-coupled with azide to furnish the formation of aryl azide products with the release of a copper(I) ion. Under ambient catalytic reaction conditions, the copper(I) species generated was oxidized by air into copper(II), which entered into the next catalytic cycle. Application of the method was demonstrated by the synthesis of functional azacalix[1]arene[3]pyridines by means of simple and practical functional group transformations of azide. The showcase of the Cu(II)-ArCu(II)-ArCu(III)-Cu(I) catalytic cycle would provide a new strategy for the design of copper(II)-catalyzed aerobic oxidative arene C-H bond activation and transformations. PMID:25350606

  8. Hybrid MEG (Magnetoencephalography) source characterization by cortical remapping and imaging of parametric source models

    SciTech Connect

    Baillet, S.; Mosher, J. C.; Jerbi, K.; Leahy, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reliable estimation of the local spatial extent of neural activity is a key to the quantitative analysis of MEG sources across subjects and conditions. In association with an understanding of the temporal dynamics among multiple areas, this would represent a major advance in electrophysiological source imaging. Parametric current dipole approaches to MEG (and EEG) source localization can rapidly generate a physical model of neural current generators using a limited number of parameters. However, physiological interpretation of these models is often difficult, especially in terms of the spatial extent of the true cortical activity. In new approaches using multipolar source models [3, 5], similar problems remain in the analysis of the higher-order source moments as parameters of cortical extent. Image-based approaches to the inverse problem provide a direct estimate of cortical current generators, but computationally expensive nonlinear methods are required to produce focal sources [1,4]. Recent efforts describe how a cortical patch can be grown until a best fit to the data is reached in the least-squares sense [6], but computational considerations necessitate that the growth be seeded in predefined regions of interest. In a previous study [2], a source obtained using a parametric model was remapped onto the cortex by growing a patch of cortical dipoles in the vicinity of the parametric source until the forward MEG or EEG fields of the parametric and cortical sources matched. The source models were dipoles and first-order multipoles. We propose to combine the parametric and imaging methods for MEG source characterization to take advantage of (i) the parsimonious and computationally efficient nature of parametric source localization methods and (ii) the anatomical and physiological consistency of imaging techniques that use relevant a priori information. By performing the cortical remapping imaging step by matching the multipole expansions of the original parametric

  9. RTNS-II - a fusion materials research tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, C. M.; Heikkinen, D. W.

    1982-09-01

    Rotating Target Neutron Source-II (RTNS-II) is a national facility for fusion materials research. It contains two 14 MeV neutron sources. Deuterons are accelerated to ˜ 400 keV and transported to a rotating titanium tritide target. Present source strength is greater than 1 × 10 13 n/s and source diameter is 1 cm fwhm. An air-levitated vacuum seal permits rotation of the target at 5000 rpm with negligible impact on accelerator vacuum system gas load. Targets are cooled by chilled water flowing through internal channels in a copper alloy substrate. Substrates are produced by solid-state diffusion bonding of two sheets, one containing etched cooling channels. An electroforming process is being developed which will reduce substrate cost and improve reliability. Titanium tritide coating thickness is ˜ 10 μm giving an initial tritium inventory for the present 23 cm diameter targets of 3.7 × 10 7 MBq. Operating interval between target changes is typically about 80 h. Thirteen laboratories and universities have participated in the experimental program at RTNS-II. Most measurements have been directed at understanding defect production and low-dose damage microstructure. The principal diagnostic tools have been cryogenic resistivity measurements, mechanical properties assessment and transmission electron microscopy. Some engineering tests have been conducted in support of near-term magnetic confinement experiments and of reactor materials which will see small lifetime doses.

  10. Oscillator strength measurements in samarium(II), neodymium(II) and praseodymium(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruohong

    A knowledge of the abundances of lanthanide ions in stellar photospheres is valuable in astrophysics, especially for chemically peculiar stars. However, the determination of elemental abundances is often limited by inadequate knowledge of oscillator strengths. Combining independently measured values of radiative lifetimes and branching fractions is an effective and precise method to measure oscillator strengths. It avoids absolute intensity measurements, requiring a knowledge of the absolute number density of particles and absolute measurements of intensity, and furthermore decreases the systematic error greatly. In the previous work of our group, the lifetimes of Sm II, Nd II and Pr II were obtained. In this thesis work, we measured the corresponding branching fractions of these lanthanide ions using a fast-ion-beam laser-induced- fluorescence technique. The power of this technique is that ions are selectively excited by a laser, which ensures that every branch comes from a single upper level and gets rid of spectral blends. Besides, the low ion-beam density ensures that the systematic errors due to collisions and radiation trapping are negligible. Combining the branching fractions with our previously measured lifetimes, we obtained 608, 430 and 260 oscillator strength values for Sm II, Nd II and Pr II transitions, respectively, over the wavelength range 350-850 nm. These transitions originate from 69 upper levels in the range 21 655 cm -1 -29 388 cm -1 for Sm II, 46 upper levels in the range 22 697 cm -1 -29 955 cm -1 for Nd II, and 32 levels in the range 22 040 cm -1 -28 577 cm -1 for Pr II. Of the 260 measured oscillator strength values of Pr II, 183 have been determined accurately for the first time. The uncertainties arise principally from systematic uncertainties of the efficiency calibration of the optical detection system (7.1%), with smaller statistical contributions (1.5%). Comparisons are made to prior measurements.

  11. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  12. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R. M.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Mossman, A. E.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2010-03-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public ACIS imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents < 30". The catalog (1) provides access to estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources with good scientific fidelity; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of < 1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics. In addition, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra. Support for development of the CSC is provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract NAS 8-03060.

  13. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results. PMID:11949687

  14. Photosystem II: evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, A W; Faller, P

    2003-01-01

    Based on the current model of its structure and function, photosystem II (PSII) seems to have evolved from an ancestor that was homodimeric in terms of its protein core and contained a special pair of chlorophylls as the photo-oxidizable cofactor. It is proposed that the key event in the evolution of PSII was a mutation that resulted in the separation of the two pigments that made up the special chlorophyll pair, making them into two chlorophylls that were neither special nor paired. These ordinary chlorophylls, along with the two adjacent monomeric chlorophylls, were very oxidizing: a property proposed to be intrinsic to monomeric chlorophylls in the environment provided by reaction centre (RC) proteins. It seems likely that other (mainly electrostatic) changes in the environments of the pigments probably tuned their redox potentials further but these changes would have been minor compared with the redox jump imposed by splitting of the special pair. This sudden increase in redox potential allowed the development of oxygen evolution. The highly oxidizing homodimeric RC would probably have been not only inefficient in terms of photochemistry and charge storage but also wasteful in terms of protein or pigments undergoing damage due to the oxidative chemistry. These problems would have constituted selective pressures in favour of the lop-sided, heterodimeric system that exists as PSII today, in which the highly oxidized species are limited to only one side of the heterodimer: the sacrificial, rapidly turned-over D1 protein. It is also suggested that one reason for maintaining an oxidizable tyrosine, TyrD, on the D2 side of the RC, is that the proton associated with its tyrosyl radical, has an electrostatic role in confining P(+) to the expendable D1 side. PMID:12594932

  15. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results.

  16. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-14

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  17. Understanding Spatial and Spectral Morphologies of Ultracompact H II Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.

    2010-08-25

    The spatial morphology, spectral characteristics, and time variability of ultracompact H II regions provide strong constraints on the process of massive star formation. We have performed simulations of the gravitational collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores, including treatments of the propagation of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. We here present synthetic radio continuum observations of H II regions from our collapse simulations, to investigate how well they agree with observation, and what we can learn about how massive star formation proceeds. We find that intermittent shielding by dense filaments in the gravitationally unstable accretion flow around the massive star leads to highly variable H II regions that do not grow monotonically, but rather flicker, growing and shrinking repeatedly. This behavior appears able to resolve the well-known lifetime problem. We find that multiple ionizing sources generally form, resulting in groups of ultracompact H II regions, consistent with observations. We confirm that our model reproduces the qualitative H II region morphologies found in surveys, with generally consistent relative frequencies. We also find that simulated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from our model are consistent with the range of observed H II region SEDs, including both regions showing a normal transition from optically thick to optically thin emission, and those with intermediate spectral slopes. In our models, anomalous slopes are solely produced by inhomogeneities in the H II region, with no contribution from dust emission at millimeter or submillimeter wavelengths. We conclude that many observed characteristics of ultracompact H II regions appear consistent with massive star formation in fast, gravitationally unstable, accretion flows.

  18. UNDERSTANDING SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL MORPHOLOGIES OF ULTRACOMPACT H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Dullemond, Cornelis P.

    2010-08-10

    The spatial morphology, spectral characteristics, and time variability of ultracompact (UC) H II regions provide strong constraints on the process of massive star formation. We have performed simulations of the gravitational collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores, including treatments of the propagation of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. We here present synthetic radio continuum observations of H II regions from our collapse simulations, to investigate how well they agree with observation, and what we can learn about how massive star formation proceeds. We find that intermittent shielding by dense filaments in the gravitationally unstable accretion flow around the massive star leads to highly variable H II regions that do not grow monotonically, but rather flicker, growing and shrinking repeatedly. This behavior appears to be able to resolve the well-known lifetime problem. We find that multiple ionizing sources generally form, resulting in groups of UC H II regions, consistent with observations. We confirm that our model reproduces the qualitative H II region morphologies found in surveys, with generally consistent relative frequencies. We also find that simulated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from our model are consistent with the range of observed H II region SEDs, including both regions showing a normal transition from optically thick to optically thin emission, and those with intermediate spectral slopes. In our models, anomalous slopes are solely produced by inhomogeneities in the H II region, with no contribution from dust emission at millimeter or submillimeter wavelengths. We conclude that many observed characteristics of UC H II regions appear consistent with massive star formation in fast, gravitationally unstable, accretion flows.

  19. HERSCHEL GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY OF [N ii] FINE STRUCTURE EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Yıldız, Umut A.; Langer, William D.; Pineda, Jorge L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first large-scale high angular resolution survey of ionized nitrogen in the Galactic Plane through emission of its two fine structure transitions ([N ii]) at 122 and 205 μm. The observations were largely obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The lines of sight were in the Galactic plane, following those of the Herschel OTKP project GOT C+. Both lines are reliably detected at the 10{sup −8}–10{sup −7} Wm{sup −2} sr{sup −1} level over the range –60° ≤ l ≤ 60°. The rms of the intensity among the 25 PACS spaxels of a given pointing is typically less than one third of the mean intensity, showing that the emission is extended. [N ii] is produced in gas in which hydrogen is ionized, and collisional excitation is by electrons. The ratio of the two fine structure transitions provides a direct measurement of the electron density, yielding n(e) largely in the range 10–50 cm{sup −3} with an average value of 29 cm{sup −3} and N{sup +} column densities 10{sup 16}–10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}. [N ii] emission is highly correlated with that of [C ii], and we calculate that between 1/3 and 1/2 of the [C ii] emission is associated with the ionized gas. The relatively high electron densities indicate that the source of the [N ii] emission is not the warm ionized medium (WIM), which has electron densities more than 100 times smaller. Possible origins of the observed [N ii] include the ionized surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clouds, the extended low-density envelopes of H ii regions, and low-filling factor high-density fluctuations of the WIM.

  20. Indole-7-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone as a flexidentate ligand toward ZnII, CdII, PdII and PtII ions: cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing properties of the PtII complex.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abeer A; Khaledi, Hamid; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Karimian, Hamed

    2014-03-14

    A new thiosemicarbazone (LH2) derived from indole-7-carbaldehyde was synthesized and reacted with Zn(II), Cd(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) salts. The reactions with zinc and cadmium salts in 2 : 1 (ligand-metal) molar ratio afforded complexes of the type MX2(LH2)2, (X = Cl, Br or OAc), in which the thiosemicarbazone acts as a neutral S-monodentate ligand. In the presence of potassium hydroxide, the reaction of LH2 with ZnBr2 resulted in deprotonation of the thiosemicarbazone at the hydrazine and indole nitrogens to form Zn(L)(CH3OH). The reaction of LH2 with K2PdCl4 in the presence of triethylamine, afforded Pd(L)(LH2) which contains two thiosemicarbazone ligands: one being dianionic N,N,S-tridentate while the other one is neutral S-monodentate. When PdCl2(PPh3)2 was used as the Pd(II) ion source, Pd(L)(PPh3) was obtained. In a similar manner, the analogous platinum complex, Pt(L)(PPh3), was synthesized. The thiosemicarbazone in the latter two complexes behaves in a dianionic N,N,S-tridentate fashion. The platinum complex was found to have significant cytotoxicity toward four cancer cells lines, namely MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HT-29, and HCT-116 but not toward the normal liver WRL-68 cell line. The apoptosis-inducing properties of the Pt complex was explored through fluorescence microscopy visualization, DNA fragmentation analysis and propidium iodide flow cytometry.

  1. Neutron sources: present practice and future potential

    SciTech Connect

    Cierjacks, S.; Smith, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The present capability and future potential of accelerator-based monoenergetic and white neutron sources are outlined in the context of fundamental and applied neutron-nuclear research. The neutron energy range extends from thermal to 500+ MeV, and the time domain from steady-state to pico-second pulsed sources. Accelerator technology is summarized, including the production of intense light-ion, heavy-ion and electron beams. Target capabilities are discussed with attention to neutron-production efficiency and power-handling capabilities. The status of underlying neutron-producing reactions is summarized. The present and future use of neutron sources in: (i) fundamental neutron-nuclear research, (ii) nuclear-data acquisition, (iii) materials-damage studies, (iv) engineering test, and (v) biomedical applications are discussed. Emphasis is given to current status, near-term advances well within current technology, and to long-range projections.

  2. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  3. New instruments at IPNS: POSY II and SAD II

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.K.; Felcher, G.P.; Kleb, R.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-09-29

    Three new instruments are currently in varying degrees of development/construction at IPNS. One of these, the Glass, Liquid, and Amorphous Materials Diffractometer (GLAD) is the subject of a separate paper in these Proceedings, and so will not be discussed further here. The other two, a second neutron reflectometer (POSY II) and a second small-angle diffractometer (SAD II) are described briefly below. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Delta II commercial space transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, J. F.

    1988-07-01

    Delta II is an upgraded variant of the Delta family of launch vehicles that has been in use by NASA since 1960. Among the design improvements incorporated by Delta II is a cryogenic-propellant second stage, a 2.89-m diameter satellite-protecting nose fairing, graphite/epoxy solid rocket motor cases, and 12:1 main engine expansion nozzle. The manufacturer/operator offers Delta II customers a dedicated, single satellite launch capability fully tailored to the given spacecraft's unique mission requirements.

  5. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  6. Polarized electron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Polarized electron sources for high energy accelerators took a significant step forward with the introduction of a new laser-driven photocathode source for the SLC in 1992. With an electron beam polarization of >80% and with {approximately}99% uptime during continuous operation, this source is a key factor in the success of the current SLC high-energy physics program. The SLC source performance is used to illustrate both the capabilities and the limitations of solid-state sources. The beam requirements for future colliders are similar to that of the SLC with the addition in most cases of multiple-bunch operation. A design for the next generation accelerator source that can improve the operational characteristics and at least minimize some of the inherent limitations of present sources is presented. Finally, the possibilities for producing highly polarized electron beams for high-duty-factor accelerators are discussed.

  7. [C II] 158 μm Luminosities and Star Formation Rate in Dusty Starbursts and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, L.; Lebouteiller, V.; Weedman, D.; Spoon, H.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Engels, D.; Stacey, G.; Houck, J.; Barry, D.; Miles, J.; Samsonyan, A.

    2012-08-01

    Results are presented for [C II] 158 μm line fluxes observed with the Herschel PACS instrument in 112 sources with both starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) classifications, of which 102 sources have confident detections. Results are compared with mid-infrared spectra from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer and with L ir from IRAS fluxes; AGN/starburst classifications are determined from equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature. It is found that the [C II] line flux correlates closely with the flux of the 11.3 μm PAH feature independent of AGN/starburst classification, log [f([C II] 158 μm)/f(11.3 μm PAH)] = -0.22 ± 0.25. It is concluded that the [C II] line flux measures the photodissociation region associated with starbursts in the same fashion as the PAH feature. A calibration of star formation rate (SFR) for the starburst component in any source having [C II] is derived comparing [C II] luminosity L([C II]) to L ir with the result that log SFR = log L([C II)]) - 7.08 ± 0.3, for SFR in M ⊙ yr-1 and L([C II]) in L ⊙. The decreasing ratio of L([C II]) to L ir in more luminous sources (the "[C II] deficit") is shown to be a consequence of the dominant contribution to L ir arising from a luminous AGN component because the sources with the largest L ir and smallest L([C II])/L ir are AGNs. Based on observations with the Herschel Space Observatory, which is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  8. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source...

  9. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source...

  10. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source...

  11. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source...

  12. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source...

  13. Theoretical analysis of BLM system for HLS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Li, Yu-Xiong; Li, Wei-Min; He, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Hefei Light Source (HLS) is being upgraded to HLS II. Its emittance will be much lower than before, therefore the Touschek scattering will increase significantly and become the dominant factor of beam loss. So it is necessary to build a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system that, in contrast to the old one, is able to obtain the quantity and position information of lost electrons. This information is useful in the commissioning, troubleshooting, and beam lifetime studying for HLS II. This paper analyzes the distribution features of different kinds of lost electrons, introduces the operation parameters of the new machine and discusses how to choose proper monitoring positions. Based on these comprehensive analyses, a new BLM system for HLS II is proposed.

  14. Frio II Brine Pilot: Report on GEOSEQ Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.M.; Freifeld, B.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Doughty, C.; Benson, S.M.

    2007-11-17

    LBNL's GEOSEQ project is a key participant in the Frio IIbrine pilot studying geologic sequestration of CO2. During During theinjection phase of the Frio-II brine pilot, LBNL collected multiple datasets including seismic monitoring, hydrologic monitoring and geochemicalsampling. These data sets are summarized in this report including allCASSM (continuous active source seismic monitoring) travel time data,injection pressure and flow rate data and gaseous sampling and tracerdata. Additional results from aqueous chemistry analysis performed by theU. S. Geological Survey (USGS) are summarized. Post injectionmodification of the flow model for Frio II is shown. Thesemodificationsare intended to facilitate integration with the monitoring data andincorporation of model heterogeneity. Current activities of LBNL's GEOSEQproject related to the Frio II test are shown, including development of anew petrophysical model for improved interpretation of seismic monitoringdata and integration of this data with flow modeling.

  15. SAM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-06

    ... Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, which flew on board the Nimbus-7 ... Spatial Resolution:  The altitude profiles of aerosol extinction have a 1 km vertical resolution. Temporal ...

  16. The Monomeric Pentacyanocobaltate (II) Anion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosha, Donnati M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, background information, and discussion of experimental results are provided for the preparation of Thallium (I) Pentacyanocobaltate (II). The preparation of this pale green salt is carried out in an aqueous medium. (Author/JN)

  17. Pregnancy and tyrosinaemia type II.

    PubMed

    Cerone, R; Fantasia, A R; Castellano, E; Moresco, L; Schiaffino, M C; Gatti, R

    2002-08-01

    A female patient with tyrosinaemia type II is reported having undergone two untreated pregnancies. During pregnancies, plasma tyrosine was raised. The outcomes of both offspring show that maternal tyrosinaemia may have an adverse effect on the developing fetus.

  18. Sources of Sea Salts to Coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, M. A.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Vance, T.; Wong, G. J.; Goodwin, I. D.; Domensino, B.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Antarctic sea salt aerosols are partitioned into two main sources, namely ocean sea spray and surface sea ice. The sea spray source is related to windiness over the surface ocean and the action of bubbles bursting. The sea ice source is due to frost flowers which form on the surface of sea ice, which are concentrated in sea salts and are lofted by wind action over the sea ice zone. At high accumulation coastal sites, with seasonal resolution, it is possible to estimate the sources of both using deviations of the sodium to sulphate ratio from that found in seawater. To date, from ice core records in east Antarctica (including iceberg B09B near the Mertz Glacier, Law Dome, Wilkes Land and Wilhelm II land), we have found that the source strength from surface sea ice to the Antarctic ice sheet diminishes with elevation and distance inland. We present new data from coastal ice core sites including Mill Island off the coast of east Antarctica and the upper and lower Totten glacier to the east of Law Dome. Using this combined dataset we estimate the source strengths of sea salt aerosols, their partitioning and quantify the relationship with elevation and distance inland.

  19. PKMiner: a database for exploring type II polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial aromatic polyketides are a pharmacologically important group of natural products synthesized by type II polyketide synthases (type II PKSs) in actinobacteria. Isolation of novel aromatic polyketides from microbial sources is currently impeded because of the lack of knowledge about prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis and the difficulties in finding and optimizing target microorganisms. Comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and the prediction of possible polyketide chemotypes in various actinobacterial genomes will thus enable the discovery or synthesis of novel polyketides in the most plausible microorganisms. Description We performed a comprehensive computational analysis of type II PKSs and their gene clusters in actinobacterial genomes. By identifying type II PKS subclasses from the sequence analysis of 280 known type II PKSs, we developed highly accurate domain classifiers for these subclasses and derived prediction rules for aromatic polyketide chemotypes generated by different combinations of type II PKS domains. Using 319 available actinobacterial genomes, we predicted 231 type II PKSs from 40 PKS gene clusters in 25 actinobacterial genomes, and polyketide chemotypes corresponding to 22 novel PKS gene clusters in 16 genomes. These results showed that the microorganisms capable of producing aromatic polyketides are specifically distributed within a certain suborder of Actinomycetales such as Catenulisporineae, Frankineae, Micrococcineae, Micromonosporineae, Pseudonocardineae, Streptomycineae, and Streptosporangineae. Conclusions We could identify the novel candidates of type II PKS gene clusters and their polyketide chemotypes in actinobacterial genomes by comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and prediction of aromatic polyketides. The genome analysis results indicated that the specific suborders in actinomycetes could be used as prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis. The chemotype-prediction rules with the suggested type II PKS

  20. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here. PMID:16419921

  1. The Fe II Emission in Active Galactic Nuclei: Excitation Mechanisms and Location of the Emitting Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinello, M.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission.

  2. In Vivo Identification of Photosystem II Light Harvesting Complexes Interacting with PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT S.

    PubMed

    Gerotto, Caterina; Franchin, Cinzia; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2015-08-01

    Light is the primary energy source for photosynthetic organisms, but in excess, it can generate reactive oxygen species and lead to cell damage. Plants evolved multiple mechanisms to modulate light use efficiency depending on illumination intensity to thrive in a highly dynamic natural environment. One of the main mechanisms for protection from intense illumination is the dissipation of excess excitation energy as heat, a process called nonphotochemical quenching. In plants, nonphotochemical quenching induction depends on the generation of a pH gradient across thylakoid membranes and on the presence of a protein called PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT S (PSBS). Here, we generated Physcomitrella patens lines expressing histidine-tagged PSBS that were exploited to purify the native protein by affinity chromatography. The mild conditions used in the purification allowed copurifying PSBS with its interactors, which were identified by mass spectrometry analysis to be mainly photosystem II antenna proteins, such as LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX B (LHCB). PSBS interaction with other proteins appears to be promiscuous and not exclusive, although the major proteins copurified with PSBS were components of the LHCII trimers (LHCB3 and LHCBM). These results provide evidence of a physical interaction between specific photosystem II light-harvesting complexes and PSBS in the thylakoids, suggesting that these subunits are major players in heat dissipation of excess energy.

  3. SHIELDING REQUIREMENTS FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    JOB,P.K.; CASEY, W.R.

    2008-01-02

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is in the process of designing a new Electron Synchrotron for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. This facility, called the 'National Synchrotron Light Source II' (NSLS-II), will provide x-ray radiation of ultra-high brightness and exceptional spatial and energy resolution. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility. The project scope includes the design, construction, installation, and commissioning of the following accelerators: a 200 MeV linac, a booster accelerator operating from 200 MeV to 3.0 GeV, and the storage ring which stores a maximum of 500 mA current of electrons at an energy of 3.0 GeV. It is planned to operate the facility primarily in a top-off mode, thereby maintaining the maximum variation in stored beam current to < 1%. Because of the very demanding requirements for beam emittance and synchrotron radiation brilliance, the beam life-time is expected to be low, on the order of 2-3 hours. Analysis of the bulk shielding for operating this facility and the input parameters used for this analysis are discussed in this paper. The characteristics of each of the accelerators and their operating modes are summarized with the input assumptions for the bulk shielding analysis.

  4. The Long Valley Well: Phase II operations

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Phase II of the Long Valley Exploratory Well was completed to a depth of 7588 feet in November 1991. The drilling comprised two sub-phases: (1) drilling 17-1/2 inch hole from the Phase I casing shoe at 2558 feet to a depth of 7130 feet, plugging back to 6826 feet, and setting 13-3/8 inch casing at 6825 feet, all during August--September 1991; and (2) returning in November to drill a 3.85-inch core hole deviated out of the previous wellbore at 6868 feet and extending to 7588 feet. Ultimate depth of the well is planned to be 20,000 feet, or at a bottomhole temperature of 500{degrees}C, whichever comes first. Total cost of this drilling phase was approximately $2.3 million, and funding was shared about equally between the California Energy Commission and the Department of Energy. Phase II scientific work will commence in July 1992 and will be supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE Geothermal Division, and other funding sources.

  5. The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.

    1992-03-24

    Phase II of the Long Valley Exploratory Well was completed to a depth of 7588 feet in November 1991. The drilling comprised two sub-phases: (1) drilling 17-1/2 inch hole from the Phase I casing shoe at 2558 feet to a depth of 7130 feet, plugging back to 6826 feet, and setting 13-3/8 inch casing at 6825 feet, all during August-September 1991; and (2) returning in November to drill a 3.85-inch core hole deviated out of the previous wellbore at 6808 feet and extending to 7588 feet. Ultimate depth of the well is planned to be 20,000 feet, or at a bottomhole temperature of 500 C, whichever comes first. Total cost of this drilling phase was approximately $2.3 million, and funding was shared about equally between the California Energy Commission and the Department of Energy. Phase II scientific work will commence in July 1992 and will be supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE Geothermal Division, and other funding sources.

  6. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dierker, S.

    2007-11-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES&H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility

  7. Microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  8. Unveiling Unidentified Fermi Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lizhong; South Pole Telescope

    2016-01-01

    The Fermi γ-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) has surveyed the entire sky at the highest-energy band of the electromagnetic spectrum. The majority of Fermi sources have counterpart identifications from multi-wavelength large-area surveys, particularly in the radio and x-ray bands. However, around 35% of Fermi sources remain unidentified, a problem exasperated by the low resolution of the telescope. Understanding the nature of unidentified Fermi sources is one of the most pressing problems in γ-ray astronomy. The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has completed a survey covering a 2500 square degrees of the southern extragalactic sky with arcminute resolution at millimeter wavelengths. The mm wavelength is the most efficient means to identify blazars and unidentified Fermi sources. Our analysis shows that the SPT point source catalog provides candidate associations for 40% of the unidentified Fermi sources, showing them to be flat-spectrum radio quasars which are extraordinarily bright at millimeter (mm) wavelengths.

  9. 40 CFR 63.11440 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (i.e., no visible emissions) using EPA Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7); or (ii) Using an... Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Area Sources Standards, Compliance, and Monitoring Requirements §...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11440 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (i.e., no visible emissions) using EPA Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7); or (ii) Using an... Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Area Sources Standards, Compliance, and Monitoring Requirements §...

  11. 40 CFR 63.11440 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (i.e., no visible emissions) using EPA Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7); or (ii) Using an... Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Area Sources Standards, Compliance, and Monitoring Requirements §...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11440 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (i.e., no visible emissions) using EPA Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7); or (ii) Using an... Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Area Sources Standards, Compliance, and Monitoring Requirements §...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11440 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (i.e., no visible emissions) using EPA Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7); or (ii) Using an... Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Area Sources Standards, Compliance, and Monitoring Requirements §...

  14. PERFORMANCE OF THE DIAGNOSTICS FOR NSLS-II LINAC COMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller III, R.; Padrazo, D.; Wang, G.M.; Heese, R.; Hseuh H.-C.; Johanson, M.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Pinayev, I.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.

    2011-03-28

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state of the art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The transfer lines not only provide a means to deliver the beam from one machine to another, they also provide a suite of diagnostics and utilities to measure the properties of the beam to be delivered. In this paper we discuss the suite of diagnostics that will be used to commission the NSLS-II linac and measure the beam properties. The linac to booster transfer line can measure the linac emittance with a three screens measurement or a quadrupole scan. Energy and energy spread are measured in a dispersive section. Total charge and charge uniformity are measured with wall current monitors in the linac and transformers in the transfer line. We show that the performance of the diagnostics in the transfer line will be sufficient to ensure the linac meets its specifications and provides a means of trouble shooting and studying the linac in future operation.

  15. Sources of atmospheric ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Michaels, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The information available on factors that influence emissions from the principal societal sources of ammonia to the atmosphere, namely combustion processes, volatilization of farm animal wastes, and volatilization of fertilizers, is reviewed. Emission factors are established for each major source of atmospheric ammonia. The factors are then multiplied by appropriate source characterization descriptors to obtain calculated fluxes of ammonia to the atmosphere on a state-by-state basis for the United States.

  16. Source and replica calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, P.P.

    1994-02-01

    The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem.

  17. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOEpatents

    Sayell, E.H.

    1973-10-23

    A radioisotopic heat source is described which includes a core of heat productive, radioisotopic material, an impact resistant layer of graphite surrounding said core, and a shell of iridium metal intermediate the core and the impact layer. The source may also include a compliant mat of iridium between the core and the iridium shell, as well as an outer covering of iridium metal about the entire heat source. (Official Gazette)

  18. Rf power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  20. Pulsed spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

  1. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Interferometer phase calibration sources (Patnaik+ 1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaik, A. R.; Browne, I. W. A.; Wilkinson, P. N.; Wrobel, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    The catalogue contains compact radio sources with accurate positions observed with the Very Large Array (VLA). These sources are primarily intended for use as phase calibration sources for the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN); the sources are also suitable as phase calibrators for the VLA and can be considered as candidate phase calibrators for very long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) networks. The accuracy of the position is 12 mas for sources in Paper I, 14 mas for sources in Paper II, and 55 mas for sources in Paper III. (2 data files).

  3. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of novel Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) mixed ligand complexes with saccharin and nicotinamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, S.; Bulut, İ.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Çakır, O.

    2001-01-01

    Four novel mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with saccharin and nicotinamide were synthesised and characterised on the basis of elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopic study, UV-Vis spectrometric and magnetic susceptibility data. The structure of the Cu (II) complex is completely different from those of the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes. From the frequencies of the saccharinato CO and SO 2 modes, it has been proven that the saccharinato ligands in the structure of the Cu complex are coordinated to the metal ion ([Cu(NA) 2(Sac) 2(H 2O)], where NA — nicotinamide, Sac — saccharinato ligand or ion), whilst in the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are uncoordinated and exist as ions ([M(NA) 2(H 2O) 4](Sac) 2).

  4. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  5. A Solar type-II radio burst from CME-coronal ray interaction: simultaneous radio and EUV imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Du, G.; Feng, L.; Feng, S.; Kong, X.; Guo, F.; Wang, B.; Li, G.

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radioburst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct thethree-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the twoSolar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Naņcay radio imaging data toinfer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with theinterface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providingevidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent withthose of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  6. A Solar Type II Radio Burst from Coronal Mass Ejection-Coronal Ray Interaction: Simultaneous Radio and Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Li; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Guo, Fan; Wang, Bing; Li, Gang

    2014-05-01

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nançay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  7. A solar type II radio burst from coronal mass ejection-coronal ray interaction: Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing; Feng, Li; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-05-20

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nançay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  8. Improved ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  9. Catalog of Infrared Observations. Part I: Data. Part II: Appendixes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    The Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO) is a compilation of infrared astronomical data obtained from an extensive literature search of astronomical journals and major astronomical catalogs and surveys. The literature searches are complete for years 1965 through 1986. The Catalog is published in two parts, with the observational data (roughly 200,000 observations of 20,000 individual sources) listed in Part I, and supporting appendices in Part II. The expanded Second Edition contains a new feature: complete IRAS 4-band data for all CIO sources detected, listed with the main Catalog observations, as well as in complete detail in the Appendix. The appendices include an atlas of infrared source positions, two bibliographies of infrared literature upon which the search was based, and an atlas of infrared spectral ranges, and IRAS data for the CIO sources. The complete CIO database is available in printed microfiche and magnetic tape formats.

  10. Accelerator Physics Challenges for the NSLS-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky,S.

    2009-05-04

    The NSLS-II is an ultra-bright synchrotron light source based upon a 3-GeV storage ring with a 30-cell (15 super-period) double-bend-achromat lattice with damping wigglers used to lower the emittance below 1 nm. In this paper, we discuss the accelerator physics challenges for the design including: optimization of dynamic aperture; estimation of Touschek lifetime; achievement of required orbit stability; and analysis of ring impedance and collective effects.

  11. CA II Emission surface fluxes in active chromosphere stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ca II emission-line surface fluxes are derived for 14 stars from 17 A/mm photographic spectra. Most of the stars observed are active chromosphere binaries; a few are known X-ray sources or have been observed by the IUE. The status of optical information on each of the objects is reviewed, and new information on v sin i and duplicity is presented.

  12. Combustion 2000: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-11-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This Phase, Phase 2, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase 3. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase 3 program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase 2 Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4,and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; and Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  13. Wavelengths, energy levels and hyperfine structure of Mn II and Sc II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Gillian; Pickering, Juliet C.; Townley-Smith, Keeley I. M.; Hala, .

    2015-08-01

    For many decades, the Atomic Spectroscopy Groups at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Imperial College London (ICL) have measured atomic data of astronomical interest. Our spectrometers include Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers at NIST and ICL covering the region 1350 Å to 5.5 μm and a 10.7-m grating spectrometer at NIST covering wavelengths from 300 - 5000 Å. Sources for these spectra include high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode (HCL) lamps, Penning discharges, and sliding spark discharges. Recent work has focused on the measurement and analysis of wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure (HFS) constants for iron-group elements. The analysis of FT spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn II is being led by ICL and is described in a companion poster [1]. Current work being led by NIST includes the analysis of HFS in Mn II, analysis of Mn II in the vacuum ultraviolet, and a comprehensive analysis of Sc II.Comprehensive HFS constants for Mn II are needed for the interpretation of stellar spectra and incorrect abundances may be obtained when HFS is omitted. Holt et al. [2] have measured HFS constants for 59 levels of Mn II using laser spectroscopy. We used FT spectra of Mn/Ni and Mn/Cu HCLs covering wavelength ranges from 1350 Å to 5.4 μm to confirm 26 of the A constants of Holt et al. and obtain values for roughly 40 additional levels. We aim to obtain HFS constants for the majority of lines showing significant HFS that are observed in chemically-peculiar stars.Spectra of Sc HCLs have been recorded from 1800 - 6700 Å using a vacuum ultraviolet FT spectrometer at NIST. Additional measurements to cover wavelengths above 6700 Å and below 1800 Å are in progress. The spectra are being analyzed by NIST and Alighar Muslim University, India in order to derive improved wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters.This work was partially supported by NASA, the STFC and PPARC (UK), the Royal Society of the UK

  14. Adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) on modified jute fibres.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S R; Pai, Roshan S

    2005-09-01

    The potential of a lignocellulosic fibre, jute, was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions like Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from their aqueous solutions. The fibre was also used as adsorbent after chemically modifying it by two different techniques viz, loading of a dye with specific structure, C.I. Reactive Orange 13, and oxidising with hydrogen peroxide. Both the modified jute fibres gave higher metal ion adsorption. Thus, the dye loaded jute fibres showed metal ion uptake values of 8.4, 5.26 and 5.95 mg/g for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II), respectively, while the corresponding values for oxidised jute fibres were 7.73, 5.57 and 8.02 mg/g, as against 4.23, 3.37 and 3.55 mg/g for unmodified jute fibres. Adsorption isotherm models indicated best fit for Langmuir model for the modified jute fibres. The adsorption values decreased with lowering of pH. The desorption efficiency, regenerative and reuse capacity of these adsorbents were also assessed for three successive adsorption-desorption cycles. The adsorptive capacity was retained only when the caustic soda regeneration is carried out as an intermediate step after desorption. Possible mechanism has been given.

  15. Deep Imaging of Eridanus II and Its Lone Star Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojević, D.; Sand, D. J.; Zaritsky, D.; Spekkens, K.; Willman, B.; Hargis, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    We present deep imaging of the most distant dwarf discovered by the Dark Energy Survey, Eridanus II (Eri II). Our Magellan/Megacam stellar photometry reaches ˜3 mag deeper than previous work and allows us to confirm the presence of a stellar cluster whose position is consistent with Eri II’s center. This makes Eri II, at {M}V=-7.1, the least luminous galaxy known to host a (possibly central) cluster. The cluster is partially resolved, and at {M}V=-3.5 it accounts for ˜4% of Eri II’s luminosity. We derive updated structural parameters for Eri II, which has a half-light radius of ˜280 pc and is elongated (ɛ ˜ 0.48) at a measured distance of D ˜ 370 kpc. The color-magnitude diagram displays a blue, extended horizontal branch, as well as a less populated red horizontal branch. A central concentration of stars brighter than the old main-sequence turnoff hints at a possible intermediate-age (˜3 Gyr) population; alternatively, these sources could be blue straggler stars. A deep Green Bank Telescope observation of Eri II reveals no associated atomic gas. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  16. Merging the SAGE II and OSIRIS Stratospheric Aerosol Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Landon; Bourassa, Adam; Degenstein, Doug

    2016-04-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite, launched in 2001 and currently operational, measures limb-scattered sunlight from which profiles of stratospheric aerosol extinction at 750nm are retrieved. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas (SAGE) II instrument was operational from 1985 to 2005, and provided aerosol extinction at several visible and near infrared wavelengths. This work compares the SAGE II and OSIRIS aerosol extinction measurements during the four years of instrument overlap by interpolating the SAGE II data to 750nm using the 525 and 1020nm channels. Agreement is generally favourable in the tropics and mid-latitudes with differences less than 10% for the majority of the aerosol layer. However, near the UTLS and outside of the tropics agreement is poorer and reasons for this are investigated. Comparisons between the OSIRIS and SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements at 750nm are used to develop a merged aerosol climatology as a function of time, latitude and altitude at the native SAGE II wavelength of 525nm. Error due to assumptions in the OSIRIS retrieval and wavelength conversion are explored through simulation studies over a range of particle size distributions and is found to be approximately 20% for the majority of low-to-moderate volcanic loading conditions and OSIRIS geometries. Other sources of error such as cloud contamination in the UTLS are also explored.

  17. Infrared [Fe II] Emission Lines from Radiative Atomic Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Raymond, John C.; Kim, Hyun-Jeong

    2016-06-01

    [Fe II] emission lines are prominent in the infrared (IR) and important as diagnostic tools for radiative atomic shocks. We investigate the emission characteristics of [Fe II] lines using a shock code developed by te{raymond1979} with updated atomic parameters. We first review general characteristics of the IR [Fe II] emission lines from shocked gas, and derive their fluxes as a function of shock speed and ambient density. We have compiled available IR [Fe II] line observations of interstellar shocks and compare them to the ratios predicted from our model. The sample includes both young and old supernova remnants in the Galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud and several Herbig-Haro objects. We find that the observed ratios of the IR [Fe II] lines generally fall on our grid of shock models, but the ratios of some mid-IR lines, e.g., fethreefive/fetwofive, fefive/fetwofive, and fefive/feoneseven, are significantly offset from our model grid. We discuss possible explanations and conclude that while uncertainties in the shock modeling and the observations certainly exist, the uncertainty in atomic rates appears to be the major source of discrepancy.

  18. Federal Funding Sources for Public Job Creation Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clifford M.; Savner, Steve

    This overview on potential funding sources describes three major federal programs that can provide a financing base for public job creation initiatives serving hard-to-employ welfare recipients and non-custodial parents. Section I is an introduction. Section II focuses on the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) block grant. Section III…

  19. Focused electron beam induced deposition of pure SIO II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perentes, Alexandre; Hoffmann, Patrik; Munnik, Frans

    2007-02-01

    Focused electron beam induced processing (FEBID) equipments are the "all in one" tools for high resolution investigation, and modification of nano-devices. Focused electron beam induced deposition from a gaseous precursor usually results in a nano-composite sub-structured material, in which the interesting material is embedded in an amorphous carbonaceous matrix. Using the Hydrogen free tetraisocyanatosilane Si(NCO) 4 molecule as Si source, we show how a controlled oxygen flux, simultaneously injected with the precursor vapors, causes contaminants to vanish from the FEB deposits obtained and leads to the deposition of pure SiO II. The chemical composition of the FEBID material could be controlled from SiC IINO 3 to SiO II, the latter containing undetectable foreign element contamination. The [O II] / [TICS] ratio needed to obtain SiO II in our FEB deposition equipment is larger than 300. The evolution of the FEBID material chemical composition is presented as function of the [O II] / [TICS] molecular flux ratios. A hypothetical decomposition pathway of this silane under these conditions is discussed based on the different species formed under electron bombardment of TICS. Transmission electron microscopy investigations demonstrated that the deposited oxide is smooth (roughness sub 2nm) and amorphous. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the low concentration of hydroxyl groups. The Hydrogen content of the deposited oxide, measured by elastic recoil detection analysis, is as low as 1 at%. 193nm wavelength AIMS investigations of 125nm thick SiO II pads (obtained with [O II] / [TICS] = 325) showed an undetectable light absorption.

  20. INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS LACKING TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Maekelae, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks ({approx}34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed {approx}535 km s{sup -1}) and only {approx}40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km s{sup -1} and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration {approx}+6.8 m s{sup -2}), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration {approx}-3.5 m s{sup -2}). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant

  1. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article.

  2. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article. PMID:27620104

  3. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  4. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOEpatents

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  5. Sources of inspiration

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, Sean; Fromme, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotrons have long been the preferred X-ray sources for crystallography, but competition has arrived with the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers. A synchrotron expert and an advocate of free-electron lasers discuss the prospects of the respective source types for applications in structural biology. PMID:24476881

  6. New Source Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard E.; McCutchen, Gary D.

    1972-01-01

    This feature article outlines the concept and procedures followed in establishing performance standards for new emission sources and summarizes the standards that have been established to date. Five source catagories are enumerated: fossil fuel-fired steam generators, municipal incinerators, Portland cement plants, nitric acid plants, and sulfuric…

  7. Open Source Molecular Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. PMID:27631126

  8. PORTABLE SOURCE OF RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Rylander, E.W.; Safranski, L.M.

    1959-06-16

    A portable source for radiogiaphy or radiotherapy is described. It consists of a Tl/sup 170/ or Co/sup 60/ source mounted in a rotatable tungsten alloy plug. The plug rotates within a brass body to positions of safety or exposure. Provision is made for reloading and carrying the device safely. (T.R.H.)

  9. Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min; Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal aircraft skins scanned rapidly in vibration tests. Relatively simple combination of permanent magnets and electromagnet serves as noncontact vibration source for nondestructive testing of metal aircraft skins. In test, source excites vibrations, and vibration waveforms measured, then analyzed for changes in resonances signifying cracks and other flaws.

  10. Creating Open Source Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

  11. Energy Sources and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with energy sources and development. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy sources and development related to the historical perspective, biological development, current aspects, and future expectations…

  12. Using Primary Source Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

  13. 24 CFR 202.12 - Title II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title II. 202.12 Section 202.12... INSTITUTIONS AND MORTGAGEES Title I and Title II Specific Requirements § 202.12 Title II. (a) Tiered pricing—(1... mortgagee approved for participation in Title II programs is notified by the Secretary that it had a rate...

  14. Integral field spectroscopy of a sample of nearby galaxies. II. Properties of the H ii regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Marino, R. A.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Díaz, A. I.; Mast, D.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; García-Benito, R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Pérez, E.; González Delgado, R.; Husemann, B.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Kehrig, C.; Walcher, C. J.; Gil de Paz, A.; Ellis, S.

    2012-10-01

    We analyse the spectroscopic properties of thousands of H ii regions identified in 38 face-on spiral galaxies. All galaxies were observed out to 2.4 effective radii using integral field spectroscopy (IFS) over the wavelength range ~3700 to ~6900 Å. The near uniform sample has been assembled from the PPAK IFS Nearby Galaxy (PINGS) survey and a sample described in Paper I. We develop a new automatic procedure to detect H ii regions, based on the contrast of the Hα intensity maps extracted from the datacubes. Once detected, the algorithm provides us with the integrated spectra of each individual segmented region. In total, we derive good quality spectroscopic information for ~2600 independent H ii regions/complexes. This is by far the largest H ii region survey of its kind. Our selection criteria and the use of 3D spectroscopy guarantee that we cover the regions in an unbiased way. A well-tested automatic decoupling procedure has been applied to remove the underlying stellar population, deriving the main properties (intensity, dispersion and velocity) of the strongest emission lines in the considered wavelength range (covering from [O ii] λ3727 to [S ii] λ6731). A final catalogue of the spectroscopic properties of H ii regions has been created for each galaxy, which includes information on morphology, spiral structure, gaskinematics, and surface brightness of the underlying stellar population. In the current study, we focus on the understanding of the average properties of the H ii regions and their radial distributions. We find a significant change in the ionisation characteristics of H ii regions within r < 0.25 re due to contamination from sources with different ionising characteristics, as we discuss. We find that the gas-phase oxygen abundance and the Hα equivalent width present a negative and positive gradient, respectively. The distribution of slopes is statistically compatible with a random Gaussian distribution around the mean value, if the radial

  15. EBR-II Data Digitization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Rabiti, Cristian; Sackett, John

    2014-08-01

    1. Objectives To produce a validation database out of those recorded signals it will be necessary also to identify the documents need to reconstruct the status of reactor at the time of the beginning of the recordings. This should comprehends the core loading specification (assemblies type and location and burn-up) along with this data the assemblies drawings and the core drawings will be identified. The first task of the project will be identify the location of the sensors, with respect the reactor plant layout, and the physical quantities recorded by the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) data acquisition system. This first task will allow guiding and prioritizing the selection of drawings needed to numerically reproduce those signals. 1.1 Scopes and Deliverables The deliverables of this project are the list of sensors in EBR-II system, the identification of storing location of those sensors, identification of a core isotopic composition at the moment of the start of system recording. Information of the sensors in EBR-II reactor system was summarized from the EBR-II system design descriptions listed in Section 1.2.

  16. Radio source evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perucho, M.

    2016-02-01

    Baldwin (1982) wrote that {``the distribution of sources in the radio luminosity, P, overall physical size, D, diagram''} could be considered as {``the radio astronomer's H-R diagram''}. However, unlike the case of stars, not only the intrinsic properties of the jets, but also those of the host galaxy and the intergalactic medium are relevant to explain the evolutionary tracks of radio radio sources. In this contribution I review the current status of our understanding of the evolution of radio sources from a theoretical and numerical perspective, using the P-D diagram as a framework. An excess of compact (linear size {≤ 10} kpc) sources could be explained by low-power jets being decelerated within the host galaxy, as shown by recent numerical simulations. Finally, I discuss the possible tracks that radio sources may follow within this diagram, and the physical processes that can explain the different tracks.

  17. Neutron sources and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  18. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.

  19. On source radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H.

    1980-01-01

    The power output from given sources is usually ascertained via an energy flux integral over the normal directions to a remote (far field) surface; an alternative procedure, which utilizes an integral that specifies the direct rate of working by the source on the resultant field, is described and illustrated for both point and continuous source distribution. A comparison between the respective procedures is made in the analysis of sound radiated from a periodic dipole source whose axis performs a periodic plane angular movement about a fixed direction. Thus, adopting a conventional approach, Sretenskii (1956) characterizes the rotating dipole in terms of an infinite number of stationary ones along a pari of orthogonal directions in the plane, and through the far field representation of the latter, arrives at a series development for the instantaneous radiated power, whereas the local manner of power calculation dispenses with the equivalent infinite aggregate of sources and yields a compact analytical result.

  20. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B.

    1997-01-01

    An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

  1. A dynamic infrared source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persky, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    A system is described that can be used for testing infrared focal plane cameras in situations where conventional blackbody sources are deficient. The system uses readily available components, electronics, and software. It can provide either a wide area or a point source of infrared flux that can be programmed to follow a prescribed temporal profile at higher rates than available from commercial blackbody sources and with excellent repeatability. Additionally, the system provides flux without suffering from the temporal noise characteristic of commercial, wide area, flat sheet sources that results from turbulence in front of the blackbody. The system consists of commercially available, rapid rise time infrared radiators, either coupled to an integrating sphere for broad area flux, or used individually with a pinhole and collimator as a point source. A programmable voltage supply provides the power versus time profile at frequencies to several Hertz. Transfer from a standard blackbody calibrates the flux levels. This article provides a description, testing results, and application examples.

  2. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  3. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    DOEpatents

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  4. Calibration of the Accuscan II In Vivo System for I-125 Thyroid Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Ovard R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the March 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for I-125 thyroid counting. The source used for the calibration was a DOE manufactured Am-241/Eu-152 source contained in a 22 ml vial BEA Am-241/Eu-152 RMC II-1 with energies from 26 keV to 344 keV. The center of the detector housing was positioned 64 inches from the vault floor. This position places the approximate center line of the detector housing at the center line of the source in the phantom thyroid tube. The energy and efficiency calibration were performed using an RMC II phantom (Appendix J). Performance testing was conducted using source BEA Am-241/Eu-152 RMC II-1 and Validation testing was performed using an I-125 source in a 30 ml vial (I-125 BEA Thyroid 002) and an ANSI N44.3 phantom (Appendix I). This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for counting the thyroid for I-125 and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  5. Phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation promotes organic carbon acquisition by Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003.

    PubMed

    Caiazza, Nicky C; Lies, Douglas P; Newman, Dianne K

    2007-10-01

    Anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation is usually considered to be a lithoautotrophic metabolism that contributes to primary production in Fe-based ecosystems. In this study, we employed Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 as a model organism to test the hypothesis that phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation can be coupled to organic carbon acquisition. R. capsulatus SB1003 oxidized Fe(II) under anoxic conditions in a light-dependent manner, but it failed to grow lithoautotrophically on soluble Fe(II). When the strain was provided with Fe(II)-citrate, however, growth was observed that was dependent upon microbially catalyzed Fe(II) oxidation, resulting in the formation of Fe(III)-citrate. Subsequent photochemical breakdown of Fe(III)-citrate yielded acetoacetic acid that supported growth in the light but not the dark. The deletion of genes (RRC00247 and RRC00248) that encode homologs of atoA and atoD, required for acetoacetic acid utilization, severely impaired the ability of R. capsulatus SB1003 to grow on Fe(II)-citrate. The growth yield achieved by R. capsulatus SB1003 in the presence of citrate cannot be explained by lithoautotrophic growth on Fe(II) enabled by indirect effects of the ligand [such as altering the thermodynamics of Fe(II) oxidation or preventing cell encrustation]. Together, these results demonstrate that R. capsulatus SB1003 grows photoheterotrophically on Fe(II)-citrate. Nitrilotriacetic acid also supported light-dependent growth on Fe(II), suggesting that Fe(II) oxidation may be a general mechanism whereby some Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria mine otherwise inaccessible organic carbon sources. PMID:17693559

  6. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  7. Status of the intense pulsed neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Crawford, R.K.; Rauchas, A.V.; Schulke, A.W.; Worlton, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    IPNS is not unique in having concerns about the level of funding, and the future looks good despite these concerns. This report details the progress made at IPNS during the last two years. Other papers in these proceedings discuss in detail the status of the enriched uranium Booster target, the two instruments that are under construction, GLAD and POSY II, and a proposal for research on an Advanced Pulsed Neutron Source (ASPUN) that has been submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE). Further details on IPNS are available in the IPNS Progress Report 1987--1988, available by writing the IPNS Division Office. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. [C ii] emission from galactic nuclei in the presence of X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Pineda, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The luminosity of [C ii] is used as a probe of the star formation rate in galaxies, but the correlation breaks down in some active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Models of the [C ii] emission from galactic nuclei do not include the influence of X-rays on the carbon ionization balance, which may be a factor in reducing the [C ii] luminosity. Aims: We aim to determine the properties of the ionized carbon and its distribution among highly ionized states in the interstellar gas in galactic nuclei under the influence of X-ray sources. We calculate the [C ii] luminosity in galactic nuclei under the influence of bright sources of soft X-rays. Methods: We solve the balance equation of the ionization states of carbon as a function of X-ray flux, electron, atomic hydrogen, and molecular hydrogen density. These are input to models of [C ii] emission from the interstellar medium (ISM) in galactic nuclei representing conditions in the Galactic central molecular zone and a higher density AGN model. The behavior of the [C ii] luminosity is calculated as a function of the X-ray luminosity. We also solve the distribution of the ionization states of oxygen and nitrogen in highly ionized regions. Results: We find that the dense warm ionized medium (WIM) and dense photon dominated regions (PDRs) dominate the [C ii] emission when no X-rays are present. The X-rays in galactic nuclei can affect strongly the C+ abundance in the WIM, converting some fraction to C2+ and higher ionization states and thus reducing its [C ii] luminosity. For an X-ray luminosity L(X-ray) ≳ 1043 erg s-1 the [C ii] luminosity can be suppressed by a factor of a few, and for very strong sources, L(X-ray) >1044 erg s-1 such as found for many AGNs, the [C ii] luminosity is significantly depressed. Comparison of the model with several extragalactic sources shows that the [C ii] to far-infrared ratio declines for L(X-ray) ≳ 1043 erg s-1, in reasonable agreement with our model. Conclusions: We conclude that X

  9. Proposed MIDAS II processing array

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, J.

    1982-03-01

    MIDAS (Modular Interactive Data Analysis System) is a ganged processor scheme used to interactively process large data bases occurring as a finite sequence of similar events. The existing device uses a system of eight ganged minicomputer central processor boards servicing a rotating group of 16 memory blocks. A proposal for MIDAS II, the successor to MIDAS, is to use a much larger number of ganged processors, one per memory block, avoiding the necessity of switching memories from processor to processor. To be economic, MIDAS II must use a small, relatively fast and inexpensive microprocessor, such as the TMS 9995. This paper analyzes the use of the TMS 9995 applied to the MIDAS II processing array, emphasizing computational, architectural and physical characteristics which make the use of the TMS 9995 attractive for this application.

  10. NSLS-II INJECTION CONCEPT.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN, T.; PINAYEV, I.; ROSE, J.; WANG, X.J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Currently the facility upgrade project is in progress at the NSLS (at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The goal of the NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-low-emittance storage ring that will increase radiation brightness by three orders of magnitude over that of the present NSLS X-ray ring. The low emittance of the high brightness ring's lattice results in a short lifetime, so that a top-off injection mode becomes an operational necessity. Therefore, the NSLS-II injection system must provide, and efficiently inject, an electron beam at a high repetition rate. In this paper, we present our concept of the NSLS-II injection system and discuss the conditions for, and constraints on, its design.

  11. Charm physics at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    I. Furic

    2003-10-28

    The CDF II detector has the capability of triggering on displaced tracks. Because of this ability, CDF II has accrued large samples of charged meson decays to fully hadronic final states in 64 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data gathered at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Using initial Run II data samples, the production cross sections for J/{psi}, D{sup 0}, D{sup +}, D*{sup +} and D{sub s}{sup +} mesons have been measured. Ratios of branching ratios for Cabibbo suppressed final states and CP asymmetries in D{sup 0} meson decays have been studied. A measurement of the mass difference m(D{sub s}{sup +}) -m(D{sup +}) has been done, and a limit for the branching fraction of the FCNC D{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decays has been set.

  12. The LCLS-II LLRF System

    SciTech Connect

    DooLittle, Lawrence; Huang, G.; Ratti, A.; Serrano, C.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Hovater, J. Curt; Babel, S.; Hong, B.; Van Winkle, D.; Chase, B.; Cullerton, E.; Varghese, P.

    2015-09-01

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is planning an upgrade (LCLS-II) to the Linear Coherent Light Source with a 4 GeV CW superconducting (SCRF) linac. The SCRF linac consists of 35 ILC style cryomodules (eight cavities each) for a total of 280 cavities. Expected cavity gradients are 16 MV/m with a loaded QL of ~ 4x107. The RF system will have 3.8 kW solid state amplifiers driving single cavities. To ensure optimum field stability a single-source single-cavity control system has been chosen. It consists of a precision four-channel cavity receiver and RF stations (Forward, Reflected and Drive signals). In order to regulate the resonant frequency variations of the cavities due to He pressure, the tuning of each cavity is controlled by a Piezo actuator and a slow stepper motor. In addition the system (LLRF-amplifier-cavity) is being modeled and cavity microphonic testing has started. This paper describes the LLRF system under consideration, including recent modeling and cavity tests.

  13. Peristaltic ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1995-08-01

    Conventional ion sources generate energetic ion beams by accelerating the plasma-produced ions through a voltage drop at the extractor, and since it is usual that the ion beam is to propagate in a space which is at ground potential, the plasma source is biased at extractor voltage. For high ion beam energy the plasma source and electrical systems need to be raised to high voltage, a task that adds considerable complexity and expense to the total ion source system. The authors have developed a system which though forming energetic ion beams at ground potential as usual, operates with the plasma source and electronics at ground potential also. Plasma produced by a nearby source streams into a grided chamber that is repetitively pulsed from ground to high positive potential, sequentially accepting plasma into its interior region and ejecting it energetically. They call the device a peristaltic ion source. In preliminary tests they`ve produced nitrogen and titanium ion beams at energies from 1 to 40 keV. Here they describe the philosophy behind the approach, the test embodiment that they have made, and some preliminary results.

  14. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This curriculum guide accompanies another publication in the Aerospace Education II series entitled "Propulsion Systems for Aircraft." The guide includes specific guidelines for teachers on each chapter in the textbook. Suggestions are included for objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points,…

  15. The PEP-II design

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.K.

    1995-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II) is a design for a high-luminosity, asymmetric energy, electron-positron colliding beam accelerator that will operate at the center-of-mass energy of the {Upsilon}4S (10.58 GeV). The goal of the design is to achieve a large enough integrated luminosity with a moving center-of-mass reference frame to he able to observe the predicted rare decay modes of the {Upsilon}4S that do not conserve charge parity (CP).

  16. MEG source detection revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tianhu; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2010-04-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a multi-channel imaging technique. It uses an array composed of a large number of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) to measure the magnetic fields produced by the primary electric currents inside the brain. The measured spatio-temporal magnetic fields are then used to estimate the locations and strengths of these electric currents, often known as MEG sources. The estimated quantities are finally superimposed with the images generated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The combination of information from MEG and MRI forms the magnetic source image (MSI). A great variety of signal processing and modeling techniques such as Inverse problem, Subspace approach, Independent component analysis (ICA) method, and Beamforming (BF) are used to estimate these sources. The first three approaches require the number of sources be detected a priori. Several shortcomings exist in the currently used methods for detecting the source number. First, the source detection is completed only after - not before - MSI is generated. Secondly, the detection methods are somewhat subjective. In order to provide a solution to the problem of detecting MEG source number for all these approaches, a novel method is developed. The covariance matrix of MEG measurements over all channels is decomposed into the signal and the noise subspaces. The number of sources is shown to be equal to the dimension of the signal subspace. The selection of this dimension is translated into a problem of determining the order of the underlying statistics. This statistical identification is resolved by using Information theoretic criteria which are derived based on Kullback-Leibler divergence. Because the method utilizes originally acquired MEG measurements and implemented before magnetic source images are generated, it is an entirely data-driven approach, more efficient, and less likely to be subjective.

  17. Pollution from nonpoint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Humenik, F.J.; Smolen, M.D.; Dressing, S.A.

    1987-08-01

    Efforts to protect water from nonpoint source pollution are underway, but much remains to be done. Recent water quality evaluations and landmark legislation place nonpoint source (NPS) control programs at a pivotal point. The Clean Water Act (CWA) Reauthorization, passed by Congress in Feb. 1987 specifically addresses NPS pollution for the first time. It directs states to submit to EPA a list of waters not meeting CWA goals because of NPS pollution and to submit an NPS management program for those waters. States are required to identify land use sectors that cause major NPS problems. Some professionals declare nonpoint sources to be the major reason for not reaching water quality goals.

  18. CALUTRON ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1959-02-17

    An improvement is described in ion source mechanisms whereby the source structure is better adapted to withstanid the ravages of heat, erosion, and deterioration concomitant with operation of an ion source of the calutron type. A pair of molybdenum plates define the exit opening of the arc chamber and are in thermal contact with the walls of the chamber. These plates are maintained at a reduced temperature by a pair of copper blocks in thermal conducting contact therewith to form subsequent diverging margins for the exit opening.

  19. Nuclear electric power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  20. PULSED ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Ford, F.C.; Ruff, J.W.; Zizzo, S.G.; Cook, B.

    1958-11-11

    An ion source is described adapted for pulsed operation and producing copious quantities of ions with a particular ion egress geometry. The particular source construction comprises a conical member having a conducting surface formed of a metal with a gas occladed therein and narrow non-conducting portions hereon dividing the conducting surface. A high voltage pulse is applied across the conducting surface or producing a discharge across the surface. After the gas ions have been produced by the discharge, the ions are drawn from the source in a diverging conical beam by a specially constructed accelerating electrode.